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2006 Cover Sheet - University of Hawaii

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PACON 2006
Marine Science and Technology
in Asia
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Traders Hotel, Yangon
Yangon, Myanmar
June 11-15, 2006
www.hawaii.edu/pacon
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PACON 2006
Marine Science and Technology in Asia
ABSTRACTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Keynote Addresses
Tsunamis and Storm Surges in the Indian Ocean ................................................................................K1
Storms - Analysis, Statistics and Changes ...........................................................................................K2
River-Sea Interaction and the North Jiangsu Plain Formation.............................................................K3
Technical Papers and Sessions
OCEAN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (OST)
Coordinators: Lorenz Magaard (USA) and Kenji Hotta (Japan)
OST-1
Ocean Mapping and Seafloor Characterization
Integrated River Information Management System (IRIMS) ..............................................................................A1
Myanmar Experience with GIS and Remote Sensing Technologies for Marine Science....................................A1
Oceanographic Studies in the Coastal Zones of Myanmar (CANCELLED).......................................................A2
Tectonics: Reflecting the Bathymetry and Sedimentation of Myanmar Continental Shelves .............................A2
OST-4A & B
Remote Sensing and Oceanographic Satellites
Upwelling along Primorye Coast, Japan Sea on Satellite and In Situ Data .........................................................A3
Responses of Phytoplankton to the 2004 Asian Tsunami in Different Locations of the Indian Ocean ...............A3
A Principal Analysis using the Ten Days Composite Satellite Sst Images taken off the Coast of Japan ............A4
Detection of Seagrass with TM in Coastal Water of Hainan, China ...................................................................A4
Retrieval of Optically Active Constituents in the Upper Gulf of Thailand .........................................................A5
Bio-Optical Properties and Ocean Color Algorithms for the North Region of the South China Sea ..................A5
Variations in Light Absorption Coefficients of Suspended Particles in South China Sea...................................A6
OST-5A & B
Advanced Vehicles
Analysis of the Parametric Transformation Effect on Resistance of Displacement Monohull............................A6
Assessment of Watch Keeping Officer Performance using a Ship Simulator .....................................................A7
Investigation of the Form Factor and Evaluation of the Required Engine Power for a Fast Patrol Boat ............A7
Marine Science, Technology and Seamanship ....................................................................................................A8
Parametric Investigation and Optimization of Diesel Engine Noise, Emissions and Fuel Economy .................A8
Yacht Construction in Myanmar .........................................................................................................................A9
i
OST-6
Operational Experiences in Environmental Monitoring
Contemporary Concentration Levels of Heavy Metals Aerosols and Gaseous Mercury
over the Arctic Ocean Seas ...................................................................................................................A9
Flowcam® Technology – Continuous Imaging Fluid Particle Analyzer for Aquatic Research
and Monitoring....................................................................................................................................A10
Meridian: Russian Observational Project in the Atlantic Ocean .....................................................................A10
New Results from the German Ferrybox...........................................................................................................A11
Operational Monitoring of the Brantas River, Indonesia – Measurements and Modelling ...............................A11
OST-7A & B
Climate Change
Climate Change in Myanmar During the Last Five Decades ............................................................................A12
Towards a Homogeneous 50 Year Climatology of Typhoons in SE Asia.........................................................A12
The Impacts of El-Nino and La-Nina Events on the Climate of Myanmar .......................................................A13
The Inter-Annual Variations in the Monsoon Climatology of Myanmar and Its Perspectives..........................A13
Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction Effect on Monsoon during 2002 ......................................................................A14
The Characteristic of Behavior Changes in the Climatology of the Bay Storms
during the Last Three Decades ............................................................................................................A14
The Substantial Increased Earthquake Activities in Myanmar during the Last Five Years
and Its Perspectives .............................................................................................................................A15
The Volcanic Ash Eruption in Barren Islandв”ЂThe Only Live Volcano in the Andaman Sea
between Sumatra and Myanmar ..........................................................................................................A15
The Economic Impact of Alternative Energy in Hawaii: A General Equilibrium Analysis ..............................A16
Methane Hydrates, What do They Mean for Climate and Society? ..................................................................A16
Climate Prediction, Economic Value and Radical Innovation...........................................................................A17
OST-8A, B & C
Aquaculture and Mariculture Technology
Co-Culture of Shrimp and Algae: Improvement of Water Quality....................................................................A17
Effect of “Ocean Fertilizer” on the Growth of Seaweeds in the Philippines .....................................................A18
Effectiveness of Hemispherical Steel Net Covering Artificial Reef on Fish Aggregation ................................A18
Evaluation Studies for Site Selection of Edible Oyster Growing
in Ma-Gyi Tidal Creek Estuarine Region............................................................................................A19
Improvement of Scallop Sea Ranching by Recycling Shells.............................................................................A19
Marine Fishery Resources Potential and Exploitation of Myanmar ..................................................................A20
Myanmar Pearling Industry ...............................................................................................................................A20
Numerical Experiment of the Relationship between Discoloration of Nori (Porphyra yezoensis)
and Seasonal Wind ..............................................................................................................................A21
Opportunities and Challenges in Myanmar Aquaculture...................................................................................A21
Potential of Marine Fishery in Myanmar...........................................................................................................A22
Research on the Structure Improving Sediment Quality by Current Control ....................................................A22
Study on the Porous Material for Improvement of Marine Biological Environment ........................................A23
Technology of Seaweed, Kappaphycus /Eucheuma Cultivation in the Tropical Waters...................................A23
OST-9A & B
Natural Energy
Introduction of Tidal Power for Rural Remote Villages Electrification in Myanmar .......................................A24
Power Generation by Tidal Current...................................................................................................................A24
Experimental Study on Power Generation System from Tidal Currents for Navigation Buoy .........................A25
Design and Fabrication of a Vertical Axis Small Scale Water Turbine ............................................................A25
Crossflow Turbine for Micro Hydro Power Plant .............................................................................................A26
Characteristics of VAWT using ARC Camber Blades for Wind Generation System .......................................A26
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In-Situ Observation on the Wind in the Northeastern Coast of Taiwan ............................................................A27
Research on Collective Housing Areas and Characteristics of Residents in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia................A27
Research on Establishment of Resource Recycling Society in Cobb Hill Co-housing......................................A28
Fundamental Operational Characteristics of Grid-Connected Clustered PV System ........................................A28
From "Point" to "Field" on Renewable Energy .................................................................................................A29
COASTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (CST)
Coordinators: Young C. Kim (USA) and Yoshifusa Yamada (Japan)
CST-1
Hydrodynamics of Coastal Waters
Bragg Scattering of Water Waves in Real Fluids ..............................................................................................A29
Buoy Measurements of Wind-Wave Interaction during Tropical Cyclones......................................................A30
Flow Visualization of Vortex Shedding behind the Circular and Elliptical Cylinders ......................................A30
Reduction of the Wave Drifting Forces using Aircushion Supported System...................................................A31
Velocity Change in Nearshore Zone due to Coastal Drain System by VOF Method ........................................A31
CST-2
Coastal Water Level Fluctuations
Design of Storm Surge – Experiments for Understanding Storm Surge Phenomena and Model Testing .........A32
Numerical Calculation of the High Water Level Fluctuations during the Typhoon Period...............................A32
Rapid Estimation of Storm Surge due to Tropical Cyclones using Satellite Meteorology ................................A33
Seismicity of the Andaman Sea .........................................................................................................................A33
Storm Surge Prediction in Myanmar: Operational and Post Storm Field Survey Perspectives.........................A34
Three Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Storm Surge in the Southeastern Sea of Korea ..........................A34
CST-3A & B
Coastal Structures
A Solitary Wave Propagating over a Submerged Breakwater ...........................................................................A35
A Study on Making Sea Hazard Map Considers Tsunami Damages of Ships...................................................A35
Artificial Headland using Spar Buoy Sea Forest ...............................................................................................A36
Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Steels for Marine Structures ......................................................................A36
Influence of Wave Reflection to Runup on Step Dike.......................................................................................A37
Numerical Simulation on Behavior of Floating Structures in Tsunami by MPS Method..................................A37
The Design of Anchorage for Waters Outside Kaohsiung Harbor ....................................................................A38
Visible Space by Landscape Recognition of Local Inhabitans and Its Composition.........................................A38
CST-4A & B
Ports and Harbors
A Single Mooring Net-Cage Subjected to Wave Force.....................................................................................A39
Extension Planning of the Da-Wu Fishing Harbor for Improving Sea Transportation on East Taiwan............A39
Integrated Development Project of Keelung Port .............................................................................................A40
Myanmar Port and Harbor Development and Coastal Zone Management ........................................................A40
The New Generation Container Terminal Facility and Equipment ...................................................................A41
Yangon Sea Access Channel Associated Port Improvement Study...................................................................A41
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CST-5A & B
Coastal Sediment Processes
Sediment Movement and its Impact on the Distribution of Benthic Macrofauna
in the North Andaman Sea ..................................................................................................................A42
In the Western Myanmar, Where the Bengal Fan Sedimentation Was?............................................................A42
Morphology and Sediment Transport of Sand Bodies in Eastern Taiwan Strait Shelf......................................A43
Physiography and Sediment Dispersal on the Ayeyarwady Continental Shelf, North Andaman Sea ...............A43
Wind Blowout Hollow Generated in Fukiage Dune Field, Kagoshima Prefecture Japan .................................A44
Study on the River Works due to Sediment Transport ......................................................................................A44
Improvement of River Channel by using Impermeable Sand Bag Groyne in Ayeyarwaddy River ..................A45
Sustainable Development of Ayeyarwady Delta ...............................................................................................A45
CST-6A & B
Coastal Environment
The Environmental Restoration of Ago Bay, Japan based on a New Concept of "Sato Umi" ..........................A46
Relationship between Shape of Coastal Gravel and Life Time of Stranded Oil................................................A46
Oil Spill Prevention and Combating..................................................................................................................A47
Development of Statistic Model for Estimating Life Time of Beached Oil ......................................................A47
High Yield Production of Bio-Hydrogen from Organic Waste using Rhodobacter shpaeroides ......................A48
Daily Accumulation Rates of Marine Debris on Two Subantarctic Islands ......................................................A48
Porous Concrete Blocks as Natural Cleansing System in Coastal Environment ...............................................A49
Examination of Model Parameterization for Simulations of Oxygen-Deficient Water in Enclosed Bays ........A49
Transmittance of Light Pipe for Ecological Conservation of Large Floating Structure ....................................A50
Purification Experiment of Water Quality by using Cohesive Powder .............................................................A50
CST-7A, B & C
Sustainable Coastal Development
Coastal Resource Management in Myanmar .....................................................................................................A51
Coastal Resource Management with Special Reference to Mangroves of Myanmar ........................................A51
Coastal Resources of Economic and Ecological Importance from Myeik Archipelago
and Status of their Exploitation ...........................................................................................................A52
Conserving a Unique Coral Island (Pulau Perak) in the Straits of Malacca, Malaysia......................................A52
The Environment Formation and the Characteristics of the Site for Fishing Ports ...........................................A53
Harnessing Information and Communication Technologies for International Waters Management
in Southeast Asia.................................................................................................................................A53
Marine Provincialism Analysis of Macroalgal Distribution in Malaysia ..........................................................A54
Rehabilitation of Abandoned Shrimp Ponds through Mangrove Planting
at Nakhonsi Thammarat, Thailand ......................................................................................................A54
Sampled Up-Welling Current Areas and the Site for Fishing Ports ..................................................................A55
Seaweed Bed Reclamation Experiment using Vertical Seawall at Inner Part of Osaka Bay.............................A55
The Designated Unused Land in the Land-Fill of the Metropolitan Seaside Area ............................................A56
Towards a Sustainable Management of Myeik (Mergui) Archipelago..............................................................A56
Water Purification Experiments by Micro Bubble ............................................................................................A57
CST-8
Coastal Hazards
Damage Due to Earthquake Tsunamis and Countermeasures Against Disasters in Fishery Areas ...................A57
Harmful Algal Blooms in the Coastal Waters of the South China Sea..............................................................A58
Potential Natural Hazards in the Myanmar Coastal Areas ................................................................................A58
The Indian Ocean Tsunami of 26 December 2004 - Myanmar Experiences .....................................................A59
Tsunami Hazard Mapping of the Hawaiian EEZ...............................................................................................A59
Tsunami Heights and Damage along the Myanmar Coast from the December 2004
Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake............................................................................................................A60
iv
MARINE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT (MRMD)
Coordinator: Kenji Hotta (Japan)
MRMD-1
Marine Policy, Law, and Government
Implementation of Maritime Laws in Myanmar................................................................................................A60
Perceptions of Coasts in Germany.....................................................................................................................A61
Recent Developments in Myanmar Offshore Petroleum Exploration ...............................................................A61
Relationship between Bluefin Tuna Fishing Grounds and Eddy Activity .........................................................A62
The Blue Evolution............................................................................................................................................A62
MRMD-4
Marine Recreation and Tourism
Myanmar Traditional Boats and the Source of Development of Inland Water Transport .................................A63
Sound Environmental Resource in Coastal Marine Tourism.............................................................................A63
Thalassa-Therapy: New Coastal Facility for Recreation and Health Care ........................................................A64
The Conservation Strategies of Dongsha (Pratas) National Marine Park, Taiwan ............................................A64
The Inland Water Transport of Myanmar..........................................................................................................A65
WORKSHOPS (WKSP)
Coordinator: Friedhelm Schroeder (Germany)
WKSP-1
Education in Marine Science and Technology
Development and Application of an Integrated Engine Room Simulator .........................................................A65
Education on Marine Science & Technology in Myanmar................................................................................A66
WKSP-4
Ocean Observing Systems
Ocean Observing from Buoys and Fixed Stations.............................................................................................A66
Ocean Observing from Regular Ship Cruises....................................................................................................A67
Sensors for Operational Ocean Observing ........................................................................................................A67
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STUDENT POSTER SESSION-CECILIA HSI SAXENA AWARD
A Study of Spatial Cognition in Children using Sketched Maps.......................................................................A68
Composition of Landscape Recognition that Uses Visualization Model by Local Inhabitants in Kamakura ...A68
Construction of the Visualization Model by Landscape Cognition using 3-Dimensional Shade Image ...........A69
Our Common Future..........................................................................................................................................A69
Research on the Current Control Function and Fish Aggregation of Artificial Reef.........................................A70
Structural Design of Superstructure on Floating Structure................................................................................A70
Study on Fractal Characteristics of District and Its Relationship to Environmental Cognition.........................A71
Study on Relations of Wharf Steel-Piles Corrosion and Environmental Factors...............................................A71
Sustainable Urbanism in Tokyo.........................................................................................................................A72
The Role of PACON in Marine Science and Technology .................................................................................A72
The Structure of Environmental Recognition of Super High-Rise Housing Residents .....................................A73
The Velocity Field in Surf Zone from Mosaic PIV Measurements ...................................................................A73
Title Index ........................................................................................................................................................A74
Author Index .....................................................................................................................................................A77
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Keynote Address 1
TSUNAMIS AND STORM SURGES IN THE INDIAN OCEAN
Tad Murty
Department of Civil Engineering
University of Ottawa
Ottawa, CANADA
The two most severe natural hazards that periodically occur in the Indian Ocean are storm
surges from mainly tropical cyclones and tsunamis from under-ocean earthquakes and
volcanic explosions. There are some other natural hazards such as submarine landslides,
which do not generally give rise to large tsunamis. While tsunamis are relatively rare events,
storm surges occur much more frequently. In the recnt decades, the most disastrous storm
surge event was the one in November 1970 in Bangladesh, which in terms of loss of life is
comparable to the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26th December 2004. Tsunamis as well as storm
surges belong to the class of long gravity waves, somewhat similar to tides. Tsunamis and
storm surges also interact with tides, in the sense that either a tsunami or a storm surge
occurring at the time of high tide will be much more devastating than those that occur at low
tide. These nonlinear interactions need to be factored into the development of real time
warning systems for tsunamis and storm surges. The three main sources of tsunami-genic
earthquakes in the Indian Ocean are Indonesia, Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India and
the Makran coast near the border between Pakistan and Iran in the Arabian Sea, with some
secondary sources in Africa, and some islands. While tsunami generation and propagation in
the Indian Ocean is reasonably well modelled numerically. detailed modelling of coastal
inundation has not yet been done. Finite-difference methods with regular grids cannot resolve
the coastal features adequately, hence one must use finite-element models with irregular
triangular grids. In the Indian Ocean, storm surges occur in the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian
Sea, Southwest Indian Ocean and on the west coast of Australia.
K-1
Keynote Address 2
STORMS - ANALYSIS, STATISTICS AND CHANGES
Hans von Storch
Institute for Coastal Research
GKSS Research Center
Geesthacht, GERMANY
[email protected]
Storms represent a major geo-risk in marine and coastal environments – almost everywhere.
They may cause significant damage both by their own wind-force but also indirectly through
storm surges and ocean waves. Thus, knowledge about the statistics of storms and their
current and possible future changes are of utmost interest not only for coastal and marine
stakeholders but also for the public at large.
We consider three types of marine storms, tropical storms, extra-tropical baroclinic storms
and polar lows. Because of changing observational capabilities, the observational record of
the frequency of intensity of such storms is methodologically difficult; sometimes,
conclusions about changing storminess are based on inhomogeneous data, due to changing
local conditions, observation practices and instrumentation.
Homogenous statistics of storminess for sufficiently long times can be derived by combining
two sources of knowledge, namely the “reconstruction” with regional climate models for the
last four decades (during which global re-analyses are available), and the assemblage of long
series of suitable proxy data. The availability of suitable regional climate models allows also
the construction of consistent scenarios of possible future storm statistics.
Results for extra-tropical storms are given in some detail; first results for tropical storms in
SE Asia and N Atlantic polar lows are given.
K-2
Keynote Address 3
RIVER-SEA INTERACTION
AND THE NORTH JIANGSU PLAIN FORMATION
Ying Wang and Dukui Zhu
The Key Laboratory of Coast and Island Development of Ministry of Education
Nanjing University
CHINA
[email protected]
The plain is located on the northern side of the Changjiang River and the south of
Lan-Shan-Tou cape in the area of 32º10’-35º05’N and 118º40’-120º30’E. The landform is
mainly lowland declined from the Grand Canal in the west towards to the east along the
Yellow Sea coast, but the lowest part is around Xinhua-Sheyang lake area in the middle part
of the plain. Water network of rivers, canals and lakes is the major feature of plain as
supported by abandoned Yellow River-Huai River system in the north, and the Changjiang
River system and numerous lakes in the south. Previous studies have explained that the outer
part of the plain was formed from the sea during Holocene high sea level period as defined by
a series of shell beach ridges located in the Longgang, Dagang, Dongtai and Haian about
200km long from north to south, and is located 60km west of the present coastline. 14C dates
indicated it was formed 5 kaB.P. and an artificial dike, named Fan-Gong dike, was built up
on the top and connected the shell beach ridges as a whole one to define the sea waves during
960-1068 A.D. This study is to trace the genetic formation of the plain.
Geomorphologic features seem to indicate the formation of the inner plain west to the
Fan-Gong dike by following natures: (1) All of the North Jiangsu Plain are defined by a
series of rocky hills surrounded as an arc-shaped “Bay”. (2) A series of lakes such as the
Hongze Lake, the Gaoyou Lake and the Shaobo Lake, located on the west side of Grand
Canal, are almost connected to each other either by lowland or by swamps between. There
are several rivers entering the lakes with deltaic forms on the west land side of the lakes.
Actually, the Grand Canal had been partially dug up using the water channels to connect the
lowland swamps and the lakes; (3) A series of artificial islands based on the natural bars or
barriers are pieces of land located in the lakes or water swamps. The locals named them Dun,
Duo or Wei which means artificial bars or crossways in Chinese. All of the islands or barriers
run in the North to South direction, i.e. parallel to the present coastline. Seashells and
fragments have been found on these islands indicating the original formation was from the
sea.
Conclusion: Geomorphologic analyses with multidisciplinary analyses on sedimentary facies
can trace and explain the plain evolutionary history, and the study can be used for better
planning of the region’s development.
K-3
OST-1: Ocean Mapping and Seafloor Characterization
INTEGRATED RIVER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
(IRIMS)
Zaw Naing
Myanmar Credent Technology
[email protected]
[email protected]
The purpose of this paper is to present the capabilities of today’s emerging technologies such
as GIS, Remote Sensing, Aerial Photogrammetry, 3D GIS, GPS, Airborne Laser Scanners,
Telemetry Technologies, and Application Software to form an Integrated River Information
Management System (IRIMS) as an integrated application, designed to help people manage
information about rivers. With IRIMS, you can easily store all of the environmental
information available for a watershed, based on a geographic location, the river’s changes,
historical records, satellite scenes, the amount of precipitation, water levels, the quantity of
water in dams, and water quality, etc.,. This information can be in many formats including
text, figures, tables, maps, photos/images, video and sound clips. You can then quickly access
that information with a simple mouse click on your computer application. IRIMS will be
useful for resource managers, planners, and stakeholders who need to make informed
management decisions about riverine ecosystems, river management, and river maintenance.
IRIMS can also be a useful tool for scientists, developers, and consultants conducting studies,
modeling, or monitoring programs on river systems.
MYANMAR EXPERIENCE WITH GIS AND REMOTE SENSING
TECHNOLOGIES FOR MARINE SCIENCE
Zaw Naing and Myo Zaw Oo
Myanmar Credent Technology, MYANMAR
[email protected] , [email protected]
The principal objective of this paper is to present the Myanmar experience of GIS and
Remote Sensing Technologies for Marine Science. As of the acceptance of such technologies
in Myanmar in various marine industries such as River Management, Water Resources
Utilization, Irrigation, Hydrographic Areas, etc., the engineers, planners, developers, decision
makers has increasingly used those technologies day after day. The GIS, Remote Sensing,
GPS technologies are nowadays widely used in Myanmar Marine Science Industry. This
paper will inform those status, experience, difficulties and achievement. Moreover,
continuous advancement, development and the capabilities of today’s emerging technologies
such as GIS, Remote Sensing, Aerial Photogrammetry, 3-D GIS, GPS, Airborne Laser
Scanners, Telemetry Technologies, and Application Software are also to be updated.
A-1
OST-1: Ocean Mapping and Seafloor Characterization
OCEANOGRAPHIC STUDIES IN THE COASTAL ZONES
OF MYANMAR
San Myint
Naval Hydrographic Office
Yangon, MYANMAR
The Coastal Zones of Myanmar have been briefly described subdividing into three main areas
namely Rakhine Coast, Ayeyarwaddy Delta and Taninthayi Coast. Oceanographic Conditions
at Rakhine Coast, as part of the northern Bay of Bengal are under the influence of periodic
monsoon winds and high river discharge. The nearshore upwelling zone probably occurs near
Mun Aung Island area during northeast winds. Ayeyarwaddy Delta is characterized by
enormous sediment discharge and the data from recent hydrographic surveys show that there
are four newly formed islands and about 7 km seaward advance of 10 m depth contour at
eastern part of the Delta. The thermocline zone off the Taninthayi Coast was observed at 50
m depth to 230 m depth. It is suggested that further studies should be conducted particularly
at the discharger areas. A brief account on Oceanographic activities in Myanmar is also
discussed.
TECTONICS: REFLECTING THE BATHYMETRY
AND SEDIMENTATION OF MYANMAR CONTINENTAL SHELVES
Thura Oo* and Win Swe
Department of Geology, University of Yangon
Yangon, MYANMAR
[email protected], [email protected]
Neogene tectonics creates the present-day physiography of Myanmar and her continental
shelves; viz., Rakhine continental shelf, Ayeyarwady deltaic shelf and Tanintharyi continental
shelf. Each shelf has its respective underlying geology and tectonics reflecting the bottom
configuration. In addition, the deposition on these shelves is related to the tectonics of mainlands. The bathymetry of the Rakhine continental shelf is reflected by the oblique subduction
of the India oceanic crust beneath the Burma (Myanmar) Plate and partly superimposed by
the development of Bengal submarine fan. Apart from the Bengal fan, the sediments of the
Rakhine shelf are derived from the accretionary prism, the Rakhine-Chin-Naga Ranges. The
shallow marine bottom topography of the Ayeyarwady deltaic shelf is created by the oblique
spreading in the Andaman Sea and related Sagaing fault system, and the sediments are
provided by the rivers flowing across the Myanmar Central Cenozoic Belt and Shan-Thai
Block. The bathymetry of Tanintharyi continental shelf is reflected by the Andaman
spreading and related faults, and the sediments are derived from the Shan-Thai Block.
A-2
OST-4A: Remote Sensing and Oceanographic Satellites
UPWELLING ALONG PRIMORYE COAST, JAPAN SEA
ON SATELLITE AND IN SITU DATA
Vyacheslav Lobanov, V. Zvalinsky, S. Ladychenko, A. Salyuk, P. Tishchenko,
S. Zakharkov and E. Shtraikhert
V.I.Il’ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far Eastern Branch
Russian Academy of Sciences
Vladivostok, RUSSIA
[email protected]
Fast changes of physical, chemical and biological regime along Primorye coast in the
northwestern Japan Sea occur in the transition period of monsoon winds (SeptemberNovember) and are associated with intensification of coastal upwelling, changes in
cricualtion and beginning of sea surface cooling and convection. Satellite data on SST and
ocean color and in situ hydrographic, chemical and biological observations were analyzed to
investigate this process. It was found however that increase in primary production was not
observed in the cold upwelled water tongues, while it was found in the areas where
subsurface horizontal advection induced by mesoscale eddies had happened. This could be
explained by decreasing of stratification and deepening of upper mixed layer in the upwelling
tongues that decreased primary production. In opposite, subsurface intrusion of cold, saline
and nutrient rich deep-sea waters onto the shelf increased stratification and uplifted
pycnocline that created favorable conditions for plankton. Thus horizontal advection
associated with eddy dynamics is most effective mechanism of fall plankton bloom in the
coastal area of Primorye.
RESPONSES OF PHYTOPLANKTON TO THE 2004 ASIAN TSUNAMI
IN DIFFERENT LOCATIONS OF THE INDIAN OCEAN
DanLing Tang*, GuangMing Zheng, JianHai LV and Zhongzheng Yan
Laboratory for Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics
South China Sea Institute of Oceanology
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Guangzhou, CHINA
[email protected]
A huge tsunami shook the South Asian on 26 December 2004, causing massive coastal
destructions throughout the Indian Ocean. In the present study, we examined satellite derived
Chlorophyll a (Chl-a) anomaly time series for the period from 1997-2006, together with other
oceanographic data, to observe responses of phytoplankton to this even in different locations
(around the epicenter of the earthquake, mid-ocean zone, and near share water) in the Indian
Ocean. Around the epicenter of the earthquake, Chl-a concentration increased prior to the
disaster and dispersed during the incident, while amplified again in later 10 days. The
responses of near share Chl-a to the tsunami seem to be dominated by the extent of disaster
bare by the relevant coasts. Chl-a enhancement has extended to the mid oceans. This
undergoing attempt allows us to get an overview upon the long term Chl-a variations at a
large scale; the results will also aid in further attempts to the oceanic ecosystem studies in the
Indian Ocean.
A-3
OST-4A: Remote Sensing and Oceanographic Satellites
A PRINCIPAL ANALYSIS USING THE TEN DAYS COMPOSITE
SATELLITE SST IMAGES TAKEN OFF THE COAST OF JAPAN
Kazunori Hosotani1 and Ryuichiro Nishi2
Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University
Kagoshima, JAPAN
1
[email protected]
2
[email protected]
This study carried out a principal component analysis on the satellite SST (Sea Surface
Temperature) data near the coast of Japan. Various kinds of satellite data have been
accumulated for the last several decades. Even though the compilation of the huge amount of
satellite data, raw data processing is still time consuming and needs a powerful computer.
Especially, relatively large amount of loads of computer time and labor work is necessary for
quantitative analysis. Therefore, a principal component analysis was applied to a set of
satellite SST (Sea Surface Temperature) data taken off the coast of Japan. This study analyzes
the ten daily composite SST images compiled for 20 years by NOAA/AVHRR, for which IIS
(University of Tokyo) has processed and archived as rainbow colored image source. Although
the rainbow colored image is effective for visualization, some problems are arisen regarding
to quantitative data analysis since it include various color images. Therefore, the natural color
images are decomposed into three primary colors such as RGB.
DETECTION OF SEAGRASS WITH TM IN COASTAL WATER
OF HAINAN, CHINA
Dingtian Yang, Wenxi Cao and Danling Tang
LED, South China Sea Institute of Oceanography
Chinese Academy of Sciences
GuangZhou, CHINA
Seagrass, very important for coastal ecosystem, reduced rapidly in recent years. In order to
manage and protect the seagrass ecosystem, real time and detailed information is needed.
Traditional methods for observing seagrass was by sending a diver to photograph and record
by eye, which was expensive and labor-intensive. Based on the high resolution remote
sensing data, the distribution of seagrass in the east coastal water of Hainan Province, China,
was found with Landsat TM data. Band ratio of channel 3 to channel 2 and a band synthesizer
of blue, green and red were used to retrieve the distribution of seagrass. Results showed that
seagrass is mainly distributed in the middle of the east coast of Hainan province, with the
width of about 100 m. In the river mouth there seems to be no distribution of seagrass,
perhaps because of the stress of fresh water. The resolution of the two methods was also
compared. The results showed that the band synthesizer was better than the band ratio of
channel 3 to channel 2.
A-4
OST-4B: Remote Sensing and Oceanographic Satellites
RETRIEVAL OF OPTICALLY ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS
IN THE UPPER GULF OF THAILAND
Tachanat Bhatrasataponkul1, Satsuki Matsumura2 and Patama Singhruck2
1
2
Faculty of Marine Technology, Burapha University, Chanthaburi, THAILAND
[email protected]
Department of Marine Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, THAILAND
A study was investigated in the Upper Gulf of Thailand with the aim of developing in-water
algorithms for the retrievals of chlorophyll-a (CHLA), total suspended sediment (TSS),
colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and diffuse attenuation coefficient for
downwelling irradiance at 490nm (Kd490). Shipboard field observations were made at totally
83 stations during five cruises covering early and late southwest and northeast monsoons in
the year 2003-2004. The optical data were recorded using the Profiling Reflectance
Radiometer (PRR-600) in order to calculate the remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) at some
reference wavelengths. Results showed that the improved algorithms based on the empirical
approach enabled the estimations of the following parameters with acceptable precision. The
patterns of remote sensing reflectance were described in relation to the distributions of three
optically active constituents. Results showed that optical variability of the Upper Gulf of
Thailand is mainly influenced by freshwater inflows and resuspension of bottom sediment as
well as sediment composition and characteristics.
BIO-OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND OCEAN COLOR ALGORITHMS
FOR THE NORTH REGION OF THE SOUTH CHINA SEA
Wenxi Cao, Guifen Wang, Dazhi Xu, Dingtian Yang, Yuezhong Yang and Cai Li
LED Laboratory
South China Sea Institute of Oceanology
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Guangzhou, CHINA
[email protected]
Bio-optical data were collected in September-October of 2003, 2004 and 2005 during three
cruises in the north region of the South China Sea. We found that the bio-optical properties
such as particulate absorption and diffuse attenuation coefficient are highly variables, varying
both spatially and temporally, and the fraction of the nonalgal absorption to the total
particulate absorption exhibited a trend of decreasing with increasing of salinity. The diffuse
attenuation coefficient and remote sensing reflectance were highly influenced by the
combination of absorption by nonalgal particles, pigments and dissolved organic matter. The
relationships between the reflectance ratios and bio-optical variables such as Chl a
concentration, total particulate absorption, nonalgal particulate absorption and pigment
absorption suggests the potential for development of local ocean color algorithms for the
investigated waters. Our measurements also show that the NASA global algorithms (OC2 and
OC4) generally overpredict Chl in the investigated waters.
A-5
OST-4B: Remote Sensing and Oceanographic Satellites
VARIATIONS IN LIGHT ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS
OF SUSPENDED PARTICLES IN SOUTH CHINA SEA
Guifen Wang and Wenxi Cao
South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chines Academy of Sciences
Guangdong, Guangzhou, CHINA
[email protected]
We measured the absorption coefficient of suspended particles at about 90 stations in the
Northern South China Sea (NSCS) during two cruises in the autumn of 2004 and 2005. The
total particulate absorption coefficient ( a p ( О» ) ) including absorption of phytoplankton
( a ph ( О» ) ) and non-algal particles ( aNAP ( О» ) ) change a lot within the field chlorophyll a
concentration (<chl>) ranging from 0.04 to 1.17 mg m-3, a p ( О» ) and a ph ( О» ) increase
nonlinearly with <chl>. The spectra of non-algal particles can be well described by an
exponential function with the mean slope is 0.0091nm-1 and its contribution to the total
particle absorption at 443nm is averaged about 26%. Due to the effect of package effect and
pigment composition, the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of phytoplankton
( a*ph ( О» ) , the ratio of a ph ( О» ) and <chl>) changes both in magnitude and spectra shape. We
also found that the accessory pigments contributed much to the variations of a *ph , especially in
the green wavebands. The observed variability of the light absorption coefficient of
suspended particles can be used in the interpretation of bio-optical properties in the NSCS.
OST-5A: Advanced Vehicles
ANALYSIS OF THE PARAMETRIC TRANSFORMATION EFFECT
ON RESISTANCE OF DISPLACEMENT MONOHULL
Kyaw Naing Aye
Department of Naval Architecture
Defence Services Technological Academy
Pyin Oo Lwin, MYANMAR
In this paper, the parameters of National Physical Laboratory (NPL) model 100A round bilge
displacement monohull with transom stern is systemically changed. The work consists of
linear and nonlinear transformation. The effect of transformation on total resistance is
analyzed. Regression analysis of Holtrop method is adopted for prediction of resistance.
The verification for accuracy of Holtrop method is presented. Speed range between volume
Froude number 0.7 to 1.2 for resistance characteristics are discussed.
A-6
OST-5A: Advanced Vehicles
ASSESSMENT OF WATCH KEEPING OFFICER PERFORMANCE
USING A SHIP SIMULATOR
Tin Hlaing
Myanmar Maritime University
Yangon, MYANMAR
In this age of advancing technology, many simulators are used in various fields. They are
increasingly useful in fields of research and development, testing and design of equipment,
and training and assessment of performance of personnel. The last few decades has seen the
introduction of simulators as training aids in maritime institutions to train maritime personnel
serving on board ocean-going vessels. These range from small computer models with training
softwares to large nocturnal and daylight ship simulators which are able to simulate different
conditions of sea and environment, and behavior of ships of different types and size by
employing mathematical models. This study reports the results of the investigation carried
out by employing the ship simulator at the Institute of Science and Technology, University of
Wales in Cardiff U.K., to evaluate the potential use of the simulator for assessment of the
bridge watch-keeping officer performance on ocean-going vessels. The investigation
includes: validation of the ship simulator as and aid to examination, reliability test for the
design of test and test items, procedure of exercise, and assessment of candidate’s proficiency
level.
INVESTIGATION OF THE FORM FACTOR AND EVALUATION
OF THE REQUIRED ENGINE POWER FOR A FAST PATROL BOAT
Myat Lwin
Department of Marine Engineering
Defence Services Technological Academy
Pyin Oo Lwin, MYANMAR
The main objective of this paper is to investigate the form factor (k) and evaluate the required
engine power for a fast patrol boat. At first, a three feet long geometrically similar model was
made and towed in the small test tank. Three experiments were made for this model with
three hull conditions- clean hull, pin fitted hull and painted hull. The formulae of I.T.T.C and
Prohaska method were employed to find the form factor. But the result obtained was not
reasonable due to the small-scale effect, and therefore another model with four and a half feet
in length was made and towed again. By using the form factor value, the required engine
power was computed. In this paper, the values of thrust deduction factor, wake fraction and
the rotative efficiency were assumed according to the National Physical Laboratory. Ship hull
is not hydraulically smooth and therefore some allowances were made namely roughness
allowance and still air resistance allowance. The calculated engine power was compared to
that of prototype and reasonably good agreement was obtained from the analysis.
A-7
OST-5B: Advanced Vehicles
MARINE SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND SEAMANSHIP
U Aye Tut
Myanmar Maritime University
Yangon, MYANMAR
[email protected]
The principal objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capabilities in the present day ship
construction science and technology against, seamanship. Commencing the paper with
maritime information on Myanmar seafarers training, post WWII, up to this present age.
Eminently suitable for maritime students yet, a first hand simple reminder to serving
seafarers, all persons in shipping ,in developing nations of the Asia Pacific region., a source
of information meant for all persons with interest in shipping, related fields, and will be a
reference and convenient paper for knowledge and commentary regarding the contents in
plain terms, which will greatly contribute to the readability of the work. One will no longer
think of a ship as a dead object but consider it a completely self supporting entity, embodying
all the modern science and techniques and correct seamanship. The ever-growing number of
foreign crew on European vessels and in the offshore industry, this paper will prove to be an
asset for nautical colleges and as a work reference for everyone employed afloat nowadays.
PARAMETRIC INVESTIGATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF DIESEL
ENGINE NOISE, EMISSIONS AND FUEL ECONOMY
Zaw Win
Department of Marine Engineering
Defence Services Technological Academy
Pyin Oo Lwin, Myanmar
This paper focuses on the analysis to reduce noise, exhaust emissions and fuel consumption
of a small diesel engine, which is a model for marine diesels. It includes (4Г—4Г—3) full factorial
design of speed, load, and timing variation, and output parameters viz. engine noise, cylinder
pressure, liner acceleration, fuel line pressure, brake specific fuel consumption, smoke and
emissions of HC and NOx are measured. The effect of three controlled parameters on time
histories and frequency spectra of cylinder pressure and engine sound pressure are analyzed.
Ricardo's Method is applied to separate combustion noise and mechanical noise from radiated
engine noise. The effect of controlled parameters on overall levels of engine noise and
combustion noise are discussed. The impact of rate of pressure rise, acceleration of pressure,
rate of heat release, ignition delay, mean rate of injection and combustion index, on engine
noise and combustion noise were studied using regression analysis. Five principal output
parameters were predicted in terms of three input parameters using Response Surface
Methodology (RSM). Parameter optimization was carried out for minimum responses using
Goal Programming and Minimax Programming methods on Matlab platform.
A-8
OST-5B: Advanced Vehicles
YACHT CONSTRUCTION IN MYANMAR
Kay Thwe
Myanma Shipyards
MYANMAR
This paper reviews the construction of the yacht Schooner Sunshine that influences the
Myanma Shipyards. Historically, wooden yachts have been built in Myanmar since the 19th
century. Myanma Shipyards has been building and repairing various types of ships since
1970. Fortunately, the classic-yacht Moonbeam was repaired from1998 to 2002 and approved
by the regional Lloyd’s surveyor. Interestingly, the owner of the yacht Sunshine was seduced
by the place where Moonbeam was rebuilt. In 1999, the construction of the Sunshine was
started. The design plans were supported by the owner and Myanma Shipyards had to build
with this design, the steel frames and hull plates are cut with CNC machine and there was no
human error. Everything on the yacht was made locally, nearly all the fittings came from
local foundries and carpenters made all the wooden work. It was challenging and timeconsuming for the construction of the latest design in Myanma Shipyards. For future
development and commercialization of yacht constructions, this paper will describe the
specifications and functionality enhancement of Myanma Shipyards.
OST-6: Operational Experiences in Environmental Monitoring
CONTEMPORARY CONCENTRATION LEVELS OF HEAVY METALS
AEROSOLS AND GASEOUS MERCURY
OVER THE ARCTIC OCEAN SEAS
Natalia I. Golubeva1 and Gennady G. Matishov2
1
Murmansk Marine Biological Institute of the RAS, Murmansk, RUSSIA
[email protected]
2
Southern Scientific Centre of the RAS, Rostov-on-Don, RUSSIA
[email protected]
Instrumental investigations of atmospheric air over the Arctic Ocean seas water areas, carried
out onboard the nuclear icebreakers and research vessels during the expeditions of Murmansk
Marine Biological Institute RAS in the period of 1997–2002 in various seasons show that Cd,
Cu, Pb, Ni, Co, Fe and gaseous mercury concentration levels were present. On the whole, the
contamination of atmosphere with heavy metal aerosols over the Barents and White Seas is
formed as a result of long-distance transfer with contribution of regional sources of
discharges. But, despite the proximity of the world metallurgy giant producing copper, nickel
and cobalt, heavy metals’ content in the lower layer of atmosphere in the Barents Sea region
remains for the majority of elements to be within the typical of the Arctic latitudes limits. The
content of Zn and Cu were higher. Gaseous mercury measures showed that concentration
over the seas of the Russian Arctic in the layer of air bordering on the sea surface is lower
than over land and decreases in the eastern direction.
A-9
OST-6: Operational Experiences in Environmental Monitoring
FLOWCAM® TECHNOLOGY – CONTINUOUS IMAGING FLUID
PARTICLE ANALYZER FOR AQUATIC RESEARCH
AND MONITORING
Kent Peterson1, Harry Nelson1, Chris K. Sieracki1 and Nicole Poulton2
1
2
Fluid Imaging Technologies, Inc., Edgecomb, Maine, USA
Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, West Boothbay Harbor, Maine, USA
Monitoring the ocean’s health requires a knowledge and understanding of the phytoplankton
and zooplankton communities. Plankton monitoring and research has a requirement for
continuous monitoring either at a stationary location (floating dock or laboratory) or aboard a
ship. A major drawback of plankton monitoring using microscopy for identification and
enumeration from samples is the amount of time required for preparation and analysis. Fluid
Imaging Technologies Inc. has developed an automated instrument for phytoplankton and
zooplankton detection called a FlowCAMВ®. The FlowCAM is a continuous imaging flow
cytometer now being used for monitoring of microorganisms and particles in water bodies. A
laser interacts with a high resolution digital camera to capture images and data of a passing
particle or cell. It offers cell counts, size data, pattern recognition, organism classification and
image management. FlowCAM applications include harbor monitoring, ocean and lake
transects, HAB monitoring, and invasive species and ballast water monitoring. An overview
of the technology will be presented along with various case studies.
MERIDIAN: RUSSIAN OBSERVATIONAL PROJECT
IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN
Sergey M. Shapovalov and Alexey V. Sokov
P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology
Russian Academy of Sciences
RUSSIA
Wide range of ocean observing is implementing in the frame of the Russian project
“Meridian”. It is a multidisciplinary program of field ocean research on Russian research
vessels in the yearly cruises from Europe to South America and counter. The main goals of
the investigations are to receive a quantitative description of the climate variability of THC
in the Atlantic Ocean with the emphasis on the inter hemispheric exchange and the
interoceanic (Atlantic-Pacific and Atlantic-Indian) exchanges; to improve the estimates of
air-sea fluxes and development of new parameterizations of air-sea energy and gas exchange;
to validate the microwave and optical satellite observations from different space crafts; to
carry out the geophysical (seismic and acoustic observations, gravitation and magnetic field
study), biological and atmospheric aerosol researches. 11 scientific cruises were carried out
during 2002-2005 in the North and South Atlantic. The potentialities of the MERIDIAN
project may turn to account of such international ocean research programs in the Atlantic
Ocean as CLIVAR, GOODHOPE, MORE and etc.
A-10
OST-6: Operational Experiences in Environmental Monitoring
NEW RESULTS FROM THE GERMAN FERRYBOX
Friedhelm Schroeder, Wilhelm Petersen, Henning Wehde and Franciscus Colijn
GKSS Research Centre, Institute for Coastal Research
Geesthacht, GERMANY
[email protected]
Automated measuring systems on ships of opportunities or ferry boats for monitoring of
coastal waters begin to play an important role in several regions of the world. The results of
the European project “FerryBox” showed that such systems are a cost-effective and valuable
tool not only for scientific research but as well for operational monitoring. The German “4H
FerryBox”, was operated in the southern North Sea for more than three years. It consists of a
fully automated flow-through system with sensors for temperature, salinity, turbidity,
oxygen, pH, chlorophyll fluorescence, ammonium, nitrate/nitrite, phosphate, silicate and
main algal classes different sensors and automatic analysers. Data are transferred to shore
and bio-fouling is prevented by automated cleaning procedures. New results from
measurements in the southern North Sea are presented. This includes the detection of algae
blooms and the related changes in pH and oxygen. In order to obtain more spatial information
satellite data (ENVISAT/MERIS) were applied and compared with the in situ measurements
from the ferry. Tidal-corrected data (model) from the ferry were compared with those of an
automated buoy that was several nautical miles away from the ferry route.
OPERATIONAL MONITORING OF THE BRANTAS RIVER,
INDONESIA – MEASUREMENTS AND MODELLING
H.-D. Knauth and F. Schroeder
GKSS-Research Centre, Institute for Coastal Research
Geesthacht, Geesthacht, GERMANY
[email protected]
Operational monitoring requires regular and frequent measurements of main water quality
parameters. For fast processes – for example, in tropical regions - automated measurements
are needed. In addition, numerical models have to be applied in order to assess the overall
water quality situation. An integrated assessment of the Brantas River estuary in East Java an important resource for drinking water and irrigation- was carried out, that included
automated high-frequency measurements over a period of three years and model scenarios
with a simple process model. The data show distinct differences in water quality between wet
and dry season. During dry season the oxygen concentrations were near zero at night and
recovered at daylight due to primary production. For management decisions, such as cleaning
of domestic waste and critical industries, model calculations with a simple process model
were carried out. Scenarios from this model identified the most important processes and
indicated which inputs have to be reduced. It could be shown that such simple models are an
excellent tool for managers and authorities for planning of remediation measures.
A-11
OST-7A Climate Change
CLIMATE CHANGE IN MYANMAR
DURING THE LAST FIVE DECADES
Tun Lwin1 and Khin Cho Cho Shein2
1
Myanmar Earthquake Committee
Department of Meteorology and Hydrology
Yangon, MYANMAR
[email protected], [email protected]
2
Department of Meteorology and Hydrology, Yangon, MYANMAR
Myanmar has been witnessing the changing weather events in almost every year during the
last two three decades. These include the onset, withdrawal, duration and intensity of
monsoon, and the frequency of the monsoon depressions. The changing pattern of the
monsoon climatology such as later than normal in onset, earlier than normal in withdrawal,
shorter than normal in monsoon season duration during the last three decades are quite
dramatic and unusual comparing to the previous years. Moreover, most of the dry and hotter
than normal years are also observed in most years especially in 1980s and 1990s. The far less
than normal in annual storm frequency, especially in monsoon depression frequencies, in the
Bay of Bengal is also evident in 1980s and 1990s. By using the climatological records of
Myanmar for the last five decades, the present study provides the changing weather events
and the features of monsoon climatology that had occurred during the last three decades as
Myanmar has been experienced in line with the Global Climate Change.
TOWARDS A HOMOGENEOUS 50 YEAR CLIMATOLOGY
OF TYPHOONS IN SE ASIA
Hans von Storch and Frauke Feser
Institute for Coastal Research
GKSS Research Center
GERMANY
[email protected]
In recent years, a dynamical downscaling strategy has been developed and applied to the
problem of determining characteristics and trends of storminess in the NE Atlantic. The
technique operates with a regional atmospheric model, which is exposed to global re-analyses
not only along the lateral boundaries but also to the large-scale state in the interior of the
considered domain above a certain height (“spectral nudging”). The performance of this
technique in dealing with SE Asian typhoon is now examined. First case studies indicate that
tropical storms are correctly identified and tracked; also considerably deeper core pressure
and higher wind speeds are simulated compared to the driving NCEP re-analyses. When the
regional atmospheric model is run without spectral nudging, significant intra-ensemble
variability occurs; also additional, non-observed typhoons form.
A-12
OST-7A: Climate Change
THE IMPACTS OF EL-NINO AND LA-NINA EVENTS
ON THE CLIMATE OF MYANMAR
Tun Lwin
Myanmar Earthquake Committee
Department of Meteorology and Hydrology
Yangon, MYANMAR
[email protected], [email protected]
Extensive studies have been carried out to investigate the impact of El-Nino events on the
weather and climate since the 1982-1983 episode. During the 80s and 90s, more El-Nino and
La-Nina events occurred than ever in the history of EL-Nino and La-Nina records since the
middle 16th century. Negative anomalies in monsoon rainfalls and positive anomalies in
maximum summer temperatures were observed in Myanmar during the entire period 19891998, with the exception of 1990 where a weak positive anomaly was identified in monsoon
rainfall. The worst deficient rainfall and the highest maximum temperatures were recorded in
1998 which was a major El-Nino year of the century. The present study reveals that deficient
rainfalls and hotter summers, less frequent Bay storms, and late onsets and early withdrawals
of monsoon have a strong relationship with the El-Nino episodes.
THE INTER-ANNUAL VARIATIONS IN THE MONSOON
CLIMATOLOGY OF MYANMAR AND ITS PERSPECTIVES
Tun Lwin1 and Kyaw Lwin Oo2
1
Myanmar Earthquake Committee
Department of Meteorology and Hydrology
Yangon, MYANMAR
[email protected], [email protected]
2
Department of Meteorology and Hydrology, Yangon, MYANMAR
Medium and long-range weather forecasts have been a challenge for the National
Meteorological Centers due mostly to its non-linear interactions between different time
scales. Since Madden and Julian discovered the existence of the tropical atmospheric
oscillation with a period of around 40 days, many investigators have done studies on the
behavior of the atmospheric oscillations that exist in different time scales. By applying the
harmonic and time filter analysis, the MONEX and FGGE data-set for the monsoon area of
Bay of Bengal were used for time series of wind and pressure fields. The areal mean rainfall
data over Myanmar coastal area shows the existence of low frequency oscillations and were
found to be closely related to certain filtered atmospheric fields. Moreover, the monsoon
onset and the withdrawal were found closely related to phase-locking between the low
frequeny and transient oscillations. The present study investigated the relationship that exists
in the characters of monsoon climatology and the behaviors of atmospheric oscillations in
different time scales.
A-13
OST-7A: Climate Change
OCEAN-ATMOSPHERE INTERACTION EFFECT
ON MONSOON DURING 2002
Chit Kyaw
Department of Meteorology and Hydrology, Yangon, MYANMAR
[email protected]
During 2002 15 April-28 May, Myanmar-India Joint Oceanographic Research in the Bay of
Bengal. The data of this observation show that the Ocean-Atmosphere interaction some effect
on onset phase of South West Monsoon, activities of Cyclonic storms and rainy condition.
SST (Sea Surface Temperature), Q (Heat Budget), (Оґ) Conductivity, S (Salinity) and Sea
Water current of sub-surface layer (about 200 m depth) are mainly governed on monsoon
criterion. This paper discusses the relation of these parameters and behavior of pre-monsoon
weather conditions.
THE CHARACTERISTIC OF BEHAVIOR CHANGES IN THE CLIMATOLOGY OF
THE BAY STORMS DURING THE LAST THREE DECADES
Tun Lwin1, Lei Lei Aung2 and Than Naing2
1
Myanmar Earthquake Committee
Department of Meteorology and Hydrology
Yangon, MYANMAR
[email protected], [email protected]
2
Department of Meteorology and Hydrology, Yangon, MYANMAR
Bay depressions are one of the main rain producing system next to the monsoon in Myanmar.
The changes in the characters such as annual frequency, timing, tracks and intensity could
contribute to a substantial change in the rainfall distribution for some areas especially the rain
shadow area of the central Myanmar. By using the historical records of storms for the period
1877 – 2005, the present investigation found that the annual storm frequency were reduced
by more than 50% especially for the monsoon depressions. There were years during 1980s
and 1990s where the whole monsoon peak seasons were totally lacked in monsoon
depressions which were normally stormiest season in long-term average. The present study
investigated the contributable causes in synoptic weather system changes in connection with
changes in the characters of storms. It is also suggested in this study these all changes in both
storms and weather systems could be due to the Global as well as regional climate change
that had been witnessed in the region since 1977.
A-14
OST-7B: Comate Change
THE SUBSTANTIAL INCREASED EARTHQUAKE ACTIVITIES
IN MYANMAR DURING THE LAST FIVE YEARS
AND ITS PERSPECTIVES
Tun Lwin1 and Aung Than2
`1
Myanmar Earthquake Committee
Department of Meteorology and Hydrology
Yangon, MYANMAR
[email protected], [email protected]
2
Department of Meteorology and Hydrology, Yangon, MYANMAR
The annual earthquake frequency with its epicenters within Myanmar recorded at Kaba-Aye
Observatory was observed as a substantial increased from the long-term average of 22-256 in 2004
and to 370 in 2005. The striking thing about this dramatic change is coincided with the great Indian
Ocean earthquake of 26 December 2004. Though the magnitude of the earthquakes are generally in
slight to moderate intensity, the observed dramatic increase in earthquake frequency in 2004 and 2005
attains many attentions to the community in earthquake monitoring. It is attributable to some scientists
that there is a possibility for a strong earthquake along the existing fault lines in Myanmar any time in
the near future. However, there are also several scientists who takes the increased frequency of small
earthquakes could be considered as a plausible cause for decreasing the large accumulation of stress
along the fault line, which is a primary source for the generation of a strong earthquake. The present
study discuss about the current measures for prevention and monitoring works on earthquakes in
Myanmar.
THE VOLCANIC ASH ERUPTION IN BARREN ISLANDв”Ђ
THE ONLY LIVE VOLCANO IN THE ANDAMAN SEA BETWEEN
SUMATRA AND MYANMAR
Tun Lwin1, Win Swe2 and San Hla Thaw1
1
Myanmar Earthquake Committee, Department of Meteorology and Hydrology, MYANMAR
[email protected], [email protected]
2
Myanmar Geosciences Society, Myanmar Earthquake Committee, MYANMAR
Having laid dormant for nearly a decade, the Barren island volcano has spewed ash and larger sized
fragments since 28 May 2005. Information was obtained by the Geological Survey of India, who was
with the survey team accompanying the Indian Navy ship for an on-the-spot study of the recent
eruption. Initially the eruption spewed grey smoke of ash, followed by a violent eruption. Subsequent
forceful ejections of huge pyroclasts continued from the main crater. Fumerolic activity showed
emission of water vapour and sulphur fumes with a temperature greater than 1000oC. Fragments of
lava erupted from the main crater with loud explosions to a height of more than 100m and molten lava
was pulsative at intervals of 15-30 seconds as a fire fountain. The eruption column formed a
spectacular mushroom of smoke, blowing in the north and northeast directions and reached the
vicinity of Myanmar waters. It is believed that recent developments in the activity of the Barren
volcano could give insight of the deformation along the tectonic boundaries in the Andaman Sea,
which could be helpful to analyze the potential of future large earthquakes in the Andaman Sea.
A-15
OST-7B: Climate Change
THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY
IN HAWAII: A GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS
Denise Konan and Makena Coffman
University of Hawaii
Department of Economics
Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
[email protected]
Nearly 90% of Hawaii’s energy needs are supported by oil, making Hawaii one of the most oildependent states in the nation. With rising oil prices and increasing evidence of global warming, it is
apparent that Hawaii needs to adopt a new energy policy with larger emphasis on alternative and
renewable energies. This study uses state-of-the-art computable General Equilibrium Models (GEM)
of Hawaii’s State economy and the Big Island County’s economy to look at the long-run impact of
societal decision-making in regards to energy policy. The dynamic models project forward to 2035
and track the impacts of construction costs and energy production related to a range of energy
policies, such as a maximum renewable energy plan by 2020. It shows that varying plans do not have
significant effect on gross state product and, thus, given the potential environmental benefits, should
be seen as having an overall net benefit for the State. The economic impacts should be more evident
in a smaller economy, like the Big Island, which has the highest potential for renewable energy in the
island chain.
METHANE HYDRATES, WHAT DO THEY MEAN
FOR CLIMATE AND SOCIETY?
Lorenz Magaard
School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology
University of Hawaii
Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
[email protected]
The vast quantities of methane hydrates at the ocean floor and in the arctic tundra constitute, at the
same time, a major promise to supply energy to an energy-hungry world as well as a major threat to
climate stability. The International Center for Climate and Society (ICCS) of the University of Hawaii
has recently entered into a memorandum of understanding with the North Slope Borough (Barrow,
Alaska) and four other partners to establish the Alaska-Hawaii Pacific Energy and Climate Change
Program (PECCP). The role of the ICCS in this program is to develop a socio-economic model of the
North Slope Borough, the world’s largest municipality, under consideration of climate change and
possible methane recovery. The purpose of this model is (1) to position the people of the North Slope
Borough for the transition from a postindustrial society through a service society to the information
society; (2) to develop and clarify economic opportunities for people who are remote from existing
centers of activity; (3) to expedite and enhance spread of cultural information from remote areas into
the mean stream; and (4) to promote value creation on the background of a native culture.
A-16
OST-7B: Climate Change
CLIMATE PREDICTION, ECONOMIC VALUE
AND RADICAL INNOVATION
James Barney Marsh1 and Wolf-Dieter Grossmann2
1
College of Business Administration, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
[email protected]
2
Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, GERMANY
[email protected]
Natural hazard prediction, being nonrivalrous, is a public good. Costs are computable, but the benefits
are problematic. The present paper makes an attempt at such an estimate, beginning in the United
States but extending to Asia. Cost estimates cannot capture the beneficial magnitude of radical
innovation. If 32% of the US economy produces 76% of its growth, and if 25% of its territory is
vulnerable to environmental risks, radical innovation can promote greater productivity and output, and
greater security from the risks. But innovation rarely becomes truly radical unless competitive
pressures are at maximum intensity. Preliminary analysis places profits from radical innovation at 6.7
times those of normal innovation. Computations, using Bureau of Economic Analysis data, also
indicate that the cost saving of improved dissemination of knowledge of impending climatic
disturbances may be as high as $436 billion per year. Market pressures would allocate these savings in
favor of the highly innovative industries. However asymmetrical the dissemination of knowledge or
the allocation of benefits all residents stand eventually to gain.
OST-8A: Aquaculture and Mariculture Technology
CO-CULTURE OF SHRIMP AND ALGAE:
IMPROVEMENT OF WATER QUALITY
Isao Tsutsui1, Kaoru Hamano1 and Prapansak Srisapoome2
1
Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science, Bangkok, THAILAND
[email protected]
2
Dept. of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, THAILAND
Nutrient uptake and growth rate of several seaweeds were investigated to select suitable species for
developing co-culture system for tropical brackish water shrimp and seaweed. Four species of
seaweed, Caulerpa lentillifera, Kappaphycus alvarezii, Cladophora sp. and Enteromorpha sp., all
possibly useful in Thailand, were examined for nutrient uptake at low (15 ppt) and high (30 ppt)
salinity in a laboratory. Ammonia-N concentrations clearly decreased, and the best combinations for
maximum reduction were C. lentillifera at high salinity. Nitrate-N remained until ammonia-N had
been nearly depleted for all species. Experiments with co-cultivation of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus
monodon) and C. lentillifera were conducted in 2t FRP water tanks at a salinity of 27 ppt. AmmoniaN concentrations in the C. lentillifera tanks were lower than in control tanks, and the daily growth
rates of C. lentillifera were higher than that reported elsewhere. Our results indicate co-culture of
Penaeus monodon and C. lentillifera is possible at high salinity water, and C. lentillifera has
advantages in nutrient uptake, ease of cultivation and the possibility of widespread utilization.
A-17
OST-8A: Aquaculture and Mariculture Technology
EVALUATION STUDIES FOR SITE SELECTION OF EDIBLE
OYSTER GROWING IN MA-GYI TIDAL CREEK ESTUARINE
REGION
Htay Aung
Marine Science Department
University of Pathein
The experiment was carried out December 2003 to November 2004 for bringing out of the
oyster growing ground in the Ma-Gyi tidal creek estuarine region. The experiment
emphasized on the monitoring of the environmental factors that controlled the biological
activity, the productivity of oyster, and the culture system. The observation pointed out that
the edible oyster growing ground for all seasons were suitable up to 2 miles, from the mouth
of the Ma-Gyi tidal creek.
OST-8B: Aquaculture and Mariculture Technology
IMPROVEMENT OF SCALLOP SEA RANCHING
BY RECYCLING SHELLS
Yasushi Ito1, Masafumi Yoshino1, Masao Kishino1 and Akinori Sako2
1
The Japanese Institute of Technology on Fishing Ports, Grounds and Communities
Tokyo, JAPAN
[email protected]
2
Alpha Hydraulic Engineering Consultants Co., Ltd
Sapporo, Hokkaido, JAPAN
Five thousand tons of shell are abandoned in Japan each year. While there are few uses for
recycling shells, a field of abandoned shells causes environmental problems. The shell is
composed principally of calcium carbonate and such biomass resources should be effectively
recycled. The scallop fishery in the Okhotsk needed improving with the muddy seabed unfit
for sea ranching. To experiment, we covered the muddy seabed with crushed shells as a soil
conditioner and released juveniles into both the shells-covered area and the muddy area. The
results, a year later, found that the scallops in the shells-covered area were 15% larger than
the scallops in the muddy area. Crushed shell of 4 cm or less do not enter the scallop dredge
during harvesting. We formulated that the shell is steady to the wave movement on the
seabed after the laboratory experiment, and that covering the muddy seabed with crushed
shells might prove an effective method to improve scallop sea ranching.
A-19
OST-8B: Aquaculture and Mariculture Technology
MARINE FISHERY RESOURCES POTENTIAL
AND EXPLOITATION OF MYANMAR
Sann Aung
Department of Fishery, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries
Yangon, MYANMAR
[email protected]
Marine fishery resources potential and status of fish production are presented. A total
standing stock of marine off fish of Myanmar coast within 200 meters depth was
estimated at 1,756,000 Mt. with an annual Maximum Sustainable Yield (M.S.Y) of 1.03
million MT. Production of a total marine fish in the past ten years was 603,000 MT,
however, after ten years in 2004, it was 1.1 million Mt., increasing 88% of total catch. On
the other hand in the last three years maximum sustainable yield has already reach and it
seems at the stage of over fishing Export value of fisher product in 1995 was US$ 120
million, while in 2004; it was US$ 318 million increasing 61% of the value. Fishery
resources management, stabilizing intensity of fishing pressure by reducing number of
fishing vessels, fish net mesh size restruction, adequate protection for close fishing season
and close area are recommended.
MYANMAR PEARLING INDUSTRY
Tun Hla
Myanmar Pearl Enterprise
Ministry of Mines
Yangon, MYANMAR
[email protected]
Myanmar started to produce the South Sea Pearl from valuable resource silver-lipped and
gold-lipped pearl oyster Pinctada, maxima in 1954. Since then, the pearling industry had
solely relied on the wild oysters. After many years, the wild stock of oysters became
depleted and sustainable development could not be achieved. Moreover in 1983, the
oysters collected from the seabed were infected by Vibrio bacteria and due to high
mortality of oysters, the production of pearl declined. To sustain valuable resource,
advanced technical know-how for artificial breeding and pearl culturing was introduced
in 2000. In stead of culturing on seabed, oysters are cultured on the surface long lines.
Hatchery bred oysters are used for pearl culturing in stead of wild oysters. Homograft
seeding technique is used instead of autograft seeding technique. Since then pearl
production has been increasing. Myanmar pearling does not exploit entirely on the natural
resource but by using technical know how and resource together, the pearling industry has
become fully developed today.
A-20
OST-8B: Aquaculture and Mariculture Technology
NUMERICAL EXPERIMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
DISCOLORATION OF NORI (Porphyra yezoensis)
AND SEASONAL WIND
Takashi Hoshino1, Yasuo Tsunezawa1, Yoshihiro Suenaga2,
Satoru Matsuoka3, Sadaaki Yoshimatsu3, Kazuhiko Ichimi5,
Munehiro Fujiwara4, Kenichi Yamaga4, Kuninaro Tada5
1
Graduate School of Engineering, Kagawa University
Takamatsu, Kagawa Pref., JAPAN
[email protected]
2
Faculty of Engineering, Kagawa University
3
Kagawa Red Tide Research Center
4
Kagawa Fisheries Research Institute
5
Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University
In and around the Seto Inland Sea Japan, there are many aquaculture facilities for Yellow tail (Seriola
spp.), Red Porgy (Pagrus major), Nori (Porphyra yezoensis), Oyster (Ostreidae) and other valuable
marine resources. Recently, the production of Nori severely decreased at Kagawa prefectural coast,
eastern Bisan Seto. Especially, the sea area where the bad harvest and discoloration of Nori was
observed was confined to a northern part and the southwestern part in Shodo Island. The annual Nori
yield at these areas was about 30% of that of the common year. We have conducted the field research
and calculated the trajectories of nutrient particles under the condition in which western wind velocity
changes using the numerical model. From the results of field research and numerical simulation, we
suggested that Nori bad harvest was caused due to a little rain in the autumn season. It was also
suggested that at Nori bad harvest area, the nutrient supply by river discharge was so important for
aquaculture of Nori.
OST-8C: Aquaculture and Mariculture Technology
OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES
IN MYANMAR AQUACULTURE
Hla Win and Khin Ko Lay
Department of Fisheries
MYANMAR
Myanmar inland water bodies cover 8.2 million hectares as lakes, rives and reservoirs including 3,742
demarcated lease fisheries. The Department of Fisheries plays a vital role in national aquaculture
development. Freshwater fish culture has been practiced since the early 1950s and currently 79,127
hectares of freshwater fishponds are in operation. Previously sea bass (Lates calcarifer) and groupers
(Epinephelus spp.) were so abundant among marine fishes and easy to catch that local communities
were not interested in farming. The most common species cultured are Epinephalus coioides and E.
tauvina. The total area of aquaculture in 2005-2006 is over 164,058 hectares including over 84,430
hectares of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon)
ponds. Freshwater pond fish culture is the major source of aquaculture production with the dominant
of Rohu (Labeo rohita). There are huge considerable potential and opportunities for further
development in aquaculture, especially Mari culture that is not yet widespread in Myanmar.
A-21
OST-8C: Aquaculture and Mariculture Technology
POTENTIAL OF MARINE FISHERY IN MYANMAR
Hla Win and Myint Pe
Department of Fisheries
Since Myanmar has nearly 3,000 km coastline and more than 800 islands in Myeik Archipelago, she
is very rich in marine resources, pelagic fish, and demersal fish. According to a survey conducted by
fishery experts under the FAO project “Marine Fishery Resources Survey and Exploratory Fishing
Project”, it was estimated 1.0 million metric tons of pelagic fish and 0.85 million metric tons of
demersal fish as biomass. Also estimated was 1.05 million metric tons as Maximum Sustainable Yield
(MSY) from our waters. Trawl fishing in Myanmar waters was introducted in the early 1960s by
Japanese experts. In the early 1970s, marine fisheries gained popularity among fishermen who started
to use more advanced technology, such as bottom trawl net, purse seine net, etc. Landing data from
marine fisheries showed exploitation rate of fish increased annually and has nearly reached the figure
of MSY. At present, the fishing operation is only conducted in the territorial sea due to lack of
advanced technology and capability of the fishing vessel.
RESEARCH ON THE STRUCTURE IMPROVING SEDIMENT QUALITY
BY CURRENT CONTROL
Masashi Miyagawa1, Yoshihiro Suenaga2, Hee-Do Ahn3,
Kousaku Yamaoka4 and Kenji Hotta5
1
Graduate School of Engineering, Kagawa University, Kagawa, JAPAN
2
Faculty of Engineering, Kagawa University, Kagawa, JAPAN
[email protected]
3
Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Ansan, KOREA
4
Graduate School of Kuroshio Science, Kochi University, Kochi, JAPAN
5
College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Chiba, JAPAN
In regard to the environmental condition of the sea, we have regular red tide occurrence and the
generation of the oxygen depleted water mass in some area of the Seto Inland Sea in summer. We
concern about the impact of those phenomena against biological production process in the real sea
area. We suggest on one method improving sediment environment by setting one unique structure,
which has current control function at the bottom of the sea. We examined that the precise current
situation around the structure which has a function generating complicated upwelling or downward
current behind the structure by water flow, using both of numerical model and hydraulic experiment.
This structure generates distinctive upwelling or downward current above the sediment, which
accelerates vertical mixture of bottom layer water. We can expect improvement of sediment quality
with this current control function. We also examined the effect of sediment quality improvement
around the structure, which was settled at the real sea bottom by measuring the sulfide, COD and
oxidation reduction potential.
A-22
OST-8C: Aquaculture and Mariculture Technology
STUDY ON THE POROUS MATERIAL FOR IMPROVEMENT
OF MARINE BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
Kaori Yasuoka1, Yoshihiro Suenaga2, Minoru Yamanaka2,
Hee-Do Ahn3, Takashi Hoshino1 and Hisao Kakegawa2
1
Graduate School of Engineering, Kagawa University, Kagawa, JAPAN
2
Faculty of Engineering, Kagawa University, Kagawa, JAPAN
[email protected]
3
Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Ansan, KOREA
The marine environment in the Seto-Inland Sea Japan has become a critical problem of red
tide, low concentration of DO and decrease of fishery production. Therefore the development
of technology for improving and maintaining the marine environment and creating new
habitats for variable marine resources has become urgent. The purpose of this study as
undertaken in order to develop a new porous material which is made by iron slag with high
bio-affinity for use as a marine habitat for fishery resources. The carbonated porous material
was made using special carbonation equipment and the degree of carbonation was observed
by a scanning electron microscope. The degree of carbonation increased with the carbonation
time. This research suggests a new technology to restore marine biological environment. The
artificial reef using this porous material was installed in research field and the effect of fish
aggregation, the exuberance of seaweeds and the density of prey abundance in and around the
disposed artificial reef were verified by field observations.
TECHNOLOGY OF SEAWEED, Kappaphycus /Eucheuma
CULTIVATION IN THE TROPICAL WATERS
Masao Ohno
Usa Marine Biological Institute
Kochi University
Tosa, Kochi, JAPAN
[email protected]
The cultivation technology of the red seaweed Eucheuma started in the Philippines during the
1970s and had spread throughout Indonesia, Malaysia and some Pacific islands. The
development of this Eucheuma cultivation and their establishment has started new seaweed
industries with the commercial production of carrageenan in the tropical area of the
Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia. Cultivators presently use two main methods of farming
on the Kappaphycus /Eucheuma cultivation: the fixed off-bottom mono-line method and the
floating method by the different environmental condition of the sea, which may use also
either the raft or the floating long lines. Many kinds of disease problems of the fronds occur
in the cultivation site, recently; ice-ice and epiphyte appear on many cultivation fields,
resulting to the decline in the production volume and quality.
A-23
OST-9A: Natural Energy
INTRODUCTION OF TIDAL POWER FOR RURAL REMOTE
VILLAGES ELECTRIFICATION IN MYANMAR
Soe Myint
Sugar Factory Projects Myanmar
Myanmar Industry Association
General Service Engineering Group
[email protected]
Out of the two technologies for generating electricity from tidal power, the barrage-style (old
technology) rather than current or stream style (new technology) was chosen to suit local
conditions and facilities available in Myanmar, one of the developing countries in ASEAN
Region. The oldest technology to harness tidal power for the generation of electricity
involves building a dam, known as a barrage, across a bay or estuary that large differences in
elevation between high and low tides. Water retained behind a dam, at high tide generates a
power head sufficient to generate electricity as the tide ebbs and water released from within
the dam turns conventional turbines. As mentioned in the title, objective of this paper is only
the application of appropriate technology for rural remote villages electrification which are
far from national electricity grid and situated in the areas along 1700 miles coast of
Myanmar. In this paper, measurement and data accuracy were deemed the best in accordance
with locally available instruments. Similar tidal power generators are being considered
forward electrification in those areas with tidal streams.
POWER GENERATION BY TIDAL CURRENT
Seiji Kiho, Kazuhisa Naoi, Mitsuhiko Siono and Katsuyuki Suzuki
College of Science & Technology
Nihon University
Tokyo, JAPAN
[email protected]
This paper reports the method of power generation from tidal currents and test results of the
system in the real sea, which was specially designed for this purpose. Tidal currents alternate
flow directions four times for every six hours in a day. It is convenient to use a vertical axis
turbine for alternating tidal currents. We made the system which consists of a vertical axis
turbine, an accelerator, an electric generator, and a control unit. The turbine is a vertical axis
Darrieus type rotor and has three blades. The rated output of generator is 5 kW at the tidal
current speed of 2.5 m/sec. The first experiment in real tidal current (August 1983) was
conducted at the channel of Kurushima Straits in Japan with the system installed on the sea
surface, second (July-August 1984) and third (August 1986-1988) installed at the sea bottom.
Results from these experiments are described.
A-24
OST-9A: Natural Energy
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEM
FROM TIDAL CURRENTS FOR NAVIGATION BUOY
Seiji Kiho, Mitsuhiro Shiono , Kazuhisa Naoi and Katsuyuki Suzuki
Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University
Tokyo, JAPAN
[email protected]
The tidal current energy is advantageous that the prediction of the energy is more possible than other
renewable energy without influencing in the weather. The direction of the tidal currents is inverted
periodically in about every 6 hours. Its current velocity varies in the sinusoidal form in a period.
Darrieus water turbine is suitable for the recovery of the energy from the tidal currents. Authors have
made to be a purpose that power generation from tidal currents is used for power supply of a
navigation buoy. We have examined the specification for Darrieus water turbine by the water
channel. The navigation buoy was equipped with power generation system from tidal currents using
Darrieus water turbine, and it was installed in Akashi Strait in Japan as the demonstrational
experiment in real sea, and the data of the output power was collected. As the result, the power
generation with the change of current velocity was confirmed. Therefore, the conclusive evidence
that the navigation buoy sufficiently operates by power generation system was obtained.
DESIGN AND FABRICATION
OF A VERTICAL AXIS SMALL SCALE WATER TURBINE
Tun Than
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Defence Services Technological Academy
Pyin Oo Lwin, MYANMAR
This paper describes the design and fabrication of vertical axis water turbine used for academic and research
purposes. The device is designed to operate at low tip speed. Blades are symmetric about the mid-chord plane and
they are actively pitched by means of a mechanical system so that the chord of each blade rotates by 90Вє relative to
rotor arm for every revolution of the main rotor. Salient features of the device are self-starting, capable of
producing relatively high torque, and it can be used in any flow current which has sufficient amount of volume
flow rate and required no head. A Commissioning and field tests of a prototype are described and some
preliminary performance results are presented and discussed.
A-25
OST-9A: Natural Energy
CROSSFLOW TURBINE FOR MICRO HYDRO POWER PLANT
Myint Win
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Defence Services Technological Academy
Pyin Oo Lwin, MYANMAR
Hydro power is probably the least common of the three readily used renewable energy
sources, but it has the potential to produce the most power, and more reliable than solar or
wind power if there has the right site. This means having asses to a river or creeks that has a
high enough flow to produce useable power for a good part of the year. Nowadays compact
metal water turbines tend to be used instead of traditional water wheels. In this paper, the
blade design of crossflow turbine is made to fulfill the increasing need of power supplies for
rural areas and partly to support industries in Myanmar. Crossflow turbine is suitable for
wide range head from two to over 100 meters. There are many creeks suitable to build hydro
power in Myanmar. As crossflow turbine can be made at low cost and easily installed,
evaluation of blade inlet and outlet angles is made for different combinations of flow rates
and heads. Finally the program produces the most suitable blade design to agree with the
requirements.
CHARACTERISTICS OF VAWT USING ARC CAMBER BLADES
FOR WIND GENERATION SYSTEM
Kazuhisa Naoi, Mitsuhiro Shiono and Katsuyuki Suzuki
Department of Electrical Engineering
College of Science and Technology, Nihon University
Tokyo, JAPAN
[email protected]
The authors have been studying about darrieus type water turbine for tidal current generation.
The turbine blades called arc chamber blade are straight along shaft and centerline of blade
are agree with rotating locus. It is high efficiency and good starting performances in the
water. Therefore the turbine was introduced tidal current generation system for beacon sign.
Then, we pay attention to the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) generation system using arc
camber blades. This paper discuss about a characteristics of the turbine by wind tunnel
experimental test. The tested turbine is 1.6 meter in width and 1.6 meter in height. We
executed starting torque test and rotating load test to confirm influence of a number of blade
and blade setting angle. Generally, darrieus type wind turbine is difficult to start, so we study
about measurement system to measure rotating torque when tip speed ratio is lower than 1.0.
The wind generation system for field experimental test was fabricated based on wind tunnel
test, have a good operation result in the test.
A-26
OST-9B: Natural Energy
IN-SITU OBSERVATION ON THE WIND
IN THE NORTHEASTERN COAST OF TAIWAN
Bao-Shi Shiau1, and Yuan-Bin Chen2
1
Department of Harbor and River Engineering
National Taiwan Ocean University
Keelung, TAIWAN
[email protected]
2
Department of Civil Engineering
VanNung University
Chungli, TAIWAN
In this paper, we report the wind characteristics from analyzing in-situ observational data measured by
using the three-dimensional ultrasonic anemometer in the northeastern coastal region of Taiwan. The
observation station was located in the coastal rural terrain with grass and occasional large obstacles
(like low-rise buildings). The roughness length, z0 is estimated as approximate 0.10 m in accordance
with the roughness classification of terrain types proposed by Davenport (1960). Wind observation
was conducted during the period from July 1, 1998, to December 31, 2001. The wind characteristics
include mean wind speed, turbulence intensity, wind gust factor, probability density function of
turbulent wind, and wind spectrum. Results of the in-situ observational data reveal that wind
turbulence intensity and wind gust factor of annual and four seasons are shown to approach to
constant values as the mean wind speed increases. Probability density functions of turbulent wind for
four seasons present a little bias from the Gaussian distributions. The observed longitudinal turbulent
wind spectra for four seasons are found in a good fit of the Von Karman spectrum equation form.
RESEARCH ON COLLECTIVE HOUSING AREAS
AND CHARACTERISTICS OF RESIDENTS
IN ULAANBAATAR, MONGOLIA
Umekazu Kawagishi1, Susumu Ishii2, Noboru Yuasa1,
Koki Kitano1 and Hirofumi Sugimoto3
1
Dept of Architecture and Architectural Engineering, CIT, Nihon University, JAPAN
[email protected]
2
Dept of Mechanical Engineering, CIT, Nihon University, JAPAN
Dept of Architecture and Architectural Engineering, GSIT, Nihon University, JAPAN
3
Our research focuses on the living and residential environment of collective housing areas in
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. We studied the current condition of living spaces of collective housing areas
in the urban area, and based on characteristics of consciousness of apartment dwellers and the status
of their activity and opinions of those dwellers, compared and analyzed specific activities and
evaluations to clarify status and characteristics of living in collective housing. The systematic
methodology regarding the creation of a sustainable living and residential environment and
coexistence is based on the local characteristics of a resource recycling society, particularly on how it
is possible to maintain and develop a resource recycling environment based on an indigenous local
environment and resources amid the changing of living space and residential environment, in the
process of shifting from a nomadic to urban and settled lifestyle.
A-27
OST-9B: Natural Energy
RESEARCH ON ESTABLISHMENT OF RESOURCE RECYCLING
SOCIETY IN COBB HILL COHOUSING
Umekazu Kawagishi1, Susumu Ishii2, Naoyuki Hirota1 and Koki Kitano1
1
Dept of Architecture and Architectural Engineering, CIT, Nihon University, JAPAN
[email protected]
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, CIT, Nihon University, JAPAN
This research studies the Cobb Hill Cohousing community, an eco-village cohousing
complex constructed in Vermont, USA, in 2002, as part of the activities of the Sustainability
Institute, founded in 1996 by Dr. Donella H. Meadows, the American sustainability
movement leader. Our paper aims to clarify the role of how cohousing dwellers and the
environment play in community formation, to study what should be the ideal living and
residential environment capable of adapting to various conditions changing over time, and to
review varying systems and methodologies for coexistence with the environment that
recognize establishment of a sustainable society. Our study compares and analyzes varying
modes created from various activities and conducts of people living together in the
community and the relationship between these and the space in which they are carried out,
with discussion on recycling of resources that utilize local characteristics, techniques, and
systems for coexistence with the environment.
FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
OF GRID-CONNECTED CLUSTERED PV SYSTEM
Kazuhisa Naoi and Shogo Nishikawa
College of Science and Technology
Nihon University
Tokyo, JAPAN
[email protected]
Since huge clustered PV systems produce a lot of inverse electrical power flow and can affect
utility grid very much, it is very important to develop technologies for keeping qualities of
electric power system. Increasing rate of self-consumption of PV output and load factor with
energy storage device in a residential house can be one of promising methods. However, if
the capacity and operation methods of energy storage device are not proper, system cost can
be very high compared with effect of energy storage device. The purpose of this work is to
clear the optimum capacity and operational method of energy storage device. As the first step
of study, the rate of this self-consumption of PV output and the load factor of a residential
house without energy storage device were investigated with a huge demonstrative test.
A-28
OST-9B: Natural Energy
FROM "POINT" TO "FIELD" ON RENEWABLE ENERGY
Isamu Izawa
Department of Electrical Engineering
College of Science and Technology
Nihon University
Tokyo, JAPAN
[email protected]
This is to introduce mainly the Hybrid Power Generation System utilizing biomass resources
of animal waste methane fermentation with photovoltaic power in Cambodia constructed
when I was employed in Meidensha Corporation, Japan and Rice Husk Power Generation
System in Thailand, which my junior fellows are executed. I sincerely feel it is necessary to
utilize biomass resources as "field" by combination with other renewable energy, which may
be difficult to use as "point by point". From this point of view, I wish to promote for
utilization of full-fledged use of environmentally friendly energy to prevent from global
warming and Meidensha is currently challenging and providing products and systems such as
wind turbine, photovoltaic, fuel cell, electric double layer capacitor and micro-grid system.
CST-1: Hydrodynamics of Coastal Waters
BRAGG SCATTERING OF WATER WAVES
IN REAL FLUIDS
Ho-Shong Hou1, Tai-Wen Hsu2 and Chin-Yen Tsai2
1
2
Ministry of Economic Affairs
Taipei, TAIWAN
Department of Hydraulic and Ocean Engineering
National Cheng Kung Uviversity
Tainan, TAIWAN
The vortex generation and dissipation in Bragg scattering of water waves by a series of
artificial bars is investigated both numerically and experimentally. A Reynolds Averaged
Navier-Stokes (RANS) model is applied to simulate the vortex evolution process as water
waves pass over a series of artificial bars. Meanwhile, the flow visualization technique of
particle tracing is used to experimentally observe the flow field. The numerical model is
therefore validated through the comparisons of water elevations and velocity field with the
measurements. A good agreement between the calculated results and the measured data is
found. Based on the present results, the mechanism of vortex generation and dissipation due
to flow separation is analyzed.
A-29
CST-1: Hydrodynamics of Coastal Waters
BUOY MEASUREMENTS OF WIND-WAVE INTERACTION DURING
TROPICAL CYCLONES
S. A. Hsu
Coastal Studies Institute
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA
[email protected]
Simultaneous measurements of wind speed and gust at 10 meters, significant wave height and
dominant wave period recorded during 14 hurricanes over the deep Gulf of Mexico and
Caribbean Sea by the United States National Data Buoy Center have been analyzed. It is
found that the power law between nondimensional significant wave height and significant
wave period performs well. Our results further verify the formulation of Kalma when the
power law is normalized by the wind speed and of Toba when normalized by the friction
velocity. It is also found that when the wind speed exceeds 20 meters per second both the
gust factor and the drag coefficient are nearly constant. These results are consistent with
most recent findings via theoretical, numerical experiments, and aircraft measurements.
FLOW VISUALIZATION OF VORTEX SHEDDING
BEHIND THE CIRCULAR AND ELLIPTICAL CYLINDERS
Tin Min Latt1 and O. N. Ramesh2
1
Department of Aerospace Propulsion and Flight Vehicles
Myanmar Aerospace Engineering University, Meikthila, MYANMAR
[email protected]
2
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science
Bangalore, INDIA
Vortex shedding behind circular and elliptical cylinders is investigated at various oncoming
velocities. Flow visualization is done using a water table, which is a suitable device to study
shape and size of wake and pattern of vortices behind the circular and elliptical cylinders
(ellipticities 1 to 2.5) at low velocities. The flow visualization is done by means of
introducing a fluorescent dye upstream of the models through a needle. Proper lighting
arrangement is done to illuminate the dye pattern and pictures are taken using digital camera.
In the case of circular cylinder, the Strouhal number increases as the Reynolds number
increases. In the case of elliptical cylinders, the Strouhal number increases as the Reynolds
number increases at a given velocity. Also, at a given velocity the Strouhal number decreases
as the ellipticity increases. After appropriate scaling is applied to the pictures taken for
various cylinders, the vortex shedding patterns appear similar. This suggests presence of a
possible scaling for these shapes.
A-30
CST-1: Hydrodynamics of Coastal Waters
REDUCTION OF THE WAVE DRIFTING FORCES
USING AIRCUSHION SUPPORTED SYSTEM
Masato Kobayashi1пјЊTomoki Ikoma1пјЊKoichi Masuda1пјЊ
Chang-Kyu Rheem2 and Hisaaki Maeda1
1
Department of Oceanic Architecture and Engineering
CST, Nihon University, Funabashi-shi, Chiba, JAPAN
[email protected]
2
Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, JAPAN
This paper shows from the result of experiments that aircushion support floating body is
effective for the steady wave drift force reduction. An experiment model is length of 3.0m,
width of 0.75m, and depth of 0.2m. The model is made of VCM. The aircushion is
compartmentalized to three aircushions with subdivisions. One aircushion is 1.0m.The
measurement range is L/О»=1.0пЅћ6.0 of wavelength and wave heights are two cases of 4cm
and 5cm.The same experiment using the general pontoon is carried out and results of the
pontoon are compared with the experimental result of the aircushion. The steady wave
drifting force of the aircushion type is reduced from that of the pontoon in measured
wavelength range. In practically, motion responses of the aircushion decrease at L/О»=1.5 and
4.5.From results aircushions are effective to reduction of the wave drifting forces.
VELOCITY CHANGE IN NEARSHORE ZONE
DUE TO COASTAL DRAIN SYSTEM BY VOF METHOD
Nan Myat Soe and Michio Sato
Ocean Civil Engineering Department
Graduate School of Science and Engineering
Kagoshima University
Kagoshima, JAPAN
[email protected]
The coastal drain has been considered to be an effective soft approach to coastal erosion
control and beach erosion. The major objective of this paper is to understand the phenomena
of mean flow field over a uniform slope beach in the wave channel with and without coastal
drain system by using Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. The mean velocity is important near
the seashore where it influences to move sediment. A numerical method is developed based
on the SOLA-VOF code (Hirt and Nichols, 1981), which includes the solver for the
Navier-Stokes equations and the VOF method as the free surface tracking technique. In the
program, the active wave generating/absorbing boundary is used as a special boundary
condition. The average velocity field induced by the drain system in nearshore zone without
being wave condition is also examined according to Schwart-Christfell�s Theory. The idea
that offshore flow caused by wave action is weakened by water absorption due to drainpipe
system installed under the beach bottom in the nearshore zone is one of the functions of
Coastal Drain System.
A-31
CST-2: Coastal Water Level Fluctuations
DESIGN OF STORM SURGE – EXPERIMENTS
FOR UNDERSTANDING STORM SURGE PHENOMENA
AND MODEL TESTING
May Khin Chaw and Khin Win Maw
Department of Meteorology and Hydrology, Yangon, MYANMAR
[email protected]
A numerical model has been derived for storm surge prediction in Myanmar, developed
by Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, INDIA, a leading regional center for
storm surge modeling and forecasting for Bay of Bengal region. Case studies with
synthetic data and real track of 1994 Maungdaw (Myanmar) cyclone were carried out
using the model. Comparison with the observed peak surge shows satisfactory. Moreover,
an investigation on how the model predicts the storm surge heights by using the different
values of storm parameters such as maximum sustained wind speed of storm (Vmax),
radius of maximum wind (Rmax), speed of propagation of storm (c), angle the track make
with the coastline, the pressure drop, etc. The main objective of the present study is to
present the numerical model developed for the improved prediction of storm surges and
coastal inundation along Myanmar coasts, which may help in effective evacuation
measures and thus minimize the damage caused by the severe cyclonic storm.
NUMERICAL CALCULATION OF THE HIGH WATER LEVEL
FLUCTUATIONS DURING THE TYPHOON PERIOD
Yoshihiro Suenaga1, Takuya Hashimoto2, Minoru Yamanaka1,
Shuichi Hasegawa1, Wataru Shiraki1 and Koichi Masuda3
1
Faculty of Engineering, Kagawa University, Takamatsu, Kagawa Pref., JAPAN
[email protected]
2
Graduate School of Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University
Fukuoka, JAPAN
3
College of Science and Technology Nihon University, Funabashi, Chiba, JAPAN
There were serious damages by typhoon during August to September 2004 in Japan. The
high water and inundation by the typhoon damaged many homes and coastal facilities in
Takamatsu city, Kagawa Pref., Japan. It is necessary to verify the mechanism of tide level
fluctuations during the typhoon period. The authors conducted an investigation of bottom
topography in the coastal area of Kagawa Prefecture and calculated of the high water
level using a 3-D numerical simulation model. That numerical simulation model took into
consideration wind drift, air pressure and gradient of bottom topography. We compared
the results of observed high water fluctuations, current velocity and current direction and
calculated the results. The results indicated that the high water fluctuation was based on
when the wind direction collided with the predominant direction of tidal flow in that
typhoon period. This proposed calculation method is effective for disaster prevention
countermeasures against future natural disasters (typhoon, earthquake and tsunami etc.).
A-32
CST-2: Coastal Water Level Fluctuations
RAPID ESTIMATION OF STORM SURGE DUE
TO TROPICAL CYCLONES USING SATELLITE METEOROLOGY
S. A. Hsu
Coastal Studies Institute
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA
[email protected]
The analytical formula for peak storm surge originally developed by Jelesnianski and
currently in operational use by the United States National Weather Service has been further
substantiated physically by recent advances in wind-wave-surge interaction studies and has
been simplified to a direct relationship amongst the storm's minimum sea-level pressure,
shoaling factor, and the storm motion correction. Verification of this rapid method during
several hurricanes (including Katrina 2005) were successful. Similar formulas (based on
pressure difference) have been derived for estimating the maximum sustained wind speed at
10 meters above the water surface, the maximum significant wave height, and the shoaling
depth during a tropical cyclone. Furthermore, the radius of maximum wind for a tropical
cyclone can be determined from satellite imagery as the distance between the coldest cloudtop temperature and the center of the eye of the tropical cyclone. Using this method via
satellite, the minimal sea-level pressure and thus the storm surge can be determined rapidly
for coastal hazard mitigation and public safety during tropical cyclones.
SEISMICITY OF THE ANDAMAN SEA
Maung Thein
Myanmar Geosciences Society
Yangon, MYANMAR
The Andaman Sea, in the southeastern part of the Alpide Earthquake Belt, is a seismically
active region. In fact, its northern part is one of the five earthquake source zones
(seismogenic zones) for the Myanmar region. There are three underlying causes of
earthquake generation in the Andaman Sea region: subduction-related (dominant), spreadingrelated (major), and volcanism-related (minor). The eastward subduction of the Indian Plate
underneath the Sunda Plate along the Sunda (Java) Trench is the primary cause of generation
of many moderate and some large earthquakes with intermediate focal depths along the
western part of the Andaman Sea, especially along the Andaman and Nicobar islands.
Earthquake hazards may be severe to destructive (MMIX) for the Andaman and Nicobar
islands because of their proximity to the occasional subduction-related large earthquakes.
Seismic records show that at least two such earthquakes caused moderate tsunamis in this
region in the past 125 years. This paper studies the development condition of Yangon Port,
constraint in which effect capacity of the port based on throughout, and try the present
findings.
A-33
CST-2: Coastal Water Level Fluctuations
STORM SURGE PREDICTION IN MYANMAR:
OPERATIONAL AND POST STORM FIELD SURVEY PERSPECTIVES
Tun Lwin1 and Nyein Nyein Moe2
1
Myanmar Earthquake Committee, Department of Meteorology and Hydrology
Yangon, MYANMAR
[email protected], [email protected]
2
Department of Meteorology and Hydrology, Yangon, MYANMAR
Following the First WMO Workshop on storm surge prediction held in Myanmar in 1981, the
Department of Meteorology and Hydrology formulated its own operational storm surge prediction
statistical method for the first time. Coupling with the Fletcher’s wind-pressure relationship in a
storm, the model was further simplified into a single independent variable model – the wind field.
Due to inavailability of storm parameters in advance to operate a Numerical Model, the formulated
model was found very operational with available sources of data and gave satisfactory results. It was
first tested for the prediction of storm surge during a cyclonic storm on May 1982 in the Bay of
Bengal. By performing post storm field survey trips to areas affected by storm surge, the verified
results were quite satisfactory. During the 26 December 2004 tsunami event in the Indian Ocean, the
forecast model estimated the approaching tsunami wave speed to the coastline of Myanmar as low as
60-65 km/hr., which explained why Myanmar was less damaged compared to its neighboring
countries.
THREE DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL SIMULATION
OF STORM SURGE IN THE SOUTHEASTERN SEA OF KOREA
Cha-kyum Kim1 and Jong Tae Lee2
1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Namhae College
Namhae-up, Namhae-gun, Kyungnam, KOREA
[email protected]
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Kyonggi University, Seodaemoon-ku, Seoul, KOREA
A three dimensional numerical model was established to calculate the storm surge observed in the
southeastern sea of Korea during Typhoon Maemi. Maemi landed on the southern coast of Korean
Peninsula at 21 hr, 12 September 2003 with a central pressure and a progression speed of
approximately 950 hPa and 45 km/h respectively, and caused a tremendous severe storm surge
disaster. The tide gauge in Masan Harbor located in the southern sea of Korea recorded the storm
surge of a maximum of approximately 2.4m. While Maemi was passing Masan Bay, the astronomical
tide level reached near the high water of a spring tide. Residential and commercial areas facing Masan
Bay were heavily flooded and almost all underground facilities suffered from the inundation by the
storm surge. The storm surge including tide was hindcasted by 3-D and 2-D numerical models using
an ADI (Alternating Direction Implicit) finite difference scheme. The simulated surge for the typhoon
using 3-D model shows good agreement with the recorded one at the southern coast. The surge height
predicted by 2-D model was lower than that observed.
A-34
CST-3A: Coastal Structures
A SOLITARY WAVE PROPAGATING
OVER A SUBMERGED BREAKWATER
Ho-Shong Hou1, Tai-Wen Hsu2 and Chin-Yen Tsai2
1
2
Ministry of Economic Affairs
Taipei, TAIWAN
Department of Hydraulic and Ocean Engineering
National Cheng Kung University
Tainan, TAIWAN
The velocity field and vortices, induced by a solitary wave propagating over a submerged
breakwater, are investigated using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model coupled
with the k в€’ Оµ model. Flows of low to high modified Reynolds numbers up to
Re* = 1.40 Г— 105 are considered where the characteristic fluid velocity is represented by the
maximum horizontal velocity above the submerged breakwater. To verify the accuracy of the
present numerical model, the incident waves and the velocity field in the near filed of the
breakwater are compared with the experimental data. The characteristics of vortex generation
and dissipation are studied in detail by a series of numerical experiments. It is noted that the
vortex shedding and their growth owing to flow separation both on the weatherside and the
leeside are strongly dependent on the Reynolds number. Moreover, a greater number of
vortices are found to form for an increasing Reynolds number.
A STUDY ON MAKING SEA HAZARD MAP CONSIDERS TSUNAMI
DAMAGES OF SHIPS
Shinji Nagasawa, Koichi Masuda and Ikoma Tomoki
Department of Oceanic Architecture and Engineering
Ccllege of Science and Technology
Nihon University
Funabashi, Chiba, JAPAN
[email protected]
Japan is a frequent occurrence of the earthquake country all over the world, and many
researches are done to the damage of tsunami generated along with a large-scale seaquake.
This paper describes the numerical simulation done to analyze the behavior of tsunami in
harbors. The tsunami computation is done by calculating two stages are off-shore area and
inside of targeted port for the improvement of the calculation accuracy. In the tsunami
computation, the tsunami initial wave at the earthquake fault position is introduced into the
calculation to reproduce tsunami that generated by the seaquake accurately as much as
possible. In addition, we defined the safety sea area and the dangerous sea area for the small
ships based on distribution of wave height and flow velocity of tsunami calculated by the
computation. And we made the sea hazard map that introduced information on defined sea
area and tsunami arrival time, and examined the sea hazard map about tsunami damages of
ships.
A-35
CST-3A: Coastal Structures
ARTIFICIAL HEADLAND USING SPAR BUOY SEA FOREST
Nai Kuang Liang
Institute of Oceanography
National Taiwan University
[email protected]
A pipe made of PVC is closed at one end and holes drilled for anchoring at the other end. The
semi-closed pipe is aerated from the open end. This pipe becomes a tautly moored spar buoy
if the water depth is deep enough. Two rods are used to pierce the lower end of the pipe with
used tires piled on it to enlarge the cross section and protect the pipe. To suppress spar buoy
motion, two adjacent spar buoys are connected at the top of the buoy by a chain. Sand bags
are used as anchorage that the demand of the heavy crane is quite limited. A group of such
spar buoys forming an artificial sea forest will be utilized as an artificial headland. It is
expected that a tombolo will be formed behind the headland. If another headland is installed
some distance from the former one at a similar depth, a concave shoreline will be formed.
The original straight shoreline is extended into a longer concave line. The wave height will be
smaller due to refraction, then more sand will be accumulated on the beach and the beach is
protected. This is the principle of the artificial headland method (Silvester and Hsu,1993).
FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH BEHAVIOR
OF STEELS FOR MARINE STRUCTURES
Yoshiharu Mutoh
Department of System Safety
Nagaoka University of Technology
Nagaoka, JAPAN
[email protected]
Marine structures should have high reliability to variable loads caused by waves and winds.
In the present study, to ensure the structural reliability, fatigue crack growth behavior of new
steels developed for marine structures has been investigated. The steels showed high crack
growth resistance due to stress shielding phenomena as well as crack closure phenomena,
while the stress shielding phenomena was not observed in conventional steels. The detailed in
situ observations during the fatigue crack growth tests revealed that interlocking of crack
surfaces and crack branching contributed to the stress shielding depending on
microstructures.
A-36
CST-3B: Coastal Structures
INFLUENCE OF WAVE REFLECTION TO RUNUP ON STEP DIKE
Jea-Tzyy Juang1, Chao-Fu Lin2 and Shi-Chong Chiang2
1
Department of Civil Engineering
Chienkuo Technology University
Changhua, TAIWAN
[email protected]
2
Department of Hydraulic Engineering
Feng Chia University
Taichung, TAIWAN
[email protected]
In this study, the reflected rate of waves is calculated first by using the equation proposed by
Issacson (1991). Then, the correlation analysis between the surf similarity parameter and the
reflect rate of waves is complete. After that, by taking advantage of the theory of linear
addition of wave energy, then the height of an interacted wave induced in front of the step
dike can be calculated too. Meanwhile, comparison of the correlation between the relative
height of runup waves and the surf similarity parameter in different incident wave conditions
can be obtained also. For the prediction of runup wave height on a stepped dike, the calculate
equations, derived from the wave momentum flux parameter calculating method proposed by
Hughes (2003), is used. However, the values of several relational parameters in his equations
must be modified when used for the prediction of the height of wave runup on stepped
sloping dike. The result is also verified by the experimental data.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION ON BEHAVIOR OF FLOATING
STRUCTURES IN TSUNAMI BY MPS METHOD
Mitsuhiro Masuda, Koichi Masuda, Tomoki Ikoma and Hisaaki Maeda
Department of Oceanic Architecture and Engineering
CST Nihon University, Funabashi-shi, Chiba, JAPAN
[email protected]
When tsunami attacked on floating structures in ports, it is very important to predict the kind
of damages on floating structures from a viewpoint of disaster prevention and mitigation of
damages. The objectives of present research are to develop the computational program code
of the two-dimensional MPS method and simulate the behavior of floating structures at
vicinity of wharfs in tsunami. The accuracy of present computational method has been
discussed by comparison with experimental results, so that the numerical and the
experimental results on the behavior of floating structures at vicinity of wharfs are good
agreement. However, the both results of flow velocity on wharfs are slightly different.
The practical usefulness of present numerical method has been confirmed.
A-37
CST-3B: Coastal Structures
THE DESIGN OF ANCHORAGE FOR WATERS
OUTSIDE KAOHSIUNG HARBOR
Hsi-Ching Chen1 and H.H. Lee2
1
Department of Shipping Technology
National Kao-Hsiung Marine University
2
Department of Marine environment & Engineering
National Sun Yat-Sen University
Kaohsiung Port is the most important harbor in the Taiwan area. During 2005, the number of
arriving and departing cargo and trailer ships were 19,120 and 19,103, respectively. However,
due to scheduled docking timing and limitations of available harbor berthing wharves, some
ships waiting for loading and unloading must be anchored in the open sea outside the
Kaohsiung Port. Through radar observation, most ships are anchored near two entrances of
the harbor. Ships entering and exiting, plus anchored ships around two entrances of the
Kaohsiung Port make ship traffic complicated and risks of bumping into each other are
sometimes unavoidable. The purpose of this study is to improve the safety of ship navigation
around the entrance of the harbor and also to protect the marine environment in the
converging area. It is also encouraged that the authority of Kaohsiung Port decides to
establish a routing system for the ships and to design a zone of ship anchorage that will be
much safer for both the ships anchored at waters outside the port and traveling around at the
neighboring waters.
VISIBLE SPACE BY LANDSCAPE RECOGNITION
OF LOCAL INHABITANS AND ITS COMPOSITION
Hirotomo Ohuchi and Satoshi Yamada*
Graduate School of Industrial Technology
Nihon University, JAPAN
[email protected]
This study discusses relationship between the extent of the sphere of cognition by local
inhabitants in coastal fishing area and the physical environment, as ascertained from a
questionnaire survey of local inhabitants. Object is 59 coastal fishing villages (Izu and
Bousou peninsula in Japan) in which the sea, a town, and a mountain are realized in one, and
has complicated geographical feature. We have been researched the complexity and
metamorphosis patterns of common areas in coastal fishing regions using sphere graphic
method. Based on research, this study analysis Explicate Order and Implicate Order formed
from the mutual relationship of the cognitive region and visibility and determine relationship
between cognitive attribution and visibility. We analysis visibility with visible region image
using the 3-D shade picture which applied the inverse-square damping which is
approximation to man's visual recognition and which is obtained from a spread of light. From
above analysis, correlativity of cognitive attribution and visibility by landscape recognition of
local inhabitants was shown and its Composition was determined.
A-38
CST-4A: Ports and Harbors
A SINGLE MOORING NET-CAGE SUBJECTED TO WAVE FORCES
H.H. Lee1, J.-Y. Lee1 and H.-C. Chen2
1
Department of Marine Environment
National Sun Yat-sen University
Kaohsiung, TAIWAN
2
Department of Shipping Technology
National Kao-Hsiung Marine University
Kaohsiung, TAIWAN
Study on the fish-farming net-cage system to rear fishes in the open sea has been well
developed. However, depending on open sea conditions, developments in some areas are
processed quite well while other areas are facing many difficulties. Challenges may include
management, marketing, fish disease and most of all, safety of net-cage system, particularly
during storms and monsoon season. Two kinds of wave force are recognized as most
damaging to the open sea net-cages, namely, long waves induced from large storms and
regular short waves induced from monsoon winds. For the long waves the best way to avoid
damage to the net-cages is to put cages away from the action of the most damaging waves,
which is on the free surface and then restore them in place after the storm. But for the regular
short waves, although the force induced from waves is smaller they last much longer and the
resultant fatigue damage on the net-cages is more difficult to be noticed. Therefore, it is the
purpose of this study to develop a net-cage of single mooring system that can be more
resistant to the short wave actions and easier to monitor for the structural damages during the
operation.
EXTENSION PLANNING OF THE DA-WU FISHING HARBOR
FOR IMPROVING SEA TRANSPORTATION ON EAST TAIWAN
Ho-Shong Hou1 and Chen-Shan Kung2
1
Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA), TAIWAN
2
Sinotech Engineering Consultant, Ltd.
The Da-Wu fishing harbor, located on eastern Taiwan on Taitung County, was built in 1970s
for local fishing. It extended its breakwater in 1990 to improve the sediment deposition
problem, with the tourist industry rapidly increasing in the area. The sea eco-tourist is a fastdeveloping popular voice. Developing deep ocean resources is also becoming popular in the
area, which faces the great Pacific Ocean. Due to increased sea activities, the requirement for
improving local Da-Wu harbor is necessary. Da-Wu harbor is located south of Chao-Yung
creek, with the sediment moving north to south. Hence, for the last 40 years the littoral drift
has always been a problem. The expansion of harbor, wave climate, current environment, and
possible effects of the new breakwater extension to the sediment transport in the area should
be assessed in the extension plan. This paper addresses the integration of new extension plan
of Da-Wu harbor and discusses the effect of wave, current and sediment transport on new
scheme, specially the effect of typhoon which frequently attacks this area on Da-Wu harbor
will also be addressed.
A-39
CST-4A: Ports and Harbors
INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PROJECT OF KEELUNG PORT
Ho-Shong Hou1, Peng-His Hou2 and Peng-Hui Hou2
1
2
Ministry of Economic Affairs
National Chiao-Tung University
This study is to submit port development project to help Taiwan area become hub port by
means of comprehending its ports’ functions and special features. For the improvement of
operation and administration efficiency and competition strength, it is suggested that the
authorities to engage in the following: to solve stevedores problem, to carry out policy of
privatization, liberalization and computerization, to set up port operation and management
system, to develop high value added industry and distribution center within port area or the
nearby, and to set round-the-island shipping, integrated transportation and telecommunication
port into action. Port of Keelung should be expanded toward offshore as an auxiliary port in
marine transportation and supply what container shipping companies need. The detail
planning is described in this paper, and assistant hub port of Keelung after the main hub port
of Kaohsiung is established.
CST-4B: Ports and Harbors
MYANMAR PORT AND HARBOR DEVELOPMENT
AND COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT
Sanda Naing
Department of Port and Harbor Engineering
Myanmar Maritime University
Yangon, MYANMAR
With the development of international trade under the newly introduced market oriented
economy of the country, Myanmar relies entirely on maritime transport for its international
trade. The outports were also developed along the 1700 mile coastline of Myanmar in order
to cater mostly to the domestic coastal traffic. The ports, traditionally, have played an
indispensable role for the development of the national economy. Coastal zone is very
important to most of coastal countries due to its valuable natural resources and usefulness.
Often, there is a conflict between resources users and impact of one user group to another is
not negligible. The coastal zone management program must consider many facts of the
environmental picture and Myanmar also needs to ensure the harmonic use of the coastal
zone resources.
A-40
CST-4B Ports and Harbors
THE NEW GENERATION CONTAINER TERMINAL
FACILITY AND EQUIPMENT
Shih-Duenn Kuo1 and Ping-Tang Chen2
Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau
Kaohsiung, TAIWAN
1
[email protected]
2
[email protected]
Currently, the 6th new generation container ship of 8,000 TEU has come to serve the world
shipping. For the future development, the prediction of 15,000 TEU Ultra Large Container
Ship (ULCS) is will come to serve around year of 2010. This trend will give the Container
Terminal design and construction a big blow. According to a series study from many
countries to meet this specific requirement, it’s finding that there remain a lot of problems
just to increase GCs along wharf front. So, alternatives like bay-type-berth,
double-ended-gantry and container-handling on both sides of a container ship, are under
consideration. Due to ULCS development also giving a lot of problems to the container yard
design to connect the operation system transfer, therefore new design criteria for container
yard should be carefully study to match the ULCS need, and to balance all traffic flow in
different transfer stages. To meet the ULCS operation, the yard-required operation system
will also play a very important role. All to do to breakthrough traditional system become first
priority to get the necessary operation efficiency.
YANGON SEA ACCESS CHANNEL ASSOCIATED PORT
IMPROVEMENT STUDY
Kyaw Oo
Civil Engineering Department
Myanma Port Authority
Yangon, MYANMAR
Yangon Port is a river port situated in a Deltaic region and lies along the Yangon River.
Vessels calling to Yangon Port use the Yangon estuary as a navigation channel. The principle
objective of this paper is to consider construction of a training structure around the inner bar
for mitigation of dredging woks at Monkey Point channel. From sea to Yangon Port there are
two shallow areas known as outer bar and inner bar. Inner bar is stable in its location but
regular maintenance dredging has to be done. The access channel at outer bar has been
changing in cyclic order and the required depth is available without intensive dredging. More
than thirty years ago Sir Alexander Gibb & Partners studied this channel to improve it. They
mentioned that the Yangon sea access channel could be improved either by construction of
training structure or by dredging work. Their recommendation indicated that dredging work
would be more suitable and economical at that time. Nowadays, volume of dredging works at
inner bar increased significantly, therefore, Yangon Sea Access Channel Associated Port
Improvement study is requested to undertake at timely manner.
A-41
CST-5A: Coastal Sediment Processes
SEDIMENT MOVEMENT AND ITS IMPACT ON THE DISTRIBUTION
OF BENTHIC MACROFAUNA IN THE NORTH ANDAMAN SEA
Cherry Aung1, Pretik Mehta2 and Swe Thwin1
1
Department of Marine Science University of Mawlamyine, MYANMAR
2
National Institute of Oceanography, Mumbai Regional Centre, INDIA
The Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea form the Northern Indian Ocean and are together
considered as the 34th Large Marine Ecosystem of the of the world. Important topographic
features are Ayeyarwady-Thanlwin delta in the northern shelf, Mergui platform in the
esastern shelf and a large central basin. The two most important rivers of Myanmar, The
Ayeyarwady (Irrawaddy) and the Thanlwin (Salween) cover a basin area of around 600 X 103
km2 and discharge a volume of 480 km2 annually to the Andaman Sea which is about 20% of
the total river runoff received by the Bay of Bengal. The climate of the Andaman Sea is
dominated by a semi-annual reversal of winds, and surface currents in the Bay of Bengal. The
monsoons provide seasonal rains to the coastal zone and associated fresh water runoff,
resulting in a regular alternation of period of low salinity (during SW monsoon) and high
salinity (during NE monsoon). This phenomenon of oscillating sediments with tidal cycle
superimposed on the strong seasonal reversal of environmental parameters and its impact on
the benthos is reported.
IN THE WESTERN MYANMAR,
WHERE THE BENGAL FAN SEDIMENTATION WAS?
Theingi Kyaw* and Thura Oo
Department of Geology, University of Yangon
Yangon, MYANMAR
[email protected]
[email protected]
The Rakhine-Chin-Naga Ranges of the western fringe of Myanmar have been considered as
an accretionary prism resulted from the convergence of the India and Eurasia Plates. Upper
part of the western half of the prism is the mountain-ranges built-up with Paleogene mГ©langes
bearing olistholiths of Cretaceous limestones, and lower part of the western half which
underlies the Rakhine coastal area and Rakhine continental shelf is composed of Neogene
sediments containing olistholiths of Cretaceous and Eocene limestones. In order to deduce
the provenance of these Neogene sediments, Paleogene convergence of the India and Eurasia
was reconstructed with the speculation of the position of the Himalaya, the depositional basin
of the Bengal submarine fan and the Rakhine continental margin. In addition, the Rakhine
Neogene units and those from the eastern part of the Bangladesh, Assam and Bengal fan were
compared. As a result, majority of these clastic sediments were considered to have derived
from the Burma (Myanmar) Plate and only minor amounts were regarded to be scrapped-off
and re-mobilized from the Indian oceanic crust.
A-42
CST-5A: Coastal Sediment Processes
MORPHOLOGY AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT
OF SAND BODIES IN EASTERN TAIWAN STRAIT SHELF
Ho-Shing Yu, Horng-Ru Liao and Chih-Chieh Su
Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University
Taipei, TAIWAN
[email protected]
The bathymetric Changyun Ridge, located in the central-east of the Taiwan Strait, consists of
three linear sand bodies: (a) the eastern Changyun sand ridge, (b) a ridge-like sand body, and
(c) a sand shoal. Off the western coast of Taiwan the Changyun sand ridge shows typical
morphology of linear sand ridges; its long axis oriented parallel to the coastline and narrow
reciprocal tidal ellipses. Farther west, the ridge-like sand body trends northwest to southeast,
normal to the coast and is oblique to the broad rotary tidal ellipses. Distal to the Taiwan
shoreline the sand shoal is oriented parallel to the coastline of western Taiwan and broad
rotary tidal ellipses. Surface sediments of the Changyun Ridge are composed of very fine to
coarse sands in a progressive seaward decrease in grain size. The configuration and spatial
distribution of these three sand bodies with corresponding decrease in tidal speed and in grain
size together suggest that the sand bodies develop sequentially from near-shore to offshore
areas, presumably in response to westward shifting of the north-flowing tidal currents.
PHYSIOGRAPHY AND SEDIMENT DISPERSAL
ON THE AYEYARWADY CONTINENTAL SHELF,
NORTH ANDAMAN SEA
V. Ramaswamy1, P.S. Rao1 and Swe Thwin2
1
Geological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography
Dona Paula, Goa, INDIA
2
Department of Marine Science, University of Mawlamyine
Mawlamyine, MYANMAR
The Ayeyarwady continental shelf is part of a complex geological setting in the north
Andaman Sea and is characterized by a wide shelf, macro tidal conditions and seasonally
reversing surface circulation linked to the Asian monsoon. The Ayeyarwady River, the fifth
largest in the world in terms of sediment yield, annually discharges more than 265 million
tons of sediment onto the Ayeyarwady continental shelf. The shelf is also considered
tectonically active because of the presence of a system of N-S trending dextral strike-slip
faults. Echograms and sub-bottom profiler records in the Gulf of Martaban reveal a minimum
of 18 m thick strata of modern muds overlying a sand layer, which emerges at the surface on
the outer shelf. The large quantity of the sediment discharged at the Mouths of Ayeyarwady is
displaced eastward by the prevailing westerly currents and tidal forces into the Gulf of
Marataban where most of the sediment is deposited. This implies that the sediment is
accumulating at a rate of 15 cm per year and the Gulf of Martaban acts as a sediment trap.
A-43
CST-5B: Coastal Sediment Processes
WIND BLOWOUT HOLLOW GENERATED IN FUKIAGE DUNE
FIELD, KAGOSHIMA PREFECTURE JAPAN
Ryuichiro Nishi1, Li Elikson2 and Myokhin3
1
Dept. of Fisheries, Kagoshima University, JAPAN
Dept. of Water Resource Engineering, Lund University
3
Dept. of Civil Engineering, Daiichi Institute of Technology
[email protected]
2
A dune is vulnerable to severe waves and wind. Dune is eroded by storm waves especially
under storm surge condition. In contrast, a dune is enhanced by deposition of wind blown
sand, which is supplied from a dry beach in front of a dune. Dune erosion by high waves
during a storm surge condition was experimentally and numerically studied by a number of
researchers, for instance, in Florida, Delft, and CERC. Here, a wind blowout hollow
generation which could be first triggered by a presence of dune scarp is described based on
field and numerical studies. Then, it is concluded as follows: (1) Wind blowout hollows were
created just behind the scarped dune edge in Fukiage Dune, Kagoshima, Japan, (2) The wind
turbulence enhanced by the presence of the scarped dune significantly contributes to excavate
the dune surface even though the dune was stabilized by vegetation, and (3) The average
spacing of wind blowout hollow is nearly 137m along the coast.
STUDY ON THE RIVER WORKS
DUE TO SEDIMENT TRANSPORT
Khin Kyu Kyu
River and Coastal Engineering Department
Myanmar Maritime University
Yangon, MYANMAR
In Myanmar, there are four main rivers: the Ayeyarwaddy, the Chindwin, the Thanlwin and
the Sittaung. For Myanmar people, the Ayeyarwaddy is a life-giving benefactor. Rivers may
be considered one of the most important natural resources to the human race. Not only do
rivers provide one of the first necessities of life, drinking water, they also provide a means of
transport, a way to dispose garbage, food (fish), and good farmland along the banks. The
river works may be used for irrigation, navigation, water power, to provide water, etc. but
river works may also be carried out to prevent damage by floods, draughts, contamination,
etc. River engineering is mostly concerned with the interaction between the transport of water
and the transport of sediment, and is thus, to a large extent, based on hydraulics and sediment
transport mechanics. Hydraulic transport processes are defined as the physical processes of
flow of natural water bodies which cause pollutants or natural substances to be transported
and mixed, or exchanged with other media. The purpose of this paper is to study the sediment
transport of river due to three different modes of transport: wash load, suspended load, and
bed load. This paper will include some of the river works to protect the transport of sediment.
A-44
CST-5: Coastal Sediment Processes
IMPROVEMENT OF RIVER CHANNEL BY USING IMPERMEABLE
SAND BAG GROYNE IN AYEYARWADDY RIVER
Thein Aung, Tin Aye, Chan Moe and Wei Zhang
College of Ocean
Hohai University
Yangon, MYANMAR
The objective of this paper is to discuss the effectiveness of a bed regulation training work by
the use of impermeable sand bag groynes at Mandalay channel in Ayeyarwaddy River. In
Myanmar, Directorate of Water Resources and Improvement of River Systems (DWIR) has
implemented river engineering works with an emphasis to solve the constraints along the
rivers. Impermeable groynes are primarily used to push the river towards a more suitable
alignment. In so doing, sedimentation between groynes is encouraged. As scour at the heads
of impermeable groynes is induced by rapidly changing flow patterns, they are especially
useful for maintaining navigable depths in streams. At the study reach, the river was braided
into three channels and there was insufficient available depth in dry season. To improve the
channel in terms of least available depth, sand bag groynes were used, which are inexpensive
in cost, workable in local conditions with available materials. After flood seasons, results
show the channel was improved not only in depth, also in meandering pattern.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AYEYARWADY DELTA
Sein Tun
D.W.I.R
Ministry of Transport
Yangon, MYANMAR
Ayeyarwady delta which is one of the rice granaries of Myanmar and offers the typical
example of humid tropical zone delta in an early stage of hydraulic and agricultural
development. It is considered that some 300,000 years ago, the mouth of Ayeyarwady river
was still situated near Pyay. The maximum rate of advance of the deltaic formation is
estimated at 5-6km in 100 years which is equivalent to some 10 square km annually. The
whole delta is bordered by mangroves and mud flats in the south where the building of the
delta continues at a fast rate. An important factor in the delta building process is the action of
waves generated by the south-west monsoon. Near Hinthada, Ayeyarwady river enters its
delta, which forms an irregular triangle, having its apex about 225 kilometer from the sea,
and with a curved base facing the sea. Ayeyarwady delta is an important region of the
country for economic development. It is rich with economic related potentials such as
production of food-staff, transportation network, inland river stations and outport and tourism
attraction.
A-45
CST-6A: Coastal Environment
THE ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION OF AGO BAY, JAPAN
BASED ON A NEW CONCEPT OF "SATO UMI"
Osamu Matsuda
Hiroshima University
Mie Industry and Enterprise Support Center, Tsu, Mie, JAPAN
[email protected]
The "Environmental restoration project on enclosed coastal seas" operated in Ago Bay
is a part of the program conducted by Japan Science and Technology Agency. The bay,
a typical enclosed coastal sea, is located in the center of Ise-shima National Park and
is known to be a cradle of pearl culture. In stead of the scenic beauty of the bay,
environmental deterioration, in particular of sediment and benthic habitat, has been
serious partly by pearl oyster culture over a spanning of more than 100 years and by
intensive land reclamation. Therefore, new technology is being developed based on a
new concept of "Sato Umi" to improve the coastal environment, in particular of tidal
flat, sea-grass and algal bed areas. "Sato Umi" in Japanese, means coastal sea under
the harmonization of sustainable and wise use with natural conservation. By
application of newly developed environment friendly methods, higher biological
diversity and higher biological productivity are being recovered in the restored tidal
flat areas along the coast.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHAPE OF COASTAL GRAVEL
AND LIFE TIME OF STRANDED OIL
Seiichi Hamada 1 , Nobuhiro Sawano 2 , Kunihiko Endo 3 , Shintaro Goto 4 ,
Masumi Yazaki 4 , Kunihisa Sao 5 and Kazuko Sao 5
1
Geological Survey of Hokkaido, Otaru, Hokkaido, JAPAN
[email protected]
2
Seiryo Women’s Junior College, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, JAPAN
3
Nihon University, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, JAPAN
4
Risho University, Kumagaya, Saitama, JAPAN
5
Ocean Engineering Research Inc., Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, JAPAN
Gravel beaches are hard places to clean and recover oil after spill incident. Life time
of stranded oil in gravel beach is widely varying depending on coastal geological
environment. It is well known that roundness of gravel and wave exposure has
significant correlation, then geometrical analysis for roundness of gravel and life time
of stranded oil have been examined based on field researches of Nakhodka oil spill
happened in 1997. Gravels were taken into the sun by digital camera to extract their
shapes with specially designed mounting equipment for onsite survey. Every image of
gravel was transformed into polygon with 720 angles, and then smoothness of outline
was geometrically measured. The gravels for evaluation were mainly supplied from
bedrock around coast and each survey point has not been affected by river flow.
Moreover, only andesitic cobble was used for the evaluation. As a result, high value of
correlation coefficient was obtained between evaluated roughness and the life time of
stranded oil in the gravel beach.
A-46
CST-6A: Coastal Environment
OIL SPILL PREVENTION AND COMBATING
Kyaw Kyaw Than
Department of Marine Administration
MYANMAR
[email protected]
Myanmar has an extended coastline of about 2,230 km and the natural beauty of coastal
areas, marine ecosystems, mangroves, coral reefs, and natural resources of rich Virgin Inland.
It is of vital importance to conserve the coastal areas and marine ecosystems, as well as
protect the marine ecosystems and the biological diversity of the maritime area. However,
pollution from all sources affects the marine environment, especially the damaging effect of
oil and hazardous noxious substances. Oil spills can have serious economic impact on coastal
activities and on those who exploit the resources of the sea. Trainees from Myanmar attended
oil spill combating and response training in Japan. An oil spill table top exercise was held in
Yangon on 20 February 2006 as Technical cooperation by Nippon Foundation from Japan in
preparation for a national oil spill contingency plan.
DEVELOPMENT OF STATISTIC MODEL FOR ESTIMATING
LIFE TIME OF BEACHED OIL
Nobuhiro Sawano1, Seiichi Hamada2, Shintaro Goto3,
Masumi Yazaki3, Kunihisa Sao4 and Kazuko Sao4
1
Seiryo Women’s Junior College
Kanazawa, Ishikawa, JAPAN
[email protected]
2
Geologicakl Survey of Hokkaido, Otaru, Hokkaido, JAPAN
3
Risho University, Kumagaya, Saitama, JAPAN
4
Ocean Engineering Research Inc., Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, JAPAN
After Nakhodka incident happened in 1997, 74 monitoring points have been set up to observe
fate and life time of beached oil. The life of the oil was expected to be depending on NOAA’s
shoreline ESI ranking, but discrepancy has been revealed in some artificially sheltered
beaches with concrete wave cutter called “tetora pod” in Japan. Then, seven simplified
criteria such as 1) roughness of the surface of the sediment, 2) roughness of the surface of
beach, 3) existence of sheltering rocks, 4) length of width between backshore and foreshore,
5) existence of manmade wave cutting structure, 6) slope of the beach and 7) amount of
marine debris have been used to estimate the life time of beached oil by statistic analysis of
Quantification Theory Type I. As a result, high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.87) was
obtained and then life time of beached oil by the spill accident will possibly be able to
estimate by using these criteria.
A-47
CST-6: Coastal Environment
HIGH YIELD PRODUCTION OF BIO-HYDROGEN
FROM ORGANIC WASTE USING RHODOBACTER SHPAEROIDES
Hideki Kohno1, Takuji Sakai2 and Susumu Ishii2
1
Department of Applied Molecular Chemistry
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering
College of Industrial Technology
Nihon University
Chiba, JAPAN
[email protected]
Organic waste and water pollution are key issues in Pacific Ocean countries. In order to solve
these problems, we have developed biomass systems using unique mixed co-culturing
systems in combination of Rhizopus oryzae and Rhodobacter sphaeriodes. These
microorganisms ferment organic waste to produce bio-hydrogen for use in fuel battery. In the
course of our investigation we tested several bacteria and photosynthetic bacterial strains to
obtain the highest production of bio-hydrogen. Our experimental results indicated in the
optimal condition of these co-culturing systems. The time course and pH condition and type
of medium are essential factors to obtain the highest yield of hydrogen. In conclusion pH 8.0
and 120hr incubation of mixed culture of Rhizopus oryzae and Rhodobacter sphaeriodes was
the best combination for H2 gas production. We want to report the successful data of these
projects in environmentally evaluated consideration.
CST-6B: Coastal Environment
DAILY ACCUMULATION RATES OF MARINE DEBRIS
ON TWO SUBANTARCTIC ISLANDS
Cecilia Eriksson and Harry Burton
Australian Antarctic Division
Kingston, Tasmania, AUSTRALIA
[email protected], [email protected]
Daily accumulation rates (Oct 27, 2000 to March 25, 2001) of beached marine debris (> 1
cm) on two subantarctic islands, Macquarie (54040’S, 158049’E) and Heard (53006’S,
73030’E) were calculated. 8 km of beaches were cleared daily on the two islands. During the
collection, 134 days on Macquarie and 124 days on Heard, 18 and 25 days were missed
respectively. A total of 6389 debris items were collected. Most of the debris was plastic
(Macquarie 94%, Heard 95%). The remainder was glass (Macquarie 2.0 %, Heard 3.8%),
metal (Macquarie 0.3% Heard 0.8%) and wood (Macquarie 1.8%, Heard 0.4%). The daily
accumulation rate of total debris, on west-facing beaches, was 5.4 items/km on Macquarie
and 15.9 items/km on Heard. Items were generally small and fragmented. Fragments were
more common on Macquarie than on Heard (Pearson Chi2, 1 df, p=<0.001). Mean mass of
debris (items <5 kg) was 48 and 28 gm from Macquarie and Heard respectively. Fishing gear
(lines, nets, buoys, jigs, bait-straps) was a dominant grouping. Barnacles (Lepas spp.) were
more common on Macquarie debris.
A-48
CST-6B: Coastal Environment
POROUS CONCRETE BLOCKS
AS NATURAL CLEANSING SYSTEM IN COASTAL ENVIRONMENT
Myo Khin1, E. Okabayashi1, M. Tanaka1 and T. Okabayashi2
1
Civil Engineering Department, Dai-ichi Institute of Technology
Civil Engineering Department, National College of Technology
Kirishima City, JAPAN
2
Extensive studies have been made on the practical application of Porous Concrete (PoC) blocks. The
characteristics of having continuous pores structure give the advantage for frequent flow of water
throughout readily. Another advantage is, using locally available materials for fabricating the porous
concrete block. The present usage includes pedestrian pavement and sound absorbing wall in
highways. The durability issues such as, freezing and thawing, exposure in weak acidic and alkali
media have also been found be adequate. Moreover when aiming for the promotion of natural
cleansing in water zones, the Porous Concrete (PoC) blocks are used. These blocks processed high
possibility on recycling capacity for biological environment at early stage. When the Porous Concrete
(PoC) blocks are submerged in sea or river, habitats of micro-organism is formed in its pores. These
attached-type organic matters are examined. The correlation between physico-chemical water quality
index and collected small water creatures is investigated. From this experimental study on feasibility
of concrete blocks, to be utilized as preservation materials for coastal environment is made and
reported.
EXAMINATION OF MODEL PARAMETERIZATION
FOR SIMULATIONS OF OXYGEN-DEFICIENT WATER
IN ENCLOSED BAYS
S. Tabeta1, T. Kinoshita2, Y. Seino3 and K. Mizumukai1
1
Department of Environment Systems, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences
The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, JAPAN
[email protected]
2
National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, JAPAN
Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, School of Engineering
The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, JAPAN
3
In Japanese coastal enclosed bays, oxygen-deficient water is often considered to be one of the most
significant environmental problems. The oxygen-deficient water at the sea bottom gives serious
damage to the benthos and other living organisms, as well as it sometimes causes aoshio (blue tide).
Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanism of the production of oxygen-deficient
water and its behaviour in the coastal region. In the present study, numerical simulations were carried
out to reproduce the behaviour of oxygen-deficient water in Tokyo Bay and Ariake Bay, for both of
which are typical enclosed bays in Japan and the immediate measure to recover their ecosystem is
expected. The employed numerical model follows three-dimensional z-coordinate system
incorporated with pelagic and benthic ecosystem model. Some of the parameterizations were
examined such as re-aeration, light penetration along the water column, vertical layer collocation, and
so on. It is clarified that model could basically reproduce the behaviour of oxygen-deficient water in
the target area, however, some of the parameterizations could affect the simulation results.
A-49
CST-6B: Coastal Environment
TRANSMITTANCE OF LIGHT PIPE FOR ECOLOGICAL
CONSERVATION OF LARGE FLOATING STRUCTURE
Toshimasa Kawanishi, Tatuya Mukouyama, Satoshi Enomo,
Tasuku Ohino and Sachie Akahane
Nihon University
College of Science and Technology
Funabashi, Chiba, JAPAN
[email protected]
Recently, attention has shifted to using the marine environment more effectively, with
particular emphasis on large floating structures constructed on the sea surface. However,
since these structures will cast shadows that extend several kilometers along the seafloor, it
is thought that the lack of light will have a negative impact on the marine ecosystem. By
experimentally measuring the transmittance of a small light pipe model, we estimated the
amount of light that would pass through such light pipes if they were incorporated in large
floating structures of the type being conceptualized. We also sought to determine how
much light would penetrate the seawater under these structures and reach the seabed within
the context of ecological conservation. In addition to the performance of the light pipe, we
measured how much ultraviolet radiation and visible light would penetrate through the
water.
PURIFICATION EXPERIMENT OF WATER QUALITY
BY USING COHESIVE POWDER
Kyoichi Okamoto and Kenji Hotta
Nihon University, Oceanic Architecture and Engineering
Funabashi, Chiba, JAPAN
[email protected]
Recently, water pollution displays high density Chemical Oxygen Demand and various
equipments for purification is being proposed. But it is difficult to process activated sludge
using microorganism. Here, attention is paid to cohesive powder. Now, since it is
necessary to set up the processing facilities on land to process sludge with cohesive
powder, it is very expensive. In this research, our object is to examine the effect of water
quality purification of an artificial lake in the condition of a relatively rapid increase in the
population of phytoplankton algae, as the first step in applying it to the ocean, by using
cohesive powder. For executing this experiment, we developed mixing equipment for
cohesive powder that is small and portable. As a result, we obtained a very good water
quality purification effect, since the cohesive powder condensed the pollution material and
it subsided.
A-50
CST-7A: Sustainable Coastal Development
COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MYANMAR
Nyi Nyi Lwin
River and Coastal Engineering Department
Myanmar Maritime University
Thanlyin, MYANMAR
The coastal zone is the interface between the land and the sea and associated with the highest
biological diversity of any part of the sea. Tidal marshes, mangroves, wetlands, lagoons,
estuaries, sea grass beds, coral reefs and shallow bays are nursery or feeding grounds for
marine species and they are valuable ecosystems. However, over exploitation of resources,
economic difficulties, high population pressure, in addition to loosed management make
serious impact on coastal ecosystem. Myanmar is rich in natural resources and possesses a
long coastline of more than 2000 km with three distinct coastal regions, namely Rakhine,
Ayeyarwaddy Delta and Taninthayi. She faces some coastal environmental problems so that
sustainable management of marine living and non living resources is vital for the
development of the country. The objective of this paper is to analyze the root causes of
coastal environmental problems and how to overcome it, to promote awareness on coastal
resources and coastal zone management, and to ensure optimum sustainable use of natural
resources.
COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT WITH SPECIAL
REFERENCE TO MANGROVES OF MYANMAR
U Ohn
Forest Resource Environment Development and Conservation Association
MYANMAR
The paper sets out with an introduction to the coastal dwellers and living biomass and how
they are dependent upon the ocean for their living. Relationship between mangroves and
marine catch and the life cycles of marine species in the mangrove habitat is highlighted.
Dynamic and fragile Mangroves with their related ecosystems such as sea grass and coral
reefs are described in some detail. Distribution of Myanmar's mangrove forest and underlying
basic problems have been addressed. General view on Community Forestry and related
Community Forestry Instructions (CFI) is included and some important points elaborated.
Mangrove Project activities presently being undertaken are also included. Issues and
challenges in redressing the degraded mangroves are discussed in the light of current social,
economic and environmental trends. The paper concludes with emphasis on the importance
of local community involvement and participation for sustainable development and effective
conservation of coastal natural resources.
A-51
CST-7A: Sustainable Coastal Development
COASTAL RESOURCES OF ECONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL
IMPORTANCE FROM MYEIK ARCHIPELAGO
AND STATUS OF THEIR EXPLOITATION
Htay Aung1 and U Myint Oo2
1
2
Department of Marine Science, Myeik University, MYANMAR
Department of Marine Administration, Myeik Tanintharyi Division, MYANMAR
The coastal and marine environment of Myeik Archipelago has been recognized as being rich
in fauna and flora through coastal biodiversity research studies. Forty-five species of fish,
shell fish and marine invertebrate, and fifteen species of mangrove plant and seaweed are
explained to hold deep social and economic importance to this day. Such like bioresource
systems, coral reef and mangrove habitats are also found to be abundant and fringing outer
and inner islands respectively. Their role in sustaining the growth of fisheries industries and
development potential of ecotourism sector in the region are highlighted. Uses of coastal land
mass, islands’ nearby waters, and water ways by various economic efforts, agriculture, tin
mining, forest cuttings, fisheries, aquaculture and transportation in particular, are reviewed,
and resource reduction issues, conflicts introduced and sources of pollution are discussed.
Need of integrated coastal zone management in the region is suggested based on the basic
principles of sustainable socio economic development of the region.
CONSERVING A UNIQUE CORAL ISLAND
(PULAU PERAK) IN THE STRAITS OF MALACCA, MALAYSIA
Y.A. Affendi and T. Badrul Huzaimi
Universiti Malaya Maritime Research Centre
Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
[email protected]
Coral reef research in Peninsular Malaysia has mainly been concentrated on the east coast
with little emphasis on the Straits of Malacca. Reports on the status of coral reefs especially
for Pulau Perak are scarce. The coral reef of this island is extremely important, more so than
their east coast counterparts. This is due to the fact that there are only a few remaining coral
reef ecosystems in the Straits of Malacca. Therefore studies were done to document the status
of these reef in August 2004, and two Post Tsunami Impact Assessment Reef Surveys
(POSTIARS) in January 2005 and January 2006. From the surveys it showed that the island
has a very unique reef structure if compared to other coral reefs in Peninsular Malaysia. This
is due to it being a sheer 90 degrees drop-off to 34m, levels off for 5m before dropping off
again. Underwater horizontal visibility was 50m and 35m vertically. About 80% of the coral
cover was dominated by the encrusting coral growth type. Ideas for conservation are
proposed.
A-52
CST-7A: Sustainable Coastal Development
THE ENVIRONMENT FORMATION AND THE CHARACTERISTICS
OF THE SITE FOR FISHING PORTS
Takamasa Miyazaki 1 , Masayuki Suga 2 ,
Musaku Oi 2 and Kiminori Nakazawa 1
1
College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University
Narashino, Chiba, JAPAN
[email protected]
2
Nihon Bunri University, Oita, Oita, JAPAN
[email protected]
This study researches the characteristics of historical fishery areas that have withstood a
series of land use conversions to residential and commercial usage from heavy industrial
usage and their effective utilization. In this paper we clarify the difference in the
regional structure between the vast landfill area in the metropolis and the fishery area
with the surroundings of the fishery coop and fishing houses in light of the status of land
use, the situation of fishing-house sites, and its legal aspects. We investigated the
possibility of the enviroment formation plan that connects the oceanic area, the coastal
line, and the port/bay area, and the urban inland area. This study revealed that the
organic system which such a fishery area held was important for its high potential in the
landfill that had been constructed in the seaside area. We believe that the effective
utilizaion of such an organically formed fishery area is crucial for the plan to be
realized.
CST-7B: Sustainable Coastal Development
HARNESSING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION
TECHNOLOGIES FOR INTERNATIONAL WATERS MANAGEMENT
IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
Richard T. Cooper
Southeast Asia Regional Learning Centre
Southeast Asia START Regional Centre, Chulalongkorn University
Bangkok, THAILAND
[email protected]
This paper presents work in progress on applying information and communication
technologies (ICT) to developing the Southeast Asia Regional Learning Centre
(SEA-RLC). The SEA-RLC is an ICT-based environmental project that seeks to build
capacity in managing international waters, and is the Southeast Asia regional component
of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) International Waters project called
IW:LEARN (http://www.iwlearn.net). The chief aim of the SEA-RLC is to foster
information exchange and networking through improved online access to environmental
information and communication technologies. The SEA-RLC focuses on delivering open
source ICT solutions and project management services to GEF-funded projects and
partners, but also welcomes collaboration with other stakeholders in the region. To date
an online portal for sharing information has been developed using the Plone content
management system (http://www.iwsea.org), and development of web GIS-based
environmental databases offer important new sources of information for water resource
management efforts. Project management services focus on developing additional
information resources which will be released online over the coming years.
A-53
CST-7B: Sustainable Coastal Development
MARINE PROVINCIALISM ANALYSIS
OF MACROALGAL DISTRIBUTION IN MALAYSIA
Lean-Sim Ooi Jillian1, Ching-Lee Wong2 and Siew-Moi Phang3
1
2
Geography Department, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Malaya
Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
[email protected]
Faculty of Engineering & Science, Setapak Campus, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman
Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
3
Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya
Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
Seaweeds are non-flowering, photosynthetic marine plants that possess plant-like features but
are only remotely related to land plants, and are good organisms to use to delineate marine
provinces because their benthic nature allows for a clearer reflection of provincialism.
Malaysia, included in the Indo-West Pacific tropical region as defined by Ekman (1953) and
Briggs (1974), harbors the highest diversity of coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves.
However, the Malaysian coastline may be divided into smaller spatial units or provinces in
order to better understand the distribution patterns of the marine biota. This paper will
examine the large-scale distribution patterns of seaweeds along the Malaysian coastline with
emphasis on diversity and provincialism. The findings of this research bear applied
significance particularly in the selection of marine protected areas, with the rationale that
these areas should necessarily coincide with marine centres of endemism.
REHABILITATION OF ABANDONED SHRIMP PONDS
THROUGH MANGROVE PLANTING AT NAKHONSI THAMMARAT,
THAILAND
Shigeru Kato1, Songob Panitchat2, Savettachat Boonming2,
Viroj Teratnatorn2 and Sanit Aksornkoae3
1
2
Department of Materials and Life Science, Faculty of Science and Technology
Seikei University, Tokyo, JAPAN
[email protected]
Dept. of Marine and Coastal Resources, Ministry of Natural Resources, THAILAND
3
Thailand Environmental Institute, Bangkok, THAILAND
A Mangrove forest is very important for subtropical and tropical people and the earth
environment. Four million mangrove plants were planted in abandoned shrimp ponds of
800ha since 1998 at NakhonSi Thammarat, Thailand. Planted mangrove plants have fantastic
growth. Fishermen informed us that planted mangrove plants at abandoned shrimp pond sites
has increased crabs, shells, shrimps and fish populations. We studied the complete food chain
system of mangrove plantations on shrimp pond sites by using a Nitrogen stable isotope
analysis (Оґ15N) in fish samples. The obtained analysis data clearly indicates that heavy
Nitrogen (15N) is gradually accumulated in each stage during the food chain system and
finally in large fish (final stage of fish classification). We observed the cycle takes place by at
least four stages.
A-54
CST-7B: Sustainable Coastal Development
SAMPLED UP-WELLING CURRENT AREAS
AND THE SITE FOR FISHING PORTS
Kiminori Nakazawa, Kazuo Mitsui, Yasukazu Nishi,
Takamasa Miyazaki, Susumu Ishii and Takuji Sakai
College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University
Narashino, Chiba, JAPAN
[email protected]
Recently the practical use of ocean resources such as creation of fishing sites with
man-made up-welling current, and the utilization of deep sea water, is attracting
attention in various fields. With this in mind, we examined simulations of up-welling
current for generating fishing grounds sites using the theory of cellular automaton. Thus
this study explores the creation of fishing grounds sites in terms of the relations between
the calculated results and the site for fishing grounds and fishing ports. We discovered a
certain connection between the areas of up-welling current and fishing grounds from the
result of our research. We examined the relations between fishing grounds and fishing
ports according to a model calculation of the sampled area of up-welling current off
shore of the Chiba Prefecture. From our research it will be plausible to suggest creating
fishing grounds by constructing artificial reefs in the oceanic area in which the property
of vertical current velocity is high, and to focus on servicing the nearby fishing ports.
CST-7C: Sustainable Coastal Development
SEAWEED BED RECLAMATION EXPERIMENT USING VERTICAL
SEAWALL AT INNER PART OF OSAKA BAY
Machi Haseda 1 , Yasunori Kozuki 1 , Junya Miyoshi 2 ,
Daisuke Shibata 3 , Kanako Yamaguchi 1 , Tatsunori Ishida 1 ,
Yuki Miyachi 4 and Hitoshi Murakami 1
1
Department of Ecosystem Engineering, The University of Tokushima
Tokushima-city, Tokushima, JAPAN
[email protected]
2
National institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Kure-city, Hiroshima, JAPAN
3
Japan Port Consultants, Ltd., Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, JAPAN
4
Sohgoh Kagaku Inc., Chuo-ku, Osaka, JAPAN
More than 95% of the coastline of Osaka Bay that enclosed sea area, is surrounded with
artificial structures by land reclamation. Due to the decreasing transparency of the sea
water by eutrophication, the seaweed beds have almost completely disappeared. In this
study, we tried to reconstruct a seaweed ecosystem for the environmental restoration in
the inner part of Osaka Bay. We set up some terraces on the side of vertical seawall; the
Brown seaweed, Undaria pinnatifida grew there. As a result, U. pinnatifida grew up on
all terraces and the small fauna living symbiotically with seaweed was increased. Among
them, the Gammaridean amphipods, Grammaridea and the ghost shrimps, Caprellidea
were the dominant. Phytal animal biomass tended to increase as standing crop of U.
pinnatifida was increased. This experiment shows that seaweed bed ecosystem is able to
be reclaimed on the terraces of a vertical seawall in the enclosed sea area where the light
penetration was limited.
A-55
CST-7C: Sustainable Coastal Development
THE DESIGNATED UNUSED LAND
IN THE LAND-FILL OF THE METROPOLITAN SEASIDE AREA
Sumiko Yokobori, Takamasa Miyazaki and Masayuki Suga
College of Industrial Technology
Nihon University
Chiba, JAPAN
[email protected]
The aim of this study is to analyze the cause of stagnant land use in Japan’s metropolitan
coastal areas, and to search for the model of its improvement. We believe that the disorder of
the overlapping legal system originates of the inactive land-use in the area. We examined the
relationship between the analysis of the method of understanding the status of recycling and
the emergence of the designated unused land, and the history of the land fill according to the
combination of land-use conversion of every five years in the Osaka metropolitan coastal
area. The study resulted in the discovery that the emergence rate of designated unused land is
higher in the newer land-fill areas than in the older ones. Also, between 1980 and 1999 the
rate of recycling is low, and the rate is high before that period.
TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT
OF MYEIK (MERGUI) ARCHIPELAGO
Swe Thwin
Department of Marine Science
University of Mawlamyine
Yangon, MYANMAR
Myeik (Mergui) Archipelago represents an archipelago system which covers a maritime area
of approximately 36,000 km2 out to the 200m isobath. The archipelago is composed of some
800 islands which represents the exposed peaks of several submerged ridges. Few islands are
populated with small fishing communities, and the major tribal groups include the Mokan
(sea gypsies) Vast majority of the islands are unpopulated. Major threats to the area include
illegal fishing and illegal logging. specific threats include dynamite fishing and other forms
of non sustainable fishing. In addressing these issues the major constraints encountered are
lack of resources, data and absence of an institutional frame work, which would allow for a
coordinated approach leading to their resolution. The following activities are proposed: (1)
addressing data gaps (2) updating of existing environmental baseline (3) developing
monitoring systems (4) increasing public awareness (4) developing alternate livelihood
activist designed to mitigate existing non sustainable activities.
A-56
CST-7C: Sustainable Coastal Development
WATER PURIFICATION EXPERIMENTS BY MICRO BUBBLE
Ryuta Matsui, Kyoichi Okamoto and Kenji Hotta
Nihon University, Oceanic Architecture and Engineering
Funabashi, Chiba, JAPAN
[email protected]
An enclosed water area, such as lake and marshes, is falling into permanently deficiency of
oxygen at the bottom, caused by water pollution. Here, micro bubble technology has been
used for an oyster farm, and it is reported being very good effect on growth by it. On the
other side, micro bubble has also been applied to water purification but the purification
effects are not clear because of influence by external loads, such as rain and inflow from
rivers. In this study, our object is to examine the effects on purification quality in case of
injecting pure oxygen by micro bubble device for the purpose of reduce of time. As a result,
we obtained very good effects.
CST-8: Coastal Hazards
DAMAGE DUE TO EARTHQUAKE TSUNAMIS
AND COUNTERMEASURES AGAINST DISASTERS
IN FISHERY AREAS
Koji Otsuka1, Toshiaki Ito2, Takashi Nakamura2, Masao Kishino1,
Takahiro Kazama1 and Shigeki Nakamura1
1
The Japanese Institute of Technology on Fishing Ports, Grounds and Communities
Tokyo, JAPAN
[email protected]
2
Fishery Agency, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tokyo, JAPAN
Japan is frequently damaged by tsunamis caused by earthquakes. The Japanese word
“tsunami” is now widely used as the common technical term in the world. In recent years,
some fishery areas have suffered major damages due to earthquake tsunamis. Fishery areas
are located in coastal area therefore are the most sensible to these disasters. The purpose of
this study is to identify the problems and to propose countermeasures against these disasters
in fishery areas. We examined some cases with earthquake tsunami damages, and analyzed
the results. The result has shown the importance of three main actions to take measures
against these disasters. The first is to secure safety of local population, workers, and visitors.
The second is to improve the disaster prevention level of fishing ports and fishing villages.
The third is to secure marine products distribution function in time of disaster. According to
this result, JAPAN Fishery Agency has created a guideline for countermeasures against
disasters in fishery areas, and has spread it to the whole fishery regions countrywide.
A-57
CST-8: Coastal Hazards
HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS IN THE COASTAL WATERS
OF THE SOUTH CHINA SEA
DanLing Tang*, SuFen Wang and BoPing Di
Laboratory for Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics
South China Sea Institute of Oceanology
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, CHINA
[email protected]
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) occurred frequently in the South China Sea (SCS), causing
huge economic losses in recent years. This study reviewed historical HAB records for the
period 1980 to 2003, focusing on four major regions of the SCS: northern, southern, western
and eastern. The annual variations of HABs were different among the four regions: 1990 and
1991 were high frequent years in the northern region, HABs occurred almost every year in
the eastern and western regions, and 2000 was a peak year in the southern region. The
seasonality of HABs also differed among the four regions, and HAB causative species were
diverse: Noctiluca scintillans dominated the northern region and Pyrodinium bahamens was
in the eastern and southern regions while Trichodesmium erythraeum often bloomed in the
western region. Variations of HAB in the SCS are likely related to regional ocean
environments such as reversed monsoon wind in the SCS, river discharges in the northern
area, summer upwelling in Vietnam coastal water, and eutrophication in the Manila Bay.
POTENTIAL NATURAL HAZARDS
IN THE MYANMAR COASTAL AREAS
Win Swe and San Hla Thaw
Myanmar Earthquake Committee
Myanmar Engineering Society
Hlaing University Campus
Yangon, MYANMAR
Located in the active Alpine seismic belt and enjoying the tropical monsoon climate,
Myanmar coastal areas are certainly vulnerable to seismic- and climate-related natural
hazards. Earthquakes, tsunamis, and other related seismic hazards such as liquefaction and
ground failure could occur in the area for being located close to the active Sumatran
subduction zone. Landslides could be triggered by local heavy rains other than by
earthquake shaking or liquefaction, all of which may be aided by local mud volcanism and
chaotic bed-rock structures, particularly in the west Myanmar coastal region. Cyclones, storm
surges, floods and mudslides are imminent natural hazards with the Myanmar coast exposed
directly to the south and southwest monsoon winds coming from the Indian Ocean in summer.
Past experiences indicated that these hazards are considerably destructive in some years. Now
that the coastal population is increasing very rapidly due to the fast growing economic
activities, it becomes necessary to urge the local community to be more aware of and to
prepare safety counter-measures for prevention and mitigation of these hazards.
A-58
CST-8: Coastal Hazards
THE INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI OF 26 DECEMBER 2004 MYANMAR EXPERIENCES
Tun Lwin1 and Zin Aung2
1
Myanmar Earthquake Committee
Department of Meteorology and Hydrology
Yangon, MYANMAR
dg.dmh@mptmail.net.mm, tun.dmh@mptmail.net.mm
2
Department of Meteorology and Hydrology, Yangon, MYANMAR
During the devastating event in December 2004 of the Indian Ocean tsunami, Myanmar suffered a
death total of 61 people and a damage loss of 641 homes, which was far less than imagined compared
to the extent of damage suffered in Thailand, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and India. This study compiled
tsunami height data and the extent of damage obtained from both domestic and international field
survey teams who went to the affected areas. Using the Storm Surge Prediction Statistical Model
developed by the Department of Meteorology and Hydrology, the approaching tsunami wave speed to
Myanmar was in the order of 65-70 km/hr. The study investigated the contributable causes for the
different in timing due to shallow water coastline, seismic gap, the still inhabited small islands along
the subduction zone in Myanmar waters, unspoiled mangrove along the coastline, the geomorphology
of the Andaman Sea, and the orientation of the subduction zone between the Indian Plate and
Myanmar(Burma) micro-plate. This study also discusses the possibility of another strong earthquake
along the Sagaing Fault line which runs north-south across Myanmar.
TSUNAMI HAZARD MAPPING OF THE HAWAIIAN EEZ
Myo Thant
Suntac Technologies, Ltd.
Myanmar Info-Tech
Hlaing University
Yangon, MYANMAR
mymtan@m7.lian.ne.jp, act.suntac@myanmar.com.mm
Preparation of Tsunami Hazard Map in advance could be one of the most significant elements to
reduce (minimize) damage in tsunami hazardous area. By prediction of the possible tsunami scale and
the potential inundation area, it is possible to establish security measures for reducing the damage in
concrete form and in an easy-to-understand manner. Similar measures have been developed,
improved, and the results are published for the public in Japan before. At the Tsunami in Indian
Ocean from the Sumatra Earthquake, on 26 December 2004, if there had been tsunami hazard map
prepared in advance and informed about it to the people, the damage would have been considerably
minimized. In this paper we are going to propose the methodology to prepare a GIS based hazard map
for reducing the damage of tsunami. The process of developing hazard map involves: (1) establishing
digital terrain model, (2) selecting possible earthquake, (3) performing tsunami simulation,
(estimating inundation area), and (4) creating tsunami hazard maps. We are going to present the
functionality of GIS software as tools for disaster prevention or damage reduction.
A-59
CST-8: Coastal Hazards
TSUNAMI HEIGHTS AND DAMAGE ALONG THE MYANMAR COAST
FROM THE DECEMBER 2004 SUMATRA-ANDAMAN EARTHQUAKE
Kenji Satake1, Than Tin Aung1, Yuki Sawai1, Yokinobu Okamura1, Kyaw Soe Wing2, Win Swe3,
Chit Swe4, Tint Lwin Swe4, Soe Thura Tun5,
Maung Maung Soe6, Thant Zin Oo6, and Saw Htwe Zaw7
1
Geological Survey of Japan, AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, JAPAN
Graduate School of Earth and Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya, JAPAN
3
Myanmar Geoscience Society, Yangon, MYANMAR
4
Engineering Geology Department, Yangon Technological University, Yangon, MYANMAR
5
University of Yangon, Yangon, MYANMAR
6
Meteorology and Hydrology Department, Yangon, MYANMAR
7
Myanmar Engineering Society, Yangon, MYANMAR
2
Tsunami heights from the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake were between 0.4 to 2.9m along the
Myanmar coast, according to our post tsunami survey at 22 sites along the Ayeyarwaddy Delta and
the Tanintharyi coast. Coastal resident interviews indicate the tsunami heights were lower than high
tide level in rainy season, probably by storm surge. They also testified that arrival times were
between 2 and 5.5. hours after the earthquake but the reliability may be low because nobody felt
ground shaking. The neighboring Thai coast had tsunami heights of 5 - 20 m, and explains relatively
slighter tsunami damage in Myanmar: reported casualties were 71, compared to about 8300 in
Thailand. The smaller tsunami could be that the main tsunami source did not extend to Andaman
islands. The tsunami travel times and maximum heights computed from a 700 km long source are
basically consistent with the observations. The tsunami hazard would be more significant in Myanmar
because coastal homes are unprotected for tsunami and no infrastructure exists to disseminate tsunami
warning information.
MRMD-1: Marine Policy, Law, and Government
IMPLEMENTATION OF MARITIME LAWS IN MYANMAR
Khin Mar Yi
Law Department, Yangon University
Yangon, MYANMAR
Since Myanmar is one of the coastal States with long coastlines and one of the large seafarer supply
countries in maritime business, its existing national maritime laws are important. To comply with its
international obligations in the maritime field, Myanmar has to establish appropriate infrastructures to
enable it to discharge its responsibilities both as a flag state and as a port state. The Myanmar
Merchant Shipping Act 1923 is an existing law with three amendments (1989, 1999 and 2003) as per
requirements of new Conventions. A government’s acceptance places on it the obligation to take the
measures required by the convention, which frequently involves the enactment or amendment of
national law to implement and enforce the provisions of the convention. In some cases, special
facilities may have to be provided or an inspectorate may have to be appointed or trained to carry out
functions under the Convention. Myanmar has been ratified eight (8) Conventions which were
adopted by IMO.
A-60
MRMD-1: Marine Policy, Law, and Government
PERCEPTIONS OF COASTS IN GERMANY
Hans von Storch
Institute for Coastal Research
GKSS Research Center
GERMANY
Hans.von.Storch@gkss.de
Coastss in Germany have undergone significant changes in the past centuries and decades. In
the past, the usage of the coastal seas was mostly unregulated, but nowadays a detailed
planning of the coast sea area is prepared, with regulated usage in different parts, such as
natural preservation, shipping, tourism and wind energy. This transformation did not happen
without broad public debates and conflicts. These conflicts were based on very different
perceptions of what the coast is and what it should be. In this talk, an attempt is made to list
and describe different perceptions for the German coasts.
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN MYANMAR OFFSHORE
PETROLEUM EXPLORATION
Soe Myint
Energy Planning Department
Ministry of Energy
myanmoe@mptmail.net.mm
This paper will present aout Energy including George W. Bush’s addressed on the State of
Union (Dec 2005), Myanmar’s Biodiesel Programme, World Primary Energy Substitution,
World Primary Energy Demand, Crude Oil Prices since 1861, Increasing Energy Demand in
neighboring countries. Concerning the Myanmar’s Petroleum Geology the paper included Oil
and Gas bearing Areas of Myanmar, Giants of Myanmar, Lesser Gas Fields, Oil & Gas
Fields, Pipelines, Refineries and Petrochemical Plants, Yadana Gas Field, Yetagun Gas Field.
The paper also present about Recent Developments in Myanmar Offshore Petroleum
Exploration and concluded with the Future Programme of “Deep Water Blocks”.
A-61
MRMD-1: Marine Policy, Law, and Government
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BLUEFIN TUNA FISHING GROUNDS
AND EDDY ACTIVITY
Tatsunobu Matsuda1, Takeshi Yamane1, Hayumi Yamada2 and Masahiko Mohri3
1
2
3
Kinki University, Graduate School of Agriculture
Nara Pref., JAPAN
ralix_f@yahoo.co.jp
National Research Institute of Far Seas Fisheries, Fisheries Research Agency
Shizuoka Pref., JAPAN
Department of Fishery Science and Technology, National Fisheries University
Yamaguchi Pref., JAPAN
To maintain a stable supply of tuna, it is necessary to determine its present quantity and to
promote efficient fishing and resource management. Quantifying tuna resources and
determining its marine environment is very difficult because tuna migrates in to wide areas of
the ocean. But, in recent years, the development of remote-sensing techniques provided
useful data in relation to the sea surface variations such as sea surface temperature and sea
surface height. It is possible from the analysis of the satellite altimetry data to estimate the
variation of sea surface current and the eddy activity. The purpose in this study is to
demonstrate the relationship between eddy activity obtained from the satellite data and
Bluefin tuna’s fishing ground.
THE BLUE EVOLUTION
Kenji Hotta1 and Patrick Takahashi2
1
Nihon University
College of Science and Technology
Department of Oceanic Architecture and Engineering
Chiba, JAPAN
hotta@ocean.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp
2
Hawaii Natural Energy Institute
University of Hawaii at Manoa
Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
ptakahas@hawaii.edu
Some think that marine riches are to be plundered and many feel the ocean should only be
preserved and protected. There is really only one best policy: to intelligently develop our
resources in harmony with the environment for the benefit of humanity. Fifteen years ago, not
long after the sudden availability of the Peace Dividend, a term was coined for all of this –
The Blue Evolution. Well, it has turned out that, like most good things, they take time to
attain. New fisheries are finally being considered, floating platform technology is causing a
renaissance of sorts for floating casinos and sea worlds, and marine biotechnology is
beginning to actually deliver commercial products. Before we colonize the Moon and Mars, it
might well be more practical and economical to consider the next frontier: the ocean around
us. A more appropriate term to perhaps better describe the reality is The Blue Evolution.
A-62
MRMD-4: Marine Recreation and Tourism
MYANMAR TRADITIONAL BOATS AND THE SOURCE
OF DEVELOPMENT OF INLAND WATER TRANSPORT
Charlie Than
Myanmar Maritime University
Yangon, MYANMAR
charliethan@mmu.gov.mm
The field of Myanmar Boats and Legends as well as Boats tradition and Flotilla in Myanmar
History is a vast and interesting knowledge. The paper of this kind of knowledge is extremely
for Myanmar Maritime History and Culture. In this paper, the author has mentioned various
categories about Myanmar Boats and has been portrayed so that the readers can easily catch
the various kinds of Myanmar Traditional Boats. It also elaborated about the largest inland
steamers ever use in the world in the middle of nineteenth century. The coastal area and
Ayerwaddy valley is most interesting area for the tourists in Myanmar for historically and
environmentally reasons. The author tries to mention brief account of that area base on
maritime transport and waterways start from Bagan Dynasty. This paper is also a collective
work of various Myanmar Boats historical data and Myanmar culture and such essential data
are included to portray.
SOUND ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE
IN COASTAL MARINE TOURISM
Kyoko Yamazaki, Kenji Hotta and Kyoichi Okamoto
Nihon University, College of Science and Technology
Department of Oceanic Architecture and Engineering
Funabashi, Chiba, JAPAN
m0406023ss@edu.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp
Sound of coastal wave is the one of most attractive resources in the coastal area. The recent
physiological studies regarding the sound stimuli for environment assessment suggest that
ultrasonic wave contained in sound has a function to alleviate the feeling of unpleasant
toward the surrounding environmental conditions. In reality, there have been some reports
that the sounds having plentiful ultrasonic wave, such as the sound of the sea waves and folk
music, activated the neurological activities at the depths of the brain and increased alpha
wave in the brain waves, which often appears when the person is relaxed. In this paper, in
order to examine the effect of ultrasonic wave to the human, using coastal wave sound, brain
analysis was conducted. As a result, it was obtained that Ultrasonic Wave stimuli make alpha
wave vital. Finally, as a coastal marine tourism, application of this result will be discussed.
A-63
MRMD-4: Marine Recreation and Tourism
THALASSA-THERAPY: NEW COASTAL FACILITY
FOR RECREATION AND HEALTH CARE
Hiroki Takamine, Kenichirou Ohshima, Kouta Iseki,
Kenji Hotta and Kyouichi Okamoto
Nihon University, College of Science and Technology
Department of Oceanic Architecture and Engineering
Chiba, JAPAN
Zofy_mine@yahoo.co.jp
It is said that Thalassa-therapy is a global concept of sea water treatments and services,
entirely dedicated to health, fitness, well being and beauty. The main characteristic of the
coastal climate is its purity. The dominant winds coming straight from the sea are free of dust
and pollution. Moreover, this fresh air is loaded with sea spray (negative ion), relieves
congestion and clears the breathing passages. The sea regulates the changes in temperature
between seasons so that the differences of the day are minimal. Thalassa-therapy is a
traditional way of health treatment using the above coastal characteristics. However, except
for some areas, effects of Thalassa-therapy have not been scientifically verified yet. In order
to examine the effect of negative ion, experiment was conducted and as a result some useful
effects were obtained. In this paper, after discussing Thalassa-therapy facility, results of
experiment on the negative ion to the human body will be presented.
THE CONSERVATION STRATEGIES OF DONGSHA (PRATAS)
NAIONAL MARINE PARK, TAIWAN
Wen-Yan Chiau
Professor, Institute of Marine Resource Management
National Taiwan Ocean University
Keelung City, TAIWAN
chiau@mail.ntou.edu.tw
The Dongsha (Pratas) Islands are located about 240 nautical miles southwest of Kaohsiung City on
the southwestern coast of Taiwan. The group of islands is actually a reef atoll and has long been an
important fishing ground. After several decades of military control, only a few field surveys have
been done. The most comprehensive study on its ecosystem and natural environment started in 1994.
Recently, some research projects initiated to explore the underwater cultural heritage in the area.
Those research projects show that the Dongsha Islands possess abundant natural and cultural
resources both on the islands themselves and in the surrounding waters. However, destructive fishing
practices, the threat of tourism development, and the enforcement of marine resources protection have
become major issues concerning the sustainable development of the Dongsha Islands. Based on the
IUCN-WCPA-EA Yangminshan Declaration, establishing Dongsha as a marine protected area (MPA)
is believed to be a feasible way to conserve the marine resources and provide mutual benefits for both
Taiwan and the region. In this regard, the government of Taiwan commits to establish a national
marine park in Dongsha in the near future. This paper will demonstrate the results of recent research
projects and explores the relevant issues. Several policies and strategies for the sustainable
management of the proposed Dongsha Marine Park are also set forth in this paper.
A-64
MRMD-4: Marine Recreation and Tourism
THE INLAND WATER TRANSPORT OF MYANMAR
Win Thein
Inland Water Transport
Ministry of Transport, MYANMAR
info-iwt@mot.gov.mm
The Inland Water Transport of Myanmar is one of the state-owned enterprises under the
Ministry of Transport, and is a leading river transport operator providing a range of services in
transporting nearly 25 million passengers and 4 million tons of cargo yearly. Altogether 516
vessels and barges of the I.W.T are plying along 7493 service route miles the length and
breadth of the country. The forerunner of the present I.W.T was the Irrawaddy Flotilla
Company Limited set up in 1865. The I.W.T has 7 departments and 6 dockyards. It is serving
all walks of life and trying its utmost for the development of Myanmar. The I.W.T is planning
and taking necessary measures to develop its vessels to be of greater speed and its barges to be
container carriers to meet with the growing demand of the developing Union of Myanmar.
WKSP-1: Education in Marine Science and Technology
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION
OF AN INTEGRATED ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR
Yihuai Hu1 and Yekyaw2
1
Merchant Marine College
Shanghai Maritime University
Shanghai, CHINA
yhhu@shmtu.edu.cn
2
Myanmar Maritime University
Yangon, MYANMAR
With rapid development in marine automation technologies, more requirements are demanded for new
design of marine power plant in shipbuilding and new teaching method for seafarers and Bachelor
degree students majored in marine engineering. This paper introduces the layout of an integrated
engine room simulator, which includes FPP propulsive system, CPP propulsive system, electrical
power station and cargo handling system of oil tanker. Hardware construction of the whole system is
described including engine control consoles, electrical switchboard, pipeline MIMMC panel, cargo oil
handling console, bridge control console and instructor workstation. Mathematical models of complex
systems are introduced emphatically such as ship propulsion, propeller rotation, hydraulic clutch and
main diesel engine. Operational functions of simulation software are introduced in details. Teaching
courses of using this simulator to train marine engineer candidates are also introduced. The courses
include troubleshooting of malfunctions, team work operation among engineer officers, safety
management under emergency situations and communication skill of using oral English during
regular watch keeping operations in engine room.
A-65
WKSP-1: Education in Marine Science and Technology
EDUCATION ON MARINE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
IN MYANMAR
Charlie Than
Myanmar Maritime University
Yangon, MYANMAR
Myanmar is the maritime country among the ASEAN and it has very long coastline start from
boundary of Bangladesh to U Aung Zeya point (Victoria point) which is close to the Thai
border. Also there are two famous valleys in Myanmar known as Ayerwaddy and Sittaung
valley, where all our history was developed and City of Myanmar kingdom was situated.
According to this situation Myanmar Civilization is known as Hydric civilization and
Myanmar people were taken aware with river and coastal related professionals. The formal
education concern with marine was started in the middle of nineteenth century in lower
Myanmar with special concern with shipping, shipbuilding, port management and shipping
management. The Rangoon University was established in early year of twentieth century, the
Institute of Marine Technology was established 40 years ago, and Myanmar Maritime
University was established in 2002. This paper states the endeavor of the Myanmar people in
education of marine science and technology in relation to shipping, offshore oil and gas
exploration, port management, marine science, shipping management, fishery, etc.
WKSP-4: Ocean Observing Systems
OCEAN OBSERVING FROM BUOYS AND FIXED STATIONS
H.-D. Knauth
Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre
Geesthacht, GERMANY
Buoys have been applied for ocean observations since many years. However, in the last
decade more sophisticated electronics, less power-consuming microcomputers and effective
data communication techniques have pushed these systems from simple, research-oriented
devices to operational systems. One example is the global ARGO network that plays an
important role for climate research. Whereas in earlier years mainly meteorology and
temperature/salinity could be reliably monitored over longer periods in the last years, systems
which are able to measure chemical-biological parameters such as oxygen, phytoplankton and
even nutrients emerged. However, despite these new techniques very often bio-fouling
problems prevent long-term measurements of these parameters, especially in subtropical and
tropical regions. Very recently whole “real time coastal observing networks” were established
which combine different systems, e.g. buoys, coastal radar networks, and under water stations
which are connected by a network of underwater cables and fibre optic connections.
A-66
WKSP-4: Ocean Observing Systems
OCEAN OBSERVING FROM REGULAR SHIP CRUISES
F. Schroeder
Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre
Geesthacht, GERMANY
In the last decades automated ocean observing methods have been successfully developed.
Most of them consist of buoy systems. The disadvantages of such systems are the high costs
since maintenance has to be carried out by research ships. Due to bio-fouling problems this is
necessary every 1-6 months (depending on region, season and sensor). A more cost-effective
method is the application of ships of opportunity and ferry boats that are equipped with
automated sensor packages. The main advantages are 1) the lower costs (no ship costs), 2) the
easier maintenance in harbour and the more effective antifouling methods. Therefore, many
ships or opportunity and ferries have been equipped in the last years and are used for
monitoring, especially of coastal waters. The systems on board range from simple thermosalinographs to sophisticated packages for the determination of many chemical-biological
parameters. A comparison of different systems and several applications have been tested
within the European “FerryBox-Project” with 11 partners. The results showed that such ferrysystems are a cost-effective and reliable tool that complement other ocean observing systems
and have a high potential for operational monitoring.
SENSORS FOR OPERATIONAL OCEAN OBSERVING
F. Schroeder
Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre
Geesthacht, GERMANY
In the last decades different automated ocean observing methods have been successfully
developed. This includes stationary and drifting buoys, gliders, FerryBoxes, underwater
observatories and whole networks of combined systems. However, the backbone of all these
developments are reliable sensors for the measurement of physical, chemical and biological
relevant parameters. Whereas there are many sensors suitable for measurements in the lab
only few fulfil the requirements of pre-operational or even operational use. In the last years
some sensors emerged which are at the threshold of operational use. Among these are optical
sensors for the determination of algae, algal groups, algal structure and nitrate. Other,
“conventional” chemical techniques matured for a more regular and long-time use. On the
horizon are bio-technical sensors, e.g., gene probes etc. which do not yet have the necessary
stability but which will improve within the next 10 years.
A-67
Student Poster Session
A STUDY OF SPATIAL COGNITION
IN CHILDREN USING SKETCHED MAPS
Takuro Hanamura1, Satoshi Yamada1*, Setsuho Ouchi2 and Hirotomo Ohuchi3
1
Graduate School of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, JAPAN
Department of Education, College of Education, Soka University, JAPAN
3
Department of Architecture College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, JAPAN
*satoshi_los_hum@hotmail.com
2
In child development research, the relationship between child and his or her (children and
their) living environment is an important topic. This research conducted investigation on a
sketch map in order to consider the relation of the children and their living environment in a
developmental stage in Makuhari Baytown in 1999 and 2003. Change of the physical
environment in both years, change of the number of elements drawn on the sketch map, and
change of expression of a sketch map are compared and analyzed. And an environmental
change and the relation of space cognition which surround a child are considered. Moreover,
the range domain described by the child’s cognitive characteristics, as analyzed from the
map, were compared. The objective understanding of a child is enhanced at an earlier stage
by the spatial structure of Makuhari and the environmental changes, both of which consist of
grid patterns. The experience, everyday life, and spatial cognition of an elementary school or
a playground have a close relationship to the living environment that surrounds the child
based on coast.
COMPOSITION OF LANDSCAPE RECOGNITION
THAT USES VISUALIZATION MODEL BY LOCAL INHABITANTS
IN KAMAKURA
Tomohide Atsumi1, Satoshi Yamada1*, Nobutaka Shintani2 and Hirotomo Ohuchi3
1
Graduate School of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, JAPAN
2
College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, JAPAN
3
Department of Architecture College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, JAPAN
*satoshi_los_hum@hotmail.com
This paper studies residents' landscape recognition by 3-D visualized model on Kamakura
historical and coastal area. The 3-D visualized model bases on 3-D geographical feature
model and human visual recognition. The 3-D geographical feature model is formed with
GIS data by DEM (Digital Elevation Model. Human visual recognition is shown by a spread
of light which applied the inverse-square damping. These two factors are combined as a 3-D
shadow picture to study residents' landscape recognition. Comparing Explicate order and
Implicate order on the 3-D shading picture, discuss the recognition of residents regarding the
region (town, mountains, sea, landmark in the city, etc.), and describes constitution and
attribution of landscape recognitions and relationship with environmental recognition. The
landscapes produced by these two data sets were then compared to discern any similarities by
the conception of Explicate order and Implicate order. It is possible to research and to use this
in other regions done as a flow of a series of research by compared things as the evaluation
technique of a regional landscape with adaptability.
A-68
Student Poster Session
CONSTRUCTION OF THE VISUALIZATION MODEL
BY LANDSCAPE COGNITION
USING 3-DIMENSIONAL SHADE IMAGE
Satoshi Yamada1* and Hirotomo Ohuchi2
1
2
Graduate School of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, JAPAN
Dept. of Architecture College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, JAPAN
*satoshi_los_hum@hotmail.com
In recent years, there has been growing demand for planning techniques based on symbiosis
with the environment, and this has become an important issue for cooperative international
efforts in today's society. This paper is made into the object of analysis on the coastal fishing
villages in which the sea, a town, and a mountain are realized in one, and has complicated
geographical feature. A visible space is set up based on "3D geographical feature model using
the GIS data by DEM (Digital Elevation Model)", and "a spread of light which applied the
inverse-square damping which is approximation to man's visual recognition." The usefulness
of the shade picture reflecting the 3-D space information acquired by that is considered. As a
result, in the past, the method for making extend the visible space the understanding and the
measurement were difficult on the map (two dimensions) being, the technique made visible
as a space model converted into the 3-D shade image can be presented.
OUR COMMON FUTURE
Makoto Tajima1, Takuro Hanamura1, Satoshi Yamada1* and Hirotomo Ohuchi2
1
2
Graduate School of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, JAPAN
Department of Architecture College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, JAPAN
*satoshi_los_hum@hotmail.com
This idea is based on the work that was ranked in the top 12 in "Design competition
concerning development and control of the city construction" by AIJ, and had published in
JABS. In ancient Japan, mountain, city, and sea formed the physical and temporal linier
networks by mutual interpolation as keeping each autonomy concerning. However, the
relation between them had become thin and had transfigured to the function city by the
development of the technology and the pursuit of convenience. It can be said that the
development of the city is succession system to the next generation. In terms of the attribute
of the city, the change refers to even the time series variation, which is long as synchronize
the environment. This idea creates waterside, green space, and public space in a river basin,
where is connected by mountain, city, and sea as objectives for the development of the city
mainly in the environmental education. And it means the approval of "Society that nurture
environmental education".
A-69
Student Poster Session
RESEARCH ON THE CURRENT CONTROL FUNCTION
AND FISH AGGREGATION OF ARTIFICIAL REEF
Kaori Yasuoka
Graduate School of Engineering
Kagawa University
Kagawa, JAPAN
s06d405@stmail.eng.kagawa-u.ac.jp
In Japan, a number of various types of artificial reefs have been developed and settled to
create fishery ground for the fishery production enhancement in coastal and off shore marine
areas. There are many issues to be clarified about the suitable installation of artificial reefs,
such as the relation between flow conditions and the biological effect of them. A set of
technologies newly developed to enhance marine resources is introduced. It consists of a
hydraulic experiment and field research to select out the most appropriate shape for marine
habitat restoration and a new fisheries resources enhancement structure that embodies
multiple functions. I examined that the strong upward flow exists to the front of the panel
specially designed for the generation of the upwelling water. It was confirmed that the
effective area of vertical mixing reaches 20 times longer rearward than the structure height in
length. The set of technologies was applied to coastal areas and was verified to improve
biological environment in and around the fisheries resources enhancement structure.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF SUPERSTRUCTURE
ON FLOATING STRUCTURE
Koichi Maruyoshi1, Osamu Saijo2 and Hiroaki Eto3
1
Graduate School of Science and Technology
Department of Oceanic Architecture & Engineering, Nihon University, Chiba, JAPAN
d0403003rn@edu.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp
2
Dept. of Oceanic Architecture & Engineering, CST, Nihon University, Chiba, JAPAN
3
RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, JAPAN
A floating structural system has been expected as an effective utilization of oceanic space. It
is forecast that buildings will be constructed on a floating base for personal activities in the
future. The building in this study is called a superstructure. The goal of this study was to
establish the structural design of a superstructure in the architectural engineering field. We
carried out an exercise in the structural design of the superstructure used as a restaurant by
the allowable stress method controlled in the Japanese Building Code. The sections of the
members are designed due to fixed loads at the first stage and its horizontal load-carrying
capacity due to wind loads is estimated at the secondary stage. It’s important for a floating
structure to guarantee not only its structural safety but also its habitability because a floating
structure oscillates by wave and wind loads and human’s nerve is stimulated. The structural
safety and the habitability of the superstructure are evaluated due to the design waves for
100 year and 10 year return periods, respectively.
A-70
Student Poster Session
STUDY ON FRACTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DISTRICT
AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO ENVIRONMENTAL COGNITION
Hirokazu Takamasa, Satoshi Yamada*, Noriyuki Suzuki and Hirotomo Ohuchi
Dept. of Architecture College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, JAPAN
*satoshi_los_hum@hotmail.com
Cityscapes play both physical and social roles. Buildings comprise city blocks, which
comprise urban districts, which, in turn, form social systems. More than just physical
features, cityscapes shape the consciousness of the people who live there. In that sense, the
environment and the people mutually maintain order. A viable cityscape theory can be
formed only by explaining the structural principle of this influential relationship. This
research clarifies the related cognitive attribute (the cognitive region that consists of the total
consciousness of the city's inhabitants) and the complexity of each city district (the physical
environment that is based mainly on geographical factors). The analysis uses fractal theory,
since its analysis makes it possible to quantitatively measure complexity of an event and its
form. Analysis showed that the fractal dimension and cognitive strength and the arrangement,
form, and building height, are reflected as a formal complexity. This tends to affect
boundaries of the cognition region in terms of psychological quantity. From above analysis,
we determined that the correlativity of fractal dimension and cognitive provides appropriate
data for a viable cityscape theory.
STUDY ON RELATIONS OF WHARF STEEL-PILES CORROSION
AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
Chien-Ming Lo and Min-Der Lin
Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University
Taichung, TAIWAN
apple@mail.ihmt.gov.tw
Since steel-made structures of harbors such as wharf steel-piles, pipelines, and pull rods are
immersed in seawater, corrosion inevitably becomes a major threaten to these facilities.
Different corrosion rates are initiated by different seasonal, spatial and other environmental
influences. On-site inspections usually result in heavy economic burdens because the
requirement of long time investments of personnel, equipments and other resources. This
study employed regression analysis to analyze the correlation between characteristics of
seawater (e.g., conductivity, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH values, temperature,
chlorine concentration, etc.) and corrosion rates, which is estimated by the thickness of steelpiles. The wharfs No. 2 to No. 7 of Keelung harbor is used as the study area. The results
indicated that lower dissolved oxygen concentrations and/or pH values result in higher
corrosion rates. On the other hand, higher corrosion rates were observed at higher chlorine
concentrations. For steel-piles direction correlation analysis, the results revealed that the
corrosion rates of the concave and convex sides are both significantly correlated to dissolved
oxygen concentration, but the surface side is significantly correlated to chlorine
concentration.
A-71
Student Poster Session
SUSTAINABLE URBANISM IN TOKYO
Hidekazu Kikuchi, Satoshi Yamada* and Hirotomo Ohuchi
Graduate School of Industrial Technology
Nihon University, JAPAN
*satoshi_los_hum@hotmail.com
This proposal reconstructed the work awarded the Second Prize in "12th IFHP International
Student Competition 2005". The physical range of people's lives has developed along with
the environment. Waterside areas, such as sea, rivers, and waterways, have been an essential
part of life in Japan since ancient times. Surrounded by water, the object ground of Gyotoku
is typical of the cities in the Tokyo Bay area. The city is comprised of four layers that have
been gradually produced by reclamation plans. People are losing not only the relations
between their colony, the salt pan, and dry beach, but also the identity of the historical area
and Sanbanze. We have proposed that the waterside area, which is restructured using the
original water by pass system in order to restore the area of its original form. The intention of
this plan is to encourage people to think of their own lives, actions, and consciousness and
create a sustainable community with a sustainable design of space and form. As a result,
sustainable cities are created from relationships among many elements of the city.
THE ROLE OF PACON IN MARINE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Thein Zaw Nyo
Department of Marine Engineering
Defence Services of Technology
Pyin Oo Lwin, MYANAMAR
This poster represents aims and functions of PACON to enhance its activities throughout the
world: Satellite system used for Geographic Imaging System (GIS). An ECDIS consisting of a
portion of Andaman Sea for safe voyage of the sea-going vessels. The scenic view of the ocean
was created as a 3-D model including islands and oil rig representing natural resources of the
mother ocean. The reddish yellow color shows a nature of change in weather condition in the
ocean, a high-speed passenger craft for coastal transport was developed in the ship design and
use of construction software “Maxsurf” and modules. The best feature of the vessel is an
external chine built for better stability and lift force at higher speeds reducing total resistance
and propulsive power of the vessel. A detailed body plan of this vessel in a Maxsurf window
with menu bars is included. An exaggerated view of oil rig. And a figure that represents the rich
underwater natural resources of the ocean consisting different types of fishes and corals.
A-72
Student Poster Session
THE STRUCTURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL RECOGNITION
OF SUPER HIGH-RISE HOUSING RESIDENTS
Koji Misawa, Hirokazu Takamasa, Satoshi Yamada,
Wakana Tao and Hirotomo Ohuchi
Department of Architecture College of Industrial Technology
Nihon University, JAPAN
satoshi_los_hum@hotmail.com
This paper discusses the appropriate design for super high-rise housing. The population of
Tokyo is in the increasing tendency since 1997. High-rise and super high-rise housing are
some of the factors behind this population growth. Super high-rise housing is a new living
environment, one that is cross-sectional rather than planar. Creating these residential spaces
requires a design technique incorporating a multiplicity of layers on the premises, as well as
input from the prospective residents. The research was conducted at Ohkawabata River City
21, a model of super high-rise urban housing. It is a super high-rise housing extended along
the flow into the Tokyo Bay from the Sumida River. The research included a questionnaire,
aggregative analysis theory, and aggregate curve. From the above research, the attributions of
environmental cognition and life territory were determined, particularly those regarding the
floors of residents of super high rise towers. As a result, the attribute of environmental
cognition that is caused by the displacement layer and the floor of residences were formed by
advancing residence years.
THE VELOCITY FIELD IN SURF ZONE
FROM MOSAIC PIV MEASUREMENTS
Zhi-Cheng Huang, Hwung-Hweng Hwung and Wen-Yang Hsu
Department of Hydraulic and Ocean Engineering
National Cheng Kung University
Tainan, TAIWAN
hhhwung@mail.ncku.edu.tw
This paper describes the experimental results of 2-D temporal and spatial flow structures of
spilling breakers in the surf zone. The Particle Image Velocimetry was employed to measure
the internal velocity field on a 1:20 slope. Entire spatial distributions of ensemble-averaged
velocities in the surf zone were combined properly by using a mosaic method from several
testing runs. To synchronize the measuring systems and solve the problem of phase
identification, the triggering signals were precisely controlled. Surface profiles were obtained
from an image processing method. The generation and dissipation process of horizontal
eddies were investigated. Other temporal and spatial evolutions of coherent multiple vortical
structures in the surf zone were also discussed.
A-73
TITLE INDEX
A Principal Analysis using the Ten Days Composite Satellite Sst Images taken off the Coast of Japan ............A4
A Single Mooring Net-Cage Subjected to Wave Force.....................................................................................A39
A Solitary Wave Propagating over a Submerged Breakwater ...........................................................................A35
A Study of Spatial Cognition in Children using Sketched Maps.......................................................................A68
A Study on Making Sea Hazard Map Considers Tsunami Damages of Ships...................................................A35
Analysis of the Parametric Transformation Effect on Resistance of Displacement Monohull............................A6
Artificial Headland using Spar Buoy Sea Forest ...............................................................................................A36
Assessment of Watch Keeping Officer Performance using a Ship Simulator .....................................................A7
Bio-Optical Properties and Ocean Color Algorithms for the North Region of the South China Sea ..................A5
Bragg Scattering of Water Waves in Real Fluids ..............................................................................................A29
Buoy Measurements of Wind-Wave Interaction during Tropical Cyclones......................................................A30
Characteristics of VAWT using ARC Camber Blades for Wind Generation System .......................................A26
Climate Change in Myanmar During the Last Five Decades ............................................................................A12
Climate Prediction, Economic Value and Radical Innovation...........................................................................A17
Co-Culture of Shrimp and Algae: Improvement of Water Quality....................................................................A17
Coastal Resource Management in Myanmar .....................................................................................................A51
Coastal Resource Management with Special Reference to Mangroves of Myanmar ........................................A51
Coastal Resources of Economic and Ecological Importance from Myeik Archipelago
and Status of their Exploitation ...........................................................................................................A52
Composition of Landscape Recognition that Uses Visualization Model by Local Inhabitants in Kamakura ...A68
Conserving a Unique Coral Island (Pulau Perak) in the Straits of Malacca, Malaysia......................................A52
Construction of the Visualization Model by Landscape Cognition using 3-Dimensional Shade Image ...........A69
Contemporary Concentration Levels of Heavy Metals Aerosols and Gaseous Mercury
over the Arctic Ocean Seas ...................................................................................................................A9
Crossflow Turbine for Micro Hydro Power Plant .............................................................................................A26
Daily Accumulation Rates of Marine Debris on Two Subantarctic Islands ......................................................A48
Damage Due to Earthquake Tsunamis and Countermeasures Against Disasters in Fishery Areas ...................A57
Design and Fabrication of a Vertical Axis Small Scale Water Turbine ............................................................A25
Design of Storm Surge – Experiments for Understanding Storm Surge Phenomena and Model Testing .........A32
Detection of Seagrass with TM in Coastal Water of Hainan, China ...................................................................A4
Development and Application of an Integrated Engine Room Simulator .........................................................A65
Development of Statistic Model for Estimating Life Time of Beached Oil ......................................................A47
Education on Marine Science & Technology in Myanmar................................................................................A66
Effect of “Ocean Fertilizer” on the Growth of Seaweeds in the Philippines .....................................................A18
Effectiveness of Hemispherical Steel Net Covering Artificial Reef on Fish Aggregation ................................A18
Examination of Model Parameterization for Simulations of Oxygen-Deficient Water in Enclosed Bays ........A49
Experimental Study on Power Generation System from Tidal Currents for Navigation Buoy .........................A25
Extension Planning of the Da-Wu Fishing Harbor for Improving Sea Transportation on East Taiwan............A39
Evaluation Studies for Site Selection of Edible Oyster Growing
in Ma-Gyi Tidal Creek Estuarine Region............................................................................................A19
Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Steels for Marine Structures ......................................................................A36
Flow Visualization of Vortex Shedding behind the Circular and Elliptical Cylinders ......................................A30
Flowcam® Technology – Continuous Imaging Fluid Particle Analyzer for Aquatic Research
and Monitoring....................................................................................................................................A10
From "Point" to "Field" on Renewable Energy .................................................................................................A29
Fundamental Operational Characteristics of Grid-Connected Clustered PV System ........................................A28
Harmful Algal Blooms in the Coastal Waters of the South China Sea..............................................................A58
Harnessing Information and Communication Technologies for International Waters Management
in Southeast Asia.................................................................................................................................A53
High Yield Production of Bio-Hydrogen from Organic Waste using Rhodobacter shpaeroides ......................A48
Implementation of Maritime Laws in Myanmar................................................................................................A60
Improvement of River Channel by using Impermeable Sand Bag Groyne in Ayeyarwaddy River ..................A45
Improvement of Scallop Sea Ranching by Recycling Shells.............................................................................A19
In the Western Myanmar, Where the Bengal Fan Sedimentation Was?............................................................A42
A-74
TITLE INDEX
In-Situ Observation on the Wind in the Northeastern Coast of Taiwan ............................................................A27
Influence of Wave Reflection to Runup on Step Dike.......................................................................................A37
Integrated Development Project of Keelung Port .............................................................................................A40
Integrated River Information Management System (IRIMS) ..............................................................................A1
Introduction of Tidal Power for Rural Remote Villages Electrification in Myanmar .......................................A24
Investigation of the Form Factor and Evaluation of the Required Engine Power for a Fast Patrol Boat ............A7
Marine Fishery Resources Potential and Exploitation of Myanmar ..................................................................A20
Marine Provincialism Analysis of Macroalgal Distribution in Malaysia ..........................................................A54
Marine Science, Technology and Seamanship ....................................................................................................A8
Meridian: Russian Observational Project in the Atlantic Ocean .....................................................................A10
Methane Hydrates, What do They Mean for Climate and Society? ..................................................................A16
Morphology and Sediment Transport of Sand Bodies in Eastern Taiwan Strait Shelf......................................A43
Myanmar Experience with GIS and Remote Sensing Technologies for Marine Science....................................A1
Myanmar Pearling Industry ...............................................................................................................................A20
Myanmar Port and Harbor Development and Coastal Zone Management ........................................................A40
Myanmar Traditional Boats and the Source of Development of Inland Water Transport .................................A63
New Results from the German Ferrybox...........................................................................................................A11
Numerical Calculation of the High Water Level Fluctuations during the Typhoon Period...............................A32
Numerical Experiment of the Relationship between Discoloration of Nori (Porphyra yezoensis)
and Seasonal Wind ..............................................................................................................................A21
Numerical Simulation on Behavior of Floating Structures in Tsunami by MPS Method..................................A37
Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction Effect on Monsoon during 2002 ......................................................................A14
Ocean Observing from Buoys and Fixed Stations.............................................................................................A66
Ocean Observing from Regular Ship Cruises....................................................................................................A67
Oceanographic Studies in the Coastal Zones of Myanmar (CANCELLED).......................................................A2
Oil Spill Prevention and Combating..................................................................................................................A47
Operational Monitoring of the Brantas River, Indonesia – Measurements and Modelling ...............................A11
Opportunities and Challenges in Myanmar Aquaculture...................................................................................A21
Our Common Future..........................................................................................................................................A69
Parametric Investigation and Optimization of Diesel Engine Noise, Emissions and Fuel Economy .................A8
Perceptions of Coasts in Germany.....................................................................................................................A61
Physiography and Sediment Dispersal on the Ayeyarwady Continental Shelf, North Andaman Sea ...............A43
Porous Concrete Blocks as Natural Cleansing System in Coastal Environment ...............................................A49
Potential Natural Hazards in the Myanmar Coastal Areas ................................................................................A58
Potential of Marine Fishery in Myanmar...........................................................................................................A22
Power Generation by Tidal Current...................................................................................................................A24
Purification Experiment of Water Quality by using Cohesive Powder .............................................................A50
Rapid Estimation of Storm Surge due to Tropical Cyclones using Satellite Meteorology ................................A33
Recent Developments in Myanmar Offshore Petroleum Exploration ...............................................................A61
Reduction of the Wave Drifting Forces using Aircushion Supported System...................................................A31
Rehabilitation of Abandoned Shrimp Ponds through Mangrove Planting
at Nakhonsi Thammarat, Thailand ......................................................................................................A54
Relationship between Bluefin Tuna Fishing Grounds and Eddy Activity .........................................................A62
Relationship between Shape of Coastal Gravel and Life Time of Stranded Oil................................................A46
Research on Collective Housing Areas and Characteristics of Residents in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia................A27
Research on Establishment of Resource Recycling Society in Cobb Hill Co-housing......................................A28
Research on the Current Control Function and Fish Aggregation of Artificial Reef.........................................A70
Research on the Structure Improving Sediment Quality by Current Control ....................................................A22
Responses of Phytoplankton to the 2004 Asian Tsunami in Different Locations of the Indian Ocean ...............A3
Retrieval of Optically Active Constituents in the Upper Gulf of Thailand .........................................................A5
River-Sea Interaction and the North Jiangsu Plain Formation.............................................................................K3
Sampled Up-Welling Current Areas and the Site for Fishing Ports ..................................................................A55
Seaweed Bed Reclamation Experiment using Vertical Seawall at Inner Part of Osaka Bay.............................A55
Sediment Movement and its Impact on the Distribution of Benthic Macrofauna
in the North Andaman Sea ..................................................................................................................A42
A-75
TITLE INDEX
Seismicity of the Andaman Sea .........................................................................................................................A33
Sensors for Operational Ocean Observing ........................................................................................................A67
Sound Environmental Resource in Coastal Marine Tourism.............................................................................A63
Storm Surge Prediction in Myanmar: Operational and Post Storm Field Survey Perspectives.........................A34
Storms - Analysis, Statistics and Changes...........................................................................................................K2
Structural Design of Superstructure on Floating Structure................................................................................A70
Study on Fractal Characteristics of District and Its Relationship to Environmental Cognition.........................A71
Study on Relations of Wharf Steel-Piles Corrosion and Environmental Factors...............................................A71
Study on the Porous Material for Improvement of Marine Biological Environment ........................................A23
Study on the River Works due to Sediment Transport ......................................................................................A44
Sustainable Development of Ayeyarwady Delta ...............................................................................................A45
Sustainable Urbanism in Tokyo.........................................................................................................................A72
Technology of Seaweed, Kappaphycus /Eucheuma Cultivation in the Tropical Waters...................................A23
Tectonics: Reflecting the Bathymetry and Sedimentation of Myanmar Continental Shelves .............................A2
Thalassa-Therapy: New Coastal Facility for Recreation and Health Care ........................................................A64
The Blue Evolution............................................................................................................................................A62
The Characteristic of Behavior Changes in the Climatology of the Bay Storms
during the Last Three Decades ............................................................................................................A14
The Conservation Strategies of Dongsha (Pratas) National Marine Park, Taiwan ............................................A64
The Design of Anchorage for Waters Outside Kaohsiung Harbor ....................................................................A38
The Designated Unused Land in the Land-Fill of the Metropolitan Seaside Area ............................................A56
The Economic Impact of Alternative Energy in Hawaii: A General Equilibrium Analysis ..............................A16
The Environment Formation and the Characteristics of the Site for Fishing Ports ...........................................A53
The Environmental Restoration of Ago Bay, Japan based on a New Concept of "Sato Umi" ..........................A46
The Impacts of El-Nino and La-Nina Events on the Climate of Myanmar .......................................................A13
The Indian Ocean Tsunami of 26 December 2004 - Myanmar Experiences .....................................................A59
The Inland Water Transport of Myanmar..........................................................................................................A65
The Inter-Annual Variations in the Monsoon Climatology of Myanmar and Its Perspectives..........................A13
The New Generation Container Terminal Facility and Equipment ...................................................................A41
The Role of PACON in Marine Science and Technology .................................................................................A72
The Structure of Environmental Recognition of Super High-Rise Housing Residents .....................................A73
The Substantial Increased Earthquake Activities in Myanmar during the Last Five Years
and Its Perspectives .............................................................................................................................A15
The Velocity Field in Surf Zone from Mosaic PIV Measurements ...................................................................A73
The Volcanic Ash Eruption in Barren Islandв”ЂThe Only Live Volcano in the Andaman Sea
between Sumatra and Myanmar ..........................................................................................................A15
Three Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Storm Surge in the Southeastern Sea of Korea ..........................A34
Towards a Homogeneous 50 Year Climatology of Typhoons in SE Asia.........................................................A12
Towards a Sustainable Management of Myeik (Mergui) Archipelago..............................................................A56
Transmittance of Light Pipe for Ecological Conservation of Large Floating Structure ....................................A50
Tsunami Hazard Mapping of the Hawaiian EEZ...............................................................................................A59
Tsunami Heights and Damage along the Myanmar Coast from the December 2004
Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake............................................................................................................A60
Tsunamis and Storm Surges in the Indian Ocean ................................................................................................K1
Upwelling along Primorye Coast, Japan Sea on Satellite and In Situ Data .........................................................A3
Variations in Light Absorption Coefficients of Suspended Particles in South China Sea...................................A6
Velocity Change in Nearshore Zone due to Coastal Drain System by VOF Method ........................................A31
Visible Space by Landscape Recognition of Local Inhabitans and Its Composition.........................................A38
Water Purification Experiments by Micro Bubble ............................................................................................A57
Wind Blowout Hollow Generated in Fukiage Dune Field, Kagoshima Prefecture Japan .................................A44
Yacht Construction in Myanmar .........................................................................................................................A9
Yangon Sea Access Channel Associated Port Improvement Study...................................................................A41
A-76
AUTHOR INDEX
Affendi, Y. A. ...................................................... A52
Ahn, Hee-Do
Sediment ................................................ A22
Porous .................................................... A23
Akahane, Sachie .................................................. A50
Aksornkoae, Sanit ................................................ A54
Almario, Maan ..................................................... A18
Asamidori, Kohta ................................................. A18
Atsumi, Tomohide ............................................... A68
Aung, Cherry ....................................................... A42
Aung, Htay
Oyster .................................................... A19
Myeik .................................................... A52
Aung, Lei Lei ....................................................... A14
Aung, Sann .......................................................... A20
Aung, Than Tin ................................................... A60
Aung, Thein ......................................................... A45
Aung, Zin ............................................................. A59
Aye, Kyaw Naing .................................................. A6
Aye, Tin ............................................................... A45
Bhatrasataponkul, Tachanat.................................... A5
Boonming, Savettachat ........................................ A54
Burton, Harry ....................................................... A48
Cao, Wenxi
Seagrass ................................................... A4
Color ........................................................ A5
Particles ................................................... A6
Chaw, May Khin .................................................. A32
Chen, H.-C. .......................................................... A39
Chen, Hsi-Ching .................................................. A38
Chen, Ping-Tang .................................................. A41
Chen, Yuan-Bin ................................................... A27
Chiang, Shi-Chong .............................................. A37
Chiau, Wen-Yan .................................................. A64
Coffman, Makena ................................................ A16
Colijn, Franciscus ................................................ A11
Cooper, Richard T. .............................................. A53
Di, BoPing ........................................................... A58
Elikson, Li ........................................................... A44
Endo, Kunihiko .................................................... A46
Enomo, Satoshi .................................................... A50
Eriksson, Cecilia .................................................. A48
Eto, Hiroaki ......................................................... A70
Feser, Frauke ....................................................... A12
Fujiwara, Munehiro ............................................. A21
Golubeva, Natalia I. ............................................... A9
Goto, Shintaro
Gravel.................................................... A46
Oil .......................................................... A47
Grossmann, Wolf-Dieter ..................................... A17
Guerrero III, Rafael D. ........................................ A18
A-77
Hamada, Seiichi
Gravel ....................................................A46
Oil ..........................................................A47
Hamano, Kaoru ....................................................A17
Hanamura, Takuro
Spatial ....................................................A68
Future ....................................................A69
Haseda, Machi .....................................................A55
Hasegawa, Shuichi ...............................................A32
Hashimoto, Takuya ..............................................A32
Hirota, Naoyuki ...................................................A28
Hla, Tun ...............................................................A20
Hlaing, Tin..............................................................A7
Hoshino, Takashi
Fish ........................................................A18
Nori ........................................................A21
Porous ....................................................A23
Hosotani, Kazunori .................................................A4
Hotta, Kenji
Fertilizer ................................................A18
Sediment ................................................A22
Cohesive ................................................A50
Bubble ...................................................A57
Blue .......................................................A62
Sound .....................................................A63
Health ....................................................A64
Hou, Ho-Shong
Bragg .....................................................A29
Breakwater .............................................A35
Da-Wu ...................................................A39
Keelung .................................................A40
Hou, Peng-Hsi .....................................................A40
Hou, Peng-Hui .....................................................A40
Hsu, S.A.
Wind-Wave ...........................................A30
Satellite ..................................................A33
Hsu, Tai-Wen
Bragg .....................................................A29
Breakwater .............................................A35
Hsu, Wen-Yang ...................................................A73
Hu, Yihuai ...........................................................A65
Huang, Zhi-Cheng ...............................................A73
Huzaimi, T. Badrul ..............................................A52
Hwung, Hwung-Hweng .......................................A73
Ichimi, Kazuhiko .................................................A21
Ikoma, Tomoki
Aircushion ..............................................A31
Hazard ...................................................A35
MPS .......................................................A37
Iseki, Kouta ..........................................................A64
Ishida, Tatsunori ..................................................A55
Ishii, Susumu
Mongolia ...............................................A27
Co-housing .............................................A28
Bio-Hydrogen ........................................A48
Up-Welling.............................................A55
Ito, Toshiaki .........................................................A57
Ito, Yasushi ..........................................................A19
Izawa, Isamu ........................................................A29
AUTHOR INDEX
Jillian, Lean-Sim Ooi ........................................... A54
Juang, Jea-Tzyy ................................................... A37
Kakegawa, Hisao ................................................. A23
Kato, Shigeru ....................................................... A54
Kawagishi, Umekazu
Mongolia ............................................... A27
Co-housing ............................................ A28
Kawanishi, Toshimasa ......................................... A50
Kazama, Takahiro ................................................ A57
Khin, Myo
Fukiage .................................................. A44
Porous .................................................... A49
Kiho, Seiji
Current ................................................... A24
Buoy ...................................................... A25
Kikuchi, Hidekazu ............................................... A72
Kim, Cha-kyum ................................................... A34
Kinoshita, T. ........................................................ A49
Kishino, Masao
Scallop ................................................... A19
Countermeasures ................................... A57
Kitano, Koki
Mongolia ............................................... A27
Co-housing ............................................ A28
Knauth, H.-D.
Brantas ................................................... A11
Buoys ..................................................... A66
Kobayashi, Masato .............................................. A31
Kohno, Hideki ..................................................... A48
Konan, Denise ..................................................... A16
Kozuki, Yasunori ................................................. A55
Kung, Chen-Shan ................................................. A39
Kuo, Shih-Duenn ................................................. A41
Kyaw, Chit ........................................................... A14
Kyaw, Theingi ..................................................... A42
Kyu, Khin Kyu .................................................... A44
Ladychenko, S. ...................................................... A3
Latt, Tin Min ....................................................... A30
Lay, Khin Ko ....................................................... A21
Lee, H.H.
Anchorage ............................................. A38
Net-Cage ............................................... A39
Lee, Jong Tae ....................................................... A34
Lee, J.-Y. ............................................................. A39
Li, Cai .................................................................... A5
Liang, Nai Kuang ................................................ A36
Liao, Horng-Ru .................................................... A43
Lin, Chao-Fu ........................................................ A37
Lin, Min-Der........................................................ A71
Lo, Chien-Ming ................................................... A71
Lobanov, Vyacheslav ............................................ A 3
LV, JianHai............................................................. A3
Lwin, Myat ............................................................ A7
Lwin, Nyi Nyi ...................................................... A51
A-78
Lwin, Tun
Climate Change .....................................A12
El-Nino ..................................................A13
Monsoon ................................................A13
Bay Storms ............................................A14
Earthquakes ...........................................A15
Volcanic Ash .........................................A15
Storm Surge ...........................................A34
Indian Ocean ..........................................A59
Maeda, Hisaaki
Aircushion .............................................A31
MPS .......................................................A37
Magaard, Lorenz ..................................................A16
Marsh, James Barney ...........................................A17
Murakami, Hitoshi ...............................................A55
Maruyoshi, Koichi ...............................................A70
Masuda, Koichi
Aircushion .............................................A31
Typhoon ................................................A32
Hazard ...................................................A35
MPS .......................................................A37
Masuda, Mitsuhiro ...............................................A37
Matishov, Gennady G. ...........................................A9
Matsuda, Osamu ..................................................A46
Matsuda, Tatsunobu............................................. A62
Matsui, Ryuta .......................................................A57
Matsumura, Satsuki ................................................A5
Matsuoka, Satoru .................................................A21
Maw, Khin Win ...................................................A32
Mehta, Pretik .......................................................A42
Misawa, Koji .......................................................A73
Mitsui, Kazuo ......................................................A55
Miyachi, Yuki ......................................................A55
Miyagawa, Masashi .............................................A22
Miyazaki, Takamasa
Ports .......................................................A53
Up-Welling ............................................A55
Land-Fill ................................................A56
Miyoshi, Junya .....................................................A55
Mizumukai, K. .....................................................A49
Moe, Chan ........................................................... A45
Moe, Nyein Nyein ...............................................A34
Mohri, Masahiko ..................................................A62
Mukouyama, Tatuya ............................................A50
Murty, Tad ..............................................................K1
Mutoh, Yoshiharu ................................................A36
Myint, San (cancelled)............................................A2
Myint, Soe
Electrification ........................................A24
Petroleum ..............................................A61
Nagasawa, Shinji .................................................A35
Naing, Sanda ........................................................A40
Naing, Than .........................................................A14
Naing, Zaw
IRIMS ......................................................A1
GIS .......................................................... A1
Nakamura, Shigeki ..............................................A57
Nakamura, Takashi ..............................................A57
AUTHOR INDEX
Nakazawa, Kiminori
Ports ....................................................... A53
Up-Welling ............................................ A55
Naoi, Kazuhisa
Current ................................................... A24
Buoy ...................................................... A25
VAWT ................................................... A26
Grid ....................................................... A28
Nelson, Harry ...................................................... A10
Nishi, Ryuichiro
SST .......................................................... A4
Fukiage .................................................. A44
Nishi, Yasukazu ................................................... A55
Nishikawa, Shogo ................................................ A28
Noguchi, Hidehisa ............................................... A18
Nyo, Thein Zaw ................................................... A72
Ohino, Tasuku ..................................................... A50
Ohn, U ................................................................. A51
Ohno, Masao ........................................................ A23
Ohshima, Kenichirou ........................................... A64
Ohuchi, Hirotomo
Space ..................................................... A38
Spatial .................................................... A68
Landscape .............................................. A68
Shade ..................................................... A69
Future .................................................... A69
Fractal .................................................... A71
Urbanism ............................................... A72
High-Rise .............................................. A73
Oi, Musaku .......................................................... A53
Okabayashi, E. ..................................................... A49
Okabayashi, T. ..................................................... A49
Okamoto, Kyouichi
Fertilizer ................................................ A18
Water ..................................................... A50
Bubble ................................................... A57
Sound ..................................................... A63
Health .................................................... A64
Okamura, Yokinobu ............................................ A60
Oo, Kyaw ............................................................. A41
Oo, Kyaw Lwin ................................................... A13
Oo, Myo Zaw ......................................................... A1
Oo, Thant Zin ...................................................... A60
Oo, Thura
Techtonics ............................................... A2
Sediment ................................................ A42
Oo, U Myint ......................................................... A52
Otsuka, Koji ......................................................... A57
Ouchi, Setsuho ..................................................... A68
Panitchat, Songob ................................................ A54
Pe, Myint ............................................................. A22
Petersen, Wilhelm ................................................ A11
Peterson, Kent ...................................................... A10
Phang, Siew-Moi ................................................. A54
Poulton, Nicole .................................................... A10
Ramaswamy, V. ................................................... A43
Ramesh, O. N. ..................................................... A30
A-79
Rao, P. S. .............................................................A43
Rheem, Chang-Kyu .............................................A31
Saijo, Osamu ........................................................A70
Sakai, Takuji
Bio-Hydrogen ........................................A48
Up-Welling ............................................A55
Sako, Akinori .......................................................A19
Salyuk, A. ..............................................................A3
Sao, Kazuko
Gravel ....................................................A46
Oil ..........................................................A47
Sao, Kunihisa
Gravel ....................................................A46
Oil ..........................................................A47
Sasaki, Seiichi ......................................................A18
Satake, Kenji ........................................................A60
Sato, Michio .........................................................A31
Sawai, Yuki .........................................................A60
Sawano, Nobuhiro
Gravel ....................................................A46
Oil ..........................................................A47
Schroeder, F. ........................................................A67
Schroeder, Friedhelm ...........................................A11
Seino, Y. ..............................................................A49
Shapovalov, Sergey M. ........................................A10
Shein, Khin Cho Cho ...........................................A12
Shiraki, Wataru ....................................................A32
Shiau, Bao-Shi .....................................................A27
Shiono, Mitsuhiro
Buoy ......................................................A25
VAWT ...................................................A26
Shtraikhert, E. ........................................................A3
Sieracki, Chris K. .................................................A10
Singhruck, Patama .................................................A5
Sokov, Alexey V. .................................................A10
Soe, Maung Maung ..............................................A60
Soe, Nan Myat .....................................................A31
Srisapoome, Prapansak ........................................A17
Su, Chih-Chieh ....................................................A43
Suenaga, Yoshihiro
Nori ........................................................A21
Sediment ................................................A22
Porous ....................................................A23
Typhoon ................................................A32
Suga, Masayuki ....................................................A53
Sumiko Yokobori ....................................................56
Swe, Chit .............................................................A60
Swe, Tint Lwin ....................................................A60
Swe, Win
Techtonics ..............................................A2
Volcano .................................................A15
Hazards ..................................................A58
Tsunami .................................................A60
Shibata, Daisuke ..................................................A55
Suga, Masayuki ....................................................A56
Shintani, Nobutaka ..............................................A68
Siono, Mitsuhiko ..................................................A24
AUTHOR INDEX
Suzuki, Katsuyuki
Power ..................................................... A24
Buoy ...................................................... A25
VAWT ................................................... A26
Suzuki, Noriyuki .................................................. A71
Sugimoto, Hirofumi ............................................. A27
Susumu Ishii ........................................................ A28
Tabeta, S. ............................................................. A49
Tada, Kuninaro .................................................... A21
Tajima, Makoto ................................................... A69
Takahashi, Patrick ............................................... A62
Takamasa, Hirokazu
Fractal .................................................... A71
High-Rise .............................................. A73
Takamine, Hiroki ................................................. A64
Tanaka, M. ........................................................... A49
Tang, DanLing
Phytoplankton .......................................... A3
Seagrass ................................................... A4
Algal ...................................................... A58
Taniguchi, Masahiro ............................................ A18
Tao, Wakana ........................................................ A73
Terashima, Hiroaki .............................................. A18
Teratnatorn, Viroj ................................................ A54
Than, Aung .......................................................... A15
Than, Charlie
Transport ............................................... A63
Education ............................................... A66
Than, Kyaw Kyaw ............................................... A47
Than, Tun ............................................................ A25
Thant, Myo .......................................................... A59
Thaw, San Hla
Volcano ................................................. A15
Hazards .................................................. A58
Thein, Maung ...................................................... A33
Thein, Win ........................................................... A65
Thwe, Kay ............................................................. A 9
Thwin, Swe
Macrofauna ........................................... A42
Ayeyarwady .......................................... A43
Archipelago ........................................... A56
Tishchenko, P. ....................................................... A3
Tsai, Chin-Yen
Bragg ..................................................... A29
Breakwater ............................................ A35
Tsunezawa, Yasuo ............................................... A21
Tsutsui, Isao ......................................................... A17
Tun, Sein .............................................................. A45
Tun, Soe Thura .................................................... A60
Tut, U Aye ............................................................. A8
von Storch, Hans
Storms ..................................................... K2
Climatology ........................................... A12
Perceptions ............................................ A61
Wang, Guifen
Color......................................................... A5
Particles ................................................... A6
A-80
Wang, SuFen .......................................................A58
Wang, Ying ............................................................K3
Wehde, Henning ..................................................A11
Win, Hla
Aquaculture ...........................................A21
Fishery ...................................................A22
Win, Myint ...........................................................A26
Win, Zaw ...............................................................A8
Wing, Kyaw Soe ..................................................A60
Wong, Ching-Lee ................................................A54
Xu, Dazhi ...............................................................A5
Yamada, Hayumi .................................................A62
Yamada, Satoshi
Inhibitants ..............................................A38
Spatial ....................................................A68
Landscape ..............................................A68
Shade .....................................................A69
Future ....................................................A69
Fractal ....................................................A71
Urbanism ...............................................A72
High-Rise ..............................................A73
Yamaga, Kenichi .................................................A21
Yamaguchi, Kanako ............................................A55
Yamanaka, Minoru
Porous ....................................................A23
Typhoon ................................................A32
Yamane, Takeshi .................................................A62
Yamaoka, Kousaku ..............................................A22
Yamazaki, Kyoko ................................................A63
Yan, Zhongzheng ...................................................A3
Yang, Dingtian
Seagrass....................................................A4
Color.........................................................A5
Yang, Yuezhong .....................................................A5
Yasuoka, Kaori
Porous ....................................................A23
Aggregation ...........................................A70
Yazaki, Masumi
Gravel ....................................................A46
Oil ..........................................................A47
Yekyaw ................................................................A65
Yi, Khin Mar ........................................................A60
Yoshimatsu, Sadaaki ............................................A21
Yoshino, Masafumi ..............................................A19
Yu, Ho-Shing .......................................................A43
Yuasa, Noboru .....................................................A27
Zakharkov, S. .........................................................A3
Zaw, Saw Htwe ....................................................A60
Zhang, Wei ..........................................................A45
Zheng, GuangMing ................................................A3
Zvalinsky, V. .........................................................A3
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