Academic Manual 2014 - 2015 Table of Contents I. Introduction 1 A. BethanyвЂ™s Mission Statement .......................................................... 1 B. Philosophy of Education .................................................................. 1 II. Introduction to Classes 1 A. The Syllabus .................................................................................... 1 B. The Classroom ................................................................................. 2 Sidebar: Abbreviations for Note-Taking ......................................... 2 III. Assignments 3 A. Reading Assignments ...................................................................... 3 B. Writing Assignments: Research Paper ............................................ 4 Sidebar: Common Errors in Spelling .............................................. 7 Sidebar: Common Errors in Sentence Structure ............................. 8 Sidebar: Guide to Commonly Used (and Abused) Abbreviations . 11 C. Writing Assignments: Exegetical Paper ........................................ 11 Sidebar: Academic Biblical & Theological Writing ..................... 12 D. Evaluation of Papers ...................................................................... 13 E. Examinations ................................................................................. 13 IV. Academic Procedures 14 A. Academic Workload ...................................................................... 14 B. Transfer Credit ............................................................................... 15 C. Challenging a Course..................................................................... 16 D. Class Attendance ........................................................................... 16 E. Evaluation and Marks .................................................................... 17 F. Assignment Procedures ................................................................. 18 G. Plagiarism ...................................................................................... 19 H. Supplemental Work Procedures .................................................... 19 I. Directed Studies Procedures .......................................................... 20 J. Academic Counselling ................................................................... 20 K. Academic Probation....................................................................... 20 L. Ministry Arts and Athletic Team Involvements ............................ 21 M. Final Examination Procedures ....................................................... 21 N. Academic Recognition ................................................................. 22 O. Graduation Requirements .............................................................. 23 Appendix One: Citation Guide 24 Appendix Two: Principles of Referencing 27 I. Introduction 1 Academic Manual 2014-2015 I. INTRODUCTION Welcome to Bethany College! BethanyвЂ™s theme verse is 2 Timothy 2:15: вЂњDo your best to present yourself to God as one approved, a worker who does not need to be ashamed and who correctly handles the word of truthвЂќ (NIV). The purpose of this manual is to help you attain the goal of doing your best in the study of the вЂњword of truth.вЂќ BethanyвЂ™s aim is to help you develop your potential in studying, interpreting and applying the Word of God to life. We trust that together we will learn in the context of a caring community. A. Mission Statement The mission of Bethany College is to nurture disciples and train leaders to serve. Bethany nurtures disciples of Jesus Christ in their love for God, their understanding of Scripture, and their ministry in the Church and the world. As an evangelical Anabaptist college, Bethany is a biblical learning community that prepares students for volunteer and vocational ministries through teaching, mentoring, worshipping and serving. B. Philosophy of Education BethanyвЂ™s approach to education is based on the conviction that вЂњno one can lay any foundation other than the one already laid, which is Jesus ChristвЂќ (1 Cor 3:11). We confess that the Bible is the written record of GodвЂ™s revelation of his character and purposes to humanity, therefore the Bible is the integrating centre of our curriculum. Our interpretive approach is rooted in evangelical Anabaptism, 1 which seeks to live a Christ-shaped life of holistic discipleship envisioned by the New Testament church. The Bible is taught not only as an academic discipline, but also as a source of life-changing truths which, through the power of the Holy Spirit, motivate and enable us to live for the glory of God (Ephesians 1:12). GodвЂ™s design for His creation is that we work in partnership with Him in bringing all creation into harmony with His purposes. 1 See Bruce Guenther, "Reflections on Mennonite Brethren Evangelical Anabaptist Identity," in Renewing Identity and Mission: Mennonite Brethren Reflections After 150 Years. Ed. Abe J. Dueck, Bruce Guenther and Doug Heidebrecht (Winnipeg: Kindred Productions, 2011): 47-82. I. Introduction 1 II.INTRODUCTION TO CLASSES A. The Syllabus The syllabus is a detailed description of each course that outlines the instructorвЂ™s objectives and sources for course material as well as expectations of students. In particular, the syllabus will identify: п‚· instructor. п‚· course title. п‚· number of credit hours for the course. п‚· a brief course description. п‚· the objectives of the course. п‚· course textbook(s). п‚· the outline or topics/lecture schedule of the course. п‚· a description and summary list of all assignments . п‚· course policies on attendance and assignments. п‚· a bibliography for the courseвЂ”the starting point for any research project. When you receive your syllabus (normally the first class of the semester), use the information to plan out your work for the months ahead: п‚· Enter all your assignment due dates on a study calendar. п‚· Schedule time for each assignment, giving at least a week to complete larger assignments and papers. п‚· Be aware of your progress and work ahead whenever possible. B. The Classroom The classroom can be a vital place of learning if you seize the opportunity. It is a setting where students of the Word of God come together to understand and apply what God is saying. 1. Effective Listening Listening in class is essential for learning to take place. Several suggestions for effective learning are: a. Engage your mind in the listening process. Respond to what is being presented. Ask questions such as: What are the implications of this? How does this fit into the course? What is my response? Note: An open laptop is often a hindrance to learning. To learn you must think about what you hear. b. Take notes on the ideas, rather than merely the words, of the presentation. Use your own words to record the concepts presented. By listening for special emphases, youвЂ™ll be able to write down important ideas and facts. In doing so, you will increase your comprehension and retention. Note taking will enable you to review and synthesize the subject matter. Date notes and organize (number pages) as soon as possible after the class session. Remember to keep notes neat and in order. Do not rely only on outlines the instructor posts online. c. Learn to adapt to the different teaching styles of each instructor. Just as each student has a preferred learning style, so too each instructor will have a preferred teaching style and will use different instructional methods in order to achieve a variety of learning goals. 2 II. Introduction to Classes Abbreviations for Note-Taking The following abbreviations are commonly used in Bible and theology classes. You might find them useful for your own note-taking: J Jesus. variation: JX = Jesus Christ X Christ. variations: Xn = Christian, Xty = Christianity, Xmas = Christmas, Xlogy = Christology. ( = the Greek letter chi; first letter of CHrist in Greek: О§ОЎО™ОЈО¤ОџОЈ CHRISTOS) пЃ± K OT NT God. variations: Оёlogy, Оёy = theology, ОёвЂ™l=theological. (= the Greek letter theta; first letter of the Greek word for God: пЃ‘пЃ±пЃЏпЃ± THEOS kingdom. variation: KОё = Kingdom of God Old Testament. New Testament. 2. Classroom Discussions The discussion following the lecture can be a helpful learning tool because it usually draws out the significance and implications of a given topic. If participants have their minds engaged, questions and answers can be thoughtful and challenging. For class discussion to be successful, the following points are important: a. Prepare for class discussion by doing assigned readings and assignments. Be a contributor to class rather than just a receiver. b. Express your own questions and thoughts. Think about and respond to questions that are asked by others. c. Be sensitive and open to the opinions expressed by others. Be considerate of the whole class in the learning process. III.ASSIGNMENTS A. Reading Assignments Reading exposes you to a wealth of insight and personal experience from people. 1. Reading Any reading assignment, whether it is an article, chapter, or book, should be previewed before actually reading through the material. If it is a book, check the foreword, table of contents, and conclusion. With an article, read the introduction and conclusion. Question yourself about what point the author is trying to get across. How is the author developing the topic? Then read the material. Emphasis will come at the beginning and end of each paragraph. As you read, write out questions or highlight pages and points of importance (if it is your own book, do this in the margin). After having read the material, can you state the authorвЂ™s points in your own words? Do you understand the development of the topic? It is usually helpful to write notes on the covered material in your own words. If the reading material is highly content-oriented, take notes on key facts and interpretations. By reviewing these, preparation can be made for a quiz on the material. 2. Reporting Reading There are several ways for reporting and evaluating reading assignments that may vary according to the preference of the instructor. a. The standard green reading slip report forms are found in the Library and in the Communications Centre. Please complete all parts fully and III. Assignments b. c. d. e. f. 3 carefully. Completing and signing the form indicates that you have thoroughly read the material. Electronic reading slips (e-slips): Instructors will provide information on how these are to be used in class. Again, please include all information on the form. Note: If the campus computer network is down, so that e-slips canвЂ™t be submitted, simply fill out a hardcopy green slip and submit it to the assignment box. Reading response: This includes either a written summary of the content of the material or journal-like comments of thoughts and feelings in response to the content of the reading should be in your own words summarizing the content of the assignment. It should state the main points of the author and how they were developed. This forces you to integrate the material and state it in a comprehensive way. The book report or critique calls for more than understanding content. Here the instructor is asking you to evaluate the content. Begin by stating the authorвЂ™s thesis. Then provide a brief summary of the content of the book or article. Next, proceed to evaluate the book/article. Your evaluation should answer questions such as: Is the authorвЂ™s position valid? Were there any inconsistencies or weaknesses in his/her argument? Was the progression of ideas logical? Could the author have stated his/her position in a better way? Does the writing reflect adequate research? In a critique the reader will need to do additional research in order to evaluate the material and compare with other experts on the subject. Book notations written in the margins of the book itself reflect your thoughts, impressions and responses to the text as you read. Some instructors will evaluate your comprehension from your reading with a quiz. This will be noted in your syllabus. B. The Research Paper A research paper is a formal essay involving an analysis of an unanswered question or problem. The following is a detailed description of how to tackle this assignment. (Further information can be found in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. Seventh ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009. Print. Hereafter noted as MLA7) 1. Choosing Your Topic Some syllabi may include a list of topics from which you can choose. Other times the choice will be less defined. The following are guidelines when choosing a topic: a. Work with the instructor to choose a topic that you are interested in and care about. b. Check the library to ensure you have access to adequate resources for your research. c. Be prepared to limit the scope of your chosen topic so that it can be handled adequately within the page limitations and time frame of the essay. d. It is often helpful to create a list of all the questions you can think of (and want answered) about the general topic. -3- 4 III. Assignments 2. Researching Your Topic You should seek to gather information on your topic from three main sources: 1) books, 2) journals or magazines, and 3) online databases. Different topics or instructors will require a different balance of sources. For example, biblical interpretation will rely more on books while social analysis may rely more on internet-based resources. a. Start with encyclopaedias, dictionaries and other tools from the libraryвЂ™s reference section. Some of these resources are also available electronically from the library webpage (for example, Britannica вЂ“ the Online Encyclopaedia, Merriam WebsterвЂ™s Collegiate Dictionary and Thesaurus, Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopaedia Online, Gale Virtual Reference Library). These sources will give you a concise summary of your topic. b. Find what books are available in the library that have information on your subject. Use the course bibliography (in your syllabus) as a starting point for identifying key sources. Use the subject, keyword, or related word searches in the library computer catalogue (L4U). It may take several searches to find the information you need. c. Identify articles in journals or magazines on your topic by searching the libraryвЂ™s electronic databases. Databases subscribed to include: ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials (ATLA/ATLAS), Christian Periodical Index (CPI), Gale Databases (also known as INFOTRAC or CENGAGE Learning), and ProQuest. d. Random googling is usually an ineffective and unreliable way to conduct college-level research. In a few circumstances, searching the Internet can be useful; for example, the official website for Mennonite Central Committee (mcc.org) is a rich primary source for those researching its history and mission. Likewise the Internet is useful for getting very current news information. Most of the articles indexed in the libraryвЂ™s Christian Periodical Index (CPI) are freely available on the web. For more information please see MLA7 pp. 28-31 for Internet research tips. e. The number of sources you should consult will depend on your topic and the length of your paper. A minimum of ten sources reflects a basic research level for a two-thousand word paper. Be sure to consult with the instructor or Library Services Director if you need more specific help in researching sources. 3. Taking Research Notes Using the different sources you have selected, you can now begin gathering information on your topic. Always note the bibliographic information (author, title, publication date) and page numbers of your sources. Some students prefer to take notes in their own words to ensure that they have understood the material; others would rather quote the author directly for the same reason (i.e. to guard against possible misunderstanding of the authorвЂ™s ideas). If you do choose to paraphrase the authorвЂ™s ideas, be sure to avoid plagiarism by citing the author at the end of the relevant sentence or paragraph. (See section IV.G on page 19 for more on procedures dealing with plagiarism). You may find it helpful to take notes either on individual index cards (note cards are available in the Library), on scrap paper, or by entering the information directly into your laptop. This is a matter of preference; however, using index III. Assignments 5 cards is a convenient way of organizing your material once you are ready to begin writing an outline. Limit the amount recorded on each card to only one idea. Note that common and public information does not need to be referenced (for example, you wouldnвЂ™t need a reference note to say that the Jerusalem Temple was destroyed in AD 70, or that Canada became a nation in 1867). But the basic challenge of college education is to learn to distinguish between well-known or little-known facts, common interpretations/ theories (e.g. that Mark was the first written gospel), and uncommon or innovative interpretations or theories (e.g. that the Dead Sea Scrolls describe a cult based on hallucinogenic mushrooms). Everything but well-known facts should be documented. 4. Basics of Academic Writing Style As a college student, you will spend a lot of time and energy writing. вЂњJournalingвЂќ is one kind of writing, where you record your thoughts, impressions, and reflections. A more casual or conversational is normal when you journal. Most other writing, however (including book reviews and essays) should be more formal in tone. While formality seems to have fallen out of fashion in many ways in our society, we can still recognize the appropriateness of formal or casual dress in different settings. For example, you wouldnвЂ™t (or at least, shouldnвЂ™t) wear the same clothes to a job interview at a bank as you would for a landscaping job. The same principle applies to essay writing. The style is more formal, because what you have to say is important and worthy of respect among a wide range of readers. Here are some of the basics of a formal academic style: a. Write in the вЂњthird personвЂќ (grammatically speaking). This means, avoid writing about вЂњyou/yourвЂќ (2nd person) or вЂњI/me/my/ourвЂќ (1st person). While there is a place (especially in writing about biblical application) for being personal, it is important to not degenerate into simply journaling your feelings or thoughts. When writing an essay, the very fact that it is an essay (and not a journal) says that there is something of wider applicability here; thus, donвЂ™t limit the application by talking only about yourself. b. Keep verb tenses consistent, active, and in the present tense. Even when talking about an ancient piece of writing (such as the Bible), keep your writing in the present tense. пѓ» Isaiah prophesied, all we like sheep have gone astray. пѓјIsaiah prophesies, all we like sheep have gone astray. пѓ» Luke reported that Paul answered the Macedonian call. пѓјLuke reports that Paul answered the Macedonian call. The active voice is preferred to the passive: пѓ» The strength of GodвЂ™s armour for believers is emphasized in Ephesians chapter 6. пѓј Ephesians chapter 6 emphasizes the strength of GodвЂ™s armour for believers. Consistency between a verb and its subject (also known as вЂњagreementвЂќ) is important. The following error in agreement, which uses вЂњThereвЂ™sвЂ¦вЂќ to begin a sentence referring to more than one thing, is becoming quite common in spoken English, but it is still unacceptable in written English: пѓ» ThereвЂ™s two key thoughts found in this passage. -5- 6 III. Assignments пѓ» There is two key thoughts found in this passage. пѓј There are two key thoughts found in this passage. c. Avoid Contractions. This means words like: itвЂ™s, thatвЂ™s, couldвЂ™ve. The word вЂњitвЂ™sвЂќ is particularly troublesome: if it has the apostrophe, it means вЂњit isвЂќ and should be written out in full. Otherwise, вЂњitsвЂќ means вЂњbelonging to itвЂќвЂ”and this word does not have an apostrophe. d. Be inclusive. Formal written English is expected to be gender inclusive. Different writers have different approaches to this; here are some basic options for essay writing: You can use вЂњhumankind, humanityвЂќ rather than вЂњman, mankind,вЂќ вЂњpeopleвЂќ rather than вЂњmenвЂќ (unless you specifically mean adult males). Use plurals, or both genders, when you need to use a pronoun. пѓ» Listen to the customer because he is right. ? Listen to the customer because they are right. (Some writing authorities have now declared thisвЂ”using вЂњtheyвЂќ as a singular pronounвЂ”to be acceptable; but the following two options are recommended.) пѓј Listen to the customer because he or she is right. пѓј Listen to the customers because they are right. e. Avoid slang. Do not use street language in a formal essay. Language like вЂњguys, OK, a lot, cool, pretty much,вЂќ is generally a sign of vocabulary laziness in writing, and should be avoided. ClichГ©s are a dime a dozen, and are to be avoided like the plague, okay? f. Spelling: WeвЂ™re Canadian, eh?, so set your word processor to English (Canadian). But donвЂ™t rely on your spell checker to make all your corrections: their easy two fool. Common Errors: Spelling Make sure you know the difference between the following similar-sounding word sets. Many college writers still get them confused:вЂЋ to / too / two then / than вЂЋ п‚· than will have a comparing word nearby, usually ending in вЂњвЂ“erвЂќ: rather than, bigger вЂЋthan, earlier than, worse than п‚· then is a connecting word, either for a connection of logic (try substituting therefore) or of chronological order (try substituting вЂњafter thatвЂќ)вЂЋ itвЂ™s / its п‚· if you have вЂњitвЂ™s,вЂќ it is automatically wrong (in formal writing) because it is a contraction; either you mean вЂњitsвЂќ (as in, вЂњbelonging to itвЂќ) or вЂњit is.вЂќвЂЋ their / there / theyвЂ™re: If you are unsure, use the following test to help sort them out.вЂЋ п‚· Substitute вЂњthey are.вЂќ If this works, keep calm and carry on! (You shouldnвЂ™t have had a вЂЋcontraction in the first place.)вЂЋ п‚· Substitute вЂњof themвЂќ or вЂњwhich they have/had.вЂќ вЂЋE.g. вЂњThere perspective made it hard for them to see who Jesus really was.вЂќ вЂЋ Try: вЂњThe perspective which they hadвЂ¦вЂќ вЂЋThis works, so the correct word is вЂњtheir.вЂќвЂЋ п‚· вЂњthereвЂќ is a place word (related to вЂњhereвЂќ). It is used to specify a certain location ( try (вЂЋsubstituting вЂњover thereвЂќ to see if this is the right вЂњthereвЂќ), or at the beginning of the sentence: вЂњThere isвЂ¦вЂќ.вЂЋ of / have: as in вЂњcould have,вЂќ вЂњshould have,вЂќ not вЂњcould ofвЂќвЂЋ 5. Thesis Statement The thesis statement is a single sentence that expresses both your topic and your point of view (MLA7 42). The topic of your paper is not a thesis statement. III. Assignments 7 Neither is вЂњI want to write about Psalm 23.вЂќ Rather, a thesis statement identifies what you want to say about the topic you have chosen. Most thesis statements take the form of a position that the writer wishes to demonstrate or prove. If you canвЂ™t debate it, consider it a weak thesis. Consider the following example: п‚· Topic: William Tyndale as a Bible translator п‚· Thesis: William Tyndale was an important Bible translator whose significant influence is noticeable in the history of English Bible translation right up until the twentieth century. Take time crafting your thesis statement because it will guide the direction of your entire paper. 6. Outline Your essay writing will go better when you have an outline of where you plan to go. a. Developing an outline Begin your outline by identifying the main headings you wish to cover in your paper. With your thesis statement in mind, вЂњorder your material in a logical wayвЂќ by indicating which ideas play major or minor roles in your argument (Buckley 25). Then under each main heading, identify the significant points that would support or explain what you wish to say under that main heading. b. Outline format You will include your outline in your essay, immediately following your title page, using the format below. It should not have a page number. If you also choose to insert your outline into the body of your paper, you must still include it at the beginning of your paper. Your outline may use either of the following formats; legal style is preferred. п‚· Legal Style: 1. First Main Point 1.1 First Sub-point 1.1.1 First idea under sub-point п‚· Harvard Style: I. First Main Point (Roman numeral) A. First Sub-point (Capital Letter) 1. First idea under sub-point (Arabic Number) 7. Essay Introduction Your introduction serves two purposes: (1) it gets your readersвЂ™ attention and motivates them to keep reading, and (2) it tells your readers what your purpose is (thesis statement) (Bailey et al. 80). Is your introduction interesting? Will your introduction motivate your readers (in particular, your instructor!) to continue reading your paper? Does your introduction include a clear thesis statement describing your purpose for writing on the topic you have chosen? 8. Body of the Paper You present the argument of your thesis through a series of paragraphs. вЂњA paragraph must be about one thingвЂќ (Buckley 51). Each paragraph represents one step in your argument and each paragraph needs to be clearly and logically connected to the paragraphs that precede and follow it (Buckley 51). 8 III. Assignments Each paragraph needs to contain вЂњa topic sentence that reveals the controlling idea,вЂќ as well as support or explanation of the topic sentence (Buckley 51). Vary your starting words and sentence structure to enhance interest. A paragraph will normally have at least three sentences. Common Errors: Sentence Structure A sentence must always have a subject (the thing or person you are talking about) and a predicate (what you say about the subject; it will always have a verb, and may have other clauses, phrases, or words as well). If a sentence does not have both subject and predicate, it is incomplete (or a вЂњsentence fragmentвЂќ). If it has more than one subject, or more than one predicate, it is a run-on sentence. For example: п‚· Jesus spoke about the Kingdom of God. (A grammatically correct sentence: вЂњJesusвЂќ is the subject; вЂњspoke about the Kingdom of GodвЂќ is the predicate, including вЂњspokeвЂќ as the main verb.) п‚· Jesus spoke about the Kingdom of God, he went from town to town in Galilee. (run-on: it has two predicates, вЂњspokeвЂ¦вЂќ and вЂњwentвЂ¦.вЂќ Each half of the sentence is an independent sentence, and the simplest way to fix this is to change the comma to a period. Or, you could add a connecting word like вЂњwhile he wentвЂ¦вЂќ.) п‚· Jesus spoke about the Kingdom of God, the disciples were often puzzled by this though. (run-on: the subject shifts from вЂњJesusвЂќ to вЂњthe disciples.вЂќ Fix this by changing the comma to a period.) п‚· Jesus spoke about the Kingdom of God. Which was hard to understand. (incomplete: the second sentence does not have a grammatical subject. вЂњwhichвЂќ is a вЂњrelative pronounвЂќ which must always stay in the same sentence as the thing it refers back toвЂ”in this case, вЂњthe Kingdom of God.вЂќ) 9. Acknowledging Sources a. BethanyвЂ™s method for writers to acknowledge their sources is the parenthetical reference in the text (not footnotes at the bottom of the page), as outlined by the Modern Language Association (MLA7). The reference within the text gives the authorвЂ™s last name and the page number(s) of the source, and is called a citation. b. Basic citation format: вЂњquotationвЂќ (name page). п‚· do: include space between close-quote and parenthesis п‚· donвЂ™t: use вЂњp.вЂќ before the page number п‚· do: put a period after the parenthesis п‚· donвЂ™t: include the final punctuation within the quote, even when the original has a concluding period; the main exception is a question markвЂ”this affects the meaning of the quote, and must be included. пѓ» вЂњвЂ¦lead to the final judgment and salvation (Geddert 322).вЂќ пѓ» вЂњвЂ¦lead to the final judgment and salvation.вЂќ (Geddert 322) пѓј вЂњвЂ¦lead to the final judgment and salvationвЂќ (Geddert 322). While the basic principle is straightforward, there are many variations depending on the kind of research materials you are using, and you should familiarize yourself with the Citation Guide included in this manual (Appendix One, page 24). c. It is extremely important for you to acknowledge all research sources. Failure to do so can result in unintentional plagiarism, which is a serious matterвЂ”the academic equivalent of shoplifting. вЂњPlagiarism involves two kinds of wrongs: 1) using another personвЂ™s idea, information, or expression without acknowledgement or 2) passing off another personвЂ™s ideas, information or expressions as your ownвЂќ (MLA7 52). In your essays, you must document вЂњthe sources of all material you borrowвЂ”exact III. Assignments 9 wording, paraphrases, ideas, arguments, and factsвЂќ (MLA7 61).вЂЋвЂњRewriting does not make an idea yours, it only makes the words yours. A citation credits the idea to вЂЋsomeone else. Quotation marks credit the words to someone elseвЂќ (Bauman 259).вЂЋвЂЋroвЂЋpSehвЂЋeroвЂЋ roSвЂЋ15-15вЂЋ7ALMвЂЋeSSвЂЋ .heaudaodo вЂЋgoeSoovaoedouвЂЋaoeвЂЋatrdedou d. For biblical references included in the text, use a similar format to the parenthetical reference: the biblical book in abbreviated form, chapter and verse, and Bible translation, if necessary. If the reference follows a biblical passage, place the reference outside of the quotation marks. See section 11 in Appendix Two (page 29) for standard Bible book abbreviations, and for further details on biblical referencing. e. If you want to include a quote that is longer than four lines, you must set it apart as a block quote: indented one inch; double spaced; no quotation marks; parenthetical reference after the final period (see MLA7 94 for examples). f. If your original quote already has quotation marks within it, those (double вЂњвЂњ) quotation marks must be changed to single quotation marks вЂ�вЂ� when you borrow the quote in your essay. 10.Conclusion Your conclusion serves two purposes: (1) it reminds your readers of your purpose or thesis statement in a reworded form, and (2) it provides your readers with a sense of finality (Bailey et al. 84). Your conclusion may вЂњretrace your line of thought,вЂќ conclude your argument, or encourage a response (Buckley 47-48). Does your conclusion reword your thesis statement? Does your conclusion bring your essay to an end? 11.Works Cited All sources must be listed on a separate page entitled вЂњWorks CitedвЂќ (not Bibliography) at the end of the essay. Only include sources that you have actually cited (quoted or referenced) in your paper. See the Citation Guide for the specifics. Note the following formatting basics, however: п‚· sources are listed in alphabetical order, by authorвЂ™s (last) name. п‚· the list is double-spaced throughout п‚· the list is set up as a вЂњhanging indentвЂќ: any line after the first one is indented one tab (half an inch). Important: let your word-processor do the work (rather than you inserting tabs throughout). Learn how to set it up for a hanging indent. 12.Formatting the Final Copy For proper documentation of sources and all other matters of style and form, please refer to MLA7 used in the First Year Academic Seminar. a. General formatting guidelines: п‚· All papers should be computer printed; certain assignments may be handwritten at the instructorвЂ™s discretion. п‚· Print pages single-sided, double-spaced, with a one inch (2.5 cm) margin. п‚· Use a standard font at 12-point font size with a legible black ink. п‚· Number pages (starting with the body of the essay). See MLA7 117-18. 10 III. Assignments b. Assemble and staple your pages together in this order: п‚· Title Page (not numbered) п‚· Outline (not numbered) п‚· Body of Paper (begin with page one) п‚· Works Cited c. Title page: there are two different formats you may use: (1) For papers two pages or less in length, include the title page information on the top of the first page. A separate title page is not required. See MLA7 116-17. (2) For longer assignments use a separate title page. Centre the following information on the page: assignment type (e.g. вЂњExegetical Essay,вЂќ вЂњBook ReviewвЂќ), title of your assignment, your name, course number and name, instructorвЂ™s name, and date of submission. (3) You may include your name with the page numbering in the header (see MLA7 117). Do not include all the assignment information there. Guide to Commonly Used (and Abused) Abbreviations e.g. etc. i.e. cf. c. = вЂњfor exampleвЂќ (Latin, exempli gratia). DonвЂ™t use вЂњex.вЂќ = вЂњand so onвЂќ (Latin, et cetera). DonвЂ™t use вЂњe.g.вЂќ and вЂњetc.вЂќ together, as in: The Bible uses many images for God, e.g. Shepherd, King, Fire, etc. The reason: if you use вЂњetc.вЂќ you are implying that I, the reader, should keep on thinking up examples on my own. ItвЂ™s your job as writer to supply the examples. = вЂњthat is,вЂќ (Latin, id est). вЂњi.e.вЂќ and вЂњe.g.вЂќ are not interchangeable. вЂњE.g.вЂќ introduces one or more examples; вЂњi.e.вЂќ gives a precise definition of what you are talking about. E.g.: Jesus makes several major claims about the Temple, e.g. that he will build it upon the Rock, or that he will raise it in three days. Jesus says that he will raise up the Temple, i.e. his body, in three days. = вЂњcompare, check out, look atвЂќ (Latin confer); also seen as cp (вЂњcompareвЂќ). Useful in taking notes: for PaulвЂ™s understanding of the return of X, cf Rom 8, 1Cor 15 = вЂњaboutвЂќ (Latin, circa), used in approximate dates: e.g. Abraham lived c. 1800 BC. C. Exegetical Paper 1. Definition An exegetical paper is a type of research essay that presents the results of methodical Bible study on a particular passage or group of passages in Scripture. An exegetical paper seeks to explain the meaning of a selected biblical text. The following is an adaptation of the format taught by J. Scott Duvall & J. Daniel Hays, Grasping GodвЂ™s Word, 3rd Edition (455-457). 2. Format and Content a. Title Page: The title page should follow the appropriate format and clearly state the passage that you are exegeting. b. Outline: The outline for your paper should include the main sections of the biblical text under the вЂњContentвЂќ heading. c. Introduction: п‚· The introduction should gain the readersвЂ™ attention and introduce them to the main question or topic of the passage you are studying. III. Assignments d. e. f. g. 11 п‚· Identify the biblical text you are exegeting and the reasons for choosing it (if relevant). п‚· The thesis statement normally concludes the introduction, and should identify what you are attempting to accomplish or argue in your paper. Body of Paper: i) Historical and Cultural Context: What it is about the author, original audience and their world that is relevant to understanding the meaning of the passage? This can include a brief overview of the origin of the biblical book, and specific items of historical or cultural relevance to the text. ii) Literary Context: How does the genre of the book provide an interpretive framework for understanding what the author is communicating? How does this passage fit into the authorвЂ™s flow of thought? How does the passage relate to what precedes and follows it? iii) Content п‚· Explain what the text means. Relate what it means to the historical, cultural and literary context. Let the main points of your outline function as subheadings. Include under each subheading a detailed (normally verse-by-verse) explanation of your passage. п‚· Explain the meaning of key words and concepts. п‚· Compare your observations with those of commentaries. Consult with commentaries; they do not have to dictate your conclusions. If different authorities disagree on the meaning of a passage, try to understand and describe the source of the different options. If you have a preference, give reasons why. Application What is the significance of this passage to your own life and the life of the Church today? Be as specific as you can, in the possible applications of this text to contemporary life. Conclusion Works Cited: Identify the sources you have cited in your paper. -11- 12 III. Assignments Academic Biblical & Theological Writing Here are a few other miscellaneous issues that you might encounter as you do academic writing specifically dealing with the Bible and theology. 1. Language for God Pronouns for God: Many Christians capitalize pronouns for God as a sign of respect. On the other hand, most Christian publishing houses and Bible translations (including NIV) donвЂ™t; obviously, not because of disrespect, but for editorial reasons. For example, it gets unwieldy if you want to be consistent: you should then capitalize ALL pronouns, not just the personal pronouns. Thus: вЂњPraise God, from Whom all blessings flow.вЂќ вЂњCome unto Me, вЂ¦for My yoke is easy and My burden is light.вЂќ What to do? We suggest that you use standard capitalization for words referring to God or Jesus: i.e. no capitals on pronouns, but capitals on titles: King, Lord, Son of Man, etc. What is most important, however, is that you are consistent. вЂњLordвЂќ: If you are quoting or referring to OT passages where Lord is written with capital letters (i.e. referring to the divine name YHWH, Yahweh), you should do just the same in your papers, if you are using a computer word processor. Use the SMALL CAPS function: type вЂњLordвЂќ and format it to become вЂњLORDвЂќ (in MS-Word, use ALT+K). But if you are referring to the NT, or theology in general, donвЂ™t use small caps, just вЂњLord.вЂќ 2. Capitalization As a general rule, even if nouns are capitalized, their related adjectives are not: п‚· Bible, biblical п‚· Christ, Christian, non-christian, christology п‚· the Church (referring to the universal body of Christ); but the church (referring to a specific congregation or building) п‚· God, godly п‚· Messiah, messianic п‚· Scriptures, scriptural There is one exception to this rule: adjectives related to specific names remain capitalized. E.g.: п‚· Abraham, David, Moses пѓ Abrahamic, Davidic, Mosaic covenants п‚· Matthew, Mark, Luke, John пѓ Matthean, Markan (Marcan) , Lukan (Lucan), Johannine theology п‚· Paul, Peter пѓ Pauline theology, Petrine letters III. Assignments 13 Academic Biblical & Theological Writing (contвЂ™d) 3. Words in biblical languages Always italicize foreign words (including biblical Greek and Hebrew), unless you are writing the word in its own alphabet. Follow any foreign word directly with its English translation in quotation marks; no comma is needed between the original and the English translation. For example: The word kurios вЂњmaster, lordвЂќ became the standard Greek translation for the Hebrew name of God. D. Evaluation of Papers 1. Marking Correction Symbols Spelling errors are circled. The following correction symbols are commonly used in marking: RO run-on sentence inc incomplete sentence awk awkward, wordy NP new paragraph ^ space between words/something missing X wrong information doc/ref documentation / reference needed 2. Research Paper Evaluation Form Bethany instructors use marking rubrics in order to ensure consistency and fairness in their evaluation of research papers. These forms vary according to the specific objectives of the class and details of the assignment. Normally 85% of the value of a research paper is assigned for the content of the paper and 15% to structural elements. See below for an example. Content................................................................................ 85% Introduction (including thesis statement) 5% Quality and quantity of understanding of subject field 40% Coherent development of topic (including outline) 20% Conclusion 5% Scope and integration of Works Cited 15% Structure ............................................................................. 15% Title Page and Outline 2% Quotations/Works Cited format 2% Spelling and Punctuation 4% Paragraph Construction 2% Sentence Structure 5% For grading the structural component, instructors deduct ВЅ percentage point per error. For the correlation of percentages, letter grades, and Grade Point Averages, see IV.E.1 page 18. E. Examinations 1. Studying for Exams It is best to review the material for exams well in advance. Know what you are responsible for and what type of examination it will be. Try to study accordingly. Memorize important facts and points. Use different techniques to help you 14 IV. Academic Procedures remember (i.e. alliteration). Despite persistent rumours to the contrary, sleeping the night before, and eating a decent meal, actually do increase your ability to perform better on an exam. 2. Writing the Exam a. Read through the entire exam first and apportion the time you spend on each question by the mark value. b. Make sure you understand the question before answering. c. Answer the easiest questions first. d. If you are stumped by a question, move on. e. If it is multiple-choice, think of your answer before you look at the options. f. For essay questions, organize your thoughts before you begin to write. g. Leave enough time to review your answers before you submit the exam. IV.ACADEMIC PROCEDURES We want to encourage all students to make Bethany a place of learning and intellectual growth. The following policies have been adopted to help each student in maintaining this goal. A. Academic Workload Student workload normally consists of sixteen credits hour plus one hour of Service Learning practicum. Students contemplating additional academic workload hours need to consider the time pressures involved in balancing studies with student leadership, student work, athletics and ministry teams, and their other activities. 1. Diploma and Degree Programs A three credit hour course involves two seventy-five minute classes and an additional six hours of work outside of class (including reading, research papers and other assignments) weekly. 2. Certificate Program The purpose of the Certificate of Biblical Studies program is to help students who do not qualify for entrance or continued participation in the Diploma program to work to their potential in deepening their understanding of the Bible and integrating biblical truth into their faith and life. Although the Certificate requires taking the same courses as the Diploma program, assignments and evaluations are tailored to the abilities of the individual student, and as such, are not normally transferable to other college programs. Students initially enrolled in the Diploma program may only be transferred to the Certificate program by recommendation of the faculty and no later than upon entry into the second year. Assignments and examinations for each course will be agreed upon by the instructor and student and recorded on a Certificate Program Course Agreement. This document forms the basis for evaluating the studentвЂ™s performance. 3. Audit Courses The only requirement for audit courses is to attend class faithfully. Appropriate recognition will be given on the transcript for such courses. Audit tuition fees are half of regular tuition fees. IV. Academic Procedures 15 B. Transfer Credit 1. Association of Biblical Higher Education Guidelines The 2013 ABHE Commission on Accreditation manual states, вЂњTransfer of credit from one program to another involves at least the following three considerations: a. The educational quality of the program from which the student transfers; b. The comparability of the nature, content, and level of credit earned to that offered by the receiving institution; and c. The appropriateness and applicability of the credit earned to the programs offered by the receiving program in light of the studentвЂ™s educational goalsвЂќ (75). 2. General Guidelines Applicants desiring advanced standing on the basis of courses taken elsewhere must have official transcripts sent directly from the institution where the credit was earned. The following guidelines are followed to determine the level of transferability: a. Courses must be equivalent to or nearly equivalent to course offerings at Bethany. Some substitutions may be allowed for elective courses if the courses meet BethanyвЂ™s program objectives. b. Transfer courses must have a minimum grade of вЂњC.вЂќ Grades from transfer credits are not considered when calculating the studentвЂ™s grade point average. c. Within the above guidelines, the maximum allowable standing is: п‚· 32 credits for the Diploma or Certificate program. п‚· 64 credits for the Bachelor of Christian Studies Programs. п‚· 96 credits for the Bachelor of Arts Degree program. d. The Academic Committee determines the final awarding of transfer credits. 3. Unaccredited Institutions a. Assessment Criteria Students transferring from unaccredited schools may receive credit for courses taken from the sending institution, provided some combination of the following means is demonstrated: (1) Review of syllabi, faculty credentials, grading standards and other relevant learning resources of the sending institution. (2) Successful completion of one semester at Bethany. (3) Analysis of historic experience regarding success of transfers from the sending institution. b. Documentation of the process used to validate transfer credits from unaccredited institutions will be stored in the studentвЂ™s permanent file. c. Guidelines for experience-based schools (e.g. Youth With A Mission, School of Discipleship, or Capernwray): (1) Based on the above criteria (IV.B.3.a), transfer credit may be granted on the basis of fifty percent of credits earned at an experience-based school to a maximum of sixteen credits per year. (2) Service Learning Practicum credit may also be granted alongside the academic credit if warranted. 16 IV. Academic Procedures 4. Dissimilar Institutions Transfer of credits from dissimilar institutions, such as a university or community college, may be given up to a maximum of twenty-five percent of the required program at Bethany on a course-by-course basis. Rationale for the maximum is that a Bible College program integrates the Bible into all courses as well as the environment seeks to foster spiritual growth and mission. C. Challenging a Course 1. Possible reasons for challenging a course would be: a. having taken a similar course from a Christian high school, or b. having considerable life experience in a particular subject area. 2. When a student requests an exemption from a compulsory course, permission may be granted by the Academic Committee if the student achieves a score of at least sixty percent on the final exam for the course. The exam given would likely be from the previous yearвЂ™s course. 3. The process of determining whether a student may withdraw from the course must be completed before the change of registration deadline for the semester. The student would attend classes until proficiency in the course material has been demonstrated. 4. This procedure does not imply receiving credit, but rather receiving an exemption from taking a compulsory course. The credits for the successfully challenged course would have to be made up through an elective of the same designation (e.g. a BTH course for a BTH course). D. Class Attendance Regular class attendance is required of all students. Instructors take attendance and share information with the Registrar for academic advising purposes. 1. Rationale Part of the discipline of study includes taking responsibility for faithful attendance in classes. Faithful attendance helps prepare students for similar demands in any work situation. It should be noted that Canada Student Loans requires ninety percent attendance of all recipients. 2. Absentee Procedures a. An instructor may include a participation mark in the syllabus to reflect attendance and active class participation. b. An absence that is known about in advance (e.g. team trip, family wedding, doctorвЂ™s appointment), or that is the result of sickness, should be noted by means of a вЂњRequest for Registered AbsenceвЂќ form, submitted to the Registrar. c. Any student who misses more than twenty percent of scheduled classes will be ineligible to receive a passing grade for the course. d. In cases where the registered absence exceeds the twenty percent limit, exceptions may be made for two reasons: (1) prolonged illness or exceptional circumstances (e.g. a death in the family). Instructors may assign further reading or written work at their discretion, in lieu of student absences from a class. (2) absences because of ministry team or athletic team trips. These are deemed a conflict between two required events of the college. When IV. Academic Procedures 17 such conflicts arise, the Registrar will give guidance, in consultation with either Athletic Director or Ministry Arts Director as necessary. If such absences exceed the 20% limit, they will not disqualify the student (provided there are no other unexcused absences). e. If a student obtains absences in twenty-five percent of the classes in a course in which he or she is enrolled, the student may be ineligible to remain as a student of Bethany College. f. Normally a seventy-five minute class will meet twenty-four times in a semester. In such a class ten percent absence would be understood to be two classes, twenty percent would be five classes and twenty-five percent would be six classes. You the student are responsible to discuss any absences with your instructor to determine material covered and assignments missed. 3. Food and Drinks in the Classroom Food should not be brought into the classroom. Drinks are allowed in spill-proof containers. 4. Note Taking Students are expected to take class notes. Therefore, any activities that impair a student from doing so are not allowed in class. 5. Electronic Devices Students are asked to refrain from using their cell phones (for calls or texting), MP3 players or other personal music devices in the classroom. Laptop computers may be used solely for classroom purposes; if they become a distraction students will be asked not to use them. Students are asked to turn Wi-Fi connections off during class time, unless invited by the instructor to go online for classroom purposes. Instructors reserve the right to mark as absent those students who use laptops for purposes unrelated to the class. E. Evaluation and Marks Marks are one of the forms of motivation and feedback that help students do their best at their studies. They give an adequate reflection of their understanding in a certain subject. Instructors seek to be consistent and fair in their evaluation. Please see your instructor if you have concern with an evaluation that was given. Included on each syllabus is the format for how that particular course will be graded. Normally 80 percent will be comprised of term work, while 20 percent will be placed on the final examination. This combination means that term work and examinations need to be completed well in order for someone to attain a high mark. Grades will be reported to the student in the form of a transcript following the end of the semester. 18 IV. Academic Procedures 1. Table of Marks Letter Percentage GPA* A+ A AB+ B BC+ C CD+ D DFS FN FA CR 96-100 91-95 86-90 82-85 77-81 73-76 69-72 64-68 60-63 57-59 53-56 50-52 40-49 Below 40 n/a n/a 4.0 4.0 3.7 3.3 3.0 2.7 2.3 2.0 1.7 1.3 1.0 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 n/a P n/a n/a AU n/a n/a I n/a n/a W n/a n/a Description Excellent Good Satisfactory* Unsatisfactory Failure, supplemental work allowed Failure, supplemental work not allowed Failure due to absences Credit (no grade point value) Pass (Certificate, Service Learning Practicum) Audit (class attendance only) Incomplete (after one semester this becomes an FN) Withdrawal *A minimum cumulative Grade Point Average (GPA) of 2.0 is required for graduation. 2. Appealing a Grade If a student feels that they have been assigned an unfair grade, the following procedure should be followed. a) The student should discuss the concern with the instructor and ask for the assignment to be re-evaluated. b) If the situation is not resolved, the student should approach the Academic Dean and ask to begin a formal appeals process. c) At the discretion of the Academic Dean, the assignment will be distributed to a committee of three independent faculty members for reassessment. This group will recommend either that the initial grade be affirmed or modified. Written rationale of the decision shall be provided to the student. d) The decision of this committee shall be final. 3. Certificate Program If the student is evaluated according to the syllabus, a letter grade is given. Courses with individually tailored assignments and examinations will receive a вЂњPвЂќ for Pass or an вЂњFвЂќ for Failure on the transcript. The GPA is only calculated on courses that have not been modified. F. Assignment Procedures 1. Late Assignments a. Course assignments are expected to be in on time; this means before 10:00 p.m. on the day the assignment is due. IV. Academic Procedures 19 b. Late assignments will be penalized by deducting 5 percentage points from the earned grade, for every regular class day late, to a maximum of five days. c. Assignments received more than five days late shall be given 50 percent of the earned grade. d. All assigned work must be completed prior to the final assignment deadline of the semester. 2. Extension Requests a. Extensions beyond the due date may be granted by the instructor for prolonged illnesses or exceptional circumstances. Receiving an extension will defer the late deduction for the duration of the extension. b. Extension Request Process (1) The student submits a completed вЂњExtension RequestвЂќ form to the instructor. Please fill out the student information on both top and bottom of the form. (2) The instructor decides on each request and gives a response to the student, whether granting, modifying, or denying the extension. (3) Note: extension requests will not be accepted by email or other social media. c. Guidelines for Decisions (1) The extension request should come to the faculty member at least two days prior to the due date. (2) The normal length of extension is several days to a week. (3) вЂњProlonged illnessвЂќ means two or more days missing classes and meals. (4) вЂњExceptional circumstancesвЂќ may include: (a) a death in the family (b) a family wedding or previously planned major trip G. Plagiarism Plagiarism is using another personвЂ™s ideas, words or expressions without acknowledging the source of the information (see MLA751-62 for specific examples). Plagiarism is a serious academic offence and is treated as such by Bethany faculty and instructors. While plagiarism is obviously a failure to comply with acceptable academic standards, it also involves wilful deception, which runs contrary to our conviction of the importance of truth-telling for a follower of Jesus Christ. If an instructor suspects an assignment has been plagiarized, he or she will notify the Academic Dean who will convene the Academic Committee to assess the assignment in question. If there is reasonable evidence that a significant portion of an assignment has been plagiarized, the student will receive a zero for the assignment. With approval from the Academic Dean, supplemental work is possible. A copy of the plagiarized work will be kept on file in the office of the Academic Dean until the student has completed the program of study. The occurrence of plagiarism will be noted in the official minutes of both the Academic Committee and the Faculty Committee. A copy of the letter of notification to the student will also be placed in the studentвЂ™s file. If the same student is proved to have plagiarized a second time, the student may be asked to withdraw. 20 IV. Academic Procedures Students are expected to do original work for each course. This means that original research will be involved. A paper with only minor modifications to one already submitted will not be accepted. Students intending to write papers on similar themes for more than one class must clear this with all instructors involved before proceeding. H. Supplemental Work Procedures 1. Supplemental work is permissible in courses where the mark attained is between 40-49 percent. After the supplemental work is completed satisfactorily, the mark may be raised to a вЂњCвЂќ grade level. 2. Supplemental work will not be assigned over the Christmas break. This means that the studentвЂ™s first semester grades will not be adjusted before the second semester begins and Athletic and Ministry Team involvement will be determined on the basis of first semester grades (see J below). 3. Under exceptional circumstances, supplemental work for those wanting to raise passing grades will be considered by the Registrar in consultation with the Academic Committee. 4. Supplemental work is to be completed no later than the final assignment deadline in any given semester. If supplemental work is completed during the summer, it must be received no later than August 15. 5. A supplemental fee, equivalent to one credit hour, will be charged for each course. Work will not be assigned without payment. I. Directed Studies Procedures 1. Directed Studies may be taken for the following reasons: a. to take a course not offered in a given year but necessary for a studentвЂ™s program. This option is not open to first year students. b. to take a course when a schedule conflict does not allow a student to register in the regular course. c. to redo a course after receiving an FN. 2. The student must fill out and sign the Directed Study Form and include the Directed Study fee with the request. Directed Study fees are charged at the current tuition rate. The Directed Study fee must be received by Bethany or satisfactory payment arrangements need to be made with the Business Office prior to work being assigned. 3. The Registrar grants permission to do the Directed Study. The Registrar will approach the appropriate instructor with the Directed Study request. If the instructor agrees to offer the Directed Study, he/she will develop a syllabus describing the work that needs to be completed. A guideline of 30 hours of work per credit hour will be followed. Regular assignment due dates are encouraged. 4. Directed Studies are six months in duration. Extensions may be available for up to 12 months in consultation with the instructor. Such extensions will be assessed an additional one credit hour charge for each three month period. At the end of 12 months, an incomplete Directed Study will be terminated without further possibility of extension. J. Academic Advising IV. Academic Procedures 21 1. Certificate students will meet in an accountability relationship with those providing academic advising under the guidance of the Registrar. 2. Students who fall below a 2.0 GPA will automatically be placed on an accountability list for academic advising and can expect regular monitoring. K. Academic Probation 1. Some students may be placed on academic probation upon admission as a result of graduating from a modified high school program or having a diagnosed learning disability. Students transferring from unaccredited postsecondary institutions may also be placed on academic probation. 2. Students who fall below 1.5 GPA in any given semester will be placed on academic probation. The student must meet regularly with an academic advisor and may be required to withdraw from athletic teams, student leadership, ministry arts teams and any Bethany extracurricular activities. Two terms below 1.5 GPA may result in ineligibility for further enrolment at Bethany for a period of one year. The same applies to Certificate students with one or more вЂњFвЂќ in each of two consecutive terms. 3. Probationary status is removed by earning a GPA of 1.5 or higher. For Certificate students, this is achieved by passing all courses. L. Ministry Arts and Athletic Team Involvements 1. Ministry Arts and athletic team involvement is open to full-time students (minimum of 10 credit hours) displaying: a. Evidence of competence, character, attitude and ability to be a team player. b. A positive attitude toward team expectations as outlined in the syllabus and the team manual. c. Class attendance as per academic guidelines. Excessive class absences would put this requirement in jeopardy. d. A minimum GPA of 1.5 in the previous semester for involvement in one team and a minimum cumulative GPA of 2.0 for involvement in two teams. The exception to this guideline applies to Certificate program students, where no FвЂ™s in the previous semester would allow two ministry team involvements, one F would restrict involvement to one team, and two or more FвЂ™s would disqualify involvement. e. Adherence to Student Development guidelines. Appearing before the Dean of Student Development for a disciplinary concern would put this requirement in jeopardy. Appearing before the Discipline Committee could result in a recommendation to faculty for removal from the team for at least that semester. 2. Failure to meet any of these requirements will be considered sufficient reason to disqualify involvement or disallow continued involvement as a member of an athletic and/or Ministry Arts team. a. When problems arise with the above requirements, communication with affected students and faculty members will take place to ensure a correct understanding of the concerns. b. A recommendation for removal of a student from an athletic or Ministry Arts team will be processed by Faculty Committee. The initial 22 IV. Academic Procedures recommendation may come from the team leader, the Academic Dean, or the Dean of Student Development. c. The rationale and appeals process for this policy are available upon request from the Academic Dean. 3. For attendance conflicts between team and class responsibilities, see section IV.D.2 (p 16). M. Final Examination Procedures 1. All students are required to write final examinations at scheduled times. 2. Students who choose not to write final examinations in the Fall semester are not allowed to remain on campus throughout the examination days. 3. Final exams are ordinarily rescheduled only for individuals if they have two exams scheduled for the same period or in cases of illness with a doctorвЂ™s certificate. No fee is charged for such changes. Requests for rescheduling an exam for any other reason must be made at least one week prior to the beginning of the examination period. A вЂњRequest to Reschedule a Final ExamвЂќ form must be submitted to the Registrar. A $50 fee per exam is applicable for such changes. 4. Students are to enter the examination room quietly. Silence is to be maintained in the examination room at all times. Students are not permitted to leave the examination room during the exam. Questions may be addressed to the supervising faculty member. 5. Only materials needed in the writing of the examination are allowed into the examination room. 6. Students are free to leave the examination room one hour after the start of the exam. Supervising faculty will notify students when the minimum time is completed. 7. Two hours are permitted for each exam. Students should hand in the exam promptly at the completion of the time. N. Academic Recognition 1. Academic Honours a. Academic Honour Roll Students who earn a GPA of 3.40 or higher in any given semester will have their names publicly displayed on the Academic Honour Roll the following semester. b. Graduation with Honours Students who maintain a cumulative GPA of 3.40-3.69 will graduate вЂњWith Honours.вЂќ c. Graduation with Distinction Students who maintain a cumulative GPA of 3.70 or higher will graduate вЂњWith Distinction.вЂќ d. The Governor GeneralвЂ™s Collegiate Bronze Medal This medal will be awarded to the Diploma graduate with the highest overall GPA. e. Delta Epsilon Chi A limited number of degree graduates (7 percent of the class) may be nominated to membership in Delta Epsilon Chi, the honour society of the Association for Biblical Higher Education. Nominees are chosen by faculty IV. Academic Procedures 23 based upon three criteria: outstanding academic scholarship, approved Christian character, and Christian leadership. (The Greek letters stand for the phrase dokimos en ChristЕЌ вЂњapproved in Christ,вЂќ Rom 16.10.) 2. Academic Prizes a. Four Academic Prizes are awarded at the end of the school year to students submitting the best assignments. Prizes will be awarded for research or exegetical essays and creative projects. Submissions for these prizes are made by faculty members near the end of each semester. (Faculty are asked to submit only one assignment per course.) Winners are chosen by the Academic Committee at the end of the school year, and prizes are awarded at an appropriate student gathering. b. A qualifying assignment will have all of the following characteristics: п‚· It is considered a major assignment requiring a minimum of 10 hours of work. п‚· It must be an example of excellent work showing evidence of extensive research and/or considerable creativity. 3. Academic Scholarships for Honour Students a. Second Year Academic Scholarship A $200 scholarship will be awarded in the fall semester to returning Second Year students with a cumulative GPA of 3.40 or higher. b. Third and Fourth Year Academic Scholarship A $250 scholarship will be awarded in the fall semester to returning Third and Fourth students (who are studying full-time on campus) with a cumulative GPA of 3.40 or higher. O. Graduation Requirements Specific graduation requirements may be found in the current College Catalogue alongside the studentвЂ™s program of study. General requirements will include completion of all required courses, as well as a cumulative GPA of 2.0 (a letter grade of C). In Conclusion... If you have further questions or suggestions for improving this manual or the academic programming of Bethany College, please see the Academic Dean. Our prayer is that in this academic year your understanding will be increased, your critical thinking developed, and above all, that you will mature as a follower of Jesus. Works Cited The following recommended resources were referenced in this Manual. They can all be found in our library or on the Internet: ABHE Commission on Accreditation Manual. Association for Biblical Higher Education. Rev. April 2013. PDF file. 15 Aug 2013. Bailey, Edward P., et al. The Practical Writer: Paragraph to Theme. 4th ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1989. Print. 24 IV. Academic Procedures Bauman, M. Garrett. Ideas and Details: A Guide to College Writing. 2nd ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1995. Print. Buckley, Joanne. Fit to Print: The Canadian StudentвЂ™s Guide to Essay Writing. 4th ed. Toronto: Harcourt Brace, 1998. Print. Duvall, J. Scott and J. Daniel Hays. Grasping GodвЂ™s Word. 3rd ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2012. Print. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009. Print. Academic Manual last updated: 20 August 2013 25 Appendix One: Citation Guide Comprehensive Citation Guide for Bethany College Academic Papers (Based on MLA7 Style) No. Source Sample Citation Format Notes 1. Book: one author Schmidt, Thomas. A Scandalous Beauty: the Artistry of God and the Way of the Cross. 2 Grand Rapids: Brazos, 2002. Print. In text citation: (Schmidt 42) 2. Book: two authors Duvall, J. Scott and J. Daniel Hays. Grasping GodвЂ™s Word. 3rd ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2012. Print. In text citation: (Duvall and Hays 286) 3. Book: three authors Klein, William, Craig Blomberg, and Robert L. Hubbard. Introduction to Biblical Interpretation. Dallas: Word, 1993. Print. In text citation: (Klein, Blomberg, and Hubbard 230) 4. Book: 4+ authors Beasley, James, et al. An Introduction to the Bible. Nashville: Abingdon, 1991. Print. In text citation: (Beasley et al. 154) 5. Book: editor as author Dyck, Cornelius J., ed. An Introduction to Mennonite History. Waterloo, Ont.: Herald 6. Book: edited reference Zondervan Handbook to the Bible. Eds. Pat Alexander and David Alexander. 4th ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009. Print. work, general In text citation: (Zondervan Handbook 403) reference 7. Book section (e.g. signed article or essay) in edited volume 3 4 5 6 7 Press, 1967. Print. In text citation: (Dyck 212) 8 Barton, David. "Portrait of Jeremiah." Zondervan Handbook to the Bible. Eds. Pat Alexander and David Alexander. 3rd ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1999. 441-42. Print. In text citation: (Barton 441) Block, Daniel I. "All Creatures Great and Small: Recovering a Deuteronomistic Theology of Animals." The Old Testament in the Life of God's People: Essays in Honor of Elmer A. Martens. Ed. Jon Isaak. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2009. 283-306. Print. In text citation: (Block 303) 8. Book: republished, and/or multiple editions Tolkien, J.R.R. The Hobbit. 1937. London: HarperCollins, 1999. Print. In text citation: (Tolkien 130; ch. 7) 9 These notes explain further details about references in general, and citation formatting in particular. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Capitalize the first, the last and all significant words of a title and subtitle regardless of how they are capitalized in your source. (See attached Principles of Referencing, section 5a.) Place of publication: omit prov/state if it is a well known or commonly referenced publisher. Name of publisher: omit вЂњPress,вЂќ вЂњPublishing House,вЂќ вЂњand Co.вЂќ etc.(See Principles of Referencing, section 6a.) List author/editor names in the order of the original source. (See Principles of Referencing, section 4a.) If the book has a long subtitle (e.g. Grasping GodвЂ™s Word: A Hands-on Approach to Reading, Interpreting, and Applying the Bible), it can safely be omitted. Note the edition this way (after title, followed by period). Use the most recent year as the date of publication. вЂњet al.вЂќ is a Latin abbreviation: вЂњet aliiвЂќ = вЂњand others.вЂќ вЂњEds.вЂќ means вЂњEditors.вЂќ If there is only one editor, use вЂњEd.вЂќ Note the extra information given: the year following the title is the original year of publication; the final year listed is the most recent date of your edition. In the citation reference: give a chapter (вЂњch.вЂќ) number as well, in case a reader does not have the same edition as you. 26 9. Appendix One: Citation Guide Janzen, Waldemar. Exodus. Waterloo: Herald Press, 2000. Print. Believers Church Bible Commentary, Bible Commentary. type 1: multi-volume In text citation: (Janzen 214) series, one author per volume 10 12 Durhum, John. Exodus. Waco: Word, 1987. Print. Word Biblical Commentary 3. In text citation: (Durhum 39) Tenney, Merrill. "Gospel of John." Expositor's Bible Commentary. Ed. Frank E. 10. Bible Commentary, Gaebelein. Vol. 9. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981. 1-203. Print. type 2: multi-volume In text citation: (Tenney 153) series, more than one author Hubbard, Moyer. "2 Corinthians." Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds per volume Commentary. Ed. Clinton Arnold. Vol. 3. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2002. 13 194-263. Print. In text citation: (Hubbard 214) 11. Bible/Theological Dictionary: signed article Hammett, John S. "Camel." Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Ed. David Noel Freedman. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000. 212. Print. In text citation: (Hammett 212) 14 Niehaus, Jeffrey J. "Theophany, Theology Of." New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology & Exegesis. Ed. Willem A. VanGemeren. Vol. 4. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1997. 1247-50. Print. In text citation: (Niehaus 1248) Averbeck, Richard E. "hattaвЂ™t " New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology & Exegesis. Ed. Willem A. VanGemeren. Vol. 2. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1997. 93-103. Print. In text citation: (Averbeck 95) "Genizah." Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Ed. David Noel Freedman. Grand 12. Bible/Theological Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000. 493. Print. Dictionary: unsigned In text citation: (вЂњGenizahвЂќ 493) article 13. Journal article, print. 15 Dueck, Gil, and Doug Heidebrecht. "Fault Lines in Evangelical Theology." Direction 36.1 (2007): 20-30. Print. In text citation: (Dueck and Heidebrecht 27) 14. Journal article, online Schellenberg, Ryan. "Seeing the World Whole: Intertextuality and the New Jerusalem 16 (Revelation 21-22)." Perspectives in Religious Studies 33.4 (2006): 467-76. source (e.g. ATLA). ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials. Web. 31 May 2012. In text citation: (Schellenberg 471) 15. ebook, online source (e.g. EBSCOhost) 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Barker, Margaret. Creation: A Biblical Vision for the Environment. London: Continuum, 2010. EBSCOhost. Web. 6 Jun 2012. In text citation: (Barker 193) Series name is not italicized. Some series give a volume number; include that (but without вЂњvol.вЂќ). Herald Press is located in both Waterloo, Ont., and Scottdale, Penn. Use the first place given. (Why is вЂњPressвЂќ included in the publisherвЂ™s name? Herald Press is a small publishing company not well known outside the orbit of Mennonite schools and churches. Hence the full name is used.) A surprising number of students type вЂњWorld Biblical CommentaryвЂќ instead of вЂњWord BiblicalвЂ¦.вЂќ DonвЂ™t. Gaebelein is the editor, not the author, of the ExpositorвЂ™s Bible Commentary. Make sure you look up the author. The Averbeck reference is to a Hebrew word entry. Foreign words are always italicized, so this word is also in italics here, even when it is also in quotation marks as the title of the dictionary entry. The вЂњ493вЂќ refers to the one page on which this short article is found. IMPORTANT: if the online source is formatted as a print source (e.g. a PDF file), give the page numbers according to the print source (this will cover most everything you can find with the ATLA database through our library). If you have a choice between an unformatted (unpaginated) online source, and a paginated print source (e.g. National Geographic magazine), use the print source so you can give page numbers. 11 27 Appendix One: Citation Guide 16. online encyclopedia Driscoll, James F. "Adam." The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton, 1907. Web. 06 Jun 2012. In text citation: (Driscoll) 17 17. e-book in electronic Drane, John W. Introducing the Old Testament. Oxford: Lion, 2000. Logos Bible Software. Bellingham, Wash.: Logos, 2002-2009. CD-ROM. collection (e.g. Logos In text citation: (Drane 42) Bible Software) "Amen." Harper's Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1985. Logos Bible 18. unsigned article in Software. Bellingham, Wash.: Logos, 2002-2009. CD-ROM. e-book in electronic In text citation: (вЂњAmenвЂќ 3) collection (e.g. Logos Bible Software) 19. Website, specific page/article & author. Guenther, Bruce and Abe J. Dueck. "Bethany College (Hepburn, Saskatchewan, Canada)." Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. 2009. Web. 28 May 2012. In text citation: (Guenther and Dueck) 20. Website, specific page/article, no author. вЂњNative Spirituality Guide." Royal Canadian Mounted Police. 12 Jul 2010. Web. 4 Jun 2012. In text citation: (вЂњNative SpiritualityвЂќ) The Great Pyramid: The Bible in Stone. n.d. Web. 31 May 2012. 21. Website (general <http://asis.com/users/stag/starchiv/ pyramid.html>. page), no author, no In text citation: (Great Pyramid) date. 18 19 20 22. Blog Dueck, Ryan. "Comb-Overs and the Kingdom of God." Rumblings. 16 Mar 2007. Web. 6 Jun 2012. In text citation: (Dueck) 23. Podcast Tremonti, Anna Maria. "Unworthy Creature: Aruna Papp." The Current. CBC Radio, 24 May 2012. Web. 25 May 2012. In text citation: (Tremonti) 24. Online video (e.g. YouTube) Lublin, Nancy. "Texting That Saves Lives." YouTube. TED Talks, 27 April 2012. Web. 21 11 Jun 2012. In text citation: (Lublin) 25. Newspaper article Jackson, Harry Jr. "Research Suggests Musical Know-How Offsets Some Signs of Aging." Saskatoon StarPhoenix 9 Jun 2012: E10. Print. In text citation: (Jackson E10) 26. Interview Wall, Howie. Personal interview. 6 June 2012. In text citation: (Wall) 27. Lecture Klassen, Randy. "Jesus the Rabbi." BTH102 Introduction to Jesus and the Gospels. Bethany College, Hepburn. 5 Mar 2012. Lecture. In text citation: (Klassen) 28. Class notes (PDF). Klassen, Randy. "Jesus the Rabbi." BTH102 Introduction to Jesus and the Gospels. Bethany College, Hepburn. 5 Mar 2012. PDF. In text citation: (Klassen) 17 18 19 20 21 The bibliographic information for this entry is given at the bottom of the website page (which is where youвЂ™ll normally find it). Note that you do not include the URL for an internet-based source, unless there is little else to identify it. (See example 21.) The final date, after вЂњWeb.вЂќ, is the date you accessed the website. Websites generally donвЂ™t have page numbers, so you canвЂ™t / wonвЂ™t include that in your in-text reference; if there is no author given, give an abbreviated (1-2 word) title. вЂњn.d.вЂќ = вЂњno date.вЂќ Because there is no author or other clearly identifying information, you must give the full URL address of the website. (You should always be extra carefulвЂ”i.e. discerningвЂ”in using an unsigned, undated website. This particular website is rather misguided when it comes to interpreting the Bible; as with so much of the вЂњfree knowledgeвЂќ on the internet, you only get what you pay for.) In this entry, вЂњYouTubeвЂќ is the site where you found the video (which, like many videos, can be found in more than one place on the internet); вЂњTED TalksвЂќ is the source (i.e. the publisher) of the video. 28 Appendix Two: Principles of Referencing Principles of Referencing and Other Handy Hints for Citation 1. You are accountable for what you write. In everyday financial transactions, receipts are the вЂњpaper trailвЂќ you need for accountability (like when itвЂ™s time to file your income tax). In formal вЂњintellectual transactionsвЂќ (sharing or passing on information and insights), accountability happens by means of citations. These consist of two parts: a citation reference in the body of your essay writing, and an entry for the source (book, article, website, etc) in a specially designed listing at the end of the essay, called Works Cited. 2. Simplicity and uniformity are important values for citation. Modern Language Association , 7th ed., (MLA7) format is the approved academic style for Bethany College. 3. Basic concept for an MLA style entry in your Works Cited list: it has four pieces of information, each one followed by a period. This information provides other readers with what they need if they want to follow up your reference. (Why would someone want to do that? Here are several reasons: a prof might want to (a) to follow up an interesting thought and read more of what the вЂЋoriginal source has to say; (b) to check the quality or reliability of a source; (c) to see if a controversial quote is being taken in context, or was вЂЋmisunderstood). Thus, the basic template looks like this: Author last name, first name. Title of Resource. City: Publisher, year. Medium publication. of If it helps, think of each entry as an exciting hockey game with overtimeвЂ”hence, four periods: a) First period: the person responsible (author or editor). b) Second period: the source itself (book, article, etc). c) Third period: publisherвЂ™s info (publisher, and place and year of publication). If your source comes out of the вЂњvirtualвЂќ world (online or digital media), you will also include the electronic source (e.g. online database), and specify when the source was вЂњlast updatedвЂќ (usually indicated at the bottom of a web page). d) Fourth period (and this will be new for some of us): medium of publication of the work (print, web, DVD, interview, lecture, etc). Again, if the source is from the вЂњvirtualвЂќ world, you will also need to specify the date you accessed it. Remember: all four periods are needed for a complete reference. Without these, the formatting is considered incomplete or incorrect. Use only one space after a punctuation mark. Now, a few more details to keep in mind: 4. First Period: Names a) When listing authors (or editors), each entry always begins last name first, and the entries must be listed in alphabetical order. п‚· if there is more than one author/editor, any further names are listed in normal (first name first) order. п‚· if there is more than one author/editor, always list them in the order they are presented in the source (book etc). п‚· authors sharing a last name (e.g. a married couple, family members) are still listed as two individuals (e.g. David Alexander and Pat Alexander, Zondervan Illustrated HandbookвЂ¦; Penner, Cliff, and Joyce Penner). b) When you have references to two or more works by one author: п‚· in the text: distinguish them by a shortened title (use comma, italics) вЂ“ use one or two words to abbreviate the titleвЂ”just enough to make clear which title from Works Cited you are referring to. п‚· in Works Cited: o use three hyphens and a period: ---. (If you are OCD about appearances, you can use <alt-0151> on a PC for three вЂњem dashesвЂќ instead: вЂ”вЂ”вЂ”. If you are a Appendix Two: Principles of Referencing 29 Mac user, you probably can just wave a magic wand and it will do the same thing for you.) o if there are variations, re-use actual names, no hyphens (the three hyphens mean that exactly the same person/s in the previous entry is being referred to; if there are any changes, you must start from scratch and write out the name/s). o entries are alphabetized by title. Example: Works Cited formatting: Wright, N.T. After You Believe: Why Christian Character Matters. New York: HarperOne, 2010. Print. вЂ”вЂ”вЂ”. Evil. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2006. DVD. Wright, N.T., and Marcus Borg. The Meaning of Jesus: Two Visions. New York: HarperCollins, 1999. Print. in text citations: (Wright, After 142) (Wright, Evil) (Wright and Borg 14)22 5. Second Period: Titles a) Titles: capitalize the first, the last and all significant words of a title and subtitle regardless of how they are capitalized in your source. (The most common words that are considered вЂњinsignificantвЂќ for capitalization: a, an, and, from, of, out, the, to.) b) Hint for title formatting: remember the difference between your outside voice (Hey! IвЂ™m shouting in italics!) and your inside voice (вЂњjust speak normallyвЂќ): If a title is on the outside (book title, journal title, encyclopedia title, CD album title, website, etc), use your outside voice (italics). If you have to look inside for the title (encyclopedia article, essay in a collection, poem in an anthology, name of song on a CD, individual page on a website, etc), use вЂњquotation marksвЂќ for your вЂњinside voice.вЂќ c) The title of a multi-volume series of books (most commonly encountered in a Bible commentary series) is handled like this: the name of the series is placed after the вЂњtype of resourceвЂќ period. No italics needed; if a book has a volume number, include it after the series name, but without the вЂњvol.вЂќ abbreviation. See citation example #9, above. 6. Third Period: Publication information a) Use only the main identifying name. It is not necessary to include obvious elements like вЂњPublishing CompanyвЂќ or вЂњPressвЂќ: write вЂњZondervanвЂќ not вЂњZondervan Publishing Company,вЂќ вЂњEerdmansвЂќ not вЂњWilliam B. Eerdmans Publishing Company,вЂќ вЂњBrazosвЂќ not вЂњBrazos Press,вЂќ etc. One exception: вЂњUniversity PressвЂќ is abbreviated UP (no periods). Examples: Oxford: Oxford UP, 2007. Edmonton: U of Alberta P, 2010. The following are some of the common publishing houses in biblical and theological scholarship: Baker, Brazos, Broadman & Holman, Eerdmans, Eisenbrauns, Fortress, Harper, Hendrickson, InterVarsity, Moody, SPCK, Thomas Nelson, Word, Zondervan. b) Place of publication: List the city and province/state of the publisher. Use regular abbreviations (not two-letter postal code versions): that is, write B.C., Alta., Sask., Man., Ont., not BC, AB, SK, MB, ON; write Wash., Ore., Calif., and so on. c) For commonly used publishers such as those mentioned above, you only need to indicate the city, not the province or state. 7. Fourth Period: Medium of publication 22 Note: no comma is used, because there is no title given in the citation reference. 30 Appendix Two: Principles of Referencing Here is a list of different types of media that you might access in your research. In the Works Cited entry, this entry will begin with a capital letter, and be followed by a period. Print, web, CD, DVD, CD-ROM, personal interview, telephone interview, film, radio, television, lecture, address, sermon, reading, performance. Digital files can exist independently of the Web or a CD-ROM, and should be treated as a separate category. Cite them according to the type of file, always followed by the word вЂњfileвЂќ (Titles of software programs will be italicized.) Common types: PDF file, MP3 file, Microsoft Word file, JPEG file. (If youвЂ™re not sure of the type, just indicate вЂњdigital file.вЂќ) Works of visual art can be cited. Sample media might be: bronze (i.e. statue), oil on canvas, graphite on paper. The kinds of media that one might use will undoubtedly keep on growing as computer technology evolves; for anything not covered here, consult the referencing handbook (see section 14, below). A few more issues to keep in mind: 8. вЂњName it & Claim itвЂќ: Only use sources that have an authorial name to them. If you canвЂ™t find the authorвЂ™s name (e.g. in a study Bible), avoid the source. (Not because itвЂ™s bad, but because itвЂ™s a matter of accountability. In the academic world, itвЂ™s usually not enough to say вЂњI heard it somewhereвЂ¦вЂќ; if an idea or interpretation is important enough to consider, and not considered common knowledge (or no longer considered common sense), you should be able to find a credible person who is willing to stand behind that idea.) Exceptions: some standard dictionaries or encyclopedias may have unsigned articles. 9. Bibles are not included in Works Cited, unless you are quoting from the Study Notes of a specific edition (which you will normally not doвЂ”see point 8). 10. Concordances are not included in Works Cited. (Reason: they function simply as an index to the work you are studyingвЂ”the Bible.) 11. Bible references. a) When you refer to books of the Bible in the main text, without chapter or chapter and verse, spell out the full name. Books of the Bible cited with chapter or chapter and verse should be abbreviated, unless they come at the beginning of the sentence. Use either a colon (:) or a period (.) to separate chapter and verse22; there is no space after this punctuation. In a parenthetical reference, always abbreviate, using the following forms, without a period: Gen Exod Lev Num Deut Josh Judg Ruth 1 Sam 2 Sam 1 Kgs 2 Kgs 1 Chr 2 Chr Ezra Neh Esth Job Ps Prov Eccl Song Isa Jer Lam Ezek Dan Hos Joel Amos Obad Jon Mic Nah Hab Zeph Hag Zech Mal Mt Mk Lk Jn Acts Rom 1 Cor 2 Cor Gal Eph Phil Col 1 Thess 2 Thess 1 Tim 2 Tim Titus Phlm Heb Jas 1 Pet 2 Pet 1 Jn 2 Jn 3 Jn Jude Rev Right: The passage in 1 Cor 15 is often considered crucial. The passage, 1 Cor 15.17is often considered crucial. First Corinthians 15:17 is a crucial text. вЂњBut in fact Christ has been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleepвЂќ (1 Cor 15.17 ESV). Wrong: 1 Cor 15:17 is a crucial text. 1 Corinthians 5.17 is a crucial text. b. Bible translations: Scripture references are placed in parentheses ( ) after the quote itself. Indicate the translation the first time you quote a Bible passage; the reader assumes that this will cover all following quotations. If, however, you use several translations throughout the essay, always indicate which one you are quoting. Use the following standard abbreviations used, and place them after the Scripture reference: Appendix Two: Principles of Referencing 31 NIV, TNIV, ESV, NRSV, NASB, NLT etc. c. Multiple references: Use a comma (,) to separate references to more than one verse in a chapter. Use a semicolon (;) to separate references to more than one chapter in a book, or to more than one book. E.g. Bible reference, style 1 Bible reference, style 2 Rom 1.14-15, 21 Rom 1.16-17; 3.21 Rom 1:14-15, 21 Rom 1:16-17; 3:21 Rom 4.1-3, 13; Jms 2.20-24 Rom 4:1-2, 13; Jms 2:20-24 which meansвЂ¦ Romans chapter 1, verses 14, 15, and 21 Romans chapter 1, verses 16 and 17, and chapter 3 verse 21 Romans chapter 4, verses 1 through 3 and verse 13; James chapter 2, verses 20 through 24. d. The following abbreviations are useful: вЂњv.вЂќ for вЂњverse,вЂќ вЂњvv.вЂќ for вЂњversesвЂќ; likewise, вЂњch.вЂќ for вЂњchapterвЂќ and вЂњchs.вЂќ for вЂњchapters.вЂќ But always write out the word in full when it is the first word of a sentence. 12. Multiple citations in one reference: separate individual citations with a semicolon. E.g. (Wright 32; Piper 17). 13. Web Sites. HereвЂ™s the basic guide for citing internet sources (see examples above): include as many of the following elements as are available: 1. Name of the author(s). 2. Title of the work (italicized if the work is independent; in вЂњquotation marksвЂќ if it is part of a larger web site). 3. Title of the overall web site if it is distinct from #2 (italicized). 4. Version or edition used if available 5. Publisher or sponsor of the site. Use n.p. if no publisher or sponsor is available. 6. Date of publication (day month year, as available). Use n.d. if no date is available. 7. Medium of publication (Web). 8. Date of access (day month year). Use a period after each item except the publisher or sponsor, which is followed by a comma. An untitled work may be identified by a genre label (e.g. Home page, Introduction, Online posting). Put the genre label in place of the title of the work, but donвЂ™t enclose it in quotes or use italics. 14. Finally: For anything not covered in this guide, youвЂ™ll have to consult the mother of all MLA referencing standards: MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009. Print. Acknowledgements: The Society of Biblical Literature Manual of Style, and the MLA Citation guides of the following institutions were particularly useful in assembling this guide: Columbia Bible College, Asbury Theological Seminary, Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Last updated: 14 June 2012.