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How to do business in Poland - Pharmexcil

For all who would like to know more about Poland
Published by the Ministry of Economic Affairs
in association with
the Investment and Technology Promotion Office
of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization in Warsaw
UNIDO ITPO in Warsaw would like to thank the following institutions for their
co-operation and involvement in the process of preparing the current edition of this guide:
the Ministry of Economic Affairs, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs –
Department of Foreign Economic Policy and Department of Promotion, the Ministry of the
Treasury, the National Bank of Poland, and PAIiIZ (the Polish Information and Foreign
Investment Agency).
We are especially grateful to the staff of the Inquiry Office at GUS (the Central Statistical
Office) and for the contributions and co-operation of Cushman & Wakefield Healey &
Baker, Potworowski Kinast Grant Thornton Sp. z o.o., Prof. WЕ‚odzimierz Karaszewski and
Ms. Katarzyna StudziЕ„ska of Nicolaus Copernicus University in ToruЕ„, the Institute of
Tourism, the Delegation of the European Commission in Poland, and the Warsaw offices
of the World Bank and EBRD.
This guide is not intended to be comprehensive – it has been prepared to provide a general
overview of the current situation in Poland. The information contained herein should be
treated as a guideline and the actual laws and regulations in force should be consulted
whenever a business decision is to be made. Potential investors should conduct further
analysis according to specific project requirements.
The designations employed in the presentation of the material in this publication do not
imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of UNIDO
concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or
concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Mention of firms’ names or
commercial products does not imply endorsement by UNIDO.
Editor-in-chief Grzegorz Bychawski
English language version verified by Jean-Jacques Granas
Copyrights by UNIDO ITPO Warsaw 2005
All rights reserved
Published by:
Ministry of Economic Affairs
Plac Trzech KrzyЕјy 3/5; 00-507 Warsaw, Poland
phone: (+48-22) 6935000; fax: 6934048
ISSN 1642-7823
How to Do Business in Poland
I. GENERAL INFORMATION ..................................................................................................... 7
Geography.............................................................................................................................. 9
Climate................................................................................................................................... 9
Natural Resources................................................................................................................... 9
Energy and Fuels .................................................................................................................. 10
Population and Language...................................................................................................... 11
Political System and Government ......................................................................................... 12
Government Administration ................................................................................................. 14
II. ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT..............................................................................................17
GDP and Inflation................................................................................................................. 19
Budgetary Policy .................................................................................................................. 21
Foreign Exchange................................................................................................................. 22
Foreign Debt......................................................................................................................... 24
Employment and the Labour Market..................................................................................... 25
Industry and Technology ...................................................................................................... 27
Agriculture ........................................................................................................................... 35
Construction Industry ........................................................................................................... 38
Banking Sector ..................................................................................................................... 38
Insurance Sector ................................................................................................................... 43
Pension System..................................................................................................................... 48
Telecommunications............................................................................................................. 50
Power Industry ..................................................................................................................... 53
Transportation Infrastructure and Highway Construction ...................................................... 55
Outlook for 2005 and Beyond.............................................................................................. 60
Co-operation with International Organisations ...................................................................... 62
UNIDO and its Activities in Poland ...................................................................................... 66
III. FOREIGN TRADE..................................................................................................................69
Customs Regulations and Duties........................................................................................... 71
Autonomous Tariff Suspensions and Quotas ....................................................................... 73
Duty Free Zones and Free Warehouses ................................................................................. 74
Refinancing Interest on Export Credits................................................................................ 76
Foreign Trade Results........................................................................................................... 76
IV. PRIVATISATION ...................................................................................................................83
Legislative Framework ......................................................................................................... 85
Ministry of the Treasury ....................................................................................................... 85
Privatisation Revenue ........................................................................................................... 86
Privatisation Objectives and Plans for 2005 and 2006 ........................................................... 87
The Multi-methods Approach ............................................................................................... 89
Capital Privatisation.............................................................................................................. 91
Privatisation through Debt – Equity Swaps ........................................................................... 92
Direct Privatisation ............................................................................................................... 93
Agricultural Property Agency ............................................................................................... 94
The Mass Privatisation Programme....................................................................................... 97
Restitution ............................................................................................................................ 98
Capital Markets .................................................................................................................... 99
V. FOREIGN INVESTMENT ....................................................................................................105
Legal Considerations .......................................................................................................... 107
State Aid for New Investments ........................................................................................... 110
Special Economic Zones..................................................................................................... 112
Institutional Structure for Foreign Direct Investments ......................................................... 114
Why Invest in Poland?........................................................................................................ 116
Foreign Investors’ Reasons for Investment.......................................................................... 116
What the Investors Say ....................................................................................................... 119
Foreign Direct Investment .................................................................................................. 121
Polish Direct Investment Abroad ........................................................................................ 127
VI. POLAND IN THE EUROPEAN UNION ...........................................................................131
Integration Process Overview ............................................................................................ 133
The Accession Treaty ........................................................................................................ 135
Temporary Provisions........................................................................................................ 135
Current Economic Developments ...................................................................................... 138
VII. TAXATION SYSTEM.........................................................................................................141
Taxes.................................................................................................................................. 143
Capital Allowances ............................................................................................................ 148
Double Taxation Treaties.................................................................................................... 149
VIII. REAL ESTATE...................................................................................................................151
Legislative Framework Governing Real Estate.................................................................. 153
Purchase of Real Estate by Foreigners............................................................................... 154
Permits Issued.................................................................................................................... 156
Transaction Costs ............................................................................................................... 157
Professional Services on the Real Estate Market ............................................................... 158
Real Estate Market by Segments ....................................................................................... 159
IX. INDUSTRIAL AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY......................................................167
Patent Legislation ............................................................................................................... 169
Trademarks......................................................................................................................... 170
Copyrights.......................................................................................................................... 171
X. OPERATING IN POLAND ...................................................................................................173
Forms of Business Entities.................................................................................................. 175
Establishing a Company ..................................................................................................... 176
Subsidiaries of Foreign Companies..................................................................................... 181
Competition and Consumer Protection................................................................................ 183
Accounting and Auditing.................................................................................................... 185
Public Procurement............................................................................................................. 187
Bankruptcy and Insolvency................................................................................................. 188
Employees.......................................................................................................................... 191
Employment of Foreigners.................................................................................................. 194
Living in Poland ................................................................................................................. 195
XI. TOURISM IN POLAND.......................................................................................................199
Visiting Poland ................................................................................................................... 202
Tourism Industry ................................................................................................................ 208
XII. HISTORY OF POLAND.....................................................................................................213
XIII. SOURCES OF BUSINESS INFORMATION IN POLAND.........................................233
Institutions.......................................................................................................................... 235
Newspapers, Magazines and Other Publications ................................................................. 238
Internet ............................................................................................................................... 239
XIV. APPENDICES .....................................................................................................................243
How to Do Business in Poland
Map of Polish Communities Abroad.................................................................................................11
Structure of the Sejm in May 2005 ...................................................................................................13
Administrative Map of Poland ..........................................................................................................15
Inflation (1991-2004).........................................................................................................................19
Gross Domestic Product (1991-2004)...............................................................................................20
Structure of State Budget Expenditure..............................................................................................22
Foreign Debt in 2004 in Comparison to Other Economic Indicators...............................................24
Total External Debt and Central and Local Government External Debt (1996-2004) ....................25
Unemployment and Unemployment Rate (1991-2004) ...................................................................26
Number of Farms and Their Area by Farm Size Category...............................................................36
Ownership Structure of the Banking Sector......................................................................................41
Foreign Investments in the Banking Sector ......................................................................................41
Number of Insurance Companies (1993-2004).................................................................................44
Structure of the Life Insurance Market .............................................................................................45
Structure of the Non-life Insurance Market ......................................................................................45
Relation of Insurance Premiums to GDP (1995-2004).....................................................................46
Foreign Investment Structure in the Insurance Sector ......................................................................47
Assets of Pension Funds (1999-2004)...............................................................................................49
Telephone Subscribers per 100 Inhabitants (1997-2004) .................................................................52
Structure of the Mobile Market .........................................................................................................52
Share of Goods Delivered by Various Means of Transport..............................................................56
Roads Repaired..................................................................................................................................57
Motorway Construction Programme in Poland ................................................................................58
Exports and Imports (1994-2004) .....................................................................................................77
Exports – Geographical Structure .....................................................................................................78
Imports – Geographical Structure .....................................................................................................78
Official Reserve Assets (1993-2004) ................................................................................................81
Privatisation Revenue (1991-2004)...................................................................................................86
Privatisation Results by Method........................................................................................................90
Direct Privatisation by Forms............................................................................................................93
WSE – Number of Listed Companies and Capitalisation (1995-2004) .........................................102
Main Motives of Foreign Entrepreneurs for Investing in Poland...................................................117
Foreign Direct Investment in Poland (1993-2004) .........................................................................121
Foreign Direct Investment by Country of Registration ..................................................................123
Foreign Direct Investment by Sector...............................................................................................124
Foreign Direct Investment in Manufacturing..................................................................................125
Forms of Foreign Direct Investment ...............................................................................................126
Corporate Income Tax Rates (1997-2005)......................................................................................143
Land Acquisition Permits Granted to Foreigners (1990-2004) ......................................................156
Office Market – Cumulative Stock and Annual Supply .................................................................160
Office Market – Rents .....................................................................................................................161
Modern Retail Market – Supply......................................................................................................162
Retail Market – Prime Rents in Shopping Centres .........................................................................163
Industrial Market – Supply of Warehouse Space............................................................................164
Industrial Market – Prime Rents and Vacancy ...............................................................................165
Foreign Arrivals (1991-2004)..........................................................................................................208
Tourist Arrivals to Poland by Main Purpose...................................................................................209
Tourism – Foreign Currency Receipts (1995-2004).......................................................................210
Outbound Trips by Polish Residents (1991-2004)..........................................................................211
Seasonal Breakdown of Domestic Tourist Travel ..........................................................................211
Production of Major Fuel and Energy Products ........................................................................... 10
Functions of Major Government Institutions ............................................................................... 16
Gross Domestic Product (1996-2004) ......................................................................................... 20
State Budget ............................................................................................................................... 21
Poland’s Rating by International Credit Rating Agencies ............................................................ 22
Economic Entities by Sector and Form of Ownership.................................................................. 28
Structure of Industry by Branch .................................................................................................. 29
Agricultural Output .................................................................................................................... 37
Commercial Banks...................................................................................................................... 42
Ranking of Banks by Balance Sheet Total ................................................................................. 42
Financial Flows between Poland and the EU Budget................................................................. 65
Foreign Trade (1997-2004) ......................................................................................................... 77
Exports – Major Partners............................................................................................................. 79
Imports – Major Partners ........................................................................................................... 79
Balance of Payments on the Current Account (1997-2004) ......................................................... 81
Land Taken over into APA Stock and its Redistribution (by Province)..................................... 96
Structure of WSE Cash Market Trade...................................................................................... 101
Structure of WSE Futures Market Trade.................................................................................. 101
WSE Main Market Sector Figures ........................................................................................... 103
Results of Operations in SSEs................................................................................................... 113
The Most Important Factors Stimulating Foreign Investment in Poland.................................. 118
Companies with Foreign Capital Participation (1991-2004) ...................................................... 122
Polish FDI (1995-2003) ........................................................................................................... 127
FDI Outflow by Type (1995-2003) .......................................................................................... 128
Personal Income Tax Scale ...................................................................................................... 147
Real Estate Tax Rates ............................................................................................................... 148
Major Depreciation Rates.......................................................................................................... 149
Hotel Rooms (2002-2003)......................................................................................................... 212
General remarks
The main sources of statistics cited in the Guide are the official publications of the
Central Statistical Office (GUS).
Unless stated otherwise, tables and graphs included in this publication are based on
the information contained in the text.
Unless stated otherwise, values in US dollars have been calculated in accordance
with the average exchange rate for a given period set by the National Bank of
When the text refers to industry, the term includes the mining and extracting
industries, manufacturing, and the sectors supplying gas, power, and water.
How to Do Business in Poland
r One of the largest countries in Central Europe;
312.700 sq. km.; 38.2 million people
r EU and NATO member
r Urban population – 62 %
r 12 million Poles living abroad
r English is the most popular foreign language
r Moderate climate, with relatively cold winters and
warm summers
r Large deposits of hard and brown coal, copper,
sulphur, zinc, lead, silver, magnesium and rock salt
r Main agricultural crops are wheat and other cereals,
potatoes, sugar beets, and fodder crops
r 29 % of the country covered by forests
How to Do Business in Poland
The Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska) is one of the largest countries in
Central Europe. It borders on Russia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Slovakia, the Czech
Republic, and Germany. Its northern frontier on the Baltic Sea gives it easy access to
Scandinavian and North Sea ports.
The capital of Poland, Warsaw, is situated in the centre of the country. Poland ranks
ninth in Europe in terms of size, and 69th in the world, with a surface area of 312,677 sq.
km. Poland is in the Central European time zone (GMT + 1 hour). In late March it
switches to daylight saving time, which lasts till late October.
The country lies almost wholly on the North European Plain and is a land of gentle
slopes, rarely rising above 300 m, except along the southern border with the Sudety and
Carpathian Mountain ranges. Rysy, Poland’s highest mountain peak, rises 2,499 m
above sea level. Approximately one-fifth of Poland’s area is maintained as pasture and
meadows. Forests cover over one-fourth of the total area. The longest rivers cross the
country northwards: the Vistula (1,074 km in length) in the centre, and the Oder (854
km), which flows along Poland’s western border.
Poland has a moderate climate characterised by relatively cold winters and warm
summers. Winters become increasingly severe inland from the Baltic coast, with January
temperatures averaging -1 В°C (30 В°F) in the north and going as low as -5 В°C (23 В°F) in
the south-east. July temperatures range from 16.5 В°C (62 В°F) near the coast to 19 В°C
(66 В°F) in the south. Rainfall varies with the altitude, from less than 500 mm a year in
the lowlands to as high as 1270 mm in the southern mountains.
Natural Resources
Poland has substantial agricultural and mineral resources. It has the world’s fifth-largest
proven reserves of hard and brown coal, in addition to deposits of copper, sulphur, zinc,
lead, silver, magnesium, and rock salt. There is natural gas and also potentially useful
deposits of chalk, kaolin, clays, and potash.
I. General Information
Poland’s main agricultural crops are wheat and other cereals, potatoes, sugar beets and
fodder crops. Poland is a leading exporter of apple concentrate and is among the
world’s leading producers of berries, cabbages, and carrots. In 2003 Poland was
ranked second in the world in rye and sixth in potato production. At the end of 2004,
the livestock sector comprised 5.2 million beef and dairy cattle and approximately
17.4 million pigs. Due to Poland’s favourable geographical position and temperate
climate utilised agricultural area amounts to more than half of Poland’s surface (16.3
million hectares). In addition, over 9.1 million hectares are forested, making sawn
timber an important resource.
Energy and Fuels
The overwhelming majority of Poland’s electricity is generated by coal- and lignite
fuelled power stations, while the remainder derives from hydroelectric power stations
and wind power plants. Hard coal remains the foundation of Polish industry. Thanks to
coal, Poland’s total energy consumption and production have generally been in balance,
with imports of oil offset by coal exports. In 2004, hard coal production reached nearly
101 million tons, almost the same as in the previous year, and that of brown coal and
coke 61.1 and 10.2 million tons, respectively. Outputs of natural gas, basic fuels and
electricity are presented in the table below.
Production of Major Fuels and Energy Products in 2004 *
Hard coal
Brown coal
Fuel oils
Petrol (incl. aviation fuel)
Diesel oil
Natural gas
Companies employing over 49 persons
million tons
million tons
million tons
million tons
million tons
million tons
cubic hectometres
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
About 35 % percent of Poland’s demand for natural gas is covered by domestic
production and most imports come from Russia.
How to Do Business in Poland
Population and Language
In recent years (since 1999) the population of Poland, currently 38.2 million people, has
been experiencing a very slow decline. In 2004 this trend continued and the population
of Poland declined by 0.04 %. Approximately 62 % of Poles live in 886 towns, which
are mostly small or medium-size, and almost half of the town population lives in 40
cities with a population of over 100,000 inhabitants. Warsaw, the capital and Poland’s
largest city, has a population of 1.7 million people. Apart from the capital, the largest
Polish cities are ЕЃГіdЕє, Cracow, WrocЕ‚aw, PoznaЕ„ and the GdaЕ„sk-Sopot-Gdynia
conurbation, which together account for about 3.5 million people. With respect to size of
population, Poland ranks 8th in Europe and 30th in the world, with an average population
density of 122 persons per km2.
The population of Polish communities abroad is estimated at 12 million, with the largest
communities living in the USA (5.6 million), the Commonwealth of Independent States
– CIS (2.5 million), France (1 million), Germany (0.8 million), Canada (0.4 million),
Brazil (0.2 million), Australia (0.15), and the UK (0.14).
Map of Polish Communities Abroad
Source: Institute of Geodesy and Cartography
Demographic trends in Poland indicate rapid growth in the working-age population,
until 2005, approximately. In the last quarter of 2004 there were 14.1 million people
employed, including 4.8 million by companies employing ten or more persons. On the
other hand, the number of retired persons and pensioners reached 9.2 million. Even
though the number of retired people is growing, Poland’s workforce is among the
youngest in Europe. Its activity rate is 54.9 % (as of the last quarter of 2004).
I. General Information
From the ethnic point of view, Poland is one of the most homogeneous countries in
Europe, with over 98 % of the population being ethnically Polish.
In the business community, as well as among young people, English is the most popular
foreign language. In addition, German and Russian are frequently spoken, reflecting the
geographical position of the country.
Political System and Government
Poland was the first country in Central and Eastern Europe to free itself from communist
rule. This bold move was soon followed throughout the region. It all started early in
1989 when the communist-dominated authorities and the opposition embarked on
discussions which became known as the �Round Table Negotiations’. As a result, major
agreements were reached, including legalisation of the Solidarity trade union and an
agreement to hold elections on 4 June 1989. The elections were won by the
representatives of Solidarity, who then formed the first non-communist government in
East-Central Europe since the Second World War.
Poland is a republic reflecting a mixture of parliamentary and presidential models. In
1997, a new constitution was adopted by the national assembly and submitted for
ratification in a national referendum. The new constitution contains some important
guarantees for business. It states that the Republic of Poland assures freedom of
economic activity and that any limitation of this freedom should be based on law.
Similarly, fiscal charges may be imposed only by law. Another important safeguard
clause concerning public finance says that an increase of expenditure by the government
should not cause an increase of the budget deficit above the level set by the budgetary
law, and that the budgetary law should not provide for the financing of the deficit
through lending from the central bank.
The president is elected to office by universal suffrage for a 5-year term. He appoints
candidates for the post of prime minister and has the right to veto acts passed by
parliament. His veto may be rejected by a three-fifths majority in the sejm, with at least a
half of deputies present. The president is the head of state and the commander-in-chief
of the armed forces. He has the right to dissolve parliament if it is unable to approve the
budgetary law or to form a government. Lech WaЕ‚Д™sa, the historic leader of the
Solidarity movement, was elected president in November 1990. However, in a heated
presidential campaign in the autumn of 1995, he lost to Aleksander KwaЕ›niewski, leader
of the Democratic Left Alliance, who also won the subsequent presidential elections
held in October 2000, and who will thus be in office until the end of 2005.
How to Do Business in Poland
Legislative authority is vested in the parliament, or National Assembly, composed of two
chambers: the lower house, the sejm, with 460 seats, and the upper house, the senate, with
100 seats, both elected for a 4-year term. The sejm has 460 deputies elected through
a proportional voting system. All 100 senators are elected in a majority voting system. The
senate has the right to initiate legislation, and it reviews and proposes amendments to acts
passed by the sejm. It is ultimately the sejm that decides on the final version of any
legislative act. Apart from the sejm deputies and the senate, legislative initiative is also
granted to the president, the Council of Ministers, and any group of at least one hundred
thousand citizens coming up with a draft law.
The last parliamentary elections were held on 23 September 2001. A coalition of the
Democratic Left Alliance and the Union of Labour (SLD-UP) won decisively with over
41 % of votes, receiving 216 seats. The Civic Platform (PO) received 12.7 % of votes (65
seats), followed by the Self-Defence Party (Samoobrona), which received 10.2 % of votes
(53 seats). The remaining seats were divided between the Law and Justice Party (PiS) – 44
seats, the Polish People’s Party (PSL) – 42 seats, the League of Polish Families (LPR) – 38
seats and the German Minority – 2 seats. It is worthy of note that the two parties that had
formed the previous government, the Solidarity Electoral Action (AWS) and the Freedom
Union (UW) failed to pass the electoral threshold. Since then several changes have taken
place on the Polish political scene, resulting in an increase in the number of political forces
in the parliament. The present structure of the sejm (as of May 2005) is presented in the
following diagram.
Structure of the Sejm in May 2005 (number of seats)
Source: Sejm, 2005
I. General Information
Executive power is vested in the prime minister and his cabinet, called the Council of
Ministers, while judicial power is vested in independent courts.
At the very outset of the political and economic transformation process Poland focused
its efforts on two major goals: economic integration with the European Community (see
Chapter VI) and NATO membership.
The economic integration process aimed at re-establishing Poland as an integral part of
the European economy. It led to Poland’s acquiring EU membership as of 1 May 2004.
NATO membership, ensuring external security, has been achieved even earlier. The first
step in the process of joining NATO had taken place in March 1991, when the military
structures of the Warsaw Pact were dissolved. A mere three months later, in October
1991, in Cracow, the presidents of Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary expressed the
desire of their states to participate in NATO activities.
At a 1997 NATO summit, Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary were invited to
start negotiations on membership in the alliance. Finally, on 17 February 1999, the
parliament passed a law allowing President KwaЕ›niewski to ratify the North Atlantic
Treaty, which he did on 26 February 1999. On 12 March of the same year, Poland’s
accession to NATO was sealed with the ceremony of depositing the ratification treaty
with the Treaty’s Depository Office.
Government Administration
The government administration is composed of the central administration (ministries
and other bodies) and the regional administration.
The administrative division of the country is based on three levels of administration, i.e.,
provinces (wojewГіdztwo), which are divided into districts (powiat), which are further
divided into communes (gmina). There are 16 provinces, 379 districts, and 2478
communes in Poland. The list of local authorities (UrzД…d WojewГіdzki) is presented in
Appendix 21.
How to Do Business in Poland
Administrative Map of Poland
Source: Institute of Geodesy and Cartography
I. General Information
Some major ministries and their main functions, likely to be of interest to foreign
investors and businessmen, are listed in the table below.
Ministry of
Agriculture and Rural
Ministry of Economic
Affairs and Labour
Ministry of the
Ministry of Finance
Ministry of Foreign
Ministry of
Ministry of Internal
Affairs and
Ministry of Science
and Information
Society Technologies
Ministry of the
Main Functions
Developing and implementing policies regarding agriculture, rural
development and the development of agricultural markets. Supervising
Agricultural Property Agency, Agricultural Market Agency, Agency for
Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture.
Initiating and co-ordinating policies regarding economic activity and
development, including foreign trade and economic issues, energy policy,
tourism, co-operation with economic self-governing organisations,
increasing employment.
Regulating all issues pertaining to environmental protection and water
resources, and particularly, developing and implementing policies
concerning air and water protection, the avoidance of land degradation,
water management and protection of the population and property against
flood and drought.
Responsibilities include activities in the area of public finance, state
budget development and implementation and financial institutions.
Maintaining diplomatic relations with other countries and international
organisations, representing and protecting the interests of Poland, its
citizens and its entities abroad, promotion of Poland and the Polish
language abroad, and co-operation with Poles living abroad.
Directing government administration in the areas of architecture,
construction, housing and land management, maritime economy,
communications and transport.
Overseeing internal safety, state administration, citizens’ affairs with
respect to public administration, and all issues regarding foreigners in
Directing state activities in the field of science and information
technology and servicing the State Committee for Scientific Research,
which is the major central governmental source of funds for research
Supervising and managing the State Treasury, taking privatisation
decisions concerning state-owned enterprises, initiating the privatisation
of municipal property, keeping a register of the State Treasury’s assets,
and the setting up, closing down and privatisation of State Treasury
Source: Various acts
How to Do Business in Poland
r GDP growth of 5.4 %, driven mostly by exports
r Annual inflation of 3.5 %
r Industrial output growth of 11.6 %
r Budget deficit: 4.7 % of GDP
r 3 million unemployed – official unemployment rate:
r Average gross monthly salary; PLN 2,289.57
(approx. EUR 500)
r Poland’s foreign debt amounts to USD 126.7 billion
r 54 commercial banks (mostly foreign-owned) and
almost 600 co-operative banks
r 72 insurance companies, mostly foreign-owned
r Average telephone density: 33, average mobile phone
density: 61
r Electric energy production: 154 TWh
r Roads: 80 km per 100 km2, many in poor condition
r Railway network: 6 km per 100 km2
Standard & Poor’s country rating – foreign currency
(long/outlook/short): A- / Positive / A-2
How to Do Business in Poland
GDP and Inflation
Poland was the first country in Central and Eastern Europe to embark upon the
breakthrough transition from a planned economy to a market system. This transition
began under the extremely difficult conditions of high inflation, scarcity of consumer
goods and highly concentrated production. The Polish economy entered the 1990s as the
weakest in Central Europe. It emerged in the new millennium as one of the strongest.
The introduction of radical reforms was a precondition for Poland’s survival. The �shock
therapy’ programme applied in late 1989 by the then Deputy Prime Minister, Leszek
Balcerowicz, resulted in the dismantling of all central economy planning mechanisms
and the introduction of a market economy. This bold reform programme was quick to
produce effects. The freeing of prices allowed them to rise in response to market forces,
during a period of corrective inflation, and to find their own level. As a result, inflation,
running at three digits in 1990, fell to double digits in 1991-1998, and declined steadily
in the following years to fall to as little as 0.8 % in 2003. In 2004 it rose again, to 3.5 %.
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
Although successful, the stabilisation programme also plunged the country into a deep,
but relatively short-lived recession, and Poland was the only country in the region to
achieve GDP growth in 1992. The recovery gained momentum in 1993 with a GDP
growth rate of 3.8 %, at that time the highest growth rate in Europe. In 2004, GDP grew
by 5.4 %. Comparing Polish GDP per capita to that of other countries, to reflect the real
degree of development, overall price levels should be considered and thus appropriate
adjustments made. In 2004, applying the OECD and Eurostat estimates of the PLN’s
purchasing power, GDP per capita in Poland in PPP (Purchasing Power Parity) terms
II. Economic Environment
amounted to approximately USD 12,700. In 2004, exports continued to be an important
driver of GDP growth.
Gross Domestic Product
Gross Domestic Product
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
GDP at current prices (PLN bn) 371.1 469.4 550.4 615.6 685.0 721.6 763.4 816.1 885.3
GDP per capita (USD)
3,484 3,702 4,095 4,014 4,077 4,567 4,896 5,495 6,347
GDP annual growth (%)
Source: Central Statistical Office, NBP, 2005
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
Since 1990, important changes in resource allocation have taken place with a dynamic
expansion of trade and services, and a steep fall in construction, farm, and industrial
output. This has moved Poland’s economic structure closer to that of countries at
a medium level of development.
How to Do Business in Poland
Budgetary Policy
Poland managed to go through a difficult period of transition without excessive
relaxation of its budgetary policy. However, in 2001, the budget deficit doubled in
comparison to the previous year and amounted to just under 4.5 % of GDP. The last
three years did not bring any improvement in this respect. In 2004, the budget deficit
equalled 4.7 % of GDP.
A breakdown of the state budget in the last two years is presented in the table below.
State Budget 2003 and 2004 (PLN billion)
Selected Items
Indirect taxation
- thereof VAT
- thereof excise tax
Corporate income tax
Personal income tax
Dividends and income from profit
Custom duties
Social security contributions
Current expenditure of budgetary entities
Domestic debt service
Foreign debt service
Subsidies for local government
Investment expenditure
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
As a result of the economic growth and fairly good budget performance in recent years,
the ratio of public debt to GDP declined substantially, from 70.4 % at the end of 1994, to
some 55 % of GDP at the end of 1995, following an important reduction of foreign debt.
At the end of 2004, it amounted to 48.8 % of GDP.
Budgetary expenditure in 2004 is presented in the following diagram. It is worth noting
that foreign debt service expenditure is rather insignificant, amounting to just 2.1 % of
the budget.
II. Economic Environment
Structure of State Budget Expenditure in 2004
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
A good budgetary performance, stable economic growth, the curbing of inflation, and
other positive economic factors of the past decade, led first to constant improvement of
Poland’s rating on international markets, and then to its stabilisation. Currently (May
2005), Poland’s rating by the major agencies is decidedly favourable, as reflected in the
table below.
Rating Agency
Standard & Poor’s
Long-term Rating
Short-term Rating
Source: Rating Agencies, May 2005
Foreign Exchange
The official currency in Poland is the zЕ‚oty (zЕ‚ or PLN), which is divided into 100
groszy. Foreign exchange operations are governed by Foreign Exchange Law of 27 July
2002. It came into force on 1 October 2002 and further liberalised capital exchange. In
line with mandatory EU regulations concerning foreign exchange, the law removed all
restrictions in the flow of capital payments between Poland and the EU member states,
the European Economic Area, and OECD member states.
Nonetheless, some limitations to capital exchange that are not contrary to the EU
mandatory foreign exchange regulations are permitted. These are defined in art. 9 of the
law and apply mostly to operations with non-residents from countries, that are not EU,
How to Do Business in Poland
EEA, or OECD members. The limitations focus on capital flows relating to direct
investments (including investments in real estate), the provision of financial services,
and the introduction of securities to capital markets. The law also contains a provision
stating that limitations resulting from other acts supersede the freedom of capital flow
arising from the Foreign Exchange Law.
The limitations pertaining to foreign exchange terms and conditions may be abolished
through foreign exchange permits. There are two types of permits: general, and
individual. General foreign exchange permits are granted by the Minister of Finance,
while individual foreign exchange permits are granted by the President of the National
Bank of Poland. Both general and individual permits will be granted if there is no threat
to state security, public order, the equilibrated balance of payments, and other basic
interests of the state.
An important safeguard mechanism is provided in art. 10 of the Law, which allows for
the introduction of certain restrictions, if necessary, to:
В· implement decisions of international organisations, of which Poland is a member,
В· ensure public safety, or public order,
· ensure the balance of payments’ equilibrium in case of its general disequilibrium,
or sudden collapse, or a threat of either of these,
В· ensure the stability of Polish currency in case of a sudden fluctuation in its rate of
exchange, or a threat of it.
Currently, general exchange permits are granted on the grounds of a decree of the
Minister of Finance of 3 September 2002 on General Exchange Permits, as amended.
Generally, the decree provides for Polish currency and foreign exchange transfers, by
both residents and non-residents exceeding the EUR 10,000 limit stipulated in the
Foreign Exchange Law. It also lifts various foreign exchange restrictions regarding
operations with countries that signed binding agreements with Poland on the reciprocal
promotion and protection of investments. Moreover, Polish residents are allowed to
conduct transactions and payments in Poland in euros and other convertible currencies,
providing that a consumer is party to the transaction, or payment. This allows, for
example, shops to accept payments in euro and there are already some that do.
II. Economic Environment
Foreign Debt
At the end of 2004, Poland’s overall foreign debt reached USD 126.7 billion (52.3 % of
GDP), according to the National Bank of Poland. It increased by approximately USD
20.8 billion during the year, more or less as much as in the previous year. Just as in 2002
and 2003, central and local governments were mainly responsible for this steep increase,
as their foreign debt rose by USD 13.7 billion, from USD 44.0 billion at the end of 2003
to USD 57.7 billion at the end of 2004. However, it is not the absolute value of foreign
debt, but its relation to other economic indicators that is important for the economy.
These relations are presented on the following diagram.
Foreign Debt in 2004 in Comparison to Other Economic Indicators
(in USD billion)
Source: Central Statistical Office, NBP, 2005
Until 2002, a characteristic feature of Poland’s foreign debt was the constant trend of
change in the proportion between state and private debt, with the private share
increasing in line with the liberalisation of foreign exchange policy and transformations
in the economy. In 1996, the share of government foreign debt amounted to 76.3 %, and
in only five years it had decreased to just under 40.7 % by the end of 2001. However,
2002 reversed this trend. In 2004, the share of government foreign debt further increased
to 45.5 %. The following diagram presents Poland’s foreign debt in the past eight years.
How to Do Business in Poland
Total External Debt and Central and Local Government External Debt in 1996-2004
(USD billion)
Source: NBP, 2005
Short-term debt accounted for less than 18.4 % of total debt by the end of 2004. The
ratio of Poland’s overall short-term foreign debt (owed by the government, banks, and
companies) to foreign currency reserves amounted to some 63.2 % at the end of the
same year.
Employment and the Labour Market
Unemployment was unknown in Poland before 1990, but the realities of the free-market
economy were soon felt in the labour market. Unemployment appeared in 1990 and
soon reached 1.1 million people, or 6.3 % of labour force. It peaked and stabilised in
1993-1994, and started to decline from then on. However, since 1998, it has been
growing again, mainly as a result of industrial restructuring and structural changes in
companies aimed at increasing productivity and competitiveness. At the end of 2004 the
number of registered unemployed persons reached 3.0 million, or 19.1 % of the labour
force. The unemployment rate varies significantly from one province to another. It is
lowest in the provinces of Mazowieckie (15.0 %) and MaЕ‚opolskie (15.0 %) and highest
in WarmiЕ„sko-Mazurskie province (29.2 %).
Of the 3.0 million unemployed, 1.57 million, more than half, have been without work
for more than one year. Furthermore, 86 % of the unemployed are not eligible for
benefits, and a considerable number of job-seekers are school leavers. Many of them
II. Economic Environment
have acquired good qualifications but cannot find work because the vocational education
system has not kept up with the changes in demand for specific professional skills.
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
Nonetheless, Poland’s labour force is generally well educated and highly qualified.
The number of young people seeking better and / or higher education has been
constantly increasing since the beginning of the transformations. In the 2003/2004
academic year, there were almost 1.9 million students, attending 400 universities,
polytechnics, academies, and other higher education institutions. The proportion of
students in the 16 - 18 age group reached 92.5 %, while in the 19 - 24 age group it
climbed to almost 53 %.
In 2004, the average gross monthly salary in Poland was PLN 2,289.57 (approx. USD
630), 4.8 % more than in 2003. Average gross monthly salary in the enterprise sector
amounted to PLN 2,438.57, a 4.1 % increase in nominal terms in comparison to 2003.
It was considerably higher (PLN 4,082.18) in mining and quarrying. On the other
hand, average salaries in the manufacturing sector (PLN 2,228.72), and especially in
the manufacturing of wearing apparel and furriery (PLN 1,289.72), as well as in the
hotel and restaurant sector (PLN 1,787.82), were significantly lower than the national
The relatively low labour costs and easy access to skilled workers are important assets
for prospective foreign investors, particularly in regions with industrial traditions.
According to the Economist Intelligence Unit forecasts, the cost of an hour of labour
amounts to some EUR 4.3 in Poland in 2005. This is several times lower than in the
�old’ European Union countries and even slightly lower than in the Czech Republic
(EUR 4.9) and Hungary (EUR 5.7).
How to Do Business in Poland
Trade unions play a relatively important role both in national politics and at the
enterprise level. In addition to the Solidarity trade union there are also federations of
branch trade unions (former communist unions). Trade unions are particularly strong
in big, still state-owned enterprises, but they are also active on a regional level. Trade
unions tend to present their demands directly to the government. Nonetheless, Poland
was very peaceful socially in 2004. There were only 2 strikes, involving just over 200
Industry and Technology
With the trade and service sectors gradually gaining in importance, the share of
industry in Poland’s gross domestic product has been more or less constant over the
last couple of years. In 2004, industry accounted for some 27.0 % of the gross value
added (a 9.7 % increase in real terms over 2003), while market services represented
48.4 % of the gross value added (a 4.5 % increase in real terms over the previous
year). The economic transformations have brought progressive modernisation,which is
reflected, for example, in growing productivity and exports.
The structure of the Polish economy in 2004, in terms of the number of economic
entities by sector, taking form of ownership into account, is presented in the table
below. The figures encompass legal entities, entities with no legal personality, and
single-person businesses, excluding branches.
II. Economic Environment
Economic Entities by Sector and Form of Ownership as of 31 December 2004
Agriculture, hunting & forestry
Quarrying and mining
Power, gas and water production
and supply
Trade and repairs
Hotels and restaurants
Transport, storage &
Financial mediation
Real estate and business services,
Health & social welfare services
Other community, social and
personal service activities
Excluding farmers
100 % 100 %
Private Foreign
Treasury Domestic Capital
1306 220,162
672 157,034 51,503
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
The private sector of the economy has grown rapidly since the beginning of the
transformations. In 2004, the private sector accounted for 81.6 % of industrial output
and it is still expanding, due to the privatisation of state-owned enterprises and to the
establishment and development of new private businesses. At the same time, the private
sector, already dominant in foreign trade for several years, was responsible for 91.7 % of
imports and 88.1 % of exports. Furthermore, nearly all of agriculture, retailing,
wholesale trade, and construction (98 %), are in private hands.
In 2004, the structure of industrial production saw a continuation of the general trend
visible during the last decade, with the processing industry’s share steadily increasing.
The share of the processing industry grew to 84.7 % (from 83.0 % in 2003), while the
share of the mining and quarrying sectors increased to 5.0 %, as compared to 4.8 % the
year before. The power, gas, and water production and supply sector’s share decreased,
to 10.3 % (from 12.2 % in 2003).
The production of food and related products (beverages and tobacco articles) occupies
the most important part in the Polish processing industry, accounting for over a fifth of
total production. Other important manufacturing sectors are the automotive industry, the
How to Do Business in Poland
chemical industry, the coke and refined petroleum products sector, the electrical
engineering industry, and the metalworking industry.
The year 2004 witnessed a very substantial growth of industrial output, which increased
by 11.6 %, as compared to a growth of 8.1 % the year before. The private sector
accounted for 81.6 % of the output, up from 79.0 % in the previous year, and
productivity (in terms of production sold per employee) rose by approximately 13 %.
The following table presents the branch structure of Polish industry in 2004. Please note
that these figures refer to companies employing more than 9 persons, as data covering
the entire economy was not available at the time of printing. The total industrial
production sold for the entire economy is expected to be roughly 6 % higher.
Structure of Industry by Branch in 2004
Industrial Production
Sold (PLN million)
Food products and beverages
Tobacco products
Wearing apparel and furriery
Leather and leather products
Wood and wood, straw, and wicker products
Pulp and paper
Publishing, printing, and reproduction of recorded media
Coke and refined petroleum products
Chemicals and chemical products
Rubber and plastic products
Other non-metallic mineral products
Basic metals
Metal products
Machinery and equipment
Electrical machinery and apparatus
Radio, television, and communications equipment and apparatus
Medical equipment, precision and optical instruments, watches and clocks
Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers
Other transport equipment
Furniture and manufacturing not elsewhere classified
Total manufacturing
Mining and quarrying
Electricity, natural gas, and water production and supply
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
II. Economic Environment
In 2004, a very dynamic growth in sales was noted in the following areas: motor
vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers (56.4 %), metals (20.2 %), metal products (19.0 %),
furniture (18.4 %), machinery and equipment (16.2 %, with a continuing boom in
household goods, up by 31.9 %), and rubber and plastic products (13.7 %).
On the other hand, a decrease in sales was noted in wearing apparel and furriery, and in
leather and leather products, just as in the previous year.
The output of companies with ten or more employees producing mainly investment
goods experienced a very high – approximately 35 % growth-in 2004. At the same time,
the output of companies with ten or more employees manufacturing mainly consumer
durables increased by a very healthy 19 %.
Several branches of Polish industry are still undergoing organisational, managerial, and
technological transformations based on restructuring programmes. Most notably such
programmes are being implemented in the coal-mining sector, fuel and energy, and
defence industries.
In this context, it is worth pointing out that Polish science and technological research,
while suffering from under-investment, is still able to produce some very interesting
results. A major problem is the lack of financing necessary to develop this research into
commercially viable projects, and this presents yet another opportunity for foreign
investors to enter the market and launch successful businesses.
A large number of inventors, research and development companies, universities, and
scientific institutions, are members of the Association of Polish Inventors. The
Association supports research activities leading to inventions, promotes Polish
inventions in Poland and abroad and protects the rights of inventors.
Investment and co-operation opportunities based on Polish inventions and new
technologies can be found in numerous industrial sectors in Poland. The ones outlined
below are just a few.
Department of Bacterial Genetics, Institute of Microbiology, Warsaw University, Warsaw
Bivalent Chicken Vaccine: Anti-Campylobacter / Salmonella
Inventors: A group of researchers at the Department of Bacterial Genetics, Institute of Microbiology,
Warsaw University, headed by Prof. E. K. Jagusztyn-Krynicka, in co-operation with Biowet Ltd.,
PuЕ‚awy and the Laboratory of Bio-Informatics and Protein Engineering of the IIMCB.
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide.
In developed countries, Campylobacteriosis is a food borne disease, while poultry is the major
source of human Salmonella and Campylobacter infections. The vaccine is meant to prevent
chicken flocks from acquiring Salmonella and Campylobacter infections. Chickens that were
How to Do Business in Poland
orally immunised with the developed avirulent Salmonella strain expressing Campylobacter
antigens developed serum IgG and mucosal IgA responses against Campylobacter. Moreover,
this approach greatly reduced the ability of the heterologous wild-type Campylobacter strain to
colonize the bird cecum.
Live, genetically defined and attenuated strains of bacterial enteropathogens able to stimulate both
innate and adaptive immune responses are good candidates for the development of mucosal
multivalent vaccines. S. enterica sv. Typhimurium c3987 is a derivative of c3985 which induced
protective immunity, when administered orally to chickens and is a licensed chicken vaccine
(Megan Health Inc., St. Louis, MO, USA). The research was based on several new and innovative
technologies of molecular biology and immunology employed to study the molecular basis of
bacterial pathogenesis. The introduction of the bivalent chicken vaccine antyCampylobacter/Salmonella should decrease the Campylobacter and Salmonella related morbidity
rate, improve human health, and reduce health care costs.
This technology is the winner of the 2004 edition of the Polish Product of the Future competition
in the Product of the Future category.
Institute of Industrial Organic Chemistry, Warsaw and Rokita-Agro S.A., Brzeg Dolny
2,4-D Herbicide Ecological Production Technology
Inventors: WiesЕ‚aw MoszczyЕ„ski and Arkadiusz BiaЕ‚ek from the Institute of Industrial Organic
Chemistry, and Edward MakieЕ‚a, BolesЕ‚aw Rippel, Edward Listopadzki, and ZdzisЕ‚aw
Okulewicz from Rokita-Agro S.A.
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is an active substance in selective hormonal weed killing
preparations used in the growing of grain, rice, and other crops.
According to the EU Directive 2001/103/EC of 28 November 2001, the standard of 96% for
active isomer in 2,4-D preparations is required in EU countries. The traditional production
technology is based on technical 2,4-dichlorophenol which is a compound of phenol mono-, diand trichloroderivatives. 2,4-D acid of 89% purity is obtained, and is then refined by
crystallisation to a maximum of 96% of active 2,4-D isomer.
Rokita-Agro S.A. has been producing the 2,4-D acid by using a new technology in the new 98%
standard since 2004. The selective reaction of phenol chlorination and the new method of
exuding and refining 2,4-D acid were elaborated and introduced on an industrial scale. In 2004
the new technology won a prize in Master of Technology Competition organised by the
Rzeczpospolita daily and the Main Technical Organization (NOT), as well as in the ZЕ‚oty
Orbital competition organised by the Rynek Chemiczny journal. The technology is protected by
patent No. P-354552/2002.
In addition to the 2,4-D acid of 98% purity, Rokita-Agro S.A. produces 2,4-D natrium salt
monohydrate with a 92.5% active isomer purity level. The research team at the Institute and
Rokita-Agro elaborated a new 95% purity monohydrate production technology. In this new
technology, which is to be introduced in industry, chlorination by selective complex was
II. Economic Environment
employed. The complex residues and vestigial organic and mineral impurities are eliminated
during the production process. In the new technology, in addition to the high quality of
- chlorination selectivity increases by 6%,
- consumption of raw materials decreases by 6.5%,
- waste chemical oxygen demand levels decrease by 60%.
The new acid and monohydrate of natrium salt of 2,4-D technologies are based on original
chemical and technological solutions:
- 2,4-dichlorophenol synthesis with the use of the selective chlorination complex,
- recovery and full utilisation of 2,4-dichlorophenol residue,
- combination of chemical and physical methods in the process eliminating complex residues
and vestigial organic mineral impurities.
The acid and monohydrate of natrium salt of 2,4-D are of the highest standard.
This technology is the winner of the 2004 edition of the Polish Product of the Future
competition in the Technology of the Future category.
METALCHEM Plastics Processing Institute, ToruЕ„
Production of Polymer Road Posts Using the Extrusion - Blow Moulding Method
Inventors: StanisЕ‚aw Lutomirski, Jan Szumny, Jan GoЕ‚Д™biewski, and Tadeusz Sobczak.
This single-process manufacturing technology includes solutions for in-mould decorating,
accommodating reflecting, numbering and description elements. The plastic profile is
continuously extruded, put into the mould and then blown up using a blowing mandrel and
compressed air to achieve the required shape, so such operations like welding or gluing are no
longer necessary. The characteristics of the road posts leaving the mould are:
- low mass,
- closed profile with no welding points,
- durable adhesion of reflecting elements to the body,
- aesthetic appearance of the product,
- good range and stability of colours.
The process is controlled by a microprocessor system and it guarantees the high stability of
processing parameters, reliability, simple maintenance, and the high quality of the elements
produced. The technology as well as the product are protected by patents. The products conform
to the relevant Polish Standards and the requirements of the General Direction of Domestic
Roads and Highways.
This technology won a distinction in the 2004 edition of the Polish Product of the Future
competition in the Technology of the Future category.
How to Do Business in Poland
BLACHOWNIA Institute of Heavy Organic Synthesis, KД™dzierzyn-KoЕєle
Kotamina Plus – a Multi-Functional Correction Preparation for Boiler Water in Energy
Inventors: Marian Kozupa, Wojciech Jerzykiewicz, Maria Majchrzak, SЕ‚awomir Twardowski,
Marian Maciejko, Marek Szymonik, Barbara Haliniak, Artur Zdunek.
The use of thermo-stable synthetic amines for water treatment in the power industry has many
economic and ecological advantages, as it considerably improves water quality and reduces the
consumption of raw materials as well as the emission of contaminants into the environment.
Moreover, it enables the elimination of hydrazine, which has a carcinogenic effect.
The thermal stability, adsorption and surface protection efficiency of branched amines is much
higher than that of the alkylamines used so far. The use of Kotamina Plus results in an increase
of convective heat transfer by about 55%, an increase of boiler heat flux by more than 120%,
and an increase of condenser heat flux by more than 120%, as compared to the use of
demineralised water. This in turn improves the efficiency of the energy system and reduces the
temperature of boiler tubes, helping to prevent overheating. The high efficiency of boiler steel
passivation with Kotamina Plus increases with temperature: at 400 C the corrosion rate is
0.63 mm/year.
Industrial tests in the electric power stations of PoЕ‚aniec and ChorzГіw, and the thermal-electric
power stations of BiaЕ‚ystok, ElblД…g and ZofiГіwka indicate that the use of the new product
resulted in very efficient corrosion protection and a significant reduction of ammonia
concentration. The ammonia concentration was more than three times lower than the upper limit
of 0.5 mg/dm3. This is of great importance for the corrosion protection of brazen elements,
especially that of condensers. The significant improvement of heat exchange in the boiling and
condensation processes, the reduction of operating and corrosion deposits on heat exchange
surfaces, the reduction of losses in wet steam turbines due to improved stream dispersion, the
reduction of boiler desalination to a value below 1%, and fast boiler start-up after banking
enable savings of 0.35g of fuel per 1 kWh of energy generated.
The use of tert-alkylamines (C16Г·C20) as a base for correction preparation for chemical
treatment of boiler water in energy systems is a world-scale innovation. Amine agents offered
by other producers do not contain polyamines, or contain only small amounts of alkylamines,
which are necessary to raise pH to levels ensuring good corrosion protection. Kotamina Plus in
turn provides shield protection of construction materials against corrosion, eliminates operating
and corrosion deposits on surfaces, and helps prevent erosion within the system, especially
within turbine blades. The product is protected by patent.
This technology won a distinction in the 2004 edition of the Polish Product of the Future
competition in the Product of the Future category.
II. Economic Environment
KOMAG Mining Mechanisation Centre, Gliwice
Labyrinth Dust Collector LDCU-630
Inventors: A group of project engineers under the direction of Zbigniew Szkudlarek.
Designers: Marcin Steindor and WiesЕ‚aw Turejko.
The LDCU-630 labyrinth dust collector was constructed at the KOMAG Mining Mechanisation
Centre, a R&D organisation in Gliwice. It is produced by KOWENT S.A. in KoЕ„skie, an
environmental protection equipment industry company.
The LDCU-630 labyrinth dust collector is designed for cleaning, using the wet method, of dust
laden air which is generated during manufacturing processes, especially in the metallurgical,
foundry, and mining industries. In addition to the above-mentioned broad area of application,
the fixed nozzle labyrinth dust collector can also be used in the control of combustion gas dust
and other high temperature gases, as it lacks a rigid rotating component and an electric motor
placed in the air stream.
The dust collector can operate with both axial-flow and centrifugal fans, installed in front or
behind it. Due to this, it can operate in exhaust and combined ventilation systems.
In technical solutions designed so far, the breakdown of rotating nozzle type motors would
seriously limit the efficiency of the whole installation and increase operational costs. The
labyrinth dust collector has a fixed nozzle, thus not only reducing the length of the dust control
system, but also providing for significantly higher reliability, due to the elimination of the
rotating nozzle assembly.
Due to the use of the labyrinth, the overall dust control efficiency in double-stream and twostage dust control systems reaches 99%. The unique and innovative solutions used in the dust
collector’s components result in high dust control efficiency, low energy consumption,
dependability, and easy maintenance and servicing.
This technology won a distinction in the 2004 edition of the Polish Product of the Future
competition in the Product of the Future category.
For the list of other awarded technologies and contact details of the technology
providers, please refer to Appendix 24.
How to Do Business in Poland
The Polish Agency for Enterprise Development
The Polish Agency for Enterprise Development (PARP) is a governmental body
established as a result of the transformation, in 2001, of the Polish Foundation for the
Promotion and Development of Small and Medium Enterprises. The Agency is
subordinated to the Minister of the Economy and Labour. It focuses its activities on:
В· the development of small and medium-size companies;
В· the growth of exports;
В· regional development;
В· the application of modern technologies;
В· human resource development;
В· creating new jobs and counteracting unemployment.
The agency is involved in a number of assistance programmes and provides grants for
the co-financing of initiatives supporting the development of entrepreneurship, as well
as direct support to entrepreneurs. PARP offers consulting services, facilitates access to
know-how, economic information, studies and analyses, and organises informational
and promotional events.
The activities of the agency are financed from the state budget and European Union
funds. The agency co-operates with a number of local business advisory centres, which
are grouped in the National SME Service Network.
In Poland, 38 % of the population lives in rural areas and approximately a quarter is
engaged in farming. There are some regions where agriculture is still the major sector
of the economy, even though its importance has been declining steadily. However,
persons who work exclusively, or mainly in agriculture account for less than 6 % of
Poland’s population. The Polish agricultural sector includes farms that vary
considerably in terms of organisational structure, ownership, size, and output volume.
In 2004 there were 1.85 million farms with over 1 ha. of farmland, with an average
size of 7.5 ha. Almost 80 % of farms in Poland have an area of less than 10 ha.;
however, their total area amounts to less than 40 % of the country’s farmland. The
structure of Polish farms in terms of size and number is presented on the following
II. Economic Environment
Number of Farms and Their Area by Farm Size Category in 2004
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
Despite politically driven efforts to collectivise farms after the Second World War,
private ownership has always prevailed in the agricultural sector. The political and
economic transformations launched in 1989 led to even greater reduction of the public
sector’s share in agriculture and to the introduction of new forms of ownership, e.g.,
various types of companies and foreign equity. In 1992, the Agricultural Property
Agency of the State Treasury (AWRSP) started its operations, which focused on
taking over and managing state-owned farms, primarily through selling or leasing
their land (see Chapter IV, the section on the Agricultural Property Agency). In 2004,
privately owned farmland accounted for approximately 95.5 % of utilised agricultural
Unpredictable weather conditions and the constantly changing profitability of various
crops and other produce have resulted in an instability of agricultural production,
which is not regulated by quotas. It is the producer who bears the entire production
risk, with only a few crop deliveries being based on supply contracts (concluded
between producers and food processing plants), e.g., for sugar beets, rape seed, and
flower and vegetable seeds. Mixed farming with both crop growing and some animal
production prevails in most farms in Poland, as a majority lack clearly defined
specialisation. Consequently, a characteristic feature of Polish agriculture is that
marketable production accounts for only approximately 60 % of the total agricultural
output, with the rest of output being used for self-supply.
How to Do Business in Poland
In 2004, there were 16.3 million hectares of utilised agricultural area in Poland,
approximately 52 % of the country’s surface. The agricultural output increased by
7.3 %, after declining for two consecutive years. The most important crops in Poland
are cereals, especially wheat and rye. Next, there are potatoes, fodder crops, sugar
beets, oilseeds and pulses. Pigs and cattle dominate the livestock sector, though
poultry, and sheep in southern Poland, are also quite popular. The basic agricultural
output in 2004 is presented in the table below.
Agricultural Output in 2004
Cereals, total
- wheat
- rye
Rape and oil-yielding rape
Sugar beets
Tree fruits
Pigs (million)
Cattle (million)
(million tons)
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
Horticulture is a well-developed sector in Poland, offering a large range of fresh and
processed fruit and vegetable products. Polish strawberries and excellent apple juice
are very well known and popular both in Poland and abroad.
It is important to note that Polish agriculture is characterised by a low use of
chemicals. In 2004, the chemical fertilisers used to grow the crops harvested in that
year amounted to 99.3 kg of NPK per one hectare of arable land. This means that
Polish agricultural products are generally ecological and very healthy.
II. Economic Environment
Construction Industry
The construction sector is regulated by The Construction Law of 7 July 1994, as
amended. It accounts for 5.5 % of the economy (in terms of gross value added).
The output of the construction industry has been increasing significantly since 1997,
primarily as a result of foreign investment mainly in the industrial, retail and office
sectors, although developments financed by Polish capital were also on the increase.
Nonetheless, according to preliminary results data released by GUS, there was an
approximately 1 % drop in the output of the Polish construction industry in 2004.
The overall result was influenced by a 1 % decrease in private construction and a sharper,
over 2 % decline, in the output of state enterprises. In 2004, the private sector’s share in
the construction industry remained unchanged, at approximately 98 %.
As usual, new investments and modernisation projects dominated the sector’s output,
with their share amounting to 71.7 %, as opposed to a 28.3 % share of repair and
maintenance work. However, an increase in the latter is clearly visible, as repair and
maintenance work accounted for 26.4 % the year before.
In 2004, 108,060 new flats were put on the market (preliminary figure), a dramatic
33.6 % decrease over the previous year. This however must be viewed not as an
indication of the market condition, but as a result of changes in the legal framework of the
sector, and in the taxation of construction materials resulting in higher construction
prices. The fear of these led to inflated results in 2003, with almost 164,000 new flats
completed (65 % more than in 2002). A constantly increasing average usable floor area
since the early 1990s is yet another indicator of economic growth in Poland. In 2004 it
amounted to 107.9 sq.m.
Banking Sector
The operations of the Polish banking system are governed by the Law on the National
Bank of Poland and by the Banking Law (both of 29 August 1997). The National Bank
of Poland (NBP) performs the role of a central bank. The NBP issues currency, holds
Poland’s foreign exchange reserves, refinances the banking system, exercises
supervising functions, and issues licences for banking activities.
Most banks in Poland operate as multipurpose institutions. They are involved in various
types of deposit taking and financing activities, and offer a wide range of commercial
and personal banking services. Some of them are also active on the capital market
through their own brokerage houses. Some of the banks are involved in investment
How to Do Business in Poland
banking activities, such as underwriting issues of bonds and stocks, or advisory services.
There are also some mortgage banks and other specialised credit institutions.
As of 1 May 2004, branches of foreign banks which have their registered office in a
member state of the European Union are considered to be branches of credit
institutions, as defined in the Banking Law. The Commission for Banking Supervision
exercises supervision over branches of credit institutions with respect to their
maintenance of adequate liquidity. However, these branches are not subject to the
regulations on capital adequacy.
At the end of 2004, there were 653 banks operating in Poland. This number included 54
commercial banks in the form of joint-stock companies, one state bank, 596 co-operative
banks, and 3 branches of credit institutions. The State Treasury directly owned two
banks, with a further three being controlled indirectly. Head offices of banks (excluding
co-operative banks) and branches of credit institutions operating in Poland are listed in
Appendix 27.
The co-operative sector, although very important for Polish farmers, does not play
a significant role in Polish banking. In 2004, however, its share in banking services
increased for the fourth consecutive year. By the end of the year co-operative banks held
7.0 % of non-financial sector deposits and had loaned 7.8 % of total loans to the sector.
Their total assets increased during the year and amounted to 5.3 % of the total assets of the
whole banking sector in 2004. Out of 596 co-operative banks, only one, Krakowski Bank
SpГіЕ‚dzielczy w Krakowie, is independent. All other co-operative banks are associated in
three bodies: Mazowiecki Bank Regionalny S.A., Gospodarczy Bank Wielkopolski S.A.,
and Bank Polskiej SpГіЕ‚dzielczoЕ›ci S.A.
The banking network has been growing very fast during the past few years. In 2004, the
domestic office network of commercial banks (excluding head offices and representative
offices) comprised over 3,700 branch offices and 4,600 other offices (sub-branches,
customer service outlets, etc.). Moreover, co-operative banks operated almost 1,300 branch
offices and approximately 1,500 other offices. Investments in ATMs (Automatic Teller
Machines) are progressing at an even swifter rate. At the end of 2004 there were over 8000,
or 211 per one million citizens, which was about half of the �old’ EU average.
The bankcard market is certainly one of the fastest growing segments of new services in
Poland. In 2004, the number of bankcards in use reached over 16.9 million. Polish
banks offer all types of bankcards, although debit cards account for some 84.5 % of all
cards in use. On the other hand, credit cards’ share is growing fast, amounting to 11.8 %,
in comparison to 7.8 % at the end of 2003.
II. Economic Environment
In 2004, both the number of bankcard transactions and the average transaction’s value
increased. There were 645.3 million bankcard transactions, with a total value of some
USD 43 billion. At the end of the year, there were some 120,000 shops and service
outlets in Poland accepting credit and/or debit cards.
To meet the challenges of competition, Polish banks have had to invest heavily in their
networks, as well as in automation and information technology. Major commercial
banks, as well as some smaller ones (including some co-operative banks) offer bank
services through the internet. There are also banks allowing their clients to carry out
operations via phones, cellular phones using WAP technology, or via teletext. Moreover,
there are some virtual banks operating on the market. Their number did not change in
the last year. By the end of 2004, there were three (mBank, Inteligo and Volkswagen
Bank Direct), operated by BRE Bank SA, PKO Bank Polski SA and Volkswagen
Bank Polska S.A., respectively.
The modernisation of banks is progressing rapidly. However, huge investments in IT are
increasing the costs of their operations significantly. Even more costly is increasing the
quality of consumer service and introducing new banking products. Nonetheless the end
result is decidedly positive, especially for the clients. Last year’s very favourable
economic conditions helped the banking sector to achieve much better financial results
than in 2003. In fact, from the financial point of view, this was the best year for the banks
since the beginning of transformations. Gross earnings reported by the banking sector
grew by 82 %, amounting to PLN 7.5 billion, while net earnings reached PLN 6.8 billion,
more than three times the 2003 value. This led to ROE reaching 17.6 %. Other positive
developments included:
В· The total assets of the banking sector grew by 10.0 %, amounting to PLN 538
billion at the end of the year. The ratio of banking sector assets to GDP increased to
60.9 %,
В· Property loans grew by 13 %,
В· Further consolidation of the banking sector.
At the end of 2004, of the 54 commercial banks operating in Poland, 14 were listed on the
Warsaw Stock Exchange, and their share in the WSE capitalisation amounted to 33.9 %.
In 2004 the principal changes seen in the ownership structure of banks were the result of
mergers and of foreign investors’ involvement in the sector, as well as privatisation (PKO
Bank Polski S.A.). In 2004, out of 54 commercial banks operating in Poland, foreign
shareholders controlled 41. This number includes 22 joint-stock companies with 100 %
foreign ownership, 13 with a majority of foreign capital, and 6 banks controlled
indirectly. Moreover, foreign shareholders had minority stakes in a further 6 banks. The
following diagram presents the ownership structure of the banking sector in Poland as of
31 December 2004.
How to Do Business in Poland
Ownership Structure of the Banking Sector as of 31 December 2004
Source: NBP, 2005
Since the privatisation of the banking sector started, foreign shareholders have been
steadily increasing their investments in the Polish banking sector. In 2004, however,
their involvement remained approximately at the same level as the year before. Banks
controlled by foreign investors accounted for 67.6 % of the total assets of the banking
sector. According to the NBP, German, Belgian, American, Dutch, and Irish institutions
have made the largest investments in the Polish banking sector. Foreign investments in
the banking sector in Poland are illustrated in the following diagram.
Foreign Investments in the Banking Sector as of 31 December 2004
(PLN million)
Source: NBP, 2005
II. Economic Environment
The structure of the banking sector in Poland at the end of 2004 is further illustrated by
the following table.
Commercial Banks in 2004
Number of Banks and Their Share in Total Banking Sector Assets (%)
Banks controlled by the State Treasury:
- directly
- indirectly
Banks controlled by the private sector:
- with majority Polish equity
- with majority foreign equity
% Share
Source: NBP, 2005
It is important to note that competition in the Polish banking sector has been growing
rapidly in the past few years. This is reflected in mergers between banks, as well as in the
ever growing involvement of foreign ones.
In 2004, the consolidation process continued, resulting in the disappearance of three banks.
Two of them merged and one was put into liquidation – Bankgesellschaft Berlin (Polska)
S.A. Getin Bank S.A. merged with Bank PrzemysЕ‚owy S.A., and GE Bank Mieszkaniowy
S.A. merged with GE Capital Bank S.A., creating GE Money Bank S.A.
The clients of banks operating in Poland are protected by a deposit insurance system –
Bankowy Fundusz Gwarancyjny (The Bank Guarantee Fund) – established in November
1994. As of 1 May 2004 this protection refers to banks covered by the Polish deposit
insurance system. The list of these banks is available at the BFG’s website The BFG guarantees 100 % of deposits up to EUR 1000 and 90 % of
deposits between EUR 1000 and EUR 22,500. Moreover, the NBP protects savings in
those banks by strict supervision and by imposing receivership management in case of
financial problems.
Ranking of Banks by Balance Sheet Total as of 31.12.2004 (PLN billion)
Bank Pekao S.A.
Bank PrzemysЕ‚owo-Handlowy PBK S.A.
ING Bank ЕљlД…ski S.A.
Bank Handlowy S.A.
BRE Bank S.A.
Bank Zachodni WBK S.A.
Kredyt Bank S.A.
Bank Millennium S.A.
Total Assets
Net Profit / Loss
- 0.28
Source: Rzeczpospolita, 15 June 2005
How to Do Business in Poland
In May 2005, according to the National Bank of Poland, there were 17 representative
offices of foreign banks and credit institutions operating in Poland. These are listed in
Appendix 27.
Insurance Sector
Presently, the legal framework for the insurance sector in Poland comprises the
following laws, passed by the sejm on 22 May 2003:
В· The Insurance Law,
В· The Law on Compulsory Insurance, the Insurance Guarantee Fund and the Polish
Bureau of Motor Vehicle Owners’ Insurers,
В· The Law on Insurance and Pension Supervision and on the Spokesman of the Insured,
В· The Law on Insurance Mediation.
The insurance sector in Poland is supervised by the Insurance and Pension Funds
Supervisory Commission (KNUiFE), created on 1 April 2002. Insurance and reinsurance
services may be provided only after the approval of the KNUiFE, which grants an
insurance licence and also has the power to revoke it. Its scope of activity also includes
supervision over insurance mediation, pension funds, and employee pension plans.
The only legal forms permitted for conducting insurance activity are the joint-stock
company and the mutual insurance company. Insurance companies are obliged to
distinguish between life insurance and other types of insurance and can not engage in
any other form of economic activity.
Obligatory types of insurance include, but are not limited to, civil liability for damages for:
В· car owners,
В· farmers,
В· entities providing health services,
В· tax advisors,
В· insurance and reinsurance brokers,
В· registered auditors,
В· organisers of public events,
В· tourist agencies and brokers,
В· court executive officers.
At the end of December 2004, according to KNUiFE, there were 72 insurance
companies (71 domestic and 1 main branch office of foreign insurance company)
licensed to operate in Poland. Out of 69 operating insurance companies, 32 were
insurers licensed to run life insurance businesses, including two mutual insurance
societies. A further 37 were licensed to render non-life insurance services, the number
including seven mutual insurance societies, and one branch office of a foreign insurance
II. Economic Environment
company. In two companies, PZU S.A. and KUKE S.A., the State Treasury held the
controlling package of shares. At the end of May 2005, there were two insurance
companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange: Warta S.A. and TU Europa S.A.
All insurance companies registered in Poland are members of the Polish Chamber of
Insurance (PIU) established in 1990. Initially, membership was voluntary; however,
since 1995, PIU membership has been obligatory. In 2004 there were over 42 thousand
registered insurance agents in Poland.
Number of Insurance Companies
Source: KNUiFE, 2005
In 2004, the market was still dominated by the PZU S.A. group, though its domination is
less pronounced from one year to another. The industry remains heavily concentrated. In
terms of gross written premium, two companies (PZU S.A. and TUiR Warta S.A.)
control 61.9 % of the property insurance market, with PZU S.A. accounting for
approximately 50.3 %. None of their competitors managed to secure more than 6.5 %.
The situation is not much different in the life insurance market. Three companies (PZU
Е»ycie S.A., Commercial Union Polska - TU na Е»ycie S.A., and PAPTUnЕ»iR AmplicoLife S.A.) control 65.0 % of the market, with PZU Е»ycie S.A. alone accounting for
43.0 %.
How to Do Business in Poland
Structure of the Life Insurance Market in 2004
Source: KNUiFE, 2005
Structure of the Non-life Insurance Market in 2004
Source: KNUiFE, 2005
As far as products are concerned, in the life insurance sector simple life insurance
products predominate, whereas the non-life sector remains dominated by car insurance.
The overall 2004 premiums of the Polish insurance market amounted to approximately
PLN 27.6 billion (USD 7.6 billion), a 7.4 % increase over the previous year. Life
insurance premiums accounted for approximately 46 % of this figure. This means that
the premium collected per capita in Poland still lags far behind European levels, even
though the proportion of insurance premiums to the GDP has been increasing steadily,
reaching 3.13 % in 2004 as compared to 1.69 % in 1995. However, the European Union
average is twice as high.
II. Economic Environment
Relation of Insurance Premiums to GDP in 1995-2004 (%)
Source: KNUiFE, Central Statistical Office, 2005
In 2004, the Polish insurance market recorded a joint net profit of PLN 2.98 billion, of
which PLN 1.46 billion was made by the life insurance sector and the remaining PLN
1.51 billion by the non-life insurance sector. In comparison to 2003, the net profit grew
by 53.0 %.
In order to protect the insured, the Insurance Guarantee Fund was established in 1990.
The main task of the Fund is to pay compensation and benefits by virtue of the
compulsory civil liability insurance of vehicle owners and farmers in case of:
В· personal injury, if the guilty vehicle owner was not identified,
В· personal injury and property damage, if the guilty party was not insured.
In the case of foreigners the Insurance Guarantee Fund pays compensation on the principle
of reciprocity. The Fund also satisfies claims if an insurance company declares insolvency.
The Export Credit Insurance Corporation (KUKE) is a Polish export credit insurance
agency. It has the form of a joint-stock company with most of the shares being owned
by the state. Since 1991, it has been insuring Polish companies, primarily against
commercial risk, offering solutions that combine export and domestic contract
insurance with credit information and credit portfolio management. Its services are
available to all exporters, regardless of the scale of their operations and the countries
to which they export, providing them with the opportunity to insure export receivables
from over 190 countries worldwide.
The activities of the corporation include:
В· insurance of short-term export credits,
В· insurance of short-term domestic credits,
В· insurance of medium- and long-term export credits,
How to Do Business in Poland
insurance of direct investments abroad,
foreign market entry costs insurance,
By the end of 2004 almost 140 insurance companies from the EU and the EEA declared
their intention of starting operations in Poland, based on the freedom to provide services
principle. By the end of the first quarter of 2005 their number had increased to 200.
According to KNUiFE, foreign investments in the insurance sector further increased by
almost 6 % (over 6 % in 2003), to reach over PLN 3.35 billion, accounting for
approximately 72 % of the sector’s aggregate subscribed capital. The share of foreign
investments in the life insurance sector and in the non-life sector was about the same.
The following diagram presents the foreign investment structure in the Polish insurance
sector as of 31 December 2004.
Foreign Investment Structure in the Insurance Sector (%)
Source: KNUiFE, 2005
At the end of the year, foreign partners held majority stakes in 46 insurance companies
operating on the Polish market, while Polish shareholders held majority stakes in 22
companies. Major investments in the Polish insurance sector have come from German
companies, which have invested PLN 1.29 billion in 22 insurance companies in Poland,
accounting for approximately 39 % of the foreign investment in the sector. Significant
investments, amounting to some PLN 0.60 billion, have also come from Austrian
investors, while US entrepreneurs have invested PLN 0.36 billion. Altogether,
investments from the top five countries, which also include Finland and the United
Kingdom, as well as the countries already mentioned, account for almost 82 % of total
II. Economic Environment
foreign investment in the insurance sector in Poland. Presently there are only a few
Polish insurance companies that do not have a foreign strategic partner.
The development of the insurance sector in the next few years will be influenced
substantially by new market players from the EU and the EEA entering the market on
the freedom to provide services principle. At the same time, consolidation of the market
will continue, encompassing an increase in the share capital of major insurance
companies, merger and acquisition processes, and strengthening capital links between
the banking and insurance sectors.
Pension System
The Polish pension system embodies the idea of security through diversity, which is
achieved by basing the system on three independent pillars. It links the future pension
closely to the contributions paid. Out of the three pillars, two are mandatory and one is
voluntary. The mandatory pension contribution amounts to 19.52 % of the contribution
base (total salary / wages).
The first pillar, operated by the Polish Social Security Institution (ZUS), accounts for
12.22 % of the contribution base. It is predominantly a notional defined contribution
pay-as-you-go scheme, with the pension amount related to the amount of contributions
made that are index-linked to the contribution base and the average life expectancy.
Consequently, the later a person retires, the larger the pension paid.
The second pillar, accounting for the remaining 7.3 %, is a defined contribution
scheme serviced by open pension funds having the legal form of joint-stock
companies. ZUS collects the whole contribution of 19.52 % and then transfers 7.3 %
of the employee contribution base to the employee’s open pension fund. The pension
funds are managed by pension societies that invest the funds’ resources on financial
markets in keeping with provisions of the law. An employee can select a fund of his
choice (only one fund) from the ones registered. It is also possible to change funds.
Pension funds are supervised by the Insurance and Pension Funds Supervisory Office,
which protects the interests of the pension funds’ members.
As of 31 December 2004, there were 16 pension funds in Poland, managing assets of
approximately PLN 63.04 billion. At the end of the year most of their portfolio was
invested in treasury debt securities (58.05 %); however, the value of stock (including
NIFs’ stock) in the investment portfolio amounted to 34.15 %. This means that the
pension funds are very important players on the Polish capital market. In fact, their
share in the WSE trade amounts to almost 9 %. It is also certain that their role will still
be increasing, in proportion to the size of the assets under their management. The
growth of pension funds’ assets in 1999-2004 is illustrated in the graph below.
How to Do Business in Poland
Assets of Pension Funds in 1999-2004
Source: KNUiFE, 2005
Both mandatory pillars are similar in many ways, having in common the same defined
contribution principle, individual accounts, the same retirement age, benefits in the form
of annuities, and a minimum guaranteed pension.
On the other hand, the voluntary third pillar allows for diverse organisational principles
and forms of participation, which means that it can be better adjusted to individual
preferences. In this pillar contributions are paid into life insurance pension and
investment funds, and employee funds. Companies are allowed to establish employee
pension funds and mutual insurance funds on an entirely voluntary basis. Contributions
are paid from after tax income, although, the benefits are tax-free. As of May 2005, there
were 421 operational employee pension plans.
2004 brought another important development in the third pillar. As of 1 September 2004
it is possible to save for a future pension on individual pension accounts (IKE), managed
by banks, insurance companies, investment fund societies, and brokerage houses. The
most important benefit of this type of pension plan is that capital gains generated are taxfree. However, savings transferred to IKE during a year are limited to 150 % of an
average monthly salary envisaged by the budgetary law for this year.
The first four months since the introduction of individual pension accounts proved that
this form of pension saving is becoming very popular. By the end of 2004 there were
already over 175,000 IKEs. Almost two-thirds were managed by insurance companies,
and almost a third by investment fund societies. Banks and brokerage houses together
only managed about 8 % of individual opened pension accounts.
Each of the pillars may be characterised by the various types of risks to which it is
exposed. For example, the first one is exposed to political pressure, the ageing of the
population and increasing unemployment risks, while the other two are more vulnerable
II. Economic Environment
to persistent inflation as well as to disturbances on the financial markets. This is exactly
how the new system diversifies the risks – each of the two mandatory pillars works in
a different way, thus assuring that even in unfavourable circumstances the system as
a whole will perform satisfactorily, at least.
Telecommunications is one of Poland’s most dynamically developing sectors. It is
governed by the Telecommunications Law of 16 July 2004, effective as of 3 September
2004. The sector is supervised by the Telecommunications and Post Regulatory Authority
(URTiP), established in October 2000.
One of the key elements introduced by this law is a relaxation of the regulation of the
telecommunications sector exercised by the Chairman of the Telecommunications and
Post Regulatory Authority (URTiP). Now, the regulation is more focused on real market
needs, i.e. on areas where competition alone is not enough to ensure fair and proper
functioning of the market. The licensing system has been abolished, save for permits
required in some cases to operate radio broadcasting equipment. Operation in the
telecommunications sector requires only registering in the Register of
Telecommunications Entrepreneurs kept by the URTiP Chairman. As of the end of 2004
there were some 3700 companies authorised to conduct telecommunications operations.
The URTiP Chairman is empowered to perform typical regulatory activities with regards
to the telecommunications sector. These include resolving disputes between market
players, ensuring the stimulation of competition in the sector, determining professional
qualifications in the area of telecommunications, co-operating with the competent
minister in drafting new laws and regulations, and co-operating with international
telecommunications organisations. Moreover, the URTiP Chairman manages the
frequency allocations.
Naturally, the Ministry of Infrastructure continues its activities as the state authority
supervising the sector’s development. The Ministry’s tasks include:
В· Formulating state policy guidelines and programmes pertaining to
В· Building favourable conditions for the construction, maintenance and operation of
telecommunications networks, post installations and other telecommunication
means, allowing for the state’s defence and security needs,
В· Providing conditions for the organisation of domestic and international
telecommunications and postal services,
В· Supervision of the technical conditions, operation and use of telecommunication
How to Do Business in Poland
It should be noted that the Ministry of Infrastructure and the URTiP are focusing their
activities on de-monopolising the Polish telecommunications market, and this has
included the introduction of the current telecommunications law and the privatisation of
The Polish telecommunications market is the largest in Central Europe. It is
characterised by low rates of penetration per capita, both in fixed-line and mobile
segments. This is due mainly to undeveloped infrastructure, as well as the fact that a
significant part of the population lives in rural areas.
In 2004, some 93 % of the Polish telecommunications market, worth approximately
PLN 34 billion (USD 9 billion), was held by the dominant fixed-line operator TPSA and
the three mobile phone operators: PTC, Polkomtel and PTK Centertel (owned by
TPSA), with TPSA alone accounting for over a half of the market.
The national operator – Telekomunikacja Polska S.A. (TPSA), practically services the
whole local fixed-line telecommunications market. According to the latest estimates,
only approximately 9 % of this market (in terms of fixed lines) is controlled by a few
dozen independent private operators, who provide local level services. The only notable
competition comes from Dialog and Netia, which account for about 3 % of fixed lines
each. As of the end of 2004, there are also 55 operators that have been assigned an NDS
(Network Access Number), which enables them to provide long-distance and
international calls. However, only some of them have started operations.
Nevertheless, TPSA has local competitors everywhere now and the pressure in the longdistance and international call segments is growing. Moreover, there are several
companies offering VoIP services, which are very popular in Poland.
In the 1990s, the telecommunications network registered a steady growth rate of
approximately 14 %. However, it has been slowing down ever since. In 2004, the fixedline telephone operators increased the number of main lines by 2.8 %, bringing the total
number to 12.6 million at the end of the year. Approximately 9.7 million of these are in
urban areas (a 4.0 % increase) and only some 2.9 million in rural areas (a 1.0 %
decrease). At the end of 2004, average telephone density, measured by the number of
main lines per 100 inhabitants, was 33.1.
II. Economic Environment
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
Despite its continuous development, the Polish telecommunication sector still lags
behind conditions prevailing in the EU. This is best reflected by the average telephone
density factor. As of 1 January 2004, in Sweden it had reached 73.6, in Germany 66.0, in
France 56.6, and in Spain 42.9.
At the end of 2004 there were three mobile operators in Poland, PTK Centertel (Idea),
Polkomtel (Plus GSM) and Polska Telefonia Cyfrowa (Era GSM). In June 2005, the
three mobile operators were still the only players in this market segment. This
situation may change if mobile virtual network operators (MVNO) enter the market.
There are already well over 10 MVNOs authorised to provide services, although, by
June 2005 none had begun offering services on a commercial basis, save for one fully
controlled by Polska Telefonia Cyfrowa.
Structure of the Mobile Market in 2004
(share in the number of mobile users)
Source: URTiP, 2005
How to Do Business in Poland
In 2004, the number of mobile phone users shot up by 32.7 %, reaching 23.1 million by
the end of the year. This pushed up the average mobile telephone density to 60.5, which
means that the number of cell phones in Poland is almost double the number of fixed
lines. Still, cellular telephony in Poland does not compare very favourably with the
European average. As of 1 January 2004, the mobile telephone density reached 101.8 in
Italy, 91.6 in Sweden, 78.5 in Germany, and 69.6 in France.
Power Industry
The Polish fuels and energy sector, significantly reshaped by the transformation
process started in the early 1990s, is still far from uniform in regard to ownership and
market structure. The situation in individual sub-sectors varies widely, from
dominance of a single company in the gas sector, to highly de-monopolised structures
in the liquid fuels and electricity sectors. The legislative framework is based on the
Energy Law of 10 April 1997, significantly amended in March 2005.
The power generation sector in Poland consists of:
В· professional power plants (power plants and heat and power generating plants),
which sell most of the electric energy produced through the power grids of power
transmission companies;
В· independent professional power plants, encompassing:
- heat and power generating plants, supplying most of the electric energy
produced to one final consumer,
- small hydro power plants and other small power plants using renewable
resources, operating independently of the structures of generating and
transmission companies;
В· industry-based power plants, which form a part of industrial plants, with the
industrial plant using most of the electric energy produced.
Professional power plants generate approximately 93 % of the electricity in Poland.
Approximately 62 % of their electric energy comes from hard coal and around 35 %
from lignite. This situation is a result of the abundance of these natural resources in
Poland. Less than 3 % of total electric energy produced is generated from renewable
resources, mainly in hydro power plants and wind power stations. However, on the basis
of a decree of the Minister of the Economy, Labour and Social Policy of 30 May 2003,
the share of energy generated from renewable resources is to gradually increase, to reach
at least 7.5 % by 2010 (3.1 % in 2005).
In 2004, according to the Energy Market Agency, Poland’s total electric energy
production amounted to 154.1 TWh, significantly exceeding domestic consumption
(144.8 TWh). Poland exported 14.6 TWh of electric energy, while importing just 5.3 TWh.
II. Economic Environment
Germany, the Czech Republic, Sweden, and Slovakia remain the leading export markets
for Polish energy.
The energy law passed in April 1997 has created conditions for competition on the
energy market and for improving the financial standing of companies in the energy
sector. The essential component of the law is the liberalisation of prices of energy and
fuels that will be allowed to respond to the demands of the market. The law provides for
the gradual introduction of market mechanisms. The competitiveness of the market is
achieved through demonopolisation and by introducing the third party access
principle, which means opening the electric energy market to the final consumers.
The price of electrical energy is clearly divided into a production element and an
energy transfer element. The electrical energy market can be divided into the
wholesale market and retail market. In the wholesale market, providers, (both
producers and trade companies), sell energy on a competitive basis. The energy trade
is organised through direct contracts between the market participants, however, it is
expected that in future most trade will take place on the already established Electrical
Energy Exchange. The wholesale market includes both energy exports and imports.
The dominant wholesale market player is Polskie Sieci Elektroenergetyczne S.A.
(Polish Power Grid Joint-Stock Company).
There are two segments of the retail market:
В· the competitive segment, where distribution companies provide transfer services to
customers, while producers and electrical energy trade companies sell the energy
to these customers who have acquired the right to purchase electricity at source and
are willing to exercise this right;
· the regulated segment, where distribution companies sell the energy to �tariff’
customers at prices approved by the president of the Energy Regulatory Office.
Presently the right to select an electric energy provider is granted to all institutional
customers (all customers other than households). On the grounds of the Energy Law, as
of 1 July 2007, all electric energy consumers in Poland will have the right to select their
electrical energy provider. Similarly, as of 1 July 2007, all gas fuel consumers will have
the right to select their provider. Currently, this right is granted to all institutional
customers. It is worth noting that already as of 1 January 2003 all thermal energy
consumers have the right to select a thermal energy provider.
In January 2005 the government approved an “Energy Policy of Poland” until 2025,
which sets out long-term strategy for the energy sector in Poland. The policy aims at
ensuring the country’s energy security, increasing energy efficiency, and
competitiveness in the economy, and environmental protection. It provides for
diversification of supply, development of energy generation from renewable sources,
How to Do Business in Poland
further application of the third party access principle, and further restructuring and
privatisation of the sector.
With regards to restructuring and ownership transformations, the following activities are
В· implementation of a restructuring program for long-term contracts for the purchase
of power and electricity, concluded between Polish Power Grid Joint-Stock
Company and electricity producers,
В· creating means of support the development of local energy markets and local
power generation,
В· continuation of restructuring processes in companies with shares held by the State
В· developing a program for the consolidation of companies in the fuels and energy
В· continuing the privatisation of energy sector companies,
В· assuring state control over transmission system operators,
В· monitoring the implementation of investment obligations undertaken by investors
participating in the privatisation of energy sector companies.
Investment opportunities exist in all sub-sectors of the power industry in Poland and
they continue to emerge along with industry’s privatisation. Foreign involvement in the
energy sector is already quite substantial and other major projects are pending.
According to PAIiIZ, single investments worth over USD 1 million in the Polish power,
gas, and water supply sectors totalled over USD 3.2 billion by the end of 2004.
Transportation Infrastructure and Highway Construction
Poland has an extensive transport infrastructure. There are over 240,000 kilometres of
hard surface roads, i.e., approximately 80 km per 100 km2, and an extensive railway
network of some 23,500 kilometres, linking all the major cities and towns. However,
only some 19,000 kilometres of railway lines are in use, which gives a density of just
over 6 km per 100 km2.
In 2004, a total of 1.077 billion passengers (June 2005 estimate) made use of public
transport (urban mass transit excluded). This represents a very minor decrease in
comparison to 2003 (1.113 billion). Of this number, 270 million passengers travelled by
rail, 801 million by road, and some 5 million by air.
II. Economic Environment
The structure of the Polish transportation system is best reflected in the share of goods
delivered in 2004. All in all, approximately 738 million tons were transported (9.7 %
more than the year before), mostly by road.
Share of Goods Delivered by Various Means of Transport in 2004
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
Altogether there are 360,300 km of public roads in Poland (242,050 km with hard
surfaces). They are divided into four categories: national, regional, district, and
communal. Motor transport focuses on the first two categories, which total 47,700 km
and include:
В· National roads, of a total length of 18,100 km;
В· Regional (provincial) roads, of a total length of 29,600 km.
In spite of this, a detailed analysis of the Polish transport sector reveals a number of
deficiencies, the main of which are:
В· changes in the structure of the transport sector in Poland, leading to the growth
of road transport;
В· a tendency to overuse land-based transport in international freight transactions,
with a parallel decline in the use of sea transport and stagnation in air transport;
В· the limited use of modern transport technologies, specifically in the area of
multimodal transport and traffic management techniques.
The maximum axle load allowed in Poland amounts to 10 tonnes, as only some 8 % of
roads in Poland conform to EU standards, which require international roads to withstand
axle loads of 11.5 tonnes.
How to Do Business in Poland
The primary reason for the major problems with the quality of transport infrastructure
is the continuously low share of relevant outlays in the GDP. In developed OECD
countries this share amounts to 1 - 2 % of GDP, while in Poland it is less than half of
this, despite, huge investment back-log and the evident need to increase this share, at
least for a limited period, above the level of more advanced economies. The result is
the poor state of Polish roads. According to a recent report by the General Direction of
Domestic Roads and Highways (GDDKiA) concerning the technical condition of
national roads which was released in February 2005, only just over 45 % qualify as
good in terms of pavement quality, almost 29 % qualify as unsatisfactory and the
remaining 26 % as bad. However, one must note a positive trend to increase the
amount of road repair works which has continued since 2002, as reflected in the
following graph.
Roads Repaired
Source: General Direction of Domestic Roads and Highways, 2005
The adverse effect of poor road transportation infrastructure on the country’s
development was recognised quite early in the process of economic transformation of
the nineties. Thus the programme of building a network of highways in Poland was
adopted by decree of the Council of Ministers dated 28 September 1993.
II. Economic Environment
Motorway Construction Programme in Poland
Source: Agency for Highway Construction and Operation, Institute of Geodesy and Cartography
The Highway Construction in Poland Programme calls for the construction of a network
of four highways, two running from east to west, and two from north to south, namely:
The A-1 (597 km) between GdaЕ„sk, ToruЕ„, ЕЃГіdЕє, and Katowice, and on to the
border with the Czech Republic,
The A-2 (626 km) from the Polish-German border, from a border crossing in
Ељwiecko, then running through PoznaЕ„ and Warsaw onwards to Terespol, the
border crossing between Poland and Belarus,
How to Do Business in Poland
The A-3 (365 km) from Szczecin, via GorzГіw, Zielona GГіra, Legnica to Lubawka,
The A-4/A-12 (738 km) running from the Polish-German border, from border
crossings in JД™drzychowice near Zgorzelec and in Olszyna, respectively, and
through to WrocЕ‚aw, Opole, Gliwice, Katowice, Cracow, and RzeszГіw to the
Polish-Ukrainian border.
Priority has been given to constructing the A-1, A-2 and A-4/A-12 highways. The A-3 is
deemed less likely to experience such a high traffic volume as the other ones.
The experience of the first six years of the program, during which not a single kilometre
of toll highway has been put into operation, indicated that it needed larger support from
public funds. At the beginning of 1999, in view of difficulties in implementing the
Highway Construction Programme, the government decided to replace the BOT (BuiltOperate-Transfer) system of highway construction with a PPP (Private-Public
Partnership) system that would oblige the state to co-finance construction, or to cover up
to 50 % of the operating costs. In return, the state would gain the right to participate in
the profits.
At the beginning of 2002, the government prepared a new programme for road
construction and modernisation, with the aim of adjusting the Polish road transportation
system to EU standards. The programme envisages the construction of 526 km of
highways and some 200 km of motorways, and the modernising of approximately 1500
km of existing roads in the next three years. Moreover, the construction of a further 576
km of highways and some 200 km of motorways is to be undertaken by the end of the
same period. The costs are estimated at some PLN 37.5 billion. It is expected that EU
financing will cover approximately a fifth of this amount.
Finally, highway construction in Poland has taken off. At the beginning of 2002, there
were less than 400 km of highways in Poland, due mainly to the failure to create an
effective model for financing highway construction. In 2002, however, 54 km of
highways were built or reconstructed. In 2003, 69.8 km of highways were built or
reconstructed and a further 67 km were added in 2004. In 2005, according to GDDKiA,
122.5 km of highways will be built and the plans for 2006 envisage some 170 km.
In light of recent developments reaching the goal of 1,700 km of highways and 2,000
km of motorways by 2013 seems increasingly likely.
II. Economic Environment
The Outlook for 2005 and Beyond
Current Developments
So far, developments of the first months of 2005 indicate that the growth of Poland’s
economy is slowing down. The GDP is estimated to have grown by some 2.1 % in the
first quarter of 2005 (in comparison to the first quarter of 2004). The increase in
domestic consumption appears to be the leading GDP growth factor. At the same time,
inflation stayed at a moderate level. Prices of consumer goods and services grew by
3.6 % in the first quarter of 2005 (in comparison to the same period in 2004).
In January-April 2005, sold industrial production grew by just 0.3 % (as compared to the
same period in the previous year). On the other hand, registered unemployed persons,
numbering 2.96 million, accounted for 18.8 % of the economically active population as
of the end of April 2005 (in comparison to 19.9 % in April 2004).
Under such circumstances, only a very slow growth in salaries should be expected. In
January-April 2005, average salaries and wages in the enterprise sector amounted to
PLN 2,438 (a 2.0 % increase in nominal terms in comparison to the same period of
2004). However, in real terms average salaries and wages decreased.
In the first quarter of 2005, according to customs statistics, exports and imports rose
very substantially (with exports growing faster than imports) in USD (30.1 % and
21.0 %, respectively) and EUR terms (23.5 % and 14.8 % respectively), though in PLN
terms exports grew by 4.8 %, while imports decreased by 2.7 %. The first quarter
exports amounted to USD 21.4 billion, while imports came to USD 23.5 billion, creating
a USD 2.0 billion deficit (USD 0.9 billion less than in the corresponding period of
Economic Forecasts
The assumptions for the Budgetary Law for 2006 envisage a GDP growth of 3.7 % in
2005 and 4.0 % in 2006. This growth is to be powered mostly by exports in 2005 and
by domestic demand in 2006. It is expected that following long-awaited improvements
on the labour market in 2004, employment will continue to increase in 2005 and 2006.
The unemployment rate is to decrease by some 1 % a year, to reach 17.0 % in 2006.
In 2005 and 2006, imports are to increase by 8.0 % and 9.5 % in real terms
respectively, while exports are to increase at a rate of 10 % in 2005 and 8.0 % in 2006.
The budgetary deficit is to reach 3.4 % of GDP in 2005 and to stay somewhere
between 2.8 - 3.4 % in 2006. Average annual inflation is projected at 2.1 % in 2005
and 1.7 % in 2006, down from 3.5 % in 2004.
How to Do Business in Poland
It is worth noting, however, that the prospects for Poland’s economy, as seen from an
outside perspective, are somewhat different. The latest IMF forecasts for Poland are
summarised in “Poland – 2005 Article IV Consultation Mission Concluding Statement”,
released in late April 2005. According to the IMF, Poland is likely to register a GDP
growth of almost 4.0 % in 2005, driven by private consumption, with moderate
investment growth.
The IMF views the outlook for inflation as benign. Low wage pressures, falling food
price inflation, and appreciation of the Polish currency since mid-2004 should push
inflation to the lower half of the Monetary Policy Council’s target range by mid-2005;
however, it should rise to about target (2.5 %) by the end of 2006.
As far as investments are concerned, they should continue to benefit from large
foreign direct investments, mostly green-field, and ample corporate liquidity. Due to
lower demand in major markets and the currency appreciation, exports growth is
likely to diminish modestly later in 2005. Since the import growth is likely to rise, as
the recovery of domestic demand proceeds, the current account deficit should expand
to over 2 % of GDP.
Prospects for 2006 and beyond will largely depend on the policies of the next
government and the course of the world economy. Some developments, such as
pension indexation, higher transfers to farmers, and greater utilisation of EU funds
will temporarily boost domestic demand in 2006. But sustained strong growth will
require decisive macroeconomic policies to address the fiscal and employment
problems and prepare for euro adoption.
According to the IMF, the most important macro-economic challenge for the next
government will be to redefine the fiscal policy. This should include a plan to lower
the general government deficit to about 2 percent of GDP by identifying expenditure
savings focused on better targeting social transfers, and simplifying the tax system.
II. Economic Environment
Co-operation with International Organisations
Poland’s successful transition to a market economy has been, to a significant degree,
facilitated by the assistance of international economic organisations. Already in the late
1980s, Poland had established good relations with the International Monetary Fund, the
World Bank, and the International Finance Corporation.
In the crucial years of 1989 and 1990, when the ambitious stabilisation programme was
launched, the IMF arranged a stand-by loan to support the Polish currency. Actually, the
loan was never used for the original purpose and most of the countries contributing to the
stand-by arrangements agreed to use it to support the development of the Polish banking
Poland rejoined the World Bank in 1986 and began borrowing from it in 1990. Since
then, the World Bank has supported the country’s economic transformation through
lending, advice, and technical assistance. Since 1990, the Bank has lent USD 5.950
billion (USD 4.880 billion net of cancellations) for 42 operations. About USD 4.472
billion of this amount has been disbursed and USD 2.9 billion repaid (as of end-June
2005). Twelve ongoing projects are mainly focused on upgrading the infrastructure and
energy sectors, protecting the environment, and promoting rural development.
Since 1986, the World Bank has aimed at boosting the country’s economic growth by
rebalancing its macroeconomic framework and improving the effectiveness of
government expenditures and programs. It has also helped the country create employment
through privatisation and banking and financial sector reform.
In 2005 the World Bank Board of Directors adopted the new Country Partnership
Strategy that provides a framework for aligning the World Bank’s program both with
the challenges that Poland faces as new EU member and with the government’s
decision-making process. The World Bank is currently assisting Poland in making the
most of EU membership. It is helping to enhance the country’s transport infrastructure
and the government’s capacity to use EU Structural Funds.
In the fiscal year of 2005 (running from 1 July 2004 to 30 June 2005), the World Bank
approved two loans to Poland – one for the amount of EUR 100 million, which will
help to finance the Road Maintenance and Rehabilitation Project (RMRP II), and
another for the amount of USD 100 million to help alleviate the negative
consequences to the environment due to the closing down of coal mines and to assist
the Polish government in implementing the Coal Mining Sector Reform Project.
Presently the World Bank’s team is working on the preparation of another loan.
How to Do Business in Poland
In June 2004, the position of Private Sector Liaison Officer (PSLO) was established with
the Confederation of Polish Private Employers to facilitate contacts between the World
Bank and the private sector.
The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group,
fosters economic growth in the developing world by financing private sector investments,
mobilising capital in international financial markets, and providing technical assistance
and advice to governments and businesses. The IFC’s mission is to promote sustainable
private sector investment in developing countries to reduce poverty and improve people’s
lives. In light of Poland’s accession to the European Union and the growing availability
of long-term financing from private sources, the IFC, as a developmental institution, has
reorganised its mission in Poland. On 1 July 2004, it reduced its representation in Poland
and it now continues operations through its Special Regional Representative for Central
and Eastern Europe, in the World Bank office in Warsaw. The IFC focuses its investment
and advice selectively in a few areas where its value-added is highest, including:
В· eastward investments by Polish companies;
· complex privatisation and post-privatisation cases where the IFC’s participation
may help to strengthen the transparency and credibility of the privatisation process,
and assist with structuring the post-privatisation investment program. Possible areas
include chemical plants, oil and gas, and infrastructure sectors;
В· promoting public-private partnerships in health and education;
В· supporting further institutional development in the financial sector (e.g., supporting
the expansion of access to housing finance, facilitating the sale of non-performing
loans, developing the securitisation market); and
В· promoting renewable energy sources and energy efficiency.
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) was established in
1991 to finance development projects that foster the transition to a market economy in
Eastern and Central European countries. As of 31 December 2004, the EBRD had
signed 136 projects in Poland, totalling EUR 3.059 billion, and the portfolio
represented 11 % of the Bank’s current portfolio. Of this total, 86 % of projects were
in the private sector. Equity investments accounted for 36 % of the portfolio. During
2004, the Bank signed 14 projects, totalling EUR 249.8 million.
Given its mandate the main strategic priorities for the Bank consist of the following:
В· Maintaining a strong focus on attracting foreign direct investment, in particular from
European and non-European medium-sized companies, and enterprise restructuring
and modernisation in conjunction with privatisation, in order to promote economic
growth and competitiveness, particularly in more challenging sectors or those
critical to the economy (e.g., power, gas, and chemicals).
II. Economic Environment
В· Seeking to further increase the availability of finance to small- and medium-size
enterprises and micro-enterprises, including the expansion of existing initiatives
(EU/EBRD SME Facility) and the development of new initiatives (e.g., dedicated
energy efficiency credit lines directed to small- and medium-size enterprises,
dedicated line for rural businesses), as well as to continue the dialogue with Polish
government on post-accession finance for small- and medium-size enterprise (e.g.,
pre-financing or co-financing of investments that qualify for post-accession grant
В· Continuing, in the infrastructure and environment sector, to promote the introduction
of schemes that minimize reliance on sovereign guarantees and increase the supply of
long-term capital, while working with the national and local authorities to prepare,
co-finance, and implement projects and programs intended to make effective and
innovative use of European Union Cohesion and Structural Funds.
В· Drawing on its experience to further the scope for financing projects through publicprivate partnerships, mainly in the municipal sector and perhaps in the transport
sector, including projects aimed at achieving energy efficiency.
В· Channelling finance to small municipalities through local financial institutions with
the support of the European Commission, with particular attention to projects
promoting the development of less advanced regions.
The Bank will ensure that all EBRD operations in Poland are subject to the Bank’s
Environmental Procedures and incorporate, where appropriate, Environmental Action
Plans into legal documentation in order to address issues raised during due diligence, in
line with the Bank’s mandate to actively support environmentally sound and sustainable
development through its investment projects. The Bank will also ensure that all of its
projects adhere to best-practice international procurement rules.
Poland also had benefited for many years before its accession from the financial support
of the European Union. Poland has been receiving non-returnable aid from the
European Union since 1990 as part of the PHARE Fund. In line with decisions taken
during the EU summit in Berlin in March 1999 (Agenda 2000), a considerable increase in
financial aid to EU candidate states was planned for 2000-2006. Since 2000, Poland and
other associated states have been able to benefit not only from PHARE funds, but also
from two new funds: ISPA (the Instrument for Structural Policies for Pre-Accession) and
SAPARD (the Special Accession Programme for Agriculture and Rural Development).
PHARE (Poland and Hungary: Assistance for Restructuring their Economy) was initially
meant to help Poland and Hungary in their political and economic transformations. It was
later expanded to include other countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Right now it has
ten beneficiaries: the ten countries of Central and Eastern Europe that are former and
present EU candidate states, i.e., Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Estonia, Latvia,
Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia.
How to Do Business in Poland
In the EU candidate states, the programme supported actions preparing the countries for
accession. In 1990-1999 PHARE aid funds for all the aforementioned countries amounted
to EUR 10.31 billion, with Poland receiving over EUR 2 billion. In the EU budget for
2000-2006, PHARE aid was set at EUR 1.56 billion per year. In line with the New
Orientation of PHARE, 70 % of the resources was intended for investment projects and
30 % for projects related to institutional development. In 2000 Poland was granted a
record sum of EUR 484 million within the PHARE programme, in 2001 – EUR 468.5
million, in 2002 – EUR 451.7 million, and EUR 459.5 million in 2003. There is no new
2004 PHARE programme, however the funds allocated in 2003, are to be contracted
within a 2 year period and realised within one year. It means that PHARE will be present
until 2006, when projects of 2003 should be concluded.
After joining the EU on 1 May 2004, Poland can benefit from various EU funds
earmarked for EU members. At the Copenhagen 2002 summit, it was decided that Poland
will benefit from nearly EUR 13.5 billion over the period 2004-2006, which encompasses
structural funds, direct payments, and other programmes.
In 2004, according to the Ministry of Finance, the net benefits to Poland from
settlements with the EU budget reached EUR 1.55 billion. From 1 May 2004 (the
accession date) transfers from the EU budget increased and diversified. Apart from
transfers within the pre-accession programmes, Poland gained access to other funds,
transferred within the framework of individual EU policies. All in all, Poland received
EUR 2.79 billion from the EU budget in 2004. Financial flows between Poland and
the EU budget in 2004 are presented in the following table.
Financial Flows between Poland and the EU Budget in 2004
Financial Flows
Transfers from the EU, including
- ISPA (Cohesion Fund)
Poland’s cumulated contribution
EUR (million)
PLN (million)
Source: Ministry of Finance, 2005
In 2005, according to preliminary estimates contained in the Budgetary Law for 2005,
the inflow of EU funds should almost double, resulting in a very substantial increase
in the positive balance of financial flows between Poland and the EU. The net inflow
is to amount to almost PLN 15 billion. For information on Poland’s integration with the
European Union, please refer to Chapter VI.
II. Economic Environment
UNIDO and its Activities in Poland
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is a specialised UN
agency established in 1967 with the aim of reducing the traditional gap between the
industrialised countries, developing countries, and, more recently, economies in transition.
The UNIDO headquarters is in Vienna and its membership numbers 171 countries.
UNIDO harnesses the joint forces of governments and the private sector, acting as
a neutral adviser to foster competitive industrial production, develop international
partnership, and promote socially equitable and environmentally friendly industrial
development. It is the only worldwide organisation dealing exclusively with industry from
a development perspective and rendering non-profit, neutral and specialised services.
UNIDO activities focus on promoting investments and related technologies, and assuring
clean and sustainable industrial development. Maintaining its universal character and
vocation, UNIDO pursues a geographical, sectoral, and thematic division of services
directed at the least developed countries and economies in transition and its services are
offered first of all to small and medium-size enterprises.
Investment and technology are proving to be essential keys to success in the global
marketplace. However, many countries face enormous difficulties in attracting investors,
as well as in gaining access to technology and markets. UNIDO is giving significant
impetus to its services in this direction by launching a unique business intelligence unit –
the UNIDO Exchange – that optimises, through an electronic platform, the use of
information technology to provide information and knowledge to its members.
The organisation holds promotion offices and units in 17 countries: Bahrain, Belgium,
Brazil, China, Egypt, France, Greece, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Republic of Korea, Morocco,
Poland, Russian Federation, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, United Kingdom. They facilitate
contacts between business communities in their host countries and in other countries.
The Warsaw UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office (ITPO), was set up in
1983 as a part of UNIDO’s investment and technology promotion network. By drawing on
the linkages of the UNIDO Exchange electronic platform, ITPO Warsaw redresses the
industrial development imbalance by bringing investment and the latest technology on
offer in Poland and abroad to those countries in Central and East Europe and Mid-Asia
which are most in need of a promotional hand. At the same time ITPO Warsaw opens up
new opportunities for investors and technology suppliers from Poland to find potential
partners in countries with economies in transition. Its tasks also include supporting the
development of Polish small and medium-size enterprises entering the markets of
countries in Central and East Europe and Mid-Asia.
How to Do Business in Poland
The main tasks of the Office are:
В· the promotion of industrial investments and technologies in developing countries, in
Poland and in other transition economies,
· the support of Polish industry through managers’ training.
In its operations, the UNIDO Warsaw Office implements the methodology, practices, and
promotional tools developed by the UNIDO Secretariat. The most important are the
Country Presentation Meetings, which provide information on the economies and legal
frameworks for foreign investment in the developing and reforming countries. Further,
individual industrial investment projects are promoted in Poland and in developing
ITPO supports the development processes of Polish industry through various management
training courses, (teaching the evaluation of the profitability of export products, modern
techniques for preparing an offer, marketing and negotiations related to, for example,
technology transfer). The promotion of COMFAR, a software developed by UNIDO to
enable the appraisal of industrial investment projects, business performance, financial
analysis, and the diagnosis of enterprises, is another example of training-related activities.
Moreover, ITPO services encompass the gathering and promotion of information via
UNIDO Exchange on:
В· Polish export offers,
В· Polish technologies,
В· Polish companies interested in investment and/or technical cooperation with foreign
Other kinds of assistance include editing and disseminating business manuals and related
publications. In this area the most important publications are: Manual for Preparation of
Industrial Feasibility Studies, annually updated foreign investors’ guide How to Do
Business in Poland and country-focused manuals for Polish entrepreneurs containing
business information and guidelines on particular markets in Central and Eastern Europe
and in Mid-Asia.
The services of the Warsaw UNIDO Office are offered to entrepreneurs in the developing
and reforming countries, foreign investors and Polish institutions, businesses and business
The ITPO assists companies from developing and reforming countries in their search for
potential Polish partners interested in technical co-operation, subcontracting, the transfer of
technology, establishing a joint venture, or in the acquisition of a company in a respective
developing or reforming country.
II. Economic Environment
The ITPO services offered to Polish firms, organisations, and institutions include the
identification of potential partners and strategic investors, and the upgrading of managerial
capabilities and skills through training courses on the preparation of business plans and
feasibility studies, marketing techniques, and the implementation of ISO standards.
In view of the ambitious goal of preparing Poland’s economy for European Union
membership, it is necessary to bridge the developmental and structural gap between
Poland and the member states of the European Union. Therefore, the activities of the ITPO
Warsaw are focused on this strategic goal, providing Polish enterprises and institutions
with benefits stemming from UNIDO’s expertise and experience in industrial
At the same time, the re-orientation of ITPO Warsaw activities takes into consideration the
fact that Poland has become a member of the OECD and soon will become a member of
the European Union, thereby becoming a net donor country. In this context, the office is
concentrating its activities on the following strategic areas:
В· promoting of Polish exports, particularly to countries with economies in transition
and to developing countries, using promotional tools such as economic forums,
country presentation meetings, country delegate programmes, and servicing Polish
and foreign economic missions, as well as establishing a data base of Polish export
offers in order to promote them through UNIDO channels;
В· promoting technology (outward and inward), including the promotion of clean
industrial technologies, i.e., by establishing a portfolio of selected Polish industrial
technologies to be promoted via UNIDO Exchange and other channels;
В· capacity building and facilitating private-sector development with special reference
to SMEs, including the promotion of UNIDO standards in the preparation of
feasibility studies, business plans, financial analyses, and BOT projects, the
organisation of training courses based on UNIDO methodology (i.e., on technology
management and technology transfer negotiations), as well as supporting the
introduction of quality management systems in small- and medium-size companies;
В· supporting the creation and implementation of the Polish development assistance
policy, i.e., by encouraging Polish authorities to participate in UNIDO assistance
programmes addressed to developing countries (UNIDO Integrated Programmes).
It should be noted that some of the publications mentioned above are also available on-line
and on CD-ROM. While promoting modern technology solutions for industry, ITPO itself
also takes advantage of IT tools to the benefit of its clients and offers various services
through the website
How to Do Business in Poland
r EU membership – Common Customs Tariff applies
r 7 duty-free zones, located in: GdaЕ„sk, Gliwice,
MaЕ‚aszewicze, MszczonГіw, Szczecin, ЕљwinoujЕ›cie,
and Warsaw
r Dynamic development of foreign trade
r USD 74 billion of exports and USD 88 billion of
r Intra-EU trade accounts for 79 % of exports and
68 % of imports
r Germany accounts for just under one quarter of
Polish imports and almost a third of exports
r Imports dominated by raw materials and
components – 62 %
r Diminishing trade deficit and current balance deficit
r Official reserve assets of USD 36.8 billion
How to Do Business in Poland
There is a continuously increasing demand for various goods in Poland, as reflected in
the foreign trade statistics. It creates great opportunities for a broad range of exports to
Poland, including for medium-size and small foreign producers. However, more and
more companies are starting up new manufacturing operations each year and foreign
exporters face strong and constantly increasing competition. At the same time, a large
number of modern and innovative enterprises based in Poland are ready to expand into
foreign markets. These companies offer a wide range of high quality products, often at
very competitive prices.
Considering Poland’s geographic location, its EU membership and readiness to develop
economic co-operation, foreign companies may discover that in many cases it is more
profitable to waive short-term profits for long-term gains, and to invest in establishing
more advanced forms of co-operation, including setting-up production facilities in
Poland – the opportunities are plentiful. For more information on the investment
incentives and on how to establish a company in Poland, please refer to Chapters V and
IX, respectively.
The following sub-chapters concerning customs regulations and tariff suspensions and
quotas have been compiled based on information published and distributed by the
European Union.
Customs Regulations and Duties
Poland is a member of the European Union, therefore the common EU trade and
customs regulations apply. Generally, all goods and services can be traded without
restriction. There are, however, some usual exceptions. For example, a licence is
required for the import and export of products and technologies for the police and
military sector, such as explosives or weapons, and ammunition, in keeping with the
Law on Economic Freedom of 2 July 2004. Please refer to Chapter V, the Legal
Considerations section, for a complete list of areas, enumerated in the Law on Economic
Freedom, in which economic activity may be undertaken only if an appropriate license
(koncesja) is granted. Moreover, separate legislation covers the export and/or import of
other goods, such as, for example, hazardous substances.
As of the day of Poland’s accession to the EU, the legal framework of the Polish
customs system encompasses directly applicable EU customs regulations and the
supplementary national legislation. The national legislation part consists of The
Customs Law of 19 March 2004 and the decrees issued on its grounds.
III. Foreign Trade
Poland applies directly the EU customs regulations as of 1 May 2004. The
fundamental one is the Common Customs Tariff (CCT). Since on the EU internal
market goods can circulate freely between member states, the CCT applies to the
import of goods across the external borders of the EU.
The tariff is common to all EU members, but the rates of duty differ from one kind of
import to another, depending on what they are and where they come from. The rates
depend on the economic sensitivity of products. The tariff is a concept, a collection of
laws as opposed to a single codified law in itself. It is a combination of
classification of goods and the duty rates which apply to each class of goods. In
addition, the tariff contains all other Community legislation that has an effect on the
level of customs duty payable on a particular import, for example country of origin.
Through the tariff, the Community applies the principle that domestic producers
should be able to compete fairly and equally on the internal market with
manufacturers exporting from other countries.
There is however a kind of working tariff, called TARIC. The TARIC represents the
Community legislation published in the Official Journal of the European Union. It is
an instrument for practical use and information, but does not have legal status itself.
At importation, the use of the TARIC Code for the customs declaration for release for
free circulation and for statistical purposes is obligatory. The structure of the TARIC
is based on the 8 digit code of the CN and two additional digits. In particular cases one
or two additional 4 digit codes are added (e.g. antidumping duties).
The TARIC includes all applicable customs duties and all customs trade policy
measures for all goods applicable at any time, set out in various legal measures and it
changes constantly. The TARIC is not itself law and is not a legal base for the
application of duties and other trade policy measures, however, it is an essential
instrument for the customs administrations and companies because it is updated daily
to take account of new legislation, the using up of quotas etc.
The TARIC presents all third-country and preferential duty rates actually applicable,
as well as all commercial policy measures. The TARIC includes information on tariff
suspensions, tariff quotas, preferential treatment, anti-dumping and countervailing
duties, import prohibitions and restrictions, quantitative limits, export surveillance,
licenses and certificates.
The bulk of the rules governing EU customs are in the frequently amended Community
Customs Code (Council Regulation (EEC) No 2913/92, as amended). This regulation
differentiates five customs-approved treatments or use of goods, such as: the placing of
goods under a customs procedure; their entry into a free zone or free warehouse; their reexportation from the customs territory of the Community; their destruction; their
How to Do Business in Poland
abandonment to the State Treasury. Customs procedures envisaged in the Code include:
В· release for free circulation;
В· transit;
В· customs warehousing;
В· inward-processing;
В· processing under customs control;
В· temporary admission;
В· outward-processing;
В· exportation.
The European Commission Taxation and Customs Union Directorate General’s
website ( provides an
overview of specific aspects of the customs code, including rules on origin, valuation,
transit and the tariff.
The annual publication of the tariff schedule (current edition: Official Journal L 327
of October 30, 2004) contains the most-favoured-nation (MFN) duty rates applied to
each class of goods, as well as the nomenclature of goods (classification of goods).
The annual tariff schedule applies for a calendar year.
Autonomous Tariff Suspensions and Quotas
Autonomous tariff suspensions and quotas permit the total or partial waiver of the
normal duties applicable to imported goods for an unlimited quantity (suspensions) or
a limited quantity (quota), normally for an unlimited period of validity. They are
exceptions to the general rule represented by the Common Customs Tariff.
The role of suspensions and quotas is to stimulate economic activity, improving
competitive capacity, creating employment, modernising structures etc. by allowing
companies to obtain particular supplies at a lower cost. The supplies concerned are
raw materials, semi-finished goods or components not available in the EU
(suspensions) or which are available but in insufficient quantities (quotas).
No suspensions or quotas are granted for finished products or where identical,
equivalent or substitute products are manufactured in sufficient quantities within the
EU or by producers in a third country with preferential tariff arrangements. The same
applies where the measure could result in a distortion of competition in respect of the
final products.
Once a suspension or a quota is granted, any operator in any Member State is eligible
to benefit from it. Both suspensions and quotas are reviewed regularly to take account
of technical or economic trends in products and markets, with the possibility of
III. Foreign Trade
addition, modification or deletion. Requests are submitted by the Member States on
behalf of EU processing or manufacturing companies. Requests are not considered
where the amount of uncollected customs duty in question is estimated to be less than
EUR 20,000 per year. However, small and medium-sized enterprises may group
together to reach this threshold.
In the framework of several agreements that the European Community has concluded
with third countries, as well as in the framework of autonomous preferential
arrangements for some beneficiary countries, tariff concessions are provided for a predetermined volume of goods (preferential tariff quotas).
Within preferential tariff quotas, a predetermined volume of goods originating in a
specified country can benefit at import into the Community from a more favourable
rate of duty than the normal third countries duty mentioned in the combined
nomenclature. Entitlement to benefit from preferential tariff quotas is of course
subject to presentation of the necessary evidence of origin.
Most tariff quotas are managed by DG Taxation and Customs Union on a �first-come
first-served’ basis irrespective of where the goods are imported into the EU. The other
tariff quotas are managed by DG Agriculture through a system of import licences.
Various Council and Commission Regulations contain the specific provisions for the
management of these tariff quotas.
Duty-Free Zones and Free Warehouses
Duty-free zones and bonded warehouses are also governed by the Community Customs
Code (Council Regulation (EEC) No 2913/92, as amended), which defines a duty free
zone or a bonded warehouse as parts of the customs territory of the Community or
premises situated in that territory and separated from the rest of it in which:
В· Community goods are considered, for the purpose of import duties and
commercial policy import measures, as not being on Community customs
territory, provided they are not released for free circulation or placed under
another customs procedure or used or consumed under conditions other than
those provided for in customs regulations;
В· Community goods for which such provision is made under Community
legislation governing specific fields qualify, by virtue of being placed in a free
zone or free warehouse, for measures normally applying to the export of goods.
Both Community and non-Community goods may be placed in a free zone or free
warehouse. Goods entering a free zone or free warehouse need not be presented to the
customs authorities, nor need a customs declaration be lodged. However, the customs
How to Do Business in Poland
authorities may check goods entering, leaving or remaining in a free zone or free
There is no limit to the length of time goods may remain in free zones or free
warehouses, except for certain goods covered by the common agricultural policy, with
regards to which specific time limits may be imposed. Companies operating in dutyfree zones may undertake any industrial, service, or commercial activity, under the
conditions envisaged by the code.
Non-Community goods placed in a free zone or free warehouse may, while they
remain in a free zone or free warehouse:
В· be released for free circulation;
В· undergo the usual forms of handling;
В· be placed under the inward-processing procedure;
В· be placed under the procedure for processing under customs control;
В· be placed under the temporary importation procedure;
В· be abandoned;
В· be destroyed.
As of May 2005, Poland had 7 duty-free zones, located in: GdaЕ„sk, Gliwice,
MaЕ‚aszewicze (Terespol commune), MszczonГіw, Szczecin, ЕљwinoujЕ›cie, and at Warsaw
OkД™cie International Airport. One of them (in Warsaw) operates simply as a group of
duty-free shops, however, the remaining six are ready to accommodate companies
undertaking economic activity. There were also six free warehouses, located in GdaЕ„sk,
Gdynia, Katowice, Cracow, PoznaЕ„ and WrocЕ‚aw.
The above mentioned duty-free zones are linked with the main transport routes or are
located in ports (which allows them to influence the volume of goods in transit through
Poland, and the amount of goods that are re-exported).
Trade between the duty-free zone and a foreign country is subject to neither import
quotas nor customs permits and payments. Duty-free zones and bonded warehouses are
set up by the Minister of Finance in co-operation with the Minister of the Economy and
Labour, through a decree of the Minister of Finance which also appoints the manager
and defines the area. Free zones and free warehouses are to be managed by EU entities
that own the zone’s land or hold it in perpetual usufruct.
Duty-free zones are expected to attract capital, create new jobs, and facilitate exports.
Some of them develop very well, however, they do not play any significant role in the
Polish economy at present.
III. Foreign Trade
Refinancing Interest on Export Credits
To facilitate Polish exports, the Program of Refinancing Interest of Export Credit
(DOKE) was introduced in Poland in keeping with the Law of 8 June 2001 on
Refinancing the Interest on Fixed Interest Rate Export Credits. The program is
regulated in detail by several decrees of the Minister of Finance. The program is
modelled on the solutions contained in the OECD Arrangement on Guidelines for
Officially Supported Export Credits (OECD Consensus) incorporated into European
Law. The DOKE program introduces a mechanism for the stabilisation of interest
rates, allowing Polish exporters, commercial banks, and IFIs to offer medium and long
term export credit (with a repayment period of at least 2 years) with a fixed interest
rate for financing Polish exports. It eliminates the risk of incurring losses arising from
fluctuating market interest rates.
The mechanism is based on periodic settlements between Bank Gospodarstwa
Krajowego (BGK), a state-owned bank administering the DOKE program on behalf of
the State Treasury, and commercial banks granting fixed interest rate export credits
through long term agreements. If, during the settlement period, the fixed export credit
interest rate (CIRR rate) is lower than the costs of financing (market short term
interest rate for a given currency plus a spread of 80 to 170 points), then BGK effects
an appropriate payment to the commercial bank. If the opposite is found, then the
commercial bank is obliged to transfer the surplus to BGK.
CIRR rates for currencies of the countries that are members of the OECD Consensus
are announced each month by the OECD Secretariat.
Foreign Trade Results
The liberalisation of the economy and fast economic growth have led to an ever growing
internal demand for products and services. In order to maintain its trade balance Poland
is faced with the challenge of ensuring a greater market share for Polish goods and
services on foreign markets. The following table illustrates the structure of Polish
exports and imports in the last eight years, reflecting the very dynamic developments
that have taken place in Poland’s foreign trade. In the period presented, exports have
almost tripled and imports have more than doubled, a great achievement, no doubt,
although still somewhat inadequate in comparison to the per capita exports and imports
of �old’ EU member states.
Exports have been an important driving force behind the rising the pace of economic
growth in recent years. In 2004, exports saw spectacular growth, increasing by 37.7 %
(in USD terms), to USD 73.8 billion, with imports growing more slowly, though still
very substantially, by 29.6 %, to almost USD 88.2 billion, according to the Central
How to Do Business in Poland
Statistical Office (GUS). Despite the higher growth rate of exports – due to the very
large increase in total foreign trade operations – the trade deficit in 2004 remained at the
2003 level of USD 14.4 billion. However, it must be noted that such spectacular foreign
trade results in USD terms were due, to some extent, to the comparative weakness of the
USD against the Polish currency in 2004. Nonetheless, export growth in PLN terms was
still very impressive at 30.2 % (with imports growing by 22.8 %).
Foreign Trade in 1997-2004 (USD million)
Food and live animals
Beverages and tobacco
Crude materials, inedible, except fuels
Mineral fuels, lubricants
Oil, fats and waxes
Chemicals and related products
Manuf. goods class. by raw materials
Machinery and transport equipment
Misc. manufactured articles
Food and live animals
Beverages and tobacco
Crude materials, inedible, except fuels
Mineral fuels, lubricants
Oils, fats and waxes
Chemicals and related products
Manuf. goods class. by raw materials
Machinery and transport equipment
Misc. manufactured articles
25,751 28,229 27,407 31,651
3,026 2,839 2,328 2,367
1,719 1,547 1,377 1,610
2,027 1,898 1,696 2,151
6,830 7,116 6,986 7,856
5,560 8,019 8,278 10,820
5,611 5,865 5,750 5,805
42,308 47,054 45,911 48,940
2,894 2,993 2,537 2,558
1,762 1,669 1,419 1,643
3,710 2,989 3,281 5,297
5,839 6,462 6,584 6,881
8,283 9,801 9,526 9,788
15,228 18,014 17,544 18,114
3,950 4,452 4,380 4,218
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
Still, the above figures do not include cross border trade with neighbouring countries. It is
estimated that this trade amounts to several USD billion a year. When this �invisible’
trade is included, the overall trade deficit is much less pronounced, as reflected in the
NBP balance of payments statistics (see the table at the end of this Chapter).
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
III. Foreign Trade
Developed countries dominate in both Polish exports and imports and their share of
Poland’s foreign trade amounts to 85.3 % and 75.9 % respectively. Poland’s main
trading partner is Germany, which alone accounts for just under one quarter of Poland’s
imports and almost a third of its exports. The EU as a whole has a 79.2 % share in
Poland’s exports and 68.3 % in its imports.
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
The share of Central and Eastern European countries in Poland’s foreign trade amounts
to 9.0 % of exports and 9.9 % of imports and that of developing countries to 5.7 % of
exports and 14.2 % of imports. Russia remains Poland’s major trading partner in the
East. Its share of Poland’s foreign trade increased in comparison to 2003 and amounted
to 3.8 % of Poland’s exports and to 7.2 % of its imports.
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
How to Do Business in Poland
Exports in 2004 – Major Partners
United Kingdom
Czech Republic
Total exports
Value (USD million)
Share %
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
Imports in 2004 – Major Partners
Czech Republic
United Kingdom
Total imports
Value (USD million)
Share %
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
The expansion of Polish exports since the beginning of transformations was
accompanied by the modernisation of its commodity structure. This resulted in the
growing importance of highly processed products (especially from the engineering
and automotive sectors). On the other hand, the importance of raw materials and semifinished products (mineral products, metallurgical products) decreased substantially.
Restructuring of the economy, powered by the inflow of foreign direct investments
was the leading factor behind this change.
In 2004, machinery and transport equipment dominate both exports (38.8 %) and
imports (38.6 %). Manufactured goods classified by raw materials were in second place,
accounting for 23.3 % of exports and 20.7 % of imports.
Even though the overall foreign trade balance is negative, there are several commodity
groups generating substantial surpluses. In 2004, the most notable of them included:
III. Foreign Trade
engines, with exports of USD 2.86 billion and imports of USD 0.19 billion,
generating a USD 2.67 billion surplus;
furniture (chairs, seats and couches), with exports reaching USD 2.73 billion and
imports of USD 0.42 billion, generating a USD 2.32 billion surplus;
other furniture, excluding the above types and medical furniture, with exports of
USD 1.94 billion and imports of USD 0.29 billion, generating a USD 1.65 billion
coke, semi-coke and coke-oven gas with exports of USD 1.34 billion and imports
of USD 0.03 billion, generating a USD 1.30 billion surplus;
hard coal and solid hard coal fuels, with exports of USD 1.38 billion and imports
of USD 0.15 billion, generating a USD 1.23 billion surplus;
Further examples of highly processed export items include TV sets, monitors, ships,
passenger cars and other passenger motor vehicles, trucks, etc.
As far as imports are concerned, it is important to note that the trade deficit mainly
results from the import of raw materials required by the economy, as well as of
investment goods and articles bought for co-operation and supply purposes,
indispensable for industrial restructuring and development. In 2004, the import of raw
materials and components accounted for 62 % of total imports, while the import of
investment goods reached 19 %.
Consequently, petroleum oils are the main imported commodity, generating a USD 4.19
billion deficit with imports amounting to USD 4.22 billion. Other very important import
products include passenger cars (imports of USD 3.50 billion, with a USD 0.74 billion
trade surplus), car parts and accessories (imports of USD 2.63 billion and USD 0.44
billion trade surplus), ships (imports of USD 2.41 billion, with a USD 0.16 billion trade
surplus), pharmaceuticals (imports of USD 2.40 billion, with a USD 2.12 billion trade
deficit), and natural gas (imports of USD 2.09 billion, with a USD 2.08 billion trade
The private sector plays a dominant role in foreign trade. In 2004, the private sector
accounted for 88.1 % of exports (compared with 42 % in 1993) and for 91.7 % of
imports (compared with 60 % in 1993).
The impressive expansion of foreign trade in the past decade was no doubt greatly
facilitated by Poland’s political and economic integration with the world and especially
with the European Union (see Chapter VI).
Nonetheless, last year’s very positive developments, as well as the overall picture,
should be viewed in a wider, international context. In terms of value, current Polish
exports are similar to those of some much smaller countries of the region. The share of
How to Do Business in Poland
exports in the Polish GDP amounts to 30.5 %, while in the Czech Republic and Hungary
it is two to three times higher. In 2004, exports per capita reached 1,900 USD, between
half and one-third of the Czech, Slovak, or Hungarian level, while in a majority of
OECD countries this ratio is several times higher.
The current account balance of payments has been negative for several years, as shawn
in the following table. It is worth noting though, that a favourable trend consisting in
diminishing the current account deficit from one year to another has been visible since
Balance of Payments on the Current Account 1997-2004 (USD million)
Current Account
Exports FOB
Imports FOB
Trade balance
Services balance
Income balance
Current transfers balance
Source: NBP, 2005
This deficit is balanced, however, by a strong position on the capital and financial
account. Consequently, foreign exchange reserves have been rising steadily. In 1993,
Polish official reserve assets amounted to USD 4.3 billion. Since then they have been
rising steadily, to stabilise in the late 90’s at a level of USD 27 - 29 billion. By the end of
2004, official reserve assets amounted to USD 36.8 billion (increasing by 7.7 % during
the year), corresponding to 5 months of Poland’s import payments.
Official Reserve Assets
Source: NBP, 2005
How to Do Business in Poland
r Privatisation policy aimed at completing core
ownership transformation by 2006, with the resulting
public ownership at 10 to 20 %
r Most of the assets remaining to be privatised are in
the electric energy, gas, fuel & oil, steel, defence,
hard coal mining, transportation, shipbuilding, and
publishing sectors
r Various privatisation methods: direct, indirect, and
based on article 19 of the Law on State Enterprises
r The Agricultural Property Agency of the State
Treasury took over land from liquidated state farms
r Restitution legislation still pending
r Privatisation processes have been started in 5,631
state-owned enterprises
r Privatisation revenue reached USD 24.3 billion
r 230 companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange,
capitalisation of USD 80 billion
How to Do Business in Poland
Legislative Framework
The current framework for privatisation in Poland is contained in the Law on the
Commercialisation and Privatisation of State Enterprises, passed on 30 August 1996.
This legislation came into force in April 1997. The law governs two basic privatisation
methods: indirect privatisation, also known as capital privatisation, and direct
privatisation, sometimes referred to as privatisation through liquidation.
The legislation also permits the commercialisation and privatisation of state enterprises
under the Law on State Enterprises of 25 September 1981 at the instigation of various
authorities. These are the minister responsible for the relevant sector (e.g. the Minister of
the Economy and Labour), the wojewoda (the governor of a province) or the mayor of a
The Mass Privatisation Programme, which aimed at spreading the benefits of ownership
changes across the whole nation is based on the Law on National Investment Funds and
their Privatisation of 30 April 1993. The Programme was launched in 1995.
Other legal regulations pertaining to this matter include the Law on the Financial
Restructuring of Banks and Enterprises of 3 February 1993 and the Law on the
Formation of Agricultural System of 11 April, 2003.
There are four entities responsible for the privatisation of the Polish economy:
В· The Ministry of the Treasury, supervising all privatisation processes,
В· The Ministry of Infrastructure, privatising Polish Railways,
В· The Agricultural Property Agency, privatising state agricultural property,
В· Nafta Polska S.A., privatising oil and heavy chemistry sectors.
Ministry of the Treasury
The Ministry of the Treasury was created on 1 October 1996 as the successor to the
Ministry of Privatisation, which had operated for a period of 5 years – from 1 October
The main functions and responsibilities of the Ministry of the Treasury include:
В· the initiation of legislation,
В· the keeping a record of State Treasury property,
В· the exercise of ownership rights resulting from shares and stakes belonging to the
State Treasury,
IV. Privatisation
the standardisation of the rules governing the legal representation of the State
the maintenance of funding supervision,
the registration of State Treasury representatives,
the legal representation of the State Treasury,
the realisation of the ownership transformation policy,
the supervision over:
- The Agricultural Property Agency,
- The Military Property Agency,
- The Military Housing Agency.
In 2002, the Minister of the Treasury authorised directors of Regional Offices of the
Ministry of the Treasury (see Appendix 19 for contact information) to grant
permission, on his behalf, for direct privatisation of state enterprises supervised by
provincial governors.
Privatisation Revenue
Total privatisation revenues in 1991-2004 amounted to approximately USD 24.3
billion. The annual revenues, showing direct privatisation and indirect privatisation
components are presented on the following graph.
Privatisation Revenue 1991-2004 in USD million
Source: Ministry of the Treasury, 2005
How to Do Business in Poland
In 2004, privatisation revenue (taking into account only the effected payments) amounted
to USD 2.81 billion, more than the previously envisaged USD 2.3 billion. In 2005, the
government plans project privatisation revenue at USD 1.6 billion.
More than half of privatisation revenue has been generated by foreign investors. By
the end of 2004, foreign investors accounted for almost 52 % of the total privatisation
revenue. However, foreign capital contributed to just 10 % of privatisation revenue in
In order to ensure proper fulfilment of the annual statutory obligations (which are:
compensations, support of the social security system reform, support of defence industry
restructuring and modernisation of the Polish Army, restitution reserve, restructuring costs,
costs of privatisation, science and technology related expenditure) privatisation revenues
should remain at the level of approximately 1 % of GDP.
Privatisation Objectives and Plans for 2005 and 2006
The current national privatisation policy aims at completing core ownership
transformation processes in Poland by 2006. The resulting ownership structure of the
Polish economy should be similar to that of �old’ EU member states, with public
ownership at a level of 10 to 20 %.
In 2005, primary privatisation objectives are as follows:
the profitable sale of selected Treasury companies and assets, ensuring the
generation of privatisation revenue envisaged by the 2005 budgetary law,
increasing the dynamics of ownership transformation,
improving the competitiveness of companies and sectors.
The privatisation efforts of the state will focus in particular on:
the further implementation of privatisation processes in strategic and infrastructure
sectors, following the restructuring and privatisation time-tables prepared for
individual branches of the economy,
supporting restructuring processes in the so-called �sensitive’ sectors, specifically
in the context of adaptation to competitive conditions of the EU market,
accelerating direct privatisation,
supporting capital market development.
IV. Privatisation
Most of the state assets earmarked for privatisation are encompassed by the following
sectors: electric energy, gas, fuel & oil, steel, defence, hard coal mining,
transportation, shipbuilding, and publishing.
In 2005, in the electric energy generation sector, both the continuation and the launch
of privatisation processes in the remaining power plants and thermal power plants is
envisaged, in line with the government program for the privatisation of the electric
energy sector, adopted by the Council of Ministers in 2003.
After the consolidation of the BOT GГіrnictwo i Energetyka S.A. generation group is
completed, the privatisation process, scheduled for the years 2005-2006, will begin.
With regards to energy distribution, shares of Grupa Energetyczna ENEA S.A.,
comprising five electric energy distribution companies (EDCs) from western Poland,
will be sold by way of a public offer in 2005.
In 2004, the consolidation process of Grupa W-5 (comprising EDCs from southwestern Poland), and Grupa K-7 (comprising EDCs from central and southern
Poland), was completed. As a result, EnergiaPro Koncern Energetyczny S.A., and
ENION S.A. were established. Further consolidation processes are underway to create
new EDC groups, i.e., Grupa L-6 (comprising EDCs from eastern Poland) and Grupa
G-8 (comprising EDCs from northern and central Poland). Once consolidation is
completed, privatisation is planned to take place by 2006. Moreover, the privatisation
of further entities in the electric energy industry will continue.
In 2005, in the fuel and oil sector, the consolidation of Grupa LOTOS S.A. will
continue. Upon completion of the process, the privatisation of the company through
the Warsaw Stock Exchange is envisaged.
In the pharmaceutical sector, the privatisation of Polski Holding Farmaceutyczny S.A.
is to take place in two stages. First, a minority block of shares will be offered to
financial and small investors, and/or there will be a new issue of shares. The sale of
the holding’s shares will take place on the Warsaw Stock Exchange – blocks of shares
will be offered to individual investors. However, result of these activities, the
Treasury’s stake in the holding is not to decrease below 70 %. Upon completion of the
first stage analyses are to be conducted, including evaluation of the impact of the
above activities on the government’s policy concerning pharmaceuticals.
Subsequently, further decisions will be made in regard to offering additional blocks of
shares, and/or issuing new shares, should there be such a need.
How to Do Business in Poland
Moreover, the sale of shares in PrzedsiД™biorstwo Zaopatrzenia Farmaceutycznego
Cefarm KrakГіw S.A. w Krakowie (a pharmaceutical supplies company) is envisaged
in 2005.
In the defence sector, the consolidation of companies will continue within two capital
groups, along with their restructuring and privatisation. In 2005, privatisation through
offering blocks of shares will be initiated in six companies, and the privatisation
process will continue in one company.
The privatisation strategy for health resorts divides them into three core groups:
В· health resorts excluded from privatisation,
В· health resorts requiring an individual privatisation approach, with the State
Treasury retaining ownership of medicinal mineral deposits,
В· health resorts which should be privatised through the offering of shares.
In 2005, the Ministry of the Treasury envisages the commencement of privatisations
in both the second and third of the above groups of health resorts.
Furthermore, the government’s Privatisation Lines for Treasury Assets in 2005
envisage the continuation of privatisation processes in the following sectors: gas,
steel, hard coal mining, transportation, shipbuilding, sugar, spirits, and publishing and
information agencies.
The Multi-methods Approach
From the very beginning privatisation was considered to be one of the three most
important components of the economic transformation, together with the economy’s
stabilisation and liberalisation. There were 8,441 state-owned companies registered in
July 1990. Since the beginning of the privatisation of state-owned enterprises, i.e., from
1 August 1990 till the end of 2004, privatisation processes have been started in 5,631
state-owned companies. Moreover, assets of 1,666 liquidated state farms have been
transferred to the Agricultural Property Stock of the State Treasury, bringing the total
number of state enterprises involved in privatisation to 7,297. Of these, 21.4 % have
been commercialised (the first stage of indirect privatisation), 30.4 % have started direct
privatisation, 25.4 % have had liquidation procedures initiated due to their poor financial
condition and the remaining 22.8 % is accounted for by liquidated state farms.
The most characteristic feature of privatisation processes in Poland is the variety of
privatisation methods used. The idea behind this diversity is to offer methods best suited
to the size, financial situation, and importance of a given entity to be privatised. Poland’s
original contribution to privatisation is the sectoral approach. Whole sectors or branches
IV. Privatisation
of industry have been analysed and strategies for their privatisation have been devised,
first by the Ministry of Privatisation and later by the Ministry of the Treasury, once it
was established. The Ministry decides which methods are best suited for individual
enterprises, what role can be played by foreign capital in the privatisation of a given
sector, and which enterprises can be offered to foreign investors.
The legislation provides for two fundamental alternative methods of privatisation of
state-owned enterprises. The first method, indirect or capital privatisation, consists of the
�commercialisation’ of a state-owned enterprise or its transformation into a State
Treasury corporation, either as a joint-stock company or as a limited liability company.
The shares of the commercialised company are then offered to a third party. This
method is usually applied to large and medium-size state enterprises.
Privatisation Results by Method at the end of 2004 (%)
Source: Ministry of the Treasury, APA, 2005
The other method is direct privatisation (�through liquidation’), which is applied mostly
to small and medium-size state enterprises. Such liquidation is followed by the offer of
the assets (which could include the whole business) directly to third parties, either for
purchase or to lease. The assets of a company being liquidated may also be transferred to
an existing company.
The government also makes use of article 19 of the Law on State Enterprises of
25 September 1981 to put companies into private hands. This usually entails the
liquidation of a state-owned enterprise in poor financial condition, followed by the sale
of its assets to satisfy creditors. By the end of 2004, the liquidation procedure had been
started in 1,853 enterprises and by the same date the process had been completed in 990
enterprises (53.4 %).
Finally, a remarkable achievement should be noted in the field of so-called �small
privatisation’. Hundreds of thousands of small and medium-size retail and wholesale shops,
restaurants, etc., which were previously owned by local authorities, were fairly rapidly sold.
How to Do Business in Poland
Capital Privatisation
A traditional form of capital privatisation is applied to large enterprises. The first stage
in the capital privatisation is conversion of the enterprise into a company with all shares
held by the State Treasury (commercialisation). Enterprises are valued independently,
prospectuses are drawn up, a subscription is held and then a final allotment of shares is
made. Accelerated privatisation may be applied to medium-size and small enterprises,
where the whole or substantial parts of an enterprise could be sold to a single buyer.
Conversion into a joint-stock or limited liability company with all shares held by the
State Treasury provides a clear management structure appropriate to the company’s size.
The initiative for such a transformation may come from:
the Minister of the Treasury, who takes the relevant decision on his own and
notifies the director of the company, its Employee Council and its founding body;
the enterprise’s director and Employee Council;
the enterprise’s founding body,
the Regional Council,
the manager running the enterprise on the basis of a management contract.
The newly created company assumes all the rights and liabilities of the transformed state
enterprise and, subject to certain exceptions, takes on most of the employees of the
transformed enterprise. Its opening balance sheet is the closing balance sheet of the state
enterprise and its capital is the sum of the enterprise’s original capital and retained
earnings. The charter of the company specifies how the capital is to be divided into share
capital and reserve capital. On the conclusion of the charter, the management applies for
registration of the new company, and the state enterprise is removed from the registry of
state companies.
The next step is to offer the company’s shares to private investors. Before this is done,
the Ministry of the Treasury may order a financial review of the company in order to
value its assets and to determine whether the company first requires restructuring,
particularly when there has been a time lapse between incorporation and the presentation
of the offer. The Ministry may also order an analysis of the legal status of the company’s
assets to determine if there are any conflicting claims.
There are four general methods for offering shares: public offer, negotiations initiated by
public invitation, public tender, and accepting an offer made by a shareholder inviting
other shareholders to sell their shares. Employees are eligible for up to 15 % of the
shares of their companies free of charge. These shares cannot be traded on the Stock
Exchange for a period of 2 to 3 years.
IV. Privatisation
Under certain circumstances farmers and fishermen may acquire shares on the same
basis as employees in the companies with which they have long-term contracts. State
enterprises require permission from the Minister of Finance to acquire shares in other
By the end of 2004, according to the Ministry of the Treasury, 1,562 state enterprises
had been commercialised, out of which 1,545 had been transformed into single-holder
State Treasury joint-stock or limited liability companies. Out of this number, investors
acquired shares in 1,008 companies, including 512 encompassed by the Mass
Privatisation Programme.
The Ministry of the Treasury has prepared a transfer list of companies being privatised
individually and offered to foreign investors. This list provides potential investors with
some basic information on the companies that are currently being privatised by trade
sales or public offering. Initial contact by a potential investor should be with the
sector/company adviser and if none has been appointed, then with an appropriate
department of the ministry. The list is also available at the ministry’s website.
The basic criteria for selecting the investor remain as follows:
В· the price for shares and terms of payment,
В· investment commitments,
В· the pro-export nature of the investment,
В· social commitments towards employees and sub-contractors (in the case of the
food processing industry),
В· environmental protection investment plans,
· accordance with Poland’s obligations towards the European Union and the OECD.
The pricing, sale and distribution of shares is subject to thorough control and
supervision. Fixing the price for each enterprise is carried out in strict compliance with
market techniques. An active anti-monopoly policy supports the competitive process and
counteracts any attempt to acquire capital control over any branch by a single investor.
Privatisation through Debt – Equity Swaps
This was a form of capital privatisation. The initiative for such an ownership
transformation came from the director of the enterprise and had to have the agreement of
the Minister of the Treasury. According to this formula, state-owned enterprises were
transformed into limited liability companies in which creditors were granted shares
amounting to the enterprise’s debt. Privatisation with debt equity swaps took place
according to the regulations of the Law on the Commercialisation and Privatisation of
State Enterprises. By 1 May 2004, only 17 state enterprises had been privatised this way.
How to Do Business in Poland
Since a lot of debt was retired during privatisations of this type, privatisation through
debt-equity swaps had a public aid character. Therefore, as of the date of Polish
accession to the EU, this form of indirect privatisation was abandoned, as an appropriate
amendment to the Law on the Commercialisation and Privatisation of State Enterprises
came into force.
Direct Privatisation
An enterprise may be privatised directly (�through liquidation’), which is the fastest and
most popular way of privatisation. It entails the direct sale or leasing of the assets of the
liquidated enterprise. The characteristic feature of direct privatisation is that it is
conducted by the founding bodies of state enterprises by consent of the Minister of the
The direct privatisation is decentralised. The founding bodies – 16 province governors
– play the main role in the decision-making. However, the whole process of direct
privatisation is controlled and supervised by the Ministry of the Treasury by granting
its approval for implementation of individual projects.
By the end of 2004, privatisation through liquidation had been started in 2216 and
completed in 2119 enterprises. This method is devised for smaller companies. In most
cases, the privatised enterprises were sold or leased to employees and management of
the enterprise. Direct privatisation is not only popular but also very effective. Almost
96 % of state-owned enterprises being privatised in this way have completed the
Direct Privatisation by Forms at the end of 2004
Source: Ministry of the Treasury, 2005
IV. Privatisation
Direct privatisation can take several forms:
Sale of assets. All or part of the assets may be acquired using the same methods as with
the offering of shares by private local or foreign investors without any special permit.
When an enterprise is sold as a whole and the legal ownership of land and other fixed
assets under its control has been established, �fast-track’ privatisation may be
implemented. In such cases the pricing of the enterprise is simplified by making use,
within certain pre-set limits, of a valuation based on the book value of the enterprise and
on the annual profits. This accelerates the process leading to a sale and also considerably
reduces the cost of privatisation. An enterprise may be sold by instalments. In this case
the first instalment amounts to at least 20 % of the agreed price and the outstanding
amount plus interest must be paid within 5 years.
Contribution of assets. Assets may be contributed to an already existing company or
a company specially incorporated to receive these assets in exchange for shares. As the
State Treasury becomes a partner, it is easier to mobilise a strategic investor. The shares
acquired by the Treasury would eventually be sold in a public offer.
Employee buyout (lease of the enterprise). The enterprise is liquidated and the new
company leases the assets under a contract negotiated on behalf of the State Treasury by
the founding body of the liquidated enterprise. This contract may give the lessee an
option to purchase. When only part of the assets is leased, the remainder may be sold or
contributed to another company. Liquidation by means of a lease is considered
appropriate for small companies and has proved to be the most popular method of direct
privatisation, accounting for approximately 62 % of direct privatisations.
Agricultural Property Agency
The Agricultural Property Agency of the State Treasury (APA) was established under the
Law on the Management of Agricultural Real Estate of the State Treasury dated
19 October 1991. APA was a trust organisation, authorised by the State Treasury to
exercise ownership rights regarding state property in agriculture and obliged to take over
all the property of liquidated state-owned farms, other agricultural real estate of the State
Treasury, as well as realty from the National Land Fund. Furthermore, by virtue of the
provisions of the Farmers’ Social Insurance Law of 20 November 1990 the Agency had
been obliged to acquire agricultural real estate for the State Treasury stock at the request of
farm owners having the right to social security pension, or disability pensions. On July 16,
2003 the Law on the Formation of Agricultural System of 11 April, 2003 came into force,
transforming the Agricultural Property Agency of the State Treasury into Agricultural
Property Agency (APA). Other significant provisions of the Law stipulate, as follows:
How to Do Business in Poland
APA has pre-emption or priority rights for buying agricultural real estate on the land
A family farm must be managed by an individual farmer and its total area can not
exceed 300 ha,
The individual farmer is defined as an owner or lessee of the family farm, managing
farm personally, having appropriate qualifications or agricultural experience, living
in the area of commune where at least one real property consisting his/her farm is
Basically, the new APA took over the Agricultural Property Agency of the State
Treasury’s tasks and its strategic objective to privatise the state’s agricultural property.
The property entrusted to the Agency forms Agricultural Property Stock of the State
Treasury (APS). Almost 80 % of APS land comes from liquidated state farms.
APA can sell the property to one purchaser if total area of agricultural land being in
his/her ownership does not exceed 500 ha. Moreover, a separate authorisation from
the APA president is required for the conclusion of sale contract concerning real estate
larger than 50 ha, as well as real estate with value exceeding the equivalent of 2000
tons of rye, defined pursuant to provisions on agricultural tax.
In accordance with existing regulations the APA may sell or lease agricultural property
to foreigners who have obtained the required permit. By the end of April 2005, the APA
had sold 1,026 ha and leased 197,674 ha of land to foreigners. During the same period,
Polish companies with a minority foreign stake purchased 40,060 ha and leased 126,420
ha of land from the Agency.
The APA performs its tasks as a state legal person in accordance with the principle of
self-financing. After the assets of a liquidated state agricultural enterprise have been
taken over, restructuring programmes determine their use or disposal. These include:
В· sale;
В· lease or rent;
В· contribution in kind into other companies (including companies established by the
В· transfer for management to the state entities without legal personality;
В· transfer of management administration;
В· conversion of stock.
The following table summarises APA activities up to date.
IV. Privatisation
Land Taken over into APA Stock and its Redistribution by Province
as at the End of April 2005 (thousand hectares)
Land taken
over into
free of charge
Land remaining in APS
of which
Source: APA, 2005
Real estate belonging to the Agricultural Property Stock of the State Treasury may also
be transferred free of charge to territorial self-governments, the Polish Academy of
Sciences, the chambers of agriculture or the National Board of Chambers of Agriculture
for investments in infrastructure, and also for the fulfilment of the statutory functions of
state schools of higher learning and state research or development institutions. Farmland
of low quality can be passed to the State Forests, or lie fallow.
Apart from those assets that are agriculturally productive, the State Treasury Stock
contains assets of historical or national importance, acknowledged as being part of the
cultural heritage. Assets of historical and national importance include land together with
buildings, facilities, trees, etc. These assets are often offered for sale at discounted prices
in order to facilitate their renovation.
The Agency is headed by its president. In order to perform its tasks efficiently, the APA
has set up 11 regional branches and 5 subsidiary offices. Some regional branches have
set up smaller field units.
How to Do Business in Poland
The Agency sells or leases assets following a public open tender (auctions or bidding by
written offer). The list of APA assets offered for sale or lease, as well as announcements
regarding tenders, are posted in the relevant commune’s (gmina) office, and in the
appropriate APA regional branch, or other organisational unit. An advertisement of the
intended sale of property whose estimated value exceeds the equivalent of 10,000
quintals of rye – fixed according to the regulations on agricultural tax – must be
published in newspapers having at least region-wide circulation. The list of assets for
sale or lease is announced at least 14 days before the invitation for tender.
The Agency may also organise closed tenders addressed to a defined groups of tenderers
and may sell real estate at a price determined by law to certain categories of purchasers,
who have the right of first purchase of given pieces of real estate.
The Mass Privatisation Programme
The MPP was devised as the most appropriate and expedient way of privatising and
restructuring a large number of Poland’s state-owned enterprises, thereby accelerating
the transformation of Polish industry. Each adult Polish citizen was eligible to take part
in the MPP, which was approved by Parliament on 30 April 1993 under the Law on
National Investment Funds and was finally launched at the end of 1994. The MPP
encompassed 512 mostly medium-size companies (some 10 % of Polish industry).
As a first step, 15 National Investment Funds (NIFs) were established to hold shares in
those enterprises. Shares in each NIF were initially represented by Universal Share
Certificates (USC), which were bearer securities. Each NIF is controlled by a
Supervisory Board charged with representing the interests of shareholders, who were
initially all Polish citizens holding USCs. The law requires that two-thirds of the
Supervisory Board members, including its chairman, are Polish citizens.
The distribution of the USCs started in November 1995 and by end of the distribution
period 25.8 million out of 28.3 million eligible adult Poles had picked them up. In early
April 1997, the Securities Commission approved the public trading of all 15 National
Investment Funds. The conversion of the USCs into NIF shares (one USC for 1 share of
each of the 15 NIFs) took place in 1997 and 1998. Since June 1997, NIF stocks are
traded on the WSE. Market consolidation processes have had to a decrease in the
number of NIFs. Currently (May 2005) there are 13 National Investment Funds.
By the end of 2004, according to the Ministry of the Treasury, out of 512 companies
participating in the NIF programme, 232 were completely privatised and the State
Treasury still supervised 229 companies. Out of these 12 were publicly traded, including
IV. Privatisation
8 listed on the WSE and 4 traded on the OTC market. A further 5 were put into
liquidation and in 90 companies proceedings in bankruptcy were initiated.
An institutional, strategic and private investor from abroad can participate in the MPP in
a variety of ways:
· Investors can purchase and trade in NIFs’ shares.
В· Financial and strategic investors may actively participate in the restructuring of
individual participating companies by purchasing their shares when they are
offered by NIFs, by providing equity or non-equity finance, by acquiring
companies entirely, or by forming joint ventures.
В· Institutional investors may choose to purchase shares in individual participating
The nationalisation that took place in Poland shortly after World War II was based on
a series of nationalisation decrees, which empowered the State Treasury to take over real
estate from private owners. Since the beginning of the political and economic
transformations in Poland it has been clear that it is the country’s obligation to
compensate the owners, whose interests were violated. This need results from the basic
principles and values contained in the Polish constitution, such as the principles of
a democracy under the rule of law, of social justice, and of respect for private property.
However, the problem of re-privatisation, i.e., the restitution of nationalised property to
its original owners, has not yet been resolved, as there are no restitution regulations in
force (as of June 2005).
Parliamentary work on restitution has taken many years. There has been universal
agreement to the principle that not all nationalised property could be returned to its
original owners, either in kind or in the form of compensation. Unfortunately, that was
where the consensus ended. Presently, there is a draft restitution law, developed by the
Ministry of the Treasury and approved by the Council of Ministers in February, 2005.
It envisages compensation amounting to 15 % of the value of the real estate lost. Real
estate located in Warsaw and abroad is to be covered by separate legislation.
Nonetheless, nationalisation decisions that were issued with no legal basis or with
infringement of the law can still be challenged on the grounds of constitutional legality.
This process started in the 1990s along with the political and economic reforms. On the
grounds of the Code of Administrative Procedure several thousand former owners have
had their property returned or have been paid compensation. Thousands of others are
still awaiting a court decision. Therefore, despite the lack of general legalisation,
How to Do Business in Poland
a process comprising some elements of property restitution to the former owners or
a payment of compensation is in force.
Passing restitution regulations is not only a moral obligation, but also has significant
practical value, as in some cases unresolved restitution claims have been hampering the
privatisation process. The government has been retaining 5 % of the stock of privatised
companies as a �reserve’ to satisfy re-privatisation claims.
Capital Markets
The first Stock Exchange in Warsaw was opened on 12 May 1817. In the nineteenth
century, it was mostly bonds and other debt instruments that were traded on the Warsaw
bourse. Before the Second World War, there were seven Stock Exchanges operating in
Poland, with Warsaw accounting for more than 90 % of the total trading.
In 1989, along with the political changes, the new non-communist government began
creating a capital market structure. The new legal framework, the Act on Public Trading
in Securities and Trust Funds was adopted in March 1991, and the State Treasury
established the Warsaw Stock Exchange joint-stock company in April 1991. At the same
time, the Polish Securities Commission, with its chairman appointed by the prime
minister, was created.
Both the structure and the legal regulations of the Polish capital market were modelled
on the most modern and efficient systems used elsewhere in the world that were relevant
to Poland’s situation. Following a thorough review of several contemporary markets,
a system based on French experience was adopted and implemented.
The Securities Act of 21 August 1997, effective from 4 January 1998, facilitated the
further development of Polish capital markets. Among the changes were further
reconciliation of the Act with the regulations of the OECD and the European Union, the
introduction of securities lending and borrowing mechanisms, and the definition of the
rules of underwriting.
On 21 February 1998, the Act on Investment Funds was adopted, making the creation of
new kinds of investment vehicles possible. The pension reform (see Chapter II, Pension
System) resulted in the establishment of pension funds, thus increasing the institutional
investors’ base.
Presently, the legislative framework for Stock Exchange operations is formed by the
В· The Securities Act of 21 August 1997,
В· The Code of Commercial Companies of 15 September 2000,
IV. Privatisation
The Warsaw Stock Exchange Statutes,
The Rules and Regulations of the Warsaw Stock Exchange,
The Rules and Regulations of the Stock Exchange Court.
The Warsaw Stock Exchange, the only securities exchange in Poland, is a non-profit
joint-stock company. Its share capital stands at PLN 42 million, divided into almost 60
thousand registered shares. The shares of the WSE may be purchased by banks,
brokerage houses, the State Treasury, trust fund companies, insurance companies,
foreign investment companies and brokerage houses conducting brokerage operations in
Poland, and the issuers of securities approved for public trading and listed on the WSE.
The structure of the Warsaw Stock Exchange is as follows:
The General Meeting
The General Meeting is the WSE’s highest decision-making body. Its role is to put
changes to the Statutes and Rules into effect and to elect members of the Supervisory
Board. It consists of all WSE shareholders.
The Supervisory Board
The Supervisory Board controls the operation of the exchange, admits securities for
trading, and grants and recalls stock exchange membership. It consists of 12
members appointed by the General Meeting, representing the shareholders.
The Management Board
The Management Board co-ordinates the day-to-day operations of the WSE and
introduces securities to exchange trading. The Management Board consists of five
members. The President, elected by the General Meeting for a three-year term,
directs Management Board activities.
The high standard of the regulations and operations of the Warsaw Stock Exchange has
been recognised by the international community. In October 1994, the Warsaw Stock
Exchange was admitted as a full member to the International Federation of Stock
Exchanges, presently the World Federation of Exchanges (WFE). In June 2004 the WSE
became a full member of the Federation of European Securities Exchanges (FESE).
WSE trading takes place on two separate markets, governed by separate rules:
В· the main (regulated official) market;
В· the parallel (regulated unofficial) market.
Moreover, a Plus segment has been established on the main market. The conditions
for inclusion of companies in this segment comprise not only measurable
requirements, but also certain qualitative features, such as the adoption of all corporate
governance best practices.
How to Do Business in Poland
Similarly, a Prim segment has been created within the parallel market, with membership
requirements containing appropriate issuer-investor communication standards, as well as
the obligation to publish a wider range of financial data in consolidated quarterly reports.
In 2004, as a result of the predominantly bull market, the annual turnover of the Polish
bourse increased substantially, just as in the year before, reaching over PLN 260 billion, up
from PLN 216 billion in 2003. This translates roughly into USD 280 million a session, in
comparison to approximately USD 220 million a session in the previous year. In 2004,
stocks dominated trade on the Warsaw bourse cash market, accounting for almost 93 % of
total session trading. The remaining part was similarly dominated by bonds, accounting for
a further 6 %, with the share of other instruments (warrants, subscription rights, investment
certificates, subscription warrants, and allotment certificates) being rather insignificant.
The bull market resulted in a very considerable increase in the cash market trade (37 %)
and a smaller increase in the futures market trade (8 %), where the total turnover amounted
to almost PLN 126 billion, some 92 % of the cash market figure.
The basic statistics of WSE turnover during the last year are presented in the following
two tables, which contain information on the cash and futures markets’ performance.
Structure of WSE Cash Market Trade in 2004 (PLN million)
Financial Instruments
Allotment certificates
Subscription rights
Subscription warrants
Investment certificates
TOTAL Cash Market
Session trading
two auction
Includes invitations to sell shares, public offerings carried through the WSE, and buy in / sell out
Source: WSE, 2005
Structure of WSE Futures Market Trade in 2004 (PLN million)
Financial Instruments
Index futures
Stock futures
Currency futures
Index options
Index participation units
TOTAL Futures Market
Source: WSE, 2005
IV. Privatisation
The impressive dynamics of the WSE’s development are best reflected in the growing
number of companies listed and in its booming capitalisation, which has more than
doubled over the past four years, to reach PLN 292 billion (approximately USD 80
billion) at the end of 2004. Domestic companies accounted for PLN 214 billion. By the
end of 2004, there were 230 companies listed on the WSE, including 5 foreign ones.
This number encompassed 206 quoted in continuous trading, and the remaining 24 in
the single-price auction system with two auctions per day.
Warsaw S tock Exchange - Number of Listed Companies
and Capitalisation at Year-end
Source: WSE, 2005
More information on trading in shares and bonds on the WSE in 2004 is contained in
Appendices 16 and 17 respectively.
No restrictions are placed on foreign investors. Rules on taxation for foreign investors
are regulated by inter-governmental treaties on the avoidance of double taxation, or
agreements on reciprocity treatment. Such treaties have been signed with a vast
majority of OECD countries (see Appendix 6). The rule of free entry and exit exists in
Poland in terms of foreign investment. Capital gains can be repatriated without
obtaining any permission.
In 2004, based on a survey of WSE members, foreign investors’ share in the trading of
Polish companies’ stock on the WSE was estimated at 29 %. Polish individual investors
accounted for 38 % of this trade and Polish institutional investors for the remaining
33 %. Polish individual investors dominated trade on the futures market (70 %) with
Polish institutional investors accounting for 26 % of futures trading and foreign
investors accounting for just 4 %.
How to Do Business in Poland
The sectoral structure of companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange as of May
2005 is presented in the following table.
WSE Main Market Sector Figures as of 20 May 2005
No. of Share in Total Market
companies Market Value Value
Value P/BV
(PLN mil) (PLN mil)
36,996 1.63
3,058 3.09
Light Industry
352 2.66
Wood & Paper
1,797 2.28
16,823 1.53
Building Materials
1,174 2.15
3,573 1.77
Electrical Engineering
1,259 1.15
8,711 1.06
250 2.27
44,006 2.25
43,091 2.25
761 2.59
154 0.73
31,324 1.58
Wholesale & Retail
2,152 2.30
2,234 2.09
21,195 1.35
1,893 4.25
3,850 0.81
100 208,795 112,327 1.86
Sector name
indicator for companies with earnings
Source: WSE, 2005
The Polish Securities Commission (PSC) is the only administrative body authorised to
bring securities into public trading. An entity that wants its shares or bonds to be
publicly traded is obliged to prepare an issue prospectus. The PSC ensures that the
prospectus fulfils detailed conditions specified by law and grants permission for public
trading. The issuance of GDRs and ADRs also requires the approval of the PSC.
The PSC also exercises administrative supervision over the activities of brokerage
houses and grants permits for each specific area of a brokerage house’s activities. At the
end of 2004, there were 41 brokerage houses operating in Poland, of which 8 were bankowned and 33 independent. All securities brokers are licensed by the Polish Securities
Commission. At the end of 2004 their number reached almost 1,800.
As of May 2005, there were 20 Investment Fund Corporations operating on the Polish
market, managing 160 funds. There were also 86 entities authorised to distribute funds’
participation certificates, and 6 transfer agents.
IV. Privatisation
One great achievement of the WSE was to attract millions of ordinary Poles, as well
as a large number of foreign investors. This was possible in part due to a long-lasting
bull market on the bourse, but most of all it was due to fast economic growth, political
stability, and to the market’s efficiency and transparency and to the clear and
comprehensive rules which govern it.
The challenge is to complete the development of the WSE into a fully-fledged capital
market, playing an important part in the economy. Following European trends, the WSE
is preparing for some important changes, including privatisation, and transformation
from a non-profit to a profit organisation.
Finally, one should mention that there were 95 securities, including 18 stocks and 74
bonds, listed on the over-the-counter market (MTS-CeTO S.A.) at the end of 2004.
How to Do Business in Poland
r Companies and individuals from EU and EFTA
countries – members of the European Economic
Area operate in accordance with the principles
applicable to domestic entrepreneurs
r State aid for new investments compatible with the
EU public aid standards
r Investment incentives in 14 Special Economic Zones
r Assistance from the Polish Information and Foreign
Investment Agency and from other entities
r The most important reasons for investing in Poland:
economic growth prospects, size of the market, low
labour costs
r Foreign direct investment of USD 84.5 billion
r Over 50 thousands companies with foreign
r Major foreign investors: France, the Netherlands,
and the USA
r Minor Polish investments abroad
How to Do Business in Poland
Legal Considerations
As of 21 August 2004, business activities conducted by Polish residents, as well as nonresidents in Poland, are subject to the Law on Economic Freedom of 2 July 2004 and the
Code of Commercial Companies of 15 September 2000. However, some provisions of
the previous Law on Commercial Activity of 19 November 1999 (art. 7 - 7i, concerning
registration) still apply, untill 31 December 2006.
The Law on Economic Freedom defines non-residents and foreign entities (foreign
persons) as well as foreign entrepreneurs: a foreign person is a natural person residing
abroad, without Polish citizenship, a legal person with its seat (registered office) abroad,
or an organisational unit not being a legal entity but having legal capacity, with its seat
abroad; a foreign entrepreneur is defined as a foreign person running a business abroad.
Foreign persons from the EU and EFTA states – members of the European Economic
Area – may operate in Poland in accordance with the principles applicable to domestic
entrepreneurs. The same applies to citizens of other countries, who:
В· received a permit for settlement in Poland, or
В· obtained consent for a tolerated stay, or
В· obtained refugee status in the Republic of Poland, or
В· enjoy temporary protection within the territory of Poland.
Other foreign persons may conduct their operations solely (unless stated otherwise in
international agreements) in the following legal forms:
В· a limited partnership (SpГіЕ‚ka komandytowa);
В· a limited joint-stock partnership (SpГіЕ‚ka komandytowo-akcyjna);
· a limited liability company (Spółka z ograniczoną odpowiedzialnością – Sp. z o.o.);
· a joint-stock company (Spółka Akcyjna – S.A.).
They may also enter into such partnerships or companies and acquire their shares.
Furthermore, foreign entrepreneurs may establish branches and representative offices.
A company registered in Poland acquires legal personality upon being entered in the
Register of Companies at the National Court Register of the Economic Court having
jurisdiction over the seat of the company that is being formed. The obligation to be
registered rests on companies operating under commercial law, state-owned enterprises,
co-operatives, and other entities, as specified in the Law on the National Court Register
of 20 August 1997. This also applies to natural persons undertaking business activities in
V. Foreign Investment
Setting up a company is one way of doing business, buying an already operating one is
another. Foreign investors may receive or acquire shares in companies already existing
in Poland. Shares may be acquired in public sales, through the Stock Exchange or, if the
company is not listed on the Stock Exchange, through individual negotiations with the
existing owners.
The Law on Economic Freedom enumerates six areas in which economic activity may
be undertaken only if an appropriate license (koncesja) is granted. These are:
В· prospecting, identifying, and extracting of mineral deposits, tankless storage and
waste disposal in formations, including unused underground mining excavations;
В· manufacturing and trading in arms, ammunition, or explosives as well as in
military and/or police technologies;
В· manufacturing, processing, storing, transmitting, distributing, or trade in energy
and fuels;
В· personal and property protection;
В· radio and TV broadcasting;
В· air transportation.
The licenses are granted for a period of no less than five and no more than fifty years,
unless the entrepreneur applies for a shorter period. Another type of license (licencja),
which is easier to obtain, is required in order to provide road, or rail transportation
services. Furthermore, operating in some other areas requires a permit (zezwolenie) on
the grounds of other legislation. The Law on Economic Freedom enumerates over
twenty such areas through direct reference to the respective laws. These include the
production of alcohol and tobacco, toxic, or poisonous substances, pharmaceuticals,
intoxicants, and radioactive materials, as well as the operation of banks, insurance
companies, brokerage houses, and casinos.
A positive decision concerning the granting of a permit depends solely on the
applicant’s compliance with the appropriate statutory conditions. This eliminates the
arbitrariness of decisions concerning the granting of permits for commercial activity.
Applying the same rules to domestic and foreign investors means that there is
no minimum value set on the contribution to be made by a foreign party (subject to
overall minimum share capital requirements for companies) and no provisions either for
the minimum or maximum percentage share of foreign participation in the equity of
a company. Nevertheless, just as in other EU countries, in rare cases a company may be
excluded from a specific field of activity when the share of foreign parties in its total
equity exceeds a certain proportion (e.g., broadcasting).
How to Do Business in Poland
According to the Polish Code of Commercial Companies, the minimum founding capital
В· A limited liability company amounts to PLN 50,000 (approx. USD 15,000) and
must be fully paid up on incorporation. The minimum value of each share is PLN
50 and the minimum number of founders is one person;
В· A joint-stock company amounts to PLN 500,000 (approx. USD 150,000). At least
25 % of the founding capital must be contributed on incorporation (and at least
25 % of the cash capital). The minimum nominal value of each share is PLN 0.01
and the minimum number of founders is one person.
Existing companies, which had a share capital lower than the minimum applicable
before 31 December 2000, will, over a period of up to 5 years, have to increase their
basic share capital to the new minimum.
For more information on how to establish the above-mentioned types of companies
please refer to Chapter X.
Contributions by a foreign investor to the company’s capital may be made in-kind, in
cash (in PLN obtained from documented sources), or in foreign currency transferred by
the foreign investor through a foreign bank. Contribution in-kind to a joint-stock
company is reviewed by court-appointed experts.
After the annual balance sheet has been approved by the shareholders (and audited if the
company is subject to a statutory audit) a foreign shareholder is entitled to transfer
abroad the whole of his share of the after tax profit. Foreign investors are also allowed to
transfer abroad proceeds from the sale of stocks and shares, and other assets or
compensations received.
Companies are free to employ whomever they may choose, including a foreign national
(subject to work permit requirements), with pay terms at the discretion of the company
(subject to minimum wage legislation). Foreign employees are allowed to buy foreign
currency for the PLN they earn in Poland and transfer the currency abroad.
Alternatively, the employer may transfer the net pay directly to the employees’ foreign
bank account.
The interests and rights of foreign investors, as well as their property, are protected by
law. Poland has signed bilateral agreements on the protection and promotion of foreign
investment with a number of countries (see Appendix 7). Foreign investors are
guaranteed compensation in the case of the nationalisation or expropriation of their
property. Poland is an EU country and a member of MIGA and OECD.
V. Foreign Investment
State Aid for New Investments
It is important to note that financial investment incentives, fully compatible with the
EU legislation besides the exceptions granted to Poland within the framework of
transition periods (e.g. regulations concerning Special Economic Zones in the
following sub-chapter) come from many sources and that there is no specific single
act which regulates granting aid to investors.
As of the date of Poland’s accession to the European Union (1 May 2004) the grounds
for allowing public aid in Poland are the same as in other EU countries. These grounds
are laid out in art. 36, art. 73, art. 86-89 and art. 296 of the European Treaty. The local
legal framework is formed by the Law on Public Aid Procedure of 30 April 2004 and
the Law on Financial Assistance for Investments, passed by the Parliament on 20 March
2002. This law was substantially changed by the aforementioned Law on Public Aid
Procedure, due to Poland’s EU membership requiring conformity with the EU public aid
policy. The public aid is monitored by the president of the Office for Competition and
Consumer Protection.
Basically, investors in Poland and other EU countries can benefit from regional aid,
sectoral aid for investments in sensitive sectors, excluded from the regulations of the
Law on Financial Assistance for Investments, and horizontal aid. Horizontal aid
schemes provide for further assistance, over the limits of regional aid, in case of specific
projects, such as projects in R&D, or environmental protection.
The Law on Financial Assistance for Investments does not apply to financial assistance
for entrepreneurs operating in the following sectors:
В· synthetic fibres;
В· coal mining;
В· the iron and steel industry;
В· shipbuilding;
В· fishing;
В· production, processing and trade in agricultural products listed in Enclosure 1 to
the European Treaty.
According to the above mentioned law, financial assistance for new investments may be
granted to an entrepreneur in the following cases:
В· the value of the new investment equals at least EUR 10 million;
В· the value of the new investment equals at least EUR 500 thousand and the
investment pertains to the development or modernisation of an existing company
and is connected with maintaining at least 100 jobs for at least 5 years;
В· the new investment results in the creation of at least 20 jobs for at least 5 years;
В· the new investment introduces a technological innovation;
How to Do Business in Poland
the new investment has a favourable environmental impact;
the new investment is located in an industrial, or technology park.
Financial assistance for a projected investment may be granted to an entrepreneur if, in
addition to one of the above, the investment meets all of the following criteria:
· the entrepreneur’s own financing equals at least 25 % of the investment outlay;
В· economic activity resulting from the assisted investment will be carried out for at
least five years from the investment’s completion;
В· if financial assistance is earmarked for creating new jobs, the newly created jobs
are to be maintained for at least five years from the investment’s completion;
В· application for financial assistance of a new investment is submitted before the
investment begins.
Financial assistance to entrepreneurs embarking on new investments can be granted in
various forms and amounts, defined in art. 5 and 6 of the law. It is granted by the
Minister of the Economy and Labour, upon reviewing the following general criteria:
В· location of the new investment;
В· value of the new investment;
В· employment;
В· impact of the new investment on the environment;
В· impact of the new investment on the regional economic development;
В· innovativeness of technology applied in the new investment to produce goods and /
or provide services;
· the new investment’s conformity with directions acknowledged as priorities.
The maximum amount of financial assistance granted to entrepreneurs basically depends
on the sector, location of the investment and size of the company applying for
The state assistance is limited to 50 % of eligible investment outlays, except in:
В· Warsaw and PoznaЕ„ (30 % limit), and
В· GdaЕ„sk-Sopot-Gdynia, Cracow and WrocЕ‚aw (40 %).
A higher ratio (+15 %) applies to small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs), bringing
the public aid ceiling up to 65 % of the investment. On the other hand, the assistance
limits for large investments (over EUR 50 million) are lower.
V. Foreign Investment
Special Economic Zones
The Law on Special Economic Zones of 20 October 1994 created the grounds for
establishing and operating Special Economic Zones (SSE). It provided the investors
operating in the zones with various incentives and tax breaks. The most important ones
included a partial or a complete exemption from corporate income tax on revenue
coming from business operations carried out in a given zone, and counting some part of
investment expenses as an income-generating cost.
The law specifies the aims of Special Economic Zones and how to establish them, the
rules and conditions applying to investments within the zones, and the benefits for
investors. All investors who started business operations in SSEs before the end of 2000
are subject to the provisions applicable till then. Those who started business operations
in 2001 or later are subject to the provisions of the amended Law of 16 November 2000
and the Public Aid Law of 30 June 2000, the latter having been replaced by the Law on
Public Aid Procedure of 30 April 2004.
An investor, in order to take advantage of regional assistance has to obtain a permit for
conducting business operations in a zone and must first meet its terms and conditions.
The permit is granted by the zone’s management (see Appendix 25 for the list of Special
Economic Zones) through a tender or through negotiations undertaken on the basis of
a public invitation. Such a permit specifies a field of activity, the size of the investment,
and future employment.
Permits are not granted and public assistance is not offered for some types of business
activity. These include: manufacturing of explosives, production of tobacco products,
bottling and processing of spirits and other alcoholic beverages, processing of engine
fuels, running game centres, offering services connected with the installation, repair, or
maintenance of machinery and equipment used to carry out business operations in the
zone, certain types of construction services, services connected with retail and wholesale
trade, repair of motor vehicles and household and personal-use articles, hotel and
catering services, financial mediation services, services connected with real estate,
renting, education and business operations, services in the area of public administration,
national defence, obligatory social insurance, education, health care and social welfare,
municipal services, and some licensed business activities. The exclusions are defined for
each SSE separately in the decree of the Council of Ministers concerning particular SSE.
Regional assistance in SSEs is offered in the form of income tax exemptions. The
amount of state aid available is calculated either on the basis of eligible expenditure,
or on the basis of two-year employment costs of the newly employed personnel,
multiplied by the maximum intensity of the aid. However, in the latter case it can not
exceed EUR 4000 per job created.
How to Do Business in Poland
Maximum assistance is offered in all the zones, except for the Cracow Technological
Park. Generally speaking, the value of assistance may not exceed 50 % of the initial
investment outlays, or 50 % of two years’ labour costs. More advantageous treatment is
offered to small and medium-size companies. In this case, the maximum value of public
assistance is increased to 65 %. In the above mentioned Cracow SSE, the maximum
value of assistance amounts to 40 % in the case of large companies, and 55 % in the case
of small and medium-size companies.
Euro-Park Mielec was the first Special Economic Zone established. By the end of 1998
there were 17 Special Economic Zones in Poland. Since two of them did not manage to
attract any investors, they were shut down in 2001. Moreover, two SSEs (SSE Tczew
and SSE Е»arnowiec) merged to form the Pomorska SSE in 2001.
Currently there are 14 SSEs encompassing an area of 6,325 hectares, with additional
1,675 hectares available for large investments (over EUR 40 million, or over 500 jobs).
The zones will be in operation till 2015-2017.
The following table summarises the effects of the operations of the 14 SSEs in Poland in
terms of investment, employment, and the number of permits as of 31 December 2004.
KamiennogГіrska SSE
Katowicka SSE
KostrzyЕ„sko-SЕ‚ubicka SSE
Krakowska SSE
Legnicka SSE
ЕЃГіdzka SSE
Mielecka SSE
Pomorska SSE
SЕ‚upska SSE
Starachowicka SSE
Suwalska SSE
Tarnobrzeska SSE
WaЕ‚brzyska SSE
WarmiЕ„sko-Mazurska SSE
issued in
investments Employment
(PLN million)
Source: Ministry of Economic Affairs and Labour, 2005
Considering both the legislation and the practical results up to date, it must be noted that
conducting business in special economic zones in Poland has proven to be very
advantageous for investors. By the end of 2004 as many as 429 companies were
operating in Polish SSEs, investing almost PLN 20 billion and employing over 77
V. Foreign Investment
thousand persons. In 2004 almost 100 permits were issued, indicating a growing interest
in starting up activities in Polish SSEs.
Some incentives may differ from zone to zone, especially those regarding local taxes
and services offered to investors by the zones’ managing companies. Therefore,
a detailed knowledge of the regulations regarding the particular zone is essential in order
to make the most of the incentives offered.
Special Economic Zones represented one of the toughest issues in Poland’s accession
negotiations with the European Union. The European Commission accepted the state aid
measures applied as of 1 January 2001, but could not accept the extensive investment
privileges granted to companies investing in the zones on the grounds of the old
regulations (i.e., those from before 2001), which the SSEs’ investors were naturally
reluctant to give up. Finally, in December 2002, at the end of the accession negotiations
the following compromise was negotiated:
В· a transition period (i.e., respecting the acquired rights) for small enterprises, till the
end of 2011, and for medium-size enterprises till the end of 2010;
В· for big enterprises that had obtained their permits by the end of 1999, the
maximum state aid amounts to 75 % of investment costs, and for permits issued in
2000, 50 % of investment costs;
В· for enterprises in the automotive industry the maximum state aid amounts to 30 %
of investment costs.
The above provisions are part of the Accession Treaty.
Institutional Structure for Foreign Direct Investments
Polish Information and Foreign Investment Agency (PAIiIZ) was established in June
2003 through a merger of Polish Agency for Foreign Investment (PAIZ S.A.) and
Polish Information Agency (PAI S.A.). It took over the responsibilities of both
institutions. The Agency’s role is to stimulate the inflow of foreign direct investment
into Poland, to provide comprehensive services to foreign investors in Poland, to offer
individually-tailored information about the Polish economy and to support exports by
promoting a positive image of Polish goods and services. PAIiIZ is also responsible
for general economic promotion of Poland abroad.
The agency acts as an intermediary, serving individual and corporate foreign
investors. PAIiIZ offers foreign companies its know-how and helps them to establish
contacts with governmental bodies and the business community. The range of services
В· quick and tailored information on the economic and legal environment in Poland;
How to Do Business in Poland
help in identifying reliable Polish partners and the most convenient locations for
business activities;
facilitating the initial stages of the investment process;
guidance through all the formal procedures by handling contacts with authorities
on both central and local levels;
fully updated publications, including “The List of Major Foreign Investors in
Poland”, in-depth analyses of particular sectors of the Polish economy, and others.
PAIiIZ offers a wide range of information, advice, and guidance services to prospective
foreign investors free of charge.
There are four state entities responsible for the privatisation of the Polish economy, and
thus dealing with foreign investors taking part in it. Naturally, the most important of
these entities is the Ministry of the Treasury; another, dealing with agricultural property,
is the Agricultural Property Agency (APA). Both of these are described in Chapter IV.
In addition, the Ministry of Infrastructure is in charge of the privatisation of Polish
Railways, and Nafta Polska S.A. leads the privatisation of the oil and heavy chemistry
Quite often potential foreign investors abroad first contact the Polish commercial
counsellor’s offices and the economic divisions of Polish embassies. These can facilitate
initial contacts with Polish counterparts, as well as provide some very useful economic
data and information.
To some extent, the promotion of foreign investment in Poland is also carried out by the
Polish Chamber of Commerce and other sectoral and bilateral chambers.
The Warsaw Office of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization
(UNIDO), which offers its assistance to individual potential foreign investors, also plays
an important role in the promotion of foreign direct investment. By opening its
Investment and Technology Promotion Office in Warsaw in 1983, UNIDO became one
of the first international organisations to establish close relations with Poland.
The UNIDO Office in Warsaw has been very active in attracting foreign investors to
Poland. Already in the late 1980s it was organising International Investors’ Forums,
which enabled the international business and financial community to get acquainted with
the investment environment and opportunities in Poland.
For further information on UNIDO’s current activities, and especially on UNIDO’s
Warsaw Office, please refer to Chapter II, the sub-chapter on UNIDO and its activities
in Poland.
V. Foreign Investment
Why Invest in Poland?
The high inflow of foreign direct investments is a clear proof of the country’s
investment rating in the eyes of foreign investors. Fifteen years after the introduction
of successful economic reforms, Poland remains the leader in Central and Eastern
Europe in terms of FDI stock, as well as its annual growth. Poland enjoys attention of
foreign investors, for various reasons. The features that particularly attract foreign
entrepreneurs include:
continued, stable, and fast economic growth,
the size of the Polish market of 38.2 million inhabitants, 40 % more than the Czech
Republic, Slovakia and Hungary put together,
EU membership as of 1 May 2004,
a productive, well motivated, highly skilled, and relatively cheap labour force,
Poland’s location in the heart of Europe, a very good �bridging position’ assuring
easy access of goods manufactured in Poland both to other EU countries and to
Eastern markets,
the success of foreign companies that have already entered the market since the
early 1990s, thus encouraging others,
specific investment incentives,
the support of and positive appraisals from international institutions, such as the
IMF and the World Bank.
For more information on various kinds of tax and non-tax incentives, available to
foreign and domestic entities alike, please refer to the sub-chapter “Special Economic
Zones” and “State Aid for New Investments”.
Foreign Investors’ Reasons for Investment
The results of a study* conducted at the turn of 1999 indicate that the most important
factors taken under consideration by the largest foreign investors in their decision to
embark on business activities in Poland were market-related ones. Respondents placed
three of those factors in the first four places in terms of importance rank: The creation of
new markets (first place); the certainty of existing markets (third place); and the lower
competitiveness level of local enterprises (fourth place).
Cost-related motives were also significant. These included lower labour costs (second
place); the lower real estate prices (sixth place); lower cost of raw materials and semi*
W. Karaszewski, "PrzedsiД™biorstwa z udziaЕ‚em kapitaЕ‚u zagranicznego w Polsce (miejsce w gospodarce
kraju, czynniki i perspektywy rozwojowe)", Nicolaus Copernicus University Publishers, ToruЕ„, 2001.
How to Do Business in Poland
finished products (seventh place); lower electrical power costs (eight place); and lower
environmental expenditures (ninth place).
The relative significance of the second group, however, turned out to be lesser than that
of market-related factors.
Factors described as political, although far less important than those of the first two
groups, were also a factor of importance for foreign investors of companies participating
in the study.
Various motives, along with their respective importance coefficient, are illustrated in the
diagram below.
Main Motives for the Initiation of Business Activities in Poland
by the Largest Foreign Investors
Source: W. Karaszewski, “Przedsiębiorstwa z udziałem kapitału zagranicznego w Polsce
(miejsce w gospodarce kraju, czynniki i perspektywy rozwojowe)”, Nicolaus Copernicus
University Publishers, ToruЕ„, 2001.
V. Foreign Investment
The largest studies of factors leading to the initiation of business activities in Poland by
foreign investors were conducted in 1993, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2003 by INDICATOR
Centre for Marketing Research, on behalf of PAIZ (presently PAIiIZ). A comparison of
the results obtained makes it possible to define the changes that took place in the
hierarchy of importance of individual factors. Such a comparison indicates that five of
the factors shown in the diagram have remained unchallenged at the top of the
importance ranking since 1995. Their order has been subject to insignificant change.
Economic growth prospects, in third place in 1993 and 1995 made it to second place in
1997, and to first place in 2000 and 2003. Labour costs in the last two years made it to
second place, whereas the size of the Polish market made it to third place.
Considering that the significance of the economic growth prospects factor mainly comes
down to expectations related to the internal economic situation, and in particular of its
market aspects (economic growth leads to desirable changes in demand), one can
assume that these studies also confirm the primacy of market factors.
The Most Important Factors Behind the Initiation of Economic Activities
by Foreign Investors in Poland
% of resp.
% of resp.
% of resp.
% of resp.
Economic growth prospects
Labour costs
Size of Polish market
Possibility of reducing production costs
Availability of labour
% of resp.
Source: CBM INDIKATOR, ”Opinia inwestorów zagranicznych o społecznych i ekonomicznych
warunkach działalności gospodarczej w Polsce”, report from the studies conducted on
behalf of the Polish Foreign Investment Agency by J. Garlicki and J. BЕ‚uszkowski,
Warsaw, 2003.
The analysis of the results obtained during this research, whose aim was to identify the
motives behind the initiation of economic activities by foreign investors in East-Central
Europe, indicates that cost and market-factors were dominant. This is borne out by the
majority of studies, notwithstanding significant methodological differences such as
a different approach, the formulation of questions, sample selection, the number of
respondents, etc. Foreign investors thought market-related factors more important than
cost-related ones. Motives of a political nature and supply-related ones proved less
How to Do Business in Poland
What the Investors Say
General Motors decided to make one of the largest ever foreign investments in Poland.
The new Opel Polska factory located in Gliwice was opened in October 1998. It is to
produce 150,000 cars a year. With an investment of USD 360 million at the end of 1998,
it is in the �top twenty’ in PAIZ ranking of the largest foreign investors in Poland. At the
end of 1998 the factory employed approximately 1200 people. After reaching full
production capacity, employment will grow to almost 3000. General Motors’
representatives say that the plant will make it possible to enhance Opel’s presence on
Central and Eastern European markets. They revealed that the decision to invest in
Poland had been a result of a comprehensive site selection study, which had reviewed
different locations in Central Europe, including Hungary and the Czech Republic and
others and 75 different locations in Poland. As a result of this comprehensive study, they
decided to locate the new facility in Gliwice, based mainly on the excellent support they
had received from the government, the infrastructure that would be available, the
benefits of locating in the Special Economic Zone, and, very importantly, the large
component suppliers’ base that was available in the Gliwice area.
The areas of foreign investment in Poland are just as diversified as the Polish economy,
although investors’ opinions tend to be quite similar, regardless of the sector or their
country of origin. Let’s take a look at a few examples.
“As a leading provider of petrol and lubricants, naturally, BP Amoco wants to be where
our customers are. Poland is definitely such a place. With almost forty million people,
Poland offers a major domestic market, and excellent opportunities to expand the sales
of our products. Moreover, the relatively young Polish population means a growing
customer base. And they are buying more cars every year! Beyond that, the country is
located at a very centre of Europe, on the crossroads between East and West, North and
South. This is especially important for a company that serves transportation.
Another thing that drew us to Poland was the labour force. Not only is the Polish
workforce large, young and competitive in terms of labour costs, but potential
employees also boast high levels of technical skills, good work habits and an uncommon
degree of flexibility, and the best of them work for firms like BP Amoco.
Then there is the new Poland itself. Many people refer to Poland as Europe’s tiger
economy, because of its extremely rapid and sustained economic development. This is
a unique business opportunity. After the long years of neglect, the infrastructure is
developing rapidly, telecommunication gets better by the day. Old roads are being
upgraded and new roads built at a rapid rate. Investing in Poland exemplifies a classic
ground floor opportunity.” These are the words of W. Heydel, Business Development
Director of BP Poland.
V. Foreign Investment
“Eurocash entered the Polish market in 1995. Then, as now, the main drivers to our
investment were the size of the market and the excellent growth prospects. The political
stability and the economic growth generate an excellent investment climate. We
currently employ 1,200 people directly in this country. Overall, the human resources
meet our requirements: people have no problem with learning a foreign language and are
proud to work for a foreign company. Moreover, personally, I was very much surprised
with the quality of life Poland offers”. This is an opinion of Luis Amaral, Country
Manager for Eurocash JMB Poland.
ITT Sheraton states that prior to the decision to invest in the Sheraton Warsaw Hotel the
company had carried out a feasibility study. This study revealed that due to the
economic situation and due to the economic development of Poland there would be an
increased demand for hotel rooms for business travellers. The second factor that this
study revealed was the tourist factor. There is a high level of interest among many
tourist groups and individuals in travelling to Warsaw and to Poland. These two factors
brought ITT Sheraton to the conclusion that the demand for hotel rooms in Warsaw
would be growing and the following months proved them right.
Finally, here is an opinion from the French company Alcatel: “Many foreign investors,
including Alcatel, have decided to start telecommunication equipment production in
Poland. The telecommunication market is booming. The number of new installed phone
lines has been constantly growing. Alcatel has been present on the market since 1972.
In 1993 we decided to undertake some big investments. We managed to successfully
realise these investments, due to the fact that we bought two big Polish communications
companies. We would like to keep the leading position on the Polish market”.
How to Do Business in Poland
Foreign Direct Investment
Foreign direct investment (FDI) is one of the key factors contributing to the long-term
economic development. It increases employment, raises productivity, assists in the
transfer of skills and technology and boosts foreign trade operations. It is important to
note that one-third of global trade is already intra-firm trade and that its share
continues to increase. Therefore, countries at all levels of economic development
strive to leverage FDI for its benefits. Poland is arguably the most successful at this in
Central and Eastern Europe.
The Polish Information and Foreign Investment Agency (PAIiIZ) estimates that from
the beginning of the market transformations in 1989 to the end of 2004, foreign
businesses invested directly a total of over USD 84.5 billion in Poland.
Source: PAIiIZ FDI Report, 2005
Investments of over USD 1 million, which are monitored by PAIiIZ, amounted to USD
80.65 billion. Investments below USD 1 million are estimated at some USD 3.83
The year 2003 witnessed a reversal of the negative trend of decreasing FDI inflow to
Poland and once again proved that Poland remains a very attractive target country for
foreign investors. As the inflow of foreign direct investments to Poland reached USD
6.42 billion, a 5 % increase in comparison to the previous year, Poland regained its
leading position in Central and Eastern Europe in terms of annual FDI inflow. In 2004,
FDI monitored by PAIiIZ amounted to USD 7.86 billion, the most since the year 2000,
which was the most successful year in terms of new foreign investments in Poland.
V. Foreign Investment
In terms of foreign direct investment stock, Poland remains the regional leader. On the
other hand, when considering the size of the population, with USD 2,200 of foreign
direct investment per capita, Poland lags behind. By comparison, foreign direct
investment per capita in the Czech Republic and Hungary is twice as high.
As of the end of 2004, the number of companies with foreign capital participation set up
in the country surpassed 51,500, increasing by 5.2 % during the year. The share of these
companies in the number of commercial companies in the insurance business (49.0 % –
including pension insurance, excluding social security), automotive industry (45.6 %),
and hotel and restaurant business (34.9 %) was especially high. The number of foreign
companies investing over USD 1 million in Poland increased by 10.5 %, from 996 at the
end of 2003 to 1101 at the end of 2004. The list of countries being the source of these
large investments expanded to 36 entries.
The dynamic development of foreign investment in Poland is well reflected by an
increase in the number of companies with foreign capital participation, as presented in
the following table.
Companies with Foreign Capital Participation
Companies with Foreign
Capital Participation
Share of Companies with Foreign Capital
Participation in the Total Number
of Companies in Poland* (%)
excluding enterprises run by natural persons and civil partnerships
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
Among the investors on the PAIiIZ list, the largest group was represented by German
companies – 258, followed by investors from the Netherlands – 126, the USA – 118,
France – 101, and Italy – 67.
How to Do Business in Poland
In 2004, European Union countries had a dominant share in foreign direct investment in
Poland, amounting to some 71 %. At the same time the share of North American
investors amounted to 18 %, up from 8 % the year before, due mostly to the off-set
agreement for the purchase of American jet fighters.
In 2004, transnational corporations from France invested USD 1.58 billion in Poland
(20.1 % of total 2004 foreign direct investment inflow). This included further
investments of USD 450 million by France Telecom in the telecommunications
business and BEG S.A.’s investment of USD 356 million in the construction sector.
In the same year, the second largest total sum of foreign direct investments in Poland,
amounting to almost USD 1.43 billion, came from the USA, with Apollo Rida
investing USD 800 million (the largest single investment of 2004) in the real estate
business and IVAX Corporation investing USD 210 million in the production of
pharmaceuticals. The next three places were taken by international corporations (USD
1.31 billion), companies from Germany (USD 1.18 billion), and the Netherlands
(USD 982 million).
Taking into account cumulative investment values, France is a clear leader, with its
investments reaching USD 16.03 billion, accounting for 20 % of the total foreign direct
investments over 1 million USD. The Netherlands with investments of USD 11.15
billion takes second place, followed by the USA (USD 10.16 billion), Germany (USD
10.15 billion), and international corporations (USD 4.65 billion). For more details,
please refer to Appendices 12, 13, 14, and 15.
FDI of over USD 1 million
Source: PAIiIZ FDI Report, 2005
V. Foreign Investment
Globalisation processes, coupled with the freedom of capital flows, have lead to the
international nature of foreign investments. A number of investors originating from
the American or Asian markets invest in Poland through their subsidiaries, located
mainly in European countries. In this context PAIiIZ has changed its classification of
FDI source from �country of origin’ to �country of registration’ as it is increasingly
difficult to determine the true origin of investment funds. Country of registration
means the country where the investing company is registered.
An analysis of the Polish Information and Foreign Investment Agency’s data confirms
a high concentration of capital. At the end of December 2004, the top 4 countries
accounted for 59 % of the total direct foreign investments in Poland of more than USD
1 million. Moreover, the top ten companies from the PAIiIZ list invested USD
18.7 billion, thus accounting for approximately a quarter of total foreign capital inflow
monitored by the agency. The investments of fifteen corporations have surpassed the
USD 1 billion mark.
FDI of over USD 1 million
Source: PAIiIZ FDI Report, 2005
Manufacturing is still the most popular sector for investment, accounting for 40 % of the
investments over USD 1 million (USD 32.2 billion). Within this sector the
manufacturing of transport equipment attracted USD 6.7 billion, food processing over
USD 6.6 billion, and the manufacture of other non-metal goods almost USD 4.2 billion.
Besides the manufacturing sector, the most significant foreign investments are in
financial services (USD 18.9 billion, or 23.4 %), the trade and repairs sector (USD 9.5
billion), and in transport, storage, and telecommunication (USD 7.9 billion).
How to Do Business in Poland
FDI of over USD 1 million
Source: PAIiIZ FDI Report, 2005
An important feature of the foreign investment process in Poland is that companies
already well established in Poland usually reinvest most of the profits generated in this
country to support and develop local operations. Increasingly, more foreign companies
are choosing a green-field investment instead of buying into existing Polish companies.
Green-field investment often takes the modified form of buying or leasing land and
buildings and just installing machinery and equipment. This is sometimes called �brownfield’ investment. This approach is due to the abundance of land with unused buildings
in Poland.
In 2004, green-field investments accounted for more than half of all foreign direct
investments. This was due both to new investors starting their operations in Poland,
and to investors already established on the market reinvesting their profits. The share
of foreign direct investments effected through privatisation has been steadily
decreasing over the past few years. In 2002, it amounted to 36 %. In 2003, it
decreased to 22 % and in 2004, only 17 % of new investments were effected through
V. Foreign Investment
Forms of Foreign Direct Investment in 2004
Source: PAIiIZ FDI Report, 2005
PAIiIZ is not the only entity gathering information on direct foreign investments in
Poland. Another reliable source of information is the National Bank of Poland,
gathering statistical data required for compiling the balance of payments on a cash and
transaction basis. This data is used both by OECD and EUROSTAT. Since the
methodology applied differs, the results published by NBP also differ from the ones
obtained by PAIiIZ. According to the NBP, in 2004, foreign direct investment in
Poland increased by USD 6.16 and reached USD 61.43 billion.
In 2004 foreign investors created directly almost 15 thousand new jobs in Poland. This
does not seem as a lot in comparison to the size of Polish workforce. However, the
importance of foreign companies for the Polish economy arises from that fact that these
companies not only create new jobs, but through the introduction of modern
technologies and management techniques, they achieve much higher operational
efficiency. This is reflected, for example, in their labour productivity.
The Polish economy has a high capacity for the absorption of foreign capital and it is
hoped that over the next few years, foreign investment in Poland will continue to grow.
In particular, an increase in the USA’s direct investments is anticipated, due to the offset agreement concluded for the purchase of fighter planes for the Polish Army.
Moreover, as Poland joined the EU in 2004, more direct investments from these
countries are expected as well.
However, even though Poland remains the regional leader in terms of foreign direct
investment stock, 2004 once again indicated that foreign investors often prefer other
countries in the region, especially the Czech Republic and Hungary. In the opinion of
many foreign companies, these countries, albeit with smaller internal markets, offer
better incentives, including a more efficient legal and institutional framework.
How to Do Business in Poland
Finally, it is worth noting that Polish companies are also investing abroad, although on a
very small scale so far. According to NBP estimates the total value of Polish direct
investment abroad amounted to approximately USD 1.0 billion, as of the end of 2004.
For more information on Polish foreign direct investments, please refer to the next
Polish Direct Investment Abroad
The export of capital has been the fastest growing sector in the area of international
economic co-operation in recent years. The growth in importance of international capital
flows has been particularly pronounced in the last decade, when the annual growth of
foreign direct investments in the world was greater than the growth of world trade. The
value of the foreign production of transnational corporations grew considerably faster
than the value of their exports.
The growing internationalisation of production and services is a way of fighting against
ever-tougher competitors to secure markets for one’s own products and services. More
and more often it turns out that an effective way to compete on foreign markets is to
locate one’s production or service-related activities there. In order to face the growing
competition, Polish companies, even if their means are limited, �embark on the
conquest’ of those markets, where they enjoy a competitive advantage over their rivals.
These are the markets of East-Central European countries, Poland’s closest neighbours.
Unfortunately, it is only to a very limited extent that the Polish economy is engaged in
the global internationalisation process. This is indicated both by Poland’s small share in
the world’s trade and in its limited foreign direct investments, in comparison to other
Polish FDI in 1995-2003 (USD million)
355,284 391,554 476,934 687,240 1,092,279 1,186,838 721,501 596,487 612,201
Share (%)
0.001 -0.012
In 2003, according to NBP, the outflow value of the Polish FDI amounted to USD 194 million.
Data contained in the WIR 2004 will certainly be verified in the report for the following year.
Source: World Investment Report 2004, United Nations, 2004
Poland is a traditional net recipient of foreign direct investment. Polish foreign direct
investment in 1995-2003 amounted to a mere 1.5 % of the FDI flowing into Poland
during the same period.
V. Foreign Investment
In 1998, the National Bank of Poland noted the largest outflow of Polish capital in the
form of FDI. The cause for such a high level of capital outflow was the increase of
purchases of stock and shares in companies whose headquarters were located abroad and
the growth of loans granted by Polish entrepreneurs to companies in which they had
directly invested (mainly from the banking sector).
In 2001, for the first time, the value of Polish FDI abroad decreased, which means that
the value of investments withdrawn was greater than the value of investments newly
The withdrawal of Polish foreign direct investments was related to the sale of stock and
shares in foreign companies by Polish direct investors and constituted USD 70 million,
and to the repayment of loans by foreign firms to Polish direct investors, in the amount
of USD 50 million. Both the sale of stock and the repayment of loans arose mainly from
the reduction of direct investments abroad by Polish banks.
FDI Outflow by Type in 1995-2003 (USD million)
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
FDI outflow,
-90 230 194
of which:
- acquisition of stock and
shares and non-cash
111 -53 270
- conversion of loans and
n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
dividends into shares
- re-invested profits (net)*
- investor loans
230 -28
Until 1996, reinvested profits did not include balance sheet losses.
Source: “Balance of payments on the basis of transactions in the years 1998-2002”, NBP, 2003;
“Polskie inwestycje bezpośrednie za granicą w 2003 roku”, NBP, 2004.
In 2003, the outflow of Polish FDI was estimated at USD 194 million and was USD 36
million lower then in 2002. The target countries, which attracted the most Polish
investment were, Germany (USD 116 million), Ukraine (USD 62 million), and Ireland
(USD 57 million).
At the end of 2003 the total value of Polish FDI abroad amounted to USD 1,679 million,
including the shares of the Polish banking, non-governmental and non-banking sector in
companies located abroad – USD 1,472 million, and of the Polish government – USD
217 million.
How to Do Business in Poland
With respect to the capital invested by Polish companies in enterprises abroad, equity
accounted for 84 %, while the remaining 16 % was accounted for by credits granted and
liabilities resulting from credits obtained. Polish investments were effected primarily in
the European Union countries. As far as the value of equity in foreign companies of
Polish investors in the banking, non-governmental and non-banking sectors is
concerned, the share of the capital allocated in the Netherlands amounted to 22 %,
Germany – 14 %, France – 13 %, Switzerland – 8 %, and Malaysia – 8 %. The capital
of Polish investors was engaged mostly in financial mediation – 42 %.
At the end of 2003, Polish government FDI consisted of shares in the International
Economic Cooperation Bank and in the International Investment Bank.
Of total Polish FDI, the largest part was invested in: financial mediation – 31 %, real
estate service, IT, science, machinery rental and other business services – 18 %,
manufacturing – 13 %, and trade and repairs – 9 %.
How to Do Business in Poland
r Overview of the integration process
r Temporary provisions for Poland include:
investor compensation scheme
capital requirement concerning co-operative credit
acquisition of secondary residences
purchase of agricultural land and forests
state aid for environmental protection
reduced VAT rate on restaurant services,
construction, foodstuffs, and agricultural inputs
recovery and recycling targets for certain packaging
r Current economic developments in Poland as
compared to the European Union average: higher
GDP growth, general government deficit to GDP
ratio, inflation and unemployment rate
How to Do Business in Poland
Integration Process Overview
Since the political and economic transformations started in 1989, the single most
important objective of Polish policy has been political and economic integration with the
European Union, meaning both joining the Common Market and NATO. On 12 March
1999, the Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs, BronisЕ‚aw Geremek, submitted the
ratification treaty to the North Atlantic Treaty’s Depository Office and Poland became
a NATO member. Integration with the EU was completed five years later. On 1 May
2004 Poland, along with nine other countries, joined the European Union.
For Poland, the EU membership means, most of all, an opportunity to accelerate the
country’s economic and social development. The most important benefits include:
В· better access for Polish goods and services to the EU market, not only through the
abolition of tariff barriers, but also due to the removal of the requirement for
additional testing and product certification,
В· increasing the investment attractiveness of Poland,
· improving Poland’s ratings on international financial markets,
В· the import of modern technologies, thus improving quality and cost-effectiveness,
В· more possibilities for business co-operation and contacts with EU partners.
For the Poles, it means equal opportunities with other European nations, opportunities
to work, to travel and to enjoy a similar economic status.
Poland started negotiations on economic integration with the European Union right
after its economic liberalisation in 1990. In March 1992, a transition agreement
concerning trade between Poland and the European Union became effective.
Another important element of Poland’s European integration was its partnership with
EFTA. In 1992, Poland signed an agreement with EFTA countries on trade in
industrial and agricultural goods and fish.
Moreover, Poland has signed an agreement to establish a free trade zone with the
Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary, creating the Central European Free Trade
Area, later joined by Slovenia, Romania, Bulgaria and Croatia. CEFTA is a free trade
agreement modelled on EFTA, aimed at liberalising trade in Central and Eastern
Europe. Effective from 1 April 1993, import tariffs on raw materials and finished
goods not in direct competition with domestic products in respective countries were
abolished at once. Liberalisation processes within CEFTA produced a very
substantial growth in trade among member states.
VI. Poland in the European Union
As of 1 May 2004, when Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Slovenia
joined the European Union, CEFTA regulates trade among Romania, Bulgaria and
Croatia only. Presently Poland’s trade with these countries, as well as with EFTA
members is regulated by the Common Customs Tariff and the respective treaties
between the EU and these states.
On 1 February 1994, the transition agreement with the EU was replaced by the
Association Treaty and on 8 April of the same year, Poland formally applied for EU
The objective of the Association Agreement was to establish a free trade zone
between the EU and Poland. Initially, quota restrictions on Polish industrial exports
into the Community were abolished, except for sensitive products, that is, five
categories of textile and agricultural products, which were not subject to general
liberalisation under the Association Agreement. As of 1 January 1998, all Polish
industrial exports benefit from completely unrestricted access to the EU market. As of
1 January 2002, Poland lifted all the remaining customs’ barriers for EU member
states’ industrial exports to Poland. The lowest degree of liberalisation and the
smallest concessions applied to agricultural products such as milk, meat, and
One of the major tasks involved in joining the European Union was the obligation to
harmonise Polish laws with those of the EU. The process of screening Polish laws
from the point of view of their compatibility with those of the EU started in 1994 and
finished by 1 May 2004.
In July 1996, Poland became the 28th OECD member, joining the most developed
countries in the world. The accession of Poland to this organisation was an important
milestone in its integration with the EU. It strengthened Poland’s credibility and
improved its quotations on financial markets, stimulating the inflow of foreign capital.
In the same year, in order to accelerate the pace of adjustment and integration of the
Polish economy with the European Union, the Committee for European Integration
was created as an office of central state administration headed by the prime minister.
The tasks of the Committee included the preparation and co-ordination of the
adjustment to EU requirements, as well as the co-ordination of central administration
activities in the area of foreign assistance.
The formal negotiations on Poland’s full membership started on 31 March 1998. The
negotiations were based on the position papers prepared by task teams of the InterMinisterial Team for Preparing the Accession Negotiations with the EU. The
negotiations have been divided into 31 negotiation areas, or chapters.
How to Do Business in Poland
Poland successfully concluded accession negotiations on 13 December 2002 and on
16 April 2003 signed the Accession Treaty in Athens, along with nine other countries
joining the EU in 2004. Finally, on 7 and 8 June 2003, a nationwide referendum was
held on Poland’s accession to the European Union. 59 % of Poles participated in this
historical event, with 77 % voting Yes to the integration and 23 % voting against. This
clear outcome once again confirmed the consistency and commitment with which
Poland went through the years of transformation to become a modern democracy,
a functioning market economy, and, at last, a member of the European Union as of
1 May 2004.
The Accession Treaty
The Accession Treaty is the most complex international agreement ever concluded.
It consists of many parts, such as the proper Accession Treaty, Accession Act, and
a number of Protocols and Enclosures, which are all binding. Moreover, there are also
some Declarations attached, which are unilateral and even though they do not have
force of law, they serve for the Treaty’s interpretation. The proper Accession Treaty is
common for all ten countries joining the EU in 2004, while other documents of the
Treaty have parts that are common for all countries, as well as parts referring to
individual countries. Declarations refer to individual countries only.
It is worth noting that the Accession Treaty itself contains just three Articles. The first
one states that the ten countries accede to the EU and the two others define the
languages of the Treaty and the date it comes into force. The Accession Act is the core
document of the Treaty, specifying all the particulars pertaining to accession, such as
transitional arrangements and changes in EU legislation resulting from accession.
The Treaty of Accession 2003 of the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary,
Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovenia, and Slovakia, signed in Athens on 16
April 2003, can be consulted and downloaded from the European Union website at
Temporary Provisions
Annex XII to the Act of Accession contains temporary provisions and transitional
measures regarding Poland. Among these, it is worth noting the following:
Freedom to provide services:
В· With reference to the investor compensation scheme, Poland has been granted
transitional arrangements until the end of 2007 to reach the minimum level of
compensation. In this period the Polish investor-compensation scheme will
provide for cover of not less than EUR 7,000 until 31 December 2004, of not
VI. Poland in the European Union
less than EUR 11,000 from 1 January 2005 until 31 December 2005, of not
less than EUR 15,000 from 1 January 2006 until 31 December 2006 and of
not less than EUR 19,000 from 1 January 2007 until 31 December 2007.
With reference to the initial capital requirement concerning co-operative
credit institutions, the EU regulations will not apply until 31 December 2007
to co-operative credit institutions already established in Poland at the date of
accession. However, the initial capital requirement for these co-operative
credit institutions in Poland are to be not less than EUR 300,000 until 31
December 2005, and not less than EUR 500,000 from 1 January 2006 until
31 December 2007.
Free movement of capital:
В· Poland is granted a five-year transitional arrangement during which it can
maintain the national legislation regarding the acquisition of secondary
residences. However, nationals of the Member States and nationals of the
States which are a party to the European Economic Area Agreement and who
have been legally resident in Poland for four years on a continuous basis are
not included in the above arrangement and can not be subjected to any
procedures other than those to which nationals of Poland are subject.
В· Moreover, there is a twelve-year transitional arrangement during which Poland
can maintain its national legislation regarding the purchase of agricultural land
and forests. Nationals of the Member States, who are self-employed farmers in
Poland are excluded from the transitional period regulations, in accordance
with specific provisions. For more information please refer to Chapter VIII.
Competition Policy:
В· Transitional arrangements are agreed with Poland with regard to state aid for
environmental protection, along the following lines: For investments that
relate to standards for which a transitional arrangement has been granted
under the Environment Chapter and for the duration of that transitional
arrangement, the aid intensity is limited to the regional aid ceiling with
a 15 % supplement for SMEs. For existing IPPC installations covered by
a transitional arrangement under the Environment Chapter, an aid level of
30 % is agreed upon until the end of 2010. For IPPC-related investment not
covered by a transitional arrangement under the Environment Chapter, an aid
level of 30 % is agreed upon until 31 October 2007. For large combustion
plants, an aid level of 50 % was agreed upon for investments that relate to a
transitional arrangement granted under the Environment Chapter.
В· Poland may apply corporate tax exemptions granted before 1 January 2001
on the basis of the Law on Special Economic Zones of 1994, under the
following conditions:
How to Do Business in Poland
for small enterprises, as defined in accordance with the Community
definition of such enterprises and in conformity with Commission
practice, up to and including 31 December 2011;
b. for medium-size enterprises, as defined in accordance with the
Community definition of such enterprises and in conformity with
Commission practice, up to and including 31 December 2010.
In the event of a merger, acquisition or any similar event which involves the
beneficiary of a tax exemption granted under the aforementioned legislation,
the exemption from corporate tax shall be discontinued. For more
information on investment incentives and Special Economic Zones please
refer to Chapter V.
Moreover, a transitional arrangement is agreed upon whereby the
restructuring of the steel industry is to be completed by 31 December 2006.
В· Poland is granted a three-year transitional period from the date of accession
during which the minimum requirements for the preliminary recognition of
producer organisations shall be set at five producers and at EUR 100,000. The
duration of the preliminary recognition may not exceed a period of five years
starting from the date of acceptance by the competent national authority.
В· The requirements relating to fat content shall not apply to drinking milk
produced in Poland for a period of five years from the date of accession.
Drinking milk which does not comply with the requirements relating to fat
content may be marketed only in Poland, or exported to a third country.
By way of derogation from Article 1 of Regulation (EEC) No 3118/93 and until
the end of the third year following the date of accession, carriers established in
Poland are excluded from the operation of national road haulage services in the
other Member States, and carriers established in the other Member States are
excluded from the operation of national road haulage services in Poland. Before
the end of the third year following the date of accession, Member States will
notify the Commission whether they will prolong this period for a maximum of
two years, or whether they will fully apply Article 1 of the Regulation
henceforth. In the absence of such notification, Article 1 of the Regulation shall
apply. Only carriers established in those Member States in which Article 1 of the
Regulation applies may perform national road haulage services in those other
Member States in which Article 1 also applies. As long as Article 1 of the
Regulation is not applied, Member States may regulate access to their national
road haulage services by progressively exchanging cabotage authorisations on
the basis of bilateral agreements. This may include the possibility of full
VI. Poland in the European Union
Poland is allowed to maintain the reduced VAT rate on restaurant services and
construction until the end 2007. Poland is also allowed to maintain the VAT zero
rate on books, and a super-reduced VAT rate on foodstuffs and agricultural
inputs, excluding machinery, until 31 December 2007, and until 30 April 2008,
respectively. All countries joining can maintain a higher turnover threshold than
the level provided for in the acquis to exempt SMEs from VAT, and can exempt
international passenger transport from VAT. Furthermore, Poland is granted a
one-year transitional arrangement, during which it can maintain its existing
reduced excise duty rate on certain ecological fuels.
Poland is granted a transitional period till 31 December 2007 for attaining the
EU recovery and recycling targets for the following packaging materials, with
the following intermediate targets:
a) recycling of plastics: 10 % by weight by the date of accession, 14 % for 2004
and a minimum of 15 % for 2005;
b) recycling of metals: 11 % by weight by the date of accession, 14 % for 2004
and a minimum of 15 % for 2005;
c) overall recovery rate: 32 % by weight by the date of accession, 32 % for
2004, 37 % for 2005 and 43 % for 2006.
Current Economic Developments
This section aims at a brief description of some major economic developments and
trends in the enlarged European Union and the euro-zone, i.e., the twelve EU member
states that use the euro as a common currency. It also indicates the performance of
Poland, so it can be viewed against the wider economic background. The following
information is based on the latest publications and data provided by Eurostat, the
Statistical Office of the European Communities, supplemented by GUS, the Polish
Central Statistical Office. Some figures for the year 2004 and the first quarter of 2005
are partly estimated and might be revised by Eurostat and GUS at a later date.
Please note that some figures for Poland contained in this section may differ slightly
from those presented elsewhere in the guide. The different statistical definitions and
methodology employed by Eurostat and some data providers in Poland required the
adjustment of these figures in order to ensure their comparability.
On 1 January 2004, the population of the European Union was 456.4 million and that
of the euro-zone 308.4 million. The ten new Member States added 74.1 million people
(Poland 38.2 million) to the EU-15’s 382.3 million. The population of the European
How to Do Business in Poland
Union increased by 1.9 million in 2003, an annual rate of 0.4 %, mainly due to a net
migration of 1.7 million, while the natural increase was 0.2 million. The European
Union accounts for 7.2 % of the world’s population.
In 2004, GDP grew by 2.1 % in the euro-zone and by 2.3 % in the European Union,
compared to 0.5 % and 0.8 % respectively for 2003. This growth was accompanied by
accelerating private consumption, steady growth in investments, and exports and
imports slowing down. In Poland the GDP grew more than twice as fast (5.4 % in
2004 and 3.8 % in 2003).
GDP grew by 0.5 % in both the euro-zone and the European Union during the first
quarter of 2005, compared to the previous quarter. In the fourth quarter of 2004,
growth rates were 0.2 % in the euro-zone and 0.3 % in the European Union. In the
first quarter of 2005, compared to the same quarter of the previous year, GDP grew by
1.4 % in the euro-zone, by 1.7 % in the European Union, and by 2.1 % in Poland,
following the increase of 1.6 %, 1.9 %, and 4.0 % respectively in the previous quarter.
In 2004, the general government deficit of the euro-zone and the European Union
improved compared to 2003, while the general government gross debt increased. In
the euro-zone, the government deficit decreased from 2.8 % of GDP in 2003 to 2.7 %
in 2004, and in the European Union it fell from 2.9 % in 2003 to 2.6 % in 2004. In the
euro-zone the government debt to GDP ratio rose from 70.8 % in 2003 to 71.3 % in
2004, and in the European Union from 63.3 % to 63.8 %.
In 2004 the largest general government deficits in percentage of GDP were recorded
by Greece (6.1 %), Malta (5.2 %), Poland (4.8 %), Hungary (4.5 %) and Cyprus
(4.2 %). Six Member States continued to register a government surplus in 2004. In all,
fourteen Member States recorded an improved public balance relative to GDP, while
ten Member States registered a worsening.
In 2004 the lowest ratios of general government gross debt to GDP were recorded in
Estonia (4.9 %), Luxembourg (7.5 %), Latvia (14.4 %), and Lithuania (19.7 %). In
Poland the government debt equalled 43.6 % of GDP. Nine Member States had a
government debt ratio higher than 60 % of GDP in 2004, the same as in 2003.
In 2004, euro-zone trade recorded a surplus of EUR 74.4 billion, compared to EUR
69.7 billion in 2003. The European Union recorded a trade deficit of EUR 60.9 billion
in 2004, increasing from the EUR 57.8 billion deficit in 2003. The largest trade
surplus was noted in Germany (EUR 157.0 billion), while the United Kingdom
registered the largest deficit, EUR 92.9 billion. Poland also noted a trade deficit,
amounting to EUR 11.5 billion.
VI. Poland in the European Union
In December 2004 compared to December 2003, industrial production (working day
adjusted data) rose by 1.0 % in the euro-zone and by 0.8 % in the European Union. In
Poland it grew substantially more, by 4 %.
Euro-zone seasonally adjusted unemployment stood at 8.9 % in December 2004, just
as in December 2003, compared to 8.8 % in the previous month. The European Union
unemployment rate was 8.9 % in December 2004, unchanged compared to November
and 0.2 % lower than in December 2003. Poland’s unemployment rate equalled
18.3 % at the end of 2004.
Euro-zone annual inflation rose from 2.2 % in November to 2.4 % in December 2004.
A year earlier the rate was 2.0 %. European Union annual inflation was 2.4 % in
December 2004, up from 2.2 % in November. A year earlier the rate was 1.9 %.
Annual inflation in Poland reached 4.4 % in 2004, albeit with a significantly higher
GDP growth than the EU average.
How to Do Business in Poland
r 19 % Corporate income tax, losses carried forward
for up to 5 years
r 22 % VAT with reduced rates at 7 %, 3 %, and 0 %
r Excise duty; harmonized excise goods in line with EU
directives and 65 % on non-harmonised excise goods
r Progressive personal income tax (19 - 40 %)
r Individuals conducting business activity have the
option to choose a flat 19 % rate
r 19 % tax on dividends, subject to international
r Expenditures up to PLN 3,500 are treated as costs
r Transfer pricing definitions follow OECD guidelines
r Agreements on the avoidance of double taxation
signed with 80 countries
How to Do Business in Poland
All taxes in Poland are approved by Parliament. The Polish taxation system has in recent
years been undergoing substantial changes aimed at creating a more transparent system
and at conforming to taxation standards existing in the European Union. Although
Polish tax legislation itself is relatively straightforward, its application in practice can be
difficult. In particular, the law leaves some areas open to interpretation and it may
happen that officials within the same tax district will come to two different conclusions
as to the tax consequences of a particular set of circumstances. Moreover, some areas of
tax legislation refer to concepts that either lack a legal definition or have a different
meaning from that adopted in other legislation.
Taxpayers should note that all taxes are payable monthly on account and that interest
penalties of 13.0 % per annum (July 2005) apply to the late payment of tax.
The main taxes in Poland are:
Corporate Income Tax (CIT), regulated by the Act on Income Tax on Legal
Persons of 15 February 1992: With the exception of partnerships having no legal
personality, all legal persons and organisational units having a legal personality are
subject to corporate income tax. The base of taxation is profit taken as surplus of
income over the cost of acquiring it. Starting from 2004, the rate of this tax equals
19 %.
During the transformation process, Poland has been constantly reducing the state’s
involvement in the economy, as is clearly reflected in the reduction of the tax burden.
The following graph illustrates reductions in the CIT rate in the period of 1997-2005.
Source: Act on Income Tax on Legal Persons of 15 February 1992, with subsequent amendments
VII. Taxation System
Corporate income tax does not apply to:
- revenues earned on agricultural activity, with the exception of income from special
branches of agricultural production,
- revenue earned on forestry activities within the limits of the Forestry Act,
- revenue earned on activities, which cannot constitute the subject of a legally
effective contract.
Corporate taxpayers having their seat or the location of their board of directors, within
the territory of the Republic of Poland are liable to tax on the whole of their income,
irrespective of the place where it was earned. Taxpayers having neither a seat nor
a board of directors within the territory of Poland are liable to tax only on income earned
within the territory of the Republic of Poland.
Losses can be carried forward for up to five years, though no more than 50 % of the loss
can be written off in any year. There is no concept of the carry back of losses.
The Act very precisely enumerates expenditures that are not treated as costs.
Furthermore, the last major revision of the CIT Act of November 1999 incorporated
depreciation and amortisation issues, previously regulated in a decree.
Transfer pricing: Companies and individuals entering into transactions with related
entities or individuals (both domestic and foreign), as well as with entities or individuals
located in tax havens, have to possess full transfer pricing documentation. Such
documentation has to be made available within 7 days of request by a tax inspector.
Profits assessed under a transfer pricing investigation are subject to a penalty tax at 50 %
plus interest (currently 13.0 % per annum). Related entities and persons are defined as
these having 5 % or more direct or indirect ownership. Transfer pricing definitions
follow the OECD guidelines.
VAT (Tax on Goods and Services), regulated by the Act on Value Added Tax
of 11 March 2004: The new act on VAT came into force on 1 May 2004, following
Poland’s accession to the EU. The basic rate amounts to 22 %. Apart from the basic rate
there is a preferential rate of 7 % applicable to sales of certain agricultural goods,
foodstuffs, books, newspapers, some goods for children, goods connected with health
protection, etc. A complete list forms Annex 3 to the act.
There is also a zero rate applicable to exports. However, services ordered from abroad
but performed in Poland are subject to 22 % VAT. Only services performed abroad are
treated as exports and thus are subject to 0 % rate. Moreover, some services are VATexempt. Examples include education and health services, as well as postal services. A
complete list is found in Annex 4 to the act. Intra-Community transactions are zero
How to Do Business in Poland
rated, provided that the required EU VAT number has been allocated to the recipient
of the goods or services.
The VAT rate on unprocessed products is 3 %. Normally, the principle of VAT liability
on sales of agricultural products is that a farmer who is a non-VAT payer (who is subject
to lump-sum payments), selling his products, beside the sales price will receive a lumpsum VAT refund from the buyer of these products. This refund will amount to 3 % of
the sum due for the sold products less the lump-sum tax return. See Annex 6 to the act
for a complete list of products.
Companies and individuals must register for and charge VAT if their annual turnover
exceeds EUR 10,000. VAT is chargeable on supplies of goods and services unless they
are specifically relieved by way of exemption or zero rating. Just like in most European
countries, VAT is refundable to foreign tourists leaving Poland and exporting products
from Poland. Foreign tourists are eligible for VAT reimbursement for purchases
exceeding PLN 200 (incl. VAT) only if the customs authorities confirm that the goods
have left the Polish territory intact and no later than on the last day of the third month
following the month the goods were purchased in.
VAT legislation causes the most problems to taxpayers, particularly where goods and
services are involved that are not adequately classified in the official register.
Excise Duty, regulated by the Act on Excise Duty of 23 January 2004: In
addition to VAT some commodities are subject to excise duty. This applies to over 60
commodity groups, encompassing goods such as passenger cars, fire-arms used for
hunting, fuels and lubricants, alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, furriery, perfumes,
The Act groups excise goods into two categories; harmonised excise goods, and nonharmonised excise goods. Harmonised excise goods are subject to excise duty following
specific rules, based on the regulations contained in related EU directives and
incorporated into the Act. This group contains fuels and lubricants, tobacco products,
alcoholic beverages, and some other products containing alcohol. Harmonised excise
goods are listed in Annex 2 to the Act.
Non-harmonised excise goods are taxed at 65 % of the taxable base, except for electric
energy, taxed at PLN 0.02 per kWh. All excise goods are listed in Annex 1 to the Act.
There are also some exemptions from excise duty provided for in the legislation, such as
the exemption of exported excise goods, or of electric energy generated from renewable
VII. Taxation System
Tax on Dividends, regulated by the Act on Income Tax on Legal Persons of 15
February 1992: This tax applies to legal and natural persons, who are shareholders in
companies. Income of holding companies coming from other Polish registered
companies of the holding are exempted from this tax. The tax rate is equal to 19 %
unless agreements on avoiding double taxation state otherwise.
Please note that any double taxation agreement relief at lower rates of withholding tax
may not be available on the �pass-through’ of a dividend abroad from a Polish trading
company via an intermediate Polish holding company if the Polish holding company
does not have sufficient taxable income in its own right to offset the tax on dividend
Dividends received by a resident corporation from a non-resident corporation are
subject to the full rate of corporate income tax. Allowance will be made for
withholding tax borne subject to the provisions of any double taxation treaties in
force. The amount of foreign tax deductible cannot, however, exceed the amount of
Polish corporate income tax due on the foreign dividend income (on a due proportion
basis). Polish corporations holding at least:
- 75 % of the share capital in a foreign company not registered in the EU for more
than two years;
- 10 % of the share capital in a foreign company registered in the EU for more
than two years;
may also deduct from due Polish corporate income tax any underlying tax incurred.
In order for a Polish payer to withhold tax at the reduced rates set by the relevant
agreement for the avoidance of double taxation, the dividend transferring entity will
have to provide the tax payer with a certificate of tax residence issued by the tax
authorities of the transferee. The certificate confirms that the taxpayer’s headquarters,
for tax purposes, are located in the country where the dividend is paid.
Revenues from dividends and those related to share from profits by corporate entities,
paid by a Polish company to an entity being a resident of any EU country other than
Poland, are exempt from withholding tax, if the taxpayer’s direct holdings in the basic
share capital of the dividend payer are:
- from 1 January 2005 to 31.12.2006 – not less than 20 %;
- from 1 January 2007 to 31.12.2008 – not less than 15 %;
- after 1 January 2009 – not less than 10 %.
The minimum number of shares must have been held for at least 2 years prior to the
date of payment of dividend or other distribution of profit.
How to Do Business in Poland
Personal Income Tax (PIT), regulated by the Act on Income Tax on Natural
Persons of 26 July 1991 and the Act on Lump-sum Income Tax on Some Income
Derived by Natural Persons of 20 November 1998: The tax is assessed on the income
of natural persons, independently of the source of origin. The income tax scale is
progressive. In 2005, the following tax scale was applied.
Tax Base (PLN)
up to 37,024
Income Tax (PLN)
19 % less 530.08
from 37,024 to 74,048
6,504.48 + 30 % of income exceeding 37,024
from 74,048
17,611.68 + 40 % of income exceeding 74,048
Source: Act on Income Tax on Natural Persons of 26 July 1991, as amended
However, enterprises run by a natural person (individuals conducting business
activities) have an option to chose a flat tax rate of 19 %. In such a case though they
can not benefit from some of the mechanisms allowing for a reduction of the tax burden
that are available to natural persons.
The Law on Personal Income Tax specifies altogether more than one hundred types of
income exempt from personal income tax, as well as several deductions from the tax
base and from the tax.
A husband and wife may be taxed separately or together, dividing their combined
income by two. A similar regulation applies to single parents and their children. Among
the tax deductibles the most important are interest payments on loans financing housing
needs, internet expenses, certain types of gifts, and social security contributions. The
above are deducted from the tax base. Further, health insurance contributions (only up to
7.75 % of its calculation base) are deducted from the tax.
Inheritance and Gifts Tax, regulated by the Act on Inheritance and Gifts Tax
of 28 July 1983: The base of taxation is the market value of goods and property rights
acquired through inheritance, donation and prescription. The rate is progressive and its
level depends on the relation between the donor and the recipient.
Tax on Civil and Legal Proceedings, regulated by the Act on Tax on Civil and
Legal Proceedings of 9 September 2000: A taxpayer who must pay this tax, is obliged,
without being called to do so by the tax authorities, to submit the appropriate
declaration, calculate and pay the tax to the tax office, or transfer it to its bank account,
within 14 days from the date of the commencement of tax obligation.
Stamp Duty, regulated by the Act on Stamp Duty of 9 September 2000:
A taxpayer who must pay this stamp duty, is obliged, without being called to do so by
the tax authorities, to submit the relevant declaration, calculate and pay the stamp duty
VII. Taxation System
to the tax office or transfer it to its bank account, within 14 days from the date of the
commencement of tax obligation.
Local Taxes, regulated by the Act on Local Taxes and Charges of 12 January
1991: Local authorities are empowered to set the level of rates and the scope of relief in
local taxes. Their rates, however, cannot exceed the maximum levels determined by the
government. Local taxes and fees include: real estate tax, vehicle tax, dog tax, and fair tax.
Real Estate Tax, regulated by the Act on Local Taxes and Charges of 12
January 1991: All real estate is subject to real estate tax within the limits defined in the
official announcement of the Minister of Finance published every year in Monitor
Polski. As specified, annual tax rates are determined by resolutions of the local
communal level government (gmina) and may be different in each administrative area.
The 2005, maximum real estate tax rates for selected types of real property are listed in
the following table:
Type of Real Estate
Annual Tax Rate per Square Meter
Residential buildings
0.54 PLN
Commercial buildings
17.98 PLN
Other buildings
6.01 PLN
Commercial land
0.66 PLN
Other land
0.32 PLN
Source: Official Announcement of the Minister of Finance of 26 October 2004
There are Ministry of Finance plans to replace this tax, which is related to the size of
property, with a cadaster tax, which will be related to the property’s value. Some
preparations are already underway, however due to the complexity of valuation-related
issues, introduction of a cadaster tax is foreseen no earlier than in 2010.
Capital Allowances
As of 1 January 2000, depreciation and amortisation rates as well as their application are
governed by the Act on Corporate Income Tax of 15 February 1992 (with later
Taxpayers are free to treat as costs any expenditure up to PLN 3,500. Current
depreciation and amortisation rates are specified in Annex 1 to the Act on Corporate
Income Tax. There are eight groups of depreciation and amortisation rates. For certain
categories of real estate and plant and machinery the reducing-balance method of
depreciation may be applied, in such a way that depreciation can be charged at a higher
rate. These rates are calculated by multiplying the normal rate by a certain factor. The
factors provided by the Act generally vary between 1.2 and 2.0. In some specific cases a
How to Do Business in Poland
factor of 3.0 may also be employed. This applies in particular to some fixed assets used
by a company in communes especially threatened by high structural unemployment, or
in communes threatened by recession and increasing impoverishment. On the other
hand, it is also possible to reduce the listed depreciation and amortisation rates.
The major depreciation rates applied in 2005 are as follows:
Machinery and equipment (general)
Other machinery and equipment
Computer systems
Depreciation Rate
2.5 %
4.5 %
10 %
7 % - 25 %
20 %
30 %
Source: Annex 1 to the Act on Income Tax on Legal Persons of 15 February 1992, as amended
Double Taxation Treaties
Poland follows the model of the OECD convention in negotiating its tax treaties. As of
June 2005, Poland has signed agreements on avoiding double taxation with 80 countries.
These treaties are based on a reciprocity principle; they may actually reduce or eliminate
various taxes. The list of countries with which Poland has signed such agreements is
presented in Appendix 6.
How to Do Business in Poland
r Two forms of property ownership; ownership
equivalent to freehold and perpetual usufruct, both
can be used as loan guarantees
r Purchase of real estate by EU / EEA citizens does not
require any permits, except for temporary provisions
r Real estate transaction costs depend on the real
estate’s type and value and include notary fees, the
tax on civil and legal proceedings, VAT, agent’s fees,
permit fee, and court registration fees, though not all
of these apply to each transaction.
r Office market rents for prime office space in Warsaw
stand at EUR 10 - 18 / sq.m /month
r Retail market rents for the best shopping centre
locations are EUR 30 - 90 / sq.m / month
r Prime warehouse space rents in Warsaw reach
5 EUR / sq.m / month
How to Do Business in Poland
Legislative Framework Governing Real Estate
The basic regulations governing foreigners’ usage and ownership of real estate in Poland
are as follows:
The Law on the Acquisition of Real Estate by Foreigners of 24 March 1920
The Law on the Management of Real Estate of 21 August 1997
The Law on the Formation of the Agricultural System of 11 April 2003
Appropriate regulations of the Polish Civil Code, administrative laws, and decisions of
the Supreme Court, apply to all issues not regulated by the above laws. Various aspects
of spatial zoning system are regulated by the law on Spatial Zoning of 27 March 2003.
The construction sector is regulated by The Construction Law of 7 July 1994, as
Forms of Real Estate Ownership
The Polish legal system differentiates between three groups of rights pertaining to
holding of real estate: �real rights’, �limited real rights’, and �contractual rights’. The
grounds for this differentiation is the scope of rights and obligations to which entities
holding and using real estate are entitled.
There are two forms of property ownership in Poland similar to those existing in other
· Ownership – equivalent to �freehold’, absolute right in rem,
· Perpetual usufruct (minimum 40 years – maximum 99 years, renewable) – a type
of in rem right, which corresponds to �leasehold’. The holder of this type of right is
charged with perpetual-usufruct fees, paid to an owner (the commune or the State
Treasury) on an annual basis. Buildings and structures constructed on the land in
perpetual usufruct become the property of the perpetual usufruct holder.
Both forms of property ownership can be used as loan guarantees (mortgage) under
Polish law.
Ownership of real estate is freely transferable, although the transfer must be executed in
the form of a notarial deed. The deed must be entered in the Land and Mortgage
Register. The Polish Civil Code provides for a number of limited rights in rem, for
instance: usufruct rights over the property of another, mortgages, ownership rights to cooperative flats, co-operative commercial premises, and co-operative single family
VIII. Real Estate
Contractual property rights (leases) include:
· Najem – The landlord grants the tenant the use of premises for a fixed period of
time (not longer than 10 years) or for an unspecified period, in exchange for rent,
· Dzierżawa – The landlord agrees to grant the tenant the use of the land and the
right to collect the profits (raw resources are excluded) of property for a fixed
period (not longer than 30 years) or for an unspecified period, in exchange for rent.
Purchase of Real Estate by Foreigners
Ownership rights on land and real estate concerning foreigners are governed by the act
of 1920 (The Law on the Acquisition of Real Estate by Foreigners), as amended. The
most recent amendments stemmed from Poland’s accession to the EU on 1 May 2004.
Therefore, the law provides for a favourable treatment of EU and other European
Economic Area (EEA) citizens.
For the purposes of this act a foreign person is defined as:
1. a natural person who is not a Polish citizen,
2. a legal entity with its registered seat abroad,
3. a partnership with no legal personality between the above mentioned persons, or
entities with their registered seat abroad, established on the grounds of a foreign law,
4. a legal entity or a commercial partnership that has no legal personality and
a registered seat in Poland, controlled directly, or indirectly, by any of the above.
Purchase by Foreigners, EU / Other EEA Citizens
Purchase of real estate by EU / EEA citizens does not require any permits. Still, there are
some noteworthy exceptions during the transition periods. These are:
В· Purchase of agricultural and / or forest real estate, during the first 12 years of
Poland’s membership in the EU;
· Purchase of �second houses’, during the first 5 years of Poland’s membership in
the EU.
However, even in the above mentioned periods it is not necessary to obtain a permit in
the following cases:
В· For the acquisition of agricultural real estate located in the DolnoЕ›lД…skie, KujawskoPomorskie, Lubuskie, Opolskie, Pomorskie, WarmiЕ„sko-Mazurskie, Wielkopolskie,
Zachodnio-Pomorskie provinces, upon 7 years of concluding a lease agreement with
stated date, if during this period the foreigner conducted agricultural activities in
person and lived legally on the territory of the Republic of Poland;
В· For the acquisition of agricultural real estate located in the Lubelskie, ЕЃГіdzkie,
MaЕ‚opolskie, Mazowieckie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie, ЕљlД…skie, ЕљwiД™tokrzyskie
How to Do Business in Poland
provinces, upon 3 years of concluding a lease agreement with stated date, if during
this period the foreigner conducted agricultural activities in person and lived legally
on the territory of the Republic of Poland;
For the acquisition of �second houses’:
- if the buyer has legally, continuously been residing for at least 4 years on the
territory of the Republic of Poland, or
- in order to engage in economic activity involving the provision of tourist services.
Purchase by Foreigners, Who Are Not EU / Other EEA Citizens
Generally, a purchase of real estate, or taking it over in perpetual usufruct, as well as a
purchase or taking over shares in a company having its registered seat in the territory of
Poland and holding title to, or the right of perpetual usufruct to real estate (if such an
action results in the company becoming controlled by a foreign person), requires
a permit from the Minister of Internal Affairs and Administration. However, acquiring
stock in publicly traded companies does not require a permit.
Permits are issued by the director of the Department of Permits and Licences
(Departament ZezwoleЕ„ i Koncesji) in the Ministry of Internal Affairs and
Administration, acting on the authorisation from the Minister of Internal Affairs and
Administration. A permit is issued in the form of an administrative decision, pursuant to
an application having been filed by a foreigner. The permit is valid for two years from
the date of issue. Provisions of the Code of Administrative Procedure apply to the
purchase of real estate.
Currently, a foreigner does not have to apply for a permit in the following cases:
В· The purchase of an independent residential property, as defined in the Law on
Ownership of Premises of 24 June 1994, including purchase of separate premises
destined for garages, or of shares in such premises;
В· The purchase of real estate by a foreigner who has lived in Poland for at least five
consecutive years from the date of issuance of a permanent residency card;
В· The purchase of real estate by a foreigner who is the spouse of a Polish citizen and
who has lived in Poland for at least two consecutive years from the date of
issuance of a permanent residency card, when the real estate will become part of
the matrimonial estate;
В· The purchase of real estate by a foreigner, if legally entitled to inherit from the
property title holder on the day of the purchase, when the property title holder had
been the owner or perpetual user of the property for at least five years;
В· The purchase by a legal entity or a commercial partnership that has no legal
personality and a registered seat in Poland, controlled directly, or indirectly by any
entity mentioned in 1, 2, or 3 above, in accordance with its statutory objectives,
when the total area of undeveloped land does not exceed 0.4 ha within city zones;
VIII. Real Estate
The purchase of real estate by a foreign entity that is simultaneously a bank and
a mortgage debtor, as a result of an unsuccessful auction being a part of an
execution process;
The purchase or acquisition by a bank being a legal person, as described in art. 1
paragraph 2 item 1 of the law, of shares in a company, as mentioned in art. 3e of
the law, in connection with that bank’s pursuance of claims arising from banking
activities performed.
The above listed exemptions from the permit requirement do not apply to property
located in the border zone, or when the total area of land zoned for agricultural use
exceeds 1 ha.
A permit may be refused only if such a refusal is justified by national security, public
order, social policy, or public health concerns.
Permits Issued
In 2004, the Minister of Internal Affairs and Administration issued 1,065 permits for
foreigners to buy land or real estate. Most of these (619 permits) regarded foreign
companies investing in Poland. Furthermore, 173 permits for acquiring shares or stakes
in Polish companies that own real property in Poland were issued. The number of
permits issued for purchase of land and real estate as well as the total amount of land
covered by the permits, presented on the graph below, are yet another measure of
evaluating foreign interest in investing in Poland.
Source: Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration, 2005
How to Do Business in Poland
In 2004, foreign companies investing in Poland received permits for the purchase of
approximately 2,500 ha, while 446 foreign natural persons received permits
encompassing just 230 ha. The permits were issued primarily for lands in central and
south-western Poland. In 2004, the largest amount of land was bought by companies and
individuals from Germany and the Netherlands. According to The Ministry of Internal
Affairs and Administration, through the permits foreigners were allowed to purchase
41,574 ha in Poland in 1990-2004.
As of 1 May 2004 foreign companies and individuals from the European Economic
Area do not require permits to purchase real estate in Poland, save for the
aforementioned exceptions. In 2004, foreign persons purchased 1,437 landed properties,
encompassing 1,412 ha, without the need for permits.
Transaction Costs
Purchasing a company: tax on civil and legal proceedings on company shares: 1 %
Purchasing a property
- Land not zoned for development: no VAT payable, tax on civil and legal
proceedings: 2 %
- Buildings with land or a vacant development site:
Sale by VAT Payer: 22 % VAT, no other taxes
Sale by non-VAT Payer: tax on civil and legal proceedings 2 %, no VAT
В· Leasing a property: 22 % VAT
Additional Transaction Costs
Permit fee: up to 1,400 PLN, if applicable
Notary fees: varies, based on the value of the real estate, maximum rates are as
- Over PLN 10,000 to PLN 30,000:
PLN 310 + 2 % of an amount in excess of PLN 10,000
- Over PLN 30,000 to PLN 60,000:
PLN 710 + 1 % of an amount in excess of PLN 30,000
- Over PLN 60,000 to PLN 1,000,000:
PLN 1,010 + 0.5 % of an amount in excess of PLN 60,000
- Over PLN 1,000,000:
PLN 5,710 + 0.25 % of an amount in excess of PLN 1,000,000
Court registration fees: varies, depends on the transaction, up to PLN 20,000
Agent’s fees:
- Purchase: 1 - 2 % of transaction value, usually paid by the owner
- Lease: 10 - 15 % of the annual rent + VAT, usually paid by the owner
VIII. Real Estate
Property Tax
Real estate tax – the rate is determined by the local authority, subject to maximum
rates set by the Minister of Finance every year. For more information please refer
to Chapter VII.
Annual perpetual usufruct tax is assessed as 3 % of the value of perpetual usufruct
land for commercial premises and 1 % for residential land.
Owners of certain types of property, including owners of land zoned for
agricultural use, must pay an agricultural tax. Its amount depends on the size of the
property, the type, the class of the agricultural land and the tax district within
which it is situated.
Professional Services on the Real Estate Market
The Law on Management of Real Estate (passed on 21 August 1997) and the executive
acts issued by the Council of Ministers regulate professional activity on the real estate
Licensed Valuer
As of 1 January 1998, only licensed valuers are allowed to perform property valuations
in Poland. To qualify for this profession, a person must:
В· be able to conduct legal activity,
В· have not been convicted of an offence that could undermine the profession,
В· possess a university degree,
В· pass a postgraduate course in property valuation,
В· have relevant work experience,
В· pass the qualification proceedings conducted by the State Designation Committee,
В· obtain a licence from the Minister of Infrastructure.
The law requires licensed valuers to maintain a high level of knowledge through
continuing education and makes them responsible and accountable to the Professional
Ethics Committee. There are about four thousand real estate valuers in Poland. They are
accredited by the local offices of the Polish Federation of Valuers’ Associations. The
Polish Federation is a member of The European Group of Valuers’ Associations
(TEGoVA) and of the International Valuation Standard Committee (IVSC).
How to Do Business in Poland
Real Estate Agent / Broker
The Law on Management of Real Estate mandates that only licensed professionals may
conduct real estate transactions. The following set of criteria must be fulfilled in order to
become a real estate agent:
В· secondary school diploma,
В· completion of an applicable college or speciality course,
В· practical experience gained while employed by a real estate agency,
В· passing qualification proceedings conducted by the State Designation Committee,
В· obtaining a licence from the Minister of Infrastructure.
A real estate agent is obliged to conduct business in accordance with the applicable laws
and regulations, adhere to professional standards and professional conduct, and maintain
an adequate level of knowledge. Real estate agents are accountable for their business
conduct to the Professional Ethics Committee. The Polish Real Estate Federation is the
organisation of real estate agents. It establishes standards for the profession, including
ethical business practices. The federation co-operates closely with a number of similar
societies throughout the world.
Real Estate Manager
The law defines a real estate manager as a person who possesses the required
qualifications and is licensed to manage properties on behalf of the owner. Owners
managing their own properties do not require a licence. The criteria for licensing
professional managers are similar to those for real estate agents. The Polish Federation
of Property Managers represents this profession.
Real Estate Market by Segments
Office Market
Office market activity is focused on Warsaw (approx. 2,300,000 sq.m of existing
office space); other cities are still characterised by limited stock of high quality
modern space (approx. 800,000 sq.m in seven main Polish cities). Non central
locations (NCL) hold 58 % of total modern stock in Warsaw, as compared to 42 % in
the central business district (CBD). A further increase in new supply in non-central
locations is expected to follow through to 2005, with over 150,000 sq.m of space
presently under construction.
VIII. Real Estate
Office Market – Cumulative Stock and Annual Supply
Source: C&W H&B Advisory Services, 2005
In 2004 the market has shown signs of recovery, as annual gross take-up reached
nearly 320,000 sq.m. Demand during 2004 was stronger in non-central locations
(213,000 sq.m) than in the central business district (107,000 sq.m). The overall
vacancy level has decreased over the year, falling to 11.8 % (nearly 18.9 % in CBD
and 6.8 % in NCL).
In 2005 rents should continue to fall as level of supply is expected to remain high.
Current (as of June 2005) rental levels for prime office space in Warsaw stand at EUR
10-18/sq.m/month (EUR 14-18 in CBD and EUR 10-14 in NCL).
How to Do Business in Poland
Office Market – Rents
Source: C&W H&B Advisory Services, 2005
Retail Market
Retail development has continued in all the main cities across Poland as well as in
Warsaw. Polish high street facilities are still at an early stage of development and
supply is limited to old stock (mainly in existing residential buildings). There is
approximately 3.7 million sq.m of shopping centre space in Poland’s 187 projects.
Most of the projects are located out of the city centres and around large supermarkets
and retail warehouse units from DIY (do-it-yourself) and home ware sectors.
However, since the year 2000 the growth of new generation city centre projects is
observed in most Polish cities, with the top project being ZЕ‚ote Tarasy in Warsaw,
presently under construction. Over 1.7 million sq.m of shopping centre space is
planned in Poland till 2007, with a number of notable projects scheduled to open in
2006. Following the dynamic development of stand-alone retail warehouses from the
DIY sector, a process of concentration into retail warehouse parks, led by IKEA, is
expected all over Poland. Over 1,000,000 sq.m of retail warehouse space exists in
Poland, with a further 300,000 sq.m in the planning stage.
VIII. Real Estate
Modern Retail Market – Supply
Over 5,000 sq.m projects
Source: C&W H&B Advisory Services, 2005
Demand for retail space remains at a healthy level and the activity of foreign retailers
has increased, with new players looking to enter the market as Poland joined the EU
(Electro World, an electronic equipment giant, will open their first outlet in Poland in
Autumn 2005). The most common requirements are for high-standard units located
close to strong natural pedestrian flows. The demand is caused mainly by established
retailers looking to speed up their expansion while limiting their overall capital
investment and by new retailers requiring faster market entry opportunities. Most of
the existing shopping centres are leased at 100 %, with just a few instances of vacant
How to Do Business in Poland
Rents for the best locations in shopping centres have diversified, and depending on the
centres’ quality and location are at the level of EUR 30-90/sq.m/month. Such growth
in prime rents in some markets (Warsaw, Cracow) was caused by the development of
a new generation of shopping centres in city centre locations. At the same time a drop
in rents for older properties was recorded.
Retail Market – Prime Rents in Shopping Centres
Source: C&W H&B Advisory Services, 2005
Industrial Market
These is over 1,600,000 sq.m of modern warehouse stock in Poland, of which 78 % in
the Warsaw area. Development activity increased again in 2004, with completions of
over 500,000 sq.m (including 200,000 sq.m in the Warsaw area). As of June 2005,
there were over 200,000 sq.m of warehouse space under construction, with some
additional space ready to be developed as �built-to-suit’ projects, to be delivered in
less than 6 months. A further increase of new developments is expected, especially in
Central Poland and the Upper Silesia region, following demand. Following EU
accession, the role of Poland in the European distribution network is likely to increase.
VIII. Real Estate
Industrial Market – Supply of Warehouse Space
Source: C&W H&B Advisory Services, 2005
Take-up of modern warehouse space in Poland was estimated at approximately
300,000 sq.m in 2004, representing a 35 % increase over the previous year. Over 50 %
of the gross take-up (deals signed) was attributed to large transactions of over 10,000
sq.m. In terms of sectors, logistic companies remained the strongest source of demand,
followed by manufacturing, and retail & wholesale. Over 2004, the vacancy rate
continued to fall, both in the Warsaw area (6 % at the end of the first quarter of 2005)
and in other cities of Poland (nearly 100 % leased). Developers avoid speculative
investment and the �built-to-suit’ system prevails. An increase of activity in the
production space market is expected, strongly fuelled by EU accession.
Rents have stabilised in Warsaw and with the new supply better matched with
demand, rents should remain stable in 2005. Prime rental figures for warehouse space
in Warsaw are at a level of 3 - 5 EUR/sq.m/month.
How to Do Business in Poland
Industrial Market – Prime Rents and Vacancy
Source: C&W H&B Advisory Services, 2005
How to Do Business in Poland
r Member of the Stockholm Text of the Paris
Convention on the Protection of Industrial Property
r Member of the Madrid Agreement Concerning the
International Registration of Marks
r Industrial and intellectual property is protected by
the Industrial Property Law of 30 June 2000
r Copyright is protected by the Law on Copyright and
Related Rights of 4 February 1994
r The rights to any manifestation of creative activity of
an individual character in any form, regardless of its
value, purpose, and manner of expression are
r Registered patents are valid for 20 years from the
date of filing
r The protection of utility models lasts for 10 years
How to Do Business in Poland
Industrial and intellectual property is protected on the grounds of the Industrial Property
Law of 30 June 2000, which came into force on 22 August 2001, replacing four previous
pieces of legislation. The law regulates inventions, utility models, industrial designs,
trademarks, geographical indications and topographies of integrated circuits, as well as
the principles on which entities may accept rationalisation proposals and remunerate the
creators thereof.
Patent Legislation
Poland is a member of the Stockholm Text of the Paris Convention on the Protection of
Industrial Property. Since 1990, Poland is also a signatory to the Patent Co-operation
Treaty. Protection of inventions by patents and utility models is provided by the above
mentioned Industrial Property Law of 30 June 2000. However, if obligatory European
Union regulations, or international agreements provide for special procedures for
granting protection in the subject matter, the provisions of this law apply only to the
subject matter not governed by that agreement or falling within the responsibilities of
national authorities. Applications are filed with the Polish Patent Office. Foreign
applicants must be represented by Polish patent attorneys.
Registered patents are valid for 20 years from the date of filing. A patent granted for
a manufacturing process also covers products directly obtained through this process. The
protection right of a utility model is valid for 10 years. To keep a patent or protection
right in force annuities must be paid.
Patents are not granted for:
inventions whose application would be contrary to the principles of public order or
new plant varieties or animal breeds, or purely biological methods for the
cultivation of plants or breeding of animals, although this does not apply to the
micro-biological cultivation of plants or breeding of animals, nor to its results;
surgical and therapeutic methods of medical or veterinary treatment, or diagnostic
methods in the fields of medicine or veterinary science, although this does not
apply to products used in diagnosis or treatment.
Patents are granted after an examination as to whether an invention is new, involves
original research, and is commercially viable. A utility model is to be new and useful
and to relate to the shape, construction, or arrangement of an object that has a durable
IX. Industrial and Intellectual Property
The patent or protection right of a utility model gives the owner the exclusive right to
exploit the invention on the territory of Poland while it is valid. The exclusive right
cannot, however, be abused, especially by applying prohibited monopolistic practices.
In particular, patent rights will not apply where its exploitation by a third party is
necessary to satisfy a domestic market need and in particular when the public interest
requires so and supply and / or the quality of the product concerned is insufficient,
and / or its price is unduly inflated. This provision, however, does not apply in the first
three years following patent registration.
Abusing patent rights, as well as the need to prevent or eliminate a state of national
emergency, may be a reason for applying for a compulsory licence.
There are no special terms on licences. The owner of a patent or exclusive licence has
the right to sue for an injunction on account of profits and/or damages. Criminal
penalties are foreseen for false marking and infringement. Marking products with
a patent number is commonly used but not obligatory.
It is worth noting that on the grounds of the Law on Changing Industrial Property Law
of 6 June 2002 a whole new chapter on supplementary protection rights was introduced.
It came into force on the date of Poland’s accession to the European Union. From that
date supplementary protection rights are granted on the territory of the Republic of
Poland following the conditions laid down in the regulations concerning the creation of
supplementary protection certificates for medicinal products and plant protection
products in the European Union.
Poland is a member of the Madrid Agreement on the registration of trademarks and the
prevention of false or deceptive indications of the origin of goods. Since 1991, Poland
has also been a member of the Madrid Agreement on the international registration of
trademarks and became a member of the Protocol to this Agreement in the spring of
The following kinds of mark may be registered:
service mark,
collective mark,
mutual quality assurance trademark.
How to Do Business in Poland
An application must define the goods and services that are to be marked by the
registered trademark. The application procedure, the rights conferred, and the forms of
registerable and unregisterable marks are regulated by the aforementioned Industrial
Property Law. The applications are filed with the Polish Patent Office. Priority under the
Paris Convention may be claimed.
A registered trademark is valid for 10 years from the date of filing. However, there are
several instances where the right of protection for a trademark shall lapse earlier, for
example, if it is proved that for five consecutive years the mark has not been used. The
registration may be renewed for the next 10-year period. After registration, the owner of
the trademark may grant the licence to a third party. In case of infringement, the
proprietor or licensee can take legal steps.
Protection is extended to the names of geographical places and regions, where the name
refers to a specific locality or area which is associated with a particular product and
where there is a particular characteristic of the product associated with the name.
Foreign applicants have to be represented in Poland by a local patent agent. There are
many patent attorneys. Their list is available at the Polish Chamber of Patent Agents
( A list of European patent attorneys in Poland is also
available from the European Patent Office (
Copyrights in Poland are protected by the Law on Copyrights and Related Rights of
4 February 1994. The law, following amendments resulting from joining the European
Union, meets contemporary international standards and corresponds to the principles of
free trade in intellectual property.
The scope of copyright protection is quite extensive. The law covers not only the
protection of traditionally understood author’s rights, but also related rights. The law
provides for new rights and allows copyright owners to decide how their work is to be
used and to derive financial benefit from it. The owners include producers of sound and
video recordings, TV and radio stations, as well as artist-performers. The law provides
protection for intellectual property in the areas of science, technology, and
manufacturing, including computer programmes, industrial designs, etc. The protection
mechanism for computer software is similar to that used in other EU countries.
The rights to any manifestation of creative activity of an individual character in any
form, regardless of its value, purpose, and manner of expression are protected. The term
during which intellectual property rights are protected was expanded to 70 years after
IX. Industrial and Intellectual Property
the author’s death or, in cases were the copyright belongs to somebody else, 70 years
after its distribution.
The law also provides for a general compensation mechanism for losses incurred by
authors, performers, and producers due to uncontrolled mass reproduction for personal
use (at home). Producers and importers of VCRs, tape recorders, other audio and video
equipment, scanners, copying machines, as well as clean tapes, CDs, etc. must pay
a surcharge to the artists, performers, and manufacturers amounting to up to 3 % of the
sales income generated by these products.
The law provides grounds for an efficient enforcing of copyright protection. Illegally
obtained benefits may be confiscated and returned to the true owner. Any equipment
used for the infringement may also be confiscated, even if it does not belong to the
perpetrator. The law also envisages penalties for the infringement of intellectual
property rights by fines and prison sentences of up to 5 years.
Moreover, a separate piece of legislation, The Law on Suppressing Unfair Competition
of 16 April 1993 defines unfair competition as an illegal activity, or an activity contrary
to good practises, violating or threatening the interests of another entrepreneur or
customer. It protects Polish and foreign companies from such activities, and specifically
attempts to convince the public that goods or services originate from someone
other than the true producer or supplier,
damaging the company’s image by providing unchecked information or publishing
its trade or technological service information, etc.,
violating business secrets,
inciting cancellation, or non-performance, of a contract,
product imitation,
impeding market access,
organising pyramid selling schemes.
Upon coming into force the Law on Copyrights and Related Rights and the Law on
Suppressing Unfair Competition have considerably strengthened copyright protection in
Poland and contributed to curtailing piracy. EU membership required amendments of
both laws, in order to implement EU directives in this area. The amendments have been
duly introduced and have resulted in the establishment of a legal framework concerning
copyright protection which is similar to that present in other EU countries.
How to Do Business in Poland
r A variety of legal forms available, to suit any type
and size of business
r How to establish basic types of companies:
ВЁ joint stock company
ВЁ limited liability company
ВЁ limited partnership
ВЁ limited joint-stock partnership
r Regulations concerning subsidiaries; branch offices
and representative offices
r Merger regulations
r Criteria for simplified financial reports for smaller
r Obligatory audit criteria
r Public procurement tender procedures and exclusions
r Creditors’ protection
r Employment contracts
r Social security charges amount to 48 % of the salary
r Citizens of Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia,
United Kingdom, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia,
Lithuania, Malta, Slovakia, Slovenia and Sweden do
not require a permit to work in Poland
r Various exclusions from the obligation of obtaining
a work permit
How to Do Business in Poland
Forms of Business Entities
Polish regulations allow the following legal forms of businesses:
enterprises run by a natural person; these are small businesses run by private
civil partnerships established under the regulations of the Polish Civil Code,
commercial companies, established by natural or legal persons under the
regulations of the Polish Code of Commercial Companies,
co-operatives established by natural or legal persons,
state-owned enterprises,
societe europea (SE) and European Economic Interest Grouping (EEIG) can be set
up in Poland as of 19 May 2005 (in accordance with EU Council regulations).
The Code of Commercial Companies of 15 September 2000 regulates two groups of
partnerships (registered partnership, limited partnership, professional partnership
and limited joint-stock partnership),
corporations (joint-stock company and limited liability company).
Societies, foundations, and trade unions may also carry out economic activity.
Operations in some business areas require a license or a permit, on the grounds of the
Law on Economic Freedom of 2 July 2004, or may be carried out following the
company’s entry in the register of regulated activities, regardless of whether the
company is domestic or foreign. For some basic information on corporations, as well as
licensing and permits, please refer to Legal Considerations in Chapter V.
On the basis of the Law on Economic Freedom of 2 July 2004, foreign persons (as
defined by the aforementioned law) from EU and EFTA states – members of the
European Economic Area – may operate in Poland in accordance with the principles
applicable to domestic entrepreneurs.
Other foreign persons may conduct their operations solely (unless stated otherwise in
international agreements) in the form of a limited partnership, limited joint-stock
partnership, limited liability company, and joint-stock company. Moreover, foreign
persons may open branch offices and representative offices in Poland. For more
information on subsidiaries please refer to the next sub-chapter.
XI. Operating in Poland
Establishing a Company
Joint-Stock Companies and Limited Liability Companies
Before the registration procedure for a company may be started, the company charter
(joint-stock company) or the articles of association (limited liability company) must be
prepared and duly signed and notarised. Prior to their finalisation in consultation with
a notary, a draft should be prepared by the legal advisers of the company’s founders.
In the case of a joint-stock company, the notarial deed should contain the following:
business name and company seat,
type of activity,
duration of the company, if limited,
amount of share capital, capital paid-in before registration, the nominal value of the
shares and their number, the indication whether they are registered shares or bearer
number of each type of shares and rights associated with specific share types, if
names and addresses of the founders,
number of members of the governing and supervisory bodies, or at least a minimum
or a maximum number and an entity authorised to appoint the members,
at least an approximation of costs resulting from the company’s formation,
a newspaper / periodical for publishing announcements, if the company intends to
publish announcements in other than the Court and Economic Monitor (Monitor
SД…dowy i Gospodarczy).
Apart from the above, the charter should include provisions concerning the number and
type of instruments that entitle the holder to participate in the profits or in the division of
company assets, along with the rights associated with these instruments, any additional
obligations related to the purchase of the shares, the conditions and manner in which the
shares may be re-deemed, any limitations concerning shares’ transfer or sale and any
extra rights granted to specific shareholders.
In the case of a limited liability company, the notarial deed should contain the following:
business name and company seat,
type of activity,
duration of the company, if limited,
amount of share capital,
whether a shareholder is entitled to one or more shares,
number and nominal value of shares held by individual shareholders.
How to Do Business in Poland
Apart from the above, the deed should include provisions concerning in-kind
contributions and stipulations concerning additional shareholder benefits and/or
obligations, if applicable.
Other documents required at the notary office are:
a list of names of shareholders and the value and number of shares held by the
a draft of the appointment of the Board of Management,
a draft of the appointment of the Supervisory Board (obligatory for joint-stock
companies) and Control Committee, if provided by law or the articles of association.
If the shareholder is a legal person, he is required to submit:
a copy of the company’s entry in the commercial register (valid for three months),
a resolution of the appropriate body of the company agreeing to the company’s
participation in the new company to be formed,
notarialy authorised proxies, if the persons authorised to sign on behalf of the
shareholder are not appearing in person and are to be represented by a proxy.
Documents in a foreign language should be confirmed by the local Polish embassy or
consulate as having been prepared in accordance with local law and must be
accompanied by a certified translation.
It should be noted that for limited liability companies the founding capital must be fully
paid up on incorporation, while for joint-stock companies at least 25 % of the founding
capital must be paid up / contributed on incorporation and at least 25 % of the cash
capital must be paid up.
The next step is to register the company in the National Court Register. This is
performed by the Registry Court, which acts after receiving an application for
registration submitted by the Board of Management and containing information on:
business name and company seat, and scope of business,
the value of the initial capital (and the number of shares and their nominal value
for joint-stock companies),
the names of Board of Management members and how the company is
represented (and members’ addresses for limited liability companies),
the names of Supervisory Board members (obligatory for joint-stock companies)
and Control Committee, if required by law, or the articles of association,
the duration of the company, if limited,
XI. Operating in Poland
a newspaper / periodical for publishing announcements, if indicated in the
charter / articles of association,
a statement on in-kind contributions made by the partners,
whether a shareholder is entitled to one or more shares (limited liability
number of privileged shares and type of privileges (joint-stock companies),
final share capital amount, if provided by the charter (joint-stock companies),
amount of capital paid-in before registration (joint-stock companies),
any extra rights granted to specific shareholders, if provided by the charter.
Other documents required upon registration include:
The company charter or articles of association;
Documents appointing the company’s governing bodies, with a specification of
appointed members. In the case of a limited liability company only when these
were not defined in the articles;
A statement from all members of the Board of Management that the contributions
towards initial capital have been made by all shareholders in full (limited liability
companies), or that the share payments and contributions in kind envisaged by the
charter have been effected lawfully (joint-stock companies);
A list, signed by all members of the Board of Management, giving the names of the
shareholders (individuals and companies) and the number and nominal value of
shares held;
Specimens of the signatures of the Board of Management members, certified by a
notary or made in person in the presence of the Court;
Personal details of the members of the Board of Management.
There are some further requirements concerning documents required upon registration
of a joint-stock company, specified in the Code of Commercial Companies, article 320.
There is a registration fee amounting to PLN 1,000.
The registration has to be officially announced, as required by the law, in the Court and
Economic Monitor. The announcement fee is PLN 500.
After its registration in the Court, each company must obtain its statistical number
(REGON) from the local statistical office (free of charge). To receive it the company is
required to fill-in and submit a simple RG-1 form, accompanied by a copy of the
articles or charter and a certified copy of the entry in the Commercial Register. Although
statistical offices are obliged to issue the REGON within seven days, if you show up in
person it can take as little as twenty or thirty minutes, depending on the length of the
How to Do Business in Poland
Finally, the company must be registered with the Social Security Institution (ZUS) and
the local tax office (after opening a bank account).
Limited Partnership
A limited partnership is a partnership wherein at least one partner is fully liable against
creditors (general partner) and the liability of at least one partner (the limited partner) is
limited. The partnership agreement must be notarised and it should contain:
business name and company seat,
type of activity,
duration of the company, if limited,
contributions made by each partner and their value,
liability of each limited partner against creditors (value),
if a limited partner contributes in kind, the contribution must be specified, along
with its value and the name of the contributing partner.
The next step is to register the company in the National Court Register. The same
registration and announcement fees apply as in the case of other commercial companies.
A limited partnership’s registration application should contain:
business name and company seat,
type of activity,
name(s) of general partners and, separately, names(s) of limited partners, as well as
circumstances pertaining to limitations on partners’ active capacity, if applicable,
names of persons authorised to represent the company, and how the company is
represented, and, should general partners entrust the running of the company to
some of their number alone, this circumstance should be mentioned,
amount up to which the limited partners are liable.
A limited partnership is established upon its registration. After this, just as for
corporations, the company must obtain its statistical number, and register with the Social
Security Institution (ZUS) and with the local tax office (after opening a bank account).
Limited Joint-Stock Partnership
A limited joint-stock partnership is a partnership wherein at least one partner is fully
liable against creditors (the general partner) and at least one of the partners is the
company’s shareholder. The minimum share capital of a limited joint-stock partnership
amounts to PLN 50,000. The partnership agreement must be notarised and it should
XI. Operating in Poland
business name and company seat,
type of activity,
duration of the company, if limited,
contributions made by each partner and their value,
amount of share capital, how it was collected, the nominal value of the shares and
their number, an indication whether they are registered shares or bearer shares,
number of each type of shares and rights associated with specific share types, if
name(s) of general partners, with their seats / addresses,
structure of the General Meeting and of the Supervisory Board, if establishment of
the Supervisory Board is required by law, or the partnership agreement.
The next step is to register the company in the National Court Register. The same
registration and announcement fees apply as in the case of other commercial companies.
A limited joint-stock partnership’s registration application should contain:
business name and company seat,
type of activity,
duration of the company, if limited,
amount of share capital, the nominal value of the shares and their number,
number of privileged shares and type of privileges, if envisaged in the partnership
amount of capital paid-in before registration,
name(s) of general partners, as well as circumstances pertaining to limitations on
partners’ active capacity, if applicable,
names of persons authorised to represent the company, and how the company is
represented, and, should general partners entrust the running of the company to
some of their number alone, this circumstance should be mentioned,
a statement on in-kind contributions of the shareholders, if applicable.
A limited joint-stock partnership is established upon its registration. After this, just as
for corporations, the company must obtain its statistical number, and register with the
Social Security Institution (ZUS) and with the local tax office (after opening a bank
How to Do Business in Poland
Subsidiaries of Foreign Companies
Foreign companies may open branch offices and representative offices in Poland
pursuant to the provisions contained in the Law on Economic Freedom of 2 July 2004.
Branch Office
Foreign companies may establish branch offices in Poland, on the basis of reciprocity,
subject to the provisions of international agreements ratified by Poland, in order to
conduct business activity in Poland within the scope of their business objectives,
Foreign persons (as defined by the aforementioned law) from EU and EFTA states –
members of the European Economic Area – may establish branch offices in Poland in
accordance with the principles applicable to domestic entrepreneurs.
Branch offices are obliged to use the name of the mother company in the language of the
country where it is registered, along with the name of its legal form translated into
Polish and the words oddziaЕ‚ w Polsce (branch in Poland) added.
A foreign entity setting up its branch office is obliged to appoint a person at the branch
who is authorised to represent this entity. A branch may commence its operations only
after it has been registered with the National Court Register.
Branch offices are to maintain separate accounting books in Polish, pursuant to Polish
accounting regulations. Another requirement stipulates that branch offices are required
to notify the Polish Minister of the Economy and Labour of:
В· the commencement of liquidation of the foreign entity that has opened the branch
in Poland,
В· the loss by that foreign entity of the right to conduct business activity.
Liquidation of branch offices is carried out following the liquidation procedure for
limited liability companies contained in the Code of Commercial Companies of 15
September 2000.
Representative Office
Foreign companies may establish representative offices in Poland solely in order to
promote and advertise the company establishing the office. Establishment of
a representative office requires registration in the Register of Representative Offices of
Foreign Business Entities kept by the Minister of the Economy and Labour. Registration
is effected based on an application from the foreign company concerned.
XI. Operating in Poland
The application, in Polish, should contain the following:
В· name, place of registration, and legal form of the foreign company opening its
representative office,
В· scope of the business activity of the foreign company opening its representative office,
В· name and address in Poland of a person in the representative office authorised to
represent the foreign company,
· representative office’s address in Poland.
The above-mentioned application should be accompanied by the documents listed below:
В· deed of formation (articles of association, charter) of the foreign company, if
В· copy of its entry in the Commercial Register or its equivalent, if applicable,
В· statement of the foreign company on establishing its representative office in Poland,
· document certifying the foreign company’s rights to the real estate wherein its
representative office will carry out the activities.
The enclosures in a foreign language contained in this list should be accompanied by
a certified translation into Polish.
Representative offices are obliged to use the name of the mother company in the
language of the country where it is registered, along with the name of its legal form
translated into Polish and the words przedstawicielstwo w Polsce (representative office
in Poland) added.
Just take branch offices, representative offices are required to maintain separate
accounting books in Polish, pursuant to Polish accounting regulations. Furthermore,
representative offices are obliged to notify the Polish Minister of the Economy and
Labour of:
В· the commencement or end of liquidation of the foreign entity that has opened
a representative office in Poland,
В· the loss by that foreign entity of the right to conduct business activity,
В· the loss by that foreign entity of the right to dispose of its assets, as well as
В· any change pertaining to the information contained in the application for
registering of the representative office.
Liquidation of representative offices is conducted in accordance with following the
liquidation procedure for limited liability companies contained in the Code of
Commercial Companies of 15 September 2000.
How to Do Business in Poland
Competition and Consumer Protection
The Office for Competition and Consumer Protection (UOKIK) is the Polish
competition authority guarding freedom of competition and consumer interests. Its
major mission is to examine conformity with the Competition and Consumer
Protection Law of 15 December 2000 (in force as of 1 April 2001), which forms the
legal basis for competition and consumer protection in Poland.
The UOKIK’s head-office is located in Warsaw and there are 9 branch-offices in major
Polish cities. Its key activities include acting against monopolistic practices, merger
control, consumer protection, and public aid monitoring. As of 1 May 2004 the UOKiK
is a part of the European Competition Network, formed by the European Commission
and competition protection authorities of the member countries. From a foreign
investor’s point of view probably the most interesting activities of the Office for
Competition and Consumer Protection and its regional agencies are the ones pertaining
to mergers.
A merger of companies is subject to the UOKiK is approval if the companies’ combined
turnover in the preceding year exceeded EUR 50 million. This obligation refers, in
particular, to:
В· the merger of two or more independent companies;
В· the takeover, through acquisition or by entering into the possession of stocks, other
securities, shares, of the entirety or a part of the property, or in any other way
obtaining direct or indirect control over one or several companies;
В· the creation of a joint venture;
В· the takeover or acquisition of stocks or shares of another company resulting in
gaining at least 25 % of the votes at the general assembly or assembly of partners;
В· the same person assuming the function of a member of the managing or controlling
body of competing companies.
There are, however some exclusions from the obligation of obtaining the UOKiK’s
approval, most notably these pertaining to taking over companies with an annual
turnover below EUR 10 million (in the territory of Poland, during each of the two
accounting years immediately preceding the merger), to companies of the same holding,
and to acquiring only temporary control. A merger can take place if UOKiK grants
a favourable decision.
In order to increase the efficiency of the UOKiK, in cases where a company’s practice
may be restricting competition, an explanatory investigation may be instituted instead of
the more complex and costly anti-monopoly proceedings, and a decision may be made
on the evidence gathered in the shorter proceedings.
XI. Operating in Poland
Furthermore, the question arose as to the obligation of notification of trans-national
mergers. It was decided that, on the basis of Article 1 of the Act on Competition and
Consumer Protection, which provides that the act will apply to all anti-competitive
practices “which cause or may cause effects within the territory of the Republic of
Poland”, the parties to trans-national mergers are obliged to notify the UOKiK of their
intention to merge if:
В· any of the enterprises has subsidiaries in Poland; or
В· they have distribution networks in Poland; or
В· they conduct permanent sales on the territory of Poland.
It should be noted that as of 1 May 2004, art. 13 clause 2 of the Competition and
Consumer Protection Law, providing an exemption from the obligation to notify the
UOKiK about mergers as a result of which the joint market share of the merging
partners will not exceed 20 % is no longer in force. Therefore, all mergers that had not
been effected by 1 May 2004 and that were excluded from the obligation to obtain the
UOKiK approval on the grounds of the aforementioned clause, need to obtain such an
approval regardless of the partners’ market share.
The same law prohibits agreements that aim at, or result in, the elimination, restriction,
or any other infringement of competition on the relevant market, and in particular, those
agreements consisting in:
В· fixing, directly or indirectly, prices and other conditions for the purchase or sale of
В· limiting or controlling production or supply, or technical development or investments;
В· sharing markets of supply or purchase;
В· applying onerous, or different contract terms in like transactions with third parties, thus
creating different conditions of competition for these parties;
В· making the conclusion of an agreement subject to the acceptance or fulfilment by the
other party of another performance, having neither substantial nor customary relation
with the subject of the agreement;
В· limiting access to the market or eliminating from the market entrepreneurs who are not
party to the agreement;
В· fixing the conditions of offers to be submitted by entrepreneurs participating in a tender,
in particular in relation to the scope of works or price.
There are, however, some exclusions from the above, most notably pertaining to
companies with a joint market share of below 5 %. Abusing a dominant market position,
as defined in art. 8 of the law is, also prohibited.
In 2004, the UOKiK issued 152 decisions on the grounds of anti-monopoly regulations
regarding practises limiting competition. Of this number, 16 cases involved horizontal
agreements (in 8 cases practises limiting competition were discovered), 10 cases
How to Do Business in Poland
involved vertical agreements (in 6 cases practises limiting competition were discovered),
and 126 cases involved abuse of a dominant position (in 45 cases practises limiting
competition were discovered).
In the same year the UOKiK examined 256 cases pertaining to mergers and completed
218. In 175 instances, the decision was favourable to the merging companies; in one
case the favourable decision was conditional; and in one case the intended merger was
Accounting and Auditing
The accounting and auditing regulations are based on the Accounting Law of 29
September 1994, as amended. The law does not apply to the State Treasury and the
National Bank of Poland.
All businesses having their registered seat, or the seat of management in Poland must
adhere to Polish accounting and auditing regulations. However, as of 1 January 2005,
entities keeping accounts in line with International Accounting Standards (IAS) and
following International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and the related
interpretations announced as directives of the European Commission are required to
apply the Accounting Law only to the matters not regulated therein.
Application of the law by the following business entities is voluntary, providing that
their net sales do not exceed EUR 800,000:
В· enterprises run by a natural person,
В· civil partnerships established by natural persons,
В· registered partnerships established by natural persons, and
В· professional partnerships.
The required accounting procedures are based on a double-entry system. Each company
must establish its own book of accounts. Except for state organisations, no uniform book
of accounts is imposed. Nevertheless, a book of accounts must still meet certain
requirements, such as the ability to show the company’s assets, the cost of production,
and the profitability of the company. The accounting records, the annual balance sheet,
and the profit and loss account must be maintained in Polish currency and prepared in
the Polish language.
The requirements regarding the correctness and clarity of accounting records and
vouchers do not differ from those normally applied in other European countries.
Accounting records, documentation, reports, etc., have to be kept for 5 years.
XI. Operating in Poland
The accounting law provides for the (optional) application of Polish Accounting
Standards (only a few exist, presently), and where there is no Polish standard, the
appropriate International Accounting Standard (IAS) may be used. In practise, this
means that many companies will not comply with IAS where the accounting law is
silent on a particular issue.
In light of the commercial activity regulations, if a transaction is concluded between
entrepreneurs, it is always to be done via a bank account. In the case of transactions
between entrepreneurs and other parties, this obligation arises only if the amount of the
transaction exceeds EUR 15,000, regardless of the number of payments.
The entrepreneur must notify the appropriate tax office of his intention to operate a bank
account for business purposes. If he has opened more than one bank account, he is
obliged to indicate one of them as basic and to inform both the bank and the relevant tax
office which is his the principal bank account.
The law specifies information to be included in financial reports. There is also a
provision allowing for simplified financial reports. Such reports can be used by
companies meeting at least two of the following three criteria in the year to be reported
and in the previous year:
В· the average number of employees (in full-time terms) does not exceed 50,
В· balance sheet assets do not exceed EUR 2 million,
В· net income does not exceed EUR 4 million.
However, simplified reports are not allowed in the case of banks and insurance
Holdings, joint-stock companies (excluding companies in the process of organisation),
banks and insurers, and entities operating according to the provisions concerning the
public turnover of securities, the organisation and operation of pension funds, and
investment funds, are required to hold an annual audit. Other companies must be audited
if two of the following three conditions are met in the preceding year:
В· the number of employees exceeds 50,
В· balance sheet assets exceed EUR 2.5 million,
В· net income exceeds EUR 5 million.
The auditor’s report must be submitted to the company’s local tax office, as well as to
the registration court. The report is available for public inspection. All auditors must be
members of, and are governed by, the National Registered Auditors’ Chamber and the
list of auditors entitled to perform audits may be obtained there.
How to Do Business in Poland
Public Procurement
The Polish public procurement system is governed by the Law on Public Procurement of
29 January 2004, as amended. It came into force on 2 March 2004, in order to
harmonize the Polish law on public procurement with EU requirements. The law
specifies the rules and procedures for awarding public contracts, law enforcement
measures, monitoring of the award of public contracts and the competent authorities
with respect to matters addressed therein. Public procurement activities are supervised
by the Public Procurement Office (UZP).
Generally, the law applies to all public contracts with a value exceeding EUR 6,000,
including for example, those awarded by state and local governments, co-operatives,
public health care centres and all other entities which use public funds to finance at
least 50 % percent of a given project. Entities from some sectors, such as water
management, power, transport and telecommunications are subject to the law if they
operate on the basis of special or exclusive rights, or if they are subordinated to
dominant entities from the public finance sector. However, it should be noted that
defence related purchases are excluded from public tender requirements. Moreover,
there are other exclusions, including contracts related to the performance of an
international obligation, and labour and real estate transactions.
Depending on the value and nature of the tender, one of seven tender procedures
envisaged by the law is to be applied. The seven are:
В· public tenders,
В· limited tenders,
В· published competitive negotiations,
В· unpublished competitive negotiations,
В· open orders,
В· price inquiries, and finally,
В· internet auctions.
Public tenders and limited tenders are the primary procedures. The others may be used
only in cases specified in the aforementioned law.
Generally, public contracts involving the sale of goods and / or services up to EUR
60,000 may be carried out using simplified tender procedures, and thus avoid the need
to follow all public tender requirements. If a value of tender for the sale of goods and /
or services exceeds EUR 130,000 (EUR 5,000,000 in the case of construction
services), public tender announcements are published in the Official Journal of the
European Union. However, a public agency administering the tender is allowed
a certain degree of discretion to utilize the limited tender procedure as opposed to the
formal public tender, regardless of the value of the contract.
XI. Operating in Poland
Specifying the subject of a contract by identifying trademarks, patents, or origin is not
allowed. Still, if such a degree of specification necessarily arises out of the very nature
of the contract, or the ordering party cannot describe the contract in any other manner,
this ban can be avoided.
A bidder is entitled correct obvious mistakes in his tender, including mistakes in
calculations. In such case the bidder is obliged to inform all the other bidders
accordingly. Moreover, regardless of the value of the tender, an unsuccessful bidder
has the right to appeal. Even if just one bid is received, the tender may continue
without the need to cancel it, or call for a new one. Polish entities no longer receive
preferential treatment as compared to their EU counterparts. On the other hand, nonEU based entities may find themselves at a competitive disadvantage.
Bankruptcy and Insolvency
Bankruptcy and insolvency are governed by the Law on Corporate Insolvency and
Recovery of 28 February 2003. The Law applies to all types of economic entities,
including state enterprises, companies, and natural persons conducting business activity.
The aim of the Law on Corporate Insolvency and Recovery is to create greater
protection for creditors and also to encourage reorganisation schemes during the course
of the insolvency process. The primary objective is to ensure that the entity can
continue its economic activities, with the objective of maintaining employment and the
integrity of the enterprise.
Moreover, the law aims at the corporate recovery of the enterprise, creditor satisfaction,
the prevention of further insolvency, debt rescheduling, and the encouragement of
responsible business practices amongst entrepreneurs. The legislation applies to
entrepreneurs, limited liability companies, joint-stock companies, partners in
partnerships, and branches of foreign banks operating in Poland.
Insolvency of any business may be declared when a business entity has ceased to pay its
debts. However, if the situation is short-lived only, due to some temporary difficulties, it
does not give grounds to declare bankruptcy.
In the case of state-owned enterprises, co-operatives, joint-stock companies, limited
liability companies, other legal persons conducting economic activity, liquidated general
partnerships, registered partnerships, professional partnerships, or limited joint-stock
partnerships, bankruptcy is also declared if the assets of such subjects cannot satisfy
existing debts. In all cases, the court always closely supervises proceedings.
How to Do Business in Poland
An insolvent debtor is obliged to lodge a formal application within 14 days of the
occurrence of conditions of insolvency. Failure to comply can lead to civil law
consequences, prohibition from conducting economic activity by the individual and
prohibition from acting as a director or supervisory board member of any entity. In
addition, persons acting dishonestly or impeding the process of insolvency can be
prosecuted under criminal law.
The legislation has a restrained scope of application to individuals, where its application
is limited to personal insolvency caused by factors outside the control of the individual.
This law does not apply to non-commercial entities.
The insolvency process is divided into two phases. The first concerns the declaration and
publication of insolvency and the process of establishing whether there are grounds for
declaring insolvency. The second phase regards the execution of the insolvency process,
ending in the complete or partial satisfaction of creditors, or in some compromise
The choice of the method to satisfy creditors’ claims is determined by the court.
A creditor of the company may also file a motion for bankruptcy, as well as any of his
creditors. Further, in the case of general partnerships, registered partnerships,
professional partnerships, or limited joint-stock partnerships, any partner or shareholder
is entitled to file a motion for bankruptcy, while in the case of legal persons and other
organisational units this right is granted to any person representing such an entity.
There are the following types of insolvency procedures:
В· bankruptcy,
В· arrangements within bankruptcy proceedings,
В· voluntary agreements,
В· banking arrangements.
The bankruptcy of a company results in the sale of all assets, the meeting of all
commitments, and the collection of all debts. Where possible, companies with no
financial liquidity should be sold as going concerns. The law aims to avoid the
bankruptcy of economic entities that are facing short-term liquidity problems.
Under the legislation it is not possible to place the following into insolvency:
В· The State Treasury,
В· Local authorities and their entities,
В· Public health service units,
В· Institutions and legal entities set up by an act of Parliament, or those set up under
delegated authority arising from legislation,
XI. Operating in Poland
Education establishments.
Recovery of a business entity which, as a result of exceptional circumstances beyond its
control, has ceased to pay its debts or foresees that its payments will cease, may demand
the opening of proceedings for arrangements with creditors in order to make a voluntary
Entrepreneurs should note, however, that bankruptcy proceedings are very slow and do
not give creditors protection at a level foreign investors may be used to.
The law introduced the concept of securing the assets of an insolvent entity. The aim is
to ensure that the insolvent entity does not dispose of its assets in the period between the
declaration of insolvency and the moment of appointment of a liquidator / administrator
or the appointment of a court official.
The law provides for the possibility to conduct a process of corporate restructuring. The
process is designed to ensure speed of action and in practise is carried out by the
insolvent enterprise itself. It is designed to be applied to enterprises which are still
capable of meeting some of their liabilities, but which are in danger of becoming
insolvent. Conducting this process is subject to presenting a restructuring plan.
Restructuring, however, can only be conducted by enterprises entered in the National
Court Register.
The law also extends the application of cross-border insolvency and restructuring. When
a foreign entity is put into liquidation, its Polish registered branches and representative
offices become subject to the insolvency law. The Polish law imposes the model legal
solutions of the 1997 UNCITRAL rules. However, as at the date of Poland’s accession
to the European Union, intra-EU insolvency became subject to the EU law. The main
consequence of the above is that the insolvency process of a branch or a representative
office is conducted on the grounds of the law of the country of registration of the parent
How to Do Business in Poland
All major employment issues are regulated by the Labour Code of 26 June 1974, as
amended. These include employer-employee relations, working conditions, salaries and
wages, holidays, etc. Another important act concerning employment, and employment
of foreigners in particular, is the Law on the Promotion of Employment and Labour
Market Institutions of 20 April 2004.
An employer must conclude a written employment contract with an employee. The
contract should describe the type of work to be carried out, the commencement date,
place of work, working hours, and the salary. The employment contract may be for an
unlimited or limited period of time or can be limited to the carrying out of a specific
task. There are several types of employment contracts:
В· unlimited duration contract, which is a permanent employment contract,
В· limited duration contract, concluded for a probationary period. The term of this
contract can not exceed three months. Often it leads to the conclusion of an
unlimited duration contract, for which the contractual conditions may be
renegotiated. If the parties do not reach an agreement concerning future contract
terms, the contract expires at the end of the probationary period,
В· personal service contract (umowa zlecenie) is a fixed term contract concluded for
the performance of a specified activity,
В· specific task contract (umowa o dzieЕ‚o) is a fixed term contract concluded for the
performance of a commissioned activity, which is to bring specified results. This
type of contract is regulated by the provisions of the Civil Code.
Employers are allowed to forbid employees from co-operating with rival companies.
Non-competition clauses in the contract may take the form of an absolute ban on
co-operation with companies with a similar business profile or a ban on working in
a rival company after the employee leaves the job. If an employee violates such a clause,
he or she is financially liable.
The employee is bound to work with due care, to comply with the hours of work laid
down within the company and to use such time effectively, always to have in mind the
benefit of the company, and to obey those instructions of his superiors that relate to his
work. The employment contract can be cancelled without previous notice if the
employee commits a serious breach of contract, commits a crime, or, through his own
fault, loses any licence required for the carrying out of his or her work.
Generally, employees must be at least 18 years old. There are, however, specific rules
for employing minors. Employees who have less than 4 years to work before attaining
pensionable age and pension rights (65 years for men and 60 years for women) may only
be dismissed in the event of the bankruptcy or liquidation of the company. This is also
XI. Operating in Poland
true for employees during periods of vacation, illness, maternity leave, or leave of
absence requested in advance by the employee.
Upon termination of the employment contract the company must complete a reference
with respect to the employee. The reference should include information necessary for
a new employer to determine the type of work carried out, the employment period, the
position given to the employee, and the type of termination or reasons for ending the
employment contract. The employee is entitled to request a reference. If the employee is
not satisfied with the reference he or she can request a correction: if necessary, by
applying to the labour courts.
Wages and salaries are paid in Polish currency at least once a month. There is a
minimum salary requirement, obligatory for all business entities in Poland. In 2005,
the minimum gross salary for any full-time employee amounts to PLN 849,
approximately USD 250. However, the minimum gross salary in the first year of work
is set at 80 % of the above mentioned amount, and at 90 % in the second year.
Working hours are to amount to an average of 8 hours a day and 40 hours a week. There
are twelve public holidays: New Year (January 1), Easter Sunday and Easter Monday,
May 1 and 3, Whitsunday, Corpus Christi, August 15, All Saints Day (November 1),
Independence Day (November 11), and Christmas (December 25 and 26).
In specific cases, working 12 hours a day is permitted. The overtime work relates to
duties performed during the time beyond the limit set by the Labour Code’s regulations.
The circumstances under which such work may be done are thoroughly specified, and
include, in particular:
В· an emergency action to protect human life, or health, or property, or the natural
environment, or to eliminate breakdowns, failures, etc.
В· a case of the specific needs of the employer.
The number of overtime hours worked in the second above-mentioned circumstance can
not exceed 150 hours per person in the calendar year.
For working overtime an employee, beside his or her usual wages, is entitled to a bonus
in the amount of:
В· 50 % of remuneration for each hour of overtime work on working days and on
holidays which are working days;
В· 100 % of remuneration for each hour of overtime work on holidays which are nonworking days, and at night.
How to Do Business in Poland
Employees have a right to annual leave, paid in accordance with their remuneration. The
employee starting a job acquires a right to annual leave in the same calendar year after
each month of work in the amount of 1/12 of the annual leave. The right to the next
annual leave is acquired in each following calendar year. The length of annual leave
depends on the length of employment. It amounts to 20 days (up to 10 years of
employment), or to 26 days (10 years or over of employment).
Women are entitled to paid maternity leave of 16 weeks after the first birth and
18 weeks after the second or any subsequent birth and 26 weeks for giving birth to more
than one child at a time. Employees, who have been employed for at least six months are
also entitled to a 3 year leave (paid by the Social Security Institution – ZUS) to raise
their children of up to 4 years of age. This leave may be taken in up to 4 separate
periods. In addition, 2 extra work-free days are permitted to take care of children up to
14 years old.
In 2005, the total social security charges amount to 48 % of the salary. This amount is
split as follows: the social insurance contribution, constituting the major charge and
accounting for 36.90 % (encompassing pension insurance – 19.52 %, disability
pension insurance – 13 %, insurance against sickness – 2.45 % and accident insurance
– average 1.93 %), health insurance, accounting for 8.50 %, the Labour Fund
contribution, accounting for 2.45 % and the FGЕљP fund (Fundusz Gwarantowanych
ЕљwiadczeЕ„ Pracowniczych) contribution of 0.15 %. The Social Security Institution
(ZUS) transfers 7.3 % out of the 19.52 % of the pension insurance collected to the
open pension funds for all employees that are pension fund members.
Please note that the accident insurance contribution rate ranges between 0.97 and
3.86 %, depending on the company’s size and activities. Moreover, the health insurance
contribution rate is to increase by 0.25 % a year, to reach 9 % in 2007.
Some of these contributions are paid by the employer, some by the employee, and some
are divided between them. Employers are obliged to pay for accident insurance, as well
as the Labour Fund contribution and the FGЕљP fund contribution. The employee pays
for insurance against sickness, and for health insurance, while pension insurance and
disability pension insurance charges are split between them equally. Therefore, the
social security contribution paid by the employer amounts to 20.79 % of the salary. The
maximum base for calculating most elements of the social security contribution is
limited to 30 times the average monthly wages envisaged for a given year by the
budgetary law. In 2005, the maximum base is equal to PLN 72,690.
It is important to note that a company must register with the ZUS department
responsible for the region in which the company is located within 7 days after the first
employee has started work.
XI. Operating in Poland
Employment of Foreigners
Foreigners from Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia,
Lithuania, Malta, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden and United Kingdom are allowed to
work in Poland without any permits.
Moreover, foreigners who meet any of the following criteria do not need a permit to
work in Poland:
В· a permit for settlement in Poland was received, or
В· a consent for tolerated stay was obtained, or
В· a refugee status granted in the Republic of Poland was obtained, or
В· a temporary protection within the territory of Poland is enjoyed.
Other foreign employees require a work permit issued by the district authorities,
however foreigners from other EU countries than those already mentioned have easier
access to work permits in comparison to non-EU citizens.
Still, there are numerous instances where the work permit is not required. These
include, but are not limited to:
В· foreigners resident abroad and delegated by their foreign employer to Poland for
up to 3 months for:
- the assembly, maintenance and repair of machinery, equipment, constructions,
etc., produced by their employer,
- the acceptance of machinery, equipment, etc., ordered from a Polish producer,
- the training of staff of the Polish employer accepting machinery, equipment,
constructions, etc., produced by their employer in servicing and operations thereof,
- the assembly and disassembly of fair stalls, if their foreign employer is the exhibitor.
В· foreign language teachers and teachers teaching in a foreign language, working
within the framework of international agreements executed by the Minister of
National Education and Sport,
· foreigners – spouses of Polish citizens, resident in Poland on the grounds of
a residence permit for a specified time, granted because of marriage,
В· NATO military and civil staff,
В· actors, singers, conductors, etc., performing in Poland for up to 30 days a year,
В· students attending regular courses in Poland, for up to 3 months during holidays.
No permit is needed from the Polish authorities for employees who work outside Poland
for the Polish employer. Furthermore, subject to meeting certain conditions, employees
from EU and EFTA countries – members of the EEA – delegated to work in Poland do
not require a work permit on the grounds of Directive 96/71/EC of the European
Parliament and of the Council concerning the posting of workers in the framework of
the providing services. Foreign companies can also accept unpaid assistance from
How to Do Business in Poland
persons delegated by a foreign business partner. Such persons would be neither
employed nor paid by the foreign company.
Living in Poland
Standards of living in Poland have improved vastly since the political and economic
transformations started in 1989. Accommodation of various types is readily available.
Most native city dwellers live in blocks of relatively small apartments; however, the
newly constructed flats are usually quite spacious. Houses tend to be considerably more
expensive, but there are a lot to choose from on the real estate market. The options range
from relatively small semi-detached buildings to grand estates with swimming pools and
tennis courts. There are many real estate agencies all over Poland, offering a wide range
of properties. In Warsaw alone there are well over a hundred licensed real estate
agencies in operation. For more information on the real estate market, please refer to
Chapter VIII.
For tourists and visitors, Poland offers a whole range of accommodation, from modern
hotels to bed-and-breakfast in private houses. The best hotels offer excellent rooms,
restaurants, and room service, but just as everywhere they tend to be expensive.
Reservations can be made through travel agencies or directly with a chosen hotel. For
more information on tourist accommodation in Poland, please refer to Chapter XI. There
are hundreds of travel agencies that provide accommodation, transport, and other
logistical services.
Most worldwide best-selling foreign newspapers are on sale in Poland, as well as Polish
periodicals published in foreign languages, such as the weekly The Warsaw Voice, and
Warsaw Business Journal. In the largest cities there are bookshops with books in foreign
languages, though the languages are often limited to English.
In some larger cities there are schools for foreign children, where lessons are taught in
a language other than Polish. In Warsaw, for example, there are American, English,
French, and German schools, as well as some others.
Most cities offer a well-developed bus and tram system. Tickets must be bought
beforehand and punched or stamped in the bus/tram (or the underground) to validate
them. However, in some cities, in Warsaw for example, those who are forgetful can buy
a ticket directly from the driver. Crowded in peak hours, buses and trams tend to run
quite frequently until ten or eleven in the evening. Bus and tram routes are shown on
most city maps. In many cases it is also possible to find them, as well as the schedules,
on the net. The number of cars in Warsaw, as well as in other major cities, has been
rapidly increasing over the past few years and traffic jams are everyday reality now.
Inter-city train connections are good and reliable.
XI. Operating in Poland
The private medical sector is booming with many small and medium-size private clinics
opening throughout the country at a rapid rate. Some of them provide fully
comprehensive services supported by English speaking staff. Home visits are among the
variety of health care services designed to give foreign guests reassurance while staying
in Poland. It is advisable to carefully examine insurance policies to find out exactly what
risks are involved and to find a provider whose services cover prevention and cure.
Poland has regular direct air connections with most major European countries, as well as
some intercontinental connections provided by the national airline LOT and foreign
carriers. Charter flights to popular holiday destinations are available. There are also
domestic flights between the major cities in Poland. Competition in the Polish sky is
rapidly increasing, and with several low-cost carriers on the market the prices are falling
fast, to the passengers benefit.
Visitors travelling by car can enter Poland through many border crossings. Please refer
to the next Chapter XI, sub-chapter “Visiting Poland” for visa / currency requirements.
Rent-a-car services are at hand; cars can be rented in major cities or at the airports.
Generally, to rent a car one has to be 21, and have a driving licence, a passport, and
a credit card.
A foreigner must register within 2 days of crossing into Poland. However, individuals
staying in hotels, motels, camping grounds, etc., are relieved from this responsibility, as it
is done for them by the facility. The procedure is simple and requires only a few minutes
of time. The registered person receives an official document of registration, which is
required upon leaving Poland at the border. In the case of longer trips, exceeding two
months, the red tape is slightly more complex and requires some more time, as well as the
assistance of the person having legal title to the accommodation where the foreigner is
staying. The registration takes place in the Office of the Commune (UrzД…d Gminy) in
which the foreigner is staying, in the Division of Citizens’ Affairs.
Opening hours vary, but generally shops are open from 10 a.m. to 7 p.m. Groceries
usually start much earlier and some are open round the clock. Shopping is easy.
Everything is now more or less available, just as in any other European country. In small
shops payment is usually possible in cash only, especially in the country. Larger shops
and restaurants, especially these in cities and tourist resorts, increasingly accept cheques
and internationally recognised credit cards, such as Visa, American Express,
MasterCard, etc. Their opening hours are usually longer, too. There are also many large
supermarket chains in Poland, including Auchan, Carrefour, Castorama, E.Leclerc,
Geant, Real, Tesco, etc.
How to Do Business in Poland
All in all, there are approximately 120,000 places accepting credit card payments, as the
use of credit cards is becoming increasingly popular in Poland (see Chapter II, the end of
the section on banking). In the country, it is considerably more difficult to do without
cash, but the prices are substantially lower.
As far as prices are concerned, Warsaw is certainly cheaper for foreigners than New
York, Moscow, or St. Petersburg, but probably more expensive than Prague or
Budapest. Everything depends on what one wants to do, and how.
After a hard day at the office, a little relaxation is very welcome. Restaurants offering
various cuisine, charm, and quality abound. One can find many restaurants offering
foreign cuisine, often run by expats. On the other hand, Polish traditional food is also
delicious and tasting traditional Polish food, such as bigos and various types of pierogi,
is a must. The number of pubs is growing rapidly, although they tend to be rather
expensive. There are also many clubs with various types of music, so it is not difficult to
find something for one’s taste, especially in larger cities.
Cinemas have a good and up-to-date repertoire, and they are all non-smoking. Films are
usually shown in their original version, with Polish subtitles. There are also many
theatres worth visiting. The Teatr Wielki (Grand Theatre) in Warsaw has an impressive
ballet and opera programme, and there are often very good concerts at the Warsaw
Philharmonic, and, in the summer time, outdoors at the Chopin monument in the
beautiful Royal ЕЃazienki Park. Warsaw and Cracow are also famous for their art
galleries, with frequently changing exhibitions ranging from the old masters to
contemporary experimental artists.
However, despite very good macro-economic results and many advantages, Poland and
its capital, Warsaw, face a number of problems. The number of underground parking
lots, and the supply of financial, recreational, and exhibition centres are still
insufficient. The road network is quite extensive, but the very few highways and the
large amount of roads in need of major repairs slow down car travel considerably.
Companies, both Polish and foreign alike, often complain of the ever-changing legal
environment and less than clear executive provisions and administrative procedures.
The European Union membership acquired in 2004 should assist substantially in
dealing with the shortcomings mentioned, especially in the area of infrastructure and
the legal environment.
Living in Poland presents its own difficulties, as in all different cultures. There are many
contradictions in Polish society, but with persistence it is easy to be accepted and make
many lasting friendships. Everything considered, Poland is a very nice place to live.
How to Do Business in Poland
r Border requirements; EU and EEA citizens are
required just to present a valid travel document or
another document attesting to their identity and
r Residence permits are valid for five years with the
possibility of extension for further five-year periods
r 12 Polish sites on the UNESCO World Heritage List
r 62 million foreign arrivals
r Total foreign currency receipts from tourists and
same-day visitors of USD 5.8 billion
r Over 7 thousand tourist accommodation facilities
offering 600,000 beds
How to Do Business in Poland
The intention of including a chapter on tourism in a guide that deals with business and
economy is twofold. First of all, it is to introduce the reader to the numerous and varied
qualities of Poland as a tourist location, to show that it is a perfect place not only to do
business, but also to have a good time and to rest afterwards. Secondly, as it is an
important sector of the Polish economy, our intention is to give an overview of the
Polish tourism industry in order to indicate the market potential and thus to unfold the
opportunities for business.
With the above in mind, this section has two parts. The first deals with the country as
a tourist destination from the point of view of the holidaymaker. It is addressed most of
all to people who do not seek to explore business opportunities in the sector, but would
simply like to rest, be it in a more or less active way. It contains some practical
information and a very brief outline of selected aspects or areas of Poland that are
widely considered as �must see’ sites and are praised by tourists and visitors alike.
Please keep in mind, however, that due to the character of this guide the material
enclosed had to be severely limited.
In fact, it was very difficult to decide on how to compose this section: whether it should
cover, more or less, all geographical areas and points of interest or should focus on some
selected ones. Finally, the latter approach has been favoured, since considering the space
assigned in this guide for tourist information, one would otherwise end up with just
a bare list that would still not be exhaustive.
Should you plan a holiday in Poland, please do consult some of the specialist tourist
guides that are widely available in many languages both in Poland and abroad. The
section that you are about to read is nothing more than a flash, therefore even if you do
not find anything here that really appeals to you, it would only mean that, unfortunately,
our focus has not included your areas of interest. However, if you take our advice and
take a closer look at some specialised guides, you are bound to find places you would
like to see and events you would like to attend.
The second section of this chapter is intended for businessmen who would like to take
a look at the tourist industry in Poland. It was written based on the newest research
carried out by the Polish Institute of Tourism. If you are looking for possibilities to
invest in the sector or to establish some kind of business co-operation, consulting this
part will reveal the market potential and provide much valuable data. Nonetheless, it is
recommended that the first section of this chapter be read as well, even if just to have
some background information and to be able to place the data in the right frame, so to
XI. Tourism in Poland
Visiting Poland
Information for EU and Other EEA Citizens
The following information applies to EU citizens and their family members as well as
citizens of states of the European Economic Area (Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein,
Switzerland), which do not belong to the EU, but pursuant to agreements with the EU
enjoy free movement of persons and their families members (spouses, children below
the age 21, being their legal wards, direct relatives who are their dependants or share
their household).
In order to cross the border into Poland a citizen of the EU needs a valid travel
document or other document attesting his/her identity and citizenship. The visitor’s
family members who are not citizens of the EEA are able to enter the territory of
Poland on the basis of a valid travel document and visa – if required.
Stays beyond three months’ duration require obtaining a residence permit or a
temporary residence permit. This requirement does not apply to persons who perform
work or a �free profession’ on the territory of Poland, or conduct business activity
here, provided they retain permanent residence in another EU state, to which they
return at least once a week. Decisions concerning residence permits and residence
cards for EU citizens, and residence documents (also with regard to their prolongation
and revocation), are issued by the governor of the province (voivode) where the EU
citizen intends to reside.
A residence permit is granted to a EU citizen on condition that he/she:
· intends to perform or performs work, a �free profession’ or business activity on
the territory of Poland for a period exceeding 12 months, or
В· has health insurance and sufficient resources to cover his/her expenses without
needing social security support.
Residence permits are valid for five years with the possibility of extension for further
five-year periods. For more details on granting EU citizens residence permits see
Article 5 of the Law on the Terms and Conditions of Entry and Stay on the Territory
of Poland of Citizens of EU States and Members of Their Families of 27 July 2002, as
Temporary residence permits are granted to EU citizens who have health insurance
and sufficient resources to cover their expenses without needing social security
support and who, when in Poland:
· take up studies – a temporary residence permit for one year, extendable with
further one-year periods until completion of the studies,
How to Do Business in Poland
perform or intend to perform work, a �free profession’, or business activity for
a period from 3 to 12 months for the duration of such occupation, or for
6 months for those seeking employment.
Residence and temporary residence permits issued to EU citizens include family
members (excluding relatives in the case of students). An EU citizen and members of
his/her family may be denied a residence permit solely in the event of a need to
protect public order and security, protect public health, or due to a threat to state
security or defence.
If the application for granting or extending a residence permit or a temporary
residence permit covers family members, then the EU citizen is obliged to enclose the
following documents with the application:
В· a document certifying marriage or kinship with the family member,
В· a document certifying that the family member is his/her dependent, or member of
the same household in the state from which he/she has arrived (does not apply to
a spouse, a EU citizen, who is not a dependent),
В· written consent of a family member who is over 16.
Any documents attached to the application and issued by foreign authorities or
institutions, should be translated into Polish by a certified interpreter.
Permanent and temporary residence registrations are issued by Gmina Offices
appropriate to the place of residence. To obtain the residence registration, a EU citizen
or members of his/her family needs to present personal data and produce a residence
card, residence document, or residence permit.
Information for Foreigners, Who Are Not EU / Other EEA Citizens
Passport: a valid passport is required to enter Poland. If a Polish visa is required,
the passport’s expiry date should not be less than three months from the expected
date of arrival in Poland.
Visa: a Polish visa is required, except for tourists coming from the countries listed
in Appendix 8.
Currency requirements: PLN 100 per day, no less than PLN 500, persons under 16
PLN 50 per day, no less than PLN 300. In transit – PLN 300, persons under 16 half
of the amount.
Health insurance: an insurance policy covering medical expenses in Poland is
required. Alternatively, an additional PLN 300 per day to cover possible medical
expenses is necessary, or other proof of being able to meet medical costs.
If driving a car, you are obliged to carry a civil liability insurance.
XI. Tourism in Poland
Practical Information
Currency, arrival: you must fill a currency declaration form and have it stamped by
a customs officer if you are bringing in cash or cash equivalents in an amount
exceeding EUR 10,000.
Currency, departure: upon departure you are allowed to export your personal
belongings, souvenirs, and foreign currency up to a total amount of EUR 10,000,
as well as foreign currency imported to Poland with a currency declaration form
confirmed by the customs authorities.
Money exchange: in Poland you can change money either at a bank or at currency
exchange offices, labelled Kantor. You can find them at the airports and most
hotels, but usually you can find better rates at the independent exchange offices
that can be found almost everywhere.
Credit cards: Visa, American Express, Diner’s Club, and MasterCard are widely
Transport from OkД™cie airport in Warsaw: city buses 175 and 188 and a night bus,
the 611. Some hotels offer their own minibus service to and from the airport.
Taxi: at OkД™cie Airport beware of taxi drivers stopping you in the airport hall, they
are very likely to charge you excessive rates. All you need to do is to go out and
take a cab from the queue parked in front of the entrance; they are all licensed by
the airport. As far as other trips are concerned, a list of telephone numbers of
reliable taxi corporations can be found in the most popular newspaper in Poland:
Gazeta Wyborcza, or just ask for advice. These taxis will pick you up at no extra
charge from any place in Warsaw, usually within a few minutes of your call.
Rent a car: some of Europe’s largest rent a car companies have their offices in the
arrival halls of Polish airports, as well as in some hotels.
Electricity: 230 volts / 50 cycles.
Public phones require a phone card. Phone cards (of different values) are available
at post offices and local kiosks.
Emergency numbers: Ambulance: 999; Fire-brigade: 998; Police: 997; and
finally, 112 is a mobile phone all-emergency number. However, do not count on
them to speak any foreign language.
An Overview of the Country
Poland can satisfy the needs both of the tourist who wants to spend a long holiday here
and the traveller who is looking for an interesting place to spend one or more weekends.
One can enjoy the country during every season and whenever you come, you are bound
to find something new.
How to Do Business in Poland
The castles call to mind the stormy history of Poland. The most important ones are the
Wawel Royal Castle in Cracow and the Royal Castle in Warsaw, destroyed during
World War II and rebuilt afterwards. The old quarters of Warsaw, Cracow, GdaЕ„sk,
Lublin, PoznaЕ„, and WrocЕ‚aw have witnessed centuries of history.
A thousand years of Catholic religion in Poland is reflected in its numerous churches,
chapels, and monasteries. The shrine of Jasna GГіra in CzД™stochowa, where the image of
the Black Madonna attracts millions of pilgrims from all over the world each year and
the Church of St. Mary in Cracow are among the most famous. However, hundreds of
sanctuaries and rural churches, some of them built of wood, are also full of mystic
atmosphere and well worth visiting.
Poland is one of those rare countries that offer a great variety of landscapes. The
southern part of Poland is surrounded by the Sudetic and Tatra Mountain ranges, perfect
for walking all year round, and for winter sports during the season. Trekking and
excursions are possible in all seasons and are especially recommended in summer and
autumn, when the country is in full bloom. In winter you can go skiing, for example, in
Szczyrk and Zakopane, tourist resorts famous for their mountain folklore.
Moving from the mountains to the north, one will find large plains, nests of storks in
spring, small rural villages, and forests – the most famous being the National Park in
BiaЕ‚owieЕјa, close to the eastern border, which, with its unique charm, is home to the
European bison. All in all, there are 23 National Parks in Poland, covering over 314
thousand ha, or 1 % of the country’s surface area. Horse riding and hunting fans will
discover numerous opportunities in Poland to follow their favourite hobby.
Further north there are lakes, including those of the Mazurian Lake District, which is
also known as �the country of a thousand lakes’, and contains a series of lakes stretching
for more than 750 km. It is possible to sail through the lake district’s rivers and network
of canals for days. This is a paradise for those who enjoy water sports and fishing,
thanks to the clear waters of the lakes, the green landscape, and its wilderness.
Moreover, in winter, as the temperature often drops to well below 0 В°C, the frozen lakes
are often suitable for ice-sailing.
Finally, there is the northern frontier – the Baltic coastline. A very long strip of golden
sand, beaches and dunes, Rozewie promontory, Hel peninsula, the gulf of GdaЕ„sk and
Wolin island, are just some of the countless views which will fascinate any tourist
travelling along the coast. Furthermore, in this region you can enjoy saline thermal baths
and healing mud-baths, particularly in the town of KoЕ‚obrzeg, all year round.
XI. Tourism in Poland
Polish Cities, Art, and Culture
Polish art and culture has always been a part of Western Europe, though at the same
time it is a bridge to the East.
Among the most famous Polish contributions to European culture are the genius of
Copernicus, the science of Marie SkЕ‚odowska-Curie, the art of Chopin, the music of
Krzysztof Penderecki, the movies of Andrzej Wajda and Krzysztof KieЕ›lowski, the
theatre of Tadeusz Kantor, and the poetry of Adam Mickiewicz and of the Polish Nobel
prize-winners, CzesЕ‚aw MiЕ‚osz and WisЕ‚awa Szymborska.
Besides, Poland houses the works of artists and architects from all over Europe, such as
the Italian painter Bernardo Bellotto (Il Canaletto), the architects Bernardo Morando and
Domenico Merlini, the German sculptor Veit Stoss (Wit Stwosz), and the Dutch
architect Tylman van Gameren.
There are many cities in Poland worth visiting, and most of them are well described in
the leading tourist guides. Here we will limit ourselves to just a brief outline of Warsaw
and Cracow, which are undoubtedly the most famous cities in Poland.
Warsaw is the capital of Poland. You need to keep in mind that Warsaw, which was one
of the most lively and cosmopolitan cities in Europe before the Second World War, was
destroyed in 1945 and 90 % of it was completely in ruins. It was rebuilt after the War,
arising from the rubble thanks to the determination and sacrifice of its surviving citizens.
Although sightseeing in the centre of the city will let you take a look at some modern
architecture, one can discover the best of Warsaw only through exploration of the old
town, where, besides the old restored buildings and villas, here and there the pre-war
architecture miraculously survived. Walking about the old town and plunging into the
magic atmosphere of the past, thanks to an amazing reconstruction which took place in
the fifties and which brought to life again the Warsaw of the 17th and 18th centuries, is a
truly remarkable experience. There is enchantment in its parks and gardens, the wide
course of the Vistula River, and the rich cultural life of this city, which is cosmopolitan
without losing its particular, native charm.
While visiting the Royal Castle one can admire its interiors and its works of art,
including some works of the world’s finest painters. Another �must see’ is the Polish
portrait gallery in WilanГіw Palace, the beautiful Baroque residence of Jan III Sobieski.
Then there is the Grand Theatre, a remarkable example of classicist architecture; the
Łazienki Park, a beautiful 18th century park, one of everybody’s favourite places to
have a stroll and rest from all the excitement; the National Museum, featuring precious
collections of Polish art; and much, much more.
How to Do Business in Poland
The uniqueness of Cracow is primarily due to the rare cultural heritage contained within
its walls. Here, the Royal Castle, presently housing the crown jewels and a collection of
Flemish tapestry, was constructed on Wawel Hill, and became the site for the coronation
and burial of kings, as Cracow was the capital of Poland for hundreds of years, from the
11th to the 17th century. Here, in 1364, the Cracow Academy was established, the first
Polish university (today known as the Jagiellonian University).
The city’s image has changed during the past centuries. During the Middle Ages,
Cracow was a safe, rich, fortified city surrounded by walls with 55 towers (fragments of
the city fortification have been preserved to this day). During the Renaissance, Cracow
became a centre of progressive ideas, with a culture that brought together outstanding
humanists, writers, architects, and musicians.
City life focuses around the Market Square, which is the second largest square in Europe
after St. Mark’s Square in Venice. Tradition interlaces with modern times nearly
everywhere you go, and it can truly be said that each stone has its own history. There is
a multitude of architectural monuments, estimated at 6,000 buildings and structures.
Furthermore, there are approximately 2.5 million artefacts collected and displayed in
museums, churches, and other public places. In 1978, thanks to this extraordinary
accumulation of cultural heritage, the city’s historic centre was registered as the first of
the 12 Polish sites on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
XI. Tourism in Poland
Tourism Industry
The number of foreign arrivals to Poland has been steadily increasing since the
beginning of the 90’s. At the turn of the century a disruption in this favourable trend was
noted, albeit lasting only three years. In 2004, Poland registered 61.9 million foreign
arrivals (18.8% more than in 2003), including both tourists and same-day visitors.
Foreign Arrivals
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
As far as the country structure of arrivals to Poland is concerned, a domination of
arrivals from Germany must be noted, accounting for over half of all arrivals and
increasing by 34 % in comparison to 2003. Arrivals from other �old’ EU countries
increased by 9 % and from �new’ EU countries by 11 %.
In 2004, arrivals from the following countries registered the highest growth (over 20 %):
Canada, Australia, Luxembourg, South Korea, Portugal, Slovakia, Malta, Germany,
Ireland, Finland, Switzerland, Hungary, and Turkey. On the other hand, the largest
decline was recorded in arrivals from Cyprus (27 %), Denmark (20 %), Estonia (14 %),
and Croatia (9 %).
While analysing tourist arrivals in 2003 and 2004 one must take into account that as of
October 2003 legal regulations introducing visa requirements concerning countries
bordering with Poland in the east came into force (due to Poland’s entering the EU).
Thus October 2003 witnessed a very sharp decline in arrivals from these countries.
Arrivals from Russia decreased by 44 %, arrivals from Belarus decreased by 45 %, and
arrivals from Ukraine collapsed, noting a 70 % reduction. In November and December
arrivals from the aforementioned countries further decreased, although not by so
much. In 2004, arrivals from Belarus declined by 8 %, from Russia by 7 %, and from
Ukraine by 6 %, in comparison to 2003.
How to Do Business in Poland
In 2004, according to the Institute of Tourism estimates, the number of tourist arrivals
(i.e., of visitors staying in Poland for at least one night, but no longer than one year)
amounted to approximately 14.3 million, which is 4.2 % more than the year before.
Mazowieckie province, as it boasts Warsaw, the capital of Poland, attracted 3.2 million
tourists, more than the next in line Wielkopolskie (1.7 million) and MaЕ‚opolskie (1.3
million) provinces together.
Over the period of 1992-2000, the average duration of stay of foreign tourists remained
at a level of 4.8 to 5.1 nights. In 2001, it equalled 4.5 nights, down from 4.8 in 2000, and
in 2002 it decreased again, to just 3.9 nights. It seems that this unfavourable trend is
over, as in 2003 the average duration of stay increased to 4.1 nights and in 2004 it
reached 4.6 nights. In 2004, business was the primary reason for tourist arrivals (25 %),
closely followed by leisure tourism (22 %). However, if visiting friends and relatives
(20 %) is included in the leisure category, then it still dominates the motives of
foreigners visiting Poland.
The structure of tourist arrivals by purpose of visit is reflected in the following graph.
Source: Institute of Tourism, Warsaw, 2005
In 2004, total foreign currency receipts from tourists and same-day visitors amounted to
approximately USD 5.8 billion, approximately 42 % more in comparison to 2003. Such
an immense boost in receipts resulted not only from the significant increase in arrivals
and in the average duration of stay of foreign tourists, but also from the comparative
strength of the Polish currency in 2004. Nonetheless, this amount still does not include
foreign visitors that get a job in Poland, and their number is estimated at some 500,000.
XI. Tourism in Poland
Average expenditure per tourist using accommodation services in Poland amounted to
approximately USD 160 per person, over 40 % more than the year before. The average
expenditure per tourist per day also grew (by almost 42 %) and amounted to USD 34,
ranging from USD 18 for oversees tourists to USD 43 for tourists from Lithuania.
The average expenditure by same-day visitors, who are visitors that come to Poland
mainly for shopping also increased, even more spectacularly. In 2004, the average
expenditure by same-day visitors amounted to USD 60 (a 67 % increase over the
previous year), ranging from USD 21 (Czech Republic) to USD 98 (Ukraine).
All in all, tourist receipts increased by nearly 8 %, while same-day visitors’ receipts
doubled in 2004.
In 2004, the structure of tourist expenditures slightly changed in comparison to the
previous year. More money was spent on shopping (25.7 %), and food (20.1 %), while
less was spent on transport (12.1 %), and recreation (6.3 %). Accommodation still
remains the most important expense, accounting for 31.2 % of spending. Just as in the
past, shopping (including shopping for resale) constitutes an important item in the
expenditure of tourists from Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, and Lithuania.
In the past four years changes in the average expenditure levels of same-day visitors, as
well as the number of same-day visitors has had a significant impact upon the structure
of total currency receipts generated by inbound travel, as indicated below.
Source: Institute of Tourism, Warsaw 2005
How to Do Business in Poland
In 2004, the volume of Polish outbound travel reached 37.2 million, i.e., decreased by
3.9 % in comparison to the previous year, thus continuing reversal of a growth trend
visible from the early 90’s, with the outbound trips almost tripled in the period of 19912000, i.e., since the start of the transformation process. This trend is very well reflected
in the graph below.
Source: Central Statistical Office, Border Control, 2005
In 2004, according to preliminary estimates of the Institute of Tourism, tourist trips
accounted for 6.3 million (a decrease of some 12.5 %) out of a total of 37.2 million trips.
As in the case of inbound tourism to Poland, Germany accounts for the majority of
outbound tourist trips (2.30 million). The Czech Republic (0.55 million), Slovakia
(0.55 million), Italy (0.50 million), and Austria (0.35 million) are the other most
favoured destinations. Nonetheless, it should be noted that many tourists trips to
Germany, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia are related to further trips to other countries
located in Western and Southern Europe. Leisure and recreation remains the major
motive of Poles travelling abroad (38 %) and business trips account for a third of foreign
travels. All in all, 12 % of Poles over 15 years of age took part in tourist travels abroad
in 2004.
As far as domestic tourism is concerned, it is worth mentioning that approximately 29 %
of Polish residents took long-term domestic trips (i.e., at least 5 days) and 27 % made
short term trips in 2004. It is interesting to note that while the long-term trips are
concentrated in the summer, with the remaining shares spread evenly over the other
three seasons, the short trips are spread more or less in a uniform manner throughout the
year, as presented in the figure below. Poland really is a country for all seasons.
XI. Tourism in Poland
Source: Institute of Tourism, 2005
Finally, a few words about accommodation facilities in Poland. In the past few years
their number has been slowly decreasing, however this decrease results mainly from
closing-down low quality facilities. Facilities offering better standards of
accommodation are growing in number. For example, the number of hotels increased by
almost 60 % in the period of 1995-2003.
In 2003, according to the Central Statistical Office, there were 7,116 facilities, offering
almost 600,000 beds, including 1,155 hotels, with over 117,000 beds, in Poland. The
following table presents the structure of hotel rooms in Poland in terms of hotel
Hotels and Hotel Beds in 2002-2003
Obtaining rating
Beds (thousand)
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
In 2004, 14.64 million tourists (including 3.33 million foreign tourists) stayed in various
tourist accommodation facilities in Poland, including hotels, motels, campgrounds,
tourist resorts, etc. The majority of foreigners (over 78 %) stayed in hotels.
The market’s size, political stability, and impressive economic growth encourage
investment. According to data collected by PAIiIZ, the total value of direct foreign
investments of over USD 1 million in the hotel and restaurant business amounted to over
USD 885 million by the end of 2004.
How to Do Business in Poland
r Original settlement
r The Piast Dynasty – Corona Regni Poloniae
ВЁ Christianity and Early Statehood
ВЁ Territorial Fragmentation
ВЁ Consolidation of the State
r The Jagiellonian Dynasty – Ad mari usque ad mare
ВЁ The Lithuanian Connection
ВЁ The Golden Age
r The Elective Kings – Respublica Sarmatiae
ВЁ The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
¨ The Swedish Connection and the �Deluge’
ВЁ Sobieski and the Siege of Vienna
r The 18th Century – Finis poloniae
ВЁ The Saxon Connection
ВЁ King StanisЕ‚aw and the Reform Party
ВЁ The Partitions of Poland
r The 19th century – The Crossing of the Desert
ВЁ The Grand Duchy of Warsaw
ВЁ The Congress of Vienna
ВЁ The November and January Uprisings
r The 20th Century – To the Abyss and Back
ВЁ WW I and the Rebirth of Poland
ВЁ The Second Republic
¨ The People’s Republic of Poland
ВЁ Solidarity, NATO, and the EU
How to Do Business in Poland
“How to Do Business in Poland” is a publication whose purpose is to assist foreign
business people – particularly those considering direct investments – in getting to know
Poland’s investment environment and legal framework. It is also meant as a source of
the latest available information about Poland’s economic performance.
Business activities in any country lead to negotiations with its people, whose customs,
habits and mentality it is desirable to know, as the understanding of one’s business
partners, their values, and backgrounds may prove to be a key element of a successful
One of the keys to understanding the Poles is their history. With this in mind, we have
included a chapter summarising over a thousand years of history of the Polish nation in
this year’s edition of our guide. This chapter intends to provide a concise description of
the evolution of the Polish state and of its people, from proto-Slavonic times to the
restoration of democracy following communist rule.
The following material is an abbreviated version of “Polish History in Brief”,
commissioned and copyrighted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, that can be found in
its unabridged form on Poland’s official website
Proto-Slavonic Origins
The earliest signs of human presence in the Vistula and Oder river basins date back to
about 100,000 B.C. The earliest settlements of Homo Sapiens in Poland go back to the
Mesolithic Age (8,000 to 5,500 years B.C.). These settlements were established by
migrant peoples belonging to the Danubian group of cultures.
In time (partly due to the incursions of warring tribes from Asia) the inhabitants of
present-day Polish territories began to organise into larger social groups and to build
fortified strongholds. An example of this type of construction, an island settlement from
the 8th century BC surrounded by palisades, can be found in Biskupin. The settlement in
Biskupin had a population of around 1,000 to 1,200 people.
Later, from the 6th century B.C. onwards, Poland became the target of raids by Scythian
and Sarmatian tribes from the east, and Celtic and Germanic tribes from the west. Often
the invaders would assimilate with the indigenous inhabitants and settle in the conquered
territories, and although they wrought a great deal of destruction, they also brought the
achievements of the civilised world to Poland and encouraged trade: the earliest traces of
the �Amber Route’, linking the Baltic Sea with Rome and the Mediterranean basin, date
back to the 5th century B.C.
XII. History of Poland
Arrival of Slavonic Tribes
The earliest references to Polish territories appear in the works of Roman and Byzantine
authors of the 1st and 2nd century A.D (Tacitus, Ptolemy, Pomponius Mela, Jordanes, and
Procopius of Caesarea). In the 6th century, Slavonic tribes arrived in the territories of
present-day Poland and subsequently became the dominant group in the area. Not only
were they able to establish strong administrative centres like WiЕ›lica, PoznaЕ„, and
Gniezno (with power structures based on tribal assemblies under a chieftain), trading
settlements like Szczecin or Wolin, and focal points for religious worship like Mt. ЕљlД™Ејa,
but they also withstood invasions by nomadic tribes from Asia and attacks by the
neighbouring principality of Greater Moravia.
Around 850, in Descriptio civitatum et regionum ad septentrionalem plagem Danubii (A
Description of the Cities and Regions North of the Danube), Geographus Bavarus
mentioned several Slavonic tribes – the Goplanians, the Dziadoszanians, the Silesians,
the Bobrzanians, the Opolanians, the Vislanians and the Ledzianians – inhabiting the
Vistula and Oder river basins. A rising volume of trade contributed to the growth of
settlements along trade routes. In time, and on account of wars, these settlements were
fortified, while the role of the chieftain, and later of the tribal prince, increased. This
process was most visible in Greater Poland (Wielkopolska), where the Polanian tribe
quickly gained the ascendancy and by the mid-tenth century was expanding to lands
adjoining its territories to the east (Mazovia) and west (the Lubusz Region and Lusatia).
The Polanians gradually subjugated the neighbouring Slavonic tribes and created a
uniform principality with an efficient administrative system.
The Beginnings of Statehood
In the middle of the 10th century the Piast dynasty, rulers of the Polanian tribe, adopted
Christianity. The Vislanians had already established links with Christendom earlier.
However, the Polanian Prince Mieszko decided that conversion to Christianity –
providing a common religion for all the subject tribes, and supremacy for the anointed
prince – would raise his own and his country’s status not only at home but also in
foreign affairs. Poland would join the civilised kingdoms, and the German thrust to
bring Christianity to the Slavs would be halted. The year 966, when Mieszko was
baptised, is regarded as marking the beginning of Poland as an independent, Christian,
unified state, following the model set up in Western Europe.
How to Do Business in Poland
Mieszko I and BolesЕ‚aw Chrobry (Boleslaus the Brave)
The reigns of Mieszko I (?-992) and his son BolesЕ‚aw Chrobry (Boleslaus the Brave),
mark the period when the Polish tribes, brought together in a united and internally wellknit realm, began to make an active contribution to European politics. Assisted by the
ecclesiastical authorities, the principality of Poland grew in the years between 972 and
990, absorbing Pomerania, Lesser Poland (Małopolska – Polonia Minor), and Silesia
through military conquest, the pursuit of trade, marriage alliances, and the establishment
of a system of administration. Most importantly, the new state gained a foothold on the
international scene. The wars skilfully conducted by Mieszko and Boleslaus gained
Poland not only new territories (the CzerwieЕ„ strongholds and, temporarily, Moravia
and Lusatia), but also the reputation of being a power to be reckoned with even by the
Holy Roman Empire. A major success of early Piast foreign policy was the Congress of
Gniezno (1000), during which the Emperor Otto III recognised Boleslaus as his
principal ally in his plan to unite Europe under his own rule, approved the erection of an
independent Polish metropolitan see, and permitted Boleslaus’ coronation, which took
place in 1025.
Mieszko II
When Mieszko II, Boleslaus I’s son, assumed the throne, Poland was already a vast
country run by an efficient administrative system and a well-developed Church structure
with a metropolitan see in Gniezno and dioceses in Cracow, PoznaЕ„, WrocЕ‚aw, and
KoЕ‚obrzeg. Unfortunately, the civil wars which ravaged the country in the following
century severely undermined Poland’s position. Neighbouring states joined in the
conflict (Gniezno was plundered by the Czechs in 1038), which led not only to the loss
of the crown but also to the loss of part of Poland’s domains, temporary submission to
the Empire, internal disorder, including an attempted secession by Mazovia, and a pagan
rebellion after Mieszko’s death.
Kazimierz Odnowiciel (Casimir the Restorer) and Boleslaw Ељmialy
(Boleslaus the Bold)
It was not until the reign of Casimir, Mieszko II’s son, that stability was restored. The
Restorer reunified the country administratively, recuperating Silesia, Mazovia and
Pomerania thanks to the help of Emperor Conrad and through skilful alliances,
especially with Kievan Rus. Poland rose in international standing. Casmir’s son,
Boleslaus the Bold, continued his policies.
Thanks to Boleslaus’ military talents and the support he gave the Pope in the investiture
conflict with the Emperor, he managed to regain the crown. He influenced the
installation of princes in Ruthenia (Kievan Rus) and Hungary, and halted the eastward
XII. History of Poland
expansion of the Holy Roman Empire. However, in 1079 he lost his throne in
consequence of a rebellion supported by the Empire and Bohemia. A factor contributing
to the rebellion was the conflict between the King and Stanislaus, Bishop of Cracow,
a conflict which led the Church to withdraw its support for Boleslaus.
BolesЕ‚aw Krzywousty (Boleslaus the Wry-mouthed). Fragmentation
The reign of Boleslaus the Wry-mouthed (Boleslaus the Bold’s nephew) could not stop
the country’s decline. Boleslaus gained renown for his military achievements (victory
against the Empire in 1109, and the defeat of Pomerania in 1113-19), but on his
deathbed in 1138 he divided up his realm, distributing a province to each of his sons.
This ushered in a period of feudal dismemberment that lasted for over a century and
a half, during which Poland’s status diminished. Its former standing would not be
recovered until the mid-14th century.
However, Boleslaus’ reign was a period of social stability and rapid advancement,
despite several devastating Mongol invasions. Issues of land tenure were regulated;
knights were enfeoffed (granted property in exchange for feudal service to the prince);
thousands of new villages and many towns were founded. Numerous settlers came from
Germany, and others, who settled on the Baltic Coast, came from the Low Countries.
Scores of monasteries and priories – mostly Cistercian and Dominican – sprang up.
A Reunified Realm: the Last Piast Monarchs
In the reigns of the last two Piast kings, WЕ‚adysЕ‚aw ЕЃokietek (Vladislaus the ElbowHigh), and Kazimierz Wielki (Casimir the Great), most of the Polish lands were
Poland became a strong, well-run kingdom that participated actively in the political,
economic, and cultural life of Europe. In 1364 a university was founded in Cracow, the
second university established in Central Europe, after that of Prague. Cracow served as a
major diplomatic centre: in 1364 it hosted a congress of European monarchs. The
country’s main problems lay in its incessant conflicts with the Czechs (disputes over
Silesia) and, after 1226, with the Teutonic Order, which had managed to set up a strong
state in Prussia and constantly threatened the Polish borders. As Casimir had no male
heir, the Piast dynasty ended in 1370, and the Polish throne passed to the Piast’s
relatives and allies, the Hungarian branch of the House of Anjou (1370-1384, King
Louis the Hungarian and his daughter Jadwiga). The threat from the Teutonic Order
induced Poland to enter into an alliance with Lithuania. The alliance led to the marriage
of Jadwiga, (who had ascended the throne of Poland while still in her minority) with
Jagiełło (Iogaila) Grand Duke of Lithuania; Lithuania’s conversion to Christianity; and
the dynastic union of both countries at Krewo in 1385).
How to Do Business in Poland
The Jagiellons
For the next two hundred years the Jagiellonian dynasty ruled the two states of Poland
and Lithuania, forming together one of the vastest domains in Europe. At one point in
the late 15th century, Bohemia and Hungary also had a Jagiellonian monarch.
One of the highlights of Vladislaus Jagiełło’s reign was his victory over the Teutonic
Order at Grunwald (1410). Unfortunately, Poland did not take full advantage of the
victory: the Teutonic Order was allowed to keep its principal fortress at Marienburg
(Malbork) and, in spite of further defeats in battle, retained much of its military power. It
is only when war broke out again several decades later (1454-1466) that Poland succeed
in recovering the part of Pomerania surrounding GdaЕ„sk and in freeing itself from the
Teutonic menace. In 1525 the monastic state of the Teutonic Order was secularised and
became a fief of the king of Poland. However, another danger was arising: the Grand
Duchy of Moscow, an ascendant power with which Poland’s fortunes would be
inseparably linked for the next 500 years. Nor were the Jagiellons able to save Hungary,
which fell to the Turks in 1526 and remained under Ottoman rule for 200 years.
Growth of Parliament and Privileges for the Nobility
By ancient custom the kings of Poland convened general assemblies called sejms
attended by legati terrestres, representatives of the noble or equestrian (knights’) estate.
By the late 15th century, under King Jan I Olbracht (Ioannes Albertus, John Albert), a
national assembly had emerged consisting of the king, the senate (or royal council), the
lower house consisting of legati terrestres delegated by regional dietines (sejmiki), and
of a few representatives from the richest cities. It was one of Europe’s earliest
From the reign of Louis of Hungary and the Koszyce Privileges of 1374, the kings of
Poland solicited the support of the politically and economically ascendant nobility by
granting privileges, especially tax exemptions and by the famous Neminem
Captivabimus Nisi Jure Victum (We Shall Not Imprison Anyone Unless He Be Proved
Guilty Under the Law) statute of 1432. These privileges gradually curtailed the
monarch’s prerogatives, culminating in the Nihil Novi statute (1505), which prevented
the King from making any important decisions without the approval of the Sejm.
Cultural Advancement
The Jagiellonian period witnessed a tremendous cultural flowering. Poland became one
of the main centres of the Renaissance. Spectacular achievements in the arts and
sciences were made under Kazimierz JagielloЕ„czyk (Casimir the Jagiellonian) and
Zygmunt I Stary (Sigismund I). These were the times of Jan Długosz’s and his Annals
XII. History of Poland
of the Kingdom of Poland, Veit Stoss and his scultures, the Italian humanist writer
Callimachus (Filippo Buonaccorsi), and the writings of native-born literati like MikoЕ‚aj
Rej, Jan Kochanowski, and Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski. Copernicus’ De Revolutionibus
Orbium Coelestium, 1543 – itself a revolution in the sciences – reflected the high
standards in Polish scholarship under the Jagiellons. Its luminaries made Polish the
language of the educated in this part of Europe.
The Polish Reformation
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Poland was a country open to new religious trends. Unlike
other European countries, there were no religious wars here. Not only could heterodox
religionists find sanctuary here, they were also protected by the kings and lords of
Poland. As a result, culture and scholarship experienced an influx of new ideas and
literary works, and Poland came to be seen as a country of tolerance. This latter was
particularly true in relation to the Confederation of Warsaw, ratified in 1573, which gave
all major religions equal rights with Catholics. The last Jagiellonian monarch, Zygmunt
August (Sigismundus Augustus), said to the Sejm: “I do not rule your consciences”.
Not surprisingly, contemporaries and later generations called the Jagiellonian era,
especially the 16th century, Poland’s Golden Age.
Kingdom and Grand Duchy
As with the Piasts, the Jagiellonian dynasty became extinct through lack of a male heir
(1572). In 1569 King Zygmunt August effected the statutory union of Poland and
Lithuania, up till then joined by a personal union. Henceforth the Kingdom of Poland
and Grand Duchy of Lithuania would be an elective monarchy, with members of the
entire gentry (equestrian) estate enjoying the right to elect their king.
The First Elected Monarchs
The first royal election was held in the spring of 1573. The contenders to the throne of
Poland included Ivan (IV) the Terrible, Tsar of Muscovy, Archduke Ernest Habsburg,
and Henri de Valois, brother of Charles IX of France. Henri won, but turned out a bad
choice. He did not understand the country he was expected to rule, and after only four
months, as soon as he learned of his brother’s death, he fled from Poland to assume the
throne of France as Henri III. After a new interregnum lasting a year, the nobility elected
Anna, sister of Zygmunt August, to be the new monarch. She was required to marry the
successful candidate in the royal election, Stefan Batory (IstvГЎn BГЎthory) of
Transylvania. Batory proved to be an energetic ruler. After a swift campaign, he
successfully concluded the conflict with Russia for the contested territory of Livonia. He
also managed to put internal affairs in order and strengthen the royal powers.
How to Do Business in Poland
The Swedish Dynasty on the Polish Throne
The election following Batory’s death went to the grandson of Sigismund I, Sigismund
Vasa of Sweden, the first king of the Vasa dynasty to ascend the Polish throne. The
Vasas – Sigismund III, Vladislaus IV, and Ioannes Casimirus (John Casimir) – ruled
until 1668; and although they maintained Poland’s status as a respected European
power, they also entangled the kingdom in a series of wars, failed to prevent a civil war
in Ukraine, and tolerated the growth of the magnates’ power.
A War-Ravaged Country
From the early 17th century, Poland was in a constant state of war with one or another of
its neighbours. Military successes (victory over Sweden at Kircholm in 1605, Russia at
KЕ‚uszyn in 1610, and Turkey at Chocim in 1621) were intertwined with disasters: failed
intervention in Russia in 1612, disastrous defeat at the hands of the Turks in the Battle of
Cecora in 1620, and a series of setbacks during the Khmelnytsky (Chmielnicki) Cossack
uprising in Ukraine in 1648.
The outcome at home was inevitable: the country was nearly ruined, the treasury
emptied, the nobility in ever-growing opposition to royal prerogatives. Beginning in
1652 several sejms were stopped by obstructionists. The nadir of disaster came with the
Swedish Deluge (1655-1660), when the country had to face a simultaneous invasion by
Swedish, Russian, Cossack, Prussian, and Transylvanian armies. Although this war
ended in victory, Poland emerged from it devastated and weakened internally. Religious
toleration waned in the climate of the Counter-Reformation and wars with heterodox
neighbours (Orthodox Russia and Protestant Sweden). On several occasions the nobility
withdrew its allegiance to the Crown. Finally, a civil war broke out in 1665, leading to
the abdication of Jan Kazimierz in 1668.
The Siege of Vienna
After the short reign of MichaЕ‚ Korybut WiЕ›niowiecki, the throne of Poland passed to
Hetman Jan Sobieski, hero of the Turkish wars. He had to reign over a country rent by
rival factions of magnates and territorially diminished by a temporary Turkish
occupation of Podolia. Though from the military standpoint he was the glorious victor of
the relief of Vienna in 1683, he could not live up to the challenging task of putting the
affairs of state in order. He was not successful on the diplomatic front either, losing half
of Ukraine to Russia, and making shaky alliances with France and Austria. With
Sobieski’s death in 1696, the Sarmatian period of the Polish Noblemen’s
Commonwealth wound to a close. From then on, the predominant role in the country
would be played by factions of magnates. Polish military triumphs also became a thing
of the past.
XII. History of Poland
Association with Saxony
The reigns in Poland of Augustus the Strong and Augustus III, Electors of Saxony of the
House of Wettin, brought further military and political decline. Poland’s involvement in
the Great Northern War (1702-1721) was the next calamity, the time when neighbouring
powers started to meddle in Poland’s internal affairs (e.g., the Swedish “appointment” of
StanisЕ‚aw LeszczyЕ„ski to the Polish throne, 1704-1709). However, in a situation where
maintaining neutrality in the face of a Russo-Swedish conflict proved impossible, the
Wettins not only managed to keep the country intact territorially, but also prevented its
social and cultural degradation. Although weak and dependent on her neighbours,
Poland was still a dynamically developing European state. However, any attempts to
remedy the domestic situation were doomed to fail not only due to behind-the-scene
interventions by Russia, Prussia and Austria, but most of all because of the feuding
factions of the great lords (the Potockis, Czartoryskis, and Sapiehas), who looked more
and more to foreign powers for (mostly financial) support.
The Last King – A Patron of the Arts
The reign of StanisЕ‚aw August Poniatowski, last king of Poland-Lithuania, was full of
contradictions. On the one hand, he was submissive towards Russia, to whose support he
owed his victory in the elections, and depended on the Czartoryski Familia; on the other,
he made it possible for Poland to flourish culturally. His reign saw the publication of
Adam Naruszewicz’ works of history and of Bishop Ignacy Krasicki’s satires and
novels, as well as the launch of the national theatre, established by Wojciech
Bogusławski. Warsaw, Poland’s capital since the times of Sigismund III, became one of
the centres of the Neo-Classical style in architecture, as exemplified by the king’s
residence at Łazienki. Michał Ogiński contributed to Diderot’s famous Encyclopaedia.
The political writings of the times, by outstanding thinkers like StanisЕ‚aw Staszic and
Hugo KoЕ‚Е‚Д…taj, spread Enlightenment ideas originating in England and France. The
Enlightenment period witnessed a reform of education conducted under the supervision
of the world’s first modern ministry of education, created in 1773.
The Collapse of the State
The debilitated state was not capable of defending itself against attack by the
neighbouring powers. In 1772, against a backdrop of increasing internal chaos, Russia,
Prussia and Austria accomplished the First Partition of Poland, which lost 1/3 of its
territory. In the 1790s Poland underwent radical domestic reform. The Constitution of
the Third of May was passed (1791). Alarmed at the prospect of a strong Poland, Russia
and Prussia decided to intervene.
How to Do Business in Poland
Despite its resistance, Poland was vanquished by an overwhelming military force, which
resulted in the Second Partition in 1793. This time, the aggressors were assisted by
domestic dissenters united under the banner of the Targowica Confederacy of magnates.
The final blow to Polish independence was dealt after the failure of the KoЕ›ciuszko
Insurrection, an anti-Russian uprising in 1794. After several initial successes, the
popular and brave national leader, General Tadeusz KoЕ›ciuszko (a hero of the American
War of Independence, like his compatriot General Kazimierz PuЕ‚aski) lost the decisive
battle at Maciejowice and was taken prisoner by the Russians.
In 1795, Russia, Prussia, and Austria divided what remained of Poland-Lithuania among
themselves, forcing StanisЕ‚aw August to abdicate. From that moment, the name Poland
disappeared from the maps of Europe for over a century.
Napoleonic Times – Hopes for Poland
The turn of the 19th century brought hope for the restoration of independence in the
wake of Napoleon’s military triumphs. The Polish Legions formed in Italy fought in
many of Napoleon’s battles (Trebia, Hohenlinden, Marengo).
Meanwhile Prince Adam Czartoryski, then Russia’s foreign minister, was planning the
restoration of the Polish state under the rule of the Russian Tsar Alexander I. This
division of the country into those who favoured co-operation with the West and those
who favoured the East lasted for decades and affected Polish history on numerous
occasions. Napoleon did partly fulfil the hopes vested in him. After defeating Austria
and Prussia, he created the Duchy of Warsaw out of part of the former Polish territories.
He helped the Poles to raise their own army, under Prince JГіzef Poniatowski, nephew of
the last king. The Polish army fought in all Napoleon’s campaigns and major battles,
including Borodino and in the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig, where Prince
Poniatowski perished. However, the disastrous invasion of Russia in 1811-12 and
Napoleon’s downfall changed the fate of Poland and indeed all of Europe. The Duchy of
Warsaw was replaced by a Kingdom of Poland linked to Russia through a personal
union (the Tsar of Russia was made King of Poland), with its own constitution, sejm,
army, and treasury. The remaining territories of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw were
placed under Prussian rule as the Grand Duchy of PoznaЕ„, with the Free City of Cracow
being �supervised’ by the 3 partitioning powers.
XII. History of Poland
Fighting for Independence
The Poles did not give up their hopes of full independence. Already in 1830, on the
wave of European-wide protests against the decisions of the Congress of Vienna, an
armed insurrection, the November Uprising, broke out in the Russian Partition on 29
November 1830. The Tsar was dethroned and a National Government was established.
Despite initial success, the uprising ended in failure. The Kingdom was abolished and its
territories annexed to the Russian Empire, and the economic and political concessions of
1815-1830 were lost. The Sejm was disbanded.
Subsequent uprisings brought more disasters. One occurred in Cracow in 1846. The
authorities put it down with the help of Polish peasants, and the Free City was annexed
by the Austrian Empire. Another uprising in 1848, in Greater Poland, was crushed as
well. During the Revolution of 1848, Poles were present wherever battles were fought
against the Holy Alliance: in Italy (under the leadership of Adam Mickiewicz and
Wojciech Chrzanowski), in Germany (Wiktor Heltman, Ludwik MierosЕ‚awski, and
Franciszek Sznajde), in Austria (JГіzef Bem) and in Hungary (Bem, Henryk DembiЕ„ski,
and JГіzef Wysocki). In the debate over whether to struggle or to co-operate with the
aggressors, the idea of an uprising carried the day again in the 1860s. But the January
Uprising (1863-1865) met with a defeat so severe that the vision of national restoration
by force of arms was subsequently shelved for many years.
Polish Г‰migrГ©s
After each uprising a wave of political exiles left the Polish territories. After the
November Uprising, more than ten thousand were forced to emigrate. This tide was
called the Great Emigration on account both of its volume and the intellectual potential
of the Г©migrГ©s, who included the statesman Prince Adam Czartoryski, the national bards
Adam Mickiewicz and Juliusz SЕ‚owacki, the historian Joachim Lelewel, and almost the
entire general staff of the Uprising. Most of the Г©migrГ©s became involved in European
politics, while continuing to strive for Polish independence. Some, like Prince
Czartoryski, tried to further the cause by diplomatic means, others by military service,
others still by participating in secret European organisations like Young Europe. The
best-known masterpieces of Polish literature were created in France, notably the national
epic Pan Tadeusz by Adam Mickiewicz. Poles were ever present in world events, not
only as soldiers or politicians: Ignacy Domeyko laid the foundation of geology in Chile;
Ernest Malinowski built railways in Peru; PaweЕ‚ Edmund Strzelecki explored Africa and
Australia for the British Crown. There were also the Polish writers and artists: Joseph
Conrad (JГіzef Konrad Korzeniowski) made a mark in world literature, Henryk
Rodakowski won gold medals at Paris art exhibitions, while in music FrГ©dГ©ric Chopin
and Ignacy Paderewski became world-famous as composers and virtuoso performers.
How to Do Business in Poland
The �Polish Question’
After the January Uprising, increasingly oppressive measures were introduced in the
Russian zone of partitioned Poland, and another wave of politicians, artists and soldiers
was forced to emigrate. As efforts intensified to turn the Poles into Russians, the Polish
language was barred from a growing number of schools and institutions. The situation
was similar in the territories under Prussia, where the authorities sometimes resorted to
brutal methods in a drive to Germanise the population. The Catholic Church was
severely repressed both in Russia and Prussia. Only Galicia (the Austrian partition zone)
enjoyed a measure of autonomy after 1867, with its own national assembly, and a Polish
run administrative and educational system. But unlike the Prussian and, to an extent, the
Russian partition zones, it was deeply impoverished and, except for the cities,
economically depressed.
Politics, Parliament, Parties
The second half of the 19th century saw a more vibrant Polish political life. Not only did
Poles participate in the politics of the three occupying empires – Polish deputies held
seats in their parliaments – and were appointed to the highest offices (Kazimierz Badeni
was Prime Minister of the Austro-Hungarian Empire), they also set up their own,
modern political parties (e.g. the Proletariat, 1882; the Polish Socialist Party, 1892; the
National-Democratic Party, 1897; the People’s Party, 1895, to name but a few). These
groups made a signal impact on partitioned Poland, and would affect future
developments at the restoration of independence.
Literature, Science and the Arts
Thanks to the struggle to keep the national spirit alive, and to the dissemination of the
ideal of work for the good of society, in the late 19th century Polish culture enjoyed a
period of dynamic growth. This was an age highlighted by the work of writers like
BolesЕ‚aw Prus, Eliza Orzeszkowa, Stefan Е»eromski, and Adam Asnyk, and of painters
like Jan Matejko, JГіzef CheЕ‚moЕ„ski, Henryk Siemiradzki, and StanisЕ‚aw WyspiaЕ„ski,
who was also an outstanding playwright. In 1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz received the
Nobel Prize in literature. Advances were being made in science: Zygmunt WrГіblewski
and Karol Olszewski were the first to liquefy atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen (1886).
In 1853 Ignacy ЕЃukasiewicz developed an industrially efficient method for the
distillation of petroleum oil and constructed the world’s first practicable paraffin lamp,
while Ludwik Zamenhof created Esperanto and published his manual for this language.
The crowning achievement by a Polish scientist was the discovery of radioactivity and
the isolation of the first radioactive isotopes by Maria SkЕ‚odowska- Curie (in
collaboration with her husband Pierre), for which she was awarded two Nobel Prizes
(1903 and 1911).
XII. History of Poland
With Russia or with Germany?
The dream of independence returned with the 1905 Revolution in Russia. Although no
significant political changes were achieved within the �Kingdom’ (the Russian zone of
partitioned Poland) or in Russia itself, Polish hopes and memories of bygone national
uprisings revived. Some political groups opted for armed struggle leading to
independence, while others preferred a policy of negotiations with the partitioning
powers. However, everybody knew that it would take a Pan-European conflict, a war
between the partitioning powers, for a chance for the Polish cause to succeed. The main
problem lay in the choice of an ally; some campaigners (JГіzef PiЕ‚sudski and the
independence group) called for co-operation with Austria and Prussia Germany; others
(Roman Dmowski and the nationalist groups) saw an opportunity in alliance with Russia
and the Entente Powers (France and United Kingdom, joined later by the United States).
The Road to Independence
The First World War brought the solution to the Polish Question. JГіzef PiЕ‚sudski,
Commander of the Polish Legions, put forward a political concept calling for a proAustrian orientation, which proved to be the most effective. He bet that Germany and
Austro-Hungary would beat Russia, and would in turn be defeated by France and United
Kingdom, the defeat of the partitioning powers allowing an independent Poland to arise.
This was indeed what happened: after the Revolution of 1917 Russia withdrew from the
War, while Germany and Austro-Hungary capitulated. The Treaty of Versailles, which
ended the Great War, sanctioned Poland’s independence. By October 1918 Polish forces
were already disarming German and Austrian units in Poland. On 7 November, the first
Polish interim government was created under the leadership of the Socialist Ignacy
Daszyński. Following Piłsudski’s return (he had been arrested by the Germans in July
1917), the army and the interim government deferred to the Commander of the Legions.
PiЕ‚sudski was appointed National Commander-in-Chief (Naczelnik).
Border Conflicts
Fighting broke out in Ukraine in 1918, and an anti-German uprising in Greater Poland
(27 December 1918-14 February 1919) led to that region’s return to Poland. Under the
Treaty of Versailles, Poland was granted access to the Baltic Sea, although GdaЕ„sk was
to remain a Free City. A plebiscite was held in the contested territories of Upper Silesia
and Mazuria, which went against Poland (1920 and 1921). Eventually three uprisings
induced the League of Nations to grant 30% of Silesia to Poland. Another danger
loomed in the east: in the Polish-Soviet war of 1920, Russia’s Bolshevik armies
narrowly missed the chance for a �revolutionary march across Europe’, having reached
the outskirts of Warsaw. The battle fought there on 13-18 August was dubbed by Lord
D’Abernon, a British diplomat, “the eighteenth decisive battle of the world”. The people
How to Do Business in Poland
of Poland called it the �Miracle on the Vistula’. The war was concluded with a peace
treaty which proved relatively favourable for Poland (Riga, 18 March, 1921).
Difficult Beginnings in an Independent Country
Three months after independence, the Legislative Sejm opened its session. The Small
Constitution had already been passed (February 1919), agricultural reform introduced,
national administrative bodies created, and the educational system and war-damaged
industry were being reconstructed by the time the Silesian Uprisings and the war with
Soviet Russia broke out. By March 1921 Poland could boast a modern constitution.
However, in the first years of independence the domestic situation was uneasy. Gabriel
Narutowicz, the first President of the Republic, was assassinated one week after his
election (16 December 1921) by an ultra-conservative fanatic. Numerous political conflicts
and a growing economic crisis brought about a loss of credibility for the state authorities.
Even the radical and successful state finance reform of 1924 did not alleviate tensions.
PiЕ‚sudski Assumes Power
In May 1926, with the assistance of loyal military units, JГіzef PiЕ‚sudski, who had kept out
of politics for four years, carried out what has come down in history as the May Coup. His
adherents, the Sanacja group, intended to �sanitise’ the country (hence the name). After
several days of fighting, President Wojciechowski and the Cabinet of Prime Minister
Witos resigned. Although PiЕ‚sudski was elected President by the Sejm, he turned down
this option, and put forward the candidacy of Professor Ignacy MoЕ›cicki. Poland entered a
period called the Sanacja régime or the �government of the colonels’, as most of
Piłsudski’s colleagues in this government were either active or retired army officers.
The Sanacja rГ©gime brought Poland economic stability, but also meant a drift from
democracy towards authoritarianism. Marshal PiЕ‚sudski governed with a heavy hand,
tolerated no opposition, and did not hesitate to use drastic methods to curb defiant
politicians (as exemplified by the bringing of police into the Sejm assembly hall in March
1928). This state of affairs was manifest especially in the 1930s, when Poland was affected
by the crash on the New York stock market, and the ensuing economic crisis brought a
tense atmosphere. In September 1930 PiЕ‚sudski dissolved Parliament and had many
members of the opposition arrested, sentencing them to prison terms during a �trial’ that
was a travesty of justice. In 1934 a camp was set up at Bereza Kartuska, where
“individuals who posed a threat to security and order” were to be detained. Before his
death on 12 May 1935 PiЕ‚sudski managed to approve the authoritarian April Constitution
which significantly curtailed the powers of the Sejm in favour of the president’s
prerogatives. After Piłsudski’s death, the Sanacja group split into two rival factions (the
followers of Marshal Ељmigly-Rydz and the supporters of President MoЕ›cicki). Deputy
Prime Minister Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski proved to be the only notable politician of the
XII. History of Poland
Sanacja era; he was the creator of an economic development project for Poland, involving
the Central Industrial Region and the new port of Gdynia.
A Flowering of Independent Culture
Alongside the political and economic unrest, interwar Poland also experienced
a veritable burst of artistic activity. In 1924 WЕ‚adysЕ‚aw S. Reymont received the Nobel
Prize in literature for his novel ChЕ‚opi (The Peasants, 1924-25). The jury also
considered the candidacy of Stefan Е»eromski, another novelist. In music Poland was
represented by Ignacy Jan Paderewski and Karol Szymanowski. But perhaps the greatest
claim to international fame was staked by the actress Pola Negri (Apolonia ChaЕ‚upiec),
who captivated Hollywood and silent movie fans.
Disaster: the End of the Short Spell of Independence
The life of the Second Republic of Poland was interrupted by the outbreak of the Second
World War. On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland, and on 17 September the
Soviet Union attacked from the east. After a month of fighting, Germany and the USSR
enacted another partition of Poland. A portion of the Polish territories under German
control were turned into what became known as the �General-Government’ and the rest
was simply annexed directly to Nazi Germany.
Poland’s eastern territories remained under Soviet occupation. Both powers pursued
deliberate policies of an extreme harshness and cruelty towards the Polish population,
albeit in different ways. German concentration camps and Soviet labour camps filled up;
Large numbers of Polish intellectuals were shot in the Palmiry woods, at Wawer, and at
many other mass execution sites. On Stalin’s orders, 21,000 reserve officers (mostly
officials and intellectuals) held as POWs were executed in Katyn, Kharkov, and
elsewhere in the USSR. The Nazis murdered 3 million Polish Jewish citizens, and over 2
million non-Jewish Poles. Over a quarter of a million Polish civilians of all ethnic
backgrounds were deported east by the Soviet authorities, where many of them died.
The Polish Government did not give up the struggle. President WЕ‚adysЕ‚aw Raczkiewicz,
and General WЕ‚adysЕ‚aw Sikorski, who was Prime Minister and Commander-in-Chief,
were in exile in London, from where the government-in-exile ran the underground
organisations at home. A fully operational, clandestine Polish administrative system
known as the �Underground State’ was established and conducted its affairs, including
an extensive clandestine education system at the secondary (grammar school) and
university level, as the Nazis had closed down all education for Poles except elementary
schools. The ranks of the armed resistance movement reached over 400,000 combatants,
and their sabotage operations and undercover campaigns were carried out on the largest
scale in occupied Europe.
How to Do Business in Poland
Fighting on the Frontlines and Conducting the Ideological Battle
Polish forces fought on every European front during the Second World War (Narvik, the
French campaign and the Battle of Britain in 1940, Tobruk in 1941/42, Normandy and
Monte Cassino in 1944). The biggest Polish Army unit in the West was General Anders’
Second Corps, which fought in Italy. This unit was created in 1941 in the USSR,
following an agreement between Sikorski and Stalin, and consisted mainly of Polish
POWs and deportees freed from Stalin’s camps. Poles made a major contribution to the
Allied effort in intelligence. (Two Polish mathematicians broke the German Enigma
code). But, for the future of Poland, the political decisions were the most important.
Diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union were broken off after the discovery of the
Katyn massacre, while the death of Gen. Sikorski in a mysterious plane crash in 1943
weakened the Polish position on the international arena. Neither Prime Minister
MikoЕ‚ajczyk nor Commander-in-Chief Sosnkowski managed successfully to put
Poland’s case to Churchill and Roosevelt, who left Poland under Soviet influence in
exchange for the USSR’s continued participation in the war against Nazi Germany. The
military campaigns of the Polish underground movement in the eastern territories were
of no avail in securing a favourable attitude from the Western powers, and neither was
the Warsaw Uprising (63 days of fighting). The Allied conferences in Tehran (1943) and
Yalta (1945) sealed the fate of Poland: the Republic’s eastern territories were ceded to
the USSR, and Poland found itself in the Soviet sphere of influence. The only
concession on the part of Stalin was his agreement to grant Poland territories along the
River Oder, together with part of former East Prussia. It was a sop to the government of
Polish communists which was being formed in the USSR under Stalin’s tutelage (two
Polish armies were fighting side by side with the Red Army under Russian command).
Once again, a war between the superpowers left Poland devastated (a loss of 1/5 of its
pre-war territory; a population diminished by a third, and national economic assets
depleted by 38%).
Communist Rule
With the help of Polish communists, the Soviet authorities quickly managed to crush all
overt opposition. Combatants who were members of the AK (the �Home Army’) and
WiN (�Freedom and Independence’) independent underground resistance organisations
were murdered, deported to Russia, or sent to prisons or labour camps; their leaders
were imprisoned in Moscow and tried in a showcase trial. A condition was formally set
by the Western Allies that democratic elections be held, but members and associates of
Mikołajczyk’s PSL – an independent peasant party – were arrested, intimidated, and
assassinated. The results of a referendum of 30 June 1946 and parliamentary elections in
January 1947 were rigged. MikoЕ‚ajczyk, a Deputy Prime Minister of the Interim
Government, fled the country.
XII. History of Poland
Thereafter Poland would be ruled by the PPR (the Polish Workers’ Party, which in 1948
forcibly absorbed a pre-war socialist party and changed its name to PZPR, or Polish
United Workers’ Party). Between 1948 and 1956, the Stalinist era, Poland was under the
absolute rule of the PZPR Communist Party, assisted by the secret police and Soviet
�advisers’. Repressive measures were directed not just against political opponents, but
the general public. Former AK combatants and Catholic priests filled the prisons.
Cardinal WyszyЕ„ski, Primate of Poland, was interned in 1953. Inconvenient PZPR
members (like Party Secretary WЕ‚adysЕ‚aw GomuЕ‚ka) were imprisoned too. Poland was a
satellite of the USSR. There was next to no private business, and economic specialists
were all Communists; there was an attempt to collectivise agriculture; and enforced
industrialisation caused a significant drop in the standard living and severe discontent.
The October '56 thaw and "Our Little Stabilisation"
The people of Poland had to wait until 1956 for the political terror to wane. In that year
Stalinism was officially repudiated in the USSR, and after the death of the PZPR leader
Bolesław Bierut and workers’ strikes and protests in Poznań (28 June), changes occurred
in the regime.
In October of that year, after a sharp conflict within the Party and difficult
negotiations with the USSR, WЕ‚adysЕ‚aw GomuЕ‚ka once again became leader of the
Party and head of state, initially with the support of the nation. The new First
Secretary used the new situation to reduce Poland's dependence on the USSR.
Gradually political prisoners were released from jail, the Primate was freed from
house arrest. Enforced agricultural collectivisation was dropped; a negligible volume
of private business was tolerated. Recovering from the wartime devastation, Poland
now entered the "little stabilisation" period. However, GomuЕ‚ka soon backed out of
the liberal course. The PZPR was still the absolute power in Poland. The conflict
between the government and society became more and more patent. The clash
between State and Church during Poland's millennium celebrations (1966), and
student strikes (March 1968), as well as the anti-Semitic campaign started by the Party
in 1968 underpinned the nation's disenchantment with the GomuЕ‚ka government.
Gierek and the "propaganda of success"
The end of GomuЕ‚ka's rule, much like his rise to power in 1956, was brought about
largely due to workers' discontent.
In December 1970, after a price rise, there were strikes in several coastal cities, and
street fights between dockers and the police and army, in which several dozen
protesters were killed. Eventually, an opposition group within the Party removed
GomuЕ‚ka and appointed Edward Gierek the new First Secretary. In the 1970s the
How to Do Business in Poland
People's Republic of Poland enjoyed a period of phoney prosperity. Thanks to foreign
credit, the shops were full of consumer goods, new companies sprang up and the
standard of living rose. The first sign of crisis came in 1976, with riots in Radom and
at the Ursus industrial plant. The Communist economy was highly inefficient, and real
wages fell and the supply of consumer goods dwindled. More strikes and workers'
protests followed. Repressions directed against the 1976 rioters led to the creation of
an illegal workers' defence committee (KOR). Other illegal opposition groups and
clandestine publications began to appear. The Church played a significant role,
organising widespread educational activities and addressing the most urgent social
needs. Widespread strikes also engulfed other regions, especially Szczecin and the
coal mines of Silesia. Throughout the country, the totalitarian regime found itself in
serious danger. This was the beginning of a general strike.
In the 1970s the People’s Republic of Poland enjoyed a period of phoney prosperity.
Thanks to foreign credits, the shops were full of consumer goods, new companies sprang
up, and the standard of living rose. However, the Communist economy was highly
inefficient, and real wages fell while the supply of consumer goods dwindled. The first
sign of crisis came in 1976, with riots in Radom and at the Ursus industrial plant.
Repressions directed against the 1976 rioters led to the creation of an illegal workers’
defence committee (KOR). Other illegal opposition groups and clandestine publications
began to appear.
The end of the �success propaganda’ period (as the 70s decade was dubbed) came in
1980. An extremely strong wave of strikes engulfed Poland after another price increase,
and the working people of GdaЕ„sk organised a trade union strike committee. This time
the Party did not resort to violence, and the subsequent negotiations resulted in the
signing of the August Agreements (31 August 1980) and the emergence of Solidarity, an
independent trade union organisation, headed by a GdaЕ„sk shipyard worker, Lech
WaЕ‚Д™sa. Momentous events in the Catholic Church also encouraged an atmosphere of
freedom and change, and an increasing boldness on the part of the working people. In
1978, Cardinal Karol WojtyЕ‚a, Metropolitan Archbishop of Cracow, had been elected
Pope, assuming the name John Paul II, and 8 months later had made a pilgrimage to his
home country. Solidarity quickly became a widespread social movement uniting over 9
million members, including a large number from the ruling Communist Party. It was an
unprecedented phenomenon in the entire Soviet bloc, essentially irreconcilable with the
political system. Despite the fact that, in general, it did not express any revolutionary
political goals and only called for the �rationalisation of the existing system’, it enjoyed
the widespread support of political and trade-union circles in the West, and became an
inspiration to other independence minded groups in the Communist bloc. Another
XII. History of Poland
symbolic event in 1980 was the awarding of the Nobel Prize for literature to an Г©migrГ©
Polish poet, CzesЕ‚aw MiЕ‚osz.
Martial Law
In the face of economic crisis and the growing influence of Solidarity, and under
pressure from the USSR, General Jaruzelski decided to adopt drastic measures. On 13
December 1981 Martial Law was introduced in the People’s Republic of Poland.
Several thousand opposition activists were interned, and strikes were crushed with the
help of the army and special riot police units. On 16 December nine miners were killed
at the Wujek Coal Mine. Many members of the opposition and underground tradeunionists were sentenced to prison terms, others were forced to emigrate. Martial Law,
which was officially lifted in July 1983, did not solve Poland’s problems. The Polish
economy still could not emerge from the crisis; opposition to the government did not
diminish but was kept alive by the Pope’s subsequent pilgrimages in 1983 and 1987, and
the awarding in 1983 of the Nobel Peace Prize to Lech Wałęsa, Solidarity’s leader.
Under Wałęsa’s leadership, the Solidarity trade union continued to operate illegally, as
evidenced by the regular publication and distribution of several hundred clandestine
periodicals and bulletins. Solidarity campaigners received support from the Church,
which had maintained its strong position in society. By 1983 the scale of the repressions
as well as that of the opposition activities was relatively modest compared to the earlier
The Round Table Agreements and the Polish Road to Democracy
In 1988, PZPR Communist party leaders started negotiations with representatives of the
then unofficial opposition. In the early months of 1989, as a result of the Round Table
talks, an agreement was signed calling for partially free elections to the Parliament. The
opposition was to have 35% of the seats in the Sejm, and an entirely free election to the
Senate. The election held on 4 June 1989 brought a landslide victory to Solidarity.
Although the Parliament, dubbed the �contractual Parliament’, elected Gen. Jaruzelski
President of the Republic, the office of Prime Minister was entrusted to a Solidarity
candidate, Tadeusz Mazowiecki, who had been chief adviser to the GdaЕ„sk strike
committee in 1980. On 29 July 1989 the Parliament changed the country’s name and
constitution. The People’s Republic of Poland became a thing of the past. The events in
Poland precipitated the fall of the entire Communist block. The Yalta arrangement
finally collapsed.
How to Do Business in Poland
r Polish embassies and embassies in Poland
r Polish institutions to turn to include the Polish
Information and Foreign Investment Agency,
Ministry of the Treasury, and Central Statistical
r English language newspapers: The Warsaw Voice,
The Warsaw Business Journal, Polish Market
r Internet: Poland’s official web pages, Polish Export
Promotion Portal, BMB Promotions, websites of the
ministries, Polish embassies and UNIDO Warsaw
Office website
r Web lists of trade fairs in Poland
How to Do Business in Poland
Considering information distribution methods and accessibility, one can basically group
sources of business information into three categories:
newspapers, magazines, and other printed publications,
internet pages.
Usually an institutional source of information provides access to its information in many
ways: direct consultation, publications, and information on its website.
For English speaking foreigners, accessing business and financial news in Poland is
quite easy. Nowadays state and research institutions employ highly-qualified staff and
finding somebody who speaks English there is not a problem. Whether this particular
person will be an expert in the issues you would like to discuss is another matter.
English-language publications pertaining to the Polish economy cover the whole
spectrum of information, from daily stock market news and reports, to the legal aspects
of setting up a business in Poland, and market analysis. Finally, one can always order
a specific report to be prepared in a language of choice from Poland’s many consulting
and corporate intelligence companies. Last but not least the easiest and cheapest way of
accessing a wealth of information is surfing the web. There are many exclusively
business and finance oriented websites and if one is patient enough one will find most of
the information required right there.
State and research institutions are among the most reliable sources of information.
Appendix 18 provides a list of central institutions and ministries with contact
information (including websites). Nearly all of them issue various publications (some in
English) and maintain websites, usually with an English language version.
Of course, a foreigner’s obvious first choice is his / her embassy in Poland, or a Polish
embassy abroad. A list of embassies in Poland is contained in Appendix 30 and a list of
the economic and commercial sections of Polish embassies and consulates abroad is
presented in Appendix 31. Next, there are various bilateral chambers of commerce,
some of which are listed in Appendix 29.
Obviously, which institution to contact depends on the nature of one’s business in
Poland, therefore it is not possible to indicate the single best contact that would suit
XIII. Sources of Business Information in Poland
everyone’s needs. However, if one considers direct investment, PAIiIZ (the Polish
Information and Foreign Investment Agency) is a prime choice. PAIiIZ produces a
series of high quality English-language titles under different headings, covering areas
ranging from the construction sector to banking, and offers a whole range of free of
charge services to foreign investors. For more information on PAIiIZ see the
Institutional Structure for Foreign Direct Investments in Chapter V. The Warsaw
UNIDO Office, publisher of this guide, is also helpful.
For a company wanting to participate in the privatisation processes in Poland, the
Ministry of the Treasury (described in Chapter IV) is the institution to turn to, while the
Ministry of the Economy and Labour deals with state economic policy, foreign trade
regulations, investment incentives, state aid, etc., and will provide useful general and
specific information. It is also worth to note that the Ministry of Finance supervises the
customs system. Some information in English, regarding customs regulations one may
find via their website (Customs Service). An outline of basic functions of some major
government institutions is provided in Chapter I.
The Central Statistical Office (GUS) disseminates a wide range of detailed data covering
all aspects of the economy. Some of it is readily available in English in their bilingual
publications, such as the Statistical Bulletin, published monthly. Accessing the
information is very simple. The best way is to visit the Inquiry Office, which has a small
reading room and a very helpful staff, ready to help you find the required publications,
or to assist you in searching their databanks. A fair range of information is also available
through the website.
The National Bank of Poland (NBP) is an invaluable source of reliable information
concerning the Polish financial system, system of payments, and, obviously, the
banking sector. Up to date information includes the balance of payments, foreign
reserves, and foreign debt, not to mention monetary policy and exchange rates.
The Office for Competition and Consumer Protection (UOKiK) protects freedom of
competition and consumer interests. It counteracts monopolistic practices, controls
mergers, and monitors public aid. The register of dangerous products can also be found
on their website, as well as reports concerning the above mentioned activities. For more
information on UOKIK please refer to Chapter X.
The Insurance and Pension Funds Supervisory Commission (KNUiFE) provides detailed
information regarding the insurance sector and pension funds. This includes insurance
agents, pension societies, individual pension accounts, employee pension plans, etc.
Information on the Polish insurance sector is contained in Chapter II.
How to Do Business in Poland
In the case of the tourism industry, the Institute of Tourism is highly recommended.
It provides a lot of current information regarding the tourism sector in Poland free of
charge, and in-depth analyses of particular aspects of the market are available through
their publications. Moreover, it also offers consulting services, such as compiling
specific reports upon request, at very reasonable prices.
Trade and co-operation offers are collected and distributed by, among other bodies, the
Polish Chamber of Commerce, which also offers corporate due diligence services. This
organisation produces regular bulletin-type publications on business trends and financial
news in Poland.
The Polish Press Agency (PAP) offers an informative and comprehensive, if somewhat
expensive, guide to Polish politics and business, as well as general issues. It provides
Warsaw Stock Exchange and currency rate listings. The English is not free of lapses,
although it serves its purpose.
International news agencies, like Reuters, Bloomberg, and the German Press Agency
(dpa) are all accessible for in-depth daily and weekly financial news, although for the
uninformed they pose the problem of little or no contextual analysis, and for the average
news seeker they pose questions of price.
There are also many international organisations and institutions present in Poland,
usually based in Warsaw, which are willing and able to provide various facts and
figures. Some of them are listed in Appendix 20.
Finally, business reports from corporate intelligence companies are becoming
increasingly popular in Poland. The companies undertaking to draw up such reports will
take an in-depth look at a given company on your behalf and offer confidential, if often
costly, advice on the company’s financial credibility, in Polish or in a foreign language.
For the potential business partner in search of company details, such information may
prove to be well worth its price.
XIII. Sources of Business Information in Poland
Newspapers, Magazines and Other Publications
English-language newsprint publications in Poland cover a broad selection of areas for
the English-speaking foreigner, from the general interest weekly, The Warsaw Voice, the
oldest and highest circulation newspaper, to the purely entertainment-based Warsaw
Insider ( The Voice also produces a Business and
Economy Yearbook, which is available on request from the Warsaw Voice office.
The Warsaw Business Journal provides perhaps the most comprehensive coverage of
financial and business news, although the Voice has decent weekly reports on the stock
market and currency, and often in-depth studies of key markets and industries. The
Warsaw Business Journal publishes its well-known Book of Lists, which is a useful
database for companies. Book of Lists is also available on-line as a paid service. The
WBJ web page,, contains some articles from the Warsaw Insider, as
well as from Poland A.M., a morning news digest published by the same house. There is
also Polen am Morgen, a German version of Poland A.M.
The Warsaw Voice’s internet site, is well presented, easy to
access, and offers comprehensive coverage of financial and business stories. Its weekly
updates on the currency market, Warsaw Stock Exchange, and the odd feature or news
article on sectors of industry in the news, are found on these pages, free of charge. There
is also an extensive archive available, with a search option.
The Polish Market, a business focused monthly, presents a valuable compendium of data
and information about the government’s economic policy. It covers investment,
commodity and service markets’ issues, and provides information on leading Polish
companies and high quality prize-winning products. It promotes various Polish regions,
presenting their development strategies and investment offers. One may also notice
alticles on Polish business leaders and the biggest Polish and foreign investors. Many
interesting articles from current and past issues are available at their website Accessing most of the materials requires a free
Another major information supplier is BOSS Information and Publishing Agency, which
has been on the market as an independent specialist information provider for the past
twelve years. It offers analyses and reports on various aspects of the economy, as well as
three publications. The latter include Business News Poland – an English language
weekly offering in-depth business, economic, and legal information aimed at foreign
investors. Regular features include sector analyses, statistics, forecasts, trends,
commentaries, tax and legal regulations, company news, and business/economic news
round-ups. Their website is available at
How to Do Business in Poland
Several other sources of business and financial news are published outside Poland and
can be found in Poland at any of the major hotels, English-language book shops, and, if
one is lucky, at kiosks.
For the upper end of the business information market, one may look towards The
Economist Intelligence Unit’s Quarterly Business Report on Poland, updated monthly.
Other sources include the reports of international organisations such as the IMF, World
Bank, OECD, and the European Commission, which are usually published at least once
a year and are available through their respective websites.
A real flurry of internet pages has appeared (and sometimes, vanished) in recent years
on Polish business and finance, each new one stepping on the toes of the last, while
offering something slightly different, in format as well as content. The following are
outlines of the main sources of internet business and finance news. For those in search of
current data and hard economic news, as well as commercial and business offers and
practical guidance concerning legal, tax, or, for example, insurance matters, the internet
is an ideal source of information, especially for the English-speaking persons, and
persons not based in Poland, who don’t have access to other sources.
From the point of view of reliability of information, and of its being up to date, it is
certainly best to hear it �straight from the horse’s mouth’. Speaking in terms of the
internet, this translates into seeking information on the pages of the information
providers. Anyone seeking reliable business information on Poland is best advised to
turn to the official pages of various Polish ministries and other government and quasigovernment institutions. Most of their websites have an English language version
covering if not all, then at least the major topics available on the Polish site. However,
quite often the information in English is not quite up to date, so it is highly advisable to
verify whether the information presented reflects the current state of affairs. Frequently
this can be done by a simple phone call to the institution involved, or by checking the
part of the website in Polish.
As far as business information is concerned, the sites especially recommended include
the ones administered by the Ministry of the Economy and Labour, the Ministry of the
Treasury, the Ministry of Finance, PAIiIZ, and the Central Statistical Office.
Furthermore, one may find specific business information on the pages of the Warsaw
Stock Exchange, the National Bank of Poland, and other financial institutions. Please
refer to Appendix 18 for the web pages of various state institutions.
XIII. Sources of Business Information in Poland
Below, there is a short description of a few general sites on Poland and on doing
business in Poland. However, please remember that the internet is a very dynamic
medium and by the time this information reaches the reader, there may be many other,
equally good, websites.
Poland Home Page
This page is the official web-site of Poland. It offers some general information on
Poland, as well as the latest news. Moreover, it provides access to a wide range of
information through redirecting to various specialised sites. The major topics include the
economy, science and education, the natural environment, tourism and recreation,
culture and art. The site provides access to business, financial and economic news,
although not all the pages to which one is redirected have their English versions. It is
highly recommended as a good starting point for anyone, who wants to learn about
Poland, regardless whether from business, leisure, or any other point of view.
There is also, another high quality and easy to navigate official
website of Poland, managed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Its considerable
advantage is that apart from Polish and English, it is also available in French, German,
Russian and Spanish. The information is divided into three sections: for travellers, for
businessmen, and for info-seekers. The content covers both current news, and general
information concerning the economy, tourism, culture, and the history of Poland. It is
particularly focused on tourism and culture and provides a lot of interesting material,
such as information on the most famous Poles, Polish traditions and customs, interesting
castles and landscapes, etc.
Polish Export Promotion Portal,
This useful service is provided by the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Labour. It
contains some general economic reports, as well as brief and up to date information on
the Polish economy, including facts and figures pertaining to industry, agriculture,
foreign trade, prices, salaries and wages, etc. Furthermore, the portal contains a database
of Polish exporters, with an option to search for particular products, and an option to
submit a query.
BMB Promotions
This internet service is a window onto the world of Polish exports. The service enables
users to access thousands of offers of Polish firms looking for export and import
opportunities. It is available in seven language versions, including English, French, and
German. The service is run by BMB Promotions, which also offers a printed version of
the catalogue in several languages, as well as a CD-ROM version. Furthermore, BMB
How to Do Business in Poland
Promotions has prepared a general access database containing information about the
economic potential and investment environment of all local self-government units. It
contains thousands of investment projects in Polish districts, towns, communes, etc. This
service is available at The site contains a very useful feature which ranks
communes based on a selected set of criteria. This service is also available in several
languages, in print, and on CD-ROM.
In addition, there are some very good pages created by the economic and commercial
divisions of various Polish embassies and consulates. The ones well-worth visiting
certainly include (Austria), (Canada), (Germany), (United Kingdom), and (both USA). Of course the others are
also quite useful. For a complete list of the economic and commercial sections of Polish
embassies and consulates please refer to Appendix 31. An updated list is also available
at the Polish Export Promotion Portal,
Finally, anyone interested in commercial relations will be glad to take a look at Targi
i Wystawy w Polsce ( which lists all the major trade fairs in Poland. This
site is simple to navigate, is updated on a regular basis, and provides information on
some 400 trade fairs organised in Poland each year. There are also information and/or
links to some 100 fair organisers. The information is available in Polish and in English.
Alternatively, one can use the Polish Trade Fair Corporation (,
which offers a similar service, available in the same languages. It also offers some basic
statistics on trade fairs in Poland, albeit only in Polish.
How to Do Business in Poland
1. Main Economic Indicators ............................................................................................. 245
2. Establishment of a Limited Liability Company ............................................................. 246
3. Establishment of a Joint-Stock Company ...................................................................... 248
4. Fundamental Business Regulations ................................................................................. 250
5. Basic Tax Liabilities ...................................................................................................... 252
6. Agreements on Avoiding Double Taxation ..................................................................... 253
7. Agreements on the Reciprocal Promotion and Protection of Investments ........................ 255
8. List of Countries Whose Citizens Do Not Require a Polish Visa................................... 257
9. Top 50 Companies by Sales Revenue.............................................................................. 258
10. Output of Major Goods and Raw Materials ................................................................... 260
11. Average Retail Prices of Selected Food Products and Other Articles ............................. 261
12. Foreign Direct Investments by Country of Registration ................................................. 262
13. Foreign Direct Investments by Field of Activity............................................................ 263
14. Foreign Direct Investments by Province........................................................................ 264
15. List of 20 Major Foreign Investors ................................................................................ 265
16. WSE – Equity .............................................................................................................. 266
17. WSE – Bonds ............................................................................................................... 267
18. Central Institutions and Ministries ............................................................................... 268
19. Regional Offices of the Ministry of the Treasury......................................................... 272
20. International Organisations and UN Agencies in Poland ............................................... 273
21. Local Authorities – Provincial Governments ................................................................. 275
22. Economic Divisions of District Courts (Registering Companies)................................... 276
23. Regional Branches and Subsidiary Offices of APA ..................................................... 277
24. Polish Technologies and Technology Providers ............................................................ 278
25. Special Economic Zones ............................................................................................... 289
26. Banks ........................................................................................................................... 290
27. Representative Offices of Foreign Banks..................................................................... 293
28. National Investment Funds .......................................................................................... 294
29. Selected Bilateral Chambers of Trade and Industry..................................................... 295
30. Embassies and Commercial Counsellors’ Offices in Poland ....................................... 296
31. Economic and Commercial Sections of Polish Embassies and Consulates.................. 301
32. UNIDO Established Networks ...................................................................................... 312
How to Do Business in Poland
Gross Domestic Product growth
Gross fixed capital formation
Industrial output growth
Productivity growth
Construction growth
Unemployment rate
Inflation rate
Rediscount rate (December)
Budget deficit
Foreign debt
Public debt
Foreign trade, SAD and INTRASTAT statistics:
Export revenue
Import expenditures
Trade deficit
Liquidity – import coverage
Foreign debt/export ratio
Foreign reserves (December)
Foreign direct investments
Cumulative foreign direct investments
Average exchange rate
Wages (average gross monthly)
Minimum gross salary (as of 1 Jan. 2005)
5.4 %
5.3 %
11.6 %
13 %
-1 %
19.1 %
3.5 %
7.00 %
4.7 % of GDP
52.3 % of GDP
48.8 % of GDP
USD 73.8 bn
USD 88.2 bn
USD 14.4 bn
5 months
USD 36.8 bn
USD 7.86 bn
USD 84.5 bn
3.6540 PLN/USD
4.5340 PLN/EUR
PLN 2,289.57
PLN 849
XIV. Appendices
Stage of Company
1. Signing of Articles Notarial Office
of Association / Deed
of Formation
2. Company
National Court Register
3. Announcement of
the company’s
registration in
“Monitor Sądowy
i Gospodarczy”
Office for the publishing
of “Monitor Sądowy i
Gospodarczy”, Ministry
of Justice - through the
secretariat of the
competent economic
Provincial Statistical
(WojewГіdzki UrzД…d
According to the provisions of the
Code of Commercial Companies,
Articles of Association or Deed of
Formation of a limited liability
company must be executed as
a notarial deed.
The registration takes place at the
Economic Court having jurisdiction
in the principal place of business of
the company being formed. Upon
being entered into the register the
company acquires a legal
7. Opening
the company’s bank
1. Notarial fee.
2. Tax on civil and
legal proceedings.
The amount of both
charges depends on
the amount of the
company’s initial
Fixed charge of
PLN 1,000.
The charge is paid in
advance to the
Office account in an
amount not lower
than PLN 500.
Applications for the company’s
registration in the REGON system
are to be submitted at the Provincial
Statistical Office that has
jurisdiction in the company’s
principal place of business.
Social Security Institution Within seven days of employing the
5. Company’s
first employee the company should
registration with the (ZakЕ‚ad UbezpieczeЕ„
register in the district office of the
Social Security
Social Security Institution (ZUS).
Institution (ZUS)
Competent licensing body A list of business activities requiring
6. Obtaining
a licence or permit, if
licences or permits is available at
4. Assigning the
company’s statistical
A company is obliged to open
a bank account in Polish zЕ‚otys and
may also hold foreign currency
accounts with a bank authorised to
deal in foreign currency.
No charge.
No charge.
Stamp duty in an
amount depending
on the type of
licence or permit.
According to the
bank’s regulations.
How to Do Business in Poland
Stage of Company
8. Registration of the Local Tax Office
company with the
Tax Office in respect
of income tax and
Upon commencing business activity,
that is issuing the first invoice, the
company is obliged to register with
the competent tax office.
Tax Identification
Number (NIP) no charge.
VAT registration stamp duty PLN 152.
Source: Various acts
Notarial Fees – maximum rates determined by the Minister of Justice
Company’s Initial Capital
To PLN 3,000
Over PLN 3,000 to PLN 10,000
Over PLN 10,000 to PLN 30,000
Over PLN 30,000 to PLN 60,000
Over PLN 60,000 to PLN 1,000,000
Over PLN 1,000,000
PLN 100
PLN 100 + 3 % of an amount in excess of PLN 3,000
PLN 310 + 2 % of an amount in excess of PLN 10,000
PLN 710 + 1 % of an amount in excess of PLN 30,000
PLN 1,010 + 0.5 % of an amount in excess of PLN 60,000
PLN 5,710 + 0.25 % of an amount in excess of PLN 1,000,000
Please note:
В· the maximum notarial fee for an individual service is PLN 13,200.
В· the above fees are subject to 22 % VAT.
Tax on Civil and Legal Proceedings – the Company’s Deed of Formation
Tax on civil and legal proceedings with respect to a company’s deed of formation
amounts to 0.5 % of the company’s initial capital.
XIV. Appendices
Stage of Company
1. Signing the Deed of Notarial Office
Formation and Charter
2. Accumulation of
the company’s share
The Securities
Commission (in
certain cases)
3. Company
National Court
4. Announcement of
the company’s
registration in
“Monitor Sądowy
i Gospodarczy”
Office for the
publishing of
“Monitor Sądowy i
Ministry of Justice through the Secretariat
of the competent
economic court
Provincial Statistical
(WojewГіdzki UrzД…d
5. Assigning the
company’s statistical
6. Company’s
registration with Social
Security Institution
7. Obtaining a licence
or permit, if required
Social Security
(ZakЕ‚ad UbezpieczeЕ„
Competent licensing
According to the provisions of the
Code of Commercial Companies, the
Deed of Formation and Charter of
a joint-stock company must be
executed as a notarial deed.
- Immediate formation (through
subscription for shares by the founders
and third parties).
- Consecutive formation (through
public subscription of shares; in which
case a permit from the Securities
Commission is required).
The registration takes place at the
Economic Court having jurisdiction in
the principal place of business of the
company being formed. Upon being
entered into the register the company
acquires legal personality.
1. Notarial fee.
2. Tax on civil and
legal proceedings.
The amount of both
charges depends on
the amount of the
company’s share
Fixed charge of
PLN 1,000.
The charge is paid in
advance to the Office
account in an amount
not lower than
PLN 500.
Applications for the company’s
registration in the REGON system are
to be submitted at the Provincial
Statistical Office that has jurisdiction
in the company’s principal place of
Within seven days of employing the
first employee the company should
register with the district office of the
Social Security Institution (ZUS).
A list of business activities requiring
licences or permits is available at
No charge.
No charge.
Stamp duty in an
amount depending on
the type of licence or
How to Do Business in Poland
Stage of Company
8. Opening
the company’s bank
9. Registration of the
company with the Tax
Office in respect of
income tax and VAT
Local Tax Office
A company is obliged to open a bank
account in Polish zЕ‚otys and may also
hold foreign currency accounts with a
bank authorised to deal in foreign
Upon commencing business activity,
that is issuing the first invoice, the
company is obliged to register with the
competent tax office.
According to the
bank’s regulations.
Tax Identification
Number (NIP) no charge.
VAT registration stamp duty PLN 152.
Source: Various acts
For notarial fees and taxes on civil and legal proceedings please refer to Appendix 2.
XIV. Appendices
Published in Journal of Laws (Dz. U.)
Law of 29 September 1994
Acquisition of Real Estate by Foreigners
Law of 24 March 1920
Administration of Foreign Trade in Goods
Law of 16 April 2004
Law of 29 August 1997
Civil Code
of 23 April 1964
Code of Commercial Companies
of 15 September 2000
Commercialisation and Privatisation of State
Law of 30 August 1996
Competition and Consumer Protection
Law of 15 December 2000
Law of 7 July 1994
Copyright and Related Rights
Law of 4 February 1994
Corporate Insolvency and Recovery
Law of 28 February 2003
Law of 19 March 2004
Economic Freedom
Law of 2 July 2004
Financial Assistance for Investments
Law of 20 March 2002
Financial Restructuring of Banks and
Law of 3 February 1993
Foreign Exchange
Law of 27 July 2002
Formation of the Agricultural System
Law of 11 April 2003
Industrial Property
Law of 30 June 2000
Dz. U. No. 76, item 694 of 2002 – uniform text
Dz. U. No. 167, item 1758 of 2004 – uniform
Dz. U. No. 97, item 963 of 2004
Dz. U. No. 72, item 665 of 2002 – uniform text
Dz. U. No. 16, item 93 of 1964
Dz. U. No. 94, item 1037 of 2000
Dz. U. No. 171, item 1397 of 2002 – uniform
Dz. U. No. 122, item 1319 of 2000
Dz. U. No. 89, item 414 of 1994
Dz. U. No. 24, item 83 of 1994
Dz. U. No. 60, item 535 of 2003
Dz. U. No. 68, item 622 of 2004
Dz. U. No. 173, item 1807 of 2004
Dz. U. No. 41, item 363 of 2002
Dz. U. No. 18, item 82 of 1993
Dz. U. No. 141, item 1178 of 2002
Dz. U. No. 64, item 592 of 2003
Dz. U. No. 49, item 508 of 2001
How to Do Business in Poland
Published in Journal of Laws (Dz. U.)
Law of 22 May 2003
Labour Code
of 26 June 1974
National Investment Funds and their
Law of 30 April 1993
Promotion of Employment and Labour
Market Institutions
Law of 20 April 2004
Public Aid Procedure
Law of 30 April 2004
Public Procurement
Law of 29 January 2004
Refinancing the Interest on Fixed Interest
Rate Export Credits
Law of 8 June 2001
Spatial Zoning
Law of 27 March 2003
Special Economic Zones
Law of 20 October 1994
State Enterprises
Law of 25 September 1981
Suppressing Unfair Competition
Law of 16 April 1993
Tax Laws
Dz. U. No. 124, item 1151 of 2003
Dz. U. No. 21, item 94 of 1998 – uniform text
Dz. U. No. 44, item 202 of 1993
Dz. U. No. 99, item 1001 of 2004
Dz. U. No. 123, item 1291 of 2004
Dz. U. No. 19, item 177 of 2004
Dz. U. No. 73, item 762 of 2001
Dz. U. No. 80, item 717 of 2003
Dz. U. No. 123, item 600 of 1994
Dz. U. No. 112, item 981 of 2002 – uniform
Dz. U. No. 47, item 211 of 1993
See Appendix 5
XIV. Appendices
income tax
19 %
Legal persons
Revenue earned abroad is also
subject to this tax
22 %
Legal and
natural persons
Excise duty
Legal and
natural persons
Indirect tax
22 % - basic rate
7 % - preferential rate
3 % - unprocessed products
0 % - export rate
some goods & services are
Indirect tax limited to some 60
commodity groups
Tax on
19 %
Shareholders in
legal and
natural persons
income tax
19 %
30 %
40 %
Natural persons
Real estate
Legal and
natural persons
Real estate
legal and
natural persons
Holdings are effectively exempted.
Rate may be reduced by Agreements
on Avoiding Double Taxation. Tax
residence certificate for shareholder
required if lower rate to be applied
Foreigners staying temporarily in
Poland pay tax only on the income
earned in Poland and from work
carried out in Poland (limited tax
Calculated on the area of land on
which agricultural activity is carried
out. The rates vary according to the
category of land.
Rates determined by local
authorities, per m2
Legal Base
Act on Income Tax on Legal
Persons (Dz.U. of 2000 No.
54, item 654, as amended)
Act on Value Added Tax
(Dz.U. of 2004 No. 54 item
Act on Excise Duty (Dz.U.
of 2004 No. 29 item 257, as
Act on Income Tax on Legal
Persons (Dz.U. of 2000 No.
54, item 654, as amended)
Act on Income Tax on
Natural Persons (Dz.U. of
2000 No. 14 item 176, as
Act on Lump-sum Income
Tax on Some Income
Derived by Natural Persons
(Dz.U. of 1998 No. 144
item 930, as amended)
Act on Agricultural Tax
(Dz.U. of 1993 No. 94 item
431, as amended)
Act on Local Taxes and
Charges (Dz.U. of 1991 No.
9 item 31, as amended)
Source: Various acts
How to Do Business in Poland
24. Greece
25. Hungary
26. Iceland
27. India
28. Indonesia
29. Iran
30. Ireland
31. Israel
32. Italy
33. Japan
34. Jordan
35. Kazakhstan
36. Kyrgyzstan
02.10 1998
37. Kuwait
6. Azerbaijan
7. Bangladesh
8. Belgium
Czech Republic
21. France
22. Georgia
23. Germany
Agreement re-negotiated (signed)
Income tax collected at source
Other taxes
Signed on
Entry into
2005/No 66, item 576
1992/No 41, item 177
1975/No 24, item 129
2000/No 106, item 1121
1978/No 24, item 109
2004/No 211, item 2139
1993/No 120,item 534
1995/No 137, item 679
1990/No 38, item 216
2004/No 193, item 1976
1989/No 13, item 65
1996/No 78, item 370
1993/No 117, item 523
1994/No 47, item 189
2003/No 43, item 368
2003/No 78, item 690
1995/No 77, item 388
1979/No 12, item 84
1995/No 106, item 517
1977/No 1, item 5
1975/No 31, item 163
1982/No 1, item 1
2005/No 12, item 90
1991/No 120, item 524
1995/No 125, item 602
2002/No 108, item 946
1999/No 79, item 890
1990/ No 8, item 46
1994/No 46, item 187
Published in
Dziennik Ustaw
1994/No 101, item 492
1996/No 29, item 129
1992/No 28, item 124
1989/No 62, item 374
1983/No 12, item 60
1999/No 61, item 654
1995/No 121, item 586
2004/No 228, item 2304
2000/No 69, item 811
XIV. Appendices
Macedonia FYR
South Africa
South Korea
Sri Lanka
Signed on
65. Switzerland
66. Syria
67. Tajikistan
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
Entry into
1979/No 27, item 157
1976/No 9, item 47
1997/No 127, item 817
1998/No 48, item 304
1995/No 109, item 530
1993/No 125, item 569
1994/No 38, item 139
1996/No 30, item 131
1998/No 35, item 198
1996/No 28, item 124
1992/No 28, item 126
1982/No 17, item 127
1988/No 5, item 38
1977/No 13, item 51
1993/No 22, item 92
2004/No 193, item 1972
2005/No 12, item 92
1983/No 37, item 170
1994/No 78, item 357
1997/No 11, item 58
1994/No 63, item 269
1994/No 81, item 373
1978/No 7, item 20
1976/No 31, item 178
1995/No 116, item 560
1995/No 49, item 258
2001/No 101, item 1137
1995/No 62, item 318
Published in
Dziennik Ustaw
1995/No 53, item 285
2004/No 244, item 2445
1995/No 51, item 277
1996/No 110, item 527
2002/No 206, item 1744
1979/No 10, item 62
1995/No 49, item 256
2003/No 13, item 131
1996/No 38, item 166
2002/No 206, item 1746
1996/No 110, item 529
2003/No 216, item 2120
Source: Ministry of Finance, 2005
Agreement re-negotiated (signed)
How to Do Business in Poland
No. Country
Czech Republic
Signed on
17.04 1997
Entry into
Published in
Dziennik Ustaw
1993/No 122, item 547
1993/No 124, item 567
1992/No 39, item 166
1989/No 54, item 321
1999/No 61, item 656
2000/No 43, item 492
1993/No 122, item 545
2001/No 15, item 153
1995/No 62, item 322
1991/No 27, item 114
2000/No 21, item 266
1989/No 13, item 67
1995/No 26, item 126
1993/No 117, item 521
1994/No 97, item 469
1992/No 28, item 122
1998/No 48, item 302
1995/No 39, item 196
1998/No 54, item 342
1990/No 38, item 220
1991/No 27, item 116
1995/No 51, item 275
1995/No 113, item 512
1998/No 34, item 186
1994/No 46, item 185
2002/No 22, item 217
1993/No 124, item 562
1994/No 42, item 157
2001/No 143, item 1603
1995/No 121, item 584
1994/No 50, item 199
1993/No 122, item 549
1993/No 122, item 543
1997/Nr 63, item 393
1994/No 78, item 359
1995/No 118, item 568
1999/No 76, item 858
1994/No 57, item 235
1990/No 84, item 488
1995/No 19, item 90
1995/No 77, item 386
XIV. Appendices
No. Country
South Korea
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
Signed on
Entry into
Published in
Dziennik Ustaw
1994/No 57, item 237
1996/No 55, item 246
2001/No 106, item 1119
1990/No 8, item 48
1993/No 124, item 563
1990/No 38, item 218
1990/No 63, item 366
1994/No 8, item 26
1994/No 8, item 28
1994/No 112, item 539
1993/No 125, item 575
1994/No 81, item 371
1988/No 12, item 93
1995/No 55, item 291
1994/No 97, item 366
1995/No 116, item 561
1995/No 41, item 209
1997/No 39, item 236
Source: Ministry of Economic Affairs and Labour, 2005
How to Do Business in Poland
Countries A - F
Costa Rica
Czech Republic
Countries G - M
Countries N - Z
Hong Kong
San Marino
South Korea
United Kingdom
United States of America
New Zealand
Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2005
Citizens from other countries, not listed above, need to have a Polish visa when visiting Poland.
For further information, also concerning studies, work and stay of over 3 months, please contact
your nearest Embassy or Consulate of Poland.
XIV. Appendices
(in thousand PLN)
Name of Company
1. Polski Koncern Naftowy
2. Telekomunikacja Polska SA GK,
3. PZU SA GK, Warszawa
4. Polskie Sieci Elektroenergetyczne
SA, Warszawa
5. Metro AG Polska, Warszawa
6. Grupa Lotos S.A., GdaЕ„sk
7. Fiat Auto Poland S.A.,
8. Mittal Steel Poland S.A. GK,
9. Kompania WД™glowa, Katowice
10. PGNiG SA, Warszawa
11. PKO BP S.A. GK, Warszawa
12. Volkswagen PoznaЕ„ Sp. z o.o.,
13. PZU Е»ycie S.A., Warszawa
14. KGHM Polska MiedЕє S.A. GK,
15. BOT GГіrnictwo i Energetyka
16. Polska Telefonia Cyfrowa
Sp. z o.o. GK, Warszawa
17. Poczta Polska PPUP, Warszawa
18. PKP Cargo S.A., Warszawa
19. Bank Pekao SA,GK Warszawa
20. Polkomtel S.A. Warszawa
21. PTK Centertel Sp. z o.o.
22. Polski Koks S.A. Katowice
23. WД™glokoks S.A., Katowice
24. Energia Koncern Energetyczny
S.A., GdaЕ„sk
25. JastrzД™bska SpГіЕ‚ka WД™glowa
S.A. JastrzД™bie ZdrГіj
Net Sales
40 810 810 41 137 175
3 114 903
2 569 712
18 563 556 19 270 772
3 204 805
2 324 455
16 016 080
15 784 171 16 050 883
2 705 742
736 505
2 188 099
482 718
12 400 000
10 333 161 10 357 119
10 077 251
673 927
538 153
104 563
9 111 421 10 296 949
8 502 510 9 817 395
7 565 259 7 880 774
7 557 345
499 613
1 252 003
1 872 007
320 156
429 947
861 866
1 514 381
244 958
7 313 927
7 149 416
7 247 393
934 169
1 516 566
759 500
1 392 864
6 818 328
6 419 571
6 500 364
1 198 047
937 902
6 408 730
5 975 207
5 782 247
5 743 871
5 635 498
6 443 580
6 031 384
5 945 342
5 869 701
170 403
243 787
1 512 431
1 186 300
820 871
101 448
212 379
1 343 001
923 603
652 857
5 627 603
4 993 217
4 934 436
5 628 924
5 104 937
5 007 719
-6 887
52 706
148 578
- 6 907
25 435
104 335
4 823 073
5 051 190
2 153 276
1 547 569
9 650 000
How to Do Business in Poland
Name of Company
26. Jeronimo Martins Dystrybucja
Sp. z o.o., PoznaЕ„
27. Lasy PaЕ„stwowe PP, Warszawa
28. BP Polska Sp. z o.o. KrakГіw
29. Tesco GK, KrakГіw
30. Bank BPH S.A. GK, KrakГіw
31. Volkswagen Motor Polska
sp. z o.o., Polkowice
32. Grupa Energetyczna Enea S.A.,
33. Isuzu Motors Polska Sp. z o.o.
34. Ruch SA, Warszawa
35. Grupa Shell Polska, Warszawa
36. Carrefour Polska, Warszawa
37. Auchan Polska, Warszawa
38. Geant Polska Sp. z o.o.,
39. Grupa Vattenfall Poland,
40. Polska Grupa Farmaceutyczna
S.A. GK, ЕЃГіdЕє
41. Grupa Е»ywiec SA GK, Е»ywiec
42. PoЕ‚udniowy Koncern
Energetyczny SA, Katowice
43. Imperial Tobacco Polska S.A.,
Tarnowo PodgГіrne
44. J&S Energy S.A. Warszawa
45. Fiat-GM Powertrain Polska
Sp. z o.o. Bielsko-BiaЕ‚a
46. Thomson Multimedia Polska
Sp. z o.o., Piaseczno
47. Ahold Polska sp. z o.o. KrakГіw
48. EnergiaPro Koncern
Energetyczny S.A., WrocЕ‚aw
49. Katowicki Holding WД™glowy
SA, Katowice
50. PKP Polskie Linie Kolejowe SA,
Net Sales
4 730 000
4 760 000
4 666 638
4 620 000
4 616 000
4 375 748
4 367 939
4 758 355
4 536 450
4 378 397
74 177
180 000
1 020 857
195 274
5 000
788 301
194 588
4 265 556
4 312 426
70 679
36 608
3 855 678
3 850 515
3 824 621
3 800 000
3 680 000
3 678 469
3 871 018
39 858
24 796
3 678 120
408 737
322 437
3 655 320
3 680 089
57 845
41 362
3 629 089
3 552 678
3 698 556
3 593 152
329 373
357 784
276 854
294 821
3 456 616
3 532 983
162 563
128 516
3 411 326
3 359 463
3 412 798
3 369 182
42 976
154 484
34 014
154 484
3 309 717
3 344 462
9 640
-55 584
3 120 000
3 119 298
3 105 864
3 210 380
207 131
138 727
2 993 902
3 495 441
- 167 754
-167 754
Source: Rzeczpospolita, 20 April 2005
XIV. Appendices
Hard coal
Brown coal
Fuel oils
Petrol (incl. aviation)
Diesel oil
Crude steel
Copper ore
Pure sulphur
Paper and cardboard
Passenger cars
Farm tractors
TV sets (incl. monitors
other than for computers)
Sea-going vessels
Sawn timber
Natural gas
million tons
million tons
million tons
million tons
million tons
million tons
million tons
million tons
million tons
th. tons
th. tons
th. tons
th. DWT
cubic decametres
cubic hectometres
Data for companies employing over 49 persons
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
How to Do Business in Poland
OTHER ARTICLES (as of April 2005)
Milk, fat content 2 - 2.5%
Wheat-rye bread
Wheat flour
Fresh butter, fat content 82.5%
Beef, boneless (gammon)
Pork ham, boiled
White sugar, crystallised, in sacks
Price (PLN)
1 litre
0.5 kg
1 kg
0.2 kg
1 kg
1 kg
1 kg
Men’s suit, polyester staple fibres and wool
Men’s shirt, long-sleeve, polyester staple fibres
and cotton
Women’s suits, wool
Fridge-freezer 320 l
Washer-dryer machine
TV-set, 21 inch
Washing powder for washing machines
Toilet soap 100 g.
Shampoo 200 ml.
Toothpaste 125 ml
Electricity, for households
Natural gas for households
Hot water supply
Central heating, for dwellings
Petrol, Euro-Super
Regular fast train ticket, 2nd class, 181-200 km
Regular long-distance bus ticket, 41-50 km
Taxi, daily fare, 5km
Regular ticket, urban bus
Regular cinema ticket
0.6 kg
1 m3
1 m3
1 m2 of usable
floor area
1 litre
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
XIV. Appendices
(as of 31 December 2004)
The Netherlands
United Kingdom
South Korea
Czech Republic
South Africa
Total value of FDI of USD 1 million and over
Estimated value of FDI below USD 1 million
T O T A L FDI in Poland
USD million
Number of
Source: PAIiIZ, 2005
How to Do Business in Poland
(as of 31 December 2004)
Branch of Activity
according to the European Activity Classification
USD million
Share (%)
Transport equipment
Food processing
Other non-metal goods
Electrical machinery and apparatus
Chemicals and chemical products
Pulp and paper
Wood and wooden products
Rubber and plastics
Metals and metal products
Machinery and equipment
Furniture production
Fabrics and textiles
Leather and leather products
Financial mediation
Trade and repairs
Transport, storage and communication
Power, gas and water supply
Real estate and business activities
Community, social and personal services
Hotels and restaurants
Mining and quarrying
Value of FDI of USD 1 million and over
Estimated value of FDI below USD 1 million
T O T A L FDI in Poland
100.0 %
Source: PAIiIZ, 2005
XIV. Appendices
(as of 31 December 2004)
Number of locations
100.0 %
Source: PAIiIZ, 2005
How to Do Business in Poland
(as of 31 December 2004)
USD million
Country of
1. France Telecom
2. European Bank for
Reconstruction and
Development (EBRD)
3. Fiat
United Kingdom
10. Vivendi Universal
11. United Pan-Europe
Communications N.V.
12. UniCredito Italiano SpA
13. Kronospan Holdings Ltd.
14. Vattenfall AB
15. General Motors
16. ING Group NV
KBC Bank N.V.
Metro Group AG
HVB Group
Tesco Plc
Apollo-Rida Poland Llc
17. Carrefour
18. Daewoo
South Korea
19. Enterprise Investors
20. Volkswagen AG
Transport, storage and
Financial intermediation
Manufacture of transport
equipment; financial
Financial intermediation
Wholesale and retail trade
Financial intermediation
Financial intermediation
Wholesale and retail trade
Construction, real estate and
business activities
Transport, storage and
communication; real estate,
renting and business activities;
wholesale and retail trade
Other community, social and
personal service activities
Financial intermediation
Manufacture of wood and wood
Electricity, gas and water supply
Manufacture of transport
Financial intermediation, real
Retail trade
Manufacture of electrical
machinery and apparatus,
financial intermediation
Financial intermediation
Manufacture of transport
equipment, financial
Source: PAIiIZ, 2005
XIV. Appendices
WIG (end of period)
26,636.19 20,820.07 14,366.65 13,922.16 17,847.55
WIG20 (end of period)
1,960.57 1,574.04 1,175.64 1,208.34 1,816.19
MIDWIG (end of period)
1,730.10 1,269.34
950.24 1,020.49 1,004.68
PLN return on the WIG index (%)
PLN return on the WIG20 index (%)
PLN return on the MIDWIG index (%)
Number of listed companies
(end of period)
Capitalisation at year-end
(PLN million)
Total turnover value
(PLN million)
Number of sessions
Number of investment accounts
at end of period (thousand)
Number of listed companies
(end of period)
Number of transactions per session
Total turnover value (PLN million)
Number of listed companies
(end of period)
Number of transactions per session
Total turnover value (PLN million)
Number of transactions
Average value of transaction
(PLN million)
Total turnover value (PLN million)
Source: WSE, 2005
How to Do Business in Poland
Order book transactions
Number of bonds at the year-end
Turnover value (PLN mill)
Average turnover per session (PLN mill)
Number of transactions per session
Average transaction value (PLN)
7,820 7,840 3,986 5,093 4,381
37,287 38,130 24,222 19,386 16,408
Negotiated deals
Number of transactions
Average transaction value (PLN mill)
Turnover value (PLN mill)
Source: WSE, 2005
XIV. Appendices
Chancellery of the President
of the Republic of Poland
Kancelaria Prezydenta RP
ul. Wiejska 10; 00-902 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6952900; fax: 6951109
Sejm Chancellery
Kancelaria Sejmu RP
ul. Wiejska 4/6/8; 00-902 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6942500; fax: 6942252
Senate Chancellery
Kancelaria Senatu RP
ul. Wiejska 6; 00-902 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6942500; fax: 6942224
Chancellery of the Prime Minister
Kancelaria Premiera
Al. Ujazdowskie 1/3; 00-583 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6946000; fax: 6218827
Constitutional Tribunal
TrybunaЕ‚ Konstytucyjny
Al. Szucha 12a; 00-918 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6574531; fax: 6574532
Supreme Court
SД…d NajwyЕјszy
Pl. KrasiЕ„skich 2/4/6; 00-951 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5308000; fax: 6201354
Supreme Administrative Court
Naczelny SД…d Administracyjny
ul. Jasna 6; 00-013 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 8276031; fax: 8276687
Supreme Chamber of Control
NajwyЕјsza Izba Kontroli
ul. Filtrowa 57; 00-950 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22)8254481; fax: 8257376
National Bank of Poland
Narodowy Bank Polski
ul. ЕљwiД™tokrzyska 11/21; 00-919 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6531000; fax: 8264123
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
Ministerstwo Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi
ul. WspГіlna 30; 00-930 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6231000; fax: 6232750
Ministry of Defence
Ministerstwo Obrony Narodowej
ul. Klonowa 1; 00-909 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6280031 ... 34; fax: 8455378
Ministry of Economic Affairs and Labour
Ministerstwo Gospodarki i Pracy
Plac Trzech KrzyЕјy 3/5; 00-507 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6935000; fax: 6934048
Ministry of Social Policy
Ministerstwo Polityki SpoЕ‚ecznej
ul. Nowogrodzka 1/3/5; 00-513 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6610100; fax: 6611124
Ministry of the Environment
Ministerstwo Ељrodowiska
ul. Wawelska 52/54; 00-922 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5792900
Ministry of Finance
Ministerstwo FinansГіw
ul. ЕљwiД™tokrzyska 12; 00-916 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6945555; fax: 8266352
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych
Al. Szucha 23; 00-580 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5239000; fax: 6298635
How to Do Business in Poland
Ministry of Health
Ministerstwo Zdrowia
ul. Miodowa 15; 00-952 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6349600; fax: 6359245
Agricultural Property Agency
Agencja NieruchomoЕ›ci Rolnych
ul. DolaЕ„skiego 2; 00-215 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6358009; fax: 6350060
Ministry of Infrastructure
Ministerstwo Infrastruktury
ul. ChaЕ‚ubiЕ„skiego 4/6; 00-928 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6301000; fax: 6301116
Office of Technical Inspection
UrzД…d Dozoru Technicznego
ul. SzczД™Е›liwicka 34; 02-353 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 572 21 00; fax: 8227209
Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration
Ministerstwo Spraw WewnД™trznych i Administracji
ul. Batorego 5; 02-591 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6212020, 6289979; fax: 497494
Central Office of Measures
GЕ‚Гіwny UrzД…d Miar
ul. Elektoralna 2; 00-139 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6200241; fax: 6208378
Ministry of Justice
Ministerstwo SprawiedliwoЕ›ci
Al. Ujazdowskie 11; 00-950 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5212888; fax: 6282575
Central Statistical Office
GЕ‚Гіwny UrzД…d Statystyczny
Al. NiepodlegЕ‚oЕ›ci 208; 00-925 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6083000; fax: 6083863
Ministry of Culture
Krakowskie PrzedmieЕ›cie 15/17; 00-071 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 4210100
Office for Competition and Consumer Protection
UrzД…d Ochrony Konkurencji i Konsumenta
Pl. PowstaЕ„cГіw Warszawy 1; 00-950 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5560800; fax: 8265076
Ministry of National Education and Sport
Ministerstwo Edukacji Narodowej i Sportu
Al. Szucha 25; 00-918 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6280461; fax: 6297241
Ministry of Scientific Research and Information
Ministerstwo Nauki i Informatyzacji
ul. WspГіlna 1/3; 00-529 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5292718; fax: 6280922
Ministry of the Treasury of the State
Ministerstwo Skarbu PaЕ„stwa
ul. Krucza 36; 00-522 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6958000; fax: 6280872
Agricultural Market Agency
Agencja Rynku Rolnego
ul. Nowy Ељwiat 6/12; 00-400 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6617203; fax: 6289353
General Administration of Domestic Roads
and Highways
Generalna Dyrekcja DrГіg Krajowych i Autostrad
ul. Е»elazna 59; 00-848 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 3758888; fax: 558600
Government Centre for Strategic Studies
RzД…dowe Centrum StudiГіw Strategicznych
ul. WspГіlna 4; 00-926 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6618600; fax: 6212550
State Mining Authority
WyЕјszy UrzД…d GГіrniczy
ul.Poniatowskiego 31; 40-956 Katowicze
tel.: (+48-32) 2511471; fax: 2514884
Industrial Development Agency
Agencja Rozwoju PrzemysЕ‚u S.A.
ul. Domaniewska 41; 02-672 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 4603799; fax: 4603701
XIV. Appendices
Institute of National Remembrance
Instytut PamiД™ci Narodowej
ul. Towarowa 28; 00-839 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5308690
Polish Committee for Standardisation
Polski Komitet Normalizacyjny
ul. ЕљwiД™tokrzyska 14; 00-050 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5567755; fax: 5567416
National Broadcasting Council
Krajowa Rada Radiofonii i Telewizji
Skwer Kard. Stefana WyszyЕ„skiego 9
01-015 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5973000; fax: 5973180
Polish Centre for Testing and Certification
Polskie Centrum BadaЕ„ i Certyfikacji
ul. KЕ‚obucka 23a; 02-699 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 4645200; fax: 6471222
National Police Headquarters
Komenda GЕ‚Гіwna Policji
ul. PuЕ‚awska 148/150; 02-514 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6210251; fax: 8488494
Polish Patent Office
UrzД…d Patentowy RP
Al. NiepodlegЕ‚oЕ›ci 188/192
00-950 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 8258001; fax: 8750680
Office of the Committee for European Integration
UrzД…d Komitetu Integracji Europejskiej
Al. Ujazdowskie 9; 00-918 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 4555500; fax: 4555348
Public Procurement Office
UrzД…d ZamГіwieЕ„ Publicznych
Al. Szucha 2/4; 00-582 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 4587777; fax: 4587700
Office for Veterans and Repressed Persons
UrzД…d ds. KombatantГіw i OsГіb Represjonowanych
ul. WspГіlna 2/4; 00-926 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6618129; fax: 6618740
State Atomic Agency
PaЕ„stwowa Agencja Atomistyki
ul. Krucza 36; 00-522 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6959800; fax: 6290164
Polish Academy of Sciences
Polska Akademia Nauk
Plac Defilad 1; 00-901 Warszawa; PO Box 24
tel.: (+48-22) 6204970; fax: 6204910
State Committee for Scientific Research
Komitet BadaЕ„ Naukowych
ul. WspГіlna 1/3; 00-529 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5292718; fax: 6280922
Polish Information and Foreign Investment Agency
Polska Agencja Informacji i Inwestycji Zagranicznych
ul. Bagatela 12; 00-585 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 3349800; fax: 3349999
State Hygiene Department
Institute of Scientific Research
PaЕ„stwowy ZakЕ‚ad Higieny
Instytut Naukowo-Badawczy
ul. Chocimska 24; 00-791 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5421400; fax: 8497484
Polish Agency For Enterprise Development
Polska Agencja Rozwoju PrzedsiД™biorczoЕ›ci
ul. PaЕ„ska 81/83; 00834 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 4328080; fax: 4328620
Polish Chamber of Commerce
Krajowa Izba Gospodarcza
ul. TrД™backa 4; 00-074 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6309600; fax: 8274673
State Environmental Protection Inspectorate
GЕ‚Гіwny Inspektorat Ochrony Ељrodowiska
ul. Wawelska 52/54; 00-922 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5792900; fax: 8250465
How to Do Business in Poland
State Inspection of Labour
Chief Labour Inspectorate
PaЕ„stwowa Inspekcja Pracy
GЕ‚Гіwny Inspektorat Pracy
ul. Krucza 38/42; 00-926 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6618111; fax: 6254770
Stock Exchange Commission
Komisja PapierГіw WartoЕ›ciowych i GieЕ‚d
Pl. PowstaЕ„cГіw Warszawy 1
00-950 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 3326600; fax: 3326793
Insurance and Pension Funds Supervisory Office
Komisja Nadzoru UbezpieczeЕ„ i Funduszy
ul. NiedЕєwiedzia 6E; 02-737 Warszawa
tel. (+48-22) 5487240; fax: 5487245
---------------------------------------------------Export Credit Insurance Corporation
Korporacja UbezpieczeЕ„ KredytГіw Eksportowych
ul. Sienna 39; 00-121 Warszawa
tel. (+48-22) 3568300; 3130110; fax: 3130119
Foreign Investors’ Chamber of Industry and
Commerce in Poland
Izba PrzemysЕ‚owo-Handlowa InwestorГіw
Zagranicznych w Polsce
ul. PaЕ„ska 73, 00-834 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 3147575; fax: 3147576
Institute of Tourism
Instytut Turystyki
ul. Merliniego 9a; 02-511 Warszawa
tel. (+48-22) 8446347; fax: 8441263
Polish Chamber of Patent Attorneys
Polska Izba RzecznikГіw Patentowych
ul. MadaliЕ„skiego 20 lok. 2.; 02-513 Warszawa
tel/fax: (+48-22) 6464143; tel./fax: 6464012
Polish Federation of Valuers’ Associations
Polska Federacja StowarzyszeЕ„ RzeczoznawcГіw
ul. ZЕ‚ota 79, 00-819 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6202321; fax: 6202594
Polish Real Estate Federation
Polska Federacja Rynku NieruchomoЕ›ci
ul. Ељliska 52, 00-826 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6545869; fax: 8253495
Polish Tourism Organisation
Polska Organizcja Turystyczna
ul. ChaЕ‚ubiЕ„skiego 4/6; 00-928 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6301736; fax: 6301742
Warsaw Stock Exchange
GieЕ‚da PapierГіw WartoЕ›ciowych
ul.KsiД…ЕјД™ca 4; 00-498 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6283232; fax: 6281754
XIV. Appendices
15-085 BiaЕ‚ystok
ul. Branickiego 17a
06-400 CiechanГіw
ul. 17 Stycznia 7
80-852 GdaЕ„sk
ul. Dyrekcyjna 6
25-955 Kielce
ul. IX WiekГіw Kielc 3
31-503 KrakГіw
ul. Lubicz 25
20-072 Lublin
ul. Lubomelska 1-3
90-051 ЕЃГіdЕє
ul PiЕ‚sudskiego 8
60-734 PoznaЕ„
ul. GЕ‚ogowska 26
35-959 RzeszГіw
ul. Grunwaldzka 15
70-603 Szczecin
ul. Bytomska 9
87-100 ToruЕ„
ul. Szosa CheЕ‚miЕ„ska
53-333 WrocЕ‚aw
ul. PowstaЕ„cГіw ЕљlД…skich
Tel.: (+48-85) 7322387, 7327981, 7328053
Fax: 7322387
e-mail: [email protected]
40-038 Katowice
ul. PowstaЕ„cГіw 34
Tel.: (+48-23) 6722393
Fax: 6722393
e-mail: [email protected]
Tel.: (+48-58) 3013306, 3012972, 3016035
Fax: 3012972
e-mail: [email protected]
Tel.: (+48-32) 2552601, 2552617, 2553065
ext. 324
Fax: 2552585
e-mail: [email protected]
Tel.: (+48-41) 3445287, 3421295, 3421763
3421371, 3421484
Fax: 3444008
Tel.: (+48-12) 4120726, 4210433 ext. 1132,
1139, 1147, 1149
Fax: 4210015
e-mail: [email protected]
Tel.: (+48-81) 5323424, 7424521, 7404527,
Fax: 5323424
e-mail: [email protected]
Tel.: (+48-42) 6363409, 6362277
Fax: 6363809, 6370237
e-mail: [email protected]
Tel.: (+48-61) 8654023, 8654441, 8654442
Fax: 8654443
e-mail:[email protected]
Tel.: (+48-17) 8627384
Fax: 8627199
e-mail:[email protected]
Tel.: (+48-91) 4623923, 4623924, 4623925
Fax: 4623924
e-mal:[email protected]
Tel.: (+48-56) 6224786, 6221352
Fax: 6222936
e-mail: [email protected]
Tel.: (+48-71) 3350311
Fax: 3350313
e-mail: [email protected]
Source: Ministry of the Treasury, 2005
How to Do Business in Poland
The World Bank
ul. Emilii Plater 53; 00-113 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5208000; fax: 5208001
International Monetary Fund
ul. Emilii Plater 53; 00-113 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5207100; fax: 5207101
European Bank for Reconstruction and
ul. Emilii Plater 53; 00-113 Warsaw
(Warsaw Financial Centre, 13th floor)
tel.: (+48-22) 5205700; fax: 5205800
International Finance Corporation
ul. Emilii Plater 53; 00-113 Warsaw
(Warsaw Financial Centre, 9th floor)
tel.: (+48-22) 5206100; fax: 5206101
Delegation of the European Commission
ul. Emilii Plater53; 00-113 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5208200; fax: 5208282
International Labour Office
National Correspondent in Poland
ul. Nowogrodzka 1/3; Office no 617
00-513 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6214019, fax: 6610650
United Nations Development Programme
Al. NiepodlegЕ‚oЕ›ci 186; 00-608 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8259245; fax: 8254958
e-mail: [email protected]
United Nations Industrial Development
Al. NiepodlegЕ‚oЕ›ci 186; 00-608 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8259186; fax: 8258970
e-mail: [email protected]
United Nations International Drug Control
United Nations House
Al. NiepodlegЕ‚oЕ›ci 186, 1st Floor, 00-608 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8259245, fax: 8254958
United Nationas Economic Commission for Europe
Trans-European North-South Motorway Central
ul. GolД™dzinowska 10; 03-302 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6145397; fax: 6145401
e-mail: [email protected]
Environmental Information Centre
United Nations Environment Programme
GRID Warsaw
ul. SobieszyЕ„ska 8; 00-764 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8406664; fax: 8516201
e-mail: [email protected]
United Nations Population Fund
United Nations House
Al. NiepodlegЕ‚oЕ›ci 186, 00-608 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8259245; fax: 8254958
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
Branch Office in Poland
Al. RГіЕј 2; 00-556 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6286930; fax: 6256124
e-mail: [email protected]
United Nations Information Centre in Warsaw
United Nations House
Al. NiepodlegЕ‚oЕ›ci 186, 00-608 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8252557, 8259245; fax: 8254958
World Food Programme
United Nations House
Al. NiepodlegЕ‚oЕ›ci 186, 1st Floor, 00-608 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8259245; fax: 8254958
XIV. Appendices
World Health Organization
Liaison Office in Poland
ul. DЕ‚uga 38/4; 00-238 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6359496; fax: 8310892
e-mail: [email protected]
Polish FAO National Committee
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
Department for Foreign Relations
ul. WspГіlna 30; 00-930 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6231303; fax: 6212326
Polish Committee for UNICEF
Pl. Defilad 1; 00-901 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6566610; fax: 6566613
e-mail: [email protected]
The Polish National Commission for UNESCO
and the Permanent Secretariat of the
PaЕ‚ac Kultury i Nauki; 7th Floor; 00-901 Warsaw
tel./fax: (+48-22) 6203355, 6203362
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
DolnoЕ›lД…ski UrzД…d WojewГіdzki
Pl. PowstaЕ„cГіw Warszawy 1, 50-951 WrocЕ‚aw
tel.: (+48-71) 3406100; fax: 7907119
Podkarpacki UrzД…d WojewГіdzki
ul. Grunwaldzka 15, 35-959 RzeszГіw
tel.: (+48-17) 8671000; fax: 8671950
Kujawsko-Pomorski UrzД…d WojewГіdzki
ul. JagielloЕ„ska 3, 85-950 Bydgoszcz
tel.: (+48-52) 3497913; fax: 3497460
Podlaski UrzД…d WojewГіdzki
ul. Mickiewicza 3, 15-213 BiaЕ‚ystok
tel.: (+48-85)7439201; fax: 7429231
Lubelski UrzД…d WojewГіdzki
ul. Spokojna 4, 20-914 Lublin
tel.: (+48-81) 5324543; fax: 7424319
Pomorski UrzД…d WojewГіdzki
ul. Okopowa 21/27, 80-810 GdaЕ„sk
tel.: (+48-58) 3077695; fax: 3011417
Lubuski UrzД…d WojewГіdzki
ul. JagielloЕ„czyka 8, 66-400 GorzГіw Wlkp.
tel.: (+48-95) 7215600; fax: 7223680
ЕљlД…ski UrzД…d WojewГіdzki
ul. JagielloЕ„ska 25, 40-032 Katowice
tel.: (+48-32) 2077777; fax: 2654245
ЕЃГіdzki UrzД…d WojewГіdzki
ul. Piotrkowska 104, 90-926 ЕЃГіdЕє
tel.: (+48-42) 6641000; fax: 6641040
ЕљwiД™tokrzyski UrzД…d WojewГіdzki
Al. IX WiekГіw Kielc 3, 25-516 Kielce
tel.: (+48-41) 3421222; fax: 3444832
MaЕ‚opolski UrzД…d WojewГіdzki
ul. Basztowa 22, 31-156 KrakГіw
tel.: (+48-12) 6160200; fax: 4227208
WarmiЕ„sko-Mazurski UrzД…d WojewГіdzki
Al. PiЕ‚sudskiego 7/9, 10-575 Olsztyn
tel.: (+48-89) 5232200; fax: 5237754
Mazowiecki UrzД…d WojewГіdzki
Pl. Bankowy 3/5, 00-950 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6956997; fax: 6203704
Wielkopolski UrzД…d WojewГіdzki
Al. NiepodlegЕ‚oЕ›ci 16/18, 61-713 PoznaЕ„
tel.: (+48-61) 8541071; fax: 8527327
Opolski UrzД…d WojewГіdzki
ul. Piastowska 14, 45-082 Opole
tel.: (+48-77) 4524100; fax: 4544575
Zachodniopomorski UrzД…d WojewГіdzki
ul. WaЕ‚y Chrobrego 4, 70-502 Szczecin
tel.: (+48-91) 4303011; fax: 4330250
XIV. Appendices
XII WydziaЕ‚ Gospodarczy
15-017 BiaЕ‚ystok ul. ЕЃД…kowa 3
tel.: (0-85) 7408980
XX WydziaЕ‚ Gospodarczy Rejestrowy
90-928 ЕЃГіdЕє ul. Pomorska 37
tel.: (0-42) 6305200 ext. 207
VIII WydziaЕ‚ Gospodarczy
43-300 Bielsko-BiaЕ‚a ul. BogusЕ‚awskiego 24
tel.: (0-33) 4997910, 4997900
VIII WydziaЕ‚ Gospodarczy
10-523 Olsztyn ul. PartyzantГіw 70
tel. (0-89) 5354099
XIII WydziaЕ‚ Gospodarczy
85-023 Bydgoszcz ul. ToruЕ„ska 64A
tel.: (0-52) 3262736
VIII WydziaЕ‚ Gospodarczy
45-057 Opole ul. Ozimska 19
tel. (0-77) 4543834
XVII WydziaЕ‚ Gospodarczy KRS
42-200 CzД™stochowa ul. Rejtana 6
tel.: (0-34) 3779921
XXI / XXII WydziaЕ‚ Gospodarczy
61-752 PoznaЕ„ ul. Grochowe ЕЃД…ki 6
tel. (0-61) 8566481; 8566466
XII / XVI WydziaЕ‚ Gospodarczy
80-169 GdaЕ„sk ul. Piekarnicza 10
tel.: (0-58) 3213785, 3213835
XII WydziaЕ‚ Gospodarczy
35-324 RzeszГіw ul. Trembeckiego 11a
tel. (0-17) 8628933
X WydziaЕ‚ Gospodarczy
44-100 Gliwice ul. KoЕ›ciuszki 15
tel.: (0-32) 3380212
XVII WydziaЕ‚ Gospodarczy
70-485 Szczecin ul. KrГіlowej Korony Polskiej 31
tel.: (0-91) 4225347
VIII WydziaЕ‚ Gospodarczy
40-040 Katowice ul. Lompy 14
tel.: (0-32) 7313469
VII WydziaЕ‚ Gospodarczy Rejestrowy
87-100 ToruЕ„ ul. MЕ‚odzieЕјowa 31
tel.: (0-56) 6105864
X WydziaЕ‚ Gospodarczy
25-312 Kielce ul. Warszawska 44
tel. (0-41) 3441056-58 ext. 116
XIX / XX / XXI WydziaЕ‚ Gospodarczy
02-315 Warszawa ul. Barska 28/30
tel. (0-22) 5705112; 5705118; 5705116
IX WydziaЕ‚ Gospodarczy Rejestrowy
75-626 Koszalin ul. WЕ‚. Andersa 34
tel.: (0-94) 3428260
VI / IX WydziaЕ‚ Gospodarczy
53-234 WrocЕ‚aw ul. GrabiszyЕ„ska 269
tel. (0-71) 3348210; 3348200
XI / XII WydziaЕ‚ Gospodarczy
31-547 KrakГіw ul. Przy Rondzie 7
tel.: (0-12) 6195172; 6195178
VIII WydziaЕ‚ Gospodarczy
65-364 Zielona GГіra ul. KoЕјuchowska 8
tel.: (0-68) 3220263
XI WydziaЕ‚ Gospodarczy
20-340 Lublin ul. Garbarska 20
tel.: (0-81) 7454711
How to Do Business in Poland
Head Office
Subsidiary office
GorzГіw Wlkp.
Subsidiary office
Subsidiary office
Subsidiary office
Subsidiary office
00-215 Warszawa
ul. DolaЕ„skiego 2
00-095 Warszawa
Plac Bankowy 2
91-420 ЕЃГіdЕє
ul. PГіЕ‚nocna 27/29
85-039 Bydgoszcz
ul. HetmaЕ„ska 38
83-000 Pruszcz GdaЕ„ski
ul. PowstaЕ„cow Warszawy 28
66-400 GorzГіw Wlkp.
ul. JagielloЕ„czyka 8
65-001 Zielona GГіra
ul. Lwowska 25
20-027 Lublin
ul. KarЕ‚owicza 4
10-448 Olsztyn
ul. GЕ‚owackiego 6
16-400 SuwaЕ‚ki
ul. Sportowa 22
45-068 Opole
ul. 1 Maja 6
61-701 PoznaЕ„
ul. Fredry 12
64-920 PiЕ‚a
ul. Motylewska 7
35-959 RzeszГіw
ul. 8 Marca 13
70-500 Szczecin
ul. WaЕ‚y Chrobrego 4
75-411 Koszalin
ul. PartyzantГіw 15a
54-610 WrocЕ‚aw
ul. MiЕ„ska 60
Phone / E-mail
(0-22) 6358009
(0-22) 6351000
(0-42) 6362972, 6365326
[email protected]
(0-52) 3493773
[email protected]
(0-58) 3004841, 3023817
[email protected]
(0-95) 7215340
(0-68) 3254641, 3272389
[email protected]
(0-81) 5325967, 5322112
(0-89) 5235029
(0-87) 5651847, 5663591
(0-77) 4000900
(0-61) 8560601
[email protected]
(0-67) 2123001
[email protected]
(0-17) 8537800
[email protected]
(0-91) 8144200
[email protected]
(0-94) 3433930
[email protected]
(0-71) 3563900
XIV. Appendices
Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements, Warsaw
The SMR - 100 Expert Anti-Terrorist Neutralisation and Assistance Robot
Inventors: A group of project engineers under the direction of Piotr Szynkarczyk made up of Adam
Andrzejuk, Mariusz Kozak, Tomasz KrakГіwka, Sebastian PawЕ‚owski, Ignacy Bojanek, MichaЕ‚
Kulawiec, SЕ‚awomir Kapelko, StanisЕ‚aw Nycz, RafaЕ‚ Czupryniak, WiesЕ‚aw Zalewski, and
PrzemysЕ‚aw Wieczorek, with the participation of Prof. Andrzej MasЕ‚owski.
The SMR-100 Expert Anti-Terrorist Neutralisation and Assistance Robot has been designed
within the framework of the Polish National Science Foundation program. During the project
engineers consulted with various specialists from the Police, the Government Protection Office,
the Security Department of Warsaw Airport, and the National Border Guard. The principal
purpose of the robot is the identification and neutralisation of hazardous explosive devices (IED)
in tight indoor environments and in mass transit vehicles such as aircrafts, buses, and railroad cars.
With the use of the robot it is possible to carry out a remote inspection of a threatened area, the
recognition of IEDs, the removal or destruction of IED, and negotiations with terrorists. The robot
can be send to area threatened by an explosion (or subject to other dangers, such as chemical
contamination) instead of a person.
The SMR-100 Expert is made up of a crawler mounted mobile platform, with a manipulator with
gripping device mounted on top, and an operator’s station. The collapsible operator’s station is
designed in the form of a suitcase resistant to mechanical damage. The mobile base moves on
caterpillar tracks. The additional front mini-track angle position can be remotely altered. The robot
is stabilised by two movable lateral stabilisers. The manipulator, with six degrees of freedom, is
fitted with a gripping device. It can be easily equipped with a variety of accessories. The robot is
remotely controlled by radio or cable. It is equipped with a set of colour cameras and lighting
The miniaturisation of electronic devices designed in SMT technology, a distributed
multiprocessor controller architecture, unconventional stabilisation of the mobile base (providing
for a wide manipulator reach) contribute to the robot’s efficiency. To the best of the robot’s
designers knowledge, the SMR-100 Expert is the only robot in the world capable of carrying out
comprehensive assignments inside aircrafts.
This technology is the winner of the 2003 edition of the Polish Product of the Future competition
in the Product of the Future category.
P.P.U.H MARBET-WIL Sp. z o.o., Bielsko-BiaЕ‚a
MARWILВ®-REFBETВ® - Technology of Applying Protective Layers on Concrete and Reinforced
Concrete Surfaces
Inventor: WЕ‚odzimierz MysЕ‚owski
The MARWILВ®- REFBETВ® technology created to apply protective layers on concrete and
reinforced concrete surfaces, uses SULCEMВ®, a sulphur polymer. The SULCEMВ® sulphur
polymer production technology was developed by the MARBETВ®-WIL company (the first
industrial application in Europe). The technology is based on the modification of waste sulphur
generated in the process of removing sulphur from natural gas and oil in Claus-type installations.
The development of the MARWILВ®- REFBETВ® technology, required the construction of the
SULSPRAYВ® system, a device unique in the world that is used to spray SULCEMВ® sulphur
How to Do Business in Poland
polymer on concrete surfaces. SULCEMВ® sulphur polymers and the SULSPRAYВ® device
facilitated the development of the MARWILВ®- REFBETВ® technology, which protects road curbs
and other concrete road elements against the destructive action of salt and frost.
Through the addition of reflective particles and luminescent material, the MARWILВ®- REFBETВ®
system enhances road aesthetics and traffic safety by improving visibility both day and night. The
system seals and reinforces the structure of concrete through surface and deep sealing injection,
making it water-repellent and smooth.
The SULSPRAYВ® device is designed for the application of a sulphur polymer layer on concrete
and reinforced concrete structures to impregnate and seal them as well as to protect the surface
against corrosion. The SULSPRAYВ® device can also be used as a sulphur polymer batcher when
reeling the aggregate in mixing devices.
The MARWILВ®-REFBETВ® system ensures high resistance to aggressive media, high sealing
properties, good adherence to concrete surfaces, a water and oil repellent surface, an increased
resistance to frost and abrasive agents. It also hampers the growth of bacteria, mould, lichen, and
fungi on the coating. The SULCEMВ® system is available in a wide range of colours.
Innovativeness of the technology consists in a novel use of sulphur polymers that is less expensive
than the agents commonly used so far, and in that thermoplastic properties ensures better concrete
impregnation. So far, sulphur polymer has not been applied as a protective coating for concrete
and reinforced concrete elements, nor as a surface sealing, impregnation, and corrosion-proofing
This technology is the winner of the 2003 edition of the Polish Product of the Future competition
in the Technology of the Future category.
Plastic Waste Processing System
Inventors: StanisЕ‚aw Lewandowski and Izabella Bogacka, with the cooperation of Piotr Banaszuk
from the BiaЕ‚ystok Institute of Technology.
Today’s waste disposal sites contain plastics mixed with other types of waste. This system,
designed to process such waste into liquid fuels, is small and efficient. It can be used to produce
most types of benzines and oils, as well as larger quantities of paraffins and heavy hydrocarbons.
The system is made up of three elements: a loading device, a depolymeriser, and a vapour
The loading device feeds plastics into the system on a continual or intermittent basis. The
depolymeriser, heart of the system, is a diaphragm-heated reservoir. Unsegregated plastics are
transformed here. This process generates depolymerisate vapour. The nature of this solution allows
for effective and quick transmission of the burning fuel energy without a loss. The combustion
method and its duration results in unusually pure combustion gases. Moreover, the leftover
combustion energy is used to dry, heat and de-oxidise the charge. The vapour condenser allows for
the zonal out-dropping of the depolymerisate, which enables good isolation of products in the form
of a broad fraction of oil-like hydrocarbons, or its division into relevant fractions. Incondensable
high-energy gases can be used for the generation of any type of energy for the needs of the system
(thermal, rotational, or electric energy). This makes the system usable anywhere, without the need
to connect it to electricity and water.
This system’s innovativeness consists in a highly-efficient and fast transmission and distribution of
burned fuel energy, thanks to which the heating elements are not subject to coking. It makes it
possible to set-up and operate a very efficient installation operating continuously, with no need to
XIV. Appendices
shutdown for cleaning. Impurities loaded along with the plastics can be evacuated without
interrupting the system’s operation.
This technology won a distinction in the 2003 edition of the Polish Product of the Future
competition in the Technology of the Future category.
Hydromega Sp. z o.o., Gdynia
Pulsation Method for Swilling Oil Pipelines
Inventors: Zbigniew Zienowicz and a group of consultants from the GdaЕ„sk Polytechnic directed
by Prof. Andrzej Osiecki
The pulsation method for the swilling of oil pipes technology combines two flows of hydraulic oil.
The final effect is achieved by combining the pulsation flow with the constant capacity flow of
specific technical parameters. This method allows to define the distribution of pollutants along and
across the pipeline, which in turn was vital for setting of parameters of the swilling processes and
for the construction of a new swilling device. On the basis of results obtained in laboratory, a new
swilling device was designed, the HM/MR-500, followed by another one, the HM/MR-50, for
swilling pipelines of a diameter from 8 to 168 mm. Both devices are designed to monitor changes
in oil purity. This method allows for the reduction of swilling time to a minimum, and it was
shown that it ensures real pipeline cleanliness.
The technology has been tested in the field. The failures of pressurised hydraulic systems caused
by assembly-related contamination were eliminated. Moreover, the life of all the hydraulic
elements was prolonged. Considering that heavy industry widely employs hydraulic power and
control units, pulsation swilling of oil pipes has considerable market potential. Its innovativeness
consists in a combination of two swilling methods, constant capacity and pulsation methods,
which ensures the removal of contaminants left over from the assembly process. It considerably
reduces swilling time, even to a few hours, thus eliminating the need to shut down assembly lines
on account of post-assembly contamination.
This technology won a distinction in the 2003 edition of the Polish Product of the Future
competition in the Technology of the Future category.
Road and Bridge Research Institute, Warsaw
GUFI Modified Bituminous Mix for Laying of Crack-Resistant and Sound-Absorbing
Inventors: Dariusz Sybilski, Andrzej WrГіbel, Janusz Kopaniewski, Renata Horodecka, Wojciech
BaЕ„kowski, and Krzysztof Mirski
The GUFI bituminous mix, in addition to standard components such as mineral aggregate and
bituminous binder, contains granulated rubber and polymer fibres, giving the mix many unique
and useful properties, which make it very different from ordinary bituminous mixes. Specifically,
it consists of plain bitumen or polymer modified bitumen, mineral aggregate with coarse and fine
particles (sand), granulated rubber and polymer fibres (preferably polyester) with melting
temperature of no less than 200В°C.
The mix’s production process consists of adding – either continuously or in portions – granulated
rubber and polymer fibres to the heated mineral aggregate and, after mixing, binder is added after
which the mixture is mixed to consistency. Additives, such as rubber and fibres, in combination
with the modified-polymer binder, make for specific properties of pavements made of the GUFI
How to Do Business in Poland
mixture, such as resistance to cracking. The mixture can be used as an anti-crack membrane on the
road pavement. It presents very good adherence properties with regards to all kinds of base
surfaces, including concrete, stone slabs and blocks, paving stones, etc. It also leads to a reduction
in tire-pavement contact noise. The result of applying the GUFI mix to pavements is twofold:
Technical – longer pavement durability, and environmental – lower traffic noise (silent pavement)
and the use of industrial waste material (granulated used tire rubber). Traffic noise reduction is of
the order of 3 to 5 dB (A), which is equivalent a reduction of road traffic intensity by half.
Furthermore, this mixture is suitable for bicycle paths, sports fields, and playgrounds, as the
granulated rubber in the mix decreases the hardness of the pavement, making it safer in case of a
This technology won a distinction in the 2003 edition of the Polish Product of the Future contest in
the Product of the Future category.
Industrial Chemistry Research Institute
Reactive Extrusion Technology for the Production of PET Bottle Based Structural Elements
Inventors: Regina JeziГіrska, Jacek DzierЕјawski, Teresa Jaczewska, Agnieszka Szadkowska, Piotr
Chrzanowski, GraЕјyna Chrzanowska, Marek Borensztejn, StanisЕ‚aw Kalinowski, Piotr
KrzyЕјanowski, Zbigniew Wielgosz, Witold ZieliЕ„ski, and Maria Zielonka
As a result of chemical reactions taking place during the reactive extrusion process between
functional PET groups and the modifier’s functional group, stable chemical bonds are created. The
polymer thus obtained has structural properties. Structural plastics sold under the trademark of
ReylanВ® and produced by King-Plast Ltd. on the basis of waste can be applied in a variety of
leading branches of industry, such as mechanical and electrical engineering, the automotive and
electronic industries, etc.
The environmental impact of this technology is also very important. A single production line uses
1,200 tons of plastic waste annually, that’s approximately 240 million PET bottles. This project
takes advantage of the newest achievements in the field of chemical modification of thermoplastic
polymers and results in the production of structural plastics with unique, high quality parameters
with a wide range of uses. This technology is patented (PL 183 370).
This technology won a distinction in the 2003 edition of the Polish Product of the Future
competition in the Technology of the Future category.
VIGO System S.A., Warszawa
The V-20 Thermographic Camera
Inventors: Prof. JГіzef Piotrowski, MirosЕ‚aw Brudnowski, Maciej Rzeczkowski, and Robert SЕ‚omka
The V-20 thermographic camera serves for remote temperature measurement and visualisation of
its distribution without physical contact. The camera records infrared radiation that is emitted by
all bodies with a temperature of above 0 K. The device operates within a 3-5Вµm range and uses a
high-sensitivity detector (NEDT @20В°C:0.05В°C) made by VIGO Systems SA.
The camera is controlled by two microprocessors, using 16-bit analog-to-digital conversion. The
measurement data collected in the camera’s memory is sent to a computer, typically through a
USB 2.0 port. A user can connect any type of computer to the camera. If the camera is used for
laboratory measurements on measuring stands, a traditional PC or laptop is used. In other cases,
where measurements are taken in the field and when the camera is carried from one measuring
point to another, it is recommended to use a palmtop. It acts as a display device, playing a role
similar to that of a large video-camera viewfinder.
XIV. Appendices
In the camera, measuring ranges were defined in the 10 to 1,500ВєC range. The user can assign
colours from the colour palette corresponding to selected temperatures. Measurement results in a
set of data presented in a form of a colour map, the thermogram. The thermogram consists of
57,600 measuring points (240 points on 240 lines). The user can select a point and read out its
coordinates and temperature. The built-in laser indicator makes framing easier, indicating precisely
the point that lies in the camera’s optical axis (the point of coordinates x=120, y=120) and
peripheral points in the field of vision.
The V-20 camera finds an application in various fields, such as preventive inspections of power
grid equipment, diagnostics of machines in industrial plants, and searching for sources of heat loss
from buildings. Thanks to its high sensitivity, it can also be used in medical and veterinary
diagnostics and various types of research into slow-change thermal processes.
The heart of the camera is a relatively cheap, ultra-fast, un-cooled and high-sensitivity detector,
also designed by VIGO System S.A. on the basis of its own infrared detector manufacturing
technology that makes it possible to obtain high parameters without the necessity of using
expensive liquid nitrogen cooling systems. A single element detector is used in combination with a
mechanical scanning system. An advantage of this design is that the temperature of each
elementary field of vision area of the camera is measured by means of the same detector, thus
increasing the measurement’s accuracy. In the case of matrix cameras, which make it possible to
obtain real-time images, there are sensitivity differences between the matrix pixels that lead to
errors in measurements. Presently, the V-20 Camera is the cheapest device for temperature
distribution measurement without physical contact offered on the market.
This technology won a distinction in the 2003 edition of the Polish Product of the Future contest in
the Product of the Future category.
Transition Technologies S.A., Warsaw
Digital Platform for the Optimisation of Electric Energy Generation
Inventors: PaweЕ‚ D. DomaЕ„ski, Konrad Ељwirski, JarosЕ‚aw Arabas
Modern control systems allow for the gathering of huge amounts of information concerning the
control process and they are becoming progressively more elaborate for bigger control systems.
However, processes are often so complex and unstable that traditional methods fail to produce an
optimal solution. The aim of this system is to address this problem.
The software system includes highly specialised optimisation and control modelling procedures
which take into account the economy of production and environmental protection at the level of
the entire power station. It combines the latest scientific achievements (neural networks,
optimisers) of Polish research centres. The most recent regulation techniques are used in this
solution, i.e. predictive models with neural networks, fuzzy logic controllers, fuzzy neural
networks, genetic optimisation, advanced validation algorithms – wavelet conversions, Kohonen
neural networks and other methods. Many of the unique technical solutions applied in this tool are
protected by patents. Currently all versions of the software are undergoing significant
modernisation and are fully web-enabled. Its innovativeness consists in:
modern, open-scaled information structure,
the use of innovative calculation algorithms,
the integration of information technologies and algorithm solutions into an industrial platform
for control and optimisation.
This technology was the winner of the 2002 edition of the Polish Product of the Future
competition in the Technology of the Future category.
How to Do Business in Poland
Med & Life Polska Sp. z o.o., KomorГіw
Viofor JPS System Clinic - Equipment for Therapy with Magnetic Field and Light Energy
Inventors: Prof. Feliks Jaroszyk, Prof. Janusz Paluszak, Prof. Aleksander SieroЕ„, Prof. WiesЕ‚aw
StrД™k, the design team directed by Waldemar Deka, the team from Institute of Optoelectronics
(Military University of Technology) directed by Prof. Zygmunt Mierczyk
This equipment has been designed for physiotherapy using a magnetic field and the energy of
light. Viofor JPS System Clinic combines the functions of a magneto stimulation device,
a simplified version of a magneto therapy device, as well as applicators for the associated action of
a magnetic field and monochromatic light. Associated action applicators are produced in three
versions: red light, infrared light and mixed - red with infrared. A unique JPS magneto stimulation
system elaborated by prominent Polish scientists is used in this equipment.
The system consists of a microprocessor controller with an LCD graphic display and applicators
for magneto stimulation: homogeneous and heterogeneous magnetic fields, for magneto therapy
heterogeneous field applicator as well as applicators for associated impact of magneto stimulation
and monochromatic light, with a similar effect and power as those of bio stimulating medical
lasers, but safer for the users. Communication with the user takes place by way of the menu
system from the equipment’s keyboard or the infrared remote control.
The device is destined for use in hospital therapy conditions, in physiotherapy and in medical
offices. It is effective in the treatment, assisted treatment and recovery following many sicknesses,
e.g., illnesses and contusions of the locomotive system, neurological diseases and injuries. It has
analgestic, antiphlogistic and anti-inflammatory properties. In many cases, the use of this method
results in a reduction of medication consumed and in a shorter recovery period. So far, no sideeffects have been observed. Combining three methods of physical therapy in one device leads to
cost reduction, economy of space and increases the effectiveness of therapy by enabling the use of
different methods simultaneously or consecutively. Therapy parameters may be programmed by
the user.
This technology is the winner of the 2002 edition of the Polish Product of the Future competition
in the Product of the Future category.
Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Warsaw
Manufacturing of Tacalcitol, an Active Ingredient of Antipsoriasic Drug
Inventors: Andrzej Kutner, MichaЕ‚ ChodyЕ„ski, Wanda Wojciechowska, Hanna Fitak, MaЕ‚gorzata
Tacalcitol is an analogue of vitamin D3. It is an active substance of a drug used in dermatology.
The main clinical use of tacalcitol is local treatment of light and mild forms of ordinary and plaque
psoriasis. Among similar drugs, tacalcitol stands out due to its high efficiency and low level of side
effects (skin irritation). Therefore, it seems that tacalcitol will soon account for a substantial share
of the dermatological market.
The absence of tacalcitol on the pharmaceutical market presents an opportunity to manufacture
a pharmaceutical compound (ointment or cream) containing tacalcitol as an active substance, in
keeping with the latest GMP European requirements for domestic and foreign markets. Its high
price and short supply on the pharmaceutical market is an indication of the difficulties in its
manufacturing. Among the group of active analogues and metabolites of vitamin D used as drugs,
tacalcitol is the most difficult one to synthesise.
The synthesis of tacalcitol was elaborated in the Vitamin Laboratory of the Chemistry Department
of the Pharmaceutical Institute. The method is based on the coupling of the s.c. C-22 vitamin
XIV. Appendices
synthon, which includes the main part of a molecule, with a separately obtained side chain. The
substrates in the elaborated method are commercially available (norcholenic acid acetate and
L-valine). As usual in the case of vitamin D metabolites, the most difficult part of the process was
to obtain a final compound with a high degree of chemical and pharmaceutical purity, providing
for an adequate stability of the substance in the finished pharmaceutical form.
The innovativeness of the project consists in the elaboration of a completely new process for the
production of tacalcitol. The multistage synthesis yields a pharmaceutically pure product that
complies with relevant quality requirements.
This technology won a distinction in the 2002 edition of the Polish Product of the Future
competition in the Technology of the Future category.
Foundry Research Institute, Cracow
Aluminium Composite Brake Disks And Drums
Inventors: Prof. Jerzy Sobczak, Andrzej Wojciechowski, Adam Nowak, Natalia Sobczak
This technology consists in the introduction of hard particles of silicon carbide to a relatively soft
aluminium alloy matrix in an amount of approximately 20 % in terms of volume and/or some
selected fractions of fly-ash (micro granules or micro spheres) in an amount of approximately 10
% in terms of volume. This type of metal-ceramic composite material, through the combination of
the advantages of both materials, achieves performance characteristics exceeding even the best
quality grades of cast iron. The proposed solution represents a new approach in the field of
materials and the design of braking system elements. Besides a significant reduction in weight, the
use of this new material reduces the maximum operating temperature several times. It also
introduces a new definition of operating time, since the expected life of new brake disks may reach
even hundreds of thousands of kilometres of failure-free performance.
The new material proposed, as well as the brake disk and drum manufacturing technology, can be
used effectively in the car industry, in vehicles designed for large-scale production, as well as in
racing cars, special-purpose and luxury vehicles, and in railway transport.
This technology won a distinction in the 2002 edition of the Polish Product of the Future
competition in the Technology of the Future category.
Institute of Plastic Processing METALCHEM, ToruЕ„
Technological Line for Single-Stage Polyolefin Pipes Extrusion, Particularly PP Pipes, Highly
Filled with Mineral Components in the Double-Screw Concurrent Plastifying Process
Inventors: Joachim Stasiek, Grzegorz Kubiak, JГіzef Mazur, Jerzy PrzytuЕ‚a, Edmund
Kopaczewski, StanisЕ‚aw Skotarczak, JanisЕ‚aw Baraniak, and Roman Cybulski
This is a direct pipe extrusion technology for the extrusion of filled plastic pipes, without the need
for an intermediate pre-compounding stage. The proper amount of plastic and additional
components are measured by gravimetric feeder and are batched to specific positions in the
extruder’s barrel (of a segmental modular structure), in which a composite is intermixed and
homogenised, and then placed in the gear pump. The gear pump forces the malleable plastic
composite into the die of the extruder, which forms the pipe. The main advantages of direct
extrusion include:
a reduction of manufacturing costs – mineral fillers cost several times less than plastic,
a shorter manufacturing time – decrease in energy consumption,
higher pipe quality – as a result of plastic heat load reduction.
How to Do Business in Poland
The direct extrusion method for highly filled PP pipes is used for pipe manufacturing, especially
non-pressurised ones, i.e., for ventilation and sewage pipes used in sewage disposal. The
technology allows for the manufacturing of pipes containing chalk up to 50 % of mass. This is an
environment-friendly technology, due to the presence of an ecological mineral component in the
pipe, which considerably simplifies the recycling process.
This technology won a distinction in the 2002 edition of the Polish Product of the Future contest in
the Technology of the Future category.
Institute of Natural Fibres, PoznaЕ„
Technology of Hemp and Flax Fibres and Oil Flax Manufacturing, Serving as an Alternative
Raw Material for the Ecological Manufacture of Chemical Paper Pulp and Composite
Inventors: Prof. Ryszard KozЕ‚owski, Jerzy MaЕ„kowski, and Andrzej Kubacki
Presently, the production of chemical pulp and paper is based mainly on logged spruce-pine wood
pulp. Considering the growing ecological consciousness of society, this technology presents an
alternative to the use of wood. This alternative is to use fibre crops, especially hemp, which yields
10 tonnes of straw and ca 2.5 tonnes of fibre per ha. Conducted analyses have confirmed the high
usefulness of flax and hemp fibres in the process of thermoplastic strengthening. These natural
fibres are characterised by high endurance, elasticity, and lower specific gravity. Therefore, they
are perfectly able to replace synthetic fibres (carbon fibres, glass fibres, etc.) currently used in such
This innovative technology consists in processing fibre crop straw and in fibre production with
non-standard devices used in the retting industry. It provides considerable simplification of the
processing method used so far as well as cost reduction through a lower consumption of energy
and labour in the fibre extraction process. In contrast to traditional production methods, the
suggested raw material processing eliminates the labour-consuming and expensive straw retting
and drying processes. The resulting fibre, due to an application of some new devices, has a form
which makes it suitable, after an appropriate thorough cleaning, for technical purposes.
New technological solutions largely simplify the manufacturing processes and reduce production
costs. In practice, one extracting device equipped with thorough cleaning devices, make it possible
to obtain fibre with the parameters required by pulp mills, and which are still considerably cheaper
in comparison to the traditional raw material. The equipment for the extraction of fibres from fibre
crops applied in this technology is 2-3 times cheaper than that used by competitors.
This technology won a distinction in the 2002 edition of the Polish Product of the Future
competition in the Technology of the Future category.
KOMAG Mining Mechanisation Centre, Gliwice
Universal KSW-750E High-Power Longwall Shearer
Inventors: Andrzej Meder, Ryszard Diederichs, Ryszard Bednarz, Jan Dziura, Piotr Drabik,
Tadeusz Mazurkiewicz, Artur Tarkowski
The KSW-750E shearer has been designed in order to increase the efficiency of the coal extraction
process in hard coal mines. Operational tests of the shearer have demonstrated that the applied
innovative solutions result in the tripling of output in comparison to the present average production
rates as well as in an increase of safety and reliability.
The KSW-750E shearer makes it possible to reduce the large number of longwall faces of limited
efficiency, and its auxiliary infrastructure in order to introduce a model of 2-3-face mine of
a several times higher degree of efficiency. The expected economic effect can be obtained only by
XIV. Appendices
a high-power shearer installed and equipped with an automatic haulage system allowing for the
continuous and optimal use of this power. Another challenge consists in ensuring a high degree of
availability which can only be achieved through the use of technically advanced equipment of the
highest life and reliability parameters. The electric KSW-750E longwall shearer fully meets the
requirements of the modern mining industry.
The unique set of features of the KSW-750E longwall shearer sets it apart from other equipment
currently being produced. Eight innovative solutions embodied in this product immensely increase
its operational parameters, as well as improve its life and reliability, and are under patent
protection of the Polish Patent Office.
This technology won a distinction in the 2002 edition of the Polish Product of the Future contest in
the Product of the Future category.
Institute of Communication, Warsaw
Portable Device for Programmed and Controlled Discharging and Charging of Accumulator
Batteries 48/50V – Converter TBA2-IŁ
Inventors: Tadeusz Kunert, PaweЕ‚ Godlewski, Kazimierz Niechoda, Krzysztof Olechowski,
Zbigniew MД…kosza. Consultations and research: Jan Komorowski
The TBA2-IЕЃ converter is the only such device (at least in Europe), which allows the process of
discharging and charging batteries for accumulators of the 48/50V VRLA type in
telecommunication structures to be wholly automated. The accumulators in these structures, in
order to increase their operational life, must be temporarily discharged and recharged (in large
devices with a current of up to 200 A), which normally requires the use of “discharging resistance”
and constant process supervision, lasting up to 48 hours. This can all change with the use of the
TBA2-IЕЃ converter.
The TBA2-IЕЃ converter, after connecting to the accumulator batteries and programming, can do its
job without supervision and, after completing an assigned programme (e.g., a cycle: equalising
charging – discharging – recovery charging), it turns itself off and transmits, via computer or
telephone network, information to the user about the termination of the process and the recorded
characteristics of the battery. The charging and discharging parameters are automatically corrected
according to the ambient temperature of the battery and its characteristics. While discharging a
battery, the device converts its energy into alternating sinusoidal current energy and transmits it to
an 230V/50Hz electrical network. Therefore, even during long-lasting operations the room doesn’t
heat up, contrary to the “discharging resistance” method, where excess heat must be evacuated via
an air-conditioning system. In order to increase the current efficiency while operating at the largest
structures, a few devices may be connected in parallel and the computer appropriately adjusted so
that one of them records overall results.
The TBA2-IЕЃ converter embodies high-current technology, precise measurement techniques,
microprocessor technology to control and program work, and remote-control communication
through various media. Due to the modern solutions used, the converter is of very small
dimensions and weight, and has a very user-friendly software interface.
This technology won a distinction in the 2002 edition of the Polish Product of the Future
competition in the Product of the Future category.
How to Do Business in Poland
Foundry Research Institute
ul. ZakopiaЕ„ska 73; 30-418 KrakГіw
tel.: (+48-12) 2618111
fax: (+48-12) 2660870
e-mail: [email protected]
HYDROMEGA SpГіЕ‚ka z o.o.
ul. WrocЕ‚awska 93; 81-553 Gdynia
tel.: (+48-71) 6647704
fax: (+48-71) 6647292
e-mail: [email protected]
Industrial Chemistry Research Institute
ul. Rydygiera 8; 01-793 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6338298
fax: (+48-22) 6338295
e-mail: [email protected]
Institute of Communication
ul. Szachowa 1; 04-894 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5128169
fax: (+48-22) 5128185
e-mail: [email protected]
Institute of Heavy Organic Synthesis
ul. EnergetykГіw 9, 47-225 KД™dzierzyn-KoЕєle
tel.: (+48 77) 4873199, fax: (+48 77) 4873060
e-mail: [email protected]
Institute of Industrial Organic Chemistry
ul. Annopol 6, 03-236 Warszawa
tel.: (+48 22) 8111231
fax: (+48 22) 8110799
e-mail: [email protected]
Institute of Plastics Processing
ul. M. SkЕ‚odowskiej-Curie 55; 87-100 ToruЕ„
tel.: (+48-56) 6500044
fax: (+48-56) 6500333
e-mail: [email protected]
KOMAG Mining Mechanization Centre
ul. PszczyЕ„ska 37; 44-101 Gliwice
tel.: (+48-22) 2374100
fax: (+48-22) 2310843
e-mail: [email protected]
Med & Life Polska Sp. z o.o.
ul. Marii DД…browskiej 45; 05-806 KomorГіw
tel.: (+48-22) 7591515
fax: (+48-22) 7591519
e-mail: [email protected]
Pharmaceutical Research Institute
ul. Rydygiera 8; 01-793 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6338555
fax: (+48-22) 6338296
e-mail: [email protected]
Road and Bridge Research Institute
ul. JagielloЕ„ska 80; 03-301 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 8113231
fax: (+48-22) 8111792
e-mail: [email protected]
Rokita-Agro S.A.
ul. Sienkiewicza 4, 56-120 Brzeg Dolny
tel.: (+48 71) 7942040
fax: (+48 71) 7942150
e-mail: [email protected]
Institute of Microbiology, Warsaw University
Department of Bacterial Genetics
ul. Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warszawa
tel.: (+48 22) 5541403, 5541216
e-mail: [email protected]
Transition Technologies S.A.
ul. Pawia 55; 01-130 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 3318020
fax: (+48-22) 3318030
e-mail: [email protected]
Institute of Natural Fibres
ul. Wojska Polskiego 71 B; 60-630 PoznaЕ„
tel.: (+48-61) 8480061
fax: (+48-61) 8417830
e-mail: [email protected]
VIGO System S.A.
ul. ЕљwietlikГіw 3; 01-389 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6660145
fax: (+48-22) 6660159
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
X-Serwis Sp. z o.o.
ul. PiЕ‚sudskiego 200; 05-260 Marki
tel.:(+48-22) 7619168
fax: (+48-22) 7619168
Association of Polish Inventors
Stowarzyszenie Polskich WynalazcГіw
i RacjonalizatorГіw
ul. Rydygiera 8; 01-793 Warszawa
tel./fax: (+48-22) 6338482, 6339511 ext.2105
e-mail: [email protected]
European Institute of Technology
Europejski Instytut Technologiczny
ul. SpГіЕ‚dzielcza 10, 87-800 WЕ‚ocЕ‚awek
tel./fax: (+48-54) 4119020
e-mail: [email protected], [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
Special Economic Zone in Kamienna GГіra
KamiennogГіrska Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna
MaЕ‚ej PrzedsiД™biorczoЕ›ci S.A.
ul. Jana PawЕ‚a II 11a; 58-400 Kamienna GГіra
tel.: (+48-75) 6451503 do 06; fax: 7442017
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in Olsztyn
Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna S.A.
ul. Mickiewicza 21/23; 10-508 Olsztyn
tel.fax: (+48-89) 5350241
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in Katowice
Katowicka Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna S.A.
ul. Sienkiewicza 28; 40-032 Katowice
tel.: (+48-32) 2510736; fax: 2513766
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in SЕ‚upsk
SЕ‚upska Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna
Pomorska Agencja Rozwoju Regionalnego S.A.
ul. PoznaЕ„ska 1a; 76-200 SЕ‚upsk
tel./fax: (+48-59) 8425116, 8413261
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in Kostrzyn-SЕ‚ubice
KostrzyЕ„sko-SЕ‚ubicka Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna
ul. OrЕ‚a BiaЕ‚ego 22; 66-470 Kostrzyn n. OdrД…
tel.: (+48-95) 7219800; fax: 7524167
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in KrakГіw
Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna
Krakowski Park Technologiczny
Centrum Zaawansowanych Technologii-KrakГіw
ul. Jana PawЕ‚a II 37; 31-864 KrakГіw
tel.: (+48-12) 6401940; fax: 6401945
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in Legnica
Legnicka Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna S.A.
ul. KardynaЕ‚a B. Kominka 9; 59-220 Legnica
tel.: (+48-76) 8522446/7; fax: 8522443
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in ЕЃГіdЕє
ЕЃГіdzka Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna
ul. Ks. Tymienieckiego 22/24; 90-349 ЕЃГіdЕє
tel./fax: (+48-42) 6762753; fax: 6762755
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in Mielec
Agencja Rozwoju PrzemysЕ‚u OddziaЕ‚ w Mielcu
ul. PartyzantГіw 25; 39-300 Mielec
tel.: (+48-17) 7887236; fax: 7887769
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in Starachowice
Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna Starachowice S.A.
ul. Radomska 29; 27-200 Starachowice
tel.: (+48-41) 2754101; fax: 2754102
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in SuwaЕ‚ki
Suwalska Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna S.A.
ul. Noniewicza 49; 16-400 SuwaЕ‚ki
tel/fax: (+48-87) 5652217
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in Tarnobrzeg
Agencja Rozwoju PrzemysЕ‚u S.A.
Tarnobrzeska Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna
EURO-PARK WisЕ‚ostan
ul. ZakЕ‚adowa 48; 39-405 Tarnobrzeg-MachГіw
tel.: (+48-15) 8229999 tel/fax: 8236888
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in WaЕ‚brzych
WaЕ‚brzyska Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna
Invest-Park Sp. z o.o.
ul. Uczniowska 21; 58-306 WaЕ‚brzych
tel.: (+48-74) 6649164; fax: 8410177
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in GdaЕ„sk
Pomorska Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna
ul. WЕ‚adysЕ‚awa IV 9; 80-703 Sopot
tel.: (+48-58) 5559700; fax: 5559711
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
(Head Offices – Excluding Co-operative Banks)
Name of Bank
Narodowy Bank Polski
00-919 Warszawa
ul. ЕљwiД™tokrzyska 11/21
02-134 Warszawa
ul. 1 Sierpnia 8A
00-450 Warszawa
ul. PrzemysЕ‚owa 26A
31-548 KrakГіw
ul. Pokoju 1
01-211 Warszawa
ul. Kasprzaka 10/16
00-955 Warszawa
Al. Jerozolimskie 7
00-923 Warszawa
ul. Senatorska 16
00-184 Warszawa
ul. Dubois 5A
02-017 Warszawa
Al. Jerozolimskie 123A
00-950 Warszawa
Al. Jana PawЕ‚a II 12
00-113 Warszawa
ul. Emilii Plater 53
85-959 Bydgoszcz
ul. JagielloЕ„ska 17
00-950 Warszawa
ul. Grzybowska 53/57
31-548 KrakГіw
Al. Pokoju 1
90-365 ЕЃГіdЕє
ul. Tymienieckiego 5
00-099 Warszawa
ul. Senatorska 29/31
60-959 PoznaЕ„
ul. Mickiewicza 33
02-135 Warszawa
ul. IЕ‚Ејecka 26
00-082 Warszawa
ul. Senatorska 14
50-950 WrocЕ‚aw
Rynek 9/11
00-095 Warszawa
pl. Bankowy 2
ABN AMRO Bank (Polska) SA
AIG Bank Polska SA
Bank Gospodarki Е»ywnoЕ›ciowej SA
Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego
Bank Handlowy w Warszawie SA
Bank Inicjatyw SpoЕ‚eczno-Ekonomicznych SA
Bank Millenium SA
Bank Ochrony Ељrodowiska SA
Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi (Polska) SA
Bank Pocztowy SA
Bank Polska Kasa Opieki SA
Grupa Pekao SA
Bank PrzemysЕ‚owo-Handlowy PBK SA
Bank PrzemysЕ‚owy SA
Bank Rozwoju Budownictwa Mieszkaniowego SA
Bank Rozwoju Cukrownictwa SA
Bank Svenska Handelsbanken (Polska) SA
Bank WspГіЕ‚pracy Europejskiej SA
Bank Zachodni WBK SA
Banque PSA Finance S.A. OddziaЕ‚ w Polsce
0-22 6531000
0-22 5730500
0-22 5235300
0-12 6187411
0-22 8604000
0-22 5229112
0-22 6577200
0-22 8601100
0-22 6575718
0-22 8508735
0-22 5208165
0-52 3499100
0-22 6560000
0-12 4223333
0-42 6402790
0-22 3329010
0-61 8532201
0-22 8787387
0-22 3386800
0-71 3701000
0-22 5311811
How to Do Business in Poland
Name of Bank
BNP - Paribas Bank Polska SA
00-108 Warszawa
ul. Zielna 41/43
00-805 Warszawa
ul. Chmielna 132/134
00-609 Warszawa
Al. Armii ludowej 26
00-950 Warszawa
ul. Senatorska 18
60-324 PoznaЕ„
ul. MarceliЕ„ska 90
00-950 Warszawa
Al. Jerozolimskie 65/79
03-738 Warszawa
ul. Kijowska 1
02-460 Warszawa
ul. Gottlieba Daimlera 1
00-688 Warszawa
ul. Emilii Plater 28
31-047 KrakГіw
ul. J. Sarego 2 i 4
00-609 Warszawa
al. Armii Ludowej 26
59-300 Lubin
ul. TysiД…clecia 2
02-017 Warszawa
al. Jerozolimskie 123
Pl. PiЕ‚sudskiego 3
00-078 Warszawa
50-126 WrocЕ‚aw
ul. ЕљwiД™tego MikoЕ‚aja 72
02-222 Warszawa
Al. Jerozolimskie 181
02-678 Warszawa
ul. Szturmowa 2
02-676 Warszawa
ul. PostД™pu 15
02-822 Warszawa
ul. Poleczki 21
80-853 GdaЕ„sk
ul. WaЕ‚y JagielloЕ„skie 36
80-894 GdaЕ„sk
ul. ElЕјbietaЕ„ska 2
40-479 Katowice
ul. PszczyЕ„ska 10
02-515 Warszawa
ul. PuЕ‚awska 15
61-725 PoznaЕ„
ul. MielЕјyЕ„skiego 22
BPH Bank Hipoteczny SA
BRE Bank Hipoteczny SA
CC - Bank SA
Calyon Bank Polska SA
Cetelem Bank SA
DaimlerChrysler Services Bank Polska SA
Danske Bank Polska SA
Deutsche Bank PBC SA
Deutsche Bank Polska SA
Dresdner Bank Polska SA
DZ Bank Polska SA
Euro Bank SA
FCE Bank Polska SA
Fiat Bank Polska SA
Fortis Bank Polska SA
GE Bank Mieszkaniowy SA
GE Capital Bank SA
GE Money Bank SA
Getin Bank SA
GMAC Bank Polska SA
Gospodarczy Bank Wielkopolski SA
0-22 6546263
0-22 6562169
0-22 5797500
0-22 8290000
0-61 8609400
0-22 6306888
0-22 5118888
0-22 3127800
0-22 3377100
0-12 6182388
0-22 5799000
0-76 8404100
0-22 5253112
0-22 5057000
0-71 7955500
0-22 6086900
0-22 6074801
0-22 5669000
0-22 5450500
0-58 3040634
0-58 3007001
0-32 2008823
0-22 5215400
0-61 8562400
XIV. Appendices
Name of Bank
GГіrnoЕ›lД…ski Bank Gospodarczy SA
40-006 Katowice
ul. Warszawska 6
00-073 Warszawa
ul. PiЕ‚sudskiego 2
40-086 Katowice
ul. Sokolska 34
04-175 Warszawa
ul. Ostrobramska 77
00-103 Warszawa
ul. KrГіlewska 16
01-211 Warszawa
ul. Kasprzaka 2/8
53-605 WrocЕ‚aw
ul. OrlД…t Lwowskich 1
01-747 Warszawa
ul. ElblД…ska 15/17
00-380 Warszawa
ul. Kruczkowskiego 8
81-303 Gdynia
ul. Kielecka 2
00-103 Warszawa
ul. KrГіlewska 16
00-975 Warszawa
ul. PuЕ‚awska 15
50-062 WrocЕ‚aw
Plac Solny 16
00-958 Warszawa
al. Jana PawЕ‚a II 27
00-549 Warszawa
ul. PiД™kna 20
00-102 Warszawa
ul. MarszaЕ‚kowska 111
02-135 Warszawa
ul. IЕ‚Ејecka 26
00-807 Warszawa
Al. Jerozolimskie 92
02-587 Warszawa
ul. Wiktorska 63
02-672 Warszawa
ul. Domaniewska 41
00-828 Warszawa
Al. Jana PawЕ‚a II 15
02-781 Warszawa
ul. Rtm. Witolda Pileckiego 65
20-022 Lublin
ul. Okopowa 1
HSBC Bank Polska SA
ING Bank Ељlaski SA
Jyskie Bank A/S S.A. OddziaЕ‚ w Polsce
Kredyt Bank SA
Mazowiecki Bank Regionalny SA
NORD.LB Bank Polska Norddeutsche Landesbank
Nordea Bank Polska SA
Nykredit Bank Hipoteczny SA
Powszechna Kasa OszczД™dnoЕ›ci - Bank Polski SA
Rabobank Polska SA
Raiffeisen Bank Polska SA
Societe Generale SA
- Succursale de Varsovie
Svenska Handelsbanken AB SA
OddziaЕ‚ w Polsce
Sygma Banque Societe Anonyme (SA)
OddziaЕ‚ w Polsce
ЕљlД…ski Bank Hipoteczny SA
Toyota Bank Polska SA
Volkswagen Bank Polska SA
WesLB Bank Polska SA
Wschodni Bank Cukrownictwa SA
0-32 2008500
0-22 3540500
0-32 3577000
0-22 5145100
0-22 5386996
0-22 6345400
0-71 3559511
0-22 5600400
0-22 5250700
0-58 6691111
0-22 5386000
0-22 5356565
0-71 3748666
0-22 6535000
0-22 5852000
0-22 5284000
0-22 8787387
0-22 4564704
0-22 5401700
0-22 8744755
0-22 5387000
0-22 6530500
0-81 5322220
Source: National Bank of Poland, 2005
How to Do Business in Poland
Name of the Bank
American Express Bank Ltd., New York
00-121 Warszawa
ul. Sienna 39
0-22 5815268
02-511 Warszawa
ul. Bielawska 6 m.57
00-950 Warszawa
ul. Krucza 6/14 apt. 206,207
0-22 6460595
0-22 6218979
02-611 Warszawa
ul. Krasickiego 12A m.1
0-22 8443301
02-703 Warszawa
ul. BukowiЕ„ska 24A apt.118
00-175 Warszawa
al. Jana PawЕ‚a II 80 lok. 58
0-22 8530127
0-22 4354710
Banca Nazionale del Lavoro S.p.A., Rome
00-697 Warszawa
Al. Jerozolimskie 65/79 p.1824
0-22 6306780
Bank of America, National Association, Charlotte
02-135 Warszawa
ul. IЕ‚Ејecka 26
0-22 5757200
CrГ©dit Industriel et Commercial, Paris
00-193 Warszawa
ul. Stawki 2
0-22 8606503
EUROHYPO Aktiengesellschaft Europaeische
Hypothekenbank der Deutschen Bank
00-609 Warszawa
ul. Armii Ludowej 26
0-22 5797780
HSH Nordbank AG, Hamburg
00-113 Warszawa
ul. Emilii Plater 53
0-22 4561060
Investkredit Bank AG, Wien
00-121 Warszawa
ul. Sienna 39
0-22 8503300
Istituto Bancario San Paolo di Torino - Istituto
Mobiliare Italiano S.p.A., Turin
00-193 Warszawa
ul. Stawki 2
0-22 8606200
JPMorgan Chase Bank, New York
00-113 Warszawa
ul. Emilii Plater 53
0-22 5205100
Landesbank Baden - Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart
00-845 Warszawa
ul. ЕЃucka 20 apt. 15
0-22 6541689
The Export-Import Bank, Taiwan, Taipei
02-672 Warszawa
ul. Domaniewska 41
0-22 8743582
UBS AG, Zurych & Basel
00-536 Warszawa
Al. Ujazdowskie 51
0-22 5258400
Source: National Bank of Poland, 2005
XIV. Appendices
I National Investment Fund
Ballinger Capital Sp. z o.o.
ul. Dworkowa 3; 00-784 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6468546; fax: 6468536
II National Investment Fund SA
NIF Management Sp. z o.o.
ul.Emilii Plater 53, 00-113 Warszawa
tel: (+48-22) 520 93 50, fax: 520 93 51
e-mail: [email protected]
IV National Investment Fund
NIF Management Sp. z o.o.
ul.Emilii Plater 53, 00-113 Warszawa
tel: (+48-22) 5209350, fax: 5209351
e-mail: [email protected]
V National Investment Fund
Ballinger Capital Sp. z o.o.
ul. Dworkowa 3; 00-784 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6468546; fax: 6468536
VI National Investment Fund
AIB WBK Fund Management Sp. z o.o.
Al. Jana PawЕ‚a II 25; 00-854 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6534700; fax: 6534707
e-mail: [email protected]
VII National Investment Fund
ul. ZwyciД™zcГіw 28/51; 03-938 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 7406740; fax: 6725115
e-mail: [email protected]
VIII National Investment Fund
ul. KrГіlewska 16, 00-103 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 3306333, fax:3306300
IX National Investment Fund
NIF Management Sp. z o.o.
ul. Emilii Plater 53, 00-113 Warszawa
tel: (+48-22) 5209333, fax: 5209351
e-mail: [email protected]
X National Investment Fund
ul. ZwyciД™zcГіw 28/18A; 03-938 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 7406770…74; fax: 6728051
e-mail: [email protected]
III and XI National Investment Fund
Trinity Management Sp. z o.o.
ul. Nowogrodzka 47a; 00-695 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5259900; fax: 5259988
e-mail: [email protected]
XII National Investment Fund
ul. KrГіlewska 16, 00-103 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 3306333, fax: 3306300
XIII National Investment Fund
Ballinger Capital Sp. z o.o.
ul. Dworkowa 3; 00-784 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6468546; fax: 6468536
[email protected]
XIV National Investment Fund
ul. Е»urawia 22, 00-515 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 4389220; fax:4389221
e-mail: [email protected]
XV National Investment Fund
NFI Empik Media & Fashion S.A.
ul. Е»urawia 8, 00-508 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5833771; fax: 6234057
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
Association of Cooperation between
Poland and the East
ul. MarszaЕ‚kowska 115; 00-102 Warszawa
tel.(+48-22) 6200301; fax: 8269601
e-mail: [email protected]
American Chamber of Commerce in Poland
AmerykaЕ„ska Izba Gospodarcza w Polsce
ul. Emilii Plater 53; 00-113 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5205999; fax: 5205998
British Chamber of Commerce in Poland
Brytyjska Izba Handlowa w Polsce
ul. Fabryczna 16/22, 00-446 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6545971; fax: 6211937
French Chamber of Trade & Industry in Poland
Francuska Izba Handlowo-PrzemysЕ‚owa w Polsce
ul. Mokotowska 19, 00-560 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6967580; fax: 6967590
Italian Foreign Trade Institute
WЕ‚oski Instytut Handlu Zagranicznego
ul. MarszaЕ‚kowska 72, 00-545 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6280243; fax: 6280600
Polish-Kazakhstan Chamber of Commerce
Polsko-KazachstaЕ„ska Izba Gospodarcza
ul. PodbipiД™ty 31/110; 02-732 Warszawa
tel./fax: (+48-22) 8758567
Union of Chambers of Commerce and Industry
of Kazakhstan - Representative Office in Poland
Przedstawicielstwo ZwiД…zku Izb HandlowoPrzemysЕ‚owych Republiki Kazachstan w Polsce
ul. Nowowiejska 10; 00-643 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 8758567
Polish-Latvian Chamber of Commerce
Polsko-ЕЃotewska Izba Gospodarcza
ul. TrД™backa 4; 00-074 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6309823; fax: 8274673
Polish-Lithuanian Chamber of Commerce
Polsko-Litewska Izba Gospodarcza RynkГіw Wschodnich
ul. KoЕ›ciuszki 76, 16-400 SuwaЕ‚ki
tel. (+48-87) 5632600 fax: 5632602
Polish-Russian Chamber of Trade & Industry
Polsko-Rosyjska Izba Handlowo-PrzemysЕ‚owa
ul.Wawelska 16, 02-061 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 8255965; fax: 8256160
Poland-Israel Chamber of Commerce
Izba Gospodarcza Polska-Izrael
ul. TrД™backa 4; 00-074 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6309798; fax: 8274673
Polish-Swiss Chamber of Industry & Trade
Polsko-Szwajcarska Izba PrzemysЕ‚u i Handlu
ul. Szpitalna 6/11; 00-031 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 8277621; fax: 8277623
e-mail: [email protected]
Polish-Belarussian Chamber of Trade & Industry
Polsko-BiaЕ‚oruska Izba Handlowo-PrzemysЕ‚owa
ul. Nowogrodzka 22, 00-511 Warszawa
tel: (+48-22) 6272443, 7455490; fax: 7453635
e-mail: [email protected]
Polish-Ukrainian Chamber of Commerce
Polsko-Ukrainska Izba Gospodarcza
ul. Nowogrodzka 22, 00-511 Warszawa
tel: (+48-22) 627 24 43, 7455490; fax: 7453635
e-mail: [email protected]
Polish-Belgian-Luxembourgian Chamber of
Polsko-Belgijsko-Luksemburska Izba Handlowa
ul. TrД™backa 4; 00-074 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6309773; fax: 6309974
Scandinavian-Polish Chamber of Commerce
Skandynawsko-Polska Izba Gospodarcza
WiЕ›niowa 40b apt.3, 02-520 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 8497414; fax: 6464930
Polish-German Chamber of Commerce
Polsko-Niemiecka Izba PrzemysЕ‚owo-Handlowa
ul. Miodowa 14; 00-952 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5310500; fax: 5310600
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
Embassy of Afghanistan
ul. GoplaЕ„ska 1, 02-954 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8855410, fax: 8856500
Embassy of the Republic of Belarus
ul. Wiertnicza 58, 02-952 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 7420990, 8425202; fax: 7420980
Embassy of the Republic of Albania
ul. Altowa 1, 02-386 Warsaw
tel.: 8241427; fax: 8241426
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Kingdom of Belgium
ul. Senatorska 34, 00-095 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5512800; fax: 5512888
e-mail: [email protected]
Economic and Commercial Office for the Flemish
ul. Senatorska 34; 00-095 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8280878, 8263897; fax: 8278136
e-mail: [email protected]
Economic and Commercial Office for the Walloon
Region (AWEX):
ul. Skorupki 5, 00-546 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5837011; fax: 5837019
e-mail: [email protected]
Economic and Commercial Office for the Brussels
Capital Region:
pl. Bankowy 2, 00-095 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5311824, 5311825; fax: 5311826
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the People’s Democratic
Republic of Algeria
ul. DД…browiecka 21, 03-932 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6175855; fax: 6160081
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Angola
ul. Balonowa 20, 02-635 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6463529
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Argentine Republic
ul. Brukselska 9, 03-973 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6176028; fax: 6177162
Economic Section:
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Armenia
ul. A. Waszkowskiego 11, 02-913 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8408620; fax: 6420643
e-mail: [email protected]
Australian Embassy
ul. Nowogrodzka 11, 3rd floor, 00-513 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5213444; fax: 6273500
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Austria
ul. Gagarina 34, 00-748 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8410081…84; fax: 8410085
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
ul. Idzikowskiego 7/9, 02-704 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8437909, 8439932; fax: 8439505
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan
ul. ZwyciД™zcГіw 12, 03-941 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6162188, fax: 6161949
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Federative Republic of Brazil
ul. Poselska 11, 03-931 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6174800; fax: 6178689
e-mail: [email protected]
British Embassy
Al. RГіЕј 1, 00-556 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 3110000; fax: 3110311
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
ul. Emilii Plater 28, 2nd floor, 00-688 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 3110000; fax: 3110250
Embassy of the Republic of Bulgaria
Al. Ujazdowskie 33/35, 00-540 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6294071...75; fax: 6282271
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
tel.: (+48-22) 6294111, 6212535; fax: 6255989
e-mail: [email protected]
Canadian Embassy
ul. Matejki 1/5, 00-481 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5843100, fax: 5843182
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
Embassy of Chile
ul. OkrД™Ејna 62, 02-925 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8582330…33; fax: 8582329
Commercial Section e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Ecuador
ul. Rejtana 15 m. 15, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8487230; fax: 8488196
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the People’s Republic of China
ul. Bonifraterska 1, 00-203 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8313836; fax: 6354211
Commercial Counsellor
ul. Bonifraterska 1, tel.: (+48-22) 8313861
Embassy of the Arab Republic of Egypt
ul. Alzacka 18, 03-972 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6176973; fax: 617 90 58
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
ul. Alzacka 3 C, 03-972 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6161368; fax: 6161370
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Colombia
ul. ZwyciД™zcГіw 29, 03-936 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6170973; fax: 6176684
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Democratic Republic of Congo
ul. MiД…czyЕ„ska 50, 02-637 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8496999, fax: 8485215
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Costa Rica
ul. Kubickiego 9 m. 5, 02-954 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8589112; fax: 6427832
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Croatia
ul. Ignacego Krasickiego 10, 02-628 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8442393; fax: 8444808
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Estonia
ul. KarwiЕ„ska 1, 02-639 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8811810; fax: 8811812
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Finland
ul. Chopina 4/8, 00-559 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6294091; fax: 6213442
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section: fax: 6216394
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Cuba
ul. Rejtana 15 m. 8, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8481715; fax: 8482231
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of France
ul. Piekna 1, 00-477 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5293000; fax: 5293001
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Service:
tel.: (+48-22) 5293100; fax: 5293101
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Cyprus
ul. Pilicka 4, 02-629 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8444577; fax: 8442558
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Georgia
ul. WД…chocka 1 S, 03-934 Warsaw
tel./fax: (+48-22) 3531650, fax: 4997752
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Czech Republic
ul. Koszykowa 18, 00-555 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6287221...25; fax: 6298045
e-mail: [email protected]
Economic and Commercial Section
tel.: (+48-22) 6281957; fax: 6219880
Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany
ul. DД…browiecka 30, 03-932 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5841700; fax: 5841729
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial and Economic Section:
ul. JazdГіw 12 B, 00-467 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5841900; fax: 5841919
Royal Danish Embassy
ul. Rakowiecka 19, 02-517 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5652900; fax: 5652970
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial and Economic Section
tel.: (+48-22) 5652917; fax: 5652973
Embassy of Hellenic Republic
ul. GГіrnoЕ›lД…ska 35, 00-432 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6229460; fax: 6229464
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
Economic and Commercial Office:
Krakowskie PrzedmieЕ›cie 47/51, 00-071 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8264828; fax: 8264008
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Hungary
ul. Chopina 2, 00-559 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6284451...55; fax: 6218561
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
ul. SzwoleЕјerГіw 10, 00-464 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8413551; fax: 8413863
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of India
ul. Rejtana 15 apt. 2-7, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8495800; fax: 8496705
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia
ul. EstoЕ„ska 3/5, 03-903 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6175179; fax: 6174455
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Iran
ul. KrГіlowej Aldony 22, 03-928 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6171585; fax: 6178452
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Japan
ul. SzwoleЕјerГіw 8, 00-464 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6965000; fax: 6965001
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan
ul. KrГіlowej MarysieЕ„ki 14, 02-954 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6425388; fax: 6423427
Embassy of the Democratic People’s Republic
of Korea
ul. Bobrowiecka 1 A, 00-728 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8405813; fax: 8405710
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Korea
ul. SzwoleЕјerГіw 6, 00-464 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5592900; fax: 5592905
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the State of Kuwait
ul. Franciszka Nullo 13, 00-486 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6222860; fax: 6274314
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic
ul. Rejtana 15 m. 26, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8484786; fax: 8497122
e-mail: [email protected]
Liaison Office of the Republic of Iraq
ul. DД…browiecka 9 A, 03-932 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6175773, 6174911; fax: 6177065
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Latvia
ul. KrГіlowej Aldony 19, 03-928 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6174389; fax: 6174289
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Ireland
ul. Mysia 5, 00-498 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8496633, 8496655; fax: 8498431
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
tel.: (+48-22) 6469797; fax: 6465015
Embassy of Lebanon
ul. StaroЕ›ciЕ„ska 1 B m. 10-11, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8445065; fax: 6460030
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Israel
ul. Krzywickiego 24, 02-078 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8250028, 8250923; fax: 8251607
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Italy
pl. DД…browskiego 6, 00-055 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8263471; fax: 8278507
e-mail: [email protected]
People’s Bureau of the Great Socialist People’s
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
ul. Kryniczna 2, 03-934 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6174822; fax: 6175091
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Lithuania
al. Jana Chrystiana Szucha 5, 00-580 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6253368, 6290596; fax: 6253440
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
Al. Ujazdowskie 51, 00-536 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5847050; fax: 5847053
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
Embassy of the Republic of Macedonia FYR
ul. KrГіlowej MarysieЕ„ki 40, 02-954 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6517291; tel./fax: 6517292
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
ul. StaroЕ›ciЕ„ska 1 m. 1-2, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8494808; fax: 8491160
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Malaysia
ul. GruziЕ„ska 3, 03-902 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6173144; fax: 6176256
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Palestine
ul. StaroЕ›ciЕ„ska 1 m. 7, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8497772; fax: 8567376
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Mexico
ul. StaroЕ›ciЕ„ska 1 B m. 4-5, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6468800; fax: 6464222
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Peru
ul. StaroЕ›ciЕ„ska 1 m. 3-4, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6468806; fax: 6468617
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Moldova
ul. MiЕ‚obД™dzka 12, 02-634 Warsaw
tel./fax: (+48-22) 6462099
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Mongolia
ul. Rejtana 15 m. 16, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8499391; fax: 8482063
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Kingdom of Morocco
ul. StaroЕ›ciЕ„ska 1 m. 11-12, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8496341; fax: 8481840
e-mail: [email protected]
Royal Netherlands Embassy
ul. Kawalerii 10, 00-468 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5591200; fax: 8402638
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
tel.: (+48-22) 5591239
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Federal Republic of Nigeria
ul. Wiertnicza 94, 02-952 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8486944; fax: 8485379
e-mail: [email protected]
Royal Norwegian Embassy
ul. Chopina 2 A, 00-559 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6964030; fax: 6280938
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
ul. Chmielna 85/87, 00-805 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5810581; fax: 5810981
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Portugal
ul. Francuska 37, 03-905 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5111010; fax: 5111013
E-mial: [email protected]
Commercial and Tourism Office:
ul. Francuska 37, 03-905 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6176460; fax: 6174477
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Romania
ul. Chopina 10, 00-559 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6283156; fax: 6285264
e-mail: [email protected]
Economic Section - tel.: (+48-22) 6283300
Embassy of the Russian Federation
ul. Belwederska 49, 00-761 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6213453, 6215575; fax: 6253016
e-mail: [email protected]
Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia
ul. StД™piЕ„ska 55, 00-739 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8400000; fax: 8405636
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Serbia and Montenegro
Al. Ujazdowskie 23/25, 00-540 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6285161; fax: 6297173
e-maill: [email protected]
Embassy of the Slovak Republic
ul. Litewska 6, 00-581 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5258110; fax: 5258122
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
tel.: (+48-22) 5258110; fax: 6252452
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
Embassy of the Republic of Slovenia
ul. StaroЕ›ciЕ„ska 1 m. 23-24, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8498282; fax: 8484090
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of South Africa
ul. Koszykowa 54, 6th floor, 00-675 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6256228; fax: 6256270
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Kingdom of Spain
ul. MyЕ›liwiecka 4, 00-459 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6224250; fax: 6225408
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Office:
ul. Genewska 16, 03-963 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6179408, 6176368; fax: 6172911
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Democratic Socialist Republic
of Sri Lanka
Al. Wilanowska 313 A, 02-665 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8538896; fax: 8435348
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Sweden
ul. Bagatela 3, 00-585 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6408900; fax: 6408983
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
ul. WoЕ‚odyjowskiego 74, 02-724 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8532030; fax: 8532021
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Switzerland
Al. Ujazdowskie 27, 00-540 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6280481...82; fax: 6210548
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Syrian Arab Republic
ul. Narbutta 19 A, 02-536 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8484809, 8491456; fax: 8491847
Royal Thai Embassy
ul. Willowa 7, 00-790 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8492655; fax: 8492630
e-mail: [email protected]
Office of Commercial Affairs:
ul. MigdaЕ‚owa 4/27, 02-796 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6451210; fax: 6451250
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Tunisia
ul. MyЕ›liwiecka 14, 00-459 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6286330; fax: 6216295
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Turkey
ul. Malczewskiego 32, 02-622 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6464321…22; fax: 6463757
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Counsellor’s Office:
tel.: (+48-22) 6461408; tel./fax: 6463447
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Ukraine
al. Jana Chrystiana Szucha 7, 00-580 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6293446, 6224797; fax: 6298103
e-mail: [email protected]
Trade and Economic Office:
tel./fax: (+48-22) 6224743
Embassy of the United States of America
Al. Ujazdowskie 29/31, 00-540 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5042000; fax: 5042688
Foreign Commercial Service:
ul. PoznaЕ„ska 2/4, 00-680 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6254374
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Eastern Republic of Uruguay
ul. Rejtana 15 m. 12, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8495040; fax: 6466887
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Uzbekistan
ul. Wernyhory 21, 02-727 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 847 52 53, fax: 853 22 88
Embassy of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
ul. Rejtana 15 m. 10, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6461846; fax: 6468761
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
ul. Kazimierzowska 14, 02-589 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8446021; fax: 8446723
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
ul. Polna 48 m. 17, 00-644 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8258163; fax: 8258106
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Yemen
ul. ZwyciД™zcГіw 18, 03-941 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6176025...26; fax: 6176022
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Rruga e Durresit 123, Tirana
tel.: (+355-4) 234-190
fax: (+355-4) 233-364
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
2 Kichik Gala street, Icheri Sheher, AZ-1000 Baku
tel.: (99-412) 4920114, fax: 4920214
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
4 bis, rue Rabah Bourbia
16606 El-Biar, Alger BP 148
tel.: (+213-21) 921706, 921828; fax: 921622
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
10 Trelawney Str., Woollahra
NSW 2025, Sydney
tel.: (+61-2) 9363 9821; fax: 9327 8568
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
37 Av. Mustapha Ali Khodja
16030 El-Biar, Alger BP 60
tel.: (+213-21) 923474, 922533; fax: 921435
e-mail: [email protected]
Embaixada da Republica da Polonia
Rua Comandante NВґzaji 21/23, Alvalade
Luanda; CP 1340
tel.: (+244) 222 323 088; tel./fax: 222 323 086
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la Republica de Polonia
Departamento Economico y Comercial
Virrey del Pino 3147
1426 Buenos Aires
tel.: (+54-11) 45515397; fax: 45515097
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la Republica de Polonia
Calle Alejandro Maria de Aguado 2870
1425 Buenos Aires
tel.: (+54-11) 4802 9681/82; fax: 4802 9683
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
44A Hanrapetutyan Str., Erewan
tel. (+374-1) 542493
fax.(+374-1) 542498
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
7 Turrana Str., Yarralumla, ACT 2600 Canberra
tel.: (+61-2) 6272 1000, 6273 1208; fax: 6273 3184
e-mail: [email protected]
Botschaft der Republik Polen
Wirtschafts-und Handelsbeteilung;
Titlgasse 15; 1130 Wien
tel.: (+43-1) 877 8341; fax: 877 3597
e-mail: [email protected]
Botschaft der Republic Polen
Hietzinger HauptstraОІe 42c
A-1130 Wien; PO Box 17
tel.: (+43-1) 87015-0 ...46; fax: 87015-222
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
18, Avenue de l`Horizon; 1150 Bruxelles
tel.: (+32-2) 771 6815; fax: 771 1839
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Avenue des Gaulois 29, 1040 Bruxelles
tel.: (+32-2) 739 0101; fax: 736 1881
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
ul. WoЕ‚odarskiego 6; 220030 Minsk
tel.: (+375-17) 222 4819; fax: 220 4974
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
443 Daly Avenue, Ottawa 2, Ontario K1N 6H3
tel.: (+1-613) 7890-468, 7893-376; fax: 7891-218
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
P. Rumiancewa 6, 220034 Minsk
tel.: (+375-17) 288 2313; fax: 236 4992
e-mail:[email protected]
Economic and Commercial Division of the Embassy
3501 Ave du Musee, Montreal, Quebec H3G 2C8
tel.: (+1-514) 282-1732, 282-1734, fax: 282-1784
e-mail: [email protected]
Embaixada da Republica da Polonia
Escritorio do Conselheiro Comercial
Avenida das Naçoes, Quadra 809, Lote 33
Brasilia D.F. CEP 70423-900
tel.: (+55-61) 242 8698; fax: 242 8738
e-mail: [email protected]
Polish Trade Comission - Toronto Branch
3300 Bloor Street West, Suite 2860 - Centre Tower
Toronto, Ontario M8V 2X3
tel.:(+1-416) 233-6571, fax: 233-9578
e-mail: [email protected]
Departamento EconГґmico e Comercial
da Embaixada em SГЈo Paulo
Rua Zequinha de Abreu, 240, Pacaembu
CEP: 01250-050 SГЈo Paulo, SP
tel.: (+55-11) 3673-2776, fax: 3673-0354
e-mail: [email protected]
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
ul. Dola 13, 71000 Sarajevo
tel.: (+387-33) 201142; 215862; fax: 233796
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
ul. EwЕ‚ogi Georgiew 125; 1504 Sofia
tel.: (+359-2) 943 4245; fax: 943 4814
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Chan Krum 46, 1000 Sofia
tel.: (+359-2) 987 2610, 987 2660; fax. 987 2939
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
767 Monivong Boulevard,
Phnom Pehn Cambodge, P.O. Box 58
tel. (+855-23) 217782/3; fax: 217781
e-mail: [email protected]
People’s Republic of China
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
1, Ri Tan Lu, Beijing, 100600 Beijing
tel.: (+86-10) 6532-1888; fax: 6532-1235
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulate General of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
1375 Huai Hai Zhong Rd., Shanghai, 200031
tel.: (+86-21) 6433-4735; fax: 6433-0161
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulate General of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Shamian Dajie 63, Guangzhou, 510130
tel.: (+86-20) 8121-8991; fax: 8121-8992
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulate General of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Suite 2009, Two Pacific Place
88 Queensway, Central Hong Kong
tel.: (+852) 2840-0814; fax: 2918-9109
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la RepГєblica de Polonia
Mar del Plata 2055, Providencia, Santiago de Chile
tel.: (+562) 2041213, 2690212; fax: 2049332
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
Embajada de la RepГєblica de Polonia
Apartado Aereo 101363 Unicentro
Calle 104a, No 23-48, Bogota
tel.:(+57-1) 2140400, 2142931; fax: 2140854
e-mail: [email protected]
Czech Republic
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
ul. HradeЕЎinska 1931/58; 10100 Praha 10
tel.: (+420-2) 71732342; fax: 72735442
e-mail: [email protected]
The Democratic Republic of the Congo
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
63, Avenue de la Justice, Kinshasa Gombe
tel./fax: (+243-81) 7006327, 7006326
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de RГ©publique de Pologne
ValdЕЎtejnskГЎ 8, 11801 Praha 1
tel.: (+4202) 57099500; fax: 57530399
e-mail: [email protected]
Costa Rica
Embajada de la RepГєblica de Polonia
Avenida 9, Calle 33 No 3307, Barrio Escalante
San Jose, 664-2010 Correos Zapote
tel.: (+506) 2347411, 2346024; fax: 2347900
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulat GГ©nГ©ral de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Blahoslavova 4, 70100 Ostrava
tel.: (+420-596) 120460
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
ul. Rokefellerova 49; 10000 Zagreb
tel.: (+385-1) 468-4202; tel/fax: 468-3128
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Krlezin Gvozd 3, 10000 Zagreb
tel.: (+385-1) 4899-444; fax: 4834-577
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la RepГєblica de Polonia
Calle G No.452, esq.19, Vedado, La Habana
tel.: (+53-7) 8332439; fax: 8332442
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
11 Acharnon str., 2027 Stravolos, Nicosia
tel.: (+357-2) 242-7007; fax: 251-0611
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
12-14 Kennedy Ave. flat 302, 1087 Nicosia
tel.: (+357-2) 275-3517; fax: 275-1981
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Ryvangs Alle 46,
Copenhagen - 2900 Hellerup
tel.: (+45) 3962-2633; fax: 3962-2554
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Richelieus AllГ© 12,
Copenhagen - 2900 Hellerup
tel.: (+45) 3946-7700; fax: 3946-7766
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
8, Ahmed Nessim St.304, Giza-Cairo
tel.: (+202) 337-9683; fax: 760-9353
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
5 El Aziz Osman Str., Zamalek, Cairo
tel.: (+202) 736-7456, fax: 735-5427
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Narva mnt. 9A, 10503 Tallinn, BP 240
tel.: (+372) 6604-378; fax: 6604-380
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Pärnu Mnt. 8, 10503 Tallinn, BP 247
tel.: (+372) 6278-206; fax: 6445-221
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
PO Box 27207/1000 Addis Abeba
Bole Sub-city, Kebele 03, House No 2111
tel.: (+251-1) 185401; 637635; fax: 610000
e-mail: [email protected]
European Communities
Mission de la RГ©publique de Pologne
AuprГЁs des CommunautГ©s EuropГ©ennes
282-284 Av. de Tervuren; 1150 Bruxelles, Belgique
tel.: (+32-2) 7777-200; fax: 7777-297
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
ul. ZubaЕ‚aszwili 19, 0108 Tbilisi
tel. (+995-32) 920398
fax. (+995-32) 920397
e-mail: [email protected]
Botschaft der Republik Polen
Lassenstr. 19-21, 14193 Berlin
tel.: (+49-30) 223-130; fax: 2231-3155
e-mail: [email protected]
Botschaft der Republik Polen
Wirtschafts-und Handelsabteilung
Glinkastrasse 5-7, 10117 Berlin
tel.: (+49-30) 220-2551; fax: 229-2451
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Risto Rytin tie 7; 700-570 Helsinki
tel.: (+358-9) 684-9188; fax: 684-8907
e-mail: [email protected]
Generalkonsulat der Republik Polen
Wirtschafts- und Handelsabteilung
An der Alteburger MГјhle 6,
50968 Köln 51, Marienburg
tel.: (+49-221) 34990, 349913; fax: 349910
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Armas Lindgrenin tie 21, F-00570 Helsinki
tel.: (+358-9) 684-8077; fax: 684-7477
e-mail: [email protected]
Generalkonsulat der Republik Polen
Wirtschafts- und Handelsabteilung
Röntgenstraße 5, 81679 München
tel.: (+49-89) 4702-7747, 4186-0842; fax: 4707-223
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
86, rue de la Faisanderie; 75116 Paris
tel.: (+33-1) 4504-1020; fax: 4504-6317
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
1 rue de Talleyrand, 75343 Paris
tel.: (+33-1) 4317-3405; fax: 4317-3507
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulat GГ©nГ©ral de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
79, rue Crillon, 69006 Lyon
tel.: (+33-4) 3751-1233; fax: 3751-1238
e-mail: [email protected]
Generalkonsulat der Republik Polen
Wirtschafts-und Handelsabteilung
Grundgenstr. 20; 22309 Hamburg
tel.: (+49-40) 611870; fax: 6325030
e-mail: [email protected]
Generalkonsulat der Republik Polen
Wirtschafts-und Handelsabteilung
Gorber str.14/411-412, 04105 Leipzig
tel.: (+49-341) 980-0281; fax: 980-2043
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
1, Kondoleondos st., 154-52 Paleo Psychico, Athens
tel.: (+30-210) 672 6176; fax: 672 1952
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
22 Chrysanthemon st.
154-52 Paleo Psychico, Athenes
tel.: (+30-210) 679 7700; fax: 679 7711
e-mail: [email protected]
The Holy See
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Via dei Delfini 16 int.3, 00186 Roma
tel.: (+39-06) 6990958; fax: 6990978
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Stefania ut 65, H-1143 Budapest XIV
tel.: (+36-1) 251-4677; fax: 252-9289
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
VГЎrosligeti fasor 16, 1068 Budapest
tel.: (+36-1) 413-8200; fax: 351-1722
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
50-M, Shantipath, Chanakyapuri; New Delhi 110021
tel.: (+91-11) 5149-6922, fax: 2687-2033
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulate of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Manavi Apartments, 36, B.G. Kher Marg,
Malabar Hill, Mumbai 400 006
tel.: (+91-22) 363-3863/4; fax: 363-3376
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
JL.H.R.Rasuna Said, Kav.X Blok IV/3
Jakarta 12950
tel.: (+62-21) 2525-947; fax: 2525-960
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Africa Expressway, Pirouz Str. 1/3
P.O.Box 11365-3489, 19-174 Tehran
tel.: (+9821) 8787-262/4, fax: 8788-774
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Baghdad, Hay Al-Wahda, Mahalla 904,
Zukak 60, House 20/24
tel.: +964 7901 909506; fax: (sat) +873-762 05 3415
e-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]
Embassy of Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
4 The Vicarage St John`s Road; Dublin 4
tel.: (+353-1) 269-1370; fax: 269-7662
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
5, Ailesbury Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin 4
tel.: (+3531) 283-0855; fax: 269-8309
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
79, Yehuda Hamaccabi St.; 62-300 Tel-Aviv
tel.: (+972-3) 5446-246; fax: 5446-247
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
16, Soutine St., Tel-Aviv 64-484
tel.: (+972-3) 5240-186, fax: 5237-806
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Via Olona 2; 00198 Roma
tel.: (+39-6) 854-1128; fax: 855-3391
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Via P.P. Rubens 20, 00197 Roma
tel.: (+39-6) 362 04 200; fax: 321 7895
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
Consulat GГ©nГ©ral de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Via Capecelatro 53/4, 20148 Milano
tel.: (+39-2) 487 131 64; fax: 405 303
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
70, Sagan-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul
tel.: (+82-2) 723 9681; fax: 723 9680
e-mail : [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
2-13-5 Mita, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-0062
tel.: (+81-3) 5794 7050; fax: 5794 7053
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
P.O. Box 5066, Safat, 13501 Kuwait
tel.: (+965) 5311 571/2, fax: 5311 576
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
No 3 Mahmoud Seif Al-Din Al-Irani St.
PO Box 942050, Amman 11194
tel. (+9626) 5512593, 5512594; fax: 5512595
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
ul. Baturina 4, Almaty 480051
tel./fax: (+7-3272) 647911, 534427
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
DЕјarkentskaja 9 / Iskanderowa 11/13,
480099 Almaty, P.O.Box 228
tel.: (+7-3272) 581 551, fax: 581 550
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Kabarnet Road, Nairobi, PO Box 30086
tel.: (+254-20) 3872 811, 3872 812; fax: 3872 814
e-mail: [email protected]
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Tedonggang - Munsudong, Pyongyang, D.P.R.K.
tel. (+8502) 3817325, 3817328; fax: 3817634
Republic of Korea
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
4F, Dongkyung B/D, 604 Hannam-dong,
Yongsan-Ku, Seoul 140-210
tel.: (+82-2) 3785 2471 fax: 797 0853
e-mail: [email protected]
Lao People's Democratic Republic
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
263 Thadeua Rd., km. 3
P.O. Box 1106 Vientiane
tel.: (+856 21) 312-940; fax: 312-085
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
11 Elizabetes str., 1010 Riga
tel.: (+371) 735-8251; fax: 735-8250
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Miednieku iela 6B, 1010 Riga
tel.: (+371) 703-1500; fax: 705-1549
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Av. President Suleiman Frangieh 52
Raymong Khalife Bldg
Baabda - PO Box 40-215
tel. 05-924-881, 05-468-951; fax: 05-924-882
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
61 Sharia Ben Ashour Str.
Garden City Tripoli, PO Box 519
tel.(+218 21) 3608569, 3615972; fax: 3615199
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Vasario 16-osios g.14/2, 01107 Vilnius-1
tel.: (+370-5) 261-7960; fax: 261-0686
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Smelio g. 20A. 10323 Vilnius
tel.: (+370-5) 270-9001; fax: 270-9007
Macedonia FYR
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
ul. Djuro Djaković 50, 1000 Skopje
tel.: (+389 2) 3119744, 3112647
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Suite 6, level 7, Mesiara Dato’Onn,
P.O.Box 47 & 48, Putra World Trade Centre,
45 Jalan Tun Ismail, 50480 Kuala Lumpur
tel.: (+60-3) 4043 0940; fax: 4043 0216
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
No 495, 4 ВЅ Miles Jalan Ampang,
68000 Ampang, Selangor 50704 Kuala Lumpur
tel.: (+60-3) 4257-6733; fax: 4257-0123
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la RepГєblica de Polonia
Calle Cracovia 40, Colonia San Angel,
01000 MГ©xico D.F.
Apartado Postal 20383
tel.: (+52 55) 5550-4700, fax: 5616-0822
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
MD-2009 Chisinau, str. Plamadeala 3
tel: (+373-22) 238956; fax: 238957
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
MD-2009 Chisinau, str. Plamadeala 3
tel: (+373-22) 238551; fax: 238553
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Diplomat 95 Ajlyn Oron Suuc VI ORC
PO Box 1049, Ulaanbaatar-13
tel.: (+976-11) 320641, fax: 321926;
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
22, rue Khouribga, BP 384, 10000 Rabat
tel.: (+212-37) 768368; fax: 769068
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
23, Rue Oqbah, Rabat, BP 425
tel.: (212-37) 771173; fax: 775320
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulat GГ©nГ©ral de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
9 rue d’Alger-Villa Beausoleil, 20000 Casablanca
tel.: (+212-22) 279138; fax: 279139
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Van Lennepweg 51; 2597 LG Den Haag
tel.: (+31-70) 306-9944; fax: 354-3966
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Alexanderstraat 25, 2514 JM Den Haag
tel.: (+31-70) 7990-100; fax: 360-2810
e-mail: [email protected]
New Zeland
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
17 Upland Road, Kelburn
Wellington 6005, P.O. Box 10211
tel.: (+644) 4759453, fax: 4759458
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
1 Amado Tijani Street, Victoria Island, Lagos
tel.: (+234-1) 262-0660; fax: 262-0649
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
16, Ona Crescent, Maitama, Abuja
tel.: (+234-9) 41382-80…83; fax: 41382-81
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Uranienborg terrasse 11; 0351-Oslo
tel.: (+47-22) 602448; fax: 565381
e-mail: [email protected]
Republic of South Africa
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
PO Box 1547, Houghton 2041, Johannesburg, RSA
tel.: (+27-11) 788-6597; fax: 442-5375
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Olav Kyrres plass 1, 0244 Oslo
tel.: (+47-24) 110850; fax: (+47-24) 444839
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
14 Amos Street, Colbyn 0083, Pretoria
PO Box 12277, Queenswood 0121
tel.: (+27-12) 430-2621; fax: 430-2608
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Diplomatic Enclave II, Street 24, G-5/4,
Islamabad P.O. Box 1032
tel. (+92-51) 2279491, 2279493; fax: 2279498
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Bd Aviatorilor 24; 011862 Bucuresti
tel.: (+40-21) 230-7714; fax: 230-7732
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la RepГєblica de Polonia
Bella Vista, Calle 47,
Edificio "Vista Marina", piso 2.
Zona 5, Apartado Postal 8782, Panama
tel.: (+507) 2636254, 2635097; fax: 2233717
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Al. Alexandru 23, 011821 Bucuresti
tel.: (+40-21) 308-2200; fax: 230-7832
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la RepГєblica de Polonia
Casilla de coreo 180174,
Miraflores, Lima 18
tel.: (+511) 4713-920, fax: 4713-925
e-mail: [email protected]
Embaixada da Republica da Polonia
Departamento EconГґmico e Comercial
Avenida da Pepublica, 9-7; 1050-185 Lisboa
tel.: (+351-21) 352-6170; fax: 352-6174
e-mail: [email protected]
Embaixada da Republica da Polonia
Avenida das Descobertas 2, 1400-092 Lisboa
tel.: (+ 351-21) 301-2350; fax: 301-0202
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
123557 Moscou, rue Klimashkina 4
tel.: (+7-095) 231-1611; fax: 231-1615
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulat GГ©nГ©ral de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Rue 5-ya Sovietskaya 12; 193130 Sankt Petersburg
tel.: (+7-812) 274-4328; fax: 274-4318
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulat GГ©nГ©ral de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Prospekt Mira 81/2; 236000 Kaliningrad
tel.: (+7-0112) 218-741; fax: 216-287
e-mail: [email protected]
Saudi Arabia
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Abdullah Bin DЕјafar Street, House No.20
Al-Woorood District Riyadh (Rijad)
P.O.Box 94016, Riyadh 11693
tel.: (+966-1) 4549274, 4508889; fax: 4549210
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Avenue des Ambassadeurs, Fann Residence
Dakar BP 343
tel.: (+221) 8252403, 8242354; fax: 8249526
e-mail: [email protected]
Serbia and Montenegro
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Il.Vladimira Popovica 6 ap 401, 11070 Beograd
tel.: (+381-11) 311-2340; fax: 311-2307
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Kneza MiloЕ›a 38, 11000 Beograd
tel.: (+381-11) 206-5301; fax: 361-6939
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
435 Orchard Road, 10-01/02 Wisma Atria
Singapore 238877
tel.: (+65) 6734-0466; fax: 6734-6129
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Zelena 6; 81101 Bratyslava
tel.: (+421-2) 5443-2744; fax: 5443-2007
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Hummelova 4, 81491 Bratyslava
tel.: (+421-2) 5441-3175, fax: 5441-3184
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Cesta 27 aprila 37, 1000 Lublana
tel./fax: (+386-1) 426-1448, 426-0505
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Bezigrad 10, 1000 Lublana
tel.: (+386-1) 436-4712; fax: 436-2521
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la RepГєblica de Polonia
SecciГіn de EconomГ­a y Comercio
Avenida del Dr. Arce, 25; 28002 Madrid
tel.: (+34-91) 590-1280; fax: 561-5108
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la RepГєblica de Polonia
Calle Guisando 23 bis, 28035 Madrid
tel.: (+34-91) 373-6605; fax: 373-6624
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Friggagatan 4, 11427 Stockholm
tel.: (+46-8) 453-8420; fax: 216-188
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Karlavägen 35, 11432 Stockholm
tel.: (+46-8) 5057-5000; fax: 5057-5086
e-mail: [email protected]
Botschaft der Republik Polen
Wirtschafts- und Handelsabteilung
Elfenstrasse 9; CH-3000 Bern 6
tel.: (+41-31) 350-8282; fax: 351-3457
e-mail: [email protected]
Botschaft der Republik Polen
Elfenstrasse 20a, CH-3000 Bern 6
tel.: (+41-31) 358-0202, fax: 358-0216
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Rue Georges Haddad, Damascus P.O. 501
tel.: (+963-11) 3333010, fax: 3315318
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
63 Aly Khan Road, Upanga, Dar es Salaam
P. O. Box 2188
tel.: (+255-22) 2115271, tel./fax : 2115812
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
11th Fl., Two Pacific Place
142 Sukhumvit Road, Bangkok 10110
tel.: (+66-2) 653-2014; fax: 653-2013
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
8A, Sriyukhon Bldg, Sukhumvit Soi 5
PO Box 1167, Bangkok 10110
tel.: (+66-2) 251-8891/2; fax: 251-8895
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
5, Rue Ibn Assaker, El Menzah I, 1004 Tunis
tel.: (+21671) 751 907; fax: 238 812
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
5, Impasse No 1, Rue de Cordoue,
2092 El Manar I, Tunis
tel.: (+21 6) 71 873 837; fax: 71 872 987
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
And Sokak No 8/17; 06680 Cankaya - Ankara
tel.: (+90-312) 468-0990; fax: 428-1234
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
AtatГјrk Bulvari 241, Kavaklidere PK 20
06650 Ankara
tel.: (+90-312) 467-5619; fax: 467-8963
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulate General of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Toprakkale Sok. No 6, Burak Apt. D-3
Etiler - 80630, Istanbul
tel.: (+90-212) 265-8609; fax: 265-0722
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Volodymyrska 45, 01034 Kiev
tel.: (+380-44) 229-4537; fax: 228-1140
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Jaroslawiw Wal 12, 01034 Kiev
tel.: (+ 380-44) 230-0700, fax: 270-6336
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulat GГ©nГ©ral de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Economic and Commercial Section
Sarachowa 78a III, 79026 Lviv
tel/fax: (+380-322) 976-677, 971-353
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulat GГ©nГ©ral de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Artioma 16 - 401, 61002 Charkiv
tel.: (+380-572) 585-424; fax: 585-425
e-mail: [email protected]
United Arab Emirates
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Abu Dhabi, Delma Street,
Corner with Karama Street,
P.O. Box 2334, Abu Dhabi
tel.: (+971-2) 4465-200; fax 4462-967
e-mail: [email protected]
United Kingdom
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
15, Devonshire Street; London W1G 7AP
tel.: (+44) 20 75 8054 81; fax: 20 73 23 01 95
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
47 Portland Place, London W1B 1JH
tel.: (+44) 87 07 74 27 00
fax: (+44) 20 72 91 35 75
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la RepГєblica de Polonia
Jorge Canning 2389, C.P. 11600 Montevideo
tel.: (+59 82) 4801151, 4801313; fax: 4873389
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
675, 3rd Ave. (19th floor)
New York, NY 10017
tel.: (+1-212) 370-5300; fax: 818-9623
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la RepГєblica de Polonia
Av. Nicolas Copernico, Qta. "Ambar"
Valle Arriba, Sector Los Naranjos
Apartado 62293, Chacao, Caracas 1060-A
fel.: (+58-212) 991-6167; fax: 992-2164
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
2640, 16th Street, N.W.,
Washington DC 20009
tel.: (+1-202) 234-3800; fax: 328-6271
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
5, Ba Huyen Thanh Quan
PO Box 21, Hanoi
tel.: (+84-4) 845-2836; fax: 843-0517
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
1503, 21st Street N.W.
Washington DC 20036
tel.: (+1-202) 467-6690; fax: 833-8343
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulate General of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
333 East Ontario Street, Suite 3906
Chicago, Illinois 60611
tel.: (+1-312) 642-4102; fax: 642-8829
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulate General of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
12400 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 555
Los Angeles, CA 90025
tel.: (+1-310) 442-8500 ext.113; fax: 442-8526
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Mahatma Gandi 1, tupik 4
700000 Tashkent
tel.: (+998-71) 133-9650; fax: 133-9750
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Fridavsiy 66, Yunasabadskiy Rayon
700084 Tashkent
tel.: (+998-71) 120-8650; fax: 120-8651
email: [email protected]
Ambassade de la RГ©publique de Pologne
3 Chua Mot Cot, Hanoi
tel.: (+84-4) 845-2027, 845-3728; fax: 823-6914
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Fajj Attan Area, Sana’a, Yemen
P.O. Box 16168
tel.: (+9671) 413523, 413524; fax: 413647
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
16 Cork Rd, Belgravia
Harare, PO Box 3932
tel.: (+263-4) 253442; fax: 253710
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in Bahrain
Mr. Hashim Hussein, Head
Bahrain Development Bank House
P.O. Box 10523, Bldg. No. 170.Road 1703, Manama 317, Bahrain
Telephone: +973 536881; Fax: +973 536883
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in Belgium
MinistГЁre de la Region Wallonne
Agence Wallonne à l’Exportation
Place Sainctelette, 2; B-1080 Brussels, Belgium
Telephone: +32 2 4218211; Fax: +32 2 4218787
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in Brazil
Mr. Valerio Veloso, Head
Rua do Apolo, 181
Bairro do Recife - PE; State of Pernambuco, Brasil – CEP: 50030-220
Telephone: +55-81 3419 8002/8004; Fax: +55-81 3419 8001
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in China
Mr. Tao Dong, Head
UNIDO Shanghai Investment Promotion Center
16F New Town Center, 83, Loushanguan Road, Shanghai, 200336, China
Telephone: +8621 62368800; Fax: +8621 62368024
e-mail: [email protected]
Mr. Yuandong HU, Head
No. 17, Xi WU Jei, San Li tun, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100600, China
Telephone: +8610 65326140, 65326141; Fax: +8610 65326145
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment Promotion Unit in Egypt
Mr. Enrico Sasdelli, Head
Sherif Street 30, Cairo, Egypt
Telephone: +202 392 5277, 393 7447; Fax: +202 3957631
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in France
Mr. GГ©rard Gaveau, Head
9, rue Notre Dame des Victoires, F-75002 Paris, France
Telephone: +331 44550505; Fax: +331 49269726
e-mail: [email protected]
Mr. Jean Claude Plana, Head
271, corniche PrГ©sident J.F. Kennedy, F-13007 Marseille, France
Telephone: +33-4-91525619, Fax: +33-4-91571728
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in Greece
Mr. Ioannis Karmokolias, Head
7, Stadiou Street, 7th Floor, Syntagma Sqr, 10562 Athenes, Greece
Telephone: +302 10 3248319, 3248367; Fax: + 302 10 3248778
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in Italy
Ms. Diana Battaggia, Head
Via della Beverara, 123, I-40131 Bologna, Italy
Telephone: +39051 634 3031; Fax: +39051 634 1186
e-mail: [email protected]
Ms.Diana Battaggia, Head
Via Panisperna 28, 00 184 Rome, Italy
Phone: +39 06 6962 153, 6962 129; Fax: +39 06 6962 122
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in Japan
Mr. Seiji Oshima, Head
Shin-Aoyama Building, W-16F, 1-1-1 Minami-Ayoama, Minato-Ku, Tokyo 107, Japan
Telephone: +81 3 340 29341; Fax: +81 3 340 29384
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment Promotion Unit in Jordan
Ms. Monica CarcГі, Head
c/o Jordan Investment Board
P.O. Box 893; Amman 11821, Jordan
Telephone: +962 6 5608400; Fax: +962 65517626
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in Republic of Korea
Mr. Wan-Gil Kang, Head
c/o Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)
128, Yunkun-dong, Chongro-gru, Seoul 110-460, Republic of Korea
Telephone: +82 2 747 8191, 747 8192; Fax: +82 2 747 8193
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Promotion Unit in Morocco
Mr. Luca Ranieri, Officer-in-Charge
c/o UnitГ© de Promotion des Investissements
Office pour le DГ©veloppement Industriel
10 Rue Ghandi; BP 211 – Rabat, Morocco
Telephone: +212 37 737 979, 737 889; Fax: +212 37 738 070
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in Poland
Mr. Krzysztof Loth, Head
Aleja NiepodlegЕ‚oЕ›ci 186, 00-608, Warsaw, P.O. Box 10, Warsaw 12, Poland
Telephone: +48 22 8259186 Fax: +48 22 8258970
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in Russian Federation
Mr. Mikhail V. Rytchev, Director
UNIDO Center for International Industrial Coop.
Ulitsa Kuusinena 21B, 125252 Moscow, Russian Federation
Telephone: +7 095 9430021, 1989809; Fax: +7 095 9430018
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
UNIDO Investment Promotion Unit in Tunisia
Mr. Claudio Scaratti, Head
63, Rue de Syrie 6th floor, Tunis-Belvedere, Tunisia
Telephone: +216 71 283 923 / 216 98 652 979 [mobile]; Fax: +216 71 283 724
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Center for Regional Cooperation in Turkey
Mr. Celal Armangil
Birlik Mahallesi, 2. Cadde, No:11, 06610, Г‡ankaya, Ankara, Turkey
Tel: (+90 312) 4541078, 4541079; Fax: (+90 312) 496 14 75
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in United Kingdom
Mr. John McFadzean, Head
Renaissance House
P.O. Box 37, Centre Park
Warrington Cheshire WA1 1XB, United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 1925 400224; Fax: +44 1925 400405
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment Promotion Unit in Uganda
Mr. Andrea Negri, OIC
c/o Uganda Investment Authority
The Investment Centre
Plot 28, Kampala Road
P.O. Box 7418, Kampala
Telephone: +256 41 251561/-5; 244733; Fax: +256 41 342903
e-mail: [email protected]
InterTec Ltd. Austria
Brahmsplatz 8/3
A-1040 Vienna, Austria
Telephone: +431 5044091; Fax: +431 5044094
General Information: [email protected]
The International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in Italy
Dott. Decio Ripandelli, ICGEB – Area di Ricerca, Padriciano 99
34012 Trieste – Italia
Telephone: +39 040 3757345; Fax: +39 040 3757363
e-mail: [email protected]
National Technology Transfer Centre – Kyiv (TTC) in Ukraina
Kyiv 03150, a/СЏ 52, Ukraine
Telephone/fax: +044 – 2276502
e-mail: [email protected]
National Technology Transfer Centre (NCTT) in Republic of Belarus
k.106, Akaдемическая 1,
220072 Minsk, Republic of Belarus
Telephone/fax: +375 17 2841499
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
The International Centre for Application of Solar Energy (CASE) in Australia
Mr. Gordon Thompson, Managing Director
220 St. Georges Terrace
Perth, Western Australia 6000
Telephone: +618 93217600; Fax: +618 93217497
e-mail: [email protected]
The International Materials Assessment and Application Centre (IMAAC) in Austria
Mr. Vladimir Kozharnovich, Programme Manager
Quality, Technology and Investment Branch
Investment Promotion & Institutional Capacity-Building Division
Vienna International Centre
P.O.Box 300, A-1400 Vienna, Austria
Telephone: +431 26026 3720/3702; Fax: +431 26026 6809
e-mail: [email protected]
The International Centre for Advancement of Manufacturing Technology in India
Mr. Vinod Kumar Yadav, Project Director
Core 5A, Ist Floor, BMTPC Office
India Habitat Centre. Lodi Road
New Delhi – 110003 India
Telephone: +91 80 24647083; Fax: +91 80 24647082
e-mail: [email protected] , [email protected]
The International Centre for Science and High Technology in Italy
Mr. Francesco Pizzio, Managing Director
AREA Science Park, Padriciano 99
34012 Trieste, Italy
Telephone: +39 040 9228101; Fax: +39 040 9228101
e-mail: [email protected]
The International Centre for Small Hydro Power (ICSHP) in China
Prof. Tong Jiandong, Director
P.O.Box 202, 136 Nanshan Road
Hangzhou 310002, People’s Republic of China
Telephone: +86 571 87023380; Fax: +86 571 87023353
e-mail: [email protected]
The International Centre for Materials Technology Promotion (ICM) in China
Prof. Yan Yao (Ms)
President China Building Materials Academy
Guanzhuang, Chaoyang District
Beijing 100024, People’s Republic of China
Telephone: +86 10 65750105, 65761325
Fax: +86 10 65762976
e-mail: [email protected]
The International Centre of Medicine Biotechnology (ICMB) in Russian Federation
Mr. Nikolay Durmanov, International Coordinator
Ulitsa Kuusinena 21B
125252 Moscow, Russian Federation
Telephone: +7 095 2010051; Fax: +7 095 7254636
e-mail: [email protected]
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