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AFRICAN STANDBY FORCE Logistics Manual - African Peace

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AFRICAN STANDBY
FORCE
Logistics Manual
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CHAPTER 1
THE CONCEPT OF ASF LOGISTICS
INTRODUCTION
This Manual builds on the concept of logistics support contained in the ASF
Logistics Support Concept Paper. It provides a conceptual approach for
commanders to design and execute effective logistics support plans within the
context of an ASF command structure for deployment, sustainability and redeployment of future ASF Missions.
The purpose of the African Standby Force (ASF) is to provide the African Union
with capabilities to respond to Conflicts through the deployment of Peace
Missions and Interventions pursuant to Article 4 (h) and (i) of the constitutive act.
The Force is intended for rapid deployment in the conduct of Peace Support
Operations (PSO) that may include preventative deployment, peace building,
post conflict disarmament demobilization, re-integration, humanitarian assistance
etc.
To address its rapid deployment posture, the Force is organized around five
regional standby Forces constituted around Regional Economic Communities
(RECs). The RECs provide an organizational hierarchy that links the African
Union headquarters and the regional Troops Contributing Countries (TCCs). The
Peace and Security Council (PSC) of the African Union forms the strategic level
decision making institution that has the authority to mandate peace support
missions. Command and Control of such missions are to be placed under a
Special Representative to the Chairperson of the Commission of the AU. The
chairperson also appoints a mission Force Commander (ASFFC) upon approval
of the Peace and Security Council (PSC). An ASF operation therefore is
undertaken under the political control of the AU.
0101. The RECs/regions can within the provisions of Chapter VIII of the UN
Charter mandate their own regional peace support operations on authorization by
the African Union. All intervention missions, however, are subject to authorization
by the United Nations Security Council, and conducted under the command of an
appointed Lead Region (LR) or Force Commander.
.
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ASF forces must be capable of acting as a cohesive coalition built upon
identified capabilities and agreed doctrine. An ASF force may be deployed in a
mission area (MA) from a benign to a hostile environment. ASF forces must be
able to simultaneously or successively, secure and enable Lines of
Communication (LOCs), key terrain, key points and entry points such as Air and
Sea Ports of Disembarkation (APODs and SPODs, respectively). The successful
deployment of an ASF force requires forward logistic C2 elements to be in place
early inorder to undertake the following theatre logistics tasks:
Reception, Staging, Onward Movement and Integration (RSOI) co-ordination;
Coalition Movement Control; Coalition management of Access, Basing and
Overflight (ABO).
Coalition control of common classes of supplies, including fuel, common HNS
and infrastructure, Coalition management of medical and health service support.
The expeditionary nature of potential ASF operations requires robust procedures
for RSOI possibly starting at the Points of Embarkation (POEs), a reliance on
Host Nation Support (HNS), the adoption of coalition logistic principles, and the
provision of in-theatre resources in order to minimise the deployed footprint for
the TCCs.
0102. The ASF operational concept is defined by six operational scenarios that
broadly address how the Force will function. These scenarios address multiForce deployments by the AU as a contribution to international peace and
security. The scenarios emphasise the rapid nature of employment of the ASF
and the speed with which the logistics tail must be operationalised. The Policy
Framework describes the scenarios as follows:
a.
Scenario 1: AU/Regional military advise to a political mission.
Deployment should complete within 30 days from issuance of an AU
Mandate/Resolution.
b.
Scenario 2: AU/Regional observer mission co-deployed with a UN
Mission. Deployment effected within 30 days of the AU
mandate/resolution.
c.
Scenario 3: Stand-alone AU/Regional observer mission.
Deployment effected within 30 days of the AU mandate/resolution.
d.
Scenario 4: AU/Regional peacekeeping force under Chapter VI
and preventive deployment missions, including peace-building.
Deployment effected within 30 days from an AU mandate/resolution.
e.
Scenario 5: AU peacekeeping force for complex multi-dimensional
peacekeeping missions, including those involving low-level spoilers. ASF
deployment completed within 90 days of the AU mandate/resolution with
the military component being able to deploy within 30 days.
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f. Scenario 6: AU intervention, e.g. in genocide situations where the
international community does not act promptly. Here it is envisaged that
the AU would have the capability to deploy a robust military force within 14
days.
0103. The rapid nature of deployment of forces has implications on force
structures and arrangements. The Policy Framework specifies significant
implications of varying degrees of readiness levels as:
a.
At 14 days readiness, collective training involving field exercises
with all units is essential prior to activation. At this level of readiness, there
is a clear requirement for a standing and appropriately staffed
Headquarters and its support. There is also a requirement for an
established and appropriately stocked logistics system capable of
sustaining the entire Force. Individual AU Member States must be ready
to provide this capability.
b.
At 30 days readiness, collective training involving at least a
headquarters command post exercise must occur prior to activation. There
is also a clear requirement for at least a standing nucleus of a Force
headquarters, with its attendant support, as well as an established and
fully stocked logistics system capable of sustaining the entire force. In its
system contingents should deploy with a capability of self-sustainment for
60 days. In this regard, ASF owned regional logistics bases may be
required.
0104. At 90 days readiness, there may be time available to conduct collective
training to develop a level of coherence prior to deployment. There is also time to
establish a headquarters and logistics stocks. A requirement, however, exists for
a core staff to manage the standby system, and to standardize procedures and
doctrine.
0105. To deploy within the relevant timelines for the respective conflict
scenarios, the ASF will have mission-ready units and HQs with equipment,
including vehicles and communications, ideally held in centralised regional
logistics bases, or provided by donors under clear terms of commitment (See
Chapter 5 - Transport & Movement). These requirements pertain to predeployment activities. To launch ASF elements into mission areas, these predeployment arrangements will be supported by standing arrangements for
strategic sea and airlift.
DEFINITION OF LOGISTICS1
1 NATO AAP-6 (2003)
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Logistics is “the science of planning and carrying out the movement and
maintenance of forces”. In its most comprehensive sense, logistics covers those
aspects of military operations which deal with:
Design and development, acquisition, storage, movement, distribution,
maintenance, modification, evacuation and disposition of material.
Transport of personnel and material.
Acquisition or construction, maintenance, operation, and disposition of facilities.
Acquisition or furnishing of services.
Medical and health service support.
Logistic functions include: materiel management (from procurement to disposal),
supply, maintenance and repair, services (e.g. accommodation, burial, water
provision, laundry), movement and transportation, Infrastructure Engineering for
Logistics (IEL), health and medical, finance, budget and contracting, and all
related administrative issues.
PRINCIPLES OF LOGISTICS
Foresight
0106. Logistic planners, at all levels, must analyse the probable course of
future operations and forecast the likely requirement for personnel, materiel,
services and equipment, as well as their movement and provision. This is the
primary input to the assessment of sustainability. Close liaison between
operations and logistics staffs is essential to achieve realistic forecasts of future
logistic effort, which will often provide its own strategic, operational or tactical
signature. By employing foresight, and activating all sources of support,
logisticians must ensure that future intentions are not inadvertently exposed or
operational security prejudiced. Foresight identifies the need to deploy a
particular asset, as well as the timing of its deployment. For instance, the
knowledge of the expected location of deploying troops, and of the anticipated
environmental conditions will assist in determining the correct force structure by
incorporating infrastructure assets. This will ensure that essential facilities are
actually in place in the Joint Operations Area (JOA), on time, to assist the
reception of the force. Likewise, foresight and knowledge of the available
resources in theatre will enable the optimum balance to be struck between the
movement of bulky temporary deployable accommodation and the deployment of
infrastructure and labour resource specialists to maximise opportunities in the
JOA.
Foresight ensures that optimum efficiency is achieved by delivering exactly the
right levels of support, with a reserve as appropriate, only to where it is needed.
Co-operation
Co-operation implies sharing responsibilities to optimise the logistic footprint.
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Multi-regional co-operation among ASF nations, as well as other organisations is
essential. Co-operation amongst all functions and at all levels of logistic support
will ensure the optimal use of limited resources. Multinational operations are
often best served through a corresponding logistic approach. The opportunities
for inter-regional and international co-operation will often be determined by the
ASFLSG or ASFFC from the planning stage. Services and commodities of
common usage by RECs/regions/TCCs should be provided by a designated
Lead Region/TCC for use by others. A prerequisite for co-operation is the
assimilation and exchange of relevant information, or data. Information
concerning the status of logistic assets is essential for the efficient management
and co-ordination of support to multinational forces. In order to enable cooperation multinationally the information exchange requirements need to be
determined and established between the AU and Regional logistics planners.
Fundamental to the planning of any operation, therefore, is a logistic information
plan, incorporating personnel, equipment and sustainment flows. Once in place,
such a system will provide a formal mechanism on which to base cooperative
logistics.
Flexibility
0107. Logistic support must be proactive, adaptable and responsive to achieve
the objective. Adequate planning which considers potentially changing
circumstances enhances flexibility. A balance must be found between rigid
systems and structures (which can ease co-operative measures) and functional
flexibility, which is not limited to the mission area, but may extend throughout the
Lines of Communication (LOC). As an operation develops, the logistic structure
and the support it must provide can change, necessitating the diversion of
resources from one TCC to another, depending on ASFFC’s priorities. The
principal criterion is that the ASFFC must have sufficient authority over his
logistic resources to enable him to sustain the forces assigned to him, including
the ability to secure Host Nation Support (HNS).
Simplicity
0108. Simple plans and orders and uncomplicated, mission-oriented logistic
organisations minimise confusion and help to ensure that the support provided
meets the operational requirements. Furthermore, simple reporting mechanisms
ensure the accurate and efficient dissemination of information. The logistic plan
must be easy to understand and implement. Simplicity is further enhanced by
common logistic processes amongst Regions and TCCs through training on
common procedures leading to common doctrine within the ASF. A logistic
commander must have sufficient overview and control of the support
arrangements within the mission areas and LOC to ensure freedom of action.
Economies of Scale
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0109. Economies of scale imply the effective and efficient use of resources
keeping in mind the primacy of operations. Mutual support structures and
mechanisms, such as multi-regional logistic organisations and HNS, should be
utilised whenever practical to achieve economies of scale, increase reserve
capacity/capability and improve the overall quality of support. The goal is to
achieve these advantages, while simultaneously minimising the 'logistic footprint'.
Further consideration of economy and effectiveness will ultimately determine the
most appropriate organisation, in some cases employing alternative, non-military
support mechanisms.
Timeliness
01010.
Developing and implementing an effective logistic framework
requires considerable planning and co-ordination between ASF authorities and
RECs/regions. Since the most critical phase of logistic execution is deployment
and initial operational set-up, it is essential that regional and multi-regional
logistic command and control elements and enabling forces be approved and
established before the deployment of the main body begins.
Co-ordination
01011.
Co-ordination of logistic support between ASF members is
essential, and must be carried out at all appropriate levels, and also with other
states and other organisations as required. Generic and pre-arranged
agreements are the tools to facilitate logistic co-ordination and this may require
the appointment of regional representatives or liaison officers to ensure that CR
are aware of and react appropriately to both regional and ASF priorities, and that
such priorities are harmonised. Overall responsibility for co-ordination lies with
the ASF authorities and should be a matter of routine.
Authority
01012.
There is an essential interdependence between responsibility and
authority. The responsibility assigned to any ASF military commander must be
matched with the delegation of authority by RECs/regions to allow the adequate
discharge of responsibilities. The ASF military commander at the appropriate
level must be given authority over the logistic resources necessary to enable him
to receive, employ, sustain and redeploy forces assigned to him by RECs/regions
in the most effective manner.
Assured Provision and Sufficiency
01013.
RECs/regions must ensure, either individually or through cooperative arrangements, the provision of adequate logistic resources of the
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appropriate quantity and quality to support their forces while executing ASF
missions. Stock levels and distribution of logistic resources must be both
sufficient to achieve designated levels of readiness, sustainability and mobility
and to provide the required military capability during necessary for the conduct of
ASF operations.
Visibility and Transparency
01014.
The exchange of relevant information between ASF authorities and
RECs/regions concerning logistic assets and capabilities is essential for the
efficient management and co-ordination of support to ASF forces.
Synergy
01015.
Synergy is the expanded benefit achieved by applying logistic
principles simultaneously. Synergy results when CRs/TCCs contribute to a
common goal, with the net benefit being greater than the sum of their separate
contributions. To be truly effective, any multi-regional organisation must build
upon the strengths of the component parts. Multi-regional logistic support in the
overall concept should be oriented to the particular logistic strengths of the CR.
This serves to provide more efficient support to the overall force and thereby
creates a more robust logistic concept.
Standardisation
01016.
Standardisation of material, resources, services and procedures
has a direct impact on interoperability, sustainability and effectiveness and
should be encouraged as far as possible.
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CHAPTER 2
OVERVIEW OF ASF AND REGIONAL FORCE LOGISTIC
PLANS
0201. The concept for UN and multinational operations are equally applicable to
ASF deployments. The integrated logistic doctrine within the AU will provide the
template for multinational doctrine and the cornerstone for contributing nations to
align their support.
0202. The execution of logistics within the AU requires a universally accepted
set of procedures, which allow contributing nations to offer support at a
centralised level from where policy can be determined. This initial phase would
be conducted at government level and address matters such as the lead nation,
command structures, the MOU, accountancy, reimbursement and the provision
of supplies from contributing nations, the host nation and possible centralised
African Standby Force stockpiles. The implementation of these policies should be
based around an extension of the lead nation joint policy, with contributing
nations providing logistic staffs to reinforce the Multinational Logistic
Headquarters (MLHQ). These staff officers should ideally have exercised with
their counterparts from all member states, thereby providing multinational logistic
management across the spectrum of needs. It is recognised that different
operations will require different types of expertise. However, establishing the
procedures to identify and activate this support is crucial to African Standby
Force operations.
0203. Multinational Logistics Management: Although greater prominence is
placed on strategic management, the execution of logistic support to
multinational operations will emanate from the deployed MLHQ. This HQ will
work in conjunction with the Multinational Headquarters in theatre, and will coordinate operational/mission needs. The commander will not necessarily be from
the lead nation, but normally be appointed from the nation providing the majority
of logistic support. The primary roles and responsibilities of the MLHQ will
include:
a. Delivering the required logistic capability in support of ASF PSOs.
b. Implementing the operational logistic plan in accordance with
multinational doctrine and agreements.
c. Ensuring the financial integrity of the force.
d. Exploiting the use of Management Information Systems (MIS) across
the multi-national force.
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e. Promoting a close interaction with all contributing nations at both the
strategic and operational level.
f. Developing multinational logistic procedures.
g. Providing a transparent audit trail for personnel and material.
h. Exploiting Host Nation Support (HNS) facilities.
0204. Structures: It is envisaged that any MLHQ would, wherever possible,
mirror the national headquarters of the contributing nations, thereby providing
procedural continuity and ease of integration. Where procedures are not part of
national doctrine the lead nation would provide the structural template for the
headquarters. Contributing nations will provide staff officers as appropriate to
their national contributions, and may also be required to provide general staff to
assist with the running of the headquarters, while acting as liaison officers or
individual specialists. The headquarters will, by definition, be integrated, and
therefore, provide a depth and breadth of logistic knowledge at multi-national
regional and national levels within a single comprehensive logistic framework.
0205. Interoperability and Training: Interoperability is a key factor in delivering
integrated, multinational logistic support.
Understanding the capability of
member nations equipment will enhance and accelerate the provision of support.
This is best addressed through multinational training exercises and seminars.
Regular training exercises will be scheduled by the ASF
OVERVIEW OF THE ASF LOGISTICS SUPPORT PLAN
0206. Although units may operate national assets during early ASF operaions,
an acceptable level of interoperability can still be achieved initially through
standardisation of procedures, commonality in basic supply requirements, and
acquisition of compatible key equipment to provide the necessary interface
between national troop contributions in selected areas such as communications.
The long-term goal is the use of standardised materiel and equipment across all
ASF units.
0207. Safety measures for the troops include the use of armoured protected
vehicles as well as other passive means. However, this requirement must be
balanced against the requirement for a transportation system that provides the
intended rapid deployment capability. Furthermore, the units assigned to ASF
operations must be equipped to operate in an environment where limited, if any,
infrastructure is available to support operations or the physical well being of
troops.
0208. The responsibility for the logistic support of AU/ASF peacekeeping and
humanitarian operations is shared by the AU/Regions and the Nations
participating in that operation. This will also apply in cases where the AU is the
Mandating Authorities for a particular mission in which the ASF/Regions may
participate.
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0209. All logistic resources and services rendered to these units should ideally
be financed by the Mandating Authority and be provided prior to deployment.
The AU has established its own reimbursement rates and procedures, which are
contained in Chapter 8 of this Manual.
02010.
The development and refinement of AU multinational doctrine will
provide impetus for the development of standard logistic directives and
procedures for Peace Support Operations, Crisis Response Operations and
other disaster/humanitarian operations.
Sustainment
02011.
Based on existing principles in the UN system, Troop Contributing
Countries must be prepared to sustain their units from national sources from the
time of arrival in the Mission Area until the Mandating Authority's logistics system
has been established. Previous experience with the United Nations system has
shown that its logistics system is not able to support or sustain a substantial force
in the first 3 – 6 months after the UN Security Council has issued a mandate.
02012.
Considering ASF's envisaged rapid deployment capacity and its
limited deployment period, ASF can supplement its supplies through host nation
support and/or local commercial companies. Therefore, the Force should have
the inherent capability to negotiate and conclude host nation support agreements
as well as contracts with other civilian authorities and commercial companies in
co-operation with the logistic and administrative authorities of the Mandating
Authority.
02013.
The follow on forces to replace the rapid deployment forces will,
however, need to be sustained through the conventional system over a sustained
time frame. Logistic service and support within AU headquarters should be
multinational in order to carry out logistics in the most cost effective manner.
02014.
ASF Logistic support can be divided into common user items and
services, which are supplies and services of an interchangeable nature and
broadly used by the various troop contributions, and non-common user items and
services, which are supplies and services required only by one or a very limited
number of troop contributions. The establishment of an AU Military Logistic
Depot (MLD) and Regional Logistics Bases is elaborated in Chapter 6.
02015.
In order to support ASF deployment in the most flexible and
efficient manner it would be beneficial for common user items and services to be
provided for centrally, and non-common user items and services to be provided
for directly from national sources. Individual troop contributions to operations at
battalion and independent company level must have sufficient transport and
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supply capability to provide for their units. On maintenance they should have the
capacity to conduct minor repairs and to supply spare parts. The logistic service
and support from the ASF to units and independent companies should be
rendered as multinational in order to minimise and simplify the logistic force
support to deployed elements.
Command Status
02016.
The ASF Logistic Commander should have operational command
over all deployed multi-national logistic elements and resources.
Clear
guidelines must be developed, coupled with a cohesive multi-national command
and control structure, to ensure that logistic policy is efficiently and effectively
translated into activity on the ground. The aim of all logistic support is to ensure
that the ASF can achieve its mission.
Fiscal Policy
02017.
The headquarters must have a staff structure that allows the
delegation of financial authority and a mandate to commit funds placed with the
Chief Administrative Officer or his delegated representative. In cases where the
AU is the mandating authority, the AU Envoy should assume this role. By
allowing the inclusion of necessary civilian staff elements in the Force HQ staff,
unity of effort will be ensured in this important field. The following elements
comprising an integrated civilian and military staff will be incorporated at the
Mission HQ:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Logistic Supply Support Unit.
Technical Maintenance Repair and Recovery Support Unit.
Base Support Unit.
Movement Control Unit.
Operations Accounting and Asset Tracking Unit.
Air Support Unit.
OVERVIEW OF ASF
ORGANISATION (TOE)
LOGISTIC
PLAN
AND
TABLE
OF
02018.
Planning Phase. A multinational logistics planning group will be
responsible for identifying all the logistic parameters of the operation and related
logistic force preparation in conjunction with the planning staff of the ASF. TCCs
will identify all the logistic parameters of the mission and related logistic force
preparation in conjunction with the planning staff of the ASF.
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02019.
The planning should include the following to enable synergistic
planning outputs:
a.
b.
c.
Logistic Support Analysis.
Logistic Support Plans.
Logistic Support Training.
02020.
Mobilisation. The logistic support grouping of each TCC will be
responsible for logistics regarding collection and migration of personnel/material
and transporting them to the mobilisation point, including supplies needed at
mobilisation point and Forward Assembly Areas. All TCCs will mobilise their
forces and ensure that they are equipped sufficiently to execute their tasks for
deployment as part of the ASF. The TCC must equip its forces to be self
sustained for a period of up to 90 days commencing from the day of arrival at
their own areas of mobilisation and Forward Assembly Areas. They will further
be required to carry fourteen (14) days of reserves for the duration of the
deployment. Regarding country unique support to main equipment, such as
vehicles and weapon systems, the TCC will remain responsible for the duration
of the deployment.
02021.
Strategic Lift. Each TCC will be responsible for moving its own
elements from the home bases or mobilisation areas to Forward Assembly Areas
(FAA) in conjunction with the assistance and co-ordination of the AU/RECs,
where necessary. The Force Logistic Support Group will be responsible for the
logistic preparation of the location, personnel and materiel to operational
readiness in the deployment area.
02022.
Deployment. The Force Logistic Support Group will be
responsible for all multinational logistic support during operations funded either
by the mandating authority or the TCCs themselves. The FAA logistics
commander will receive the different TCCs upon arrival, document personnel and
equipment and direct them to their areas of deployment.
Where
merging/structuring of force elements will be necessary, it will be executed in the
different FAAs. Mission unique equipment (e.g. Communications equipment,
insignia, etc) will also be issued in the FAA. The FAA will be established by the
Mission HQ and the Force Support Element will be a Multinational Grouping and
have representation from all TCCs involved in the mission().
02023.
Employment. The Force Support Group will be responsible for
all multinational logistic support during operations funded either by the mandating
authority or the TCCs themselves. The Force Support Group will be responsible
for supporting the:
a.
b.
Movement to the Area of Operations (AO).
Arrival in the Area of Operations.
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c.
Support and sustainment during execution of operational tasks.
02024.
Redeployment. The logistic grouping of the respective TCCs
will demobilise their forces by ensuring that their equipment and personnel are
collected and redeployed in the reverse staging order in which they were
deployed to the mission area. The equipment and personnel will be transported
back to their own countries. If required, the Force Support Unit will be
responsible for transporting the personnel and its equipment to a subsequent
deployment destination.
REGIONAL FORCE TABLE OF ORGANISATION
02025.
The Policy Framework Paper specifies that once fully established
the ASF will consist of regional standby multidisciplinary contingents, with civilian
and military components located in their countries of origin and ready for rapid
deployment anywhere in Africa at appropriate notice. Non-political, non-military
and police aspects of the ASF is not a Phase 1 priority as UN humanitarian, civil
affairs, development and human rights elements, which do not require a UN
security council mandate, could deploy in tandem with an ASF mission. As
stipulated in the Policy Framework paper, the standard Table of Organisation for
each of the five regional standby Forces would comprise:
a.
Force (Mission Level) HQ and Support Unit of up to 65 personnel
and 16 vehicles.
b.
HQ Company and Support Unit of up to 120 personnel.
c.
Four Light Infantry Battalions each composed of up to 750
personnel and 70 vehicles.
d.
Engineer Unit of up to 505 personnel.
e.
Light Signals Unit of up to 135 personnel.
f.
Reconnaissance Company (Wheeled) of up to 150 personnel.
g.
Helicopter Unit of up to 80 personnel, 10 vehicles and 4 helicopters.
h.
Military Police Unit of up to 48 personnel and 17 vehicles.
i.
Light Multi-Role Logistic Unit of up to 190 personnel and 40
vehicles.
j.
Level 2 Medical Unit of up to 35 personnel and 10 vehicles.
k.
Military Observer Group of up to 120 Officers.
l.
Civilian Support Group, consisting of logistical, administrative and
budget components.
02027.
The structure provided above is only a guide. The exact table of
organisation for a given ASF will be determined by the specific mission assigned.
CIVPOL, MILOBS AND CIVILIANS STANDBY LIST AT
AU AND RECs LEVELS
a.
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02026.
The Policy Framework has set the following targets:
a.
300-500 MILOBs (At least 120 per Region, ready for rapid
deployment, as per above Force structure)
b.
240 CivPol
c.
Civilians (to be determined in due course)
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CHAPTER 3
b.
PLANNING AND THE ESTIMATE PROCESS
The purpose of this chapter is to describe the sequence of, and actions involved
in the planning of ASF logistic missions.
c.
THE PLANNING PHASES FOR ASF MISSIONS
0301. The planning sequence.
Planning involves critical decisions
concerning the interface of many diverse aspects of logistic support at all levels.
Logistic planning and subsequent ASF missions must be versatile,
complementary to the mission aim, fully integrated within all phases of the
planning process and usually conducted in a joint and multinational environment.
The sequence of campaign stages is shown in the figure below.
AU Peace Support
Conference
AU Nations
Political Intent
Force Generation
Decision
Identify Shortfalls
AU Force
Commander
Strategic Directive
Sustainability
Statement
ASFJFLC
Logistic Estimate
Logistic Estimate
ASFC
Operational Directive
Concept Order
Fig 1. ASF Planning Sequence
0302. Ideally, planning should follow the sequential pattern outlined above. In
practice, the process is not rigid and there are complex interfaces involving
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multiple agencies. There must be interation between stages and within each
stage. Stages will overlap with parallel and complementary action taking place. In
particular, logistic estimates will be conducted at each stage, but becoming more
refined as planning progresses. But there must be dialogue and consultation
between the AU, RECs and TCCs and various support agencies at each level.
0303.
The planning sequence comprises five main stages:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Political Interest, intent and decision.
The Force Generation Conference during which logistic shortfalls
will be better understood.
The Strategic Directive, within which the Sustainability Statement is
also issued.
The Logistic Estimate
The Mission Directive.
0304. Political Interest & Intent
During a period of crisis build up,
intelligence indicators may be weak and difficult to interpret. There will be
external pressures and influences. Political intent will be influenced heavily by
military advice as to the feasibility of a possible mission. The situation may be
characterised by confusion, and can result in conflicting and contradictory
demands. In the absence of a clear aim, there may be a reluctance to commit
resources, particularly financial. But an early decision and the commitment of
resources on logistic preparation may in themselves act as part of the deterrent
process. Within this scenario, the ASF Logistic Commander will be required to
provide best logistic advice as to the feasibility of the proposed mission. Such
advice will have to be provided, and often decision taken, on incomplete
information and changing aims. For each option considered, logistic estimates
will have to be prepared and the possible permutations for support judged.
Crucial to the advice given will be the analysis of the Destination, Demand,
Distance and Duration highlighted later in this chapter.
0305. The Force Generation Conference
The Force Generation
Conference attempts to ensure that adequate forces are available to carry out
the mission. By doing so, it will also highlight where there are shortfalls in logistic
capability. As a result, in an effort to plug any shortfalls, the conference may
discuss the following issues to ensure that the multinational framework is stable:
a.
National military assets organic to the deploying forces, or national
civil facilities and services in the home base or deployed forward to benign
support areas under the CONDO contract CON LOG or other contracted
arrangements.
b.
Host-Nation Support (HNS), which can be obtained from the civilian
and military governmental resources within the country in which a force is
deployed. The assumption being that it has been pre-arranged, if only in
principle.
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c.
In Country/Mission Area Resources support is normally acquired
through competitive tendering directly from market sources in the MA,
rather than through a host government.
d.
AU/Regional Controlled Arrangement are a broad range of
multinational support arrangements which may be employed for peace
support missions as follows:
(1)
Force Co-ordinated or Controlled Support through the
ASFJL HQ. Whilst support remains a national responsibility
mechanisms exist for co-operative logistics through the ASFJL HQ.
(2)
Lead Nation and Role Specialist Nation Logistic Support.
Certain logistic responsibilities are undertaken by one TCC on
behalf of one, or more other nations.
(3)
Multinational Logistics Units. TCCs contribute assets to
provide capabilities under an agreed level of control by the ASF
Joint Force Commander, such as Multinational Integrated Logistic
Units (MILU) or Multinational Integrated Medical Units (MIMU).
e.
Mutual Logistic Support. This may be the case when regional TCCs
operate from the same logistics base, supporting the forward RSE, or in
the same MA, either on a bilateral or multilateral basis.
f.
Contracting on the International Market. Contracts can be sourced
for support services such as food supply, provision of transport (including
strategic lift), bulk water, POL, accommodation, and storage from markets
close to the MA rather than home base markets/industries.
0306. Strategic Directive Once the decision to participate in a mission
has been taken, the advice and staff checks given earlier in the process can be
refined and detailed planning can begin. The Strategic Directive will detail the
overall aim, the scale of forces, type of mission and the command and control
arrangements. The Directive must include a Sustainability Statement. This
confirms the overall logistic resources available to the mission and, if not given
before, provides the authority for the release and commitment of finance and
material. During the early stages of a mission, logistic planning should be
centralised and, in a multinational situation, directed from AU Headquarters. 2.
The chain of command should be identified early in the planning process and
responsibilities clearly nominated. During this stage, the logistic planning process
will identify or confirm:
a.
The specific logistic command and control support arrangements.
b.
Critical material requirements or facilities and the associated lead
times for procurement or construction.
c.
The capabilities, vulnerabilities and limitations of theatre
infrastructure.3
2 In a single nation or REC mission this may be from the national or REC HQ
3 These should be available from basic intelligence reconaissance
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d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
The principal support methods required.
The arrangements for the co-ordination, reception and control of
forces and material.
Host Nation, civilian or joint resources.
The ability and willingness of nations to support the mission.
The required degree of protection for the LoC and the forces
necessary for this.
0307. A Sustainability Statement (SUSTAT) for the specific mission, developed
by the ASFJFC and falling out of the Strategic Directive, will provide common
criteria for regional contingents and ensure mission effectiveness. The SUSTAT
sets the logistic order of battle, supply stockpiles and maintenance and medical
priorities. A Sustainability Statement confirms the overall logistic resources
available and, if not given before, provides the authority for the release and
commitment of finance and material. Anticipated demand must therefore be
predicted by an iterative analysis, perhaps incorporating formal Mission Analysis,
the aim of which is to produce a progressively more accurate estimate under the
different AU mission scenarios as discussed in Chapter 1. Out of this process
falls a Sustainability Statement.
0308. Sustainability Statements are issued by the superior commander at the
strategic (AU) and mission level (ASF/Regional Brigades) in consultation with
TCC commanders. Sustainability statements fulfil two purposes. First, it is the
ASF commander’s direction to staff planners and resource allocators on what
needs to be delivered. Secondly, it defines the level of resources made available
to the mission from the finite quantities made available through the Regional
Logistics Bases or AU Logistics Depot or HNS action. Production of the
Statement is an integral part of the mission planning sequence. An example of a
Sustainability Statement is at Annex B. Statements will normally include:
a.
Theatre climatic, environmental, topographical and human factors
which influence logistic requirements.
b.
The mission essential equipment and availability requirements.
c.
The level of self-sustainment required in theatre.
d.
The expected duration of the mission.
e.
The anticipated daily usage, with the anticipated high and low
levels of utilisation of material.
f.
The predicted casualty rate for men, either from battle or disease
and non-battle injuries, and equipment.
0309. The Logistic Estimate. The estimate format incorporates elements of
relevance to logistic staffs. However, it is important that a comprehensive logistic
estimate be carried out in parallel with the Commander’s estimate to:
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a.
Provide the information needed for the ASF Commander’s estimate
at each level of estimate, and particularly for the stages �evaluation of
factors’, �Course(s) of Action (CoA) Development’ and �consideration of
CoA’.
b.
Identify the optimum means of meeting the Commander’s support
requirements for his plan.
03010.
It will often also be necessary to refine and update details as the
Commander’s estimate is developed. A generic logistic estimate format, with
mission analysis, which may be adapted to suit the level required is shown at
Annex A.
03011.
A logistic estimate should be completed for each of the strategic,
mission and tactical levels. This way, the mission, specific tasks and constraints
for the next level can be formally established. Although it is a separate formal
process, it must be completely in line with the Commander’s estimate as logistic
factors are likely to be fundamental to the overall plan.
03012.
The Mission Directive. The Mission Directive, of which the
logistic directive and plan is a part, will result in 2 key outputs:
a.
The detailed concept of logistic support and orders.
b.
The nomination of a mounting regional or multi-regional
headquarters and the preparation and execution of the mounting and
outload.
Mission Analysis
03013.
The aim of the logistician’s mission analysis should be to identify
the focus of staff effort, by logical means. Its output will be direction on the
detailed study of limited options, so it is important that care be taken to ensure
these are right. Most importantly it should consolidate the logisticians’ Critical
Information Requirements (CIR) which, in turn, are required for the evaluation of
factors. The gathering of logistic CIR should be conducted in parallel and equal
priority with the mission intelligence effort. Whenever the situation changes, the
mission analysis should be rechecked for continued relevance.
03014.
Reconnaissance. Strategic and Mission reconnaissance takes
place, sometimes concurrently, with representatives from AU/ASF/Brigade
Logistics Staff, and the participating TCCs as circumstances permit. Early
identification of resources available in the Mission Area (MA) can be of great
utility for future missions, although the situation can sometimes change between
the reconnaissance and the actual deployment, so close monitoring of such
resources by logistic specialists should be maintained. The assessment includes
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analysis of factors such as: topography, climate, entry points, infrastructure
including electrical power, water, waste & sewage disposal, indigenous economic
and industrial capacity, sources of food, material, transport, fuel and utilities,
medical standards and facilities, storage facilities, endemic disease, demography
(including indigenous workforce skills), cultural, ethnic or religious restrictions
and possible psychological features arising from the conflict.
Consideration of Factors
03015.
Detailed analysis of the specific areas identified in the Mission
Analysis normally leads to identification of logistics Courses of Action (CoA) for
wider consideration within the Commander’s estimate, and ultimately to the
logistic plan. Inevitably, logistic input will identify broad options and constraints at
an early stage, then refine the detail as logistic information clarifies what really is
possible. The aim is to provide clear and balanced input to the Mission Plan.
Outputs should be in terms of capabilities required, be they troops to task,
services, communications, liaison and IT or stocks.
03016.
In addressing the logistic estimate, factors should be considered in
terms of the fundamental elements of determining the logistic capability
requirement, based on the �Four Ds’ (Destination, Distance, Demand and
Duration – see Annex A) as applicable to personnel, material and services.
Analysis of these and the Sustainability Statement identify the required lead
times, costs and RCs/TCCs’ ability to make available sufficient resources. The
latter includes: the requirement to activate, open or reconstitute industrial
infrastructure, manufacturing lead times for top up stocks or Urgent Mission
Requirements (UORs), the potential speed of deployment and the need for
additional strategic movement resources, the establishment of the Lines of
Communication (LOC) and the rate at which combat power can be built-up.
Courses of Action
03017.
There may be a limited number of variations to the Courses of
Action, as analysis of each of the many factors, in conjunction with the
Sustainability Statement, will often produce a preferred method of action. These
Logistic CoA must be integrated with the ASF Commander’s estimate process,
either before or during development of his own campaign CoA. Substantial
variations are likely to revolve around different LOC options, whether or not to
activate the Regional Logistics Bases to support the Regional Support Elements
(RSE). At this level, the emphasis will be on:
a.
Joint Issues. Early assessment of the type of force (Single region
or multi-regional force-mix) which may deploy and the options for a joint
logistic structure. A key output will be the decision on the scope for use of
ASFJL HQ and timely nomination of ASFJLC.
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b.
Movements. Strategic movement, including availability of the
means, loop times, an FAA or other staging/basing opportunities.
c.
Sustainability. Sustainability issues (as determined in the
sustainability statement) focussing on:
(1)
Logistic influences of the climatic and other physical
geographic conditions.
(2)
The status of critical equipments, stocks and other �service’
assets relative to the possible levels of activity.
(3)
Commodities which are preferably acquired on behalf of
the complete joint force from commercial sources or closer to the
region of the MA, such as bulk fuel, water and rations. These
commodities are often subject to the fluctuating dynamics of the
markets. Rapid identification of sourcing is required.
d.
Multinational Issues. The logistic influence and potential
benefits of standardisation, including the scope to assist other TCCs, or
receive support from them.
e.
Affordability. The likely cost of supporting the mission by RECs
or individual TCCs.
03018.
Regional Support Elements (RSE). Command of regional
logistic elements within the Maritime/Land/Air components is likely to be retained
by Regional Contingent Commanders (RCC) or National Contingent
Commanders (NCC), and exercised through Regional Support Elements (RSEs)
in the MA.
03019.
Reserves. The key decision to be made by the ASFJTFC is on
the use of Reserves, who must be made ready for deployment by the TCCs in
accordance to their agreed contribution to the force structure of the Regional
Brigades. The logistics staffs are responsible for the maintenance of the ready
reserve while the location, size, training, state of preparedness and committal
remain the ASFJFC responsibility and must be agreed with respective CRs/TCCs
prior to deployment.
03020.
Contractor on Deployed Missions (CONDO). Inherent in
virtually every mission has been a requirement for deployed contractor support.
Historically this has been under the auspices of existing contractual
arrangements or on an ad hoc basis where requisite standards and conditions of
service are applied to the contractors to ensure that both the ASF Commander
and the contractor have a common understanding of how contractors will work in
the in mission theatres.
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03021.
Contractorised Logistics (CONLOG). The term CONLOG is
used to describe a non-exclusive enabling contract with a single Prime
Contractor, who injects his staff into the ASFJTFHQ planning process. The aim is
to reduce or remove the need to compete for services at an early stage of a
mission when speed is a key factor. In the execution phase of any mission a
contractor management team will be deployed to theatre to co-ordinate the
delivery of contracted support.
03022.
Host-Nation Support (HNS). HNS relies on the government
of a nation providing support from its own resources to one or more nations
operating in or through that country. The assistance may be free of charge,
loaned or provided on a repayment basis, and may range from generating the
political framework to ensuring that forces are not hindered in their deployment,
or to the provision of facilities and equipment. It can cover the standard classes
of supply including food and water, fuel, and ammunition; but can also extend to
the use of equipment, services, training areas, force protection, port, airfield,
movement co-ordination and medical facilities, as well as other major items of
the HN’s infrastructure and resources, such as electrical power, waste & sewage
disposal, barracks and railways.
03023.
Memorandum of Understanding. An MOU is the umbrella
document providing a framework for lower level documents. It is normally
concluded between the HN and the Supported Nation (SN), but in he case of
multinational missions it can be between the HN and an international
organisation, such as another regional organisation or the UN. Once signed it
implies an intent or willingness of the HN to support the force on its territory. The
ASFJTFC may be involved in coordinating and prioritising HNS requirements in
order to achieve greater flexibility, mobility and efficiency for his force. The
fundamental principle being that nations should not be competing for the same
resources, particularly where forces are co-located at the same base. Co-mission
should prevail over competition. Detailed information on Memoranda of
Understanding is contained in the Reimbursement Chapter of this manual.
Lead Region/Nation and Role Specialist Nation
03024.
This concept of the use of Lead Nation (LN) and Role Specialist
Nation (RSN) for logistics functions has its benefits and constraints, considering
the RCs/TCCs’ position both in the lead role and as recipients of services
provided by other Regions/TCCs. These two processes for the delivery of
multinational logistics may have similar implications both for the user and the
contributing elements. The fundamental differences between the two
multinational concepts are:
a.
Lead Region/Nation. A Lead Nation for Logistic Support
assumes overall responsibility for co-ordinating and/or providing an
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agreed spectrum of logistic support for all or part of a multinational force,
including headquarters, within a defined geographical area. This
responsibility may also include procurement of goods and services.
Compensation and/or reimbursement will then be subject to agreements
between the parties involved. One nation covers an agreed range of
logistic responsibilities on behalf of another/others.
b.
Role Specialist Region/Nation. One nation assumes the
responsibility for providing or procuring a particular class of supply or
service for all or part of the multinational force. A Role Specialist Nation’s
responsibilities include the provision of assets needed to deliver the
supply or service. Compensation and/or reimbursement will then be
subject to agreement between the parties involved. One nation assumes
responsibility for provision of one service on behalf of most or all of the
others. A RSN may be expected to supply all assets.
03025.
Bilateral Arrangements Framework. The framework for this
mode of multinational support is based upon a set of bilateral arrangements
between the LN or RSN and the assisted/supported nations. These need to
include appropriate provisions on levels of service expected and methods of
mission in terms of Standard Operating Procedures. Commodities under
consideration are likely to be limited to:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
Fresh Rations.
Water (bulk and bottled).
Fuel and Lubricants.
Port and APOD Support.
Ammunition. Only where there is weapon compatibility.
Maintenance and Recovery. Subject to standardisation limitations.
Transport.
Provost. National discipline codes apply.
Bath and Laundry.
Printing.
Postal. Subject to National security regulations.
Electrical power.
Waste and Sewage Disposal.
Medical support, including medevac and certain medical supplies.
03026.
As a mission progresses it should be possible to streamline the
logistics element even further, particularly as a conflict or peace support mission
is down-scaled during a return to normality, or where a steady state in logistics
support is achieved.
03027.
Command Relationship. Within ASF missions, the LR/LN or
RSN, on assuming responsibility for agreed services, will normally answer to the
ASFJTFC for provision of those services through the ASFJLC HQ. The
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Regional/National Support Element (RSE) and the National Contingent
Commander (NCC) must always be in a position to maintain suitable command
and control of logistic assets, as decided prior to the mission, based either on
formal arrangements or agreements.
03028.
Lead Region/Nation and Role Specialist Region/Nation Planning
Factors. Annex ** contains planning factors for LN/RSN planning.
Multinational
Integrated
Logistic
Units
and
Multinational Integrated Medical Units. A Multinational Integrated
03029.
Logistic Units (MILU) or Multinational Integrated Medical Units (MIMU) may be
formed when one or more nations agree to provide logistic support to a
multinational Force under the mission control (OPCON) of the ASF Joint Force
Commander at Theatre or Component level. For optimum functionality the MILU
(or MIMU) should be built round the C2, Communications & Information Systems
and administration structure of a Lead Nation unit. Other Nations, as agreed
during Force Generation, would contribute assets at not less than sub-unit
strength (See the ORBAT of Regional Brigades where this has been factored).
Whilst retaining Full and Mission Command (OPCOM) of their contributions,
TCCs provide the ASFJTFC with the means to prioritise and effect logistic tasks
in direct support of his design rather than for the TCCs sole benefit. This is most
appropriate where there are shortfalls of capability within the force. Within the
framework of the Force Generation process, MILU/MIMU negotiations are likely
to be conducted by regional or national representatives in a MILU Co-ordination
Group (MCG).
03030.
Integrated Units. From a national perspective, MILU may
provide desirable assets from multinational sources which are not normally
available within a single TCC’s inventory. However it should not be anticipated
that they will be available for national benefit. As control is exercised by or on
behalf of the ASF Joint Force Commander, assets may be considered additional
to a TCC requirement. Nations can be reluctant to divulge such logistic
information of capability, so a minimum necessary exchange of information would
be necessary during Force Generation. Detailed, realistic tactical level planning
should be undertaken before entrusting support to a MILU/MIMU. However,
experience and usage can improve and refine the concept, increasing the
potential for future economy of effort.
Contracting on the International Market. Where feasible, contracting of
support services should be carried out through a single prime contractor, making
use of CON LOG arrangements as described previously. Where such prior
arrangements do not exist or are deemed inappropriate, direct contracting in
theatre, or from a nearby source, may be required. Whilst this may be an
inevitable planning requirement to take advantage of opportunities or cover
unforeseen gaps early in a deployment, probably during a RSOI phase at PODs
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or the FAA, the adverse potential for proliferation of contracts should be
recognised and limited at the earliest reasonable opportunity.
UN, UN Agency and Non Governmental Organisation
Influences in an Mission Area. However active a role the UN has in a
03031.
mission, it is likely to have an impact on mission logistics. The UN, UN Agencies
and Non Governmental Organisations (NGO) will be working in the MA with
different priorities to those of the ASF deployed Force, but their presence has
implications for the military logistician. Whilst detailed mission co-ordination by
the military force may be best conducted by J3 (CIMIC) staff, these organisations
may provide a useful knowledge base for logistic issues, particularly where
NGOs have been operating for some time prior to the military deployment. Where
a UN Joint Logistic Centre exists to provide a focus for NGO and Agencies’
missions, informal contact is likely to be mutually advantageous.
LOGISTICS ASSETS IN MULTINATIONAL MISSIONS
03032.
It is generally accepted that force elements for multinational
missions are allocated (subject to Transfer of Authority) to a Joint Force
Commander by Troop Contributing Countries (TCCs). However logistic assets
are often transferred by TCCs to a multinational commander at more restrictive
levels of command authority than combat forces (or not at all), due to differences
in national priorities, support structures and logistic capabilities. A TCC will often
wish to support its own combat forces with its own logistic assets and the level of
sustainability may vary between nations. In some cases there are national legal
requirements to do so. Logistic assets are therefore normally assigned, in the
first instance, to a National Support Element (NSE), where they are controlled
nationally. Structures, such as the Regional Support Element (RSE) and ASF
Logistics Support Group (ASFLSG) may be set up for the co-ordination of the
multinational effort. However, unless there is firm control during the force
generation process, there is a danger that logistic functions will be duplicated
amongst nations. This inevitably leads, collectively, to disproportionately large
logistic force structures compared with the multinational combat forces.
03033.
Command Authority. Although Mission Control (OPCON) will
often be the preferred command state, the ASF commander will need at least
Co-ordinating Authority (via the NSE) over logistic assets supporting forces
allocated to his command. In multinational missions the principles of co-mission
and coordination are as relevant to forces deployed by participating nations. In
general, although riskier from a national perspective, the higher the level of
Command and Control that is transferred with the logistic capability, the more
effective the assets will be to the joint force. As procedures and equipment
become standardised amongst AU and REC nations there will be increased
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scope for allocation of logistic assets to the force commander. Bilateral or
multilateral arrangements can also facilitate this process.
03034.
Redistribution. Where higher levels of control are allocated to
the multinational commander, these may include authority to redistribute logistic
units and material between different CRs/TCCs’ forces. Redistribution is a logistic
measure, carried out for a specific objective, within a finite timeframe, and in
response to a critical mission need, whilst not jeopardising the donor nation. The
ability to transfer assets within a multinational grouping offers the mission
commander greater flexibility, but will require much co-ordination, prior comission and the agreement of the contributing nations. Stocks and materiel
redistributed during a mission will require replacement or recompense; the
mechanism for this must be agreed before the authority to redistribute is given.
03035.
Standardisation. Poor standardisation between RCs/TCCs (in
terms of compatibility, interoperability, interchangeability or commonality) can be
an inhibitor to multinational logistics. In particular it will limit the areas of
commonality - probably to major bulk commodities and certain services. Of more
importance, however, is the acceptance and use of common procedures once
they are sufficiently developed and practised in training.
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Annex A to
Chapter 3
The Four �D’ s
03036.
In order to predict and deliver the sustainability that a commander
needs, the logistician must combine (in the thought process) the principles of
logistics covered above with the application of logistic planning tools. To predict
that requirement four fundamental issues have to be addressed, and as
applicable to men as to material. These are known as the four `Ds`:
a.
Destination: Determines the nature of the requirement
b.
Demand: Determines the magnitude of the requirement
c.
Distance: Determines the shape of the Line Of Communication
(LOC)
d.
Duration:
Dictates the necessary robustness and need for
investment in the logistics support requirement
03037.
Whether carrying out a snap assessment for a small logistic task or
producing the logistic input to a full mission estimate, consideration of these
headings, and their influence on each other, will facilitate the thought processes.
03038.
Destination. The nature of the requirement. Destination focuses on
the overall environment in which the mission is to take place. The environment
determines the conditions for the pattern of wear and tear on equipment, and the
physiological demands on personnel. The destination will help to define the
strategic LOC, based on the knowledge of resources available for exploitation in
the MA or nearby. Issues ranging from language, climate and culture to austerity
of infrastructure or attitudes of Host Nation authorities provide their own specific
deductions or influence on the deductions of the other Ds.
03039.
Distance. Distance and accessibility factors are fundamental to
force projection and, following advice of the movement staffs, will drive not simply
the logistic ORBAT, but also that of the whole force and, based on sustainability,
the nature of the campaign. Distance determines the shape of the Line of
Communication. Logistically, all LOC distances at the strategic, mission and
tactical levels need to be considered; furthermore, potential LOC routes should
be assessed before, during and after the mission. The length (expressed both in
time and distance), capacity and topography of the LOC will determine the size,
shape, structure and balance of logistic resources committed to it. It will also
determine the time in transit and the requirement for forward mounting bases
(FMB) or intermediate staging bases prior to arrival in the Forward Assembly
Areas (FAA). Strategic movement resources, timing, speed of deployment and
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reaction, execution of subsequent mission plans and risk will be critically
influenced by the distance to, and within, the MA.
03040.
Demand. Demand determines the magnitude of the requirement. It
is not simply the aggregate consumption of material or usage of medical facilities
and other services, but also the pattern, rate of change and variability across the
TCCs. Demand stems directly from the concept of missions, including postconflict activity, and is the sum of 3 elements:
a.
Steady State. The steady state represents daily maintenance
needs that have little variation, for example the consumption of rations or
routine use of services. Determined easily and accurately from historic
records, it is the easiest to pre-plan.
b.
Cyclical. Cyclical demand represents additional demand over and
above the steady state, caused for example by training activities, or
seasonal conditions. It tends to be predictable, with good management
enabling economic use of assets. Specialist functions’ cyclic activity will
often be at different speeds and independent of other functions (demands
on training as opposed to welfare facilities, for example).
c.
Surge. Surge demand is driven by the pattern of missions. It
creates the greatest logistic problems because it is least easy to predict
and most susceptible to variation, for example, in response to an
adversary’s activity. There will be peaks and troughs and differing rates of
demand will often occur with little warning time. It is surge demand that will
stretch the logistic organisation. It demands a highly responsive system
either by having immediate reserves, rapid delivery means, or the ability to
switch priorities quickly. Assets will sometimes need to be surged into the
MA, or to the critical area, to meet it. By its nature surge cannot be
maintained indefinitely and time for recuperation will be needed.
03041.
Duration. Duration dictates the necessary robustness and need for
investment in the support requirement. The length of missions and rate of
demand will determine the overall volume of material and concentration of
support. It will set the endurance requirements and the need to rotate or replace
equipment and men. The commander will need to assess the risks involved in a
short, sharp, lightly supported mission against those of a fully resourced, more
deliberate, and possibly better prepared mission that takes a longer period to
mount. Duration also determines available preparation time and the capacity for
flexibility.
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ANNEX B TO
CHAPTER 3
AN EXAMPLE OUTLINE ESTIMATE OF THE LOGISTIC SUPPORT REQUIRED BY AN ARMOURED DIV TO SEIZE OBJ
EMERALD
Refs:
A.
B. Op03197.
Maps
TIME ZONE USED THROUGHOUT ZULU.
1. WHAT IS THE INTENTION OF THE
HIGHER COMMANDER AND WHAT IS MY
ROLE IN THE OVERALL PLAN?
a. My Comd’s mission is to adv and seize
Obj EMERALD in order to enable the
remainder
of the Corps to break-out and destroy the
enemy
2nd
echelon.
I.
1. What future ops are likely? Main options
include.
a. Sp to hasty def on capture of obj.
b. Continue the adv.
b. My role is to provide log sp during this op
and ensure log sp for subsequent ops
2. Some rehabilitation may be required
2. WHAT AM I REQUIRED TO DO, OR 3. Ammo and fuel replen will be in high
demand.
WHAT
TASKS MUST I COMPLETE IN ORDER TO
CARRY
OUT
THE
MISSION?
4. DSAs to hold sufficient stocks prior to 3.
Staff
check
C
sups
requirements.
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Discuss
with
2. Establishment resup priorr’es
3. Staff chek C sups requirements
DCOS.
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H hour with DPs establishment.
a. Specified Task: To sustain and provide log
sp to An armoured Div during the op to seize
Obj EMERALD
b.
Implied
Tasks.
(1) Maintain log sp during adv and attack.
(2) Estb new DSA near Obj EMERALD
5. 1st line to be filly replen prior to crossing
LD. Establishment ACPs in sp of arty fire plan.
EMERALD.
units to be enhanced with addi
lift
and
cstb
fwd
dumps.
7. DSAs may need to move. Be prepared
to estb alt DSA and poss inload direct from
CSSG.
critical areas.
(4) Be prepared to sp subsequent ops.
8. Liaise with Log Sp CSSG and ideut
3. FREEDOMS AND CONSTRAINTS?
9.
AddI
resources
10.
Identify
requirement
rehabi1itaton
materiel to fwd areas.
(3) Provide log sp to rehabilitation ops
on Obj
a. Time. Time now is 141000; H hour not
before
121000.
b. Space. No fwd move until LD crossed. Estb
of bvd DSA can only be achieved once
ground
secured.
c.
Other
Assistance.
(1) Log sp must be maintained during move of
DSA.
6.
CS
5.
Ident
LofCs.
6.
Lift
reqs.
7.
Ident
rhds,
XPs
and
staff
check
DSA
inload
reqs.
8.
3rd
line
inload
direct
to
DSA.
Loop
distances;
poss
use
of
9.
Coord
with
CSSG.
Carry
out
required. particularly
lift
and
inload 10. Discuss with DCOS.
11. 48 hours available. It will take up to
24 hours to preposition loads and
replen Div prior to H hour. Therefore,
24 hours for planning. I must give my
orders by 141800; Estimate must be by
l4123O.
12. Routes are ltd. I may require
dedicated MSR to new DSA for sp to
reconstitution missions. Choke points
to be ident. AD cover may be required
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Log
SH.
Sp
staff
checks
requirements.
11.
Issue
warning
order.
12. Warn staff off for detailed
staff
check
and
orders.
13. Liaise with G3 and bid for
MSR
and
AD
cover.
14. Liaise with Log Sp CSSG
ref
inload
of
new
DSA.
15. 3rd line to through-run to
new DSA. Estb XPs and BFIs.
16. Warn DCOS and liaise with
ASF RESTRICTED
for
new
DSA. Comd Log Sp CSSG. (2)
13. Cannot close both DSAs, only one.
Thus heavy reliance on one DSA
during op.
Notes:
1. In determining the timings for orders it is useful to follow the 113:213 rule. If 4 hrs is the total time available and it is estimated that 24 hrs is
required to undertake the task, the remaining time (in this case 24 hrs) is apportioned against the 1/3:213 rule. In this case, the necessary staff
action
must
be
completed
within
8
his.
2. Comd CSSG will be in close liaison with Div DCOS and will have full insight into Div Comd future intentions, especially as Comd CSSG will
have
considered
the
superior
commander’s
intentions when conducting mission analysis.
(a)1
(2)
(b)
No
HN
assistance
available
,
(3)
Sp
to
4. CHANGES TO THE
There are no changes.
friendly
TACTICAL
after
X
(c)
LD.
14. Requirement may exist for rft from
line
to
estb
new
DSA. 17. Catty out staff check.
forces. 3rd
reqs/capability. 18. Liaise with fmn log sp staff.
SITUATION? Cfm
15. My mission has not changed.
CONFIRM
MISSION
To provide logistic support to I (UK) Armd Div during the advance to capwre Objective EMERALD and be prepared to support subsequent
missions.
LOGISTIC
1.
2.
3.
SUPPORT
CONSTRAINTS
ON
THE
MISSION
CSS
constraint.
Units
have
time
to
prepare,
therefore
log
sp
is
not
a
Security of the MSRs and the requirement for AD cover for the new DSA need to be assessed.
A
dedicated
MSR
to
the
new
DSA
may
be
required
in
order
to
avoid
choke
points.
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4.
Additional
lift
may
be
required;
this
will
5. Extended distance to FSG may impact on ability to support future missions.
WHAT
GUIDANCE
DO
have
I
I.
Subsequent
2. Require priorities for rehabilitation of brigades on capture of objective.
PLANNING
to
come
NOW
from
3rd
line.
NEED?
missions.
GUIDANCE
1.
Conduct
staff
checks
for
the
divisional
advance
and
capture
of
the
objective.
2. Plan for the closure of one of the two DSAs and the establishment of a new DSA closer to the objective.
3. Coordinate with CSSG the inload of the new DSA and establishment of XPs.
1. DISTANCE. 25 km to LD and up to 17. Total distance to obj from present Me 19. Estb convoy refuelling points
conc areas is 95km.
70km in adv to contact. Frontage of 20km
well fwd and liaise with CSSG over
XPs.
a. C Sups/Materiel.
18. Usage will be heavy due to terrain and 20. Enhance 1st line lift and replen
attack factors.” Up to three FCUs may be bde, post action on or near obj.
(1) Fuel.
consumed by the time Obj EMERALD is
captured.
21. Confirms req to move DSA.
(2) Ammunition.
19. Distance has no impact on 22. Estb nature mix, i.e. HE/ilium.
(3)
Rations
and
Water. expenditure. However, extended loop to 23. UMS to be replen as soon as possible
(4) Materiel.
CSSG will affect resupply capabi1it
after obj taken, either on obj or in new
conc
areas.
2. DEMAND.
20. No impact.
24. Bde CS sqn to move with their
bdes.
a. CSups.
21. No specific impact except equipment 25. Estb of new DSA complete by?
failures may arise due to distance 26. Detailed staff checks on poss
(1) Arty Natures. Expenditure based on travelled.
rehabilitation bill and replen requirements.
phase of mission and activity eg:
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-Obstacle neutralisation: 100 rds per gun. 22. Total is 300 rds per gun:
-Attack:
200
rds
per
gun. At 120 guns, total is 36000 rds (2118
(2)
Small
Arms
Natures. pallet.s). Is within my lift capability. mcI 1st
(3) Fuel.
line
lift.
23. 1st line holdings are sufficient.
24. Bdes down to two FCU post action.
Note 3: Chapter 3 sets out the detail of factors that should be considered when calculating possible usage.
b. Materiel.
(1)
E&MAs/Gun
Barrels/Wits.
Unlikely to be in high demand until obj
captured.
(2) Defence Stores. Required after capture of
obj.
(3)
Gen
Stores/NBC
Clothing.
Unlikely to be required until conc areas
occupied.
(4) Refugees/PW. May well be an ongoing
problem.
25. Must be available to refurbish bdes in conc
areas
immediately
post
action.
26. Qty to be estb with Engr staff and accorded
high priority for lift. Must be available for
immediate issue on capture of objective.
27. Qty required is dependent upon
environment.
28. Likely increase in refugees /PWs creating
humanitarian problems, eg food, water.
29.
Unitstobeselfsufficientforupto30hours.
Provided all UMS fully loaded, no significant
problems
should
arise.
3. DURATION.
a.
Timings.
Confirm
with
DCOS.
(1)
Time
now
141000.
(2)
Time
required
to
move
to
LD
is
1
hour
(25km).
(3)
H
hour
ii
161000.
(4) Obj secure by H +30 hours.
30. Rehabilitation stocks ready by H + 30.
31. Notwithstanding future ops the Div will
require refurbishment on the obj or in its new
concentration areas. C sups will be in high
demand, especially arty and anti 1k natures.
All bdes IJMS will need to be up to five days
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27. Where poss, estb requirements to be held
fiwi on wheels/flat racks for issue to bdc CS
sqns
in
bde
BSGs.
28. Ident lift and assign lift. Hold requirement
on
wheels
in
fwd
areas.
29. Liaise with G5/HNS and local liaison with
G5 and civil authorities.
30. New DSA to be estb by H +24 and open by
H + 30.
31.
LSDs/Bde
CS
Sqn
to
move
with
their
respective
BGs/fmns.
32. Rehabilitation stocks assembled in
new DSA.
33. Rehabilitation pack to be issued to
CS
sqn
and
bc
in
BSGs.
34. Staff check detailed C sups and
stores requirements with Arty Log and Engr
branch.
35. Enhance fuel lift at 2nd line.
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4. SUBSEQUENT OPS/TASKS.
a.
Hold
on
b. Continue the advance?
the
5. EXTERNAL ASSISTANCE.
and battle damaged vehs and eqpts, mci gun
barrels,
replaced.
obj7
32. Engrs will require def stores and M&E for
any barrier/obstacle plan.
33. FSG at least 65 km to the rear at present and up to 150 km
once obj is taken.
a. 3rd Line.
b. HNS
34. Remains nil, but may change in view of poss refugee
problems. HNS infrastructure beyond LD likely to be nil.
c. Friendly Forces. Remainder of
Corps is
37.
35. Some assistance may be required especially as their
approach will be at least defeat enemy 2nd echelon. 100 km plus.
6.
ENEMY.
a. Threat To Rear Areas. Stay
behind parties may disrupt my MSRs
and the possibility exists of an
enemy deep op to disrupt important
of the Corps through EMERALD.
b. Air. Threat to MSR and DSA is
high; key pts likely to be targeted.
7. COMMAND AND CONTROL.
36. Poss move of FSG to shorten
. loop times. Discuss with DCOS and
liaise
with
Log
Sp
CSSG.
Estb
convoy
refuelling
pts.
38. Liaise with AD cell.
36. Manpower for rear area security will be short, therefore
deception and protection plan for hides and circuits will be
particularly important
37. Selection of DSA and unit to be in AD umbrella.
8. SUMMARY OF DEDUCTIONS.
a. I have sufficient time in which to provide log sp to this mission. However, I must ensure that units are self sufficient when they cross the LD.
b. CS will be required well forward and CS units will have to hold their stocks on wheels as the time from LD to secure on the obj is some 30 hours.
Bde will be replenished on the objective by their CS sqns.
c. One of my two DSAs will have to close in order to facilitate easier resup fwd and shortening of ioops from BSG to my fwd DSA. This will involve
coordinated close down and inload of new DSA. I may require additional lilt to do this and 3rd line transport will have to through-run to the new DSA,
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or establish XPs well forward. I will need to identitS’ suitable railbeads as use of rail will ease my lift problems.
d. If DSA moves, the Comd CSSG may have to consider move of the FSG. This may entail having to enhance my 2nd line holdings due to the
disruption
that
such
a
move
will
cause.
e. Bdc will require rehabilitation once objective is secure. Therefore the rehabilitation flocks will be required by the CS sqn at H + 30. This will
mean that the stocks will have to be drawn up in the new DSA and be available for immediate issue.
f.
I
may
have
to
provide
assistance
to
follow-on
forces,
particularly
fuel.
9. ASSESSMENT OF TASKS. From the above assessment, particularly column (c ) of the estimate, it will be possible to assess the tasks that may
have to be undertaken. Confirmation of the specific requirements will be determined during the various staff checks being carried out. Some
examples
are
listed
below.
The
list
is
not
exhaustive:
a.
GSReg.
(1)
Establish
ACPs
at
following
grids
(2)
Recce
new
DSA.
identii’
circuits,
routes,
facilities,
railheads.
(3)
Establish
3rd
line
XPs.
(4)
Inload
rehabilitation
stocks
ready
for
move
forward
to
BSGs.
(5) Ensure CS units fully inloaded, establish convoy refuelling points in fwd area for follow-on forces; carry def stores on wheels, and ensure
sufficiency
of
ammo
natures
available
for
replenishment
of
dlv
arty.
b.
CS’
Regts.
(1) Bde CS sqns to move with parent formations and provide log sp via deployment of LSDs. Units to hold max stocks on wheels.
(2)
Be
prepared
to
deploy
DPs
as
required
for
dlv
tps.
(3)
Issue
rehabilitation
stocks
and
rehabilitate
bde
on
obj
with
all
commodities.
10. COURSES OF ACTION AND SELECTION OF OUTLINE PLAN. Determination of the Courses of Action (COA), cannot be achieved in
isolation of the estimate undertaken by the other CSS commanders (Comd Med and Comd ES), as their plans or options will impinge to a degree
on my own plans. For instance, Comd Med may not be able to establish medical facilities well forward. It is obviously in DCOS interest to ensure
that a balanced mission is achieved within the DSG. The interests of Arty Log and Engrs will also have to be taken into account. Inevitably there
will
always
be
more
than
one
option
available.
For
instance:
a. Course One. (Centred on maximum support to forward bdes, late move of DSAs (noting that DSG may well be commanded by RHQ GS regt),
leading
to
decentralised
control
and
extended
LofC
between
1st
and
2nd
line).
(1) Provide support to bdes on three routes well forward with CS sqns and their bdes. LSDs to have enhanced fuel capability.
(2)
Enhance
artillery
lift
capability
and
estb
ACPs
well
forward.
(3) Establish reserve of C sups on wheels in GS regt to sp CS sqas.
(4) Move DSA only when Obj EMERALD is secure.
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(5)
Advantages:
(a)
Log
sp
immediately
available
for
exploitation
or
unexpected
tasks.
(b)
Continued
support
to
bdes
guaranteed.
(c)
Easier
movement
in
rear
areas.
(6)
Disadvantages:
(a)
Units
widely
spread,
and
replen
made
difficult
over
long
loops.
(b)
Control
difficult,
reaction
times
slower.
b.
Course
Two.
(Based
on
centralised
control
and
early
move
of
DSA
forward).
(1) Provide limited support to each bde on each route well forward, two LSDs per bde with balance of 2nd line CS moving on a central route.
(2)
Carry
full
arty
needs
on
wheels.
(3)
Estb
new
DSA
75km
forward
with
DSG
moving
with
Div.
(4)
Advantages:
(a)
Assets
easily
concentrated
to
support
ME
and
speedier
response
times.
(b)
Control
much
easier.
(5)
Disadvantages:
(a)
Continuity
of
support
difficult
to
maintain,
especially
whilst
moving.
(b) Significant additional 3rd line lift requirements to catty 2nd line arty natures. Will be aggravated by move of DSA and extended distance to
FSG.
May
entail
move
of
FSG
as
well.
c. Course Three. Combination of Courses One and Two with CS sqn moving with bdes and new DSA being established forward at H + 30.
11.
SELECTION
OF
BEST
COURSE.
I will select Course Three because it will provide maximum support to the bdes and enable me to establish a new DSA forward at H + 30. This will
place me in a better position to rehabilitate the Division in its new concentration area and assist me in supporting subsequent missions. I will use
3rd
line
lift
to
create
additional
log
sp
for
the
ME
if
required.
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ANNEX C TO
CHAPTER 3
EXAMPLE SUSTAINABILITY STATEMENT
(AT THE STRATEGIC LEVEL)
Shown below is the Sustainability Statement used by LAND COMMAND for
Mission Resolute – the UK’s involvement in the NATO Implementation Force
(IFOR) in Bosnia in 1995-1996. For this particular mission, human (principally GI)
issues were referred to separately. The development of Sustainability Statement
is dynamic, and as experience of their use in construction grows further evolution
occur.
“OP RESOLUTE – LAND SUSTAINABILITY STATEMENT”
1.
General Sustainability. Sustainability parameters are given in the
HQARRC SUPLAN 60105. These are used for planning guidance. However, the
specific national logistic planning concept and sustainability requirements, as
given in this directive, are to be applied. Except where indicated the general level
of sustainability to be achieved is 30 Days of Supplies (DOS) within theatre.
2.
Ration.
Contracts for fresh rations are to be established within
theatre as early as possible. The transitional situation for the hand over of
existing fresh ration contracts, as IFOR deploys into theatre, is likely to be
complex. In order to ensure a smooth and continual supply of fresh rations, the
facilities on board the RFA ship in Split should be utilized for the storage of
reserve of fresh and dry rations, with supply through NAAF, if appropriate.
Contracts are to be established for “reefers” (refrigerated units) to enable units to
hold fresh rations in their location. A reserve of 15 days ORP are to be held
within theatre ready for use in support of missions.
3.
Water.
Fresh water sources are to be established in theatre at the
earliest opportunity and reserve of 5 days is to be held in bulk, with the
appropriate adjustment during the summer months.
4.
POL. Contracts for the supply of POL are to be established at the earliest
opportunity within theatre. A reserve of 15 days stock is to be held in bulk.
5.
Ammunition.
18 days of ammunition (at SPG rates) are to be held
available within theatre. Of this 8 days of ammunition should be held within the
UK Sector and the balance held by the NSE, afloat if possible, available for rapid
deployment. A further 12 days (the balance of a total of 30 days) is to be
available, with out load plans for deployment from within the UK and Germany.
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6.
Equipment. Certain equipment is assessed to be particularly decisive for
the successful achievement of the mission. Priority should be given to this
equipment (listed below) for repair. Anticipated equipment utilization levels are
shown below. National sustainability planning has been based on these
parameters. The Joint Comd is to advise MOD should practical experience
indicate that significantly different activity levels, to those given and anticipated,
are required to support the mission.
7.
Supply.
In general, a minimum of 30 days of technical spares and
material (at mission levels) are to be held in theatre. A distribution system for
urgent and routine spares and supplies is to be established by HQ STC, both by
land and air as appropriate. A mechanism for the monitoring of the performance
of the supply chain to be established based on clearly defined target “pipe line”
times and demand priorities. Particularly attention is to be paid to the distribution
of high priority items to ensure that the appropriate priority is applied at all stages
in the distribution chain.
8.
Accommodation. A UK UOR for protected accommodation facilities is
being staffed. Such accommodation may not be available in the theatre within 2
months of the contract being let. You should therefore plan on deploying units
into field conditions for up to 3 months.
9.
Engineer Resources.
Where possible, all engineer resources are to
be procured in theatre, through the NATO contracting arrangements. Should this
prove not to be possible, then steps should be taken to procure the resources
through the MLB in Italy or the UK.
10.
Clothing.
Sufficient special cold weather clothing and equipment has
been procured for issue to all UK forces deployed. Nevertheless, a clear policy
directive is to be issued to cover the priority and criteria for issue of this special
clothing and equipment. The aim of this policy is to ensure that those individuals
with the greatest need receive it first and that only those with a mission
requirement receive it. Further UMR action should be initiated in due course as
requested for other special clothing and equipment (e.g. hot weather). A policy
directive is also to be issued for the recovery of this clothing and equipment in
order that it can be inspected, cleaned and taken to account as a Special
Purpose War Reserve (SPWR) for potential use in other subsequent missions.
SUSTAINABILITY PLANNING PARAMETERS
11.
Environment.
The terrain is expected to be predominantly hilly, with
a seasonal temperature range of +35 to -30 C. Forces and equipment should be
prepared for survival at temperatures below –30 C during winter months.
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12.
Duration and Activity Level.
The mission is expected to last for no
longer than 12 months. The roulement of personnel and some equipment as
considered necessary; should be planned to occur after 6 months. This may be
achieved in some cases by unit roulement, but in others this will need to be
achieved through an individual trickle changeover. The profile of vehicle and
equipment activity is expected to be relatively high during the 30 days to a
relatively consistent level subsequently.
13.
Equipment.
a.
Mission Essential Equipment. The following are to be considered as
mission essential equipment and plans made to ensure that priority repair
support is provided for them” (Not in priority order).
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)
SATCOM
Ptarmigan
CIS Systems (the by JHQ)
Helicopters
Engineer Plant & Bridging Equipment.
Infantry Fighting Vehicles
Main Battle Tanks.
Recovery Vehicles
Artillery Pieces.
STA eg Cymbeline, MSTAR and HALO.
AD Systems.
Bulk Fuel Carrying Vehicles.
DROPS.
Tk Tptrs.
Field Mechanical Handling Equipment.
b.
Availability. The minimum equipment availability targets are as
follows:
(1)
Mission Essential Equipment. 80% (Helicopters 75%).
(2)
Remainder. 70%.
c.
Utilisation. The profile of activity is expected to be relatively high
during the first 30 days (High: Routine Days Ratio of 9:21). This level is
then expected to reduce progressively during the next 30 days (Ratio of
6:24) and thereafter assuming a consistent level throughout the
subsequent months (Ratio 3:27). The average utilisation over the 12month deployment period is anticipated to be as follows: (Allowances for
surges of high activity levels will be required).
(1)
A Vehicles.
(a) IFV - 30 Km/Day.
(b) MBT - 15 Km/Day.
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(c) Fighting Systems - 2.5 Hours/Day.
(d) SP Arty - 5 Km/Day.
(e) Others - 30 Km/Day.
(2)
B Vehicles.
(a) Logistic Task Vehicles - 100 Km/Day.
(b) Others - 10 Km/Day.
(3)
Generators and Static Equipment. 19 Hours/Day.
(4)
Engineer Plant. 14 Hours/Day.
(5)
Helicopters.
(a) Army. 2.5 Hours/Day (Surge of up to 6 Hours/Day for up
to 4
Days).
(b) RAF. In accordance with SD98 rates.
a.
Loop Time. Planning for Engine and Major Assemblies (E&MA) is
based around a Loop Time of 14 days from, to and within theatre.
14.
Vehicle and Equipment Attrition. Equipment and vehicles in particular
are likely to suffer from attrition as a result of the local conditions and RTA. A
pool of the vehicles and equipment that are considered to be most vulnerable to
such attrition is to be established in theatre and arrangements made for the
recovery of damaged equipment to the UK.
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CHAPTER 4
DEPLOYMENT AND EMPLOYMENT
Pre-Deployment Activities
0401. The African Standby Force is intended for rapid response to conflicts or
crises. The ultimate aim is for the ASF to achieve preventive deployment for the
peaceful resolution or rapid termination of conflicts. The means and the method
of mounting a deployment are thus central to the speed of execution. Logistic
factors within the deployment plan condition what is possible and thus the
courses of action that are feasible. The planning and estimate process, as
described above, provides the background for pre-deployment activities, which
include:
a.
Structuring the force package and their preparation for committal to
missions.
b.
Administrative preparation of personnel includes the issue of
special clothing, fitness screening and the administering of inoculations
and prophylactic drugs
c.
Obtaining strategic sea and airlift for the force and their support
requirements.
d.
Establishing the Lines of Communication (LOC).
e.
Structuring initial support packages and the required level of
sustainment for both initial and full operating capability.
f.
Establishing budgetary structures and the early deployment of CON
LOG or other contracts.
g.
Negotiating Diplomatic Clearance with any nation having physical
interests in the deployment for overflight and/or landing.
h.
Identifying the command and command support systems known as
the Mounting Headquarters which prepares the Detailed Deployment Plan
(DDP).
Deployment
0402. Deployment includes mounting, the strategic deployment and the
Reception, Staging, Onward Movement and Integration (RSOI) of forces intheatre, up to the delivery of troops, equipment and stocks to the MA, and their
preparation for missions. Mounting is defined as �all preparations made in areas
designated for the purpose, in anticipation of a mission. It includes the assembly
in the mounting area, preparation and maintenance within the mounting area,
movement to loading points, and subsequent embarkation into ships, craft or
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aircraft if applicable’.
This definition would be equally applicable to the
expeditionary nature of the ASF. The diagram below explains the mounting
process through to the operational area.
ASF Logistic Planning Sequence – Mounting to Operations
Deployment Process
Mounting
Reception & Onward
Movement
Employment of
Forces in theatre
Contingency
Planning
Operations
0403. Mounting Headquarters. Mounting headquarters releases the ASFJTFC
and his staff to concentrate on activities in the MA and preparation for missions.
It has a vital co-ordination function to perform and must be formed at a
sufficiently high level of command to be able to deal with a complex mix of
civilian and military infrastructure. It co-ordinates air, sea and land movement into
the MA to match reception capacity and the ASFJTFC’s Desired Order of Arrival
(DOA) of men and material. Because it is important that the mounting
commander works hand in hand with the mission commander the overall coordination interface is at the HQ of the Mandating Authority, is specifically
focussed on deployment, and keeps the ASFJTFC up to date with the build up in
theatre. Keeping accurate track of this flow of forces and key equipment is
essential to successfully amending the DOA in response to unfolding events and
changing requirements as articulated through the ASFJTFHQ.
0404. Out-loading Mission Stocks (Mission Reserves). Sustainment stocks
will normally be deployed to a Forward Assembly Area (FAA) within the MA,
keeping enough regeneration material in Strategic Regional Logistics Bases.
Equipment and stock have to be prepared for movement and possibly for the
local climatic, topographic and mission conditions. Pending manufacture of new
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stocks, the initial out-loading will utilise Mission Stocks which fall into 2
categories:
a.
Special Purpose Mission Stocks. Special Purpose Mission
Stocks (SPOS) consist of preconfigured or pre-packed stocks to meet high
readiness requirements for the purposes of regeneration or sustainment of
a force. The SPOS will be located in depots within the Strategic Regional
Logistics Bases, with day-to-day management being exercised by an
appointed ASF Rear Area Commander (ASFRAC). Where capacity to
procure within the continent is lacking, some stock may be sourced and
located overseas. SPOS is earmarked to meet particular mission
contingencies. Ammunition and rations are not pre-packed because of
peacetime storage constraints. Double-earmarking stocks creates a
regeneration requirement when they are committed to an mission.
General Purpose. General Purpose Mission Stocks (GPOS) includes other
liabilities such as unit and task-specific GPOS. The availability of GPOS is
calculated item by item, tempered by affordability, the planned Readiness and
Preparation Time (RPT) available and the lead-time required to procure or by
industry to manufacture new stock.
0405. Desired Order of Arrival (DOA). The DOA determines the sequence and
loading patterns of departure and is fixed by the ASFJTFHQ logistic Staff input.
The critical path, or sequence, must be identified early on to ensure that arrival in
the MA meets the ASFJTFC’s intent. The DOA must take account of the
requirement for training and mission preparation. In order to support the RSOI
task it may be necessary to deploy logistic resources (enabling assets) to
facilitate �theatre activation’. This deployment must occur in advance of the RSOI
task. The desired posture of forces on arrival in theatre must be clearly defined
as this will also affect the way cargo is stowed.
0406. Movement Co-ordination Centres. Establishing movement priorities is
essential and the commander requires an effective support organisation to coordinate activity and produce a coherent plan in accordance with the DOA. The
formation of Movement Co-ordination Centres (MCCs), both in the MA and
outside it is essential to smooth the flow through choke points and maximise
route capacities and asset visibility.
0407. Passage of Information. The key to a smooth deployment, particularly
the RSOI, is the availability of accurate information regarding departures, delays,
rerouting and arrivals. Technology exists to ensure that freight, equipment and
personnel are tracked during the deployment. Knowledge of their identity and
arrival can precipitate their Readiness in Theatre (RIT) and considerably ease
the burden on the reception organisation which is unlikely to be resource rich.
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0408. Protection. Deployment will most certainly have Force Protection
requirements. The control of this may be delegated to a designated rear mission
commander, possibly the ASF Joint Force Logistics Commander (ASFJFLC),
dependent upon the DOA. Protection areas must include the initial
disembarkation areas, ensuring that the force is able to launch from a secure
platform and one which maintains OPSEC. Force Protection doctrine needs to be
given weight appropriate to the high vulnerability of a force in a state of transition.
The need for Security Engineering to enhance existing facilities should be
considered.
0409. Flexibility. The deployment should be the natural, ordered result of the
execution of the deployment plan generated through prior reconnaissance and
estimate process. In reality inevitable changes in circumstances will require
considerable flexibility in the deployment plan. The components need to marry up
quickly with their stocks and equipment, and orientate themselves at the
destination, because it is vital that the POD is benign.
04010.
Hostile Deployment. Though the use of Forward Mounting Bases
(FMB) is not envisaged in the ASF Log Concept, it may be inevitable to establish
one. During a hostile deployment the ASFJFLC HQ is likely to remain at a FMB
until the MA bridgehead is sufficient to allow establishment of APOD/SPODs for
reception of follow-on forces. Even when ASFJFLC HQ and its units are
conventionally echeloned in this way it may be advantageous to utilise ASFJFLC
resources to launch combat components complete with their immediate stocks.
04011.
Reception, Staging, Onward Movement and Integration (RSOI).
RSOI is a joint mission, the completion of which is normally the formal RIT of a
force. The function then changes to one of Sustainment. The largely selfexplanatory terms refer to the capabilities of:
a.
Reception. This function involves preparation of facilities, initial
administration and briefing of personnel and their subsequent transport
away from the point of disembarkation. The flow of incoming resources
must be smooth and continuous so as not to obstruct subsequent arrivals.
It is primarily a movements and administration activity.
Staging. Staging is a life support function which at its simplest feeds and
accommodates arriving personnel in a benign or protected environment. More
importantly it also manages and organises large build-ups of troops, requiring
significant capacity to act as the deployed base from which forces may
reconfigure and train. Convoy Marshalling Areas afford the opportunity for
marrying up personnel with equipment and mission stocks. In Theatre
Reinforcements may be held in the staging base until required: where reservists
are involved, they may require additional equipping, and specialist training and
administration.
Onward Movement. Following Reception and Staging there is normally a
requirement for onward movement to mission locations. Movement staff require
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total visibility of the mission situation across all components, ensuring that the
individual (or equipment) is transported to his unit or operating base location,
along protected routes, with Convoy Support Centres and medical and control
points as necessary or using intra-theatre air lift. Movement may be to any of the
components, including to vessels at sea.
Integration. Integration refers primarily to the process of getting the troops
properly orientated to the mission theatre. This includes acclimatisation, training,
tactical configuration and situational awareness.
04012.
Enabling Capabilities. The requirement to co-ordinate RSOI, for
any but the smallest of missions, demands the skills and expertise of a separate
tactical level staff with resources to carry out the function. An ASFJFLC would
normally perform this task, with composite unit assets including joint movements
at operator and staff level (the Force Movement Control Centre), port and airfield
clearance units, engineers, infrastructure, labour, supply, transport, medical,
provost and administrative elements. The ASFJFLC and enabling assets should
therefore feature early in the DOA. Where facilities (such as the APOD and
SPOD) are significantly geographically dislocated, additional C2 structures may
be required.
04013.
Logistics Infrastructure. The establishment and maintenance of
appropriate A/R/SPODs, routes, staging areas, CIS, and an appropriate supply
and movements pipeline are necessary to move personnel and material forward
from the Ports of Disembarkation (POD) and should be a key feature of the
theatre infrastructure preparation. In addition to the use of in-theatre resources,
infrastructure can be obtained from Expeditionary Mission Infrastructure (EMI).
EMI consists of two levels of field infrastructure, as follows:
a.
Tier 1. A temporary standard of infrastructure, based on a modular
soft walled system (Tentage), that is designed to provide an early-entry
accommodation capability from as soon as it can be deployed up to the 12
months point of an mission, and exceptionally up to the 24 months point.
This capability is to be held as equipment packages in the Regional
Logistics Bases and will normally be constructed and maintained on
missions by military personnel. Tier 1 will consists of four capabilities,
which are:
Domestic Accommodation. There are currently two systems to provide troop
domestic accommodation. Transport limitations will normally dictate that this is
available for use after about 30 days:
Interim Expeditionary Mission Infrastructure. Interim mission infrastructure is
based on the improved tented camp which does not include power generation,
cooling and sewage disposal.
Temporary Deployable Accommodation. A system known as temporary
deployable accommodation will be in place, in addition to the interim mission
infrastructure. The initial package should provide accommodation for the entire
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Regional Brigade Task Organisation or its contribution to the specific ASF
mission.
Medical Level 3. A utility service enhancement to the current Med Level 3
facilities includes power generation and distribution, water storage and
distribution, environmental control and insulation, as well as improved shelters
and flooring, medical waste disposal and an oxygen production plant. A Role
Specialist Region/Nation may be tasked to provide this capability in the MA.
Staff Working Environment. A system of staff working infrastructure for the
ASFJTFC HQ and Regional Contingent/Sector HQs.
Deployable Accommodation. A system of deployable accommodation to enhance
the TCCs’ tented facilities.
b.
Tier 2. A semi-permanent standard of infrastructure to replace Tier
1 on longer deployments provided at the 12 months point. Tier 2 will be
predominately hard walled and be designed to remain in place for up to 5
years. This capability will be provided, constructed and maintained by a
contractor under the Contractorised Logistics (CONLOG) arrangements.
This arrangement releases facilities provided by the Host Nation back to
their peacetime usage.
04014.
Movement and Development in the Mission Area. Key factors
affecting onward road movement are capacity and conditions. The demand for
capacity will be greatest during the force deployment and routes need to be
carefully planned and controlled. Road conditions and geography are important
factors when routes and capabilities are limited or extreme environmental
conditions prevail. Conditions can be improved through better equipment or by
engineer missions or by careful balancing of demands for strategic and tactical
air transport. Both take time to procure and fit or construct. In addition, the use of
in-theatre routes and facilities by civilians must be accounted for. Liaison with the
civil authorities will be required to ensure freedom of movement and to de-conflict
military and civilian use. It is essential that single component capabilities and
priorities are subordinated to the joint requirement.
04015.
Integration. Integration activities should be accounted for in the
mission plan, with correct allocation of controlling staff and resources. Other than
to consolidate multinational logistic issues, it is not a usual ASFJFLC function,
although opportunities may exist to provide co-ordination of support and
resources.
04016.
Transfer of Authority. Transfer of Authority (TOA) may take place
for land forces once they depart the Port of Embarkation (POE) and, for maritime
and air forces, once they have arrived in the MA (however, timing of TOA is a
national prerogative).
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EMPLOYING THE FORCE
JOINT LOGISTICS TEMPO
The Planning Routine
04017.
The ASF Mission Headquarters (ASFMHQ) logistic planning must
remain integral to campaign planning, and the logistics staff are likely to be
represented in the key established planning meetings to ensure logistics planning
tempo. The aim of the meetings is to enable timely decisions to be made, orders
to be issued and appropriate actions directed. Although there may be variation
depending on the specific circumstances, the planning rhythm over a 24 hour
period is likely to include some or all of the following:
a.
b.
c.
d.
The ASFJTFC’s Brief - A situational brief.
Joint component commanders’ conference.
Joint mission planning group daily conference.
Joint sector/contingent commanders’ conference.
04018.
Where the ASFJTFC establishes a Joint Mission Planning Group
(JMPG), logistics staff will be required to consider the logistic implications of
planning options within the following timeframe:
a.
24-48 Hours Ahead. Logistics staff will be expected to confirm that
all necessary logistics arrangements are in place to support imminent
missions.
b.
48-72 Hours Ahead. Logistics will be expected to have carried out
all necessary staff checks and issued suitable warning orders to the
components, particularly ASFJFLC HQ, to ensure that future missions
have been allocated sufficient logistic support.
c.
Beyond 72 Hours Ahead. Mission plans (other than for specific
missions and normal sustainment) are primarily the responsibility of the
future plans staff with logistics expert input.
04019.
ASFJTF HQ Staff Contingency Planning. There are three themes
along which logistic contingency planning can be developed:
a.
Application of Foresight. Foresight is essential since the first and
most time consuming preparations for a mission are frequently
administrative and logistic. The ability to conduct contingency missions will
be considerably enhanced if resilience has been built into the
fundamentals of sustainability.
b.
Use of Reserves. The ASFJTFC needs a reserve to reinforce
success or as insurance against unexpected adverse events. As much as
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knowing when to commit logistic reserves (whether they are
reinforcements or additional mission stocks), commanders must consider,
phase-by-phase, what is logistically sufficient, including a reserve.
c.
Restoration of Mission Strength. Rehabilitation, the restoration of
mission strength following a mission, pre-planned or otherwise, is likely to
be a Decisive Point (DP) within the campaign plan.
04020.
ASFJFLC HQ. When the ASFJFLC HQ is deployed, it must, of
necessity, establish a tempo equivalent to that of the ASFJTFHQ and other
component HQs. This involves co-ordinated briefings, concurrent shift changes
and effective vertical and lateral liaison. Equally important are the rear links to the
Regional Strategic Logistics Base, and key planning staff at AU HQ. The
ASFJFLC HQ may also be required to control an assigned Area of Missions
(AO), including C2 of all force elements, as well as coordinating security and
force protection.
Current Missions
04021.
Whilst logistics staff’s work concentrates on forward planning and
the provision of logistic mission staff work to future tasks or contingency plans,
there is also a current mission’s task to monitor and control the Lines of
Communication (LOC) into and out of the Mission Area (MA). The routine
elements of this task may be delegated to the ASFJFLC, which maintains overall
executive command as the ASFJTFC remains ultimately responsible.
04022.
Strategic Re-supply. Demand for re-supply lift, especially airlift,
routinely exceeds capacity. The ongoing mission needs to ensure that the fastest
movement means are used to transport the highest priority requirements. The
majority of resupply is routine and requires the minimum C2 input consistent with
delivery of the mission requirement. Regional Logistics Bases and ASFJTFHQ
must actively manage only the real, mission critical priorities. Equally they must
have a sufficiently refined logistic picture to judge the effects of any particular
course of action and its effects at the tactical level.
04023.
Movements Focal Point. An appointed ASF Rear Mission
Commander (ASFRMC) in the Strategic Home Base will provide a single focus
for movements, and the point of contact for TCCs’ rear headquarters and other
logistics agencies. In particular, the ASFRMC will:
a.
Monitor the efficiency and effectiveness of resupply movement and,
if necessary, influence the overall flow between static bases and the MA. It
is important that liaison personnel are deployed to Air Ports of
Embarkation/Sea Ports of Embarkation, and that they are in a position to
interpret the Regional Base and ASFJTFC priorities.
b.
Track consignments in order of mission priority and, where
necessary, by Required Delivery Date (RDD). Implicit in this is redirection
of freight from air to surface means if RDD can still be met.
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c.
Anticipate movement requirements and capacity, including the
clearance of choke points.
d.
Refer conflicting priorities, which it cannot reconcile, to AU HQ ASF
Planning Staff. This process is mirrored in MA between ASFJFLC HQ and
the ASFJTFHQ for returning aircraft and ships.
04024.
Information/Awareness. In the reconciliation of priorities,
exchange of information is as important as the physical movement. While small
scale missions generate modest overall volumes for movement, highly accurate
information is required to ensure effective loading of each movement’s asset.
Visibility of movements’ information is key. It must be available to AU Log Staff,
Regional Log Bases, ASFJTFHQ and the ASFJFLC at all times to ensure that
priorities are being adhered to.
04025.
Key Decision Point. The key decision point in the delivery of
sustainment occurs when ASFROC/ASFJFLC HQ allocates movement
resources. This must accord with AU/Regional direction on prevailing priorities.
Where a conflict of priorities is brought to the attention of the AU/REC, the staff
need to:
a. Exceptionally and only when appropriate, challenge a demand’s stated
Required Delivery Date (RDD).
b. Be capable, with ASFROC, of tracking key consignments and reprioritising
consignments in transit.
c. Maintain an accurate �mission essential equipment’ list included within the
Sustainability Statement
d. Maintain a detailed overview of specific high-priority demands and other
movement priorities.
e. Identify clashes in single-TCC/Component priorities and broker solutions
acceptable to the ASFJTFC.
f.
In conjunction with ASFROC, anticipate movement requirements and
capacity, including the clearance of choke points, to ease the transport flow.
04026.
Prioritisation Procedure. All movement bids, however arising, are
compiled within ASFJFLC HQ, who are responsible for �pulling’ materiel into the
MA, and AU/Regional Depots who match demand liabilities to assets. Where
there is a conflict of interests between components within the MA, the ASFJFLC
seeks priority guidance from the ASFJTFHQ. Where no solution is achieved in
this way, and in the absence of direction to effect a solution, the ASFJTFHQ refer
the conflict to AU Planning Staff. ASFROC concurrently informs all interested
HQs, normally the TCCs, Regional Bases, ASFJTFHQ and ASFJFLC HQ. AU
Planning Staff consider the issues and any representations arising and
adjudicates direct to ASFROC who verify feasibility and issue a movement order.
Real Estate Management
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04027.
The ASFJTFC/ASFJFLCC will need to de-conflict routes and site
use in the Forward Assembly Area (FAA) between competing demands,
including the multinational dimension, and permit both the passage of other
components. ASFJFLC HQ Staff can co-ordinate on behalf of the
ASFJTFC/ASFJFLCC: routes, security, area defence, area allocation and
command arrangements including alternative HQs etc.
Medical Missions
04028.
The medical staff within ASFJTFHQ provide medical policy for the
MA, whilst the ASFJFLC co-ordinates its execution. Key constituents of the
medical plan include: maintenance of health and prevention of disease, treatment
and evacuation of the sick and wounded. There must be close co-mission with
ASFROC regarding the resupply of medical/health service support materiel.
Treatment must be progressive and continuous, from point of injury/sickness
through the echelons of care leading to definitive treatment and rehabilitation in
the respective Home Base, if necessary. The intensity and duration of the
mission will determine the need for contracting a Level 4 facility out of the
mission area. Sufficient medical resources will be made available to effect the
treatment policy in accordance with the estimates on casualties and �non-battle’
injuries given in the Sustainability Statement. A plan for medevac/casevac
procedures should be implemented in the medical support plan.
04029.
Duty of Care and Liability. The ASFJTFHQ must be aware of the
media and public expectation that the best quality of realistically affordable
medical care is achieved in the MA. Furthermore casualty tracking and
notification of casualty incidents take a high priority. Epidemiological health
surveillance to inform commanders of medical problems, as they arise, and
assist subsequent enquiries into association and causation of disease states
identified after a mission. An increasingly sensitive population indicates the need
to collate a comprehensive human information system, including morbidity
surveillance as well as detailed personal medical records.
Infrastructure
04030.
Facilities. The importance of sustaining infrastructure, both in the
support and deployed formation areas should not be underestimated. Logistic
and Security engineering support could involve design, construction,
modification, repair and maintenance of essential facilities and services, including
camps, depots, ports, railways, roads, bridges, airfields, fuel storage, electrical
power and water. Assets will be centralised in designated Military Works Area at
the onset of the mission. Dependent on the situation and the time available,
essential works will be carried out by military manpower or contractors working
under military direction. Military engineers, under the co-ordination of the Joint
Force Engineer, who has an overview of all Army engineer capability in the MA,
must be capable of improving the survivability of the force by tailoring works to
meet a developing threat or enhancing a return to peace. When conditions
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permit, infrastructure logisticians should make maximum use of locally available
resources, such as contractors and materials suppliers, and their facilities.
04031.
Planning and Control. Military Works staffs require appropriate
financial, contractual and possibly lands delegations to function effectively. Whilst
components and the ASFJFLC should manage the layout of the tactical level
logistic functions, ASFJTFHQ must maintain a detailed interest in the MA’s
infrastructure plan. Clear direction on priorities from ASFJTFHQ, normally set out
in the Infrastructure Management Policy Statement via dedicated engineer
mission staff in the ASFJFLC HQ, is essential, if effective procedures are to be
put in place, and time and resources are not to be wasted. Infrastructure normally
has the longest lead-time for provision and will often incorporate mission critical
elements, such as water and electrical power, fuel pipelines and waste and
sewage disposal. The provision and movement of infrastructure stores must be
controlled by the ASFJTFHQ.
Infrastructure Development Plan. Methods of providing infrastructure range
from the use of Expeditionary Deployed Accommodation to the building of more
permanent facilities using local labour. The priorities established for Infrastructure
Engineering within theatre will influence efforts in HNS negotiations, CIMIC,
public information missions, budgeting and contracting that will support the
Infrastructure Engineering effort. The funding of projects in the context of ASF
missions is a key issue that needs to be addressed very early in the planning
process. This especially applies when the considered infrastructure can support
the local population or administration.
ORGANISATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR LOGISTIC SUPPORT
Logistic Layout
04032.
Logistic Structures. There are a variety of options for constructing
logistic support structures. Organisation can be by function, geography or
echelon. By function, support will be aligned to the specific service provided with,
for example, equipment support provided at one location and medical at another.
A geographical support structure may group all services at convenient locations,
whilst an echelon system will provide different levels of service along a line of
support. Though the commander need not know the detail, knowledge of the key
characteristics will enable him to better assess logistic plans offered by his staff.
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04033.
Networks. The logistic network is normally comprised of a
number of nodes and connecting links. A node can be either a unit or sub-unit; it
may stock materiel or provide a functional service but it will have a
communications and command support function. It will act in an intelligent
capacity, either providing the service itself or directing action. Links can be via a
combination of air, sea, or land and will operate in both directions. The distance
between nodes will be affected by travel time, the availability of resources and
the capacity of the system. The pattern of nodes and links must be superimposed
on the overall campaign plan and there will be a requirement to protect and
service the network. Nodes and links are organised in one of two ways:
a.
Hub and Spoke. In a �hub and spoke’ network, peace support
missions can be undertaken around the support network. A number of
logistic groups arranged in a cluster of hubs provide localised support.
Such a layout has been suitable where missions are conducted in a highly
dispersed fashion, but within geographical constraints.
b.
Line of Communication. A more linear arrangement, with
supplies, services and materiel operating along extended LOCs may be
more appropriate to higher intensity missions. This will almost always be
most appropriate in later stages of peace support missions as normalcy
returns, allowing for wider dispersion.
04034.
Logistic Concentration. Collocation of large service installations
such as Field Hospitals and the dumping of stocks on the ground permit the
concentration and accumulation of resources to support protracted missions or
provide a reserve. At the mission level, planning must be related to the
sustainability statement, but at the tactical level it should be considered in terms
of accessibility, security and freedom of mission. Dumping of some stocks can be
a necessary feature of airfield missions. However, in the ground environment;
the lack of mobility from stocks dumped in a forward area may tend to denude
the flexibility that is inherent in the nature of ASF missions. Dispersion of stocks
can provide both redundancy and protection.
04035.
Stocks on Wheels. For ground forces, including forward support to
helicopters and aircraft, maintaining a self-sufficient force, or operating a �stock
on wheels’ policy offers flexibility and can help maintain tempo. It is generally
more applicable to a short mission and is inherently inefficient in the use of
transport. Transport, by definition, is productive only when it is moving freight. It
will usually be advantageous at first line as an immediate reserve. When all
stocks are carried, a disproportionately large logistic tail can become a liability.
To implement a full �stocks on wheels’ policy, support units require mobility and
protection comparable to combat units. This requires new equipment to improve
stock mobility and protection, but this brings with it major new support costs.
Stocks on wheels can enable consumption of 3rd line wheeled stocks at the
beginning of fluid and highly mobile missions, leaving 1st and 2nd line stocks
forward and intact thereby maximising tempo and logistic endurance.
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The System
04036.
Operating Methods. There are 3 basic methods of operating a
logistic system:
a.
Push. When consumption is predictable, for example, from routine
or standard patterns of behaviour, or there is a conscious decision to keep
units permanently topped up to a predetermined level, the logistic
organisation can operate a �push’ system. The minimum of control is
exercised, but the commander should not allow action to be taken by
default. A push system is one aspect of the application of a �just-in-case’
policy. Risk is minimised, but logistic drag and large stockpiles may be
created and there could be duplication of effort.
b.
Pull. A �pull’ system operates on a �just-in-time’ principle.
Theoretically, assuming perfect knowledge and supply and distribution
systems, support or services could be made available as the need arises.
In more static, firm base deployments such a system offers economic
advantages, but when a hostile situation is imminent a less risky approach
may be needed. There is also the potential that logistic drag is transferred
further back into the logistic system in respect of over insurance against
future demand.
c.
Directed. Where there is uncertainty and peaks and troughs of
demand, the commander may need to direct a more pro-active logistic
system. The imprecise nature of demand can be overcome by better
analysis of a mission, good synergy between the mission and logistic
planners and the effective use of technology. Use of information systems
reduces the quantity of materiel needed, effectively substituting
information for excess inventory. There will always be a need for a
reserve. Guaranteed data communications are key enablers for directed
logistics. Conversely, they may be better applied where there are critical
shortfalls in stocks or resources.
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CONTROL OF LOGISTIC OPERATIONS
04037.
Location of the ASF Joint Force Logistic Component
Headquarters. The ASFJFLCC is likely to position his headquarters on the resupply axis. Dependent on the mission situation this may be coincident with the
ASFJTFHQ, but initially, it will more probably be at the SPOD/APOD. Certain
scenarios may require the ASFJFLCC to deploy a Forward Logistics Support
Area (FLSA) to reduce turn-round time for �push’ and �pull’ support to
components when required. However, if the requirement is limited to support for
the Land component it may be allocated to, or found directly from, the Land
component.
04038.
Rear Area Security. Where the ASFJFLCC is tasked with Rear
Area Security, this must be co-ordinated with the RSEs and component
commanders. Sufficient assets must be made available, and the information and
mission cells in the ASFJFLC appropriately staffed. Normally responsibilities
would be limited to Force Protection (FP) within the ASFJFLCC’s area of
responsibility, nevertheless use of logistic service personnel to conduct security
duties will inevitably reduce the available logistic effort and a balance must be
struck.
04039.
Air Port of Disembarkation and Sea Port of Disembarkation
Considerations. The ASFJTFC or other Components may need to exercise
influence over Air Ports of Disembarkation (APODs)/Sea Port of Disembarkation
(SPODs) within the MA, but remote from the ASFLSA/ASFJFLC HQ. These will
all need their own control and operating organisations. Additionally, where
combat aircraft are operating out of the APOD, the Joint Force Air Component
Commander (JFACC) has primacy over airfield missions and coordinates
incoming Air Transport (AT) arrivals in accordance with the ASFJTFC’s priorities.
04040.
Assigned Units. The ASFJFLC would probably be assigned
Tactical Command (TACOM) of the following organisations:
a.
Naval Advanced Logistic Support Site (ALSS) and Forward Logistic
Site (FLS) within the ASF Logistics Support Area (ASFLSA).
b.
3rd Line logistic support assets.
c.
Appropriate deployed aircraft maintenance and support assets
and functional capabilities.
d.
Support and other helicopters for Casualty Evacuation
(CASEVAC) tasks. From these units a pattern of deployment and
operation is then established to deliver the most effective support to the
combat components.
CONTINGENCY PLANNING
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04041.
There are elements to contingency planning:
a. The application of foresight and the formal planning of future missions.
This should not be overlooked, but is the routine function of the
commander and his staff. The baseline for flexibility has its roots
further back in the logistic continuum, in the foresight applied during
the resource allocation process. The ability to conduct contingency
missions will be considerably enhanced if resilience has been allowed
for in the foundation levels of sustainability.
b. The commitment of reserves by the commander to reinforce success
or act as insurance if events take an unprecedented turn.
c. The restoration of mission capability following a mission. This is the
process of rehabilitation referred to below.
REHABILITATION
04042.
Rehabilitation, a tactical level mission resulting from any mission
casualties of personnel and equipment, (to be distinguished from Regeneration,
Recuperation and Reconstitution at the strategic levels) occurs as a deliberate
mission or phase within a larger mission. The aim of rehabilitation is to restore
combat power, rebuild cohesion and minimise the disruption and dislocation
caused by missions. The process is largely logistic in nature, but can involve a
period of training. Whatever the reason for rehabilitation, there are a number of
significant characteristics of which the commander should be aware:
a.
The removal of a unit or formation from missions is a command
decision influenced by an assessment of risk, the acceptability of loss, the
urgency of re-employment and the availability of reserves.
b.
To be conducted effectively, rehabilitation requires a designated
commander, command support and a specific support organisation.
c.
A target level of restoration of combat power must be set,
resources calculated and allocated, and a time for completion given.
d.
There is an essential morale dimension. Speedy rehabilitation can
reduce trauma, restore confidence and tempo, and help regain the
initiative.
04043.
The Rehabilitation Process. The process of rehabilitation involves
coordinated and concurrent activity in three areas: manpower, equipment and
materiel. The majority of the process involves assistance and injection of external
resources, although reorganisation is largely an internal process, conducted
within the unit or formation. If mission effectiveness is to be restored quickly,
rehabilitation needs to be well prepared and trained for involving both the
supporting organisations and the supported formations.
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04044.
Activities. In preparing rehabilitation orders the commander should
consider the following issues:
a.
Command of the mission and the grouping of support elements.
b.
Life Support including guarding, shelter, resting, sleeping, eating,
administration and welfare.
c.
Casualty care, including Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and
evacuation;
d.
Reinforcement of units through the allocation of In Theatre
Reinforcements (ITR) to replace battle casualties.
e.
Replenishment of unit stocks and replacement of lost materiel.
f.
Repair, recovery and servicing and preparation for movement.
g.
The physiological and morale implications of battlefield
administration such as burial or honours and awards.
h.
Ongoing collective training to enhance skills and engender
formation cohesion.
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COMPONENT AND REGIONAL FRAMEWORKS
Component Logistics and Rearward Links
04045.
Component logistics for each TCC overwhelmingly reflect the
practices of their lead Service. The deployment of Regional Support Elements
(RSE) into the MA engenders a more joint approach to logistic support for
regional components. At present many equipment systems remain TCC specific,
though this will improve as standardisation and joint training increases in tandem
with the stocking of Regional Logistics Bases and the AU Depot with compatible
and interoperable equipment. Nevertheless, single TCC/component logistics
remain conditioned by joint support systems from their RSE to the rear,
especially the management of the strategic re-supply link which is inherently
joint.
Joint
04046.
The ASFJFLCC will be responsible for the provision of logistic
support for all reinforcing/transiting forces moving through his AO/FLSA as well
as those based within it. Cross-servicing of demands between components will
be permitted where authorised by their component materiel support staff and the
ASFJFLC Log Cells. The ASFJTFC has redistribution authority within the AOR
and will arbitrate in the event of a dispute. All RSEs will have delegated authority
for local contract/purchase exercised under overall ASFJFLC HQ control to
maintain the audit trail.
Land
04047.
Deployed Land Support Arrangements. The ASFJFLCC is
responsible for organising logistic support for land component forces within his
AOR. Integral Regional Brigade level (2nd line) support to the land component is
provided by the Regional Support Elements (RSE) depending on the scale of the
deployment. RSEs come under command of the ASF Land Component HQ and
the appropriate logistics staffs direct their activity. 3rd Line support to the land
component will be provided by ASFLSG, as necessary. This capability may be
TACON or TACOM the ASFJFLC, if appropriate. Unit (1st Line) and multiregional level land component units encompass the fullest range of Logistics
Support, Equipment Support and other functions e.g. Joint Helicopter Support
units to support manoeuvre in the ground environment. However, 3rd Line
medical support (field hospitals) will normally be TACOM the ASFJFLCC.
Hospitals are also likely to be echeloned and a medical forward control cell,
probably within the ASFLSA, but possibly within the Land Component Rear HQ,
will be required. This Level 3 medical support also covers the Air Component
although elements deployed into Deployable Missions Bases (DOBs) may be
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TACOM the Joint Air Component Commander (ASFJFACC). Aeromedical
evacuation, both tactical and strategic, will be TACOM of the ASFJFLCC.
Air
04048.
Joint Force Air Component Commander. The JFAC is
established within theatre and has within its command structure integrated
logistic staffs. The Deployable Missions Bases/Forward Missions Bases
(DOBs/FOBs) will be established within the MA and stocked in accordance with
the sustainment/sustainability statement. The forces operating from the
DOBs/FOBs within the MA are normally TACOM the ASFJFACC. The
ASFJFLCC has primary responsibility for the provision or arrangement of the
necessary services and facilities to support the DOB/FOBs, HNS agreements
and contract support except where geographic or Role Specialist Region/Nation
takes sole responsibility. The movement of personnel, mail, cargo, repair parts
and subsistence stores from the POD to the DOB/FOBs will also normally be the
responsibility of the ASFJFLCC. Where the DOB and APOD are one and the
same, some fusion of function will be agreed between the ASFJFACC and
ASFJFLCC although flying missions will be commanded by the JFACC while the
ASFJFLCC will have appropriate control over Movement Missions (Mov Ops)
and tasking authority over MA airlift in order to deliver the ASFJTF movement
plan. Notwithstanding the rapid deployability of front line air assets, the
requirement for the provision of adequate resources during the early stages of
the mission will necessitate the steady build up of sustainment stocks throughout
the deployment phase of the mission.
04049.
Deployed Air Component Support Arrangements. These would
primarily be helicopter units operating at DOBs. They rely on priming equipment
packs scaled for an initial 10 days sustainment for fixed wing aircraft and 15 days
for rotary wing at intensive rates of effort, the latter reflecting the use of dispersed
operating sites in peace support missions. These are supported by highly
responsive re-supply arrangements to ensure speedy provision of replacement
parts and the prompt recovery of repairables. DOB units are committed to theatre
level tasks and normally TACOM/TACON the ASFJFLCC.
Maritime
04050.
Deployed Maritime Support Arrangements. The organisation
structure of the ASF Brigades does not include a maritime component. Strategic
sealift will be contracted for bulk stores and equipment for initial deployment,
resupply and redeployment of the force. In rare circumstances, such as
intervention missions which would be under Chapter VII, when insertion is
opposed, naval forces may be required to support the creation of a beachhead.
Under such a scenario, the AU may nominate a Role Specialist Nation (RSN) to
provide this capability. The RSN will provide organic 1st and 2nd Line Fleet
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Logistics Support (FLS) for this component for the periods it is deployed. The
FLS would, ideally, be collocated with the SPOD. Where this is located within the
ASFLSG area the FLS will be TACOM/TACON the ASFJFLC HQ. The Joint
Force Maritime Component Commander (JFMCC) but may be placed TACOM
the ASFJFLCC when supporting missions ashore.
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CHAPTER 5
CONCLUDING THE CAMPAIGN
0501. New Main Effort. The termination of a mission is a phase which must be
anticipated and planned for. The logistic implications of what can be a chaotic
and complex phase with many parallel and simultaneous actions, many
conflicting, transforms logistic activity into the mission main effort.
0502. Early Planning. This final, concluding phase must be seen as much a
part of the military mission as the preceding phases. It must be properly planned,
commanded and conducted in a manner consistent with the broad political aims
of the mission. Lack of control may compromise future missions, reduce public
confidence, endanger the forces or even give rise to litigation.
0503. Concluding the Mission. In concluding the mission, logistic effort will
centre upon Post Conflict Activities and the missions to meet the Exit Strategy.
POST MISSION ACTIVITIES
0504. Logistic Implications. Depending on the nature of the deployment and
the circumstances, the original mission plan should take account of post mission
activities, and military forces involvement relative to the desired end-state. Post
conflict activities are likely to be at least as logistically challenging as the
provision of support to the force. However, the emphasis is likely to be quite
different. Whilst support to forces, possibly including rehabilitation as well as
routine sustainment, remains the primary task, other administration and lifesupport demands may be made. Logisticians at all levels may be required to plan
and provide emergency support for the population, refugees or internally
displaced persons (IDPs), and may need to be prepared to work alongside and, if
appropriate, hand over responsibilities to the Host Nation Government, UN
agencies and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO), NATO, EU, Partner
Nations, as well as contractors.
0505. Rehabilitation. Rehabilitation, involving restoration of units following
protracted missions or arduous duty, will be necessary in the Mission Area (MA)
as routine preparation for further missions or when it is intended to redeploy
immediately to a new MA rather than via unit home locations.
0506. Formal Activities. Post conflict activities tend to be focussed on
normalisation, the civil population and repairing damage to the MA infrastructure.
The scope of activities will include disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) of warring factions, civil administration, humanitarian relief, and
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battlefield or environmental clearance, particularly where mines may have been
used in the conflict.
0507. Responsibilities for Adversaries. Upon cessation of hostilities, a
ceasefire may have to be supervised. This could involve wide dispersion of
forces, placing a strain on the logistic infrastructure. The processing and
collection of belligerents, their re-integration, guarding, feeding, clothing, and
investigation of war crimes will place further demands and require legal, linguistic
and provost specialists.
0508. Legal Implications of Belligerent Occupation. Whenever the ASF is in
control of post conflict territory, and find themselves face to face with the
inhabitants, some or all of the provisions of the law on belligerent occupation are
applicable. Three sources of International Law guide the application of belligerent
occupation: Hague Rules Articles 42-56; Geneva Civilians Convention, 1949
Articles 4, 5, 27-34 and 47-48; Protocol 1, 1977 Part IV. The occupying forces
acquire obligations in respect of that territory, which are essentially humanitarian
in nature, although there are elements of trusteeship. There is a duty to maintain
law and order as well as preventing economic collapse, and the existing law is to
be respected. The law on belligerent occupation seeks to strike a balance
between:
a.
b.
c.
The military interests of the peace-keeping forces.
Humanitarian protection of the population.
The preservation, pending final settlement, of certain interests of
the displaced power. Further advice should always be sought from legal
officers.
0509. Humanitarian Relief. The possible rapid requirement to initiate
humanitarian and related missions, such as Mission Area Clearance, will involve
personnel and formations adapting quickly to a non-combat stance. Some
missions may, themselves, be primarily a humanitarian relief mission. Both
situations have considerable logistic implications and the provision of
humanitarian relief is particularly susceptible to �mission creep’ as requirements
expand. The demand for supplies and services is likely to increase as military
resources are required for defeated belligerents and civilians. The type of
commodity or functional service required will alter significantly from warlike stores
to that for humanitarian and medical needs. This change of emphasis will also
require adjustments to the logistic ORBATs; for example bulk ammunition
handling will not be required, whereas bulk carriers for food, water and tents will
increase. Given the inevitable presence of the news media, credit gained by
military success could be diminished if there are post conflict support failures
arising from lack of attention or application and a pro-active media campaign will
be necessary.
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05010.
Information Campaign. In preparation for an exit, there will be
logistic input to the information campaign. This is likely to centre on issues such
as the improvements made to Host Nation infrastructure and support systems, or
any assistance delivered to agencies or Non Governmental Organisations. Any
such support which has not been specifically directed should be recorded in
detail and made known to Joint Force Information Mission Staff.
EXIT
05011.
Exit Operations. In tandem with stabilisation and normalisation
activities, the ASF exit strategy will be implemented. Key elements of the mission
at this stage are draw-down, redeployment and recuperation. The first two can
run in parallel or consecutively and are controlled by the ASFJTFHQ.
Recuperation is an all TCCs’ continuous process.
05012.
Draw-down. For enduring missions, or when ASFJFLC is not fully
structured, the establishment of a separate headquarters and the injection of
fresh support resources can speed and optimise exit and redeployment. To
provide an appropriate focus, priority and expertise, draw-down teams will be
employed in order to effect orderly withdrawal processes. They will include
specialists appropriate to the task, and account for non-unit equipment whilst
also giving advice to withdrawing units on accounts closure, equipment
identification, materiel, ownership/sponsorship and correct disposal action.
05013.
Forced Exit. The principles described here assume that the ASF
has control over the conditions of exit. However there may be times when a
forced exit is required. Mission staffs will lead such a mission, as Force
Protection (FP) will be a key factor. In the contingency planning for a forced exit,
logistics staff at all levels will need to establish the draw-down and deployment
requirements for an unimpeded exit, and then determine what is feasible by
means of risk assessment. Safe redeployment of personnel will be the primary
consideration. Component and Contingent Commanders will still be accountable
for equipment on their charge, and staff at ASFJTFHQ, AU Planning Staff will set
achievable priorities for movement and produce any necessary policy to cover
what cannot be extracted. Where time constraints prohibit such preparatory
measures, equipment designated mission essential in the Sustainability
Statement and high-value military-special equipment is likely to take priority for
extraction.
Redeployment
05014.
Redeployment refers to the complete process of preparing and
relocating units and stocks to a new destination. This may be to a new
deployment area or to peacetime locations where units will need to achieve
appropriate readiness levels. Whilst �recovery’ is simply defined as the extraction
of units, �redeployment’ recognises the much broader requirement to restore
forces to appropriate readiness. A mission commander will be primarily
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concerned with the safe, swift and secure recovery and return of his forces in
which the ASFJTFHQ assumes the role of Mounting HQ for forces leaving the
MA. However, TCC Contingent Commanders will also be concerned to restore
readiness. From a joint perspective, redeployment is similar to initial deployment
but conducted in reverse and it may be undertaken with less supporting
infrastructure. Specialist materiel will be required to repackage ammunition,
stocks and equipment.
05015.
In Theatre Redeployment Planning. The ASF Joint Task Force
Commander (ASFJTFC) and his logistics and future plans staff must consider
redeployment issues throughout the mission in order to ensure the force is not
off-balance when the redeployment phase commences. Redeployment planning
will include a number of factors which may reflect conflicting priorities. Resolution
of such conflicts is a matter for the ASFJTFC in consultation with the ASFJFLCC,
who should conduct a full redeployment estimate. Factors to be considered may
include, but are not limited to, the following:
a.
Desired Order of Departure. The Desired Order of Departure
(DOOD) will be determined by AU/REC Mandating Authority (depending
on the type of mission) and the ASFJTFC in line with continuing/residual
responsibilities and Force Protection requirements.
b.
Synchronisation. The run down of MA capabilities particularly
communications and camp infrastructure will require careful
synchronisation with the departure of personnel and equipment. A
synchronisation matrix will assist in this evaluation.
c.
Availability of Movement Assets. The availability of movement
assets is likely to have a major influence on the Synchronisation Matrix. It
is highly desirable that a degree of redundancy is built into the provision of
such assets.
d.
Redeployment Enablers. In the same manner as they are
required during deployment, specific enablers may well be required to
deploy into the MA to facilitate both the closure and draw-down of intheatre activities and to expedite the redeployment. Where stocks,
equipment and ammunition have been broken out of their transit
packaging, specialist and resource-intensive capabilities will need to be
provided.
e.
Hand-over of Infrastructure to Host or Follow-On Nation. The
activities necessary to facilitate the smooth hand-over of infrastructure to
Host or Follow-On Nations must be considered at the outset of
redeployment planning. In particular, engineering and contracts
capabilities are likely to be essential.
f.
Closure of Contracts. The closure of in-theatre contracts requires
specialist personnel. Their deployment should be as early in the process
as possible, preferably prior to the redeployment estimate. Their duration
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in theatre should be planned to exceed the final contract closure date,
even if this requires special arrangements to be made for their life support.
g.
Closure of Accounts. The nature of missions makes normal
accounting difficult, particularly during the initial stages. However, this
does not excuse Commanders from their responsibilities. Once
redeployment is considered, additional Regional Brigades/TCC CSS
personnel should be deployed to assist in the closure of theatre accounts.
h.
Sustainability. Even during redeployment the force will require
sustainment. The in-theatre situation and robustness of the redeployment
LOC will determine to what degree sustainment stocks can be reduced in
line with personnel and equipment departures.
i.
Sensitive/Protectively Marked Items. The redeployment of
sensitive equipment and protectively marked items will require special
attention to ensure that handling procedures and security are not
compromised.
j.
Specific Equipments. It is likely that specific equipments,
particularly those of a specialist low population nature, will have
equipment support requirements which may affect their position in the
Desired Order of Departure (DOD).
k.
Waste Disposal. The requirement for waste disposal and remedial
work on contaminated sites should not be underestimated.
l.
Bio-Security. It is essential that equipment and personnel
redeploying from overseas missions do not introduce any biological
hazard into their home bases or any other nation. The responsibility for the
completion of bio-security measures to the requisite standard rests with
TCC Commanders, not with movement staff.
05016.
Contingent
Command
Responsibilities.
Although
the
responsibility for redeployment planning rests with Regional Brigade Staff and its
deployed commanders, TCC contingent commanders are responsible for their
own formations, units and personnel once they land in the home base:
a.
Personnel. The swift movement of personnel to home locations is
a major personnel staff activity and should not be interrupted except in the
most unusual mission circumstances.
b.
Equipment. The movement of equipment once landed is likely to
require the employment of additional personnel and, depending on the
nature of the equipment, additional assets, e.g. tank transporters. Care
must be taken to ensure that vehicles are returning in a condition in which
they can be legally driven on public roads.
Port Clearance. Clearance of Air Ports of Disembarkation (APODs) and Sea
Ports of Disembarkation (SPODs) is a unit responsibility under the direction of
contingent commanders. Reception and administrative arrangements should be
flexible enough to allow the effective administration and processing of personnel
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and equipment. There may be a requirement to develop contingency quarantine
arrangements and bio-security decontamination procedures.
Economy. In line with the principle of Economy of Effort, a pragmatic
management decision may be required on the relative costs of redeployment
movement activities when set against the cost of new equipment or materiel
procurement. This decision, which rests with TCCs in the ASF scenario, will be
particularly pertinent with regard to conducting the entire movement using
chartered aircraft.
05017.
Discipline and Stress. At the end of missions there will be an
inevitable feeling of euphoria. The constraint of missions will be lifted and the
psychological release may, if not properly controlled, result in some breakdown
of discipline. Carelessness of weapon handling drills may creep in and lives may
be lost. Other undesirable activities, such as trophy hunting and illegal
export/importation may also occur, and security procedures appropriate to
ensure safe air and sea movement will need to be instituted. A well publicised,
provost-led, search regime at Air Ports of Embarkation (APOE)/Sea Ports of
Embarkation (SPOE) can be a powerful deterrent. At best, indiscipline is likely to
lead to adverse publicity affecting the force image. In extreme cases, the release
of emotion may even lead to acts of retribution as perceived injustices are settled
and the mission gains are undermined. Equally, the effects of combat stress
could manifest themselves in adverse psychological reactions and the possibility
of stress disorders must be considered. Suitable medical advice must be taken
and appropriate counselling arranged.
05018.
Recuperation. A process of recuperation will begin, primarily in the
Home Base, to replace resources expended on the concluded mission to restore
manpower, equipment and materiel, including mission Stocks (Reserves), to their
pre-mission levels or in accordance with revised target levels based on lessons
learned.
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CHAPTER 6
ASF LOGISTICS FUNCTIONS
COMMAND, CONTROL, COMMUNICATIONS & INFORMATION SYSTEMS
(C3IS)
Command and Control at The Strategic Level
0601. The Tools of Logistic Command and Control. Logistic command and control is
affected through the assessment, preparation and communication of instructions to logistic
staffs and to the deployed forces (including contractors) responsible for carrying them out. In
an effort to maintain a high level of responsiveness, allowing a greater range of tempo,
instructions need to be founded on the reliable exchange of logistic information between the
user and the Base, via the staff. Additionally, integration of military and civilian logistic
management systems needs to be developed.
0602. Strategic Level. Military representation and Early Warning Mechanisms (EWM)
within the AU and the Regional Economic Communities provides an early opportunity for the
AU to identify situations that have potential of developing into conflict, crisis or those that
may lead to complex emergencies that may trigger peace support operations or
humanitarian and disaster relief operations. Whilst this level may primarily be concerned
with policy direction, it is also the focus for strategic planning. At the inception of operations
the Planning Staff, under the guidance of the AU Peace and Security Council (PSC), the
strategic level decision making institution, will issue the Strategic Directive based on the
PSC Mandate. The Directive provides overall logistic direction to the appointed ASF Force
Commander (ASF-FC). The logistics direction will include the identification and release of
strategic resources from the AU and/or Regional Logistics Depot/Bases. It provides the
focus for Memoranda of Understanding, including Host Nation Support (HNS) and Mutual
Support arrangements and bilateral/multilateral negotiations.
0603. Operational Level. At the very earliest stage the ASF-FC and his senior planning
staff will be incorporated at the Mandating HQ to operate as the Military
Strategic/Operational Level interface. The expanded planning team conducts the detailed
strategic estimate leading into the logistic planning process. Use of the strategic Line of
Communication is accessed, priorities determined and military and civilian lift assigned.
0604. Operational Level – ASF Force Headquarters. The ASF-HQ already activated,
monitors and develops the Force Logistic Plan, staffs specific issues and assume full logistic
responsibility in theatre. It is at the ASF-HQ that operational, theatre level issues, forward
planning and immediate priorities are resolved and logistic command exercised.
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0605. Tactical Level - Component Headquarters. Detailed execution at the tactical level
lies either with logistic units organic to the combat components or the ASF-LC (Logistics
Commander) under whom logistic units may be grouped.
0606. Other Headquarters – Logistics functional (including medical) component
commanders assigned to the designated force are integral to logistic planning since they
are the source of expertise, detailed knowledge and resources. On operations, the regional
strategic bases retain flexible linkages with deployed components for routine support and
can provide invaluable advice from their supply agencies, where suitable communications
exist. Where surge activity or scarce resources are involved, however, the formal line of
communication is through the ASF-HQ. Whilst each operation may have a different
organisational structure, the principle remains that HQs should not enter into detailed
logistic management that is more properly the responsibility of subordinate formations and
units. This will avoid the duplication and confusion that would otherwise result.
0607. Strategic, Operational and Tactical Interfaces. The overlap between the strategic,
operational and tactical level delivery of logistics requires integrated logistic planning,
defined processes and separation of function, mutual understanding, speed and accuracy.
These are ultimately more important than the �level’ at which operations are described as
being effected. Planning must be integrated because it involves non-military actors, such as
contractors etc.
Logistic Information and Logistic Picture
0608. Information. Logistic information is as much a part of situational awareness as
conventional operational information/intelligence. It is relevant to know that ammunition is
exhausted when a hostile element is approaching, since it will directly condition the
response. It is through information that the logistic inventory can best be managed,
demands most quickly met, and the logistic services and footprint optimised.
a.
Asset Visibility. Creation of a logistic picture (i.e. the real time disposition and
status of assets, materiel in transit and forecast re-supply) requires Total Asset
Visibility (TAV). The ability, through information, to match supply to demand
accurately, to predict, pre-plan and drive down logistic support requirements offers
significant savings for resource reallocation. TAV assumes resource intensive
information system support, but it is also an extension of the accounting system. The
deciding factors in enhancing logistics performance are speed and accuracy of asset
information, which in turn offer higher standards of confidence and greater latitude to
accept risk. Regional Brigades/Logistics need to acquire a number of deployable
inventory management systems for this purpose. Optimum flexibility is gained only
when the information from differing systems can be collated, either by human or
computer interface.
b.
In Transit Visibility. Where TAV cannot be achieved, logisticians must have,
as a minimum, the opportunity to track assets as they are moved, via nodal points, up
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and down the supply chain. This is classed as In Transit Visibility (ITV). Whilst ITV’s
effectiveness and performance can be enhanced by information technology, ITV is
also a process which can be performed with the barest of resource essentials
providing that its importance and relevance is recognised throughout the Line of
Communication. When stores or containers are packed and subsequently distributed,
each person in the support chain needs to ensure that the next user can access
relevant transit information easily, often in difficult conditions. This fundamental
principle applies as much to re-deployment as it does to deployment and sustainment
operations, and is essential to prevent overburdening the supply chain with
unnecessary demands. However ITV is especially challenging during deployment
when Force Element Tables are subject to short notice changes. An ITV matrix (part
of the logistic information plan arising from the Estimate) must be prepared during the
planning phases and ITV enablers need to deploy early to the Area Of Responsibility
(AOR) - as well as to the APOE and SPOE. The supply chain starts with the provision
and procurement organisations and ends with the consumer.
0609. Information Systems. Dedicated Information Systems (IS) and assured
communications are essential to the functioning of the logistic system at maximum capacity.
The delivery of effective logistic C2 requires adherence to four precepts:
a.
That accurate, timely information is key.
b.
That all logistic data is corporate information.
c.
That common IT information exchange standards must apply.
d.
That mere automation of existing systems is insufficient. The maximum
advantage from digitisation lies in system integration and re-routing, not in mere
upgrading of the old ones. The volume and complexity of logistic information ideally
lends itself to automated data handling with much low-cost commercial off-the-shelf
equipment being suitable for military/civilian use. Considerable logistic data storage
and transmission may, however, need to be secure.
06010.
Information Approach for Operations. Recognition of the importance of
information to the logistician must lead to a consciousness, and demand for, the right
information. At all levels, logistic force elements must consider how their operations can be
improved through correct information linkages. Operational staffs have a responsibility to
enable and control information to ensure that, at the tactical level, support demands are met
and the logistic information acted upon, whilst an improved deployed Logistics Picture
allows the Strategic Base to initiate the support in a timely manner. Single component
information, such as air loading details, need to be available to the joint staffs. Time must be
made for the identification of Information Exchange Requirements (IER) and the production
of Logistics Information Plan early in the preparation for operations so that communications
and IS support can be resourced, allocated and provided.
PLANNING ASSUMPTIONS AND OPERATIONAL STOCKS
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06011.
Planning Assumptions and Constraints. Risk is an inherent element of
inventory planning, which seeks to minimise capital outlay and balance high risk/low
probability requirements against low risk/high probability operations. The principle is that the
AU Depot, Regional Logistics Bases and TCCs only hold what cannot be procured in
Readiness and Preparation Time (RPT) i.e. the time between the authorised start of
preparations initiated by the issue of a Warning Order and when formations/units are
capable of commencing planned operations. Despite the inherent risks, logistics is
recognised as a force multiplier since its application is not just about amassing resources of
manpower and materiel, but rather the timely and balanced application of such resources to
meet the mission end state. Applied correctly, logistics can enable the ASF mission to
achieve results out of proportion to the scale of resources involved as well as determine the
tempo at which the mission is accomplished. The following broad assumptions will influence
planning of all ASF mission scenarios:
a.
A sustainability statement based on ASF Operational Plan, and agreed upon
by Contributing Regions (CRs), will be issued in good time to guide Logistic Planning
for the mission and supportive C2 structures, as well as arrangements for sharing of
common user resources. The sustainability statement shall be issued as part of the
ASF Logistic Directive which explains in simple terms how Theatre level logistic tasks
are to be carried out, and relevant C2 relationships.
b.
CRs shall be responsible for meeting all sustainability requirements
established under the ASF Ops Plan/MOU and adequate lead-time shall be allowed
for equipping and refitting of the force.
ASF Logistics support will have a logistics staff element drawn from CRs under logistics
component command provided by one of the CRs. The logistic staff shall be responsible for
controlling the Logistic support effort of the Force under agreed arrangements.
c.
ASF-LSG Component Commander will control all theatre level logistics
elements and assume responsibility for all “In-Theatre Logistics” while Logistics Role
Specialist Regions/Nations may be given responsibility for those elements of logistics
support provided on a multi-regional basis.
ASF-LSG does not replace component logistics staff who must continue to provide intimate
logistics advice to their respective component commanders, as well as to manage
component specific classes of supply and issues.
ASF-LSG will manage theatre level issues and common logistic (CrossRegion/Nation/components) under special arrangements and only when there is benefit in
doing so.
06012.
Planning Constraints. The possible constraints contributing to risk would
involve one or a multiplicity of the following:
a.
For PSO and CROs, the AOR will likely be a non-linear battle space, and may
incorporate several non-contiguous areas of operation. For the ASF force to be
successful, logistic support assets must have the capability to deploy to, sustain and
redeploy from and within this complex operational area.
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The ASF-LSC anticipates expeditionary deployments into any of the five regions of Africa
where Access, Basing and Overflight (ABO) can be permissive or non-permissive and
different levels of quality of infrastructure may be found in terms of medical, fuel, water,
rations and engineering facilities.
Whilst at theatre level coalition logistic support solutions must predominate, the ASF Force
Commander (ASF-FC) must assume that some sustainment in terms of equipment support,
materiel and munitions to meet unique regional logistic requirements, will have to be
provided through the Contributing Regions’ Regional Support Elements (RSE) using a
combination of air, sea and land Lines of Communication (LOCs).
06013.
Stock Acquisition and Holding Assessment. Operational Stocks, (War
Reserves) as with other equipment and materiel procurement, are subject to a six-step
resource allocation process as modified by: military/industrial policy and capacity and 3rd
party (allied/donor/UN) sourcing. The six steps are:
a.
Clear, approved and unambiguous planning management plans (i.e. what do
we need to be able to do?)
b.
Assessed sustainability requirements for assessed tasks (how much do we
need to do?)
c.
The application of military operational analysis to requirements (how should
we do it?)
d.
Assessed industrial capacity to regenerate to the planned requirements in a
timely manner (what can we get when we need it?)
e.
The reassessment of current holdings in the light of the above (is there a
difference between what we have, what we need and when we can secure it?)
f.
Amending stockholdings/the programme accordingly (aligning all the
variables).
06014.
Sources of Support. There are generally five available sources of support:
a.
Military controlled assets, owned or leased, organic to the deployed forces or
made available to them from the AU/Regional strategic base.
b.
National civil contractors, operating in support of the strategic base or
deployed forward to benign areas, where CON LOG support can be undertaken
safely and effectively.
c.
In-Country Resources (ICR) or HNS, contracted or requisitioned.
d.
Coalition assets based on a lead Region or Nation basis.
e.
Resources contracted from the international market. A balance from all
sources is likely. Initial limited self-sufficiency may progressively be increased
through HNS/ICR and multinational support, as an operation matures.
TRANSPORTATION AND MOVEMENT
CRs/TCCs are ultimately responsible for obtaining strategic lift transportation resources and
for planning and controlling the movement of regional contingents within the ASF-FC RSOI
directive. The AU HQ should be involved in requesting and coordinating strategic lift. Their
arrangements should take account of the need for co-operation, co-ordination and
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economy. The responsibility for the deployment of multi-regional HQs staff will rest with the
mandating authority and that of units with the CRs/TCCs in line with the ASF-FC RSOI
directive.
Sufficient strategic lift assets must be made available to sustain CR forces throughout the
operation. Furthermore, onward deployment within the theatre along the chain from Point(s)
of Disembarkation (POD) through logistic base(s) to unit locations must have the
infrastructure, materiel handling equipment and means of transport necessary to deliver the
forces and their associated logistic support. Without such assets, the feasibility of the
OPPLAN might be severely restricted. Intra-theatre movement and transportation
arrangements should also allow for the timely reverse flow of materiel and personnel.
Within the framework of the mission, the ASF-FC is responsible for co-ordinating, prioritising
and de-conflicting regional deployments, transportation for sustainment (resupply), and
redeployment of regional force contingents at the operational level, in conjunction with the
CRs/TCCs.
In view of the expeditionary and rapid nature of ASF deployments and limitations to
obtaining resources in all regions, the options for acquiring strategic lift capability are:
The AU appoints a Logistics Role Specialist Region (LRSR) to develop strategic airlift
capability and strategic sealift capability.
The AU sources strategic lift through UN contracts with assistance of partner states.
The AU seeks “secure access contracts” funded through contributions from RECs.
ENGINEERING
Infrastructure Engineering for Logistics (IEL) is an essential enabler for logisticians to
accomplish their mission and support the overall operation. It may be provided by the
deployed force, the HN, units of the RSE or contractors. Logistic experts at the operational
level must ensure that adequate engineering assets and capacity have been included in the
operational plan to address IEL requirements. Regional engineers must be consulted to
confirm existing or available capacity. The priorities established for IEL within theatre will
influence efforts in HNS negotiations, CIMIC, public information operations, budgeting and
contracting that will support the IEL effort.
The funding of IEL projects in the context of ASF operations is a key issue that needs to be
addressed very early in the planning process. This especially applies when the considered
infrastructure can support the local population or administration.
If construction engineering expertise is required, this unit covers both horizontal and vertical
construction engineering. Multi-role engineering units must also be capable of providing
potable water production and treatment. Plant equipment may only be deployed when it has
been confirmed that the mission site is unable to provide such equipment. Technical
engineering expertise such as engineer tradesmen, draftsmen, structural designers,
electrical designers, specification writers and inspectors will also form part of the
engineering unit where local hiring is limited.
EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE
All equipment used by ASF forces must be maintained and fit for purpose. Commonality
(where possible) and interoperability of equipment will play a key role in this domain and can
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significantly improve operational capability at both regional and multi-regional levels. In this
respect, bilateral or multilateral arrangements should be sought, whenever equipment is
used by more than one CR. The collocation of maintenance capabilities in theatre could
also be considered to facilitate technical assistance, enhance co-operation and reduce the
logistic footprint.
CRs/TCCs will deploy mission ready equipment and remain self-sustaining for the periods
promulgated through the AU Policy Framework unless otherwise determined, and issued
through the Sustainability Statement. The deployed Regional elements have integral
equipment support capability, whilst the Regional Support Element (RSE) provides 2nd Line
Equipment Maintenance within the AOR.
The establishment of 3rd Line equipment support will be under the arrangements of the ASFLSG HQ and is dependent on the assessed duration of the mission. Due to the possible
incompatibility of equipment from the participating CRs and TCCs this capability may have
to be built-up from their own strategic home base. Where the Host Nation has the industrial
and technical capacity, the ASF-LSG may resort to contract repair under the CON LOG
arrangements. The contributing Region or Nation will have responsibility for this level of
repair for Role Specialist equipment or may enter into bilateral and multilateral
arrangements.
The loop for repairs beyond 3rd Line dictates that the equipment (depending on extent of
damage) is disposed off in theatre or CR or TCC replaces it and repatriates the faulty
equipment for repair in the Home Base.
MEDICAL
A self-sustaining medical support and evacuation plan is required from the earliest stages of
an ASF operation. Specific requirements for medical support include planning, to provide
in-theatre medical treatment, forward/tactical/strategic evacuation, Mass Casualty
(MASCAL) response, patient regulating, hospitalisation, preventative medicine, dental
provision, veterinary service, environmental health, including food inspection, medical
logistics, including blood support, and consequent management of health risks posed by
Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) hazards should these exist in
theatre.
A Force Medical Officer will be appointed from one of the CRs/TCCs and report directly to
the ASF-FC. He/she will be responsible for the overall planning and execution of the
medical activities of the force. The Force Medical Adviser will coordinate ASF medical
issues through the respective CR Medical Directors/Advisors/Officers, based in the ASFLSG. The ASF-LSG HQ’s Medical Staff will be responsible to the Force Medical Advisor for
the day-to-day execution of medical coordination. All Role 2/Level 2 and Role 3/Level 3
Medical Treatment Facilities will normally be considered theatre medical assets under the
functional control of the ASF Commander through the ASF-LSG. However, where suitable
hard structures and facilities for Level 3 treatment are not available in theatre, this support
will be selected out of theatre. Alternatively, a Logistics Role Specialist Region may be
nominated to develop this capability within a specified timeframe. The Policy Framework
stipulates that each Regional Brigade will have an organic Level 2 Medical Unit. RECs may
seek partner-support for the field structures and equipment while they provide the medical
staff.
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The aim of health and medical support in military operations is to support the mission
through conservation of manpower, preservation of life and health and minimisation of
residual physical and mental disabilities. Appropriate medical support makes a major
contribution to both force protection and morale by the prevention of disease, rapid
evacuation and treatment of the sick, wounded and injured and the return to duty of as
many individuals as possible.
General logistic principles laid down in this document also apply to the Health and Medical
Support function. The specific medical principles and guidelines, policies and planning
procedures will be laid down in regional doctrine and policy. These are related to the code
of medical ethics and regional and interregional laws and standards including the law of
armed conflict.
Health and Medical Support comprises a wide spectrum of complex and specific tasks
including force health protection, medical intelligence and aspects of Civil Military
Cooperation (CIMIC). Medical capabilities and capacities assigned to any ASF operation
must be sufficient and have at least the same level of readiness, deployability and
sustainability as the forces they support.
In order to plan effectively, execute and control the full range of health and medical support
and to provide medical advice, sufficient experienced and qualified medical staff elements at
each level of command are necessary.
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CHAPTER 7
AU/ASF LOGISTICS DEPOT AND BASES
AU/ASF LOGISTIC DEPOT VISION
The Logistics vision statement is:
To define, build, organize, and maintain a Logistics Depot that is capable
of developing, sustaining, and enhancing a PSO capability at all levels
including peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance to a level of selfsustenance to respond to internal or external crises or threats to peace
and security, including terrorist and/or humanitarian threats.
AU/ASF PSO LOGISTIC DEPOT STRATEGIES
The AU/ASF Logistics Depot is designed, as stated in the logistic vision, to provide a rapid
response capability, and to provide a sustaining capability to PSO.
Based on the military strategic vision, the ASF to be developed has a wide variety of tasks
and missions. As with any force, the more diverse and complex the tasks, usually the more
diverse and complex is the structure needed to accomplish the tasks and missions. This is
especially true in the arena of logistics. Additionally, when addressing PSO requirements,
leaders are constantly faced with the need to meet operational realities while concurrently
striving for maximum flexibility from a given structure. Unfortunately, flexibility is not always
possible to the extent desired.
Given the recent past experience within the continent/region, the ability of AU to respond to
threats and crises has been remarkable. However, even with the �AU’s ability’ to respond
with troops, AU has been literally unable to �sustain’ the deployed force. The lack of the
capability to �sustain’ the deployed troops has provided a significant learning experience.
However, AU with the benefit of significant past experience is at the �right place and right
time’ to begin the process of planned, coordinated, and focused PSO logistics design and
development. Accordingly, based on the evolving PSO logistics vision, the senior
leadership envisions PSO logistics strategies that accomplish the tasks and missions
articulated and authorized by the senior civilian authority in the Peace and Security Protocol
of 2002, the strategic military vision, and the PSO logistics vision. The evolving PSO
logistics strategies to enable the logistic vision are:
•
AU will create a PSO Logistics Depot designed, built, and operated to provide
the capability
a. to provide rapid response to crisis and/or conflict
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b. to provide a capability to sustain AU-deployed PSO and efforts.
•
The AU will establish six (6) African Union Logistics Depots (AULD); one at the
continental level and five depots at the regional level.
•
The AU Continental/Regional Logistics Depots will have the material
management capability to receive, store, issue, control, and manage all
classes of supply, materials, and end-items in support of PSO. This also
implies that all supplies, materials and end-user items must be accounted for
when received and issued.
•
The AU Continental/Regional Logistics Depots will have the repair and
maintenance capability to conduct or manage all levels of maintenance
operations for assigned end-items and specialty systems.
•
The AU Continental/Regional Logistics Depots will have a training capability to
conduct or manage logistic-oriented user-level to technical-level training for
logistic functions and processes and assigned end-items with a focus on ASF
logistic requirements.
•
The AU Continental/Regional Logistics Depots will have the capability to
perform logistics-oriented services, direct or indirect, including procurement,
transportation, finance, contracting, human relations and other functions, in
support of ASF missions, tasks, organizations, and PSO.
CONCEPTS OF IMPLEMENTATION – LOGISTICS DEPOT
The current reality is that the AU by itself or without significant external resources can not:
Вѓ develop an operational ASF,
ƒ �self-sustain’ the ASF when deployed
Вѓ support other PSO efforts.
However, and as noted from the recent past within the continent/region, the AU has
successfully been able to mobilize, deploy, and employ significant numbers of troops, units,
and command and control elements to conduct peace operations, but only with significant
support of the international community. Essentially, without pre-planned, pre-established
Depot, the AU will only be able to deploy troops and a HQ element, but partners will be
required to assist the provision of expertise and emergency reaction capability to support
ASF deployments.
ASF Sustainment: During the actual deployment of the ASF, the AU/ASF Logistics Depots
serve as the �wholesale’ support structure and provide direct and indirect support to the ASF
through the ASF LOG element to sustain the force. Direct coordination and interface exists
between the ASF Chief Logistics Officer and the Depot Commander to ensure continuous
support and services as needed, including the provisioning of supplies, materials, and end16
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items. Ideally, the needs of the deployed ASF, based on composition, will be known well in
advance. The requirement for 90-days self-sustaining would be met by supplies, materials,
and end-items �pushed’ from the Depot to the LOG organization. The LOG organization will
retain the �wholesale’ stocks, and distribute to units as needed.
Support to Other PSOs and Efforts: The AU Logistics Depots are by design, a functional
and operational location that will provide support and services to PSO efforts. Importantly,
support to various crisis/conflict prevention efforts that will �avoid’ or �prevent’ conflict, and
will eliminate the need for ASF deployment are of primary concern. The range of
crisis/conflict prevention measures fully supportable from the LOG Depots will most likely
initially be dedicated to election monitoring and other similar endeavours. The primary
thrust is to provide the required logistic support to those PSO efforts that will be able to
prevent the emergence of a conflict.
Partners Pre-positioning of Logistics Capability: An important and strategic capability of
the AU/ASF Depot is that partners, within operational constraints, can pre-position
determined items at the depot. In this light, the depot serves as an �on continent’ location
for donors and partners to store identified items prior to regional donation, use, or
disbursement. This is an important capability for the pre-assembly of sets and kits or for a
phased assembly of subcomponents into a specific complex end-item. For example, water
purification unit, with numerous components, could be stored, pending the total receipt of all
components required for assembly, and ultimate utilization.
To implement the concept of the AU/ASF Logistics Depots, suitable facilities are
required. In the aggregate, the facilities should have an airfield with a minimal capability of
accommodating C130 aircraft and have access to an international sea port.
Specific reasons that the depots should be determined as being the “most suitable” and
“most ideal” for the AU/ASF Logistics Depot are as follows:
• The facility will be operated by the AU and used as a supply and maintenance facility.
• Should be an independent facility by its location.
• Should be accessible by land via a traversable roadway.
• Should be accessible by sea via a main port.
• Should be accessible by air with an on-site 3130-foot, paved (C-130 minimum
capable).
• The facility should have a huge expanse of paved and unpaved parking areas and
taxiways.
• Numerous hangers on the airfield including offices and general structures.
• The facility should have a huge space for storage and maintenance capability.
• The facility should have minimum of 4 large (C-130) suitable hangers, functional for
aviation operations and/or storage.
• Warehouses within the facility.
• The facility should have space for future expansion.
• The water and electricity connections and infrastructures should be fully operational.
• The facility should accommodate storage, maintenance, training of all types,
transport, housing, bays, etc.
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To implement the concept of the Operational Requirements of the AU/ASF Logistics
Depots, the following are to be determined:
Вѓ
Вѓ
Вѓ
Вѓ
A specific location for any depot should be coordinated between the regional HQ and
the AU.
Initial cost and resources needed to establish the depots.
Discussions with partners for the funding of the continental/regional depots.
Full-scale creation and implementation of the depot
Terms and Conditions of Depot Use:
An operational agreement between the AU Secretariat and the member states that offer a
continental depot facility shall be the foundation document that will allow AU and partners to
establish and manage the depots. Each region will determine the offered facilities by
member states. In the case that the offered state within a region can not be determined by
member states, the AU shall decide. The terms and conditions of use may include, but not
limited to the following:
Вѓ Open access to the facility
Вѓ Free-movement of personnel and equipment in association with depot operations
Вѓ External, perimeter, and internal security
Вѓ Waiver of fees and other over-head costs for depot operations
Вѓ Ability to improve and/or modify the existing facility
Вѓ Relationship with and under local labour laws
Вѓ Consideration for transportation operations (air, land, and sea)
Вѓ Other points of significance to improve the activity of the depot and support to
AU/ASF PSO missions
Establishment of a Depot Fund
Among the operational requirements will be the creation of an operational Depot Fund. The
Fund will be used to receive contributed capital for depot operations to include salaries,
improvements, procurement, transportation and other costs associated with day-to-day
operations. The Depot Fund will also be used to conduct specific authorized PSOs within
the mandate of the depot. Finally, the Fund will be controlled and managed by the Depot
Commander, representatives of the partners, and on-site technical advisors. Envisioned is
that the fund will provide the baseline of operational costs and replenished by partners in
compliance with international support agreements.
FUNCTIONS AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE DEPOTS
Mission – AU Continental/Regional Logistics Depots: In compliance with the AU
logistics vision and the enabling logistics strategies, the AU Continental/Regional Logistics
Depots are designed with the overarching mission to provide all levels of PSO logistics
support and services in the areas of supply, services, maintenance, general support, and
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training for future AU/ASF PSOs in the continent. Essentially, the depots will provide the
core and backbone logistics support, services, and development to and for PSO efforts and
to the emerging ASF. The ASF development should be critically linked to the AU’s ASF
capability. Thus, a primary thrust is a capability to effectively and efficiently support the
creation and sustainment of the ASF as it performs its continental and regional missions.
Functions – AU Continental/Regional Logistics Depots: The AU Continental/Regional
Logistics Depots should be a multi-tasked and multi-functional logistics operation. As such,
the scope of supply, support, and services to be provided to the AU should be consolidated
for effectiveness. By design, numerous functions are to be provided by the logistics depot,
which include the following:
Вѓ Accountability and Material Management: A centralized, AU controlled and operated
facility to receive, store, and issue materials, supplies, end-items, and other
commodities. Operationally, it should be a managed operation that provides total
and complete accountability of received, stored, and issued materials, supplies, enditems, and other commodities.
Вѓ Maintenance: The AU/Regional Depots are the centralized AU/ASF logistic facilities
which should offer a wide range of maintenance services to and for AU operations.
Among the services will include:
o General textile repair for uniforms, tents and tent equipment, and other textile
items.
o General equipment maintenance (e.g., hand trucks, MHE, generators,
specialized equipment, bulldozers, road-graders, WP equipment, etc) and
other equipment.
o Other equipment maintenance including signal, generators, and other AU
equipment or components.
Вѓ Training: As a critical function, hands-on training will be a thrust of the AU Depots.
Training will include, but not limited to, areas such as:
o Supply training in areas of inventory accountability for the storage, receipt, and
disperse at the wholesale and retail levels.
o Water purification, production, storage, and disperse including the repair and
maintenance of equipment.
o Signal communication in the repair, use, maintenance of communication
equipment, consumable and non-consumable materials and supplies.
o Transportation training at all levels will be offered to include driver’s training,
convoy operations, and other related activities, including air and sea planning
and operations.
o Maintenance will be a critical function of the AU Continental/Regional Depots.
Included will be all levels of vehicle and equipment maintenance training.
Critical to this effort will be a �core staff’ of training maintenance personnel to
provide the training.
o Engineer training will provide basic and advance training in the construction
techniques and engineer equipment usage in support of PSO missions.
o Fuels management (receipt, storage, and issues) training will be offered.
o Other areas will include hands-on training to those who are involved in PSO
operations.
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Вѓ
Services: The AU Continental/Regional Depots, as the centralized logistic facilities for
AU/ASF, will offer a wide range of functional services to and for PSOs. Among the
services will include:
o Transport services to include, planning, packing, creating, and shipping
services via air, sea, and land conveyances.
o General services to PSO in the areas of procurement, financial accounting,
contracting, and reporting. The most important will be contracting and
procurement of heavy lift and other assets required for the deployment of the
ASF.
o Human resource management for on-site and contracted depot personnel or in
support of PSO missions.
o Other services as required to provide supply, services, and support to AU PSO
efforts.
Вѓ Security: The AU Continental/Regional Logistics Depots will provide total perimeter
and interior security for the over-all facility and allow specialized �sub-storage’ areas
as required.
Вѓ Other functions as required to support directly or indirectly all AU PSO missions.
Organization of the AU Continental/Regional Depots:
The following diagram displays the organization structure for the command, control, and
management of the AU Continental/Regional Depots. Key is the functional level managers
to guide, direct, and oversee the key efforts of the Depot. As a critical component is the
active involvement of the partners in promoting and facilitating the success of the facility.
An on-site Civilian Logistics Advisor should provide assistance and interface with the global
community and facilitates implementation schedules.
Partners
Civ Log Advisor
Depot Cdr
Deputy Cdr
Security
Personnel
Logistics
Operations
Finance
Material
Management
Transportation
Maintenance
Operations
Training
The following charts show the subordinate staffing level required to the conduction and
completion of the missions and functions assigned to the AU Continental/Regional Logistic
Depots.
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Deputy Depot Commander (1)
Total =
(37)
General Staff (2)
Installation Management (2)
Power (4)
Water (3)
Sanitation (3)
Comms (3)
Billeting (3)
Dining Facility (16)
Deputy
Depot
Depot
Commander
Commander
(1) (1)
Staff (2)
Chief of Security (1)
Day Shift (25)
Night Shift (25)
Total =
(82)
Mid Shift (25)
21
Patrols (6)
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Director
Chief
of Logistics
of Logistics
Operations
Operations
(1)(1)
Admin/Supply (6)
Support & Services (5)
Operations (5)
Safety (2)
Total =
(30)
Plans (4)
Inspections (6)
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Director
Chief
of Material
of Material
Management
Management
(1)(1)
Admin/Supply (6)
Inventory Control (4)
Warehousing (25)
Issue (6)
General Repair (6)
Engineer (15)
Vehicles (20)
Movement Control (4)
Plans/Ops (6)
Light Cargo (8)
Total =
(68)
Textile (10)
Comms & Signal (10)
Chief of Transportation (1)
Admin/Supply (6)
Receiving (6)
Packing & Crating (4)
Director
Chief
of Maintenance
of Maintenance
Operations
Operations
(1)(1)
Admin/Supply (6)
Total =
(53)
Total =
(68)
Contracts (2)
Heavy & Med Cargo (12)
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Chief of Personnel (1)
Admin (3)
Records (3)
Total =
(14)
Payroll (3)
HR/Recruiting (4)
Chief of Finance (1)
Audit (2)
Total =
(16)
Finance (5)
Procurement/Contracts (5)
Payroll/Disbursements (3)
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Chief of Security (1)
Day Shift (25)
Night Shift (25)
Total =
(82)
Mid Shift (25)
Patrols (6)
As seen above, under the Depot Commander are staff, such as secretary and aide to the
Depot Commander.
Under the Deputy Depot Commander are the installation management, who will be
responsible for the daily operations of the depot including power, water sanitation billeting
etc, plus secretaries.
Under the Chief of Logistics Operations are subordinate staffs who will be responsible for
support and services, operations, inspection which will be conducted to the ASF units’
pledges by Member States in term of their level of readiness, etc.
Under the Chief of Material management are subordinate staffs that will handle inventory
control of supplies, materials and end-items, issues, warehousing, etc.
Subordinate staff under the Chief of Training will handle all aspects of logistics support –
oriented technical and specialized training. For example, maintenance, supply,
communications and signal, etc.
Under the Chief Security Officer are subordinate staffs that will be responsible for all the
internal and external perimeter of the Depot complex.
Subordinate staffs under the Chief of Maintenance Operations will be responsible for all
general repairs, vehicles, engineering, etc.
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The subordinate staffs under the Chief of Personnel will be responsible for recruiting,
records and payroll internal to the depot.
The staffs under the Chief of Finance will be responsible for procurement, contract services
for heavy lift of sea, air movement of supplies, materials and end-user item to the area of
operations.
The staffs under the Chief Transportation Officer will be responsible for movement of Light,
medium and heavy cargo including plans and operations.
Strategic Partners
The Strategic Partners are the single most important function required for the effective and
efficient operation and growth of the PSO Depot. As reflected below, the partners provide
the primary and continuous interface between themselves and the Depot command and
staff. The partner-provided, on-site civilian logistics advisor(s) provides highly technical
information and assistance to the Depot Commander and the functional staff. Additionally,
the Logistic Advisory provides an on-site, day-to-day capability to determine operational
requirements for partner consideration and funding.
Comprised of:
partners, and stakeholders
,
Partners
• Continuity of support
• Resolution of requirements
• Interface point for donors
• Over-sight of donor contributions
• International coordination
• Quarterly meetings
• Funding resolution
• Provisioning, etc.
International expert (s) in all
fields of logistic operations.
Depot Cdr
Civ Log Advisor(s)
• On-site --• Technical assistance
• Continuity of support
• Technical evaluations
• Resolution of requirements
• Interface point for donors
• Advisor to Depot Cdr
SUMMARY – THE AU CONTINENTAL/REGIONAL LOGISTICS DEPOTS CONCEPT AND
OPERATIONS
The AU Continental/Regional Logistics Depots are the single, centralized, strategic logistics
support infrastructure for AU PSO efforts. The Depot is designed with the functions that are
capable of providing all levels logistics support and services in the areas of supply,
maintenance, services, general support, and training for future AU/ASF missions. Finally,
the AU Continental/Regional Logistics Depots are the single strategic logistics �enabler’ for
the creation, development, and support of the ASF and PSO efforts.
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ANNEX A: PROPOSED LOGISTIC SUPPORT CONCEPT
Strategic Area (Home Base)
Operational Area
Tactical Area
Comd Responsibility
Rear Base Comd
Log Support Gp Comd
Node 1
Reg
Logs SP
Bn
Regional
Depot
Strategic Reserve
Industry
AU
Depot
Node 2
Partners
POE
Contracts
Task
4
Reg
Units
3
Task
2
POD
/FAA
THEATRE
LOGISTICS
BASE
LSG HQ
Reg
Logs SP
Bn
PLANELM
Info
Reg
Units
Coupling Bridge
Reg
AU
PSOD
Reg
Logs SP
Bn
FORCE
HQ
Reg
Units
1
1.1
1
3rd Line
Line Of Communication
Fig 1: Logistic Support Organisation for Single/Multi-brigade Operations
2nd Line
1st Line
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FIG
1
1.1
2.
3.
4.
Node 1 –
Node 2 –
POE –
POD –
Coupling
bridge
LSG
1
LEGEND
Comms flow for tasking between Force HQ and AU PSOD.
Comms flow for info
Comms flow for tasking between PSOD and regional PLANELM
Comms flow between regional PLANELM and regional Depot
Comms flow for tasking between AU PSOD and AU Depot
Asset tracking Point by rear base commander
Asset Tracking Point by Force Logistics Component commander
Point of Embarkation for transiting goods assets into theatre
Point of Disembarkation for reception of Assets into theatre
LOC between POE and POD.
Log Sp Gp HQ
Communication Channels
Movement of logistic support Assets
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Annex B
Assumption Concerning the AU Continental/Regional Logistics Depots
1.
Partners will provide the funds to recruit and hire the staff required to
operate the depot in an effective and efficient manner. Additionally, the
partners will provide the funds to conduct depot operations.
2.
Partners will donate supplies, materials, and end-items to form the
baseline initial inventory.
3.
Partners will provide the technical expertise to assist the Depot staff in the
creation and implementation of operational procedures and processes.
Such assistance is expected in the form of on-site technical personnel to
teach, train, and/or mentor the Depot staff as required. Key areas will
include, but not limited to, finance, accountings, material control, repair
and maintenance, transportation and movement control, training and
training management.
4.
A Partners Advisory Board will be formed and actively participate in the
development and stocking, re-stocking, and supplying the AU
Continental/Regional Logistics Depots with funds, physical resources
(e.g., supplies, materials, and end-items), and technical assistance in
order to create a fully functional depot.
5.
The AU Continental/Regional Logistics Depots will establish the logistic
related policies, procedures, and processes for logistics to include, but not
limited to, equipment standardization and commonality, accountability and
inventory control, procurement and funding, donations, retail and unit-level
inventory and stock levels, transportation and movement control (e.g., air,
sea, and land), user-level equipment certifications and training, and other
support areas.
6.
The AU Continental/Regional Logistics Depots is considered a �strategic’
asset of the AU, and is designed to provide wholesale logistics support
and services to AU PSO efforts, including the ASF.
7.
While the ASF is being developed and established, the AU
Continental/Regional Logistics Depots will be the �wholesale’ inventory
points and the primary sources, through partner-provided items, of
equipping the ASF. However, bilateral support to specific member state’s
units is acceptable.
8.
When the ASF is deployed, the AU Continental/Regional Logistics Depots
will be the �wholesale’ inventory point while the LOG unit of the ASF will be
the �retail’ inventory point.
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9.
The AU Continental/Regional Logistics Depots will determine and
establish �standardization’ criteria of materials, supplies, end-items for
PSO efforts. That is, the Depot will determine the AU strategic policy
regarding logistics.
10.
Logistics oriented, hands-on training will be conducted by the Depot for
ASF support and logistics personnel. However, in general, unit level
training will not be conducted by the Depot. The Depot will focus on
support-oriented specialized and technical training.
11.
The Depot will receive, store, issue all classes and categories of materials,
supplies, and end-items required for PSO efforts.
12.
The Depot’s repair and maintenance operations will have repair parts and
consumable and non-consumable items on-hand to conduct efforts. It is
essential that there is a free-flow of operational, ready-to-use equipment
from the Depot to the ASF and/or PSO effort.
13.
Deployment times for the ASF are based on the six scenarios. The AU
Continental/Regional Logistics Depots will have on-hand, ready to issue
supplies, materials, and end-items to enable the 30-days and 90-days
timeline, and have a �surge capability’ available.
14.
Bilateral support provided from a partner to an individual Member State
will be coordinated with the AU Continental/Regional Logistics Depots.
The process for such coordination will be established by the Depot.
Standardization and commonality, as it is critical to the ability of the Depot
to provide long-term support (e.g., repair, maintenance, etc.), will be a key
consideration. It is thus expected that 25% of the bilateral partner support
will be earmarked for the depot’s inventory.
15.
Donated supplies, materials, and end-items will be accepted along with
sets, kits, outfits, tools, and calibration items needed to repair and
maintain the donated items. Also, training, repair, and technical manuals
will be included with the donation in the required languages.
16.
In that rapid response is required during times of conflict. The concept is
that all available stocks of items are under the direct control of depot.
When a mission is required and the ASF deploys, the AU centralized
location for supplies, materials, and equipment will be in General Support
to the deploying force.
17.
UN Standard: All elements, units, and staffs are designed based upon the
UN standard for structures, modified for the reality of AU requirements and
types of operations.
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18.
Units are expected to be national, trained, and capable of managing
issues supplies, materials, and end-items.
19.
Unit equipment is generally expected to be standardized for the ASF. It is
recommended that partner donated equipment be standardized by the
partners for ASF utilization.
20.
Once a Warning Order is issued for an ASF deployment, funds must be
provided. A key assumption is that once notified by that warning order,
the AU Continental/Regional Logistics Depots will have the funds available
to begin the process of mobilizing support and services.
21.
Units will be deployed by a source not within the unit strengths: That is,
heavy lift will be contracted through the depot’s procurement and
contracting office and used to deploy units and equipment. That is, if
needed, AN-124 and other aircraft may be contracted by the depot to
provide heavy lift.
22.
Supplies, materials, and end-items will be on-hand at the AU
Continental/Regional Logistics Depots. Given the nature of the rapid
deployment and the unknown duration of the military operation, a key
assumption is that the Depot is established and fully stocked with
materials, supplies, and end-items to immediately begin re-supply efforts
to the deployed ASF.
23.
In the design and development of the ASF structure a key consideration
was that logistics is the most critical requirement prior to robust peace
operation. Accordingly, in the initial stages (e.g., the first 90-days), the
logistics units will operate from a centralized locations. Although not
assumed, the logistics units could, after the initial 90-days, begin to
conduct split-base operations (i.e., establish two of more support bases)
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CHAPTER 8
ASF
LOGISTIC
VALIDATION
1.
TRAINING,
EVALUATION
AND
INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this chapter is to serve as guidelines for the AU/RECs/Regions in
the planning and control of training activities for logistics of the ASF PSO. They
provide a framework for all levels of the training in a coordinated and harmonized
manner.
They are conceived to be flexible, diversified and adjusted according to the
situation. The areas to be considered are:
•
•
•
•
•
2.
The aim and objectives of ASF logistics training;
The training principles;
The types and levels of training process;
The training responsibilities;
The funding;
AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF ASF LOG TRAINING
a.
The aim of the training is to prepare logistics personnel to conduct
peace support operations within a multinational environment.
b.
The objectives of the logistics training are:
•
To provide all logistics personnel with the technical, tactical and
specialized knowledge to guarantee successful operations in an
ASF multinational mission.
•
To plan and execute the logistics in a United Nations PSO type of
mission.
•
To plan and coordinate the logistics support with international,
governmental and non-governmental organizations.
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3.
4.
TRAINING
GUIDELINES
•
The training will be based on AU guidelines and documents.
•
The training should
responsiveness.
•
The training should be given in the most cost effective way.
•
The training should be planned in a logical, iterative and
progressive way.
•
The training plan should define the resources needed for each
activity.
•
The training must be in an integrated manner in order to increase
co-operation and coordination within the framework of
multidisciplinary and multidimensional peace support operations.
•
The training will take into account real events in the international
environment.
•
The training may include external participants when these
contribute to its goals and objectives.
improve
operational
readiness
and
TYPES OF TRAINING
Logistics involves comprehensive training to support the Military
Component,
Police Component, Military observers, Civilian component, Senior
Management Mission staff and all other required elements of a
Multidimensional peace support mission.
(This write up will concentrate on the military aspect)
a. Basic
Logistics
Training
Basic logistics training (techniques/skills) should be carried out by the
TCCs in their national institutions. This could be on bilateral
arrangements, either nationally or internationally. The subject areas
should
include
the
following:
•
•
•
Integrated Logistics Support
Supply
Transport
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Repair, recovery and maintenance
Air operations
Movement Control
Medical
Communications and Information technology (IT)
Engineering
Ammunition and explosives
Property Control and Inventory Unit (PCIU)
Board of Inquiry (BOI) /Claims matters
Environmental protection
Logistics intelligence
b. Basic Peace Support Logistic Training (Pre-deployment Training).
This type of training is provided to:
•
•
•
•
Individuals and Units (Basic logistic training oriented to the
mission will be continued);
Staff officers-related training e.g. Host Nation Support
(HNS),
Mission
Support
Organisation,
Property
management system, Financial system and Logistics Plans
and 0perations;
Logistics staff of the PLANELM;
Reporting System
c. Continuation of Training in the Mission Area
In addition to the individual, unit and collective training in the areas
outlined above different types of exercises (CPX, FTX) may be carried
out as per the following examples:
• changes to existing procedures may be implemented, when
new equipment is introduced into the theatre,
• orientation training on supply, repair, recovery, and
maintenance system in the mission area
• MEDEVAC
• Additional training as mandated from time to time by the
Force Commander.
5.
RESPONSIBILITIES FOR TRAINING
a.
AU
Level
The African Union has to determine the major guidelines of the ASF
logistics training policy. They will harmonize and co-ordinate training
activities in the area of logistics in accordance with UN standards, and in
liaison with the training centres of Excellence, through African Peace
Support Trainers Association (APSTA).
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The AU will be responsible for the provision of specialised training to the
senior management personnel of the ASF doctrine and the logistics
support concept. Training opportunities will be given through high level
workshops, conferences, courses and seminars.
b. REC/REGIONAL level
Regional Economic Communities (RECs)/ Regions will, in coordination
with the AU, complement national training on basic PSO logistic training:
•
•
•
Relevant Centres of Excellence;
Organising logistics base exercises (MEDFLAG)
Managing the senior management at hand and identifying the
resources earmarked for specialised training of future military
and political leaders for peace support operations;
Monitor, control and evaluate the training of the PSO logistic
components.
•
c. National Level
PSO logistics training is primarily the responsibility of States, and should
include:
•
•
•
•
d.
Normal logistics and technical training;
Basic training on PSO logistics;
Field training exercises;
All necessary activities for force preparation.
Centres
of
Excellence
The centres of excellence in the areas of strategic, operational and tactical
should
cater
for
logistic
training
as
applicable
6.
FUNDING
The funding for basic training will generally be the responsibility of the nations,
RECs/Regions and AU. In addition to this there may be bilateral and multilateral
arrangements with donors particularly to provide support in the areas of field
exercises. These arrangements will need coordination by AU/RECs/Regions to
avoid duplication of efforts.
EVALUATION AND VALIDATION
7.
AIM.
The aim of Evaluation and Validation is to provide a systematic
mechanism
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that will confirm the logistics support system for the ASF to conduct PSO.
8. OBJECTIVES.
The objectives of the evaluation and validation of the logistic system should
include:
To assess reception, staging, onward Movement and Integration (RSOI) coordination;
To assess movement control; management of access, basing and over flight
(ABO);
To assess control of common classes of supplies including fuel and
infrastructure;
To assess management of medical and health service support;
To evaluate ToEs and ASF logistic equipment;
a. To validate and recommend modifications of the Doctrine and
Organisation of the ASF logistic support concept;
b. To evaluate the capability of the logistics system to sustain the ASF
c. To evaluate the Command and management of the ASF
9. GUIDELINES
FOR
TNA.
A comprehensive evaluation and validation of Logistics Training cannot be done
until after the holistic Training Needs Analysis which the AU has agreed to
outsource to a training centre of excellence. This notwithstanding, the following
guidelines
are
offered
for
the
Logistics
TNA:
a. Identification
of
Logistics
Training
requirements/needs.
b. Operational Task Statement (OTS) for logistic needs to be
prepared in accordance with the six AU scenarios.
c. Levels of evaluation and validation should be as per the ASF
Evaluation
and
Validation
draft
policy.
d. The evaluation and validation process should be the responsibility
of the AU and RECs/Regions. This should be taken on board by the
TNA
process.
e. It is the responsibility of the AU and the RECs/Regions to develop
the capacity to conduct evaluation and validation by 2007, which
should include inspection/assessment visits. A logistics capability
should
be
included.
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f. Force
Generation
Workshop
(logistics).
g. Liaison with Training Centres of Excellence to ensure training
standards.
h. Generic Training plan.
Вѓ Individual.
Вѓ Unit.
Вѓ Collective.
Вѓ CPX/FTX
10. OBSERVATIONS (TRAINING AND EVALUATION)
a. The command and control chain in the logistics support concept is not
clear
b. Training for the civilian component and police is not included.
c. An exhaustive list of continuing training in theatre was not produced.
d. There is no existing training and evaluation process for logistics.
11.
RECOMMENDATIONS
AND
WAY
AHEAD
a. Before a training plan can be implemented it is essential to know types of
Equipment owned by the TCCs, which could be determined at the force
generation Workshop
b. The ASF should develop a standard Brigade TOE based on TCCs existing
capabilities.
c. Training for the civilian component including Police needs to be developed
d.
An exhaustive list of continuing training in theatre needs to be produced.
e. A TNA process needs to include logistics training.
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CHAPTER 9
DRAFT LOGISTICS SOP
SOP 5.01 – INTRODUCTION
These SOP have been developed in accordance with the draft ASF logistic Concept.
The purpose of the Logistics SOP is to serve as:
a. A quick reference before consulting relevant Logistic Directives.
b. An outline framework and concept of Logistical support for ASF PSO by
observers and force troops.
Specific details of Logistic organisation and support will be laid out in Force (Mission)
Logistic Directives and SOP.
The mission support encompasses all aspects which contribute to the execution of ASF
operations:
a.
Administrative support: resource management, force generation and
others (discipline, medal, pension).
b.
Financial support: budget, finances, procurement and contracts.
c.
Logistical support.
d.
Communications and data processing support.
e.
Air operations support.
f.
Maritime operations support
This part of the SOP focuses on Logistical support for PSO, which is a precondition for
sound and successful operations. The planning of it is a specialised, controlled and
systematised discipline that takes a lot of time.
The operations of ASF peace support forces will be supported by sizeable military and
civilian Logistics organisations.
Some aspects of logistic support will be provided by the TCCs. Reimbursement of TCCs
for their contributions will be carried out in line with ASF Reimbursement Policy4.
4 Chapter 10 ASF logistic management
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SOP 5.02- BUDGET PLANNING
Military commanders and staff on ASF Mission, contingent and unit HQs should
understand the process of budgeting in order to be able to systematically project
requirements in time and control consumptions within budgetary allocations. .
The finance and budget system for ASF missions will be transparent, accurate and
regularly updated. However, budgetary appropriations will be made on a quarterly basis
to meet operational, administrative and logistic requirements for:
a.
Personnel allowances at ASF stipulated rates.
b.
Travel and movement plans.
c.
Schedule of operational, administrative and logistic meetings and conferences,
including mission social activities.
d.
Purchases of equipment and materiel that are not provided through TCC or
partner contributions.
e.
Maintenance of serviceable equipment and materiel, and replacement of
unserviceable equipment and materiel.
f.
Payment of leases, furnishings, utilities, insurance covers and breakages, and
reimbursements for medical, travel and other expenses.
g.
Office supplies and consumables.
h.
Official telephone bills.
i.
POL.
j.
10% contingency of all purchases.
Sub-Allotments. Sub-Allotments will be established from budget estimates of
requirements and priorities and divided into expenditure groups, which will be further
divided into objects of expenditure. Mission HQ will control Sub-Allotments within main
groups. Any changes within these are to be reported to AU / REC/Region HQ. However,
changes in Sub-Allotments between main expenditure groups first have to be approved
by AU / REC/Region HQ.
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SOP 5.05 MANAGEMENT AND ACCOUNTING OF EQUIPMENT
Management. The Management of equipment is aimed at the delivery of items
according to a distribution plan, renewal and redistribution of resources. It should also
ensure economies of scale.
Accounting. Accounting is an implementation responsibility of the force commander
and civil and other administrative staff in an ASF mission. It is executed by specialist
officers at each level of command. It consists of inventory of equipment. The accounting
process is aimed at:
a.
Providing accurate knowledge of the equipment at all levels
b.
Identification of personnel in charge of supervision and accounting
c.
Issue and implementation of clear and simple written procedures to
determine responsibilities in case of loss or damage
d.
Control of quality and quantity
Categories.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
Vehicles (wheeled and tracked).
Communication equipment.
Weapons.
Optics.
Information Technology items, including Global Positioning System.
Furniture.
Clothing.
Fire fighting equipment
Engineering equipment.
Maintenance tools.
Medical equipment
Contingent-Owned Equipment (COE). COE is equipment brought to the mission area
by a combat, combat support or logistic unit of a TCC. There are prior agreements
between the ASF and TCCs for such equipment before deployment in ASF missions.
Governments providing such equipment may be reimbursed.
Regional-Owned Equipment (REGOE). It is equipment brought to the mission area by a
unit of a REC/Region. There are prior agreements between the ASF and REC/Regions
for such equipment before deployment in ASF missions. REC/Regions providing such
equipment may be reimbursed.
ASF-Owned Equipment (ASFOE). It includes all equipment less COE and REGOE.
Exclusions. Accounting of equipment does not concern:
a.
COE
b.
REGOE
c.
Consumables
d.
Items at a unit cost price of less than $10
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Accountability. Accountability for the use, handling and storage of equipment can be
invoked in order to compel a proper handling at all levels within ASF missions. The
overall responsibility of the force commander, civil and other administrative staff in an
ASF mission includes three levels of accountability as:
a.
Accounting officer
b.
Accountable officer
c.
Holder-user.
Tasks of the accounting officer. The accounting officer is in charge of equipment
inventory, distribution and control. He receives the equipment on behalf of his
command. He issues distribution orders according to distribution plans or specific
orders. He checks the quality and the quantity of the equipment against the relevant
documents, consulting a specialist if required.
The accountable officer. The accountable officer is responsible for the management
and maintenance of equipment provided to him/her for the execution of the mission.
This is a general accountability in the line of a commander’s duty. He may be held
indirectly accountable in case of loss or damage of the equipment in his command, if he
has demonstrated an absence of control or guidance. He/she shall determine the direct
accountability of the holder-user.
The holder-user. The holder-user is the person who uses the equipment permanently
or from time to time. He/she can be held accountable directly in case of loss or damage.
In case the equipment is borrowed to another organization, e.g. to Police, the
beneficiary will be considered holder-user for the duration of the assignment.
Categories of accountability in case of loss/damage of equipment.
a.
Circumstantial: Due to unpredictable or inevitable facts, e.g. inclement
weather or attacks. No one shall be held accountable.
b.
Normal Service: In the normal line of duty. No one shall be held
accountable, provided that all regulations, instructions and orders have
been followed. If not so, there has to be proof of neglect before personal
accountability can be invoked.
c.
Intentional: personal accountability will be invoked, provided that there is
enough proof.
Procedures. At each level of command SOPs have to be developed in order to ensure
the execution of distribution plans, the completion of Tables of Equipment (TOE),
registration, appointment of accountants, redistribution, write-offs and course of action
in case of damage or loss.
Boards of Survey. Boards of Survey govern the disposal of non-expendable stores
and equipment.
Hand-over. Commanders of incoming and outgoing contingents/units/individuals are
responsible for the proper hand-over/take-over of ASFOE, REGOE and COE, the latter
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being in accordance with national regulations. Where it is not possible for the incoming
and outgoing contingents, units and individuals to rotate simultaneously, an officer will
be detailed by ASF Headquarters as an accounting officer to take over the equipment,
with the necessary adjustment, if necessary before hand-over at a later date.
On completion of hand-over/take-over, a comprehensive Equipment Status Report
(In/Out Survey States) for both ASF stores and COE, listing all discrepancies with
appropriate comments, will be submitted to ASF headquarters.
Letters of Assist (LOA). The LOA facility is a request by a TCC and authorization by
the AU /REC/Region for the following assistance:
a.
Replacement of obsolete equipment, or equipment Beyond Economic
Repair (BER) after prolonged deployment in the mission area.
b.
Essential items not available through the normal ASF logistic system but
available from home country. As a contractual obligation, the ASF agrees
to purchase the goods and services from the government or to authorise it
to supply the goods or services to the mission area subject to goods and
services provided.
c.
Depreciation of equipment in accordance with agreed guidelines.
Inventory. The inventory of ASF stores and equipment held by contingents, units and
individuals will be made:
a.
On rotation.
b.
On transfer or posting from one command more than three months after
the last inspection.
c.
On/during preparation for departure from the mission area.
d.
On other occasions as may be required by the ASF mission.
Write Off and Condemnation.
ASF Headquarters will delegate authority to
appropriate commanders and staff of ASF missions to establish procedures for write-off
and condemnation within the following framework for submission of write-off cases:
a.
Deficiencies disclosed at monthly stocktaking.
b.
Deficiencies due to break-in and thefts.
c.
Losses discovered immediately or shortly after occurrences.
d.
Defence stores used in construction or repair of defence works.
e.
Items completely destroyed by unpredictable or inevitable facts, e.g.
inclement weather, fire or attacks, etc.
f.
Shortages/damages discovered on receipt of incoming shipments.
g.
Items condemned, as authorized by the ASF.
h.
Deficiencies disclosed by contingent stockages on change of command,
although in this case, the TCC may be held financially liable for the loss,
as also with the case of (i) and (j) below.
i.
Deficiencies disclosed in contingent holdings by inspection.
j.
Deficiencies in stocks held in storage at ASF Headquarters as disclosed
by stocktaking.
k.
Worn-out stores and equipment (fair wear and tear).
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Disposal. All items will be fully utilized until the usable economic life has expired,
except in exceptional cases, which must be documented. To this end, no item shall be
submitted for disposal unless it has been properly condemned in accordance with
established ASF procedures, including Boards of Survey procedures. Disposal of ASF
mission equipment will then fall into one of these categories. However, partner
organizational equipment need to be authorized by the partner.
a.
Sale of scrap material.
b.
Sale of condemned stores.
c.
Sale of scrap parts.
d.
Sale of excess stocks of various types.
e.
Destruction of non-serviceable security stores.
f.
Destruction of ammunition and explosives.
g.
Destruction of communication equipment of all types and weapons.
h.
Destruction of items of no sales value (excluding ammunition).
The following categories of items will not normally be disposed off by sale, but by total
destruction:
a.
Ammunition and explosives.
b.
Military communication and allied equipment, including spares.
c.
Weapons or parts.
d.
Non-serviceable supply items, such as berets, caps, flags, badges,
insignia, etc.
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SOP 5.06 SUPPLY
Definition. Supply is defined as the reception, storage and distribution of consumables
and non-consumables, including the determination of type and quantity. Supply covers
also salvage and disposal of materiel and spare parts. Its aim is to support and sustain
the forces in the mission. In the supply organization a special cell takes care of the
procurement, while transportation and movement is done by transportation and
movement cell.
Supply Operations. Supply is organised on a continuous basis. It goes without saying
that at every level a balance has to be found between costs and effectiveness of the
supply system. Certain classes of materiel must be stored in order to prevent pilfering,
accidents (fire, explosions and pollution) or damage. Consumption rates and estimates
determine the supply planning leading to a sustainment plan of action. Security stocks
are built up in order to cope with shortages due to meteorological conditions,
deterioration of the security situation and other external factors. The unit to measure
security stocks is Day of Supply (DoS). The DoS is defined as follows:
a.
Food and water: 3 component rations plus XX litres of bottled water for
cooking and drinking per man per day.
b.
Fuel: Based on average consumption per unit in mВі, to be calculated by
the
Joint Logistics Operation Center (JLOC) (supply cell).
c.
Ammunition: based on specific TCC consumption. ASF may define a
maximum tonnage due to air transportation and storage considerations.
Before deployment, the ASF will impose standards for security stocks, to be detailed in
MOU and TCC guidelines for ammunition and, if necessary, for food and water. The
ASF will take charge of fuel security stocks.
Methods of Supply. There are three methods of supply:
a.
Push: Replenishment is based on anticipated requirements or standard
consumption rates (according to sustainment plan). This enables an
efficient use of transportation assets but requires a certain extra stocks
level in case of an increase in consumption.
b.
Pull: Replenishment is based on demand from the supported unit. This is
only possible with a reactive transportation system but allows a lower
stocks level.
c.
Directed: In case of uncertainty or during peaks and troughs, the
commander may need to operate a more pro-active supply system using a
concept of distribution-based logistics for inventory and stockpiling.
ASF mission supplies will rely on the push-pull system.
Responsibility of an ASF Mission HQ.
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a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Determine the level of security stocks according to the replenishment and
storage constraints specific to each sector.
Together with the contractor(s) set up a sustainment plan based on
defined consumption rates for food, water, POL etc.
Organise replenishment with the transportation and movement cell
according to the sustainment plan or sector demands.
Follow consumption rates and adapt supply accordingly.
Develop and issue SOPs for security stocks level, storage conditions for
ammunition, POL, food, water; delivery and accounting for consumables;
reports and returns on supplies.
Responsibility of Sectors.
a.
Follow consumption rates and security stocks in order to report changes.
b.
Make timely requests for supply.
c.
Check storage conditions.
d.
Check deliveries, especially of consumables and be able to account for
them.
e.
Liaise with contractors.
Responsibility of Contractors.
a.
Food and potable water: Contractors are responsible for storage,
accounting and delivery of 16kg/man/week, while ASF takes care of the
transportation.
b.
Compo rations (MRE): To Be Determined.
c.
Sanitation water: Contractors to provide this from wells or from on-site
supply.
d.
Jet A1: Contractors are responsible for delivery and for storage in tanks.
ASF mission HQ has to provide on-call escort for road transportation.
Aircraft operators take care of aircraft refuelling. ASF mission HQ is
charged to check fuel stock levels.
e.
POL: Contractors are responsible for delivery, storage and accounting.
ASF mission HQs are to provide on-call escort and check POL stocks.
Responsibility of TCCs.
a.
Ammunition: supply is a national responsibility. TCC deploy with sufficient
DOS, following ASF guidelines or bilateral MOUs.
b.
Spare parts for TCC equipment: similar procedures apply.
Special Arrangements.
a.
Batteries for equipment: ASF mission HQ specific procedures apply.
b.
Commercial shop items (toothpaste, cigarettes etc): ASF will supply where
there are no commercial facilities available.
c.
Engineering materials: ASF specific procedures, when written, will apply.
Post-Deployment Requisitions and Supplies. Where units continue to be responsible
for their supplies after deployment, re-supply becomes a national responsibility. The
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ASF may, however, assume responsibility for the re-supply of contingents, in part or in
whole, by prior agreement, for the following items:
a.
Special equipment or supply required under certain circumstances which
have been recommended by an ASF mission HQ and approved by the
ASF HQ for procurement.
b.
Expendable items, in accordance with approved scales of issue.
c.
Spare parts, maintenance, POL, for motor transport and other mobile
equipment, if such equipment is authorised as part of the vehicle
establishment.
d.
Personal clothing in the form of ASF uniforms in accordance with
approved ASF scales of issue.
e.
Communication services, including costs of transport and supply of
authorised equipment.
f.
Billeting and rations for troops, including rental, leases, and maintenance
of premises (this does not include utensils and cookers which are
authorised as part of every contingent’s establishment).
SOP 5.07 MAINTENANCE
Definition. Maintenance includes the following:
a. All action taken to retain materiel or to restore it to a specified condition. It
includes inspection, testing servicing, classification as to serviceability, repair,
rebuilding and reclamation.
b. All supply and repair action taken to keep a force in condition to carry out its
mission.
c. The routine recurring work required to keep a facility (plant, building, structure,
ground facility, utility system or other real property) in such condition that may be
continuously utilized, at its original or designed capacity and efficiency, for its
intended purpose.
Aim. Maintenance aims at:
a.
Retaining equipment or restoring it to specified conditions, including
inspections, tests, servicing, defining level of serviceability, repairs,
rebuilding and reclamations.
b.
Recovery of equipment after breakdown in the field.
c.
Storage of equipment for the long term.
d.
Scrapping or destruction of equipment.
Maintenance types.
a.
Repair of broken down and damaged equipment (curative).
b.
Furthering of the technical status of the equipment and avoiding
breakdown as best as possible (preventive). This type of maintenance
follows manufacturer instructions, if desired complemented by specific
ASF measures.
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Preventive maintenance prevails normally over curative maintenance in terms of
working hours (70% vs 30% of the time).
Equipment categories. For most categories, serviceability will be constantly monitored.
a.
Aircraft: will be conducted by their assigned maintenance personnel.
b.
Vehicles: Preventive by user, repair by assigned maintenance personnel.
c.
APC’s: TCCs or contractor/partner.
d.
Communication equipment: Preventive by user, repair by the ASF/provider
or TCC
e.
Weapons: Preventive by user, repair by TCC.
f.
Optical Assets: Preventive by user, repair by the ASF or TCC
g.
IT Assets: Preventive by user, repair by ASF/Contractor or TCC
h.
Furniture. Preventive by user, repair or replacement by ASF
i.
Tents and sleeping gear. Preventive by user, repair or replacement by
ASF
j.
Medical equipment: Preventive by user, repair or replacement by TCC.
Level 3 medical equipment repair or replace by contractor.
k.
Watercraft: will be conducted by their assigned maintenance personnel
Maintenance Operations. Following operational requirements, the minimum
serviceability level must be determined and upheld. In critical circumstances,
serviceability may be below 75%. Operations then may be endangered. With respect to
certain types of complicated and scarce equipment, maintenance must be planned in
conjunction with operational requirements. For other scarce categories, the average
down time must be determined for operational planning reasons. Logistics planning
aims mainly at forecasting levels of spare parts stocks and scheduling of personnel.
Further planning figures are based on manufacturer instructions. The availability of
spare parts may be negatively influenced by delays in deliveries. Accurate and costeffective stockpiling is therefore a necessity. Contractors shall be transparent in
providing relevant information.
Emergency measures. Salvage (to remove components from irreparable equipment)
or cannibalisation (likewise from repairable equipment) is not efficient. These activities
take time, may affect serviceability negatively in the long run and hide deficiencies. The
decision to take such action has to be seen as exceptional and can only be authorised
by the ASF. This implies that contractors shall not proceed unauthorised on this matter.
Quality control. Quality control is essential for safeguarding the security and the
technical status of equipment. For nearly every category of equipment, trained
personnel must be appointed for this key task. Quality control inspectors shall ensure
the following:
a.
Use of work sheets: name, time, action, spare parts used,
b.
Use of prescribed work documents, tools and spare parts,
c.
Inspections on the work quality.
Maintenance levels.
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a.
b.
c.
d.
User: Daily checks.
First line: Preventive maintenance activities and minor repairs, no need for
special tools or facilities.
Second line: Preventive maintenance that requires special tools
and facilities plus major repairs.
Third line: Manufacturer responsibility.
Maintenance responsibility of ASF.
a.
The evaluation of the condition of ASF materiel and the initiation of action
regarding its replacement.
b.
The evaluation of the maintenance support; possible actions may result in
a review of contracts or in a request for a revised contribution to TCC.
Maintenance responsibility of an ASF mission HQ.
a.
Definition and monitoring of serviceability.
b.
Redistribution of equipment after losses or after major repairs.
c.
Quality control.
d.
Exchange of information with contractors on spares, stocks and preventive
maintenance
e.
Reports to the ASF on major difficulties which impact on the technical
status of the ASF equipment or COE.
f.
Issue of SOPs on maintenance, especially recovery instructions, repair,
quality control, maintenance planning, maintenance reports and returns.
Maintenance Responsibility of Sectors. In each sector HQ an officer shall be
appointed to be in charge of:
a.
Monitoring serviceability and initiation of actions to uphold the agreed
figure.
b.
The discipline with regard to maintenance regulations.
c.
The contact with contractors at the sector level on equipment
maintenance.
d.
The checks on the vehicle books and maintenance sheets.
e.
The implementation of quality control on maintenance.
f.
Liaison with contractor on spares, stocks and their delivery.
g.
Recovery operations in liaison with contracts under the direction of ASF
mission HQ .
h.
Supervision on proper maintenance at the units.
Maintenance Responsibility of Contractors. This pertains to vehicles, tents, furniture,
sleeping gear and IT items.
a.
Preventive and curative maintenance in accordance with manufacturer
instructions.
b.
Regular written report on the headlines of maintenance, as agreed with an
ASF mission HQ.
c.
Information on use of spare parts, stocks, delivery delays, maintenance
working hours.
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d.
Build-up of spare parts stocks and tracking of deliveries.
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SOP 5.09 - MOVEMENT CONTROL AND TRANSPORTATION
Movement Control (Movcon) is a logistic function which will be undertaken by the
Logistic Branch of the AU/REC/Region in conjunction with the relevant
Transport/Movement Staff of an ASF mission HQ.
The function of the respective Movement Staff is to facilitate the movement of all
personnel and materiel by road, rail, sea and air into and out of the Mission Area and
across internal or international borders, Ceasefire Lines(CFLs), Buffer Zones( BZs),
Demilitarised Zones(DMZs) and Temporary Security Zones (TSZ) of separation. They
are also responsible for large scale non-operational movement within the area of
operations.
Within this framework, Movcon Staff will perform the following tasks:
a.
Co-ordinate and supervise planning for contingent rotations.
b.
Maintain contact and liaison with police, customs and other local
authorities at relevant railheads and terminals, sea ports, airports and
borders or crossing points.
c.
Supervise loading and unloading at rotation flights and sailings.
d.
Collect relevant documentation, manifests, etc., and pass on to
appropriate staff cells at an ASF mission HQ.
e.
Provide general planning and advice, and supervise all major nonoperational movement out of or into the Mission AOR.
f.
Process stores and cargo destined for the Mission through local
ports/airports to the AOR.
AU/REC/Region will coordinate with TCCs for the development of the detailed
deployment
plan
for
the
RSOI
of
the
Forces.
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SOP 5.10 – CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING
GENERAL.
The purpose of this SOP is to provide guidance for Construction Engineering
operations. It outlines the basic procedures that are to be followed by all
construction engineer units in the AOR.
ORGANIZATION.
The engineer organization consists of the G4 Engineer (G4 Eng.), and the
Construction engineer units.
CONCEPT OF CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING.
The Construction engineer task deriving from the OPS-orders, and unit requests
for construction engineer assistance, as well as requests from other agencies,
will be prioritised and co-ordinated by G4 Eng. Reports are to be forwarded by
units to G4 Eng. on a regular basis. As Engineer resources are always limited,
units are requested to carry out tasks they can fulfil with own personnel before
requesting engineer assistance. Engineer meetings will be held on a regular
basis.
SCOPE OF CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING.
The scope of engineering is Freedom of Movement (bridge building, road
maintenance), accommodation building (shelters, camps and OP’s), provision of
water and demining for the ASF. It also includes a number of tasks that demand
special equipment and training (fire fighting etc.).
ENGINEER INFORMATION.
Engineer Information concerning roads, bridge conditions, maintenance and
construction situation are vital for ASF operations and force protection.
CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING.
a.
Principles.
The units are responsible for planning of construction tasks and the
construction materials within their AOR for national level construction. The
ASF is responsible for providing the construction materials required for the
mission facilities (e.g. Force HQ) within the AOR.
b.
Camp establishment and maintenance.
The basic principle is that the units are responsible for their own
construction projects. Construction support for camp establishment and
maintenance will be issued after request (by using the Engineer Work
Request and Construction Materials Order forms, see Annex X to this
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SOP) to G4 Eng. This will be conducted by Mission engineer assets or
local contractors.
SOP 5.08 MEDICAL SUPPORT
Definition Medical support is to secure the health and well-being of the ASF
Deployed Force both Civilian and Military personnel through planning, coordination,
execution, monitoring and professional supervision of excellent medical care in the field.
Aim. The primary responsibility of the medical support system is the maintenance of
health through the prevention of disease and injury.
Medical support comprises all activities aimed at maintaining a healthy manpower. It
covers preventive health care for all personnel in the mission, as well as curative health
care for individuals. Its purpose is essentially:
a.
To save lives.
b.
Limiting physical and mental disabilities.
c.
Keeping up morale through good medical care and upholding high
standards with respect to medical/casualty evacuation.
d.
Prescription of hygienic measures and adopted prophylaxis to the
epidemiologic environment.
Level of medical support: this refers to a numeric designation which identifies the
functions and levels of capability a medical unit can provide.
a. Level I medical support
Refers to the kind and level of medical care that is given at that level:
casualty collection, triage and immediate life saving measures, preventive
measures against disease, non-battle injury and combat stress, routine sick
calls. It is the responsibility of the national contingents, andcorresponds to UN
classification level I. Usually provided at the following level of command:
Battalion (Army); Airbase (Air Force); frigates, destroyers and above (Navy).
Apart from those measures aimed at the conservation of the force strength,
the following core functions will be provided:
(a) Medical evacuation to level 1; and
(b) Physician managed measures for restoring and stabilising vital
functions in order to achieve fitness for further evacuation.
b. Level II medical support
Refers to the kind and level of medical care that is given at that level:
evacuation from level 1, triage resuscitation and stabilisation, sustaining
treatment of those requiring further evacuation, reinforcement to level 1
organisations, centralisation of medical supplies. This may be the responsibility of
ASF medical planning staff or of national contingents depending on the
mission. It corresponds to UN classification level II. Usually provided at the
following level of command: Brigade and Division (Army); normally combined
with level I Air Force and Naval facilities. Apart from those measures aimed at
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the conservation of the force strength, the following core functions will be
provided:
(a) medical evacuation to level II;
(b) collective facility for decontamination of Nuclear/Bacteriological/
Chemical casualties;
(c) resuscitative capability for restoring and stabilising vital functions
in order to achieve fitness for further evacuation;
(d) resupply of level I units; and
(e) medical personnel replacements.
c. Level III medical support
Refers to the kind and level of medical care at that level i.e.
(command level): evacuation from levels I and II, triage, resuscitation and
stabilisation, life and limb-saving surgery, diagnosis and treatment of serious
diseases, centralisation of diagnostic resources and of specialist surgical and
medical capabilities. It is responsibility of ASF medical planning staff. Usually
provided at the following level of command: Division/Force/Corps; local civilian
or military hospital (Air Force); afloat in hospital ships or ashore in a civilian or
military hospital (Navy). Apart from those measures aimed at the conservation
of the force strength, the following core functions will be provided:
(a) medical evacuation to level III;
(b) life and limb saving surgery;
(c) hospitalisation
(d) resupply of level II units;
(e) Medical personnel replacement.
d. Level IV medical support
Refers to the kind and level of medical care that is given at that level:
definitive care, specialist surgical and medical procedures, reconstruction,
rehabilitation and convalescence. Usually provided in the country of origin
(after repatriation). Army, Air Force, Navy: National logistic support command
level, usually home-based; for Navy also hospital ship possible. Apart from
those measures aimed at the conservation of the force strength, the following
core functions will be provided:
(a) medical evacuation to level IV;
(b) time consuming definitive treatment and rehabilitation;
(c) medical personnel replacement.
Responsibilities of AU/REC/Region. At the AU/REC/Region level, the health policy
and medical support concept will be defined. The guidelines and MOUs relevant to the
medical advise which is translated into required personnel medical status, as the
provision of specific prophylaxis (e.g. malaria preventive treatment).
Responsibility of ASF mission HQ. At an ASF mission HQ, the head of the Level 2
hospital (surgeon) is the medical advisor to the Head of the Mission (HoM) as well as
head of the medical support cell. The cell will be responsible for:
a.
Monitoring personnel health status.
b.
The organization and the effectiveness of medical support.
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c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
Establishment and supervision of health rules regarding general hygiene
and sanitation.
Coordination of casevac/medevac.
Close liaison with contractors.
Promotion of personnel training in first aid skills.
Monitoring the flow of medical supplies.
Responsibility of Sector HQs. A sector medical officer will be appointed for each
sector HQ. He/she is responsible for:
a.
Monitoring personnel health status.
b.
Treatment of sick and injured personnel.
c.
Casevac/Medevac..
d.
Promotion and enforcement of general hygiene rules and of catering
sanitation.
e.
Manning the first aid station and using the medical assets at his disposal
to sort, treat and, where necessary, evacuate the sick and the injured.
f.
Training on casualty evacuation and first aid skills.
Responsibility of TCCs. Each TCC is to provide the required medical personnel as
contained in guidelines issued by ASF. In case of medevac, the TCC will organise, in
coordination with the theatre surgeon, the repatriation of the casualty to a national or
regional Level IV facility.
CASUALTY EVAC. (CASEVAC) AND MEDICAL EVAC. (MEDEVAC).
a.
Roles.
Evacuation of the sick and wounded falls into two roles CASEVAC and
MEDEVAC:
(1)
CASEVAC – Describes the evacuation from points of injury to the
next suitable level of care. CASEVAC is the evacuation of
casualties from the point of the casualty to a field dressing station
(aid post or any level one facility), a field hospital (a level two
facility) or even to a level three facility. CASEVAC can be
performed by either air assets (usually a helicopter) or by a
vehicle designed as an ambulance.
(2)
MEDEVAC. – Describes the evacuation between the levels of
care established in theatre (intra-theatre) or to medical facilities
out of theatre (inter-theatre). Thus medical evacuation describes
the evacuation of a patient who is expected to return to duty in
theatre, and medical repatriation describes evacuation of a patient
to his home country who is not expected to return to duty in the
theatre.
MEDEVAC is the evacuation of casualties or personnel suffering
from illness from the level one facility (field dressing station or aid
post) to a level two or in some cases level three facility (a field
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b.
hospital).
MEDEVAC can be performed by either air assets
(helicopter or fixed wing) or by a vehicle designed as an
ambulance.
It is not considered an emergency nor should the patient’s life be
threatened if there is a delay in the actual performance of the
task. Should the MEDEVAC become an emergency or there is
some urgency in the treatment required at the next level then the
request should be treated the same as a CASEVAC.
Casualty evacuation
Casualty evacuation by aircraft should be given priority within an ASF
Mission area, based on request and proposal, over all other aircraft
tasking. CASEVAC by air to a hospital should be initiated when ever:
(1)
Transfer by ambulance would take too long due to the
seriousness of illness or injury.
(2)
Transfer by ambulance would take longer than arranging safe
passage clearance and dispatch of a CASEVAC mission.
(1)
Road travel would be detrimental to the casualty's medical
condition.
c.
Factors
The following factors should be taken into account before requesting air
CASEVAC:
(1)
Patient Status.
(2)
Weather.
(3)
Safe passage clearances.
(4)
Communications.
d.
Patient precedence.
(1)
Patients will be classified as per precedence below:
(a) Urgent: Emergency cases that should be evacuated as
soon as possible and within a maximum of 2 hours in
order to save life, limb, or eyesight, to prevent
complications of serious illness, or to avoid permanent
disability.
(b) Priority: Sick/wounded personnel requiring prompt
medical care. These casualties should be evacuated
within 4 hours, because their medical condition could
deteriorate to urgent precedence, they would suffer
unnecessary pain or disability, or they require special
treatment not available.
(c) Routine: Assigned to sick/wounded personnel requiring
evacuation, but whose condition is not expected to
deteriorate significantly. Routine patients should be
evacuated within 24- 48 hours.
(2)
The following procedures will apply for evacuation:
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(a) Each ground evacuation vehicle will be accompanied by
medical personnel and equipment/supplies to provide
enroute medical care to patients if necessary;
(b) Equipment exchange of like items between medical forces
transferring patients will be encouraged whenever possible.
This is done to minimize the inconvenience to the patient;
(c) Where possible designated aircraft will be configured to
support a patient and will be accompanied by medical
personnel, equipment and supplies to provide in-flight
sustainment medical care to the patient; and
(d) The Air cell in an ASF mission HQ would responsible for
coordinating aero medical evacuation. The decision to
evacuate will be based primarily on a clinical decision.
e.
Evacuation Policy.
Theatre evacuation policy is the key to balancing the treatment capability
available at each level of care, against the medical evacuation assets
required and available. This is achieved by stating the maximum period, in
days, that a patient may be held for medical treatment at each level of
care. If a patient cannot return to duty within the specified time, they must
be evacuated to the next level or processed for medical repatriation. This
policy should not be confused with the procedures for MEDEVAC and
CASEVAC. The maximum period in days that a patient should be held at
each level is as follows:
(1)
Level I. – Seven days – Should it be thought upon initial treatment
or stabilisation that the patient’s illness or injury would normally
preclude him from returning to duty within seven days; he should
be removed to a second level facility;
(2)
Level II. – Fourteen days – Should it be thought upon initial
treatment or stabilisation that the patient’s illness or injury would
normally preclude him from returning to duty within fourteen days,
he should be removed to a third level facility;
(3)
Level III – Thirty days – Should it be thought that the patient will
not be able to return to duty after thirty days treatment, he should
be medically repatriated to his/her country of origin; and
(4)
Notes – Should the medical diagnosis at any level show that the
patient will not be able to return to duty after thirty days treatment,
he/she should be prepared for medical repatriation to his/her
country of origin (assuming that his/her condition allows travel of
that nature) and not be processed through all the subsequent
levels.
Evacuation to the next level, other than in the case of
CASEVAC or MEDIVAC, will not be done without confirmation
from the next level, that they have the capability and capacity to
handle the patient.
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f.
Reports and Returns
Regular medical reports, statistical reporting and patient status reporting
are an important element of the medical support. The following reports will
be submitted as required; the medical cell will issue examples of these
reports,:
(1)
Medical Situation Report – This is a monthly report initiated by a
level two facility only and covers the location, level and capability
of the facility;
(2)
Medical Flash Report – This is submitted immediately after the
medical incident has been addressed by the medical facility that
addressed the incident;
(3)
Per Capita Medical Treatment Report – This is required by the
medical facility that treated personnel that were not from their
national contingent, in the case of first level facilities and all
personnel in the case of second and third level facilities; and
(4) Other Medical Reports – These are reports relating the CASEVAC and
MEDEVAC, and will be covered under that article.
CASEVAC request and procedures.
It should follow the roles as described in Annex XX.
g.
h.
MEDEVAC request and procedures.
A medical authority, following the chain of command and specific
procedures, will request the MEDEVAC. In case of an emergency, request
can be made directly to an ASF mission HQ and the affected unit must be
informed. MEDEVAC will be performed with specific medical procedures
established on case-by-case basis. It should follow the roles as described
in Annex XX.
The medical welfare of the patient must be the paramount consideration.
Evacuations will not take place unless the patient has been clinically
determined to be stabilized to withstand the duration of the movement to
the next care facility with a high probability of not incurring further
complications that would require invasive treatment or intervention during
evacuation beyond the scope of general supportive care during
evacuation. The final decision to evacuate must remain a clinical
responsibility based on the patient’s medical condition.
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SOP 5.11 - LOGISTIC REPORTS AND RETURNS
Logistic Reports and Returns, like those for Operations and Personnel, cover statistical
or vital data on which the command and staff of a PSO can base its future plans, control
consumption and maintain budgetary targets.
The following forms are provided as examples:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.
N.
O.
P.
Q.
R.
Mission Logistic Directive.
Leases and Rentals.
Non UN Personnel Movement Request Form.
General Release from Liability Form (UN).
MEDEVAC Requests
CASEVAC Request
Cargo Manifest
Travel out of the area
March credit bid
Mass casualty report
Engineer work request
OP CP facility minimum requirements
Log report matrix
LOGSITREP
Disease and Non battle injury report DNBI
Major medical incident report
Logistic assessment report (LOGASSESREP)
Logistic status report (LOGSTAT)
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ANNEX A TO ASF LOGISTIC SOP- MISSION LOGISTIC DIRECTIVES
TRANSPORTATION
First and Second Line Transport
ASF
Registration
Number
Vehicle/Trailers
Vehicles Registers
Vehicle Establishment Committee
Vehicle Establishment Change Requests
and the Management and Control of ASF
Vehicle Fleet
SUPPLY
Unit Demand Procedure
Field Defence Stores
Receipt of Equipment and Stores
ASF Clothing
Write-off of ASF and Contingent Materiel
Hand-over of ASF and Contingent-Owned
Stores - Survey
Procedures for Accounting and Control of
POL Products
Ammunition and Explosives
Accounting Procedures
Procurement of Stores and Services ASF
Discrepancy Reports
Provisioning of Second Line Stocks
Issue and Replacement of Military Pattern
Vehicles, Motorcycles, Trailers and
Engineering Equipment
Letters of Assist
Welfare Material
Laundry and Dry Cleaning Services
Garbage Handling
MAINTENANCE
Recovery Services
Vehicle Monthly Report
Maintenance, Inspection and Destruction
of Vehicles
Responsibilities
for
Repair
and
Procedures for Requesting Repair of
Vehicles and Miscellaneous Equipment
Salvage of Serviceable Parts
Repairs by Local Contract
MOVEMENT CONTROL
Movements General
Movement by ASF and UN Aircraft
Booking Procedures
Transportation of dangerous Cargo by
ASF and UN Aircraft
Transportation of Weapons, Ammunition
and Explosives
Contingent Rotation Procedures and
Responsibilities
Customs and Immigration Procedures for
ASF Personnel and Baggage Travelling
by Air
ASF Cargo Waybill
Customs Transit
Clearance of Personal Effects Shipment
FOOD SERVICES
Entitlement to ASF Rations
Between Meal Supplements for Air Crews
Demand/Issue Procedures for ASF
Rations
Condemnation, Write-off and Disposal of
ASF Rations
Ration Reserve Holdings ASF
ACCOMMODATION
Leases
Fire Prevention - Handling and Storage of
Flammable Liquids
Prevention, Fighting and Investigation of
Fire
Erection of Tents and Prefabs in the Area
of Operations
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Management of Electrical Generators
Communication Section Services
Management of Electric Networks and
Installations
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ANNEX B TO ASF LOGISTIC SOP- LEASE AND RENTALS
FORMAT LEASE AGREEMENT
Reference:
This Lease Agreement is entered into between......................................., herein
referred to as the Lessor, and the ASF, herein referred to as the Lessee, for the
property located at the ........................… Building, … Floor, ................… Road, House
No. ..., ....................… (city).
Article 1 - Term:
The term of the Lease shall be for a period of one year effective from … (dd), .…
(mm) … (yy) and shall be renewable on expiry on terms and conditions to be
agreed.
Article 2 - Rent:
1. The
Lessee
agrees
to
pay
rent
of
...........................................................................................................................… per
month/quarter, based on a floor space of … square meters @ … per square metre,
payable monthly not later than seven (7) days after the month/quarter for which the
rent will be due.
2. This rent shall include costs of water supply, garbage collection, maintenance of
common areas, use of lifts, running cost of the back-up generator, security guards at
the main entrance of the building, and at the external parking area twenty four (24)
hours a day, every day.
3. The monthly/quarterly payments shall be deposited by the Lessee in the Lessor’s
account in the .........................… bank, which shall be specified by the Lessor. The
payments shall be made in .................… (currency) of ....… (State)
Article 3 - Deposit:
No deposit shall be paid on the property by the Lessee to the Lessor.
Article 4 - Premises:
The Lessor shall make available, as part of the premises, space for parking the
Lessee’s vehicles during working hours, as well as non-working hours, at the front or
side, and in the basement of the Building.
Article 5 - Condition of Property:
The Lessor shall ensure that all utilities infrastructure are in proper working
condition. These shall include electricity lines, switches and connections, telephone
lines and plumbing.
ASF - RESTRICTED
Article 6 - Utilities:
The Lessee agrees to pay all utility bills from the effective date of this Agreement.
These shall include electricity, telephone, cleaning of the leased area and any other
expenses connected with the occupancy of the premises, but not specifically
mentioned here.
Article 7 - Maintenance and Repairs:
The Lessor agrees to maintain the property in good condition and shall repair any
defects resulting from normal wear and tear. All structural faults and defects shall be
repaired and put right by the Lessor. The Lessee agrees to keep the property in
good condition and shall be liable for any damages resulting from improper use or
negligence.
Article 8 - Use of Property:
The property shall be used solely to carry on the business of the ASF. For this
purpose to be achieved, the Lessor shall, at its expense, satisfy all requirements of
the Lessee.
Article 9 - Insurance:
The Lessor shall insure the ........................… building against the risks of fire, floods,
earthquake, and shall provide the Lessee with a copy of the insurance policies. The
Lessee shall insure the furniture, office equipment and other installations against the
risk of theft, fire, floods, earthquake and third-party liability during the duration of the
lease.
Article 10 - Right of Entry:
The Lessor agrees that the Lessee shall peacefully enjoy use of the property during
the period of the lease without any interruption by the Lessor. For purposes of
maintenance, the Lessor shall have right of access to the property after giving
adequate notice to the Lessee.
Article 11 - Alterations and Improvements:
1. No alterations or improvements may be carried out by the Lessee without prior
authorisation by the Lessor.
2. The Lessee shall have the right to partition the floor space, lay carpets and install
window blinds, as it deems necessary for its use.
3. Where movable partitions are installed, the Lessee shall have the right to remove
such partitions on expiry of the lease.
4. In the event that fixed partitions are installed by the Lessee, such partitions shall
be left in place to safeguard the Building, but upon reimbursement of ...% of the
material and labour cost of the partitioning.
Article 12 - Termination of Agreement:
ASF - RESTRICTED
Either party to this Agreement shall have the right to terminate the Agreement. This
right shall be exercised by giving two (2) months notice in writing.
Article 13 - Applicable Law:
The laws of the Republic/State ........................................… shall govern the
interpretation of all parts of this Agreement.
Article 14 - Diplomatic Privilege and Immunity:
1.
Nothing contained in this lease, or pertaining thereto, shall constitute a waiver,
express or implied, of any privileges and immunity enjoyed by the ASF under the
Charter of the ASF.
2.
The Lessor acknowledges that the Lessee enjoys diplomatic privileges in regard
to this lease. Should the Lessee require moving to another location, this lease shall be
terminated without any right to indemnities. In such an event, the Lessee shall provide
to the Lessor notice of sixty (60) days prior to the date of such move.
Article 15 - Amendments to the Lease:
Any amendments to the present lease shall be agreed upon in writing between the two
Parties.
In witness thereof, the Parties hereto have affixed their signatures.
......................................................................…
......................................................................…
For Lessor
For Lessee
P.O. Box #,
P. O. Box #
......................................… (City)
......................................… (City)
......................................… (State)
......................................… (State)
Telephone: ...............................…
Telephone:
...............................…
Mobile Phone: .........................…
Fax:
..........................................…
Witnesses
.......……………………...............................................................................................……
(Lessor)
ASF - RESTRICTED
.......……………………...............................................................................................……(
Lessee)
ASF - RESTRICTED
ANNEX C TO ASF LOGISTIC SOP - NON UN PERSONNEL MOVEMENT REQUEST
FORM
UNITED NATIONS
NATIONS UNIES
Designation of United Nations Mission
(Acronym of United Nations Mission)
Non UN Personnel Movement Request Form
Form must be duly completed and authorised by the chief of agency or organisation
PRINT CLEARLY IN BLOCK CAPITALS
Title/Ran Last, First Name
Nationalit ID/Passpor Organisation Contact
k
y
t#
Tel #
ASF
Travel From
Travel To
Date:
dd/mm/yy
Return From
Travel To
Date:
dd/mm/yy
Purpose of Travel
Other Details
Mode of Transportation
Vehicle
Type of Travel
Duty
Travel claim will be submitted in conjunction with this travel
Liberty Mileage will be incurred for this travel
Traveller’s Signature
Yes
Yes
UN Flight
UN
Duty
NonNo
No
ASF - RESTRICTED
1.
2.
Requested by:
Military or Civilian Section/Service Chief
Print Name
Attach memo on a letter head providing justification.
Attach a signed General release Form.
CAO Office use only
authorised at UN Expenses
Not authorised
authorised by:
authorised at NO Expense to UN
Print Name:
ANNEX D TO ASF LOGISTIC SOP- GENERAL RELEASE FORM
LIABILITY IN CONNECTION WITH TRAVEL BY UN-PROVIDED AIRCRAFT
I, the undersigned, hereby recognise that my travel on the aircraft provided by the UN that is
scheduled to depart from
for
on
is solely for my own conveniences and benefit and may take place in
areas under conditions of special risk. In consideration of being permitted to travel on such
means of transport, I hereby:
(a)
Assume all risks and liabilities during such travel;
(b)
Recognise, subject to the provision of this release, that neither the United
Nations nor any of its officials, employees or agents are responsible for any loss,
damage, injury or death that may be sustained by me during such travel;
(c)
Agree, for myself as well as for my dependants, heirs and estate, that, in any
case of loss, damage, injury or death, the liability of the United Nations, if any, shall be
limited and, as applicable, not exceed the lower of: (i) the amounts of the insurance
coverage maintained for this purpose by the United Nations; (ii) the compensation
payable to staff of the United Nations; or (iii) the limitations on the amounts
recoverable by passengers under the provisions of the Warsaw Convention;
(d)
Further agree, for myself as well as my dependants, heirs and estate, that we
shall look first to any such insurance taken out by myself or provided by my employer
or the carrier covering such loss, damage, injury or death, and that compensation shall
be payable by the United Nations only to the extent that the limits provided under
paragraph (“c”) above, exceed the amounts recovered from such insurance.
________________________
(Date)
____________________
(Signature of Passenger)
______________________
(Witness) - United Nations
_____________________
(Print Name of Passenger)
ANNEX E TO ASF LOGISTIC SOP– MEDEVAC REQUEST
MEDEVAC
MEDEVAC Requests
1.
Requests for MEDEVAC should follow the medical chain of command. If the
MEDEVAC is to the level two facility and does not require the use of either air assets or other
specialized equipment, and can be done by either the level one or two ambulance, then the
following procedures will apply:
2.
a.
The level one facility will contact the level two facility and ascertain that the
level two facility has both the capability and capacity to handle the patient.
Once this is ascertained the level one facility will send a MEDEVAC request as
per appendix one to this annex. This request will also be sent info to the
CMEDO, who will track all MEDEVACs regardless of method of evacuation;
b.
The level one facility will ensure that pertinent medical documents are
transported with the patient and that the patient only arrives with one field
uniform and personnel toiletry articles. All weapons and personal protection
equipment will not be sent as part of a MEDEVAC;
c.
Even when the patient has been transported to a level two facility the
contingent still has responsibility for his administration and must ensure that
they have some sort of visitation program in place.
Should the MEDEVAC request or require the use of air assets or other specialized
equipment the following procedures will apply:
a.
The level one facility requesting the MEDEVAC will contact the Chief Medical
Officer (CMEDO) or failing that, the OPS CENTRE and submit a MEDEVAC
request.
b.
The receiving organization, which should be the CMEDO or the OPS CENTRE,
will confirm the MEDEVAC request and inform the requester of the method of
air transport and the expected time of arrival. If a helicopter is selected and
available to do the MEDEVAC, the level one facility requesting the evacuation
must be able to provide a helicopter landing site location and the following,
b.
(1).
The preferred direction of approach for the helicopter, and
(2)
The way that the site will be marked, (this is especially important if it is a
night evacuation);
After the helicopter has arrived, the level one facility requesting the evacuation
will provide the following information to the CMEDO and the OPS CENTRE,
3.
(1)
The time that the evacuation means actually arrived at the evacuation
site, and
(2)
The time of departure of the evacuation means and an estimated time of
arrival at the reception facility;
Procedures By CMEDO and the OPS CENTRE.
Once the CMEDO or the OPS CENTRE receives a MEDEVAC request the following
procedures will apply:
a.
Determine if the evacuees are all members of UN mission, if so proceed with
the next step, if not, immediately contact the senior duty officer who will set in
motion the request to get the Force Commander’s and CAO’s permission to
actually perform the MEDEVAC.
Normally UN does not perform routine
MEDEVACs for personnel who are not members of an UN mission.
The
CMEDO or OPS CENTRE should then proceed with the planning of all the
other steps listed below but not execute until permission is granted;
b.
Contact the MEDEVAC team, which is a group of professionals made up as
follows,
(1)
The Standby Medical Team – This is a team, that as a minimum, will
contain a doctor and a nurse and will be able to be reached by the OPS
CENTRE 24 hrs a day, and be able to be in the OPS CENTRE within 30
minutes, and
(2)
The Air Ops Duty Officer – If the air ops section of the OPS CENTRE is
not actually manned at the time of the request, then the DO must be
available 24 hrs a day and within thirty minutes of the OPS CENTRE.
c.
Determine the best method of evacuation. This should normally be by air, but it
might not be possible due to non-availability of assets, inaccessibility of the site
or other factors. If the only method available is by road, contact the requesting
level one facility to see if the condition of the patient will allow this type of
evacuation.
If not, then further discussion must take place between the
CMEDO and the level one senior doctor.
The CMEDO will determine, in
consultation with the MEDEVAC Team, where the most suitable final location
for the casualty should be. If an ambulance is not available on or near the site,
then the CMEDO will task the nearest available ambulance or an ambulance
from the second line facility. The medical team will then make preparations to
proceed with that ambulance if it is from the second line facility or make other
arrangements to ensure that a medical team is dispatched with the ambulance;
d.
Should it be determined that the best method of evacuation is by air or more
specifically, helicopter, then the following procedures will be done by the
CMEDO and the MEDEVAC Team
(1)
Consult with the Air Ops duty officer to determine the most suitable air
asset to be used for the evacuation, this will depend on a wide variety of
factors,
e.
(2)
Once the air asset has been chosen, ensure that a medical team is
available to accompany that asset. A medical team or at least medical
personnel must accompany each MEDEVAC,
(3)
The MEDEVAC team and the OPS CENTRE will then task the air asset
and arrange for the medical team to marry up with the asset,
(4)
The CMEDO through the OPS CENTRE will then inform the level one
facility unit requesting the MEDEVAC of the results of their planning and
pass the probable time of arrival of the air asset and the most likely
location that the evacuee will be taken to, and
(5)
The CMEDO through the OPS CENTRE will then inform the medical
location that the evacuee will be taken to, of the time of expected arrival
and the nature of the medical problem,
The CMEDO will then be responsible for all communications concerning follow
up information until the MEDEVAC is actually deposited within the designated
facility of the medical system.
List of Appendixes
Appendix One – MEDEVAC Request
Appendix Two – Basic Helicopter Landing Site Requirements
Appendix 1
MEDEVAC REQUEST
SERIAL
DESCRIPTION
A.
Call Sign and Unit
B.
Grid of level one facility
C.
Urgency of response
1. Immediate
2. ASAP but not immediate
3. Can wait, if necessary
D.
Total Number of evacuees
E.
Patient’s Details
Name, rank, nationality, Mission or other
Service or ID number
F.
Type of Injuries or illness
EXAMPLE
G.
Evacuee Status
1. Walking
2. Sitting
3. Stretcher case
H.
Evacuation Means Requested
1.
Helicopter
2.
Road
I.
Doctor Required with evacuation
1.
Essential
2.
If Possible
3.
Not necessary
J.
Description of Landing Site
Including direction of approach
K.
Blood Group of Casualty (ies)
If Known
L.
Other Information
(Concerning patient or conditions at facility)
Appendix 2
BASIC HELICOPTER LANDING SITE REQUIREMENTS
1.
2.
DAY
a.
Free area of 50 x 50 meters
b.
Flat area with little or no slope
c.
Remove all loose items
d.
Mark the landing site with any distinct item
e.
Use this card to draw attention of the aircrew
f.
If situation is not safe to land for the helicopter wave with both arms above
the head
NIGHT
a.
Free area of 100 x 100 meters
b.
Flat area with little or no slope
c.
Remove all loose items
d.
If available mark the landing site with a break light (every colour except red)
e.
Do not use flashlight to draw attention (aircrew could be using Night Vision
Devices)
ANNEX F TO ASF LOGISTIC SOP – CASEVAC REQUEST
CASEVAC
CASEVAC Requests
1.
Requests for CASEVAC should follow the chain of command. However in the case of
emergencies requests can be made to the OPS CENTRE, via phone, Sat phone or HF or
VHF radio. The OPS CENTRE, once it has received the request, will have the responsibility
of informing all other pertinent organizations in the chain of command.
CASEVAC Procedures
2.
The following procedures will be carried out when there is a need for a CASEVAC:
a.
b.
c.
All soldiers will carry a CASEVAC card. This card will be reproduced locally
but will have all the information that is contained in Appendix One, CASEVAC
Request. This card will contain the following;
(1).
Simple procedures for calling a CASEVAC. This will be in English and
can be translated into the language of the contingent. It should be
noted that once a contingent needs to use resources outside of their
own, all requests must be in the official language of the mission.
(2)
A description of basic helicopter landing site requirements, and
(3)
Valid frequencies and telephone numbers, which will be added locally;
The receiving organization, which should be the OPS CENTRE, will confirm
your CASEVAC request and inform the requester of the method of transport (air
or road) and the expected time of arrival. If a helicopter is selected and
available to do the CASEVAC, the personnel requesting the evacuation must
be able to provide a helicopter landing site location and the following;
(1).
The preferred direction of approach for the helicopter, and
(2)
The way that the site will be marked, (this is especially important if it is a
night evacuation).
The unit or individual requesting the evacuation will provide the following
information to the OPS CENTRE;
(3)
The time that the evacuation means actually arrived at the evacuation
site,
(4)
The time of departure of the evacuation means and an estimated time of
arrival at the reception facility, and
(5)
3.
The number of casualties on board and a brief description of their
injuries.
Procedures by The OPS CENTRE.
Once the OPS CENTRE receives a CASEVAC
request, it will take precedence over all other activities.
The following procedures will be done:
a.
Determine if the casualties are all members of ASF mission, if so proceed with
the next step, if not immediately contact the senior duty officer who will set in
motion the request to get the HoM or delegated authority permission to actually
perform the CASEVAC.
The OPS CENTRE should then proceed with the
planning of all the other steps listed below, but not execute until permission is
granted;
c.
Contact the CASEVAC team, which is a group of professionals made up as
follows,
(1)
The Standby Medical Team – This is a team that, as a minimum, will
contain a doctor and a nurse and will be able to be reached by the OPS
CENTRE 24 hrs a day and be able to be in the OPS CENTRE within 30
minutes,
(2)
The Air Ops Duty Officer – If the air ops section of the OPS CENTRE is
not actually manned at the time of the request, then the DO must be
available 24 hrs a day and within thirty minutes of the OPS CENTRE.
(3)
The Senior Ops Duty Officer – This individual will become the OPS
CENTRE team leader and be responsible for all executive decisions
concerning the evacuation.
The CMEDO will actually make all the
recommendations concerning the welfare of the patient (s) but the Senior
Ops Duty Officer will be the final executor.
c.
Determine the best method of evacuation. This should normally be by air, but it
might not be possible due to non-availability of assets, inaccessibility of the site
or other factors. If the only method available is by road, contact the requesting
party to see, if a suitable ambulance (s) is available and then direct that they
proceed to CASEVAC the patient or patients to the appropriate medical facility.
The OPS CENTRE will determine, in consultation with the CASEVAC Team,
where the most suitable location for the casualty should be. If an ambulance is
not available on or near the site, then the OPS CENTRE will task the nearest
available ambulance or an ambulance from the second line facility.
The
medical team will then make preparations to proceed with that ambulance if it is
from the second line facility or make other arrangements to ensure that a
medical team is dispatched with the ambulance;
d.
Should it be determined that the best method of evacuation is by air or more
specifically, helicopter, then the following procedures will be done by the OPS
CENTRE and the CASEVAC Team:
(6)
Consult with the Air Ops duty officer to determine the most suitable air
asset to be used for the evacuation, this will depend on a wide variety of
factors,
e.
(7)
Once the air asset has been chosen, ensure that a medical team is
available to accompany the helicopter. A medical team, or at least
medical personnel, must accompany each CASEVAC,
(8)
The CASEVAC team and the OPS CENTRE will then task the helicopter
and arrange for the medical team to marry up with the helicopter,
(9)
The OPS CENTRE will then inform the unit requesting the CASEVAC of
the results of their planning and pass the probable time of arrival of the
helicopter and the most likely location that the casualty will be taken to,
and
(10)
The OPS CENTRE will then inform the medical location that the casualty
will be taken to, of the time of expected arrival and the nature of the
medical problem, if it can be determined,
The OPS CENTRE will then be responsible for all communications concerning
follow up information until the CASEVAC is actually deposited within the
medical system, after which it will become the responsibility of the medical
system.
The OPS CENTRE will inform the duty PIO of the CASEVAC,
ensuring that will the PIO knows the nature of the CASEVAC and the number of
casualties. However, the PIO must be cautioned not to release either the
names or nationalities of the casualties until after the contingent has been able
to contact the next of kin. This is why the step mentioned in paragraph two,
concerning contacting the contingent of the member is vital.
4.
Follow-Up Procedures. – Once the actual CASEVAC is completed, the OPS CENTRE
will complete a significant incident report, which will include all the details.
The OPS
CENTRE will also ensure that all pertinent details, less the actual names of the casualties,
are included in the daily situation report. Once the contingent has made it known that the
next of kin have been informed then the names can also be included in the report.
List of Appendices
Appendix One – CASEVAC Request
Appendix Two – Basic Helicopter Landing Site Requirements
Appendix 1
CASEVAC REQUEST
ALWAYS START MESSAGE WITH “ CASEVAC CASEVAC CASEVAC”
SERIAL
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
A.
Call Sign and Unit
B.
Grid of Casualty/ies
C.
Urgency of Response
1.
Immediately
2.
ASAP but not immediately
3.
Can wait, if necessary
D.
Total Number of Casualties
E.
Patients Details
Name, rank, nationality, Mission,
Service or ID number
Types of Injuries to Casualties
F.
G.
Casualty Status
4. Walking
5. Sitting
6. Stretcher case
H.
Evacuation Means Requested
3.
Helicopter
4.
Road
I.
Doctor Required at Scene
4.
Essential
5.
If Possible
6.
Not necessary
J.
Description of Landing Site
Including direction of approach
K.
Blood Group of Casualty (ies)
If Known
L.
Other Information
(Weather, visibility, etc)
Appendix 2
BASIC HELICOPTER LANDING SITE REQUIREMENTS
3.
4.
DAY
a.
Free area of 50 x 50 meters
b.
Flat area with little or no slope
c.
Remove all loose items
d.
Mark the landing site with any distinct item
e.
Use this card to draw attention of the aircrew
f.
If situation is not safe to land for the helicopter wave with both arms above
the head
NIGHT
a.
Free area of 100 x 100 meters
b.
Flat area with little or no slope
c.
Remove all loose items
d.
If available mark the landing site with a break light (every color except red)
e.
Do not use flashlight to draw attention (aircrew could be using Night Vision
Devices)
ANNEX G TO ASF LOGISTIC SOP CARGO MANIFEST
TO:
DANGEROUS CARGO:
FROM:
Priority :
PAGE No:
SPECIFICATION
OF GOODS
CONSIGNOR CONSIGNEE No.
(FROM)
(TO)
OF
Pc's
WEIGHT
IN KG
Y*/N
OF
PRICE
USD
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
NSG/NSE PECS
TOTAL:
*SEE ATTACHED LIST
!
Authorized by:
Driver:
Receiving:
ID No:
ID No:
ID No:
Signiture:
Sign.:
Sign.:
REMARKS
ANNEX B
to SOP 404
LOAD MANIFEST (GENERAL CARGO)
NSG/SFOR
LOAD
DATE :
CONTAINER
No :
TRUCK No :
PLOMB No :
TRANSPOR
T:
N DISCRIPTION
o
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
TOTAL
PALLET / BENCH
COLLIES:
FROM
:
TO
:
VALUE
USD
USD :
WEIGHT
KGS
KGS:
Send. unit:
Trsp. unit:
Receiv. unit:
Auth. name :
Name
Name
Sign:
Date
:
Sign:
Date
:
:
REMARKS
Sign:
Date
:
Dangerous
cargo:
:
ANNEX B
to SOP 404
STAMP
STAMP
TRANSPORT REQUEST FORM
REQUESTING UNIT:
CONTACT,
Rank, Name :
NATION:
TEL:
REQUIRED
DELIVERY DATE:
DATE OF APPLICATION:
FAX:
FROM :
TO :
PICK-UP ADDRESS & CONTACT
DELIVERY ADDRESS & CONTACT
TEL :
TEL :
FAX:
DESCRIPTION
DC
QTY
DIMENSION (M)
FAX :
WEIGHT (KG)
VALUE (USD)
TOTALS :
HANDLING EQUIPMENT REQUIRED :
TYPE OF TRANSPORT REQUESTED :
AUTHORIZED
SIGNATURE:
YES
ROAD
NO
AIR
NAME:
MOVEMENT DETAILS
Instructions:
1. No confirmation of receipt of this request will be given.
2. Units must ensure that Consignement No & Priority or Required Delivery Date is shown.
3. Date, timings, mode of transport, confirmed to sending unit day before departure.
4. Description must state, what type of cargo is to be moved.
5. QTY - must state how many boxes or pallets or containers, ect .
6. DC - all DANGEROUS CARGO must be identified in this column.
7. Ensure it is noted whether Material Handling Equipment is required to lift the cargo.
REMARKS :
TITLE:
PRIORITY
ASF - RESTRICTED
ANNEX H TO ASF LOGISTIC SOP – TRAVEL OUT OF AREA OF OPERATIONS
TRAVEL OUT OF AOR
UNIT
FROM
TO
TIME OUT
TIME BACK
ROUTE OUT
ROUTE BACK
BORDER CROSSING
PURPOSE
NO. of VEHICLES/ LICENCE NO
NO. of PERSONNEL
CARGO
REMARKS
ETD:
ETA:
ETD:
ETA:
ASF - RESTRICTED
ANNEX I TO ASF LOGISTIC SOP – MARCH CREDIT BID
UNIT TO MOVE
NATIONALITY
TOTAL NUMBER OF VEHICLES
VEHICLE BREAKDOWN
LARGEST/HEAVIEST VEH
a. Vehicle type
b. Vehicle load
c. Vehicle MLC
d. Vehicle dimensions (LxHxW)
START POINT (SP)
START TIME REQUESTED/DTG
INTERMEDIATE DEST/TIME
BRIDGE CROSSING/TIME
BORDER CROSSING/TIME
DESTINATION/ TIME
UNIT POC AND PHONE #
REDEPLOY OR REPOSITION
REASON FOR MOVE
ROUTE
REQUEST RECEIVED BY
# OF WEAPONS (TYPE)/# OF PAX
REMARKS
NO
a.
b.
c.
d L
TYPE
LOAD
H
W
MARCH CREDITS WILL NOT BE TAKEN AFTER 1100 HOUR THE DAY PRIOR TO MOVE. ALL
INFORMATION MUST BE PROVIDED TO RECEIVE MARCH CREDIT
ASF - RESTRICTED
ANNEX J TO ASF LOGISTIC SOP – MASS CASUALTIE
ACTION LIST FOR MASS CASUALTY SITUATIONS
1.
What has happened/type of incident?
2.
Time when the incident took place.
3.
Location:
a. Grid; and
b. Description;
4.
Number of casualties;
a. Number of urgent;
b. Number of priority; and
c. Number of routine.
5.
Medical assistance required:
a. CASEVAC by air;
b. CASEVAC by land; and
c. Mass Casualty Management Team.
6.
Special medical equipment required.
7.
Requirements for other support:
a. Troops for security;
b. MPs;
c. Engineers;
d. Recovery; and
ASF - RESTRICTED
e. Other:
8.
Best route to place of incident.
9.
Route marker/traffic control post is posted at (give grid or landmark).
10.
Helicopter landing site (location and grid).
11.
The situation in the area is (give a danger and alert state).
12.
DTG that higher HQ was notified.
13.
Responses and or actions already taken.
ASF - RESTRICTED
ANNEX K TO ASF LOGISTIC SOP – ENGINEER WORK REQUEST
1.
Purpose.
To inform ASF of construction engineer tasks, units are not capable to
perform with their own capacities.
2.
Issued.
By units at battalion and above level
3.
Addresses.
ACTION: Mission HQ
INFO: TBA
4.
Time.
As of 2000 (daily)
Report to reach Mission HQ by 2300.
5.
Delivery.
By FAX, Message or Dispatch Rider.
6.
Security Classification.
As per contents.
7.
Form and Contents.
See Page 2.
ASF - RESTRICTED
Engineer Work Request Form
ENGINEER WORKS REQUEST (EWR)
FROM (Unit):
LOCATION:
PAGE 1 /
PHONE:
TO:
Construction SIGNATURE:
FAX:
Engineer Cell
DESCRIPTION OF WORK (Maintenance, Alternation, Construction, Renovation, etc.):
JUSTIFICATION (and possible time requirements):
COST ESTIMATION (in US$):
TO BE FILLED BY Chief Construction Engineer Cell ONLY
PROJECT#:
TASK ALLOTMENT:
APPROVAL:
NOTES:
COMPLETION:
ASF - RESTRICTED
CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL ORDER FORM
1.
Purpose.
To inform ASF of material needed for engineer tasks, which units can not provide
on their own.
2.
Issued.
By units at battalion level and above(to be attached to EWR).
3.
Addresses.
ACTION: Mission HQ
INFO: TBA
4.
Time.
As of 2000 hours (daily)
Report to reach Mission HQ by 2300 hours.
5.
Delivery.
By FAX, Message or Dispatch Rider.
6.
Security Classifications.
As per contents.
7.
Form and Contents.
ASF - RESTRICTED
CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL ORDER FORM
(CMOF)
EWR:
ATTACHMENT TO ENGINEER WORKS REQUEST (EWR)
NO. ITEM & SIZE DESCRIPTION
UNIT Quantity
Date
according to terms in list passed to
units
(TO BE FILLED IN BDE)
Page
(TO BE FILLED
PURCHASE BY IN BDE)
BN
BDE PRICE
ESTIM.
NSG
(IF MORE ITEMS ARE REQUESTED, USE ANOTHER FORM, MARK THAT WITH 2 AND JOIN IT TO THIS ONE)
UNITS REMARKS
APPROVALS
UNIT
RELEASING
OFFR
Chief
Construction
Engineer
Cell
AUTHORIZING OFFR
NSG
POST/RANK/NAME/SECTION
/UNIT
DATE / PLACE
SIGNATURE
ASF - RESTRICTED
ANNEX L TO ASF LOGISTIC – OP CP FACILITY MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS
EXAMPLES OF MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR AN OBSERVATION POST,
CHECK POINT COMPOUND AND THEIR MAIN FACILITIES
OBSERVATION POST WITH ALL FACILITIES
ASF - RESTRICTED
OBSERVATION POST PLATFORM
ASF - RESTRICTED
CHECK POINT
ASF - RESTRICTED
OBSERVATION POST - COMPOUND
-
-
Place the compound higher than the surrounding terrain. Then it is easier to
guard/defend the compound. The compound will also be better off in the rainy
season, and the mosquito nuisance will be reduced.
Place the compound 1-2 km from the nearest local village
Place the compound away from rivers, that may flood during the rainy season
Avoid animal tracks and waterholes for animals
Prevent the local population to build up sheds next to the compound. This may
cause security problems
Always keep the compound tidy. The commander should carry out inspection once a
week.
ASF - RESTRICTED
OBSERVATION POST TOWER CONSTRUCTION
A wood tower is used as an above ground observation position. The tower has a
post foundation, as shown, or is constructed directly on the ground. The wood walls of
the observation tower are earth filled.
ANNEX M TO ASF LOGISTIC SOP – LOGISTIC REPORT MATRIX
SUMMARY OF LOGISTIC REPORTS
DAILY REPORTS
SER.
TYPE
PURPOSE
FROM
TO
OF REP.
1
LOGSTATREP
TO ASSESS GENERAL UNITS ALL
ASF ASF HQ
LOGISTIC SITUATION
UNITS
2
LOGASSESREP
3
LOGSTATREP/
TCC
4
5
6
8
9
WEEKLY REPORTS
LOGSITREP
LOGSITREP
TCC
DNBIREP
AD HOC REPORTS
MIREP/
TO ASSESS THE OVERALL BDE
LOGISTIC SITUATION.
TO ASSESS GENERAL THE ASF
BDE LOGISTIC SITUATION
TO ASSESS AND DETAIL
UNITS LOGISTIC SITUATION
TO ASSESS AND DETAIL
BDE LOGSTIC SITUATION
TO INFORM ASF ABOUT THE
MEDICAL SITUATION
12.00
DUE IN
TIME
15.00
0900
ASF
0600 IF
CHANGE
TBD
TCC
1200
1900
ALL
ASF ASF HQ
UNITS
ASF
TCC
ALL
ASF ASF MEDUNITS
CELL
REQUEST FOR ASSISTANCE ANY UNIT
TO A MAJOR MEDICAL
INCIDENT.
AS OF
ASFHQ
REMARKS
SOP, ANNEX R
SOP, ANNEX Q
.
SOP, ANNEX R
SOP, ANNEX N
SOP, ANNEX N
SOP, ANNEX O
AS REQ. SOP, ANNEX P
WITHOUT
DELAY
ANNEX N TO ASF LOGISTIC SOP – LOGISTIC SITUATION REPORT
1.
AIM
The aim of this annex is to state regulations concerning logistic reporting from
units
to
ASF
HQ.
2.
ORIGINATOR
ASF
3.
subordinate
units
ADDRESSES
Mission
4.
HQ
WHEN
TRANSMITTED
Forwarded weekly at Fridays.
As
of:
Friday
Due
5.
:
Friday,
not
at
later
1200
than
1800
METHOD OF TRANSMITTING
Reports will be submitted by the transmission means necessary to reach the HQ
by the time required: Preferred method is in written form (messages, signal, or
document). However, reports may be submitted verbally via radio or telephone
when the situation requires it. Portions not applicable may be omitted.
Submission of data by referring to serials (lines) and columns will be accepted.
“No change” reports will be submitted, as applicable, following submission of a
complete
initial
report.
6.
PRECEDENCE
Normally
7.
CLASSIFICATION
not
higher
than
PRIORITY.
According
8.
to
contents.
CONTENTS
a.
LOGSITREP
(1)
is
divided
PRELIMINARY
Classification,
into
three
originator,”
parts
as
as
TEXT
time.
of”
(2)
COMMANDING OFFICER’S EVALUATION OF LOGISTIC
SITUATION
(3)
LOGISTIC
Short
description
b.
Format
and
c.
Reportable
of
contents
items
in
in
logistic
accordance
accordance
situation
with
with
in
follows:
SITUATION
general.
appendix
appendix
1.
2.
Appendix 1
FORMAT
1.
2.
AND
CONTAINS
OF
LOGSITREP
PRELIMINARY
TEXT
a.
Classification.
b.
Message
c.
Date
d.
For
identification/Type
and
time
reporting
COMMANDING
of
group
during
OFFICERВґS
report/originator/Serial
for
exercises:
EVALUATION
“as
Name
OF
no/Month//.
of”
of
LOGISTIC
time.
exercise.
SITUATION
To be included in every report, and must comprise a short statement of capability
of the force/unit to provide satisfactory logistic support for ongoing or future
operations.
3.
LOGISTIC
a.
b.
SITUATION
General
(1)
Matters related to location of logistic units and installations.
(2)
Changes
(3)
Special activities with influence on the logistic capacity of the
force/unit.
in
logistic
support.
Supply
(1)
Deficiencies in the force/unit Table of Organisation and Equipment
(TOE).
(2)
Reduced
(3)
Stocks in accordance with Reportable Items List as per appendix 2
to
Annex
N.
(4)
Miscellaneous.
resupply
through
normal
supply
system.
c.
d.
e.
Maintenance
(19
Deficiencies
in
(2)
Deficiencies
(3)
Important
(4)
Miscellaneous.
maintenance
in
deficiencies
capacity.
recovery
in
resupply
capacity.
of
spare
parts.
Transport
(1)
Traffic
situation
(2)
Limitations
(3)
Miscellaneous.
inside
own
area
of
responsibility.
in
transport
capacity.
Medical
(1)
Limitations
in
evacuation
capacity.
(2)
Limitations
in
treatment
capacity.
(3)
Health
(4)
Epidemic
(5)
Miscellaneous.
condition
of
force/unit.
diseases.
f. Miscellaneous
(1)
Other
(2)
Suggestions to overcome existing or expected deficiencies
or limitations in logistic support.
services.
Appendix 2
Reportable items list
UNIT:
Code
No
REPORT ITEM AUTH
(A)
DTG:
FMC
(B)
REC
(C)
REMARKS
(D)
Estimated
Cause of REC:
< 6hrs < 24hrs >24hrs
1
Scout vehicles
2
APC
(Wheeled)
3
APC (Tracked)
4
TANK
5
Recovery
vehicles
(TRACKED)
Recovery
vehicles
(WHEELED)
Trucks <6 tons
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Trucks
6-17
tons
Trailers,
medium
(EA / capacity)
Trailers, heavy
(EA / capacity)
Tipper trucks
(EA / capacity)
Flatbed trucks
< 6 ton
Fuel
trucks,<6500
(EA/liters)
Fuel
trucks,
>6500
(EA / liters)
ready:
15
16
17
18
Fuel trailers
(EA / liters)
Forklifts
(EA / capacity)
Water trucks
(EA / liters)
24
Water trailers
(EA / liters)
Cont. handl.eq
(+
heavy
forklifts)
Refrigerators /
cold stores
Freezing
containers
Field
ambulances
(EA / capacity,
soft skin)
Field
ambulances
(EA / capacity,
APC-type)
Tank
transporter,
low bed
Low bed trailer,
ENG e.q TPT
Cargo trailer
25
Drop trucks
26
Semi
mobile
fuel
tanks
(EA/liters)
Semi
mobile
water
tanks
(EA/liters)
Mobile cranes
(EA/capacity)
Class
I
/
combat rations
(DOS)
Class I / bottle
19
20
20a
21
21 a
22
23
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
water (DOS)
Class III/bulk,
stock
level
(DOS)
Class
III/
MOGAS
stock
level
(DOS)
Class V/AMMO
(DOS)
BUS
40-50 Seats
BUS
30-35 Seats
BUS
19 Seats
BUS
8 Seats
Spare
MAIN ACCES
switch MAN 8
Spare
Trunknode
MAN 8
Trailer,
ENG
eq
TPT
(18
TONS)
Heavy Dump
Truck
Spare
Patrol
Soft skins
If equipment is reported in REC, and if not ready within 24 hours, it is to be
followed by
an estimated “When ready” date / time in the remark space.
ANNEX O TO ASF LOGISTIC SOP – DISEASE AND NON BATTLE INJURY REPORT
DISEASE AND NON-BATTLE INJURY REPORT
(DNBI - REP)
1.
AIM
The aim of this annex is to state the format for weekly reporting of the medical
situation from units to ASF HQ.
2.
ORIGINATOR
All units within AOR.
3.
ADDRESSEE
MED CELL.
4.
WHEN TRANSMITTED
Weekly NLT TUESDAY 2359 Local.
5.
TRANSMITTING METHOD
Preferred method is electronic version transmission. Reports may however be
transmitted in. written form .
6.
PRECEDENCE
Normally not higher than PRIORITY.
7.
CLASSIFICATION
According to contents.
8.
CONTENTS
Contents and format in accordance with appendix 1.
Appendix 1
MED TREATMENT FACILITY
NAME
RESPONSI
BLE
FOR FORM
and LOCATION
AVG WEEKLY TROOP
STRENGTH
Epi
Nato
Item
No.
1
Initial Visit
Diagnosis
Weekly Attack
Total
Rate*
WEEK
Dates
Man Days of
Light Duty
Weekly
Total
Rate
Man Days of
Lost Duty
Weekly
Total
Rate
DIARRHEA & Intestinal Inf. Ds.
2
Syphilis & Other STD's
0
0
0
4
Alcohol &SUBSTANCE ABUSE
0
0
0
5
Mental Disorders
0
0
0
5.1
Stress Reactions
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Eye Disorders/ OPHTHALMIC
0
0
0
7
URI's & Ear, Nose, Throat ds.
0
0
0
8
(+)Lower Respiratory Tract ds.
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Follow-up
Visits
Weekly
Weekly Total
Total
Admit's
Weekly
Spec
Consults
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
(=total) RESPIRATORY ds.
PHONE
Monday thru Sunday
from-to:
1
(=total)PSYCHIATRIC
0
/
0
0
9
DENTAL Disease
0
0
0
11
Other GI / digestive system ds.
0
0
0
UNEXPL FEVER
0
0
0
3
Other Infectious Ds.
0
0
0
12
(+)Gynae, Contracept., incl Pgy
0
0
0
16
(+)Rheum &Musc-Skel diseases
0
0
0
17
(+)Iatrogenic ds (complications)
0
0
0
18
(+)Other Diseases, N.O.S.
0
0
0
(=total) OTHER MED COND.
13
0
DERMATOLOGIC
ANIMAL BITES
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
Int. Derangement of Knee
0
0
0
15
(+)Dorsopathies
0
0
0
19
(+)MVA Injuries
0
0
0
20
(+) Training Injuries
0
0
0
21
(+) Sports Injuries
0
0
0
23
(+)Other Injuries
0
0
0
(=total) ORTHO/INJURY
24
0
0
0
0
0
0
COLD INJURY
0
0
0
(+)HEAT INJURY
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(=total)Heat, cold injuries
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DNBI TOTAL
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
MISC/ADMIN
FOLLOW-UP
0
0
0
Attack = Weekly Totalx100%
Rate
22
Injuries Due to War/Operations
0
25
NBC Indicators (ops. only)
0
Troop Strength
ANNEX P TO ASF LOGISTIC SOP – MEDICAL MAJOR INCIDENT REPORT (MIREP)
1.
AIM
The aim of this annex is to state the format concerning report of Major
incident from the units to ASF HQ.
2.
ORIGINATOR
ASF Subordinate Units.
3.
ADDRESSES
MED-CELL/
4.
WHEN TRANSMITTED
Immediately after major incidents.
5.
METHOD OF TRANSMITTING
Radio, telephone followed by written message.
6.
PRECEDENCE
OPERATION IMMEDIATE.
7.
CLASSIFICATION
According to contents.
8.
CONTENTS
Format and contents in accordance with appendix 1.
Appendix 1
MEDICAL MAJOR INCIDENT REPORT (MIREP)
TO:
MED CELL
INFO:
1.
Reporting unit.
2.
Date/Time Group (DTG) of report.
3.
Grid Location(s) of incident.
4.
Date/Time Group of incident.
5.
Description.
6.
Number of casualties:
a. Wounded.
b. Killed.
7.
Summary of action required.
8.
BDE assistance required.
________________________________________________________________
NOTES:
1.
The MIREP is to be submitted, when necessary, by the senior medical officer of
any unit or the senior medical NCO of units without a medical Nofficer, to ASF
HQ. Precedence designation will be “OPERATIONAL IMMEDIATE”.
2.
MIREP will be numbered consecutively.
3.
This report will be submitted when resolution of an incident exceeds unit
medical capabilities. It will be treated as a request for assistance.
ANNEX Q TO ASF
(LOGASSESSREP)
1.
LOGISTIC
SOP
–
LOGISTIC
ASSESMENT
REPORT
AIM
The aim of this annex is to state regulations concerning logistic reporting from
subordinates to ASF HQ
2.
ORIGINATOR
3.
ADRESSES
Action :
INFO :
4.
WHEN TRANSMITTED
As of :
Due
5.
:
METHOD
OF
TRANSMITTING
Reports will be submitted by the transmission means necessary to reach the HQ
by the time required: Preferred method is in written form (messages, signal, or
document). However, reports may be submitted verbally via radio or telephone
when the situation requires it. Portions not applicable may be omitted. Submission
of data by referring to serials (lines) and columns will be accepted. “No change”
reports will be submitted, as applicable following submission of a complete initial
report.
6.
PRECEDENCE
Normally not higher than PRIORITY.
7.
CLASSIFICATION
According
8.
CONTENTS
to
contents.
LOGASSESSREP
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
is
divided
into
OVERALL EVALUATION:
SEVLOGS
FACTORS
POL
LINES OF COMMUNICATION (LOC)
MED/HEALTH SERVICES
INTEROPERABILITY
LOGSUPP. OF COMSYSTEMS
HOST NATION SUPPORT (HNS)
Appendix 1:
Guideline for LOGASSESSREP.
the
following
parts:
Appendix 1
GUIDELINE FOR LOGISTICS ASSESSMENT REPORT
(LOGASSESREP)
1.
OVERALL EVALUATION
a.
Content:
A brief summary/overview about the overall logistics situation in the commander’s
area of responsibility including shortages, deficiencies and/or lack of essential
equipment and stocks that have or will have an impact of the conduction of current
and/or planned operations. Also the personnel situation and the status of supply
points/installations are to be addressed.
b.
Examples
(1) Status of units/formations (operational readiness).
(2)
Status of
readiness).
(3) Status of essential equipment
field
supply
points/supply
installations
(operational
(LOGASSESSREP)
.
(4)
NOTE:
(a) Should be reported if a reduction of 25% and higher is given.
(b) If reported this information must be outlined in more detail under
paragraph.
3. FACTORS.
(5) Status of combat decisive ammunition related to the appropriate
weapons or separately.
(6)
NOTE:
If reported this information must then be reflected under paragraph 2.
SEVLOGS. (2) Shortages/deficiencies of spare parts that caused delays
for repairing of combat decisive force weapons or systems.
(8) Damage on existing installation/facilities, i.e. supply points, repair facilities,
airbases, ports, communications centres.
(9) Status of the rail/road networks.
(10) CIMIC situation (refugees, uncontrolled and/or controlled population
movements).
(11) NBC situation if affected the performance of logistics operations (activities).
(12) Outlook/view to current or planned operations to ensure the logistic stainability
of these operations (or limited and failed respectively).
2.
SUBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF LOGISTICAL SUSTAINABILITY (SEVLOGS)
a.
Content: Report SEVLOGS in days of combat sustainability (based on days of supply
(DOS) for the most critical items).
b.
NOTE: These figures must also be in concurrence with the respective paragraph of the
COMMANDERВґs ASSESSMENT REPORT.
c.
3.
Examples
(1)
Land forces:
(2)
Air forces:
(3)
Naval forces:
GENERAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE LOG SUPPORT OF (FACTORS)
a.
b.
Content: To state in more detail the statement given in paragraph 1. Overall Evaluation
and paragraph 2. (SEVLOGS).
Examples:
(1)
Land forces:
(a) Decreasing of combat decisive force weapons/systems for Force Protection
(b) Shortage/deficiencies of combat decisive AMMO
(c) Lack/deficiencies of important spare parts for repairing essential equipment
(d) Problems of the TCC
(2)Air forces:
4.
POL (PETROLEUM, OIL AND LUBRICANTS)
a.
b.
5.
Content: Information under this paragraph should only be stated if respective information
is reported by subordinate headquarters/units/formations based on facts gained by
themselves.
Examples
(1)
Damage of any kind on POL depots.
(2)
Reduction of refuelling capability when drawing fuel from above installations.
(3)
Lack on manpower running any POL facilities/installations.
LINES OF COMMUNICATIONS (LOC)
a.
Content:
To give information drawn from territorial situation reports forwarded by sub units to state
facts that are reported by external forces/units
b.
Examples
(1)
Situation of roads used for resupply operations (i.e. Main Supply Routes (MSR)).
(2)
Situation of the road/rail and air fields network to be used for moving
units/formations into a planned field position.
(3) Uncontrolled/controlled population movements leading by national or local authorities.
6.
MEDICAL AND HEALTH SERVICES
a.
b.
Content: Only a comprehensive statement drawn from Medical Situation Report, if
required, having serious impact on the fulfilment and implementation of logistic
activities/operations. NBC matters are to be reported.
Examples
(1) Status of supply installation and/or supply/service units to be contaminated.
(2) Shortage or lack of essential medical supplies (i.e. live blood, atropine).
(3) Deficiencies of evacuation means for seriously wounded personnel.
(4) Status of certain medical personnel (i.e. surgeon, nurses)
7.
INTEROPERABILITY
a. Content: To give information on mutual logistic assistance requested to and received
from allied units/formations.
b. Examples
(1) Status of emergency logistic assistance request (LOGASSREQ) if requested.
(2) Status of mutual logistic support based on appropriate agreements if requested
for.
(3) Problem with a certain AMMO to be used.
8.
LOGISTICS
SUPPORT
OF
This paragraph may only be addressed if
COMMUNICATIONS
SYSTEMS.
a. AU/REC/Region funded equipment are provided and used and
b. There are existing problems concerning replacement or repair of such equipment.
9.
HOST NATION SUPPORT (HNS)
Content: Information about HNS or other matters related to HN arrangement including
MOU.
ANNEX R TO ASF LOGISTIC SOP – LOGISTIC STATUS REPORT (LOGSTAT)
1.
AIM
The aim of this annex is to state regulations concerning logistic reporting from
units to ASF
2.
ORIGINATOR
All
3.
subordinates.
ADDRESSES
ASF
4.
HQ.
WHEN
As
TRANSMITTED
of:
Daily
at
1200
Due: Not later than 1500
5.
METHOD
OF
TRANSMITTING
Reports will be submitted by the transmission means necessary to reach the HQ
by the time required: Preferred method is in written form (messages, signal, or
document). However, reports may be submitted verbally via radio or telephone
when the situation requires it. Portions not applicable may be omitted.
Submission of data by referring to serials (lines) and columns will be accepted.
“No change” reports will be submitted, as applicable, following submission a
complete
initial
report.
6.
PRECEDENCE
Normally
7.
not
higher
PRIORITY.
CLASSIFICATION
According
8.
than
CONTENTS
a.
CO all
b.
AUTH
to
over
assessment
of
contents.
the
unitВґs
operational
readiness.
Authorized number of COMBAT APC (WHEELED); according to table of
organization
c.
FMC
Full Manoeuvre Capability number of COMBAT APC (WHEELED)
d.
REC
COMBAT APC (WHEELED) under recovery > 24 hours.
e
AUTH
Authorized number of COMBAT APC (TRACKED); according to table of
organization
f. FMC
Full Manoeuvre Capability number of COMBAT APC (TRACKED)
g.
REC
COMBAT APC (TRACKED) under recovery > 24 hours.
h.
AUTH
Authorized number of TANKS; according to table of organization
i. FMC
Full Manoeuvre Capability number of TANKS.
j. REC
TANKS under recovery > 24 hours.
k.
The present status (in %) showing actual status
Class III (bulk fuel)
The reported stocks in the Bn are only concerning the 3 (three) days of
supplies as mentioned in annex N to OPSORDER 7
NOTE: NSG will report brigade reserve stocks.
l. Class V (AMMO)
The reported stocks in the Bn are only concerning the 7 (seven) days of
supplies as mentioned in annex N to OPSORDER 7.
m.
Remarks and additional info
Following events must be reported
change of colour,
if expected “ready” time is more than 24 hours, a explanation
should be given .
Appendix 1
LOGSTATREP
UNIT:
a
b
c
AS OF:
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
COВґs
Assesment
l
3
DOS
7
DOS
STOC
K
STOC
K
CL III CL V
AUTH FMC
BRIGADEВґS
(a) STOCK
(Reserve)
REC
AUTH FMC
4 DOS DIESEL BENZ
STOCK CUM
CUM
CL III
(BULK)
REPORTED BY
NSG
m. REMARKS AND ADDITIONAL INFO:
REC
KERO
CUM
AUTH FMC
REC
(BULK
)
WRITE IN CAPITAL LETTERS THE PRESENT STATUS
AS OF 1200 HOURS INTO CIRCLES.
LEGEND:
GREEN:
AMBER:
RED:
BLACK:
80 - 100%
70- 79%
50 - 69%
0 - 49%
EXAMPLE:
RED
LOGSTATREP IS TO BE FORWARDED TO ASF HQ
DAILY NLT 1500 HOURS
CHAPTER 10
ASF LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT
1001. The AU/REC’s will take the necessary measures for planning and conducting the
logistic support of their forces, and regional components of multi-regional forces, to
meet the requirements of the AU/RECs.
Provide logistic resources for the support of their own forces, include bilateral and
multilateral arrangements.
Identify available AU/Regional logistic resources for co-operative use to meet identified
shortfalls in logistic plans.
Operate and control AU/Regional military and civil logistic resources for the operation.
Provide AU/Regional logistic experts for the relevant phases of logistic planning and
execution to augment the ASF.
AU/REC’s will identify logistics management structure within their logistics plan.
Provide full visibility of logistic resources, both in-theatre, and within the strategic LOCs,
to the AU/REC’s.
1002. The Logistics Staff at AU and Regional Planning Elements (PLANELMs) will
undertake the following responsibilities:
a.
Monitor and take initiatives for the development of policies and procedures in the
field of multi-regional logistic support for operations.
b.
Develop logistic elements of advanced military strategic planning.
c.
Update logistic elements of generic/contingency plans and, following guidance.
d.
Consult within the AU and RECs to convene logistic expert meetings.
e.
Provide necessary co-ordinated inputs, assessments and draft military advice in
all logistic affairs throughout direction of AU/RECs.
f.
Initiate and participate in bilateral and multilateral negotiations, and, where
appropriate, conclude HNS arrangements on behalf of AU/RECs, subject to their prior
concurrence.
1003. The AU/RECs will plan and co-ordinate the deployment, support and recovery of
the ASF force. On Transfer of Authority (TOA), the AU will be responsible for the coordination of overall logistic support. Responsibilities and procedures will need to be
refined throughout the Military Planning Process. The AU has specific responsibilities to:
Develop operational requirements for TOA planning and execution necessary for
comprehensive logistic support.
Establish requirements, initiate and participate in bilateral and multilateral negotiations,
and, where appropriate, conclude HNS arrangements.
Coordinate redistribution under agreed provisions (if required).
Provide a staff organisation and communication flow for the AU/RECs.
Act as the co-ordinating authority in the field of logistics for AU/RECs.
Co-ordinate all logistics activities within the AU and RECs.
Co-ordinate all aspects of multi-regional logistic sustainment within the AU and RECs.
Co-ordinate procedures for intra-theatre movement within AU and RECs.
Co-ordinate multi-regional logistic support.
Insure necessary amendments concerning force deployment (e.g. desired order of
arrival, commander's required date), transportation for sustainment (resupply) and
redeployment.
1003. The RECs HQ will:
Assist within the region to co-ordinate logistic support within their force, including the
creation and control of regional logistics.
Co-ordinate the implementation of HNS agreements.
Where appropriate, co-ordinate and arrange the provision of common supplies and
services.
Co-ordinate and administratively support their region, NGO’s and HN liaison staffs
within their region according to specific arrangements.
AU LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT
Director of
Logistics
Material
Management
Financial
Management
Maintenance
Management
Depot
Management
Logistics Management REC’s
Chief of
Logistics
Material
Management
Financial
Management
Maintenance
Management
Depot
Management
Logistics Management
Communication Flow
AU Logistics
Management
ECOWAS
ECCAS
SADC
NASBRIG
EASBRIG
CHAPTER 11
ASF LOGISTICS FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Reimbursement Rates
1101. Troop Contributing Countries (TCCs) will be reimbursed under a �wet’ or �dry’5
lease system as per pecuniary rates adopted by the AU. Reimbursement will be limited
to those items of serviceable major equipment (including associated minor equipment
and consumables) specifically agreed to by the AU. Should a contingent provide less
major equipment or self-sustainment categories than that stipulated in the Memorandum
of Understanding (MOU) between the AU and the TCC, the latter will be reimbursed
only for major equipment or self-sustainment categories actually provided. The ASF
Logistic Manual contains details of the computation method for the monthly equipment
usage charge for the modular dry lease system and components of the modular wet/dry
lease system.
1102. TCCs will also be reimbursed for self-sustainment as per AU rates. These rates
will be promulgated in a separate Contingent Reimbursement document produced by
the AU. Minor equipment and consumables not directly related to major equipment will
be reimbursed as "self-sustainment" based on troop strength. Self-sustainment
categories are not subject to accountability upon entry into and departure from the
operational/mission area, but rather to verification and inspection to ensure that they
meet the agreed standards and mandate of the contingent. When a contingent provides
less major equipment or self-sustainment than that stipulated in the Memorandum of
Understanding (MOU) the TCC will be reimbursed only for actual numbers.
1103. Rates of reimbursement for special equipment will be negotiated separately
between the TCC and AU. Reimbursement rates will be adjusted for any period for
which TCCs are not meeting the standards laid down by the AU.
1104. The basic principles of this reimbursement system are simplicity, accountability,
financial and management control. These principles are accomplished by reducing the
administrative burden on TCCs, the AU and the operational LSG Commander by
ensuring that reimbursement rates are standardized on an equitable basis and
standards of contributed equipment and services are maintained at a high level.
Furthermore, accountability and control are ensured by the system relying on an
5
“Wet lease" requires troop-contributor countries to provide major equipment and maintenance, whilst "dry lease" means troopcontributor countries would provide only major equipment, with the AU assuming responsibility for maintenance.
agreement between the AU and the TCC for the leasing of equipment and the provision
of services to personnel. The Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the AU
and the TCC (referred to above) will eliminate the need for detailed surveys of
equipment, spare parts and consumables, and puts the emphasis on the TCC for asset
management. The responsibility of the AU is one of ensuring that the peacekeeping
mission/operation is provided with the personnel and equipment required to fulfil its
mandate, to ensure that the TCCs provide personnel, equipment and services as
detailed in the specific MOU, and that the contingents perform according to the
established standards.
Contracting and Financial Reporting
Through direct contracting, access to civilian resources may be gained in order to
procure the supplies and services required by the force. CRs/TCCs or the LR may carry
out this function. Contracting may complement or replace HNS. Care must be taken to
avoid compromise to the operation by uncoordinated and competing contracting action
between CRs/TCCs and force elements.
1105. Accounting Procedures. Peacetime accounting regulations will not normally be
relaxed during ASF missions. In the event of there being a requirement to relax some
accounting regulations the details and scope of such relaxation will be issued by the
ASF-FC in terms specified by the AU and/or the Regional Economic Community (REC),
depending on who the Mandating Authority is. ASF-FLC HQ will have to ensure early
and appropriate delegation of authority to contract services and affect local purchase in
accordance with the operational directive. Budgetary and financial transactions will be
subject to periodic inspections by command-based staff and technical inspections
teams specialised in budgetary and logistic/resource management issues.
1106. Budget/Finance Staff. The budgetary and finance staff will exercise vote
management, financial control and financial scrutiny over all expenditure in AOR or in
connection with the operation, in accordance with the ASF-FC’s delegated authority.
The ASF-FC/ASF-FLCC must ensure the essential bureaucracy of budgetary discipline
does not itself become an impediment to the conduct of operations.
1107. Directive. Operation-specific financial direction will be contained within the
Mandating Authority’s Directive and will be reproduced in subordinate directives as
appropriate. These will specify accounting procedures in detail. Observance is
mandatory, as audit is inevitable. Some of the financial aspects that may be included in
the Directive are:
Common Costs.
Common Costs are those costs that cannot be attributed to
individual CRs/TCCs. Cost allocation principles for Common Costs must be agreed prior
to activation of an ASF force.
Individual Costs. Individual Costs are those costs financed on a "costs lie where they
fall" basis; meaning costs that are clearly the responsibility of individual CRs/TCCs.
Shared Costs.
Shared Costs are costs where there has been prior agreement
between CRs/TCCs to share responsibility for particular supplies or services. They are
usually based on a formal cost-sharing formula and can be shared by a number of
CRs/TCCs under their own rules. Funds may be managed by a LR. Legal arrangements
to manage Shared Costs will be required between CRs/TCCs.
Costs Applicable to Partners. Individual CRs/TCCs are to demonstrate commitment
to the actualisation of the ASF arrangements by committing national and REC
resources prior to seeking international support. The AU and RECs are ideally suited to
seek such support, particularly for identified logistics capability gaps like the strategic lift
requirements for rapid deployment.
Procurement Activities
1108. All procurement activities (Contracts for purchase, rental or sale of services,
supplies, equipment or other requirements) entered into by the AU will be governed by
AU financial regulations and rules. Procurement policies and procedures for the
purchase, receipt, management and disposal of equipment will be contained in an AU
Procurement Manual. An ASF mission will engage methods of acquisition either
through the AU Headquarters in Addis Ababa or locally.
1110. Only officials duly authorized by the AU will enter into acquisition activities. This
includes contracts, the invitation of proposals or tenders, and negotiation with potential
suppliers or purchasers on the basis of detailed specifications. The duly authorized
individuals on an AU mission should be the Director of Logistics or Head of Mission.
1111. The contingents of Member States participating in AU Mission shall not be
allowed to enter into procurement activities in the name of the AU unless authorization
in a written form or as a “Note Verbal” agreed to between AU Headquarters in Addis
Ababa and the respective government. If a contingent enters into procurement activities
without such prior approval, the mission shall not be liable to refund the Member State
or contract source.
Types of Acquisition
1112. The following types of acquisition shall be available to an AU mission through the
authority of Director of Logistics and Head of Mission. The type and method of
procurement used depends on the mission budget, financial limitations, sources of
supply and/or its urgency. Guidance for choosing the method of acquisition will be
provided in the Procurement Regulations and Rules of the AU.
•
A Purchase Order (PO) shall be processed locally within pre-agreed
financial limits for an authorized local vendor.
•
A Direct provisioning document Blanket Purchase Order (BPO) on an
open-ended contract shall be issued as a requisition against an existing
approved local or pre-approved contract.
•
A local contract shall be issued for supplies or services that are within the
mission financial limitations.
•
An Accelerated Procurement shall be generated for needs that are urgent,
in which local funds are used to buy materials off-the-shelf.
•
When a required item exceeds the mission financial limits, a Draft
Requisition will be drawn up, approved and sent to the AU HQ in Addis
Ababa for processing.
•
When required, a Letter of Assistance (LOA) shall be requested through
AU Headquarters. This will be a contracting document that will be entered
into with a Troop contributing Country (TCC) or government as a source of
supply, to satisfy the original demand.
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