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! Ballou High School INSTRUCTIONAL MANUAL

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Ballou High School
INSTRUCTIONAL MANUAL
“From Roots to Results”
2013-2014
3401 4th Street, S.E
Washington, D.C. 20032
HOURS OF OPERATION
School Hours: 8:00 a.m. – 3:15 p.m.
Open Hours: 8:00 a.m. – 8:00 p.m.
Main (202) 645-3400 * Fax (202) 645-3397
2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Letter from Our Principal ..................................................................................................... 4
Ballou High School Vision ...................................................................................................... 5
Ballou High School Philoophy and History .......................................................................... 5-6
Purpose and Disclaimer ......................................................................................................... 6
"From Roots to Results"...................................................................................................... 7
Section I: Data....................................................................................................................... 8
Data Teams ....................................................................................................................... 9-10
Section II: Instructional Planning ...................................................................................... 11
Common Assessments ......................................................................................................... 12
Collaborative Planning ..................................................................................................... 13-17
Bell-to-Bell Instruction...................................................................................................... 18-19
Co-Teaching .................................................................................................................... 20-26
Section III: Pedagogy/Instructional Strategies ................................................................ 27
Literacy ............................................................................................................................ 28-42
Inquiry .............................................................................................................................. 43-47
Frequently Asked Questions ........................................................................................ 48-50
Appendix ........................................................................................................................ 51-69
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2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual
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Bold Leaders
Courageous Scholars
Outstanding Citizens
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F.W. BALLOU SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
3401 4th Street, S.E. Washington, DC 20032
Tel (202) 645-3400
Fax (202) 645-3397
"Developing and Graduating Nationally Competitive Students for College and Careers"
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My Fellow Knights;
Over the past few years, we have discussed the many challenges we face as a school community. We made many
attempts to gaining a true understanding of the work ahead of us. You as teachers have exhausted themselves,
attempting to find just the right way to support our students. During the past few years, we have heard your growing
requests. From your voices we often heard the frustration with the amount of support you require vs. the amount you
currently receive. Normally, the requests were for support around the behavioral challenges many of you experience
in the classroom. We have attempted to address several of the concerns by establishing clear processes for how our
children are to move through their daily responsibilities via the student handbook. We heard your request for greater
consistency regarding processes within the adult expectations and created the staff handbook. For some reason,
there still was not a breakthrough experience in overall student achievement. Students had a set of directions and
expectations as well as the Ballou learning community as a whole. What is missing? What else could possibly be
done to ensure greater student success?
We ALL believe certain things at Ballou. We ALL believe our children can achieve at high levels. We ALL believe
that there is more work we can do to help our children achieve at high levels. We ALL believe the way to achieve
student success is through both creating consistent processes, and establishing high expectations for us and for our
children. I’m very proud of what this belief has yielded.
THE BALLOU INSTRUCTIONAL HANDBOOK is the amalgamation of our collective approach to instruction. Your
peers have worked over several months, reading and researching best practices, identifying successful approaches
within the building and incorporating the elements of the teaching and learning framework to establish the teacher
created, administration approved process of teaching at Ballou High School. It was developed with the expectation
of creating a uniformed approach to instruction in our building. I’m excited because this handbook is a living
document, something that will grow over time.
We’ve had pockets of great instruction at Ballou for years. There was a need to identify these pockets, figure out why
they worked in our classes, and develop a system for ensuring its replication building wide. These successful
practices will give our children the consistency needed to grow. While this handbook is only one step toward the
consistency and high expectations we will set in front of our students, it is our heaviest blow towards the goal of
developing and graduating globally competitive students for college, career and leadership. I want to thank the
Instructional Manual Planning Team for their work on this document. You truly represented the best of who we are in
this work. You put great effort into this document and I truly appreciate the commitment you have shown. With this
manual as our guide, I expect great results as we show the world what Ballou can do.
I love you all, GO KNIGHTS!!!!
Rahman Branch, Principal
www.ballouseniorhigh.org
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2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual
Ballou High School Vision
Ballou’s vision is to develop and graduate globally competitive students for college, careers, and
leadership.
Instructional Vision
Ballou is preparing our students for college, careers, and leadership by using robust data to drive our
instruction and monitor progress. Teachers are planning collaboratively in order to provide instruction that
will have a focus on using literacy, inquiry, collaboration, and writing strategies to teach content.
Philosophy
The philosophy of Ballou High School embodies the belief that all children can learn and benefit from an
intensive academic program delivered within the context of a nurturing and structured school environment.
Ballou provides each student with a wide-range of opportunities and challenging experiences to expand
his/her world, vast academic and extra-curricular activities to increase his/her knowledge, and leadership
opportunities that will equip him/her to take an active role in society.
Ballou High School offers a balanced curriculum in the humanities and sciences based on clearly
articulated academic standards. Mathematics, Science, English, Technology and Social Studies are the
backbone of our student’s education and enhance the study of other subject areas, by providing a broad
context in which to better understand them. The curriculum is geared to prepare each student for success
on the secondary level.
About Ballou
Frank W. Ballou High School has been serving the Ward Eight community since 1960. Frank W. Ballou
High School opened in 1960. It is named after Dr. Frank Washington Ballou who was elected the seventh
superintendent of the D.C. Public Schools in 1920. He served as superintendent until 1943. During his
tenure as superintendent, he affected many changes and established new positions throughout the school
system.
Ballou continues to build a successful legacy due to the knowledgeable staff who is dedicated to
empowering every student to choose their own path upon graduation. Ballou offers Advanced Placement
classes to give our college-bound students a competitive edge. Career preparation and technical classes
ensure that those same students receive a well-rounded education.
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Ballou High School has a proud legacy of excellence. A nationally recognized marching band, competitive
robotics team, and athletic teams that consistently prove that Ballou Knights are a force to be reckoned
with, are a source of pride for students and staff.
Purpose
This manual has been prepared by Ballou administration and the Instructional Manual Planning Team to
provide staff members with tools for instruction in order to engage students. This manual includes seven
school-wide instructional expectations with specific guidelines for each classroom, department, and content
area.
All faculty members are expected to be familiar with the information in the Instructional Manual as well as
how it affects the specific grade level and subject area that they teach. All staff is accountable for adhering
to the expectations that are outlined. Any questions concerning this manual should be brought to the
immediate attention of your Department Chair, or your direct supervisor and/or Assistant Principal.
As educational practitioners, we strongly believe that student achievement is critical to what we do. To that
end, this manual represents the idea, “From Roots to Results.” Therefore, as a Planning Team we aligned
our school vision with an instructional vision, then developed a systematic and strategic framework—by
which all instruction is based.
Disclaimer
The Ballou Instructional Manual is intended to be used by teachers as a guide to help streamline
instruction. This will be an evolving process and will continue throughout the summer. The Department
Chairs and Planning Team will develop professional development sessions and other resources to support
teachers as we roll out the manual and implement various instructional initiatives.
The Ballou Administration Team and the Instructional Manual Planning Team will constantly review and
occasionally revise and/or amend the contents of this document to improve the educational experience for
students. Amendments, revisions and new expectations deemed to be in the best interest of the school
community will be promptly disseminated to teachers as well as timelines for compliance.
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Section I: DATA TEAMS
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DATA
Teacher will engage in data discussions with content area members and students that focus on gaps in
learning to develop appropriate re-teaching plans and interventions to close gaps. TLF 6
Data Teams are collaborative teams of teachers within a department who gather regularly to” examine data
derived from common, teacher-created assessments, which are administered to all the students
represented by the teachers on the teams”, in efforts to improve teaching, learning, and leadership (p. 22,
The Data Teams Experience, 2011).
Teachers will:
1) Participate in the data team, data team cycle, and DDI (Data Drive Instruction) process with fidelity
2) Complete training on implementing Data Teams, Data Conversations, Scantron, and Ballou
Tracker
3) Meet collaboratively for at least 40min least bi-weekly
4) Provide feedback and data to Data Leadership Team
5) Department Chairs will attend DCPS\OSSE data team PD throughout the year
Teachers Actions and Expectations
Ballou classrooms will use data to drive instruction, identify student proficiency and create corrective action
plans to further student learning.
Teachers will:
6) Collect, compile, and analyze at least one student-produced data set per class (formative or
summative assessment) bi-weekly.
a. Use this analysis to create and implement a corrective action plan (Appendix F) and or
revised unit plan.
b. Provide feedback to students using this data set
c. Provide structure for students to reflect, set goals, and provide their own feedback
7) Collect, compile, and analyze all summative (unit and final) assessments.
a. Use this analysis to modify\revamp unit plans, future student assessments, and best
practices.
b. All summative assessments will be analyzed at both the standard and item level
c. Provide feedback for every student regarding their assessment score and proficiency in
the standards\skills\actions or objective tested
8) Follow all data accountability best practices which include:
a. Implementing all data team roles and practices with fidelity
b. Reporting all data (student, class, and assessment) to both department chairs, data team
leads, assigned support staff, and overseeing administrator
c. Keep all corrective action lesson plans and student data and be able to provided evidence
of data driven instruction actions to department chairs, data team members, and
overseeing administrator
d. Come prepared to all data team meetings and actively engage in the data team process
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Data teams will meet as a department and provide feedback and support to one another in analyzing the
data and creating appropriate interventions and instructional strategies etc. At each meeting, teachers will
bring student data, including work samples, along with standard- and item-level analyses; identify strengths
and areas in need of improvement; make inferences; create goals; select common instructional strategies;
and monitor and evaluate results.
Please be sure to review the tools and other items referenced in the corresponding appendices.
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SECTION II: INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING
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COMMON ASSESSMENTS
Same content teachers will use common assessments that incorporate tests, quizzes, and presentations to
assess student mastery. TLF 5
Departments plan the following common assessments. Components of assessments will look differently in
each department, but should be standardized within a course.
Type of
assessment
Diagnostic
Formative
Assessments
Unit Summative
assessments
Final exam
Performance
assessment
Required Components
-skills
-strategies
-content
-vocabulary
-teachers within department
create a plan for tracking
progress toward mastery on
summative unit
assessments. Examples
include exit tickets, quizzes,
verbal assessments, essays,
or a combination of these.
-skills
-content
-skills
-content
-skills
-content
Timeframe for
creation
Departmental
Summer Retreats
Timeframe for
completion
End of second week of
school
Departmental
Summer Retreat
-Daily informal
-bi-weekly standardized
across courses
Third week of June
(2013)
Minimum of 4, at least
once per quarter
Second week of June
(2013)
Third week of June
(2013)
First week of June
(2014)
Quarterly
Teachers should have all of the above assessments incorporated into a year-long assessment calendar
and plan for their department that includes dates, number and types of assessments and what the general
format for each of these assessments will be. Types of assessment questions and prompts should be
varied. All teachers are expected to use scantrons.
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COLLABORATIVE PLANNING
Same content teachers will plan together, weekly, and develop common daily lesson plan and unit plans.
TLF 1
The Frank W. Ballou High School administration and staff believes that collaborative planning within
content areas is critical to student achievement. Ballou General Education and Special Education teachers
will utilize planning time to map out unit and daily lesson plans to address the needs of all learners.
Teachers are expected to discuss and implement best practices and literacy strategies to plan engaging
and rigorous activities that align with Common Core standards, DCPS standards, and School-wide
initiatives.
In the article Providing Adequate and Structured Teacher Instructional Planning Time it states, “Common
planning time for grade level, subject, or interdisciplinary teams has increasingly been considered a crucial
part of school improvement. Collaborative teams, in which teachers share planning time and a common
group of students, have been correlated with better school culture, more effective parent communication,
higher student achievement, and increased teacher motivation and job satisfaction.” Kassissieh, J., &
Barton, R. (2009). The top priority: Teacher learning. Principal Leadership, 9(7), 22-26.
Unit plans will be uploaded to a departmental Google Doc. The dates will be based on the DCPS Educator
Portal Scope and Sequence for DCPS content teachers. All others content teachers due dates will be set
by department heads.
Daily lessons plans should be made available to the administration team upon request. (Daily, unit, and
long term lesson plans shall be required of each teacher and such plans shall be made available for review
by the principal or supervisor at any time upon his or her request sec. 23.18.1 WTU)
Teachers will be provided a template designed by DCPS and modified by the Ballou Instructional Manual
Planning Committee for their daily lesson plan and unit plans. Each aspect of the templates is aligned with
TLF and modified to accommodate different variations of instruction.
Teachers will also be provided a planning checklist to assist and help guide them in the development of
their content collaboration and their daily and unit plans. This checklist is based on the article, “Principles of
Instruction: Research Based Strategies that All Teachers Should Know.” Teachers will receive PD on the
strategies to better understand how to infuse the different methods in their classroom.
To view examples of collaborative planning please visit one of the following links:
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bfV8Qwsaatc
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tkEn0cppm_4
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vL7O0k-wHeU
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Daily Lesson Plan Template (BLANK TEMPLATE)
Common Core Literacy Standards
Lesson Objective(s)
Teach 1: Lead well-organized objective driven lessons
Assessment
Agenda
Teach 8( Maximize
Instructional Time)
Instructional Text / Writing Assignment
Literacy Strategy(ies):
Check One:
Collaboration
Inquiry
Writing
Reading
Check One:
Direct Instruction
Differentiation/Scaffolding
Discovery
Learning
Collaborative
Learning
Development of Student Understanding of the Importance of the Objective (Relevance)
Teach 2: Explain Content Clearly
Do Now/ Warm-up:
Teach 3: Engage Students at all Learning Levels in Accessible and Challenging Work
Motivational Activity/ Hook/ Reconnect:
Teach 3: Engage Students at all Learning Levels in Accessible and
Challenging Work
Teacher 1
Teacher 2
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Time:
Materials:
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Introduction of New Material:
Teach 7: Develop Higher Level Understanding through Questioning
Teacher 1
Teacher 2
Time:
Guided Practice:
Teach 4: Provide Students Multiple Ways to move Toward Mastery
Teach 6: Respond to Student Understanding
Time:
Teacher 1
Materials:
Teacher 2
Independent Practice:
Teach 4: Provide Students Multiple Ways to move Toward Mastery
Teacher 1
Teacher 2
Check for Understanding
Teach 5 and Teach 7:
Develop Higher Level
Understanding through
Questioning
Teacher 1
Materials:
Time:
Materials:
Teacher 2
Closure/ Assessment/ Exit Ticket
Time:
Teacher 1
Materials:
Teacher 2
Standards-Based Unit Plan Worksheet (SAMPLE)
Unit Title: Early Human Kind and the Development of Human Societies
Content Standards
Priority Standard: 7.1.2 Locate
human communities that populated
the major regions of the world, and
identify how humans adapted to a
variety of environments. (G)
Concepts: (1) human communities
and (2) human adaptations to a
variety of environments
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Bloom’s CCSS
Level.
Link
4
RH.68.1
ASSESSMENT EVIDENCE
Assessment
Scoring
Summative:
Constructed
Response:
WHST.6- Students will
8.1b
choose a specific
early human
community that
populated a major
region and write a
DCCAS ELA
Rubric
2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual
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Skills: (1) locating (human
communities) and (2) identifying
(human adaptations to a variety of
environments)
Essential Question: Why do
communities need to adapt to their
environments? How do communities
adapt to different environments?
Related/ Supporting Standard 1:
7.1. Students describe current
understanding of the origins of
modern humans from the Paleolithic
Age to the agricultural revolution.
Discrete Knowledge and Skills:
describing current understanding
Related/ Supporting Standard 2:
7.1.1.Trace the great climatic and
environmental changes that shaped
the earth and eventually permitted
the growth of human life.
Discrete Knowledge and Skills:
tracing climactic and environmental
changes
Related/ Supporting Standard 3:
7.1.2. Locate human communities
that populated the major regions of
the world.
Discrete Knowledge and Skills:
locating early human communities of
the world
Related/ Supporting Standard :
7.1.3. Explain the evidence
supporting hominid origin in East
Africa.
Discrete Knowledge and Skills:
explaining supporting evidence
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2-3- page analysis
of how this
community adapted
to its
environment(s).
Students must cite
several pieces of
textual evidence to
support their
analysis.
Formative:
Oral: Collaborative
discussions
(teacher-led, oneon-one, and in
groups)
2
-
1
RH.6-8.4 Formative: Short
vocabulary quiz on
key academic
language
(terminologies)
TeacherAssessed
Student
Achievement
(TAS) , Grade
Scale: x/x =
100%
1
RH.6-8.7
TAS Grade
Scale: x/x =
100%
1
WHST.6- Formative: Brief
8.2f
Constructed
Response
Formative: Short
Map Pop Quiz
(Worksheet)
Non-Graded
Diagnostic
Rubric to
assess
students’ prior
knowledge
DCCAS ELA
Rubric
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Principles of Instruction (Planning) Checklist
Strategies
Review Previous Lesson TEACH 5
Present New Material in Small Steps TEACH 3
Effective Questioning (Check Response of ALL Students, Diversify the way Students can
answer) TEACH 4 & 7
Modeling (Think-A-Loud, Various Student Examples) TEACH 2
Guiding Student Practice Correctly (Majority of Lesson)
Check for Student Understanding (Address Misunderstandings Whole Group/ Provide
Necessary Background Knowledge)TEACH 5&6
Obtain High Success Rate TEACH 3
Scaffolding (Anticipate Student Errors) TEACH 3 & 4
Independent Practice/ Application, Discovery Approach (Cooperative Learning, Teachers
Circulate, Collaboration) TEACH 4
Review (Weekly/Monthly Data) TEACH 8
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Check if
Complete
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BELL-TO-BELL TEACHING FORMATS
Daily lesson plans will show bell to bell instruction. TLF T8
The bell-to-bell lesson plan templates provide support and guidance to teachers to create lessons that are
well-organized and actively involve students in the learning process. Ensuring bell-to-bell instruction that is
purposeful and rigorous ensures students with multiple ways to move towards mastery. Three basic types
of lessons are: Direct Instruction, Discovery Learning, and Collaborative Learning. Teachers of every grade
level, department, etc., will be able to utilize one of the Bell-to-Bell lesson plan templates while planning.
Thus, addressing Teach 1, Teach 3, and Teach 8 of the TLF. In addition, the template creates
opportunities for the teacher to develop, practice, and implement effective classroom procedures and
routines.
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Direct Instruction is a general term for the explicit teaching of a skill-set using lectures or
demonstrations of the material, rather than exploratory models such as inquiry-based learning.
Usually it involves explication of the skill or subject matter to be taught and may or may not include
an opportunity for student participation or individual practice. In some special education programs,
direct instruction is used in resource rooms, when teachers assist with homework completion and
academic remediation.
Model Lesson: http://youtube/tvwbxYNk2wU
Warm Up/Do Now - 5mins
Hook/Reconnect - 10mins
Objective - 10mins
Lecture/Demonstration - 15mins
Guided Practice - 10 mins
Independent Practice - 25mins
Closure/Exit Ticket - 10mins
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Discovery Learning refers to various instructional design models that engage students in learning
through discovery. Usually the pedagogical aims are threefold: (1) Promote "deep" learning, (2)
Promote meta-cognitive skills (develop problem-solving skills, creativity, etc.), (3) Promote student
engagement.
According to van Joolingen (1999:385):
“Discovery learning is a type of learning where learners construct their own knowledge by experimenting
with a domain, and inferring rules from the results of these experiments. The basic idea of this kind of
learning is that because learners can design their own experiments in the domain and infer the rules of the
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domain themselves they are actually constructing their own knowledge. Because of these constructive
activities, it is assumed they will understand the domain at a higher level than when the necessary
information is just presented by a teacher or an expository learning environment.”
Model Lesson: http://youtube/eSEKCafVHkQ
Warm Up/Do Now - 5mins
Hook/Reconnect - 10mins
Objective - 7mins
Explore/Experiment - 15mins
Explain - 7mins
Apply - 7mins
Evaluate - 10 mins
Instruct - 15 mins
Closure/Exit Ticket - 10 mins
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Collaborative Learning is an experience in which two or more students will learn or attempt to
learn something together or from each other. Unlike individual learning, students engaged in
collaborative learning capitalize on one another’s resources and skills (asking one another for
information, evaluating one another’s ideas, monitoring one another’s work, etc.). More specifically,
collaborative learning is based on the model that knowledge can be created within a class where
students actively interact by sharing ideas and experiences.
Model Lesson: http://youtube/Cjo7zOuySr8
Warm Up/Do Now - 5mins
Hook/Reconnect - 10mins
Objective - 10mins
Group Work or Stations - 25 mins
Explain/Peer Teach - 20mins
Instruct - 10mins
Closure/ Exit Ticket - 10mins
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CO-TEACHING
Co-teachers and general education teachers must collaborate using one of the three co-teaching models
for instruction, and scaffold/ differentiate daily lessons to meet the diverse needs of all learners. TFL 3
Co- teaching involves two licensed educational specialist working together and sharing the responsibilities
of the classroom environment. These responsibilities include collecting and analyzing student data, lesson
planning, and providing both direct and indirect instruction. Co- teachers work to ensure the success of all
students in their class. They are both held accountable for getting students to a level of standards mastery.
Co –teaching environments allow students to have access to multiple view points, experiences and
methods of instruction. As stated in a Guide to Co- Teaching, co-teaching is like a marriage, “partners
must establish trust, develop and work on communication, share the chores, celebrate, work together
creatively to overcome the inevitable challenges and problems, and anticipate conflict and handle it in a
constructive way.”1
Co – Teaching is not:
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One teacher teaches while the other works on administrative work ( grading, coping etc.)
One teacher teaches while the other teacher just sits and watches
One teachers opinions and ideas are being presented to the class during the lesson
One teacher is seen as a “tutor”2
Co – Teaching Vs. Paraprofessional:
With co – teaching both teachers are EQUALLY accountable for the preparation and presentation of
lessons and assessment of students. Paraprofessionals, however, do not have the same responsibilities
within the class. Paraprofessionals provide an important role in the classroom, they provide support to a
licensed teacher and may be asked to go over material previously taught, work with a few students or help
handle behavioral issues that may arise. Some aspects of a co-teaching relationship may overlap with that
of a paraprofessional – teacher relationship, however, a paraprofessional is not a co – teacher. 3
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1
!Richard!A.!Villa,!Jacqueline!S.!Thousand!and!Ann!L.!Nevin,!A"Guide"to"Co"–"Teaching!(Thousand!Oaks,!CA:!Corwin!
Press,!2008),5,!http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=4S4LylCArVMC&oi=fnd&pg=PR11&dq=free+coX
teaching&ots=LZMnBGFiWO&sig=YO_SiACZYUW_IuPiKXcWzWYMMOE#v=onepage&q=free%20coX
teaching&f=false!
2
!Richard!!
3
!“!Co!–!Teaching”!(!Texas!Educational!Agency,!Educational!Service!Center,!Region!20,!2011),!48,!http://www.altX
teachercert.org/December%202011%20Guidelines%20for%20Coteaching%20in%20Texas.pdf!!
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The role of a Paraprofessional/Dedicated Aide:
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Supervise the work of a paraprofessional.
Communicate and make recommendations to the building principal related to the evaluation of the IEP
Paraprofessional’s performance.
Maintain accurate and consistent data related to progress towards IEP goals where the assistance of
an IEP Paraprofessional is required.
Ensure the implementation of the Fade Plan (fade the student off of using a dedicated aide).
Fulfill responsibilities as a mandated reporter.
Paraprofessional Responsibilities:
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Provide supervision and protection oversight of assigned student throughout the school day to ensure
their safety and well- being.
Assist the student in accessing the general education curriculum.
Respond to directions of the teacher and participate in planning and implementation of classroom
activities and IEP’s.
Assist in the implementation of the student behavior plan if appropriate.
Assist teacher in maintaining the appropriate cleanliness of the classroom.
Attend and participate in student activities, meetings and trainings.
Assist with other students when assigned student is not there ( dedicated aide).
Assist with student personal care ( toileting, dressing, hygiene) if appropriate ( dedicated aide).
Assist with student personal needs ( eating, dressing, positioning , lifting/ carrying, (dedicated aide).
Provide student with behavioral support during classroom activities, field trips, recess, and transition.
Provide assistance to students with mobility issues.
Assist student with note taking if appropriate.
Provide assistance to students with various disabilities in use of technology and equipment adaptation.
to facilitate learning, mobility and /or communication.
Facilitate appropriate peer interactions and social skills.
Serve as a positive role model to student with behavioral/ emotional disabilities.
Develop positive working relationship with school personnel and families.
Provide assistance with checking students work.
Assist students with classroom projects.
Accompanying student (i.e. hallways, lunch, recess and in all classroom activities, to the restroom).
Participate in planning sessions with teachers.
Reinforce educational concepts using instructional objectives and lessons developed by the teacher.
Assist in the implementation of the students’ IEP.
Demonstrate creativity, flexibility, and perseverance in dealing with challenging learning, behavioral,
family, and classroom situations.
Demonstrate an ability to learn new and specialized approached for atypical learners.
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Assist with paperwork and clerical duties associated with educational services, participate in teacher –
parent conferences regarding the students’ progress or problems.
Perform other reasonable related duties in relation to the student as assigned by supervisor.
*For more information please see DCPS’s IEP Paraprofessional’s user manual found on Educator Portal
Co-Teachers Meet and Greet:
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End of the year- discuss as a group what the expectation is
Beginning of the year as a refresher to touch base with each other
Semester if it is a new co- teaching relationship
Teachers get together to discuss the following: Instructional Beliefs, classroom management plan,
planning, problem solving, pet peeves, roles and responsibilities
Setting Norms for the Co-teaching Relationship: (there is a larger version of this in Appendix C)
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How will you share lesson plans?
Who assigns grades? Is there going to be a difference in grading for Gen Ed vs. SPED?
When and where will you meet?
Content teacher develops the lesson plans and SPED teacher modifies the lesson.
How will classroom management work with in the classroom?
How will you work together to evaluate the students’ progress?
What are your instructional beliefs? (make sure to agree to one before facing students)
What are your pet peeves?
What do you need from each other in terms of support?
Discuss how you will introduce each other to the class about how sometimes one may be out of the
class more often than the other.
Think about how each will handle the following possible issues:
o What do you do if one of you makes a mistake in class?
o What do you do if you disagree with what one teacher said to a student?
o What do you do when you disagree about how a behavior was handled?4
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
4
!“"Co"–"Teaching”!(!Texas!Educational!Agency,!Educational!Service!Center,!Region!20,!2011),!48,!http://www.altX
teachercert.org/December%202011%20Guidelines%20for%20Coteaching%20in%20Texas.pdf!
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Co-teaching models (3): Please see Appendix B
Station Teaching: In this co-teaching approach, teachers divide content and students. Each teacher
then teaches the content to one group and subsequently repeats the instruction for the other group. If
appropriate, a third "station" could give students an opportunity to work independently.5
•
•
•
Strengths
Professional engagement
Increase instructional
Individualization
Challenges
•
•
•
Pacing
Students need to work independently.
Noise level6
Parallel Teaching.. In parallel teaching, the teachers are both teaching the same information, but they divide the
class group and do so simultaneously.7
Strengths
•
•
•
Lowers student to teacher ratio
Allows for increased student interaction and/or
student to student interaction
Allows the teacher to monitor individual
student progress and understanding more
closely
Challenges
•
General Educator and Special Educator need
to coordinate teaching so that students
receive essentially the same instruction within
the same amount of time.
•
Noise levels may be high.8
Team Teaching: In teaming, both teachers teach a portion of the same lesson. Some teachers refer to
this as having “one brain in two bodies.” Others call it “tag team teaching.” Most co-teachers consider
this approach the most complex but a satisfying way to co-teach—but it is the approach that is most
dependent on teachers’ styles.9
Strengths
•
Allows both teachers to blend their teaching
styles and expertise Increase instructional
Individualization
•
•
Challenges
Requires more planning
Requires high levels of trust and
commitment10
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
5
!Marilyn!Friend,!“Co"–"Teaching:"Creating"Successful"and"Sustainable"Programs”!!(presentation!for!the!National!
Association!of!State!Directors!of!Special!Education,!Satellite!Conference,!March!5,!2008)!!
https://www.educatorportalplus.com/documents/10180/0/CoXTeaching/1b2e4dc8X3ae8X4036X8216X
61b0e6d3969b?version=1.0!
6
!Belinda!Rosario,!Candace!Coles,!Pamela!Redmon,!Judie!Strawbridge,!“Co!–!Teaching!in!the!classroom”!
(presentation!to!Prince!George’s!County!Public!Schools!Region!IV,!Prince!Georges!Country,!MD)!
http://www.magonline.org/CoTeachingInTheClassroomREVMAGPresentation.pdf!
7
!Marilyn!
8
!Belinda!
9
!Marilyn!
10
!Belinda!
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What to do when it is not working?
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There will be quarterly “check-ins” with an administrator to discuss how the co – teaching relationship
is going.
However, it is suggested that you first try and work through the problem with your co-teacher. Set time
aside for you and your co- teacher to reflect back on lessons and evaluate what has and has not been
working.
What to do when the co- teacher is not comfortable with the material?
When the special education teacher is not comfortable with the material he or she is teaching, it is
suggested that the special education teacher sit down, well in advance, with the content teacher to learn
the material before giving the lesson. It is suggested that sitting down a week before hand would give the
SPED teacher time to go home and review the material so that by time he or she needed to deliver the
lesson they would have a better understanding of the material. This is also a good time to figure out where
students might have problems in learning the new material. By having to explain the material to the special
education teacher, both teachers can reflect on potential points of confusion and work through them ahead
of time. What the special education teacher might lack in understanding the material, they make up for in
offering a fresh perspective of how to learn it. This would also help in choosing a co- teaching style that
works to both teachers’ strengths. Parallel teaching might not be the best method to use when one teacher
is not fully comfortable with the lesson material.
What are the expectations of a co-teacher with multiple preps?
For teachers with multiple preps it is expected that they give English and Math preference in terms of
planning, modifying and assessing students. With that, it does not mean that that special education
teacher does not need to plan, modify and assess in the science and social studies classes he or she co –
teaches in. The special education teacher should be meeting ahead of time will all teachers he or she co –
teaches to go over all lessons and to possibly help facilitate cross curriculum dialogue, lesson planning
and/ or project planning.
Learning styles/ Teaching styles:
Links to a teaching inventory /style
quiz
Links to online teaching inventory/
styles quiz
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http://www.texascollaborative.org/tools/TSI.pdf
•
http://www.healthymarriageinfo.org/resourcedetail/index.aspx?rid=3666
•
http://www.homeschoolviews.com/quiz/quiz.html
•
http://longleaf.net/teachingstyle.html
•
http://www.roanestate.edu/qep/teachingstyles.html
•
http://www.crlt.umich.edu/tstrategies/tsts
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Learning style / Personality tests:
Links to a teaching inventory /style
quiz
Learning style:
• http://www.harding.edu/ARC/PDF/CITE.pdf
•
http://www.swinburne.edu.au/stuserv/workshops/onlinem
aterials/Web%20Effective%20Study%20Skills_files/1VA
K%20assessment.pdf
Personality:
• http://personality-testing.info/print/big-five-personalitytest.pdf
•
Links to online teaching inventory/
styles quiz
http://personality-testing.info/print/holland-code-test.pdf
Learning style:
• http://www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html
•
http://www.educationplanner.org/students/selfassessments/learning-styles.shtml
•
http://sunburst.usd.edu/~bwjames/tut/learning-style/
Personality:
• http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes2.asp
•
http://www.16personalities.com/free-personality-test
The following are videos on how to form a co – teaching relationship. They use Bruce Tuckman’s Model of
Effective Team Building. There are three parts ( The first two are the about developing their co- teaching
relationship and the third is how they used data to increase the writing levels of all students in their class)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r5kxv69N-MY
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xX90BsHCTyk
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r5kxv69N-MY
(Part 1)
(Part 2)
(Part 3)
This video shows a lesson in which the teachers use Team Teaching, Station Teaching (they call it Split
Group) and one teach one support all in the same lesson.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQgXqZGTUg0
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This video has short segments of the following co – teaching styles ( 1 support 1 assist, Team Teaching,
Station Teaching, Alternative Teaching, and Parallel teaching)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TCn4qDyuZVE
This video shows Parallel Teaching ( it is done between three teachers but the model can be used for just
two teachers)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fIPWrrUU-pk
This video shows Station Teaching
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=guV9UlAB42U
These videos are of the same co – teaching pair ( the two videos are of one lesson)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vO7nunHtwTo
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pmGPPUxZjtY
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Section III: Pedagogy/Instructional Strategies
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LITERACY
Teachers will use activities that teach literacy and writing skills and require students to collaborate.
TLF 2, TLF 3
Teachers at Ballou will support their struggling and advanced readers in accessing content. They will utilize
a variety of reading and writing strategies to both scaffold and challenge learners. The strategies outlined in
this manual will help teachers select a blend of strategies suited to the needs of the students they serve.
The blending of strategies is one of the recommendations from the report, Reading Next: A Vision for
Action and Research in Middle and High School Literacy (2006). While the report, Writing Next: Effective
Strategies to Improve Writing of Adolescents in Middle and High Schools (2007), concludes that a flexible
combination of reading and writing strategies strengthen adolescents’ literacy development. During the
course of the school year, the Ballou instructional team may specify reading and writing strategies that
should be implemented school-wide. However, teachers may select the strategies that target their students’
specific needs.
The strategies below are a resource for teachers to consult when looking for ways to incorporate literacyfocused instruction into their own curriculum.
Vocabulary
Teaching word roots, prefixes, suffixes
Teaching word parts can provide students with a very effective tool for tackling unfamiliar. For example,
a student might not know the meaning of “hypersensitive,” but could figure it out if he knew that “hyper”
means overly or very.
http://www.prefixsuffix.com/rootchart.php
Word Wall
Word Walls are just what they sound like - walls with words on them (generally without definitions, but
teachers could choose to include them). The wall can consist of a list of vocabulary words previously
studied, specific words for the current unit, word parts, often used terms, etc.
Word Walls provide constant reinforcement and a way for students to gain familiarity with content
vocabulary without feeling like they have too much to memorize.
There are a variety of quick and engaging activities that utilize Word Walls.
• Cold call or ask for volunteers to pick one word from the wall and use it in a sentence. Give
students a ball to throw at the wall - whichever word they hit is the one they have to use.
• Quick question - Who is the first person who can find a word on the wall with a prefix that means
“anti”?
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•
•
Do Now - pick 3 words from
the wall and … (teacher’s
choice of what they do...)
Any variation on these
activities - be creative. Word
walls are great because they
can work in many different
content areas.
Flashcards
Have students create their own set of flashcards that they can refer to throughout the year. Use binder
rings and a hole-punch to keep them together.
Flashcards don’t have to be the typical word on one side, definition on the other. Teachers can
incorporate pictures, examples, synonyms, etc.
Students can use flashcards for group or partner activities, for games, for review or just to check for
mastery of vocabulary or concepts.
Word Splash
This is an engaging way to introduce key vocabulary to students. Most words selected for Word Splash
should be somewhat familiar to the students. The teacher selects key terms or concepts from a chapter
in a text, an article, or story to be read. The terms represent important ideas that the teacher wants the
students to focus on as they read the passage later. The words are presented randomly and at angles,
as if they were splashed on a page. Word order is not important. Students then use all of the words to
make connections and make complete sentences that demonstrate potential relationships between each
term.
Vocabulary Journal
Same idea as flashcards - students keep a running record of vocabulary words. This can be in the form
of Frayer Models or any other type of vocabulary representation that works well for the course. By the
end of the chapter, unit, advisory, semester, or year, students will have a great reference guide and
resource.
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Composition books are nice for this because pages won’t get lost or crumpled up (as readily), but this
can be done using folders or sections of a binder.
Frayer Model
variations of the model that are used in school settings.
The Frayer Model is a vocabulary
development tool. In contrast with
a straight definition, the model
helps to develop a better
understanding of complex
concepts by having students
identify not just what something is,
but what something is not. The
center of the diagram shows the
concept being defined, while the
quadrants around the concept are
used for providing the details.
Words that work well with the
Frayer Model include
quadrilaterals, insects and
democracies. Below are two
http://www.worksheetworks.com/miscellanea/graphic-organizers/frayer.html
Vocabulary Awareness Chart
Introduce Tier 2 and Tier 3 words for the unit that students can rank according to their exposure (know it,
seen it, no idea)
*For info on vocabulary tiers: http://www.gpb.org/files/handout-10-three-tiers-of-vocabulary.pdf
Vocabulary self-awareness is a pre-reading strategy that moves over into a during-reading strategy as
the student dives into a text. The chart creates an awareness in each student as to how familiar he/she is
with vocabulary that will be encountered in the text. Then as the text is read, the student can revisit the
vocabulary chart and revise entries based on a growing understanding of the vocabulary.
http://www.gagems.org/ourpages/auto/2012/10/29/45019113/phil%20chairs%20vocab%20awareness%2
0college.pdf
Then as the text is read, the student can revisit the vocabulary chart and revise entries based on a
growing understanding of the vocabulary.
http://www.gagems.org/ourpages/auto/2012/10/29/45019113/phil%20chairs%20vocab%20awareness%2
0college.pdf
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List-Group-Label
List-group-label is a form of semantic mapping. The strategy encourages students to improve their
vocabulary and categorization skills and learn to organize concepts. Categorizing listed words, through
grouping and labeling, helps students organize new concepts in relation to previously learned concepts.
http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/list_group_label/
Concept Map
Students can either do this as a chart
or a web. The idea is to get students to
interact more deeply with the
vocabulary and content that they have
been learning. This is probably best
done once the students are familiar
with the material. Students group,
sort, and create connections between
vocabulary words.
Cornell Notes
This is a framework and outline for effective note taking.
http://coe.jmu.edu/LearningToolbox/cornellnotes.html
Language Rich Environment
This is not necessarily a single strategy, but the idea is to replace regular, common words in the
classroom with higher level words. Label various objects around the room with creative adjective-noun
descriptions.
Pre-Reading
KWL
Using pre-reading strategies, teachers can help students improve their reading comprehension by
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activating background knowledge. The K-W-L strategy stands for What I Know, What I Want to Learn,
and What I Learned. Activating students' background knowledge improves comprehension of expository
text. A typical K-W-L chart consists of three columns headed by the letters K-W-L. Students complete the
L column of the chart after they have studied the topic.
http://www.studygs.net/texred3.htm
Anticipation Guide
An anticipation guide is a comprehension strategy that is used before reading to activate students' prior
knowledge and build curiosity about a new topic. Before reading, students listen to or read several
statements about key concepts presented in the text; they're often structured as a series of statements
with which the students can choose to agree or disagree. Anticipation guides stimulate students' interest
in a topic and set a purpose for reading. Students return to the guide to see if their previous answers
match what they have learned about the topic.
http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/anticipation_guide/
Probable Passage
Probable passage strategy involves giving students a brief summary of a text from which key words have
been omitted. The teacher chooses these key words and shows them to the students. Next, the teacher
discusses what the words mean and gets students to arrange the words in categories according to their
possible function in the story. For example, do the words relate to setting, characters, conflicts, solutions,
or endings? After categorizing the words, students use them to fill in the blanks of the Possible Passage.
This process makes students think about what they know about story structure, vocabulary,
relationships, and possible conclusions.
http://wwwstatic.kern.org/filer/cipdManilaWebsite/rlateachresource68/Probable_passage_prereading_str
ategy.pdf
http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/probable/index.htm
Tea Party
This is an interactive pre-reading strategy that frontloads students’ knowledge of text information and
also allows them to become familiar with phrasing and content words.
The teacher selects phrases, sentences or single words and places them on index cards. Each student
receives a card. As students move from student to student, they read their card to the other student and
discuss what the text on the card is about. Students move to another student and repeat the process
about four times. Then the students form a group to write a “we think” paragraph that discusses what the
students think the text is about and explain how they reached the prediction. Finally, they read the text.
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http://spedlit.k12.hi.us/Strategies/TEA%20PARTY.htm
Brainstorm
Brainstorming is an excellent teaching strategy to generate ideas on a given topic. Brainstorming helps
promote thinking skills. When students brainstorm, they are asked to identify all things related to a
concept. Either the teacher or students write these ideas on the board or chart paper.
http://www.cccti.edu/WritingCenter/Documents/BrainstormingStrategies.pdf
Mind Mapping
Mind mapping is a strategy for helping students order and structure their thinking through mentally
mapping words or/and concepts. Mind maps were developed by Tony Buzan as a way of helping
students make notes that used only key words and images. They are easy to use. A teacher can take a
blank piece of paper. Draw a circle or rectangle in the center and write the key word or concept. Then
students draw lines from the center and create other rectangles or circles in which they write words and
phrases related to the key word or concept written in the center of the paper.
http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/mindmap/
Read Aloud
A read aloud is a planned oral reading of a book or print excerpt, usually related to a theme or topic of
study. The read aloud is a teacher led activity in which the teacher reads with expression and fluency to
engage the reader, support comprehension, and foster critical thinking.
www.esiponline.org/classroom/foundations/reading/readalouds.html
Taking a Side / 4 Corners
Four corners is an instructional strategy that develops critical thinking skills of students as well as to
engage all students in conversations about controversial topics. As well, it improves their decision
making abilities. To use this strategy, the teacher should generate a controversial scenario related to a
topic of study. Then, formulate four divergent opinions related to the scenario. Post these on chart paper
in the four corners of the classroom.
Present the controversial scenario to students. Ask students to move to one of the four corners. Students
should move to the corner with the statement that most closely fits their opinion of the controversial
scenario. Follow up by having students present a group summary of their opinion. This can be done
through an oral presentation or by a written summary or bulleted list.
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Four Corners Teaching Strategy | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/way_5809507_four-cornersteaching-strategy.html#ixzz2SYqiuZFb
Four corners is an instructional strategy that develops critical thinking skills of students as well as to
engage all students in conversations about controversial topics. As well, it improves their decision
making abilities. To use this strategy, the teacher should generate a controversial scenario related to a
topic of study. Then, formulate four divergent opinions related to the scenario. Post these on chart paper
in the four corners of the classroom.
Present the controversial scenario to students. Ask students to move to one of the four corners. Students
should move to the corner with the statement that most closely fits their opinion of the controversial
scenario. Follow up by having students present a group summary of their opinion. This can be done
through an oral presentation or by a written summary or bulleted list.
Four Corners Teaching Strategy | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/way_5809507_four-cornersteaching-strategy.html#ixzz2SYqiuZFb
Think Aloud
The think-aloud strategy asks students to say out loud what they are thinking about when reading,
solving math problems, or simply responding to questions posed by teachers or other students. Effective
teachers think out loud on a regular basis to model this process for students. In this way, they
demonstrate practical ways of approaching difficult problems while bringing to the surface the complex
thinking processes that underlie reading comprehension, mathematical problem solving, and other
cognitively demanding tasks. During the think aloud, the teacher articulates what he/she is thinking, what
connections he/she is making to the problems, what difficulties he/she is encountering, what possible
solutions he/she is considering, as well as the steps he/she is following.
http://www.teachervision.fen.com/skill-builder/problem-solving/48546.html
Think/Write-Pair-Share
Think-Pair-Share is a strategy designed to provide students with "food for thought" on a given topics
enabling them to formulate individual ideas and share these ideas with another student. The Think-PairShare strategy empowers every reader to become a discussion participant. This versatile strategy can be
used as a pre- or post-reading activity, as a problem-solving tool, or as a "cognitive break" during a
traditional lecture. To utilize this strategy, the teacher provokes students' thinking with a question or
prompt or observation. The students should take a few moments (probably not minutes) just to THINK
about the question. Next, using designated partners (such as with Clock Buddies), nearby neighbors, or
a desk mate, students PAIR up to talk about the answer each came up with. They compare their mental
or written notes and identify the answers they think are best, most convincing, or most unique. After
students talk in pairs for a few moments (again, usually not minutes), the teacher calls for pairs to
SHARE their thinking with the rest of the class. She can do this by going around in round-robin fashion,
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calling on each pair; or she can take answers as they are called out (or as hands are raised). Often, the
teacher or a designated helper will record these responses on the board or on the overhead.
http://www.readingquest.org/strat/tps.html
Pre-Reading Plan
Pre-reading refers to a series of strategies that students can undertake before reading a text. focus
questions; initial responses; reflect on initial responses; ideas and realizations from text
Text Impression
This strategy helps students activate prior knowledge by developing an impression of what the
forthcoming reading and lesson will cover. Students are presented with a list of words and phrases taken
directly from the material to be covered and asked to create a text using the words.
Gallery Walk / Carousel
During a Gallery Walk, students explore multiple texts or images that are placed around the room.
Teachers often use this strategy as a way to have students share their work with peers, examine multiple
historical documents, or respond to a collection of quotations. Because this strategy requires students to
physically move around the room, it can be especially engaging to kinesthetic learners.
During Reading
ABC Boxes
Students can use this strategy as a straight-forward way to activate prior knowledge before they start to
read about a broad-ended subject (like a chapter on WWII, for example). Students individually list
everything they know about a particular topic and fill in facts based on an alphabetical outline. Then, they
work in small groups to compare and add information. Students review their ABC list for accuracy as and
add to the outline as they read. This strategy can also be used to review information following a reading.
Bookmarks
Students need reminders when they learn reading strategies. Bookmarks are a great way to give
students a handy tip sheet of facts and strategies for improving their reading. You can make your own
and print them on card stock, and your students can use them in their independent reading books. Then
when they get stuck on their reading strategies, they will have a reference right between the pages.
Read more: Printable Bookmark Reading Strategy | eHow.com
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http://www.ehow.com/way_5305956_printable-bookmark-reading-strategy.html#ixzz2SZC5pa00
Double-Entry Journals
The Double-Entry Journal strategy enables students to record their responses to text as they read.
Students write down phrases or sentences from their assigned reading and then write their own reaction
to that passage. The purpose of this strategy is to give students the opportunity to express their thoughts
and become actively involved with the material they read.
Post It Notes
Post it NOTE READING is a close reading strategy that helps students keep track of an idea, theme, or
details while reading in a textbook. It also teaches students the skills proficient readers use:
• Making connections to their lives or other texts,
• Talking back to texts and authors — commenting, questioning, predicting.
Post it note reading helps students keep “marginal” notes when they don’t own the books. If the teacher
distributes duplicated copies of a shorter text, then highlighters may be used in lieu of Post it notes.
Say Something
Struggling readers often view their reading task as the need to finish the assignment. They don’t focus on
the text or attend to their reading. Say Something is a strategy that interrupts a reading to allow a
student to think about what is being read. During this paired reading strategy (developed by Jerome
Harste) partners develop relationships between new information and what they already know or believe.
Partners read silently to a designated stopping point in the text. When both participants have reached the
stopping point they take turns "saying something" about what they read. The process is completed until
the entire reading selection is completed. Ideally, (after a designated time) whole class discussion serves
as a follow-up to this strategy.
Think Aloud
The Think Aloud strategy allows the teacher to model how a good reader thinks about text while reading.
The process is fairly simple. The teacher reads aloud from an appropriate book, and stops periodically to
make predictions, clarify meaning, decode words, make personal connections, question the author, and
summarize what has been read. This explicit modeling of the reading strategies will benefit all students
as they strive for deeper understanding of what they read.
Note Taking
This is the practice of recording information from another source. One example of note taking is Cornell
Notes. The Cornell method involves dividing a sheet of paper into two columns. The column on the left
should take up one third of the width of the page. The second column takes up two thirds of the width of
the page. Students take notes in the second column and use the first column to record questions,
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comments, connections about the notes in the second column.
http://lsc.cornell.edu/Sidebars/Study_Skills_Resources/cornellsystem.pdf
Costa’s / Bloom’s Question Stems
These are sets of question stems that align with levels of abstractions created by Bloom and Costa. The
questions are used to check for understanding and to challenge students to think at higher levels of
abstraction.
http://www.alvinisd.net/Page/8720
http://ww4.fsusd.k12.ca.us/schools/weir/images/TeacherOnly/Bloom-1617%20Stems%20for%20Instruction.pdf
Marking/Annotating Text
This is a process in which students visualize, draw an image, summarize, clarify, connect, respond, and
question the text as they read.
http://www.greece.k12.ny.us/academics.cfm?subpage=934
Dialogue or Double-Entry Journal
The student divides a page in two columns. She writes salient quotes from the text in the left column and
responds to the quotes in the right hand column. The response can clarify, question, oppose, etc., the
quote.
http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/printouts/double-entry-journal-30660.html
Reciprocal Teaching
This is a collaborative activity in which each student has a role in the group. (Ex: reader, predictor,
visualizer, clarifier, questioner, summarizer) Students read the assigned portion of the text. When the
group members finish predicting, clarifying, etc. The participants switch roles and move on to the next
segment of the text.
http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/reciprocal_teaching/
Tableau/Freeze Frame
This is a strategy that involves students creating a series of frozen pictures to help break down a story,
analyze the sequence of events, identify the important aspects of the story, and bring it to life. Their
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faces and poses create a living picture that captures a moment in time. Dialogue can be a part of the
tableau.
http://aaa.mpls.k12.mn.us/about-aaa/high-potential-strategies/tableau
QAR (Question-Answer Relationship)
This strategy requires the students to analyze the text carefully. Students categorize and answer four
types of questions: right there, think and search, on my own, and the author and me.
http://www.readingeducator.com/strategies/qar.htm
After Reading
It Says, I Say
This is a strategy to help students draw inferences. Students use a chart to scaffold their thinking. A
question about the text is in the first column of the chart. In the second column, students write a quote or
paraphrase from the text (It Says). In the third column, the students utilize the information in the text with
what they know (interpret, make connections, etc.)
http://schools.ednet.ns.ca/avrsb/732/lynncamp/project/comprehstrategies/It%20Says,%20I%20Say%20a
nd%20So.pdf
Save the Last Word
After reading a text, students choose a passage they like and copy it on a card. On the opposite side of
the card, students write why they liked it. In a small group, a student reads her passage. Other students
comment on what they liked or did not like about the passage. The student who wrote the passage on
the card has the last word and explains his reason for selecting the passage.
http://mainecontentliteracyproject.org/strategies/Save%20the%20Last%20Word%20for%20Me%20descri
ption.pdf
Somebody Wanted But So Then
This is a summarizing strategy that provides a structure for students to recognize main ideas,
relationships, cause and effects, resolutions, etc. Using a chart headed with words—somebody, wanted,
but, so, then, students identify the main characters/people involved in the event (somebody), what the
characters are trying to do (wanted), the problem (but), the solution (so), and the ending (then).
http://readwritetalk.wordpress.com/2011/04/04/somebody-wanted-but-so-then/
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Most Important Word
Students choose what they consider the most important word from the text they read. Have students
identify the place in the text where the word is used and explain the reason they choose it. In selecting
the word, students can consider how the word affects the characters, conflict, plot, and setting. This
strategy is useful when students are thinking about the theme of a text.
http://readingmiddlegrades.wikispaces.com/After-Reading
Exit Slips
The slips are used to check for understanding and are given at the end of class to assess students’
comprehension of the main ideas from the lesson. Slips have a variety of formats. Students can be
asked to identify ideas they learned, concepts that confuse them, things they liked/disliked about the
lesson, questions about the lessons, etc.
http://www.readwritethink.org/professional-development/strategy-guides/exit-slips-30760.html
Written Conversation
This is a post reading strategy that requires students to pair up with a peer. Using one piece of paper, the
students write back and forth to each other about what they have just read. After writing for a set time,
the students read their conversations aloud to their partners. After collecting student papers, the teacher
can write comments and have the last word in the conversation.
http://www.weac.org/news_and_publications/education_news/2006-2007/readinginroom_written.aspx
Retelling from a different Perspective
This is a more complex version of a simple retelling of events. By changing the perspective, the student
demonstrates thorough understanding of the original set of events and the perspective of the original
narrator while presenting the story in a logical format that is compatible with the viewpoint of the new
narrator. (Ex: Wicked, the story of Oz from the wicked witch’s perspective)
http://www.prepit.org/reading/diffPerspectives.html
Role Play
Students act as characters in a predefined story or event. It helps them understand the range of
concerns, values, and positions held by other people as well as see a problem from another perspective.
http://www.positivearticles.com/Article/Reading-Comprehension-Strategies-3-Strategies-To-EnhanceYour-Reading-And-Learning-Comprehension/49520
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Author Talks
Students can assume the role of the author and explain the text from the author’s viewpoint.
Partner Retell
Retelling is a powerful technique for checking understanding. This strategy involves students working in
pairs to reprocess the text focusing on main ideas, events, and characters and articulate it to a partner.
http://buildingrti.utexas.org/PDF/Partner_Reading_wRetell.pdf
Philosophical Chairs
This strategy is similar to a debate. Students are given a topical question and they must agree, disagree,
or be neutral. Students are encouraged to be fair minded, speak in turn, listen to peers, etc.
http://www.lawanddemocracy.org/pdffiles/philos.chairs.pdf
Socratic Seminar / Fishbowl
The Socratic seminar is a formal discussion, based on a text, in which the leader asks open-ended
questions. Within the context of the discussion, students listen closely to the comments of others,
thinking critically for themselves, and articulate their own thoughts and their responses to the thoughts of
others. They learn to work cooperatively and to question intelligently and civilly. Students sit in two
concentric circles. The two groups exchange positions so everyone is involved in the discussion.
http://www.alvinisd.net/Page/8720
One-Pager
This summarizing strategy requires students to follow several steps. First, create a visual representation
of the information: title and author. Next, include 3 or more passages from text. Then, write a personal
response to each passage. To complete the page add 1 or more graphics that relate to the topic.
http://www.lausd.k12.ca.us/King_Drew_Medical_Magnet/Summer%20Reading%20Program/Onepager.pdf
Vocabulary Awareness Chart
One way to organize a summary of a text is to copy the topic sentence of each chunk of text. Then
paraphrase topic sentences and use transitional phrases to write a cohesive summary.
http://www.readingquest.org/strat/summarize.html
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Writing
Graphic Organizer for Structure
Provide various methods to help students plan the structure of their writing (sequential, cause and effect,
compare and contrast, problem-solution, etc.).
http://www.cheney268.com/learning/organizers/TextStructures.htm
Dialogue Journals
Students do close-reading through analytical and meaningful writing about small chunks of text.
http://www.pps.k12.or.us/files/curriculum/DialJrnlStrat04.pdf
RAFT
Method of structure for longer writing assignments (Role, Audience, Format, Topic).
http://www.readingquest.org/strat/raft.html
Quick Write
Self-evident from title; give students a prompt and a limited amount of time to write in an unfiltered
manner in order to loosen ideas on a specific topic.
http://nrhs.nred.org/www/nred_nrhs/site/hosting/Literacy%20Website/Literacy%20Strategy%20Template
s/Quick_Write__description.pdf
http://www.duvalschools.org/fch/teacherresource/Quickwrite%20Rubric.pdf
Reader Response Journal
Another method for exploring text through close-reading and analytical writing.
http://www.google.com/search?q=reader+response+journal&client=safari&rls=en&tbm=isch&tbo=u&sour
ce=univ&sa=X&ei=MDaIUemWM6Xk4AOy9YHADw&ved=0CDAQsAQ&biw=1024&bih=623
6 Traits of Writing
Vintage approach to writing: Ideas, Organization, Voice, Word Choice, Fluency, Conventions.
http://www.azed.gov/standards-development-assessment/six-traits/
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Clustering (Mind Mapping)
Brainstorming method for pre-writing or drafting stages of the writing process.
http://www.google.com/search?q=clustering+mind+mapping&client=safari&rls=en&tbm=isch&tbo=u&sou
rce=univ&sa=X&ei=3zaIUZngMJXe4APmzIDwCA&ved=0CD4QsAQ&biw=1024&bih=623
Listing
Brainstorming method for pre-writing or drafting stages of the writing process.
http://wire.rutgers.edu/p_pre.html
Cubing
Brainstorming method for pre-writing or drafting stages of the writing process.
http://writing2.richmond.edu/writing/wweb/cubing.html
Looping
Variation on the classic “free write.” Helps writers to hone in on one particularly salient idea and exhaust
its possibilities.
http://psuwritingcenter.blogspot.com/2008/02/looping-focused-approach-to.html
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Inquiry
Teachers will incorporate at least one major project/activity each unit that focuses on inquiry:
Socratic Seminar, Project Based Learning. TLF 7
Inquiry: “seeking for truth, information, or knowledge -- seeking information by questioning”
“Effective inquiry is more than just asking questions. A complex process is involved when individuals
attempt to convert information and data into useful knowledge. Useful application of inquiry learning
involves several factors: a context for questions, a framework for questions, a focus for questions, and
different levels of questions. Well-designed inquiry learning produces knowledge formation that can be
widely applied.”
“Through the process of inquiry, individuals construct much of their understanding of the natural and
human-designed worlds. Inquiry implies a "need or want to know" premise. Inquiry is not so much seeking
the right answer -- because often there is none -- but rather seeking appropriate resolutions to questions
and issues.”
The expectation is that teachers will implement at least one inquiry-based activity or project in each unit.
Students will create a product that reflects the production of knowledge and conclusions based on in-depth
questioning of a complex topic and/or problem. This section of the Instructional Manual will provide a menu
of options and resources for teachers to use during planning and instruction.
Teachers in each content area will have to make individual, deliberate decisions about which
activities/assessments to use. It will look different for each class and for differing levels of student
readiness. Some activities and assessments are appropriate for some students/objectives/classes but
others are not.
Resource materials, research, and/or handouts to support this expectation:
Resources:
http://www.worldwatcher.northwestern.edu/userdownloads/pdf/JLSEdelsonetal.pdf
Addressing Problems
of Inquiry Learning.pdf
Research article outlining how to anticipate and solve problems presented by Inquiry Learning:
http://www.experientiallearning.ucdavis.edu/module2/el2-60-primer.pd
Inquiry Primer.pdf
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Information on the inquiry process:
Inquiry Process
Graphic.pdf
Demonstration of inquiry in elementary and high schools:
http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry/demonstration.html
Getting started and thinking through designing inquiry activities:
http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry/exploration.html
Five steps to inquiry with examples:
http://www.ndtwt.org/Blackboard/P2SST2/inqu.htm
Introduction to inquiry:
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http://teachinquiry.com/index/Introduction.html
Teacher-created list of ideas and lesson examples:
http://www.classroom20.com/group/inquirybasedlearning/forum/topics/examples-of-inquiry-based
Criteria and components of inquiry (not the only set, many similar ones exist):
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Start with a guided exploration of a topic as a whole class.
Proceed to student small group inquiry about an open-ended, debatable, contended issue.
Encourage students to ask personally relevant and socially significant questions.
Work in groups to achieve diversity of views.
Predict, set goals, and define outcomes.
Find or create information...look for patterns.
Instruction serves as a guide to help students meet their goals.
Create a tangible artifact that addresses the issue, answers questions, and makes learning visible
and accountable.
Learning is actualized and accountable in the design accomplishment.
Arrive at a conclusion...take a stand...take action.
Document, justify, and share conclusion with larger audience.
http://www.neiu.edu/~middle/Modules/science%20mods/amazon%20components/AmazonComponents2.ht
ml
Planning ahead for inquiry; use of inquiry in all content areas:
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Basic overview of Inquiry learning:
http://www.youthlearn.org/learning/general-info/our-approach/intro-inquiry-learning/intro-inquiry-learning
Questioning strategies/resources:
Accountable Talk.pdf
Some strategies for structuring questioning and discussions in class (image also below):
Costa’s Questions:
http://blog.adambabcock.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/CostaHouse-Levels-of-Questions.pdf
Introduction to Socratic
Seminars
http://www.readwritethink.org/professional-development/strategyguides/socratic-seminars-30600.html
Questioning strategies to use in
class:
http://www.youthlearn.org/learning/teaching/techniques/askingquestions/asking-questions
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Grading rubric examples
http://www.greece.k12.ny.us/district.cfm?subpage=497
Video Example
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QxZMGK6IdEs
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Philosophical Chairs
Introduction:
http://www.d120.org/assets/1/avid/Using_Philosophical_Chairs.pdf
Explanation & Visuals:
http://www.sdcoe.net/lret/avid/resources/philosophical_chairs.pdf
Video Example:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U0XTkCSb6a8
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Project Based Learning:
Project Based Learning is one core way to approach teaching through using inquiry. Students are
presented with a complex question, usually one that involves answering additional questions, and are
guided through the process of acquiring information and constructing answers that demonstrate knowledge
and skills learned through the project. Project-Based Learning (PBL) can be used in all content areas.
Introduction to PBL:
http://www.edutopia.org/project-based-learning
Example with documents:
http://www.edutopia.org/stw-project-based-learningbest-practices-resources-lesson-plans
Planning guide:
http://www.edutopia.org/stw-project-based-learningbest-practices-guide
Problem/inquiry lesson:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ULIBoDGqYvI
Additional examples of more specific
components:
http://www.youtube.com/user/johnbarell1/videos
Design and implement Project-based
Learning with State Standards:
http://www.edutopia.org/stw-project-based-learningbest-practices-new-tech-video
Student interest and teacher guiding:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SeOpDAPaNYQ
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FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
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FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
Q: Why are we doing this?
A: The Frank W. Ballou High School administration and staff believes that a systematic and cohesive
instructional plan is critical to student achievement. “From Roots to Results” is a framework that aligns our
school’s vision to the three most important areas: Data, Instructional Planning, and Pedagogy/Instructional
Strategies. This manual will streamline our educational program within all content areas at Ballou, and give
all students an equal chance to be successful.
Q: What will happen if I do not adhere to the instructional expectations outline in the manual?
A: The administration and Instructional Manual Planning Team believes that aligning our school vision and
instruction according to the policies and procedures of the manual are in the best interest of all students.
Much like the best practices exhibited in the Teaching and Learning Framework, failure to adhere to the
expectations will be formally addressed on an individual basis.
Q: How will administration support this process?
A: The administration team will support teachers during the roll-out of the Instructional Manual by providing
PD and opportunities to collaborate and gain feedback. At this juncture, all staff is expected to serve as
support to one another. The Administration, Department Chairs, Instructional Coaches, and your fellow
colleagues are all equally vested stakeholders in the educational experience of students and will work
together to provide support and monitor this process.
Q: How is this different from what we already do?
A: This is not different from what many teachers at Ballou do; however, this Instructional Manual is a way to
streamline our program and best practices to ensure success for students.
Q: What does this mean for Department Chairs?
A: Department Chairs will collaborate with teachers to offer support and guidance to new and returning
teachers in their department.
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Q: How and when will teachers receive more information regarding the Instructional Manual?
A: All teachers will receive professional development that targets the specific areas in the manual. The
Planning Team will meet during the summer to develop resources and support for staff in August. In the
interim, content areas will begin preparing and planning their first unit for the 2013-2014 SY.
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Appendix A:
Corrective Instruction Action Planning Template
CORRECTIVE INSTRUCTION
FOCUS STANDARD/SKILL
ANALYSIS OF WHY STUDENTS
DID NOT LEARN IT
What is the standard/skill I need to teach in a different
way? What is the exact sub-skill I need to teach?
Why did students not learn the intended skill
or concept?
DATA-INFORMED NEW INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACH
How will I teach this skill/standard in a different way? How will the concept of the item(s) students
misconceived be addressed? How will I break the concept down into clear and concrete steps? How will I
ensure that there is adequate opportunity for practice provided to the students? How will I ensure that the
level of instruction matches the level of rigor of the interim assessment?
STUDENT GROUPINGS
Whole Group: Does the entire group of students have the same misconception? Do they also have the
same reason for the misconception and/or do not need a deeper level of support (small group or
individual)? What will the whole-group instruction include?
Small Group: Which students need a deeper level of support than whole-group? What will the smallgroup instruction include?
Individual: Which students need an individual level of support to reach proficiency? What specific
strategies will you use?
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CORRECTIVE INSTRUCTION
ASSESSMENT
ACCOUNTABILITY
How will the skill/standard be reassessed to
check for mastery? How will I ensure that the
classroom assessment matches the level of
rigor of the interim assessment?
What evidence will be collected and reported back to
the team and by when?
Next Step
By
When
SUPPORTS FOR STUDENT EFFICACY
STUDENT PERSPECTIVE
PLANNED ACTION
FOCUS ON THE STANDARD/SKILL
I understand what I still need to learn.
How will the students be engaged so that they understand
what standard/skill still need to be learned? What
language will be used with the students to explain the
I know that if I work hard and put in the effort results of the assessment and the corrective instruction
as we have planned, I will master the
process?
standard, skill or concept.
ACT ON FEEDBACK
I know what I missed on the interim
assessment.
I have a concrete, actionable plan that my
teacher and I will implement.
What are the students’ roles in this learning process?
How are students expected to incorporate feedback?
How will the students know when the skill/standard will be
taught?
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CORRECTIVE INSTRUCTION
DEMONSTRATE MASTERY
I know how I will be assessed.
I will present the data that demonstrates my
effort and the results.
What are the students’ roles in this assessment?
What are the students’ roles (if any) in presenting the
evidence?
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Appendix B:
Ballou Data Meeting Series
Below is a cycle of three meetings that should fuide your work as a team around data. Prior to beginning
the meeting, please select a facilitator, a time keeper, and a note taker to record what takes place.
Prior to beginning the first meeting, please take a few moments to set norms. Also, please choose a day
during your common planning time of which you will meet to review data a share that day with your
Academy Coordinator and with Ms. Fenton. Remember to submit a copy of your notes including
attendance to your academy coordinator at the conclusion of each meeting. Should someone be absent, if
the reason is known, please indicate the reason on the sign-in form.
Materials needed – data sets, chart paper, markers. (If you do not have these materials please see
Ms. Cadet.)
These meetings are meant to take place of a weekly basis.
Data Cycle:
Assess!
Reflect!
Analyze!
Plan!
Prior to beginning the first data meeting every team member should take the assessment in
question. Play close attention to areas where there could be/could have been student
misconceptions. Each team member should also review the data individually so that they can
participate effectively in the group discussion.
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Meeting #1: (Analyze)
Purpose: Analyze the assessments and the data to identify student misconceptions and identify areas of
need by isolating the opportunity gap between what is wanted and the current situation. (i.e. we would like
75% of our students to score proficient or above on the DC-CAS, at the present time only 30% of our
students score proficient or above).
10 min. Examine the data and respond to the presenting questions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
What students learning issues are we struggling with the most?
Consider standards that either the overall group scored low in, or standards that most members of a
particular group scored low in.
Consider specific skills do students seem to be struggling with within those standards.
Were there specific questions on the assessments that most students performed poorly on? If so, is
it possible that there is something about the questions that caused student misconceptions?
Are there other learning issues beyond the assessment that are impacting student performance?
Which students are struggling with these issues?
10 min. Brainstorm responses in pairs.
10 min. Discuss the responses as a group and identify the tip three priorities by multi-voting.
5 min. Ask: What more do we need to know? How can we find out?
Identify SMART Goals for priority area(s)
10 min. Brainstorm results-oriented goal(s) for priority area(s).
5 min. Select one results-oriented goal for each priority area(s).
(Consider indicators by skill/competence/performance expectations aligned to standards; consider both
standardized and classroom-based measures; consider student data when writing targets.)
15 in. Have group select “best of indicators, measures, and targets to write SMART goal.
10 min. Ask: What do we need to know to affect student learning for this SMART goal?
Delegate members of the team to gather additional data based on the answers to the questions
above. (See Ms. Fenton for assistance in both gathering data and formatting it in a manner that can
be easily understood by your team members.)
Delegate team members to research best practices and supportive literature in the identified
priority areas and do literature research or best practice review.
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Meeting #2 Plan: Correlate best practices to current practices
10 min. Share information gathered between meetings
10 min. Develop a chart as a group: What are we already doing that supports best practice
in this area? What else would we like to learn about?
10 min. Identify instructional strategies we want to do, do more often, or stop doing.
10 min. Using the chart from the last meeting: Individuals select the preferred strategy for
learning about best practices and, identify areas in which they are willing to coach/teach
others.
15. min. Discuss implementation. How will we implement staff development of best
practices? What support do we need? How will we measure progress on the SMART goal?
Between meetings, implement staff development and integration of best practices;
then gather data to measure against baseline.
Assess
Meeting #3: Reflect, Analyze results and refocus efforts.
10 min. Present graphs of new data.
15 min. Discuss what worked, what did not work, and why.
15 min. For those strategies that worked well discuss how to hold the gains. If the strategy
did not work well decide next steps: START doing the strategy differently, STOP doing the
strategy altogether, or START a new strategy.
Start the cycle over again.
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Analyze! Meeting 1
Subject: __________________ Course: ___________________ Data: ________________
Needs
Analysis
Based on the
data, where do
we see gaps
between
learning targets
and current
achievement
levels?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Based on the
data, what
misconceptions
might have led
to student
difficulties?
What standards
did the majority
of students
score low on?
What specific
questions on the
assessment did
the majority of
the students
score low on?
What other
learning issues
might be
impacting
student
performance?
What additional data or
information will we need to
develop an effective growth or reteaching plan?
What standards
did the majority
of students
score well on?
What specific
skills will need
to be re-taught
to improve
student
performance?
What
conclusions can
be drawn from
both student
strengths and
weaknesses?
•
•
•
•
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Plan!! Meeting 2
Subject: __________________ Course: ___________________ Data: ________________
What things
are we already
doing that
support our
efforts to
achieve our
SMART goals?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What
instructional
strategies will
we use to
address growth
areas?
What
professional
development will
we need to use
those strategies
effectively?
How will we
identify best
practices with
regards to the
strategies we’ve
selected?
What support
will we need to
implement the
identified
professional
development?
!
What things will we
need to STOP
doing in order to
achieve our SMART
goals?
•
•
•
•
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What things will we
need to START
doing in order to
achieve our SMART
goals?
How will we measure How will students
growth between
track/reflect on their
assessments in the
own growth?
identified areas?
(please be specific)
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Reflect!! Meeting 3
Subject: __________________ Course: ___________________ Data: ________________
What worked?
What didn’t?
Why were those
strategies that
worked successful?
Why did those
strategies that didn’t
work fail?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
!
Which identified
instructional
strategies were
effective?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Which identified
instructional
strategies were
not effective?
Of those
strategies that
did not work,
which ones will
we keep, but do
differently?
Of those
strategies that
did not work,
which ones will
we stop doing?
What new
strategies might
we try?
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Teach!!
Which standards/skills
can be taught in a
whole group format?
Standards for review
New Standards
Which standards/skills
should be taught in a
teacher directed small
group format?
List all standards and mark
standards for review with an *
Which standards/skills can
be re-taught in a student let
small group format?
Which students will most
need support in teacher
directed small group
instruction to master the
identified skills and
standards?
Which students will learn
effectively in a student led
small group format?
Which students will
Which students will be
require one on one
referred to tutoring?
support in class to
master the identified
skills and standards?
List all standards and
mark standards for review
with an *
Who will provide that
support?
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standards for review with an *
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Six-Week Instructional Plan for ______________________________________________
WEEK 1 –
Date: _____________
Standards for review
WEEK 2 –
Date: _____________
Standards for review
WEEK 3 –
Date: _____________
Standards for review
New Standards
New Standards
New Standards
WEEK 4 –
Date: _____________
Standards for review
WEEK 5 –
Date: _____________
Standards for review
WEEK 6 –
Date: _____________
Standards for review
New Standards
New Standards
New Standards
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Appendix C:
Data Team Roles
Data Technician
•
•
•
Gathers data from all
team members
Creates
tables/charts/graphs
that represent
assessment results
Communicate results to
appropriate
stakeholders
Timekeeper
•
•
Makes sure team
follows pre-determined
time frame
Keeps team members
informed of available
time per step
Data Wall Curator
•
•
Posts incremental data
Manages the creation of
a narrative (cause
information) that
accompanies the
numbers (effect)
Focus Monitor
•
•
Keep dialogue focused
on step in the process
Reminds team of purpose
when necessary
Recorder
•
•
Takes minutes of the
meeting using standard
templates
Distributes minutes to
team members and
appropriate
stakeholders
Engaged Participant
•
•
•
•
•
Responsibility of all
team members
Contributes to dialogue
Commits to decisions of
team
Respectfully poses
questions
Use active listening
Expectations for Data Team roles should be established in the second meeting, so as to maximize the time
available during the 5 step meeting. Roles can be assumed on an annual basis, or can serve as rotating
responsibilities. An explicit schedule should be established, so that valuable time is not wasted talking
about team members’ responsibilities.
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More Data Team Roles
Timekeeper
Focus Monitor
Data Technician
This person can be a member of
the team who understands the
importance of time, feels
comfortable reminding the team
of the time, and can participate
in the meeting while keeping
track of the time frame. Who has
a knack for helping to keep each
step in a meeting within its
allotted time?
This person should be a member
of the team who has a deep
understanding of the Decision
Makin for Results process. This
person must understand the
purpose of the Data Teams
process and the function of each
step in the process. This person
must be skilled at distinguishing
serious professional dialogue
from casual conversation and
excuses. This person must be
able to help the team focus while
participating as a member of the
team at the same time. Who has
the skill and talent for keeping
your team focused?
Ideally this role is assumed by a
team member, but it can be
assigned to someone within the
school that meets the criteria.
This person needs to have the
available time to commit. Who
can use the defined structure
and communicate the
information on a timely basis?
Data Wall Curator
Recorder
Additional Roles for
Large Teams
This role should be assumed by
a team member who has a
passion for displaying the
results. This person should
function in a timely manner in
order to post the results
immediately. Who has the talent
to help display team results?
This role should be assumed by a
member of the team who is able
to use the most appropriate
available technology to record
information accurately for each
Data Teams process step. This
person must also understand
timelines. Who meets this
criteria?
Researcher
Mathematician
Co-facilitator
Logistics organizer
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Appendix D:
Co-Teacher Task List!
Task
Monday
WHO:
Making Copies
Setting up
Board
WHAT:
WHO:
WHAT:
WHO:
WHAT:
Do Now
WHO:
WHAT
WHO:
New
Information
WHAT:
WHO:
WHAT:
WHO:
Guided
Practice
WHAT:
WHO:
WHAT:
WHO:
Independent
Practice
WHAT:
WHO:
WHAT:
WHO:
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Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
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Assessment
WHAT:
WHO:
Debrief on
Lesson
WHAT:
WHO:
WHAT:
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Appendix E:
Visual Representations of the above mentioned co – teaching styles
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Appendix F:
Setting Norms for the co-teaching relationship (questions to consider):
1. How will you share lesson plans?
2. Who assigns grades? Is there going to be a difference in grading for Gen Ed vs. SPED?
3. When and where will you meet?
4. Content teacher develops the lesson plans and SPED teacher modifies the lesson
5. How will classroom management work with in the classroom
6. How will you work together to evaluate the students’ progress
7. What are your instructional beliefs? ( make sure to agree to one before facing students)
8. What are your pet peeves?
9. What do you need from each other in terms of support?
10. Discuss how you will introduce each other to the class about how sometimes one may be out of the
class more often than the other
11. Think about you each will handle the following possible issues:
a. What do you do if one of you makes a mistake in class
b. What do you do if you disagree with what one teacher said to a student
c. What do you do when you disagree about how a behavior was handled
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