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Project Title
Biomedical Studies and IPR (Intellectual
Property Rights) Documentation of Medicinal
Plants Used in the Treatment of Women
Diseases in Sindh
Progress Report
Period: November, 2011
District Larkana
Submitted to
Planning Department, Government of Sindh
By
Prof. Dr. M. Iqbal Choudhary H. I., S. I., T. I.
Principal Investigator
Dr. Atia-tul-Wahab
Co-Principal Investigator
H. E. J. Research Institute of Chemistry
International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences
University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
1
CONTENTS
Page no.
1. Title of the Project
6
2. Principal Investigator
6
3. Co- Principal Investigator
6
4. Implementing Institute
6
5. Project Team
5.1.
Lady Doctor
6
5.2.
Biochemist
6
5.3.
Microbiologist
6
5.4.
Pharmacist
6
5.5.
Chemist
6
5.6.
Anthropologist
6
5.7.
Drivers
6
6. Background
6
7. Project Objectives
8
8. Project Description
9
9. Survey Report of Larkana district
10
10.
9.1.
Taluka Visited
10
9.2
Description Details
10
Taluka Dokri
11
10.1 Goth Khair Muhammad Areja
11
10.1.1 Geographical Information
11
2
10.1.2 Women Interviewed
11
10.1.3 Information obtained
12
10.2 Goth Tharo Wann
10.2.1 Geographical Information
13
10.2.2 Women Interviewed
13
10.3 Goth Jhendo sero
14
10.3.1 Geographical Information
14
10.3.2 Women Interviewed
14
10.3.3 Information obtained
15
11. Taluka Ratodero
11.1. Garibabad Muhlla - Naudero
11.2
13
17
17
11.1.1 Geographical Information
17
11.1.2 Women Interviewed
17
11.1.3 Information obtained
18
Goth Saido dero
19
11.2.1 Geographical Information
19
11.2.2 Women Interviewed
19
11.2.3 Information obtained
20
11.3 Goth Gari Khuda Bux
21
11.3.1 Geographical Information
21
11.3.2 Women Interviewed
22
12.
Table: List of Medicinal plants used in Larkana District
22
13.
Methodology to Confirm the Names of Plants
25
3
14.
Scientific Literature of Mentioned Plants
25
14.1. Acorus calamus L.
25
14.2. Ammomum subulatum Roxb.
26
14.3. Anethum sowa Roxb.
27
14.4. Apium graveolens L.
28
14.5. Areca catechu L.
29
14.6. Azadirachta indica J. Juss.
30
14.7
Cannabis sativa L.
31
14.8
Cocos nucifera L.
32
14.9
Cuminum cyminum L.
34
14.10 Elettaria cardamomum Maton.
35
14.11 Embelia ribes Burm.f.
36
14.12 Foeniculum vulgare var Dulce.
37
14.13 Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
38
14.14 Lallemantia royleana Benth.
39
14.15 Mentha Piperita L.
40
14.16 Origanum vulgare L.
41
14.17 Papaver somniferum L.
42
14.18. Piper nigrum L.
43
14.19. Quercus infectoria Olivier.
44
14.20. Ricinus communis L.
45
14.21. Salvia plebeia R. Brown.
46
14.22. Symplocos racemosa Roxb.
47
4
15.
16.
17.
14.23. Terminalia chebula Retz.
48
14.24. Trachyspermum ammi L.
49
14.25. Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
50
14.26. Triticum aestivum L.
51
Experimental Work Done:
52
15.1
Phytochemical and Biological Studies
52
15.2
Table: List of plants extracted
52
Biological Screening
54
16.1
Antifungal Assay:
54
16.2
Agar-well Diffusion Method
54
16.3. Results of in vitro Antifungal activity
54
16.4. Table: Drug Susceptibility assay for candida albicans
56
16.5. Conclusion
56
In Vitro Experiment
57
17.1
57
Development of Animal Models:
17.1.1 In vitro experiment for uterus contractility
57
17.1.2 Dysmenorrheal mice model preparation
58
17.1.3 Conclusion
59
18
Conclusion of Survey Report
59
19.
Maps
60
20.
References
62
21.
Herbal Formulation for the Treatment of Diseases
79
22.
Glossary
87
5
1
Title of the Project:
Biomedical studies and IPR (Intellectual property rights) documentation of
medicinal plants used in the treatment of women diseases in Sindh.
2.
Principal Investigator:
Dr. M. Iqbal Choudhary, Professor and Director
3.
Co-Principal Investigator:
Dr. Atia-tul-Wahab, Assistant Professor
4.
Implementing Institution:
H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry (International Center for Chemical and
Biological Sciences)
5.
Project Team:
5.1 Senior Pharmacolgist:
Dr. Ahsna Dar (PhD. Pharmacology)
5.2 Lady Doctor:
Dr. Nuzhat Bhatti (M.B.B.S., MCPS Gynecology)
5.3 Microbiologist:
Ms. Samreen (M. Phil.)
`
Ms. Summan Maqbool (M. Sc.)
5.4 Pharmacist:
Ms. Geeta Kumari (Pharm-D)
5.5 Chemist:
Ms. Nuzhat Shehla (M. Sc.)
5.6 Anthropologist:
Mr. Ameer Ahmed (M. Phil.)
5.7 Drivers:
Abdul Aleem/ Fazal Kareem
6. Background:
Traditional system of medicine has been practiced since historical times and
traces its roots to ancient civilizations. The World Health Organization (WHO) has
recently defined traditional medicine (including herbal drugs) as comprising therapeutic
6
practices that have been in existence, often for hundreds of years, before the
development and spread of modern medicine and are still in use today. This traditional
medicine is still the mainstay of about 75–80% of the world population, mainly in the
developing countries, for primary health care because of better cultural acceptability,
better compatibility with the human body and lesser side effects. Traditional medicines
not only maintained their popularity in developing world but their use is rapidly
spreading in industrialized countries.
Pakistan has a long history of healing tradition, in fact from pre-historic era. Its
diverse topography has permitted the survival of traditional knowledge related to
medicinal plants. It is estimated that over 6000 plants in Pakistan as native are in use.
These are traditional, folk and herbal medicines. Sindh has diversity of vegetation and
the local people use these plants for the treatment of various diseases throughout the
history. More than 80% of the population, especially the rural folk are still dependent on
traditional herbal remedies for their primary healthcare. These plants are the integrated
part of their culture and information about these plants passed from generation to
generation through oral folk and many are kept secret. However the rich tradition of
herbal healing, which has the potential to tackle primary healthcare problems of millions
and enable them health security, is eroding fast due to lack of social and policy support.
Therefore there is an urgent need of revitalization of these traditional medical systems
for their conservation through which the whole mankind can be benefited.
Traditional medicines are not only used for the treatment of general diseases but
also for the treatment of women disease. This includes birth control, including abortion
at initial stages, preventing conception, also to cure sterility or to enhance chance of
7
conception. Plants are also use to cure widespread sexual diseases like gonorrhea
(serious infection and sexually transmitted disease (STD), caused by having sex with an
infected person), syphilis (serious infection and sexually transmitted disease),
Chlamydia trachomatis, a bacterial infection which damage women reproductive system
(STD), vulvovaginal yeast infections by Candida albicans, dysmenorrhea (painful
menstruation), menorrhea (abnormally heavy and prolonged periods), amenorrhea
(absence of monthly periods), leucorrhea (vaginal discharge), yeast diseases,
premature menopause, sexual dysfunction, infertility and to regularize periods, etc.
These traditional and herbal medicines also provide health care through out the entire
birth process, from pregnancy through conception to postpartum.
While most part of the province has government funded clinics and basic health
units, as well as privately-owned clinics and hospitals, adequately qualified female
doctors are generally not available in most part of the rural areas of Sindh. Equally
important are social practices of people, living in rural areas, according to which women
with specific diseases are often not taken to the hospital for proper care. In most part of
the province, they are generally treated by female elder ladies or midwives by using
medicinal plants and other household items and so called kitchen pharmacy. Due to this
unbroken knowledge of the uses of plants has been accumulated over the years, which
has the great value and needs to be properly documented and scientifically evaluated.
7.
Project Objectives:
The present project was aimed to preserve the indigenous knowledge of medicinal
plants uses for therapeutic purposes in Sindh that is fast disappearing with time
because of rapid loss of habitat, access to modern medicines, rural and urban
8
migration, and changes in life style of people. The study was initiated with the following
objectives:
i.
To preserve the indigenous healing knowledge, related to women folk diseases.
ii.
To identify and record plant species used in folk medicines against women
diseases.
iii.
To compile authentic ethno botanical information of folk medicinal practices in
rural areas of Sindh, in the form of reports, databases and monographs.
iv.
To conduct scientific evaluation of selected medicinal plants to ascertain their
efficacy and safety.
v.
To establish a database of traditional knowledge to be used in protecting the
knowledge-base and for further studies.
vi.
To produce educational materials on traditional uses and along names of plants
with the goal of promoting the safe cultural practices.
vii.
To look into possible economic opportunities in traditional and plant-based
medicine.
8.
Brief Project description:
The project will be executed in a planned way in following steps:
a)
Field survey of rural urban areas of Sindh
b)
Compilation of database and monograph (compilation of information collected)
c)
Scientific literature of identified plants
d)
Scientific evaluation of selected medicinal plants (Plant extraction and isolation of
chemical constituents)
e)
Bioassay and pharmacological evaluation.
9
9.
Survey Report of Larkana District.
19th October, 2011
Date of visit:
9.1
Taluka visited:
пѓ� Taluka Dokri
п‚·
Goth Khair Muhammad Areja
п‚·
Goth Tharo Wann
п‚·
Goth Jhendo sero
пѓ� Taluka Ratodero
9.2
п‚·
Garibabad Mahulla Naodero
п‚·
Saido Dero
п‚·
Gari Khuda Bux
Description Details:
Larkana or Larkano is a district of Sindh province of Pakistan. According to the
1998 census of Pakistan, it had a population of 1,927,066 of which 28.70% were urban.
Its main city is Larkana. It is home district of two former Prime Ministers of Pakistan,
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Benazir Bhutto and also the district of former Chief Minister of
Sindh, Mumtaz Ali Bhutto. Other towns of the district include Miro Khan, Ratodero,
Dokri, Bakrani and Naodero. In 2005, the Government of Pakistan under Pervez
Musharraf bifurcated the district, forming a new district called Qamber and Shahdadkot,
with two towns of Qambar Khan and Shahdadkot. The historic city of Mohenjo-Daro is
located about 30 kilometres in the south of Larkana city, in Dokri taluka, on the right
bank of river Indus. Rice canal (seasonal) and Dadu Canal (perennial) pass through the
district and irrigate the agricultural fields. Taluka Larkana and Ratodero are famous for
10
Guava orchards. Rice is a major Kharif crop while Rabi crops include wheat, Mustard,
Linseed and various kinds of vegetables.
10
Taluka Dokri
10.1
Goth Khair Muhammad Areja
N=27o, 24.834sec
10.1.1Geographical information:
E=68o, 10.454sec
Elevation=135 ft
Satellite
10.1.2 Women interviewed:
03
06
The Ladies of the Goth visits to Die and Lady Health Workers for consultation
and use herbal remedies too. The Government hospital is nearer; ladies prefer to go
there in serious condition.
Lady Nishad interviewed by Survey team
Lady Kalsoom (centre) interviewed by
Miss Nuzhat and Dr. Nuzhat
11
L→R Miss Samreen and Miss Geeta
interviewing Lady Sonan
L→R LadyShehnaz interviewed by
Miss Geeta and Dr. Nuzhat
Daie Mithan (white dress) interviewed by team
10.1.3 Information Obtained:
For expulsion of plasma membrane
пѓ� Take waowal (Apium graveolens L.), wavodang (Embelia ribes Burm.f.), dry
leaves of podina (Mentha piperita L.), mithi kathi (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.), choti
illaichi (Elettaria cardamomum Maton.), bari illaichi (Ammomum subulatum
Roxb.), mint slug (Mentha piperita L.), misri (Crystal Sugar), and nibat (Candy
sugar), in equal amount .Grind all together and make ball like marble from it.
Place intra-vaginally once daily for 6 days.
Leucorrhea
пѓ� Take 1spoon of zeera (Cuminum cyminum L.) with water daily for 15 days.
пѓ� Take saunf (Foeniculum vulgare var. Dulce) orally.
12
Menorrhea and Infertility
пѓ� Place dipped cotton swab of black and white glycerin intra-vaginally after
menstruation ends, for 3-5 days twice daily.
пѓ� Take zeera (Cuminum cyminum L.), saunf (Foeniculum vulgare var. Dulce),
waowal ((Apium graveolens L.), mawa (Quercus infectoria Olivier.), supari (Areca
catechu L.), kamarkas (Salvia plebeia R. Brown.), kahri (Symplocos racemosa
Roxb.), behra*, sakhoro*, sugar, and chotti ilaichi (Elettaria cardamomum Maton.)
in equal amount. Grind all together and make remedy, take it twice daily for 5
days.
For labor pain
пѓ� Add caster oil (Ricinus communis L.) 2-3 spoons in sulmani tea (normal tea
without milk) and give to lady to take orally.
Myth for usage of herbs to conceive male child
пѓ� Place misri (Crystal sugar) intra-vaginally 3 days regularly after delivery.
пѓ� Eat khopra (Cocos nucifera L.) orally.
Goth Tharo Wann
10.2
N=27o, 24.834sec
Geographical information:
E=68o, 10.454sec
Elevation=135 ft
Satellite
10.2.2 Women interviewed:
03
04
Ladies visit to Shehzadi Daie who died few years back. Now they go to Sardar
Daie in Goth Khair Muhmmad Areja. One Lady Rubina was under consultation of Sardar
13
Daie, she was also examined by lady doctor and sample of vaginal discharge is also
collected for further diagnosis of infection.
L→R Lady Rubina and Imamzadi interviewed
By Miss Geeta and Dr. Nuzhat
10.3
L→R Dr. Nuzhat interviewing Lady Marium
Goth Jhendo sero
N=27o, 24.834sec
10.3.1 Geographical information:
E=68o, 10.454sec
Elevation=135 ft
Satellite
10.3.2 Women interviewed:
03
03
In this Goth ladies prefer to go to Aziza Khatoon Daie, she has useful information
regarding herbs. She makes remedies and gives to ladies for their problems.
Lady Nosad interviewed by team members
Miss Geeta interviewing Daie Aziza Khatoon
14
10.3.4 Information obtained:
For Leucorrhea
пѓ� Take tukhm-e-balangh (Lallemantia royleana Benth.), mint slug (Mentha piperita
L.), zeera (Cuminum cyminum L.), sowa (Anethum sowa Roxb.), and sathar
(Origanum vulgare L.), in equal amount and grind all together to make a fine
powder. Then take butter and add gurr (Jaggery) in it. Now add powdered
ingredients to make vaginal suppositories. Place them intra-vaginally for 4 days
regularly in night.
For expulsion of plasma membrane, Menorrhea and to reduce groin pain
пѓ� Take methi dana (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), zeera ((Cuminum cyminum L.),
nazboo (Lallemantia royleana Benth.), sowa (Anethum sowa Roxb.), saunf
(Foeniculum vulgare var. Dulce), mint slug (Mentha piperita L.) chotti ilaichi
(Elettaria cardamomum Maton.), bari ilaichi (Ammomum subulatum Roxb.), misri
(Rock sugar), dry leaves of podina (Mentha piperita L.), sathar (Origanum
vulgare L.), ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.), waowal (Apium graveolens L.),
wavodang (Embelia ribes Burm.f.) in equal amount . Grind them all together to
make finer. Take 1 spoon daily in night orally for 8-10 days.
For Dysmenorrhea and for body Pain in Pregnancy
пѓ� Take methi dana (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), zeera ((Cuminum cyminum L.),
nazboo (Lallemantia royleana Benth.), sowa (Anethum sowa Roxb.), saunf
(Foeniculum vulgare var. Dulce), mint slug (Mentha piperita L.) chotti ilaichi
(Elettaria cardamomum Maton.), bari ilaichi (Ammomum subulatum Roxb.), misri
(Rock sugar), dry leaves of podina (Mentha piperita L.), sathar (Origanum
15
vulgare L.), ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.), waowal (Apium graveolens L.),
wavodang (Embelia ribes Burm.f.) and nibat (candy sugar) in equal amount.
Grind them all together to make finer. Take 1 spoon daily in night orally with 2-3
spoon of milk cream for 8-10 days.
Infertility and for regulation of menstrual cycle
пѓ� Take khopra (Cocos nucifera L.), sounf (Foeniculum vulgare var. Dulce), mint
slug (Mentha piperita L.), zeera (Cuminum cyminum L.), chotti ilaichi (Elettaria
cardamomum Maton.), and misri (rock sugar) in 125gm and har siya (har siya)
(Terminalia chebula Retz.)(60 gm).Grind all together to make fine powder and
take 1 spoon daily in night for 4 days. Start therapy on second day of
menstruation.
Amenorrhea
пѓ� Place peppermint slug (Mentha piperita L.), intra-vaginally for 4 days daily. Firstly
water discharge will come out then menstruation will start.
To increase lactation
пѓ� Take zeera ((Cuminum cyminum L.), ВЅ spoon orally with water daily for a month.
To lower abdomen
пѓ� After delivery do message of body with mustard oil and then place mud plate on
stomach and then keep red bricks (2-3) over it for 15-20 min for 11 days.
Prolapsed Uterus
пѓ� Give steam to gurr (jaggery) intra-vaginally.
Myth for usage of herb to conceive male child
пѓ� After delivery place gurr (Jaggery) intra-vaginally then after delivery for 3 days
16
and then give Araq 32 ВЅ cup daily for 3 days.
11
Taluka Ratodero
11.1
Garibabad Muhlla - Naudero
N=27o, 40.379sec
11.1.1Geographical information:
E=68o, 21.622sec
Elevation=167 ft
Satellite
11.1.2 Women interviewed:
02
06
Lady Saida Bhutto (light purple dress)
interviewed by team
L→R Lady Anam interviewed by Miss Geeta
Mostly ladies go to Daie for remedies but due to more hospital and clinics the
trends towards herbal medicine has been decreased there.
Lady Ikhtiyar (centre) interviewed by
Miss Geeta and Dr. Nuzhat
17
11.1.3 Information Obtained:
Leucorrhea
пѓ� Take misri (Crystal sugar), chotti ilaichi (Elettaria cardamomum Maton.), supari
(Areca catechu L.), and dried and fried mango seeds (Mangifera indica L.). Grind
all together to powder it and take this remedy twice daily with milk for a month.
Menorrhea
пѓ� Soak nishasta over night in water and take ponstan forte tablet with this water in
morning regularly during menstruation days.
Infertility
пѓ� Take whole coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) cut small opening of it from upper side
and add black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), khashkhash (Papaver somniferum L.)
and choti illaichi (Elettaria cardamomum Maton.) in it. Then knead sujji/ semolina
(Sesamum indicum L.) in milk and cover coconut with this doe. Now fry this
coconut in butter oil at low flame. When it is fried completely then peel it and
grind it. Add misri (Crystal sugar) in it.
Dose: Take this remedy as the menstruation ends one spoon daily for a month. In
continuation of this therapy place dipped cotton swabs of white & black glycerine
intra-vaginally for 3 days after menstruation ends.
Contraception
пѓ� Place cotton swabs of diluted detol intra-vaginally after inter course.
To induce abortion
пѓ� Take a piece of dried stem of aak (Calotropis gigantean (L.) W.T.Aiton) make
hole in it at one end and tie a thread .Place this stem intra-vaginally for 3 days. In
18
3 days baby will be aborted and bleeding starts.
Dyspareunia
пѓ� Mesh nazboo leaves (Lallemantia royleana Benth.) and bari illaichi (Ammomum
subulatum Roxb.) on palm of hand and tie it with thread and place intra-vaginally
for 4 days regularly.
Post partum hemorrhage
пѓ� Dip cloth in ice cold water and place on groins.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
пѓ� Take neem leaves (Azadirachta indica J.Juss )& boil them for 20 min in water
then add pyodine and use for vaginal cleaning every time when ever you go to
toilet for 15 days (avoid usage of normal water).
11.2
Goth Saido dero
N=27o, 39.203sec
11.2.1Geographical information:
E=68o, 19.352sec
Elevation=190 ft
Satellite
11.2.2 Women interviewed:
06
04
Manzooran Daie is famous Daie of the Goth and females visit to Daie for their
major and minor complains. She cover whole area and has good know how of herbal
19
remedies.
L в†’R Dr. Nuzhat and Miss Geeta
interviewing Lady Samina
L→R Daie Manzooran interviewed by
Miss Geeta and Dr. Nuzhat
11.2.3 Information Obtained:
Leucorrhea and infertility
пѓ� Take mawa (Quercus infectoria Olivier.), supari (Areca catechu L.), behra*,
flowers of pistachio, and sugar in equal amount. Grind them all together & make
remedy.
Dose: Take this remedy for 3 days twice daily after menstruation ends.
For Menorrhea
пѓ� Take mawa (Quercus infectoria Olivier.), supari (Areca catechu L.), behra*,
flowers of pistachio, and sugar in equal amount. Grind them all together & make
remedy
Dose: Take this remedy twice daily, start therapy from 1st day of menstruation.
Prolapsed uterus
пѓ� Take dried leaves of nazboo (Lallemantia royleana Benth.), bhang (Crocus
sativus L.), sowa (Anethum sowa Roxb.), sathar (Origanum vulgare L.), powari*
in equal amount. Grind these and put in cloth & tie with thread. Place it intravaginally for 5 days daily once in night.
20
Poly menorrhea
пѓ� Take Araq 32 in 2:2 ratios with water for 3 days in menstruation.
Dysmenorrhea
пѓ� Take fresh leaves of nazboo (Lallemantia royleana Benth.) add a pinch of salt in
it and tie it with thread. Place it intra-vaginally for 3 days.
Amenorrhea
пѓ� Take zeera (Cuminum cyminum L.) orally with water.
пѓ� Give cooked stomach of goat to lady in food.
Myth for usage of herbs to conceive male child
пѓ� Take kini kathi (Acorus calamus L.), kacha paka wai*, sowa (Anethum sowa
Roxb.), rori gurr*, khopra (Cocos nucifera L.), nar chowara (dry dates), almond,
chotti illaichi (Elettaria cardamomum Maton.), bari illaichi (Ammomum subulatum
Roxb.), ВЅ mint slug (Mentha piperita L.). Grind all these in fine powder & make
ball like marble.Place intra-vaginally for 6 days after delivery.
пѓ� Place a piece of rori gurr* intra-vaginally for 3 days.
пѓ� Cook chick (sindhi kukur) and give to lady to eat for 6 days daily after delivery.
To lower abdomen
пѓ� After delivery do message of body with mustard oil and then place mud plate on
stomach and then keep red bricks (2-3) over it for 15-20 min for 11 days.
11.3
Goth Gari Khuda Bux
11.3.1 Geographical information:
N=27o, 41.562sec
E=68o, 19.152sec
Elevation=272 ft
21
Satellite
11.3.2 Women interviewed:
02
01
Mostly ladies visit to lady doctor for their problems. No specific information was
obtained.
12
Table: List of Medicinal plants used in Larkana District
S. no Sindhi
1
Urdu
English
Botanical
Names
Names
Names
Names
Kini Kathi
gur bach,
Sweet flag,
Acorus calamus L.
bach, gandhari
calamus
bach
2
Wado Photto Bari illaichi
Black Cardamom
Ammomum subulatum
Roxb.
3
Sowa
Sowa, Soya
Dill
Anethum sowa Roxb.
4
Wawowal
Ajmood,
Celery
Apium graveolens L.
5
Supari , kini Phiki chaliya
Areca nuts
Areca catechu L.
Margosa tree
Azadirachta
supari,
tail
supari
6
Nim
Neem
indica
J.
Juss.
7
Aak
Aak / Akada
Crown flower
(Calotropis gigantean
(L.) W.T.Aiton)
8
Bhanga
Bhang
Marijuana, hemp
Cannabis sativa L.
22
9
Dhungi
Naryal, Khopra
Coconut tree
Cocos nucifera L.
10
Zeero, jeero
Zeera
Cumin seeds
Cuminum cyminum L.
11
Nandho
Illaichi chotti
Green Cardamom
Elettaria
Photto
cardamomum
Maton.
12
Wavovadang Baobarang
False black pepper
Embelia ribes burm. F.
13
Saunf,
Fennel seeds
Foeniculum vulgare var.
Saunf
wadaf
Dulce.
14
Mithikathi
Mulethi
Liquorice
Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
15
Nazboo
Tukhm-e-
Holy basil
Lallemantia
balangah
royleana
Benth.
16
Jawar tiki
Podina tikia
Mint slug
Mentha piperita L.
17
Phudno
Podina
Mint Leaves
Mentha piperita L.
18
Sathar
Marjoram
Oregano,
Origanum vulgare L.
19
Khashkhash, Khashkhash
Opium seeds,
Papaver somniferum L.
Pusta ji kann
poppy seeds
20
Kara mirich
Kali Mirch
Black pepper
21
Mawo,
Mawa,Mazu
Gal
maiyan
oak,
Piper nigrum L.
Dyer,s Quercu infectoria, Olivier.
Ooak
22
Arandi
Arandi
Castor oil
Ricinus communis L.
23
Kamarkas
Kamarkas
English plebeian
Salvia plebeian R. Brown.
23
24
25
26
Lodh, Pathani
Lodh tree,
Symplocos racemosa
lodh
Symplocos bark
Roxb.
Injri , nandhi Har
sehya, Black myrobalau
Lodh
harir
hanjino
Jarn
Ajwain
Carom
Terminalia chebula Retz.
seeds, Trachyspermum ammi L.
bishop's Weed
27
Hurbo
Methi dana
Fenugreek seeds
Trigonella foenumgraecum L.
Triticum aestivum L.
28
Suji
29
Gurr
Gurr
Jaggery
-
30
Misri
Misri
Crystal sugar
-
31
Nibat
Nibat
Candy sugar
-
32
Behra*
33
Sakhro*
34
Mango
Suji, Wheat
Semolina
seeds*
35
Powari*
36
Kacha paka
wai*
37
Rori gurr*
* Still we are trying to identify these herbs.
24
13
Methodology to confirm the names of the plants:
First only a few samples were collected from the survey area, and remaining
samples were purchased from the pansar’s shop (herbalist shop) of that area from
where these women buy herbal medicines. The Sindhi names were confirmed from
other herbalist shops by showing plant materials to them. Then these samples and plant
materials were brought to Karachi in H.E.J. Research institute of Chemistry, University
of Karachi, and then in Karachi we went to different herbalist shops to confirm their Urdu
or more common names by showing the materials to them. So it became possible to
find their English and botanical name. By using different scientific books, journals,
papers, internet, and science data base, their literature data were collected.
14
Scientific Literature:
14.1 Acorus calamus L.
Botanical Name:
Acorus calamus L.
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Acorales
Family:
Acoraceae
Genus:
Acorus
Local Name:
Gur Bach
Sindhi Name:
Kini Kathi
English Name:
Sweet flag, calamus
Part used:
Whole plant
25
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ� Used for the treatment of leucorrhea.1
пѓ� Treat fever during the menstruation.2
пѓ� Used for the treatment of dysmenorrhea and irregular menstruation.3
пѓ� Treat headache during menstrual cycle.4
пѓ� Used for the treatment of infertility due to cold womb.5
пѓ� Used to treat habitual abortion.6
пѓ� The rhizome is used as carminative and stimulant.7, 8
пѓ� It is aphrodisiac, emmenagogue, diuretic, expectorant and antipyretic. 8
пѓ� Rhizomes is traditionally used against different ailments like, fever, asthma,
bronchitis, cough and mainly for digestive problems such as gas, bloating, colic,
and poor digestive function.9
пѓ� It is also used in the treatment of cough, fever, bronchitis, depression and other
mental disorders, tumors, hemorrhoids, skin diseases, numbness and general
debility.10
14.2 Ammomum subulatum Roxb.
Botanical Name:
Ammomum subulatum Roxb.
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Zingiberales
Family:
Zingeberaceae
Genus:
Amomum
Local Name:
Bari illaichi
26
Sindhi Name:
Bari illaichi
English Name:
Black cardamom
Parts Used:
Whole
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ� It is stimulant11, 15, carminative11, 15, and blood thinner11.
14.3
пѓ�
It is effective in Gonorrhea.12, 13,14,1 5
пѓ�
It possesses aphrodisiac property.14,15
пѓ�
It has antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus .16
пѓ�
Seeds are antiemetic, used for the treatment of indigestion.17
пѓ�
Seed are used as cardio and liver tonic.15
Anethum sowa Roxb.
Botanical Name:
Anethum sowa Roxb.
Kindom:
Plantae
Order:
Apiales
Family:
Apiaceae / Umbellifarae
Genus:
Anethum
Local Name:
Soya
Sindhi Name:
Sowa
English
Dill
Part used:
Seeds, Leaves
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ� It increases lactation and prevent early pregnancy after birth.18
27
пѓ� It is used as emmenagogue, galactagogue also used in amenorrhea and
dysmenorrhea.19
пѓ� It is antimicrobial19 and anti fungal.20
пѓ� It is used a condiment and flavoring agent in pickles, curries, soups and salads. 19
пѓ� Aqueous extract lowers blood pressure and dilates blood vessels.20
пѓ� Fresh and dried leaves are used for prevention and treatment of disease of GIT,
kidney and urinary tract .20
пѓ� It is used in digestive and menstrual disorder.21
пѓ� It is used in internal spasm, cold, cough and flu remedies.21
14.4
Apium graveolens L.
Botanical Name:
Apium graveolens L.
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Apiales
Family:
Apiaceae
Genus:
Apium
Local Name:
Ajmood
Sindhi Name:
Waowal
English Name:
Celery
Parts Used:
Seeds
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ�
Celery is thought to be an aphrodisiac because it contains androsterone (a
metabolic product of testosterone) 22
пѓ�
Metabolic fraction of seeds shows antibacterial and antioxidant properties.23
28
пѓ�
It is anti inflammatory and used in inflammation of urinary tract. 24
пѓ�
It is used as an emmanogogue24, 27
пѓ�
It is used for the treatment of primary dysmenorrheal.25
пѓ�
Celery seeds are used to treat gynecological diseases ,such as leucorrhea,
menopause, irregular periods , dysmenorrhea27, and ovary problems.26
пѓ�
It is carminative, and stomachic.27
пѓ�
It has been recommended for the treatment of liver and spleen diseases,
bronchial asthma, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, skin diseases, arthritis, painful
eye diseases, chronic fever, and insect bite.28
пѓ�
The Apium graveolens L. has also been suggested to possess anti-inflammatory
activity, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, antiemetic, antispasmodic, analgesic and
diaphoretic actions.28
14.5
Areca catechu L.
Botanical Name:
Areca Catechu L.
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Arecales
Family:
Arecaceae
Genus:
Areca
Local Name:
Supari, phiki chaliya
Sindhi Name:
Supari, kini supari, tail supari
English Name:
Betel nuts, areca nuts
Part used:
Fruit, seeds
29
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ� It has aphrodisiac effect for women.29
пѓ� It is used in excessive menstrual flow.29
пѓ� It is used to inhibit growth of Candida albicans. 30
пѓ� Young leaves are abortifacient in early pregnancy.30
пѓ� It is used as emmenagogue, and used to treat leucorrhea.31
пѓ� It is also used in vaginal laxity.32
пѓ� It shows antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
(MRSA) and Staphylococcus aureus.33
пѓ� Powdered nuts are prescribed in diarrhea and urinary disorders.32
пѓ� Aqueous extract of nuts exhibit direct vasoconstriction in rats. 32
пѓ� It is used in veterinary practice as cathartic and anthelmintic.34
пѓ� It is used to cure malaria.35
пѓ� It possesses anti inflammatory and analgesic effects.36
14.6 Azadirachta indica J. Juss.
Botanical Name: Azadirachta indica J. Juss.
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Sapindales
Family:
Meliaceae
Genus:
Azadirachta
Local Name:
Neem
Sindhi Name:
Nim
English Name:
Margosa Tree
30
Part used:
Leaves
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ� It is used to treat dysmenorrhea, leucorrhea, post labor pain in uterus,
amenorrhea, and also used as an emmenagogue.37
пѓ� Leaf bark is antimicrobial, antifungal, anthelmenic, insecticidal, antiviral,
antipyretic and anti-inflammatory.38
пѓ� Oil is used as contraceptive and for treatment of vaginal infections.38
пѓ� It is useful in leprosy, ulcer, wounds, malarial fever, diabetes, amenorrhea, and
lumbago.39
пѓ� It can cure toothache, bad breath and gum diseases.40
пѓ� The chemical constituents nimbidin and nimbin have some spermicidal activity.41
пѓ� Neem oil is used for preparing cosmetics as soap, neem shampoo, balms and
creams.41
14.7
Cannabis sativa L.
Botanical Name:
Cannabis sativa L.
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Rosales
Family:
Cannabaceae
Genus:
Cannabis
Local Name:
Bhang
Sindhi Name:
Bhanga
English Name:
Marijuana, hemp
Parts Used:
Leaves
31
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ� The plant is reported as abortificient, aphrodisiac, emmenegogoue, laxative,
diuretic, anesthetic, analgesic, and laxative.42
пѓ� It is also useful for the treatment of dysmenorrhea, gonorrhea, and constipation. 42
пѓ� Juice of the leaves, 6 tea spoon is given in diarrhea, and dysentery.43
пѓ� Past of the leaves is applied in cuts and wounds.43
пѓ� It is reported as hypnotic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic.44
пѓ� It is prescribed in menstrual disorders and during labor pain.45
пѓ� It is also used in gastro intestinal disorders, depression, and in high blood
pressure.45
пѓ� Marijuana exposure during pregnancy alters the neurobehavioral performance of
term newborn infants of adolescent mothers.46
пѓ� Cannabinoids form Cannabis sativa L. may find use in the treatment of some
forms of infertility in women.47
пѓ� The essential oils of industrial hemp shows significant antimicrobial activity.48
пѓ� Compounds of Cannabis sativa L. also shows significant antibacterial, antifungal,
and antileishmanial activity.49
14.8 Cocos nucifera L.
Botanical Name:
Cocos nucifera L.
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Arecales
Family:
Arecaceae
Genus:
Cocos
32
Local Name:
Naryal, Khopra
Sindhi Name:
Dhungi
English Name:
Coconut tree
Parts Used:
Roots and seed
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ� Cocos nucifera L. is used as antitumor, antiseptic, anti bacterial, diuretic, and as
lactagogue.50
пѓ� It is also useful for the treatment of amenorrhea, candida inflammation,
menorrhea, breast cancer, gonorrhea, syphilis, diabetes, and asthma.50
пѓ� Roots are astringent, diuretic, and useful in uterine disorders.51
пѓ� Juice of young spadix when fresh is refrigerant, aphrodisiac, and diuretic. 51
пѓ� Tender coconut water can safely be given in typhoid, diarrhea, pneumonia,
diphtheria, general toxaemia of pregnancy, and other surgical operation. 51
пѓ� The oil is aphrodisiac, disinfectant, and useful in cough and in diabetes. 51
пѓ� Fruit is laxative, diuretic and useful in burning sensation.52
пѓ� Coconut oil intake is associated with beneficial lipid profiles among premenopausal women.53
пѓ� Coconut flower extract is useful to decrease excessive uterine hemorrhage
during menstruation.54
пѓ� Coconut oil is used for contraception, the abdomen is rubbed with coconut oil,
and the uterus is pushed downward for 3 consecutive days. The lowering of the
uterus is meant to prevent the union of the sperm with the egg. 55
пѓ� The medical formulations which also contain coconut oil showed anti-early
33
pregnancy activity in women.56
14.9
Cuminum cyminum L.
Botanical Name:
Cuminum cyminum L.
Kindom:
Plantae
OIrder:
Apiales
Family:
Apiaceae
Genus:
Cuminum
Local Name:
Zeera
Sindhi Name:
Jeero, Zeero
English:
Cumin seeds
Part used:
Seeds, Leaves
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ� The seeds are used in leucorrhea and gynecological complexity.57
пѓ� It is also used for lumbago and painful micturation.57
пѓ� It is given for the treatment of impotence.57
пѓ� Decoction of cumin seeds mixed with milk and honey used once daily during
entire period of pregnancy helps the development of the baby, ease child birth &
increase the secretion of breast milk.58
пѓ� The oil is used to flavor curries and other culinary preparations, confectionery
and beverages.59
пѓ� It is diuretic, carminative, stimulant, antibacterial, emmenagogue and
galactagogue.60
34
пѓ� In the Traditional System of Medicine, the various plant parts such as bark, fruit,
seed and leaf are used as astringent, sweet, sour, acrid, refrigerant,
carminative, diuretic, digestive, in diabetes, leucorrhoea, gastric disorder, fever,
skin diseases and wounds.61
пѓ� Seeds are widely used in diabetes and leaves in anemia & gingivitis. 62
14.10 Elettaria cardamomum Maton.
Botanical Name:
Elettaria cardamomum Maton.
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Zingiberales
Family:
Zingeberaceae
Genus:
Elettaria
Local Name:
Chotti illaichi
Sindhi Name:
Nandha photta
English Name:
Green cardamom
Part used:
Seeds
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ�
It is used as an aphrodiasic63, 64.
пѓ�
Well known for impotence63 and low sexual response66.
пѓ�
Fruit is emmenagogue65.
пѓ�
Externally used for tumor of uterus65.
пѓ�
It shows antimicrobial activity against both Gram-pos. and Gram negative
bacterial species.66
пѓ�
It promotes digestion.67
35
пѓ�
It is stimulant, carminative, diuretic and has digestive properties.67, 68
пѓ�
It is useful in dyspepsia and as cholagogue.68
пѓ�
It is used in treating various gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neuronal
disorders.69
14.11 Embelia ribes Burm.f.
Botanical Name:
Embelia ribes Burm.f.
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Ericales
Family:
Euphorbiaceae
Genus:
Embelia
Local Name:
Bao barang,
Sindhi Name:
Wavovadang
English Name:
False black pepper
Parts Used:
Fruits
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ� It is used for contraception purpose.70
пѓ� It is used for menstrual flow restoring action.71
пѓ� It has an anti-fertility action. The plant is used as an anti-inflammatory drug to
relive rheumatism and fever. The fruit cures tumors, ascites, bronchitis, jaundice
and mental disorders.72
пѓ� The fruit is astringent, carminative and stimulant. 73
пѓ� The seeds are used for maintaining healthy skin and to support the digestive
function.73
36
пѓ� It is also used as antifungal agent in ringworm infection and other chronic
dermatitis.73
пѓ� It has laxative activity and used as anthelmintic agent. Seed extract possess
anti-oestrogenic properties and specially used as contraceptive.73
14.12 Foeniculum vulgare var Dulce.
Botanical Name:
Foeniculum vulgare var Dulce.
Kingdom:
Plantae.
Order:
Alpiales
Family:
Apiaceae / Umbellifarae
Genus:
Foeniculum
Local Name:
Saunf
Sindhi Name:
Wadaf
English Name:
Fenne l
Part used:
Seeds
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ� Fennel may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment
of hypertension.74
пѓ� Extract have estrogenic property75,
76
in hormonal imbalances caused by
menopause.
пѓ� Infusion of fruit is useful in amenorrhea.77
пѓ� It possesses antimicrobial and estrogenic activity.77
пѓ� Its oil is emmenagogue oxytocic and abortifacient.78
пѓ� It is used in galactagogue, relieve bloating and nausea.79
37
пѓ� It is carminative, stomachic and stimulate appetite.79
пѓ� It is used to treat dysmenorhea and lower abdominal pain.80
пѓ� It is used as a flavor in confectionary and bakery products. 80
пѓ� It regulates menstruation.81
пѓ� The ethnol extract of the dried ripe fruit of Foeniculum vulgare (500 mg/kg) is
diuretic, analgesic, antipyretic, and antimicrobial.82
14.13 Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
Botanical Name:
Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Fabales
Family:
Fabaceae
Genus:
Glycyrrhiza
Local Name:
Mulethi
Sindhi Name:
Mithikathi
English Name:
Liquorice
Parts Used:
Roots
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ� It is antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-antioxidant.83
пѓ� It is reported to be as emmanagogue, aphrodisiac, and contraceptive. 83
пѓ� It is administered in gastric and duodenal ulcers, hypertension, and arthritis. 84
пѓ� Vacume dried ethnolic extract of roots showed anti-oxidant and wound healing
properties. 84
38
пѓ� It is used in treatment of contagious disease and for treating infertility and
protecting pregnancy.85
пѓ� The G.glabra L. root extract can be added into lotion, essence solutions and
topical cleaning medicinal liquid. It has antibacterial effect against Trichomonas
vaginalis, Candida albicans, and Hemophilus vaginalis, and is effective in treating
leukorrhagia, and pudendal pruritus.86
пѓ� Compound Chinese medicinal preparation contains Glycyrrhiza glabra L. for
preventing and treating abnormal uterine bleeding, and its preparation method. 87
14.14 Lallemantia royleana Benth.
Botanical Name:
Lallemantia royleana Benth.
Kingdom:
Plantae.
Order:
Lamiales
Family:
Labiata
Genus:
Lallemantia
Local Name:
Tukhm-e- balango
Sindhi Name:
Nazboo
English Name:
Black psyllium seeds
Part used:
Seeds and leaves
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ�
The poultice of the seeds is applied topically for the treatment of abscesses, boils
and Inflammations.88
пѓ�
The seeds are valued fro their cooling, sedative and diuretic properties. 88, 89
пѓ�
It is used in bevarages.88
39
пѓ�
They are given internally as soothing drink in urinary troubles.88
пѓ�
Poultice is applied to abscess, boils and inflammation.89
14.15 Mentha Piperita L.
Botanical Name:
Mentha Piperita L.
Kingdom:
Plantae.
Order:
Lamilales
Family:
Lamiaceae
Genus:
Mentha
Local Name:
Podina
Sindhi Name:
Phudno
English Name:
Pipermint
Part used:
Leave
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ� It is used as aphrodisiac for women and men and used for vomiting during
pregnancy.90
пѓ� Menthol in peppermint has anti spasmodic qualities that may help relieve
menstrual cramps.90
пѓ� Used as an emmenagogue.91
пѓ� It is used as flavor in ice creams, candies, chewing gums and pudding. 92
пѓ� Essential oil is antibacterial and antifungal.93
пѓ� It is given for the inflammation of oral mucosa.93
пѓ� The methnol root extract of the plant possess antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties.94
40
пѓ� Mentha plant is widely used in several indigenous systems of medicine for
various therapeutic benefits as analgesic, anesthetic, antiseptic, astringent,
carminative,
decongestant,
expectorant,
nervine,
stimulant,
stomachic,
inflammatory diseases, ulcer and stomach problems.95
14.16 Origanum vulgare L.
Botanical Name:
Origanum vulgare L.
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Lamiales
Family:
Labiateae
Genus:
Origanum
Local Name:
Oregano, marjoram, sathar
Sindhi Name:
Sathar
English Name:
Oregano, Wild marjoram
Parts used:
Leaves, flowering top
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ� It promotes menstrual flow.96, 97
пѓ� Diluted oil can be applied to toothache.97
пѓ� It is used as an emmenagogue.98, 99, 100
пѓ� It is used to treat menstrual irregularities99, 100, 101, amenorrhea99, 100, 101 and
Dysmenorrhea.102
пѓ� Used to relax uterine muscle contractions.102
пѓ� It is used to treat hypo sexuality.101
пѓ� Used for mood improvement during premenstrual period and treat menopausal
41
related symptoms.103
пѓ� It is also used to treat infertility.104
пѓ� It is used in treatment of some conditions including colds, respiratory allergies,
gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes mellitus,
wound healing and as a
tranquilizer.105
пѓ� Essential oil of oregano possesses antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant,
analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, and anti-parasitic activity.106
14.17 Papaver somniferum L.
Botanical Name:
Papaver somniferum L.
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Ranunculales
Family:
Genus:
Papaveraceae
Papaver
Local Name:
Khashkhash
Sindhi Name:
Khashkhash, Pusta ji kann
English Name:
Opium seeds, poppy seeds
Parts Used:
Seeds
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ�
Root is used as tonic 107
пѓ�
The milk from fresh capsule has sedative effect and cause abortion.108
пѓ�
The latex possess hypnotic110, analgesic 110, 111 , antitussive 111, and anti diarrheal
properties110, 111
пѓ�
It is used in treating chronic cough and diarrhea.109
42
пѓ�
It is smooth muscle relaxant.111
пѓ�
It has the function of promoting dispersing function of the lung, clearing away
heat, and relieving cough and asthma.112
пѓ�
It has reliable curative effect in treating upper respiratory tract infection, tracheitis,
pneumonia, and cough.112
14.18 Piper nigrum L.
Botanical Name:
Piper nigrum L.
Kingdom:
Plantae.
Order:
Piperales
Family:
Piperaceae
Genus:
Piper
Local Name:
Kali Mirch
Sindhi Name:
kara mirich
English Name:
Black pepper
Part used:
Fruit
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ� It helps in pain relieving, rheumatism, chills, flue and cough.113
пѓ� It improves menstrual cycle related discomfort in every day life.114
пѓ� It s used to treat male sexual dysfunction.115
пѓ� It is aphrodisiac in impotent persons.116
пѓ� Liquid from leaves is used to treat influenza.117
пѓ� Juice of leaves is used to treat toothache.117
пѓ� It is stimulant, carminative, diuretic and antiasthamatic.118, 119
43
пѓ� It is used as an aphrodisiac.119
пѓ� Piper mixed with cinamon is used for treating migraine.119
14.19 Quercus infectoria Olivier.
Botanical Name:
Quercus infectoria Olivier.
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Fagales
Family:
Fagaceae
Genus:
Quercus
Local Name:
Mazu, mawa
Sindhi Name:
Mao
English Name:
Gall oak, Dyer’s oak.
Parts used:
Fruit
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ� The seeds are used in treating gonorrhea vaginal infection including
leucorrhea.120
пѓ� Ayurveda Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the gall in leucorrhea and dry
itching vagina.121
пѓ� The herbal extract has the function of vagina construction, vagina itching
inhibition and sterilization.122
пѓ� Galls are astringent, and were used in all cases where astringents are indicated,
as in chronic dysentery124, diarrhoea124, and passive hemorrhages.123
пѓ� Bark and fruit is used for eczema.121
пѓ� An ointment (1 in 4 parts of Vaseline) is applied externally in hemorrhoids. 124
44
14.20 Ricinus communis L.
Botanical Name:
Ricinus communis L.
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Euphorbiales
Family:
Euphorbiaceae
Genus:
Ricinus
Local Name:
Arandi
Sindhi Name:
Arandi
English Name:
Castor beans
Parts Used:
Seeds
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ�
It is used in making contraceptive jellies and creams. 125,128
пѓ�
Castor oil message over breast after child birth increases the flow of milk by
stimulating milk producing glands.125
пѓ�
When it is given with pinch of alum act as safe and handy contraceptive. 125
пѓ�
If a women swallow one castor seed after the menstrual cycle she will not
conceive during that month.125
пѓ�
It acts as emmenagogue and lactagogue.126
пѓ�
Root extracts exhibit anti-inflammatory activity.127
пѓ�
It is purgative.127
пѓ�
Oil is use in eczema.127
45
14.21 Salvia plebeia R. Brown.
Botanical Name:
Salvia plebeian R. Brown.
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Lamiales
Family:
Lamiaceae
Genus:
Salvia
Local Name:
Kamar kas, sefakus, salvej
Sindhi Name:
Kamarkas
English Name:
English plebeian
Parts Used:
Leaves, seeds
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ� It is used to treat menorrhagea129, 130, dysmenorrhea132, and to prevent sexually
transmitted diseases131.
пѓ� It is used as an emmenagogue133.
пѓ� It is used for the treatment of gonorrhea131, and used as an aphrodisiac132 for
female.
пѓ� It is also used to treat leucorrhea134 , and vaginitis.134
пѓ� It is used to treat premenopausal symptoms.135
пѓ� Plant is diuretic, anthelmintic, astringent, and demulcent.137
пѓ� Seeds are used in diarrhea, leucorrhea, menorrhea and hemorrhoids. 137
46
14.22 Symplocos racemosa Roxb.
Botanical Name:
Symplocos racemosa Roxb.
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Ericales
Family:
Symplocaceae
Genus:
Symplocos
Local Name:
Lodh, Pathani lodh
Sindhi Name:
Lodh
English Name:
Lodh tree, Symplocos bark
Parts Used:
Bark
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ� The plant is used in excessive bleeding during menstruation .138,142
пѓ� The bark extract have been Reported to reduce the frequency & intensity of the
contraction of uteri of both pregnant and non pregnant animals. 139
пѓ� The bark is used as specific remedy for uterine complaints 144, vaginal diseases
and menstrual disorders, menorrhagia144 and leucorrhoea.139
пѓ� The herb is used to treat gynecological disorders, dysfunctional uterine, bleeding,
anemia due to extreme bleeding, and menstrual disorders.140
пѓ� Stem bark have anti-inflammatory property.141
пѓ� It cures digestive disorders, ulcer, and eye diseases.142
пѓ� Stem is used to treat hemorrhage, acne, leucorrhea, and pimples.143
пѓ� Medicinally, bark is useful in bowel complaints such as diarrhea, dysentery,
dropsy, liver complaints, fevers, ulcers, and scorpion-sting. 144
47
пѓ� A decoction of the bark or wood is used as gargle for spongy gums and bleeding.
пѓ� It cures diseases of the blood and leprosy. 144
пѓ� It is useful in abortions and miscarriages and for ulcers of vagina.
144
пѓ� Unani medicine uses it as emmenogoggue and aphrodisiac. 144
пѓ� It is also one of the constituent of a plaster used to promote maturation of boils
and other malignant growths.144
14.23 Terminalia chebula Retz.
Botanical Name:
Terminalia chebula Retz.
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Myrtales
Family:
Combretaceae
Genus:
Terminelia
Local Name:
Harsia
Sindhi Name:
Nandhi harir, Injri
English Name:
Black myrobalau
Parts Used:
Whole herb
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ� The herb is used for the treatment of unusual vaginal discharges such as
leucorrhea145
пѓ� It can be given as adjuvant in atonic condition of uterus.145
пѓ� The fruit is anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, cardiotonic, antiseptic, diuretic and
aphrodiasic.146
пѓ� It is used for treating dysentery, constipation, cyst, cough, and bronchial
48
asthama.147
пѓ� The fruit decoction is used in bleeding and ulceration of gums.148
пѓ� It possess antibacterial activity, cardio-tonic activity, and anti-oxidative activity.149
14.24 Trachyspermum ammi L.
Botanical Name:
Trachyspermum ammi L.
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Apiales
Family:
Apiaceae
Genus:
Trachyspermum
Local Name:
Ajwain
Sindhi Name:
Jannr
English Name:
Carom seeds, Bishop's Weed
Parts Used:
Seeds
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ� Seeds are used for the treatment of leucorrhea. 150
пѓ� It is used for the treatment of painful menstruation, and lumbago.150
пѓ� Seeds are also used for the treatment of impotence.150
пѓ� It is carminative, antispasmodic, anti-cholinergic, and anti-diarrheal.151
пѓ� Leaf juice is anthelmintic, and root is febrifuge and diuretic.151
пѓ� In Ayurvedic system of medicine it is used primarily to aid digestion, disorders of
the circulatory system and diarrhea.152
пѓ� The oil of Ajwain is rich in monoterpenes and it may be used as a natural antibacterial agent in drug and food industries.153
49
пѓ� It is galactogogue, stomachic, expectorant, antiseptic, amoebiasis, and
antimicrobial.154
пѓ� Seeds fried in oil are used in curing diarrhoea, Parasiticidal, and given in
treatment of amenorrhea, Bronchitis, colic pain. 154
пѓ� It also cures abdominal tumors, abdominal pains, and piles. 154
14.25 Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
Botanical Name:
Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Fabales
Family:
Fabaceae
Genus:
Trigonella
Local Name:
Methi dana
Sindhi Name:
Hurbo
English Name:
Fenugreek seeds
Parts Used:
Seeds
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ�
It treats sexual disorders.155
пѓ�
It is aphrodisiac, and galactagogue156.
пѓ�
Application of paste of fresh leaves completely stops the secretion of breast
milk.156
пѓ�
It is used to treat menstrual irregularities.156
пѓ�
Its roasted seeds are given with milk and sugar to increase milk secretion. 156
50
пѓ�
Decoction of seeds with turmeric powder is used to cure vaginitis, leucorrhea,
and bad smell after menstruation.156
пѓ�
It shows antibacterial activity.156
пѓ�
Seeds are used in loss of appetite, flatulence, diarrhea and cholic.157
пѓ�
It is used as lactagogue.157
пѓ�
Leaves are refrigerant, and apperient.158
пѓ�
A poultice of leaves is applied to swelling and burns.158
14.26 Triticum aestivum L.
Botanical Name:
Triticum aestivum L.
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Poales
Family:
Poaceae
Genus:
Triticum
Local Name:
Suji, Wheat
Sindhi Name:
Suji
English Name:
Semolina
Parts Used:
whole plant
Uses Reported in Literature:
пѓ�
It is used to treat menoxenia and female infertility.159
пѓ�
It is used for improving sperm and egg activity and quality, enhancing sexual
function and treating sexual dysfunction.160
пѓ�
In Indian medicine it is used to treat menorrhea.161
51
пѓ�
It’s bread eaten with honey and half boiled egg is an excellent nerve tonic to
retain sex power and vigour.161
пѓ�
It is good source of nutrient.162
пѓ�
Grains are refrigerant, emollient, laxative and appetizer.163
15.
Experimental Work Done:
15.1
Phytochemical and Biological Studies:
Extraction of above collected plants was carried out at the H.E.J Research
Institute of Chemistry (International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences)
University of Karachi. Ethanol (EtOH) and water were used as solvents for soaking of
plant materials in specific ratio as mentioned in table. Evaporation was carried out by
using Rotary Evaporator under reduced pressure.
15.2. Table: List of plants extracted
S.no
Name of plants
Percentages &
Weight of extract
& weights
volumes of solvents
obtained (gm)
used for extraction.
1
Acorus calamus L.
3
Anethum sowa Roxb.
20% H2O:80 % EtOH
45.3425 gm
20% H2O:80 %
44.864 gm
EtOH
4
Apium graveolens L.
20% H2O:80 % EtOH
49.6787 gm
5
Areca Catechu L.
20% H2O:80 % EtOH
203.5749 gm
6
Azadirachta indica J. Juss.
20% H2O:80 % EtOH
26.9994 gm
52
(Leaves)
Cuminum cyminum L.
20% H2O:80 % EtOH
31.5592 gm
10
Piper nigrum L.
20% H2O:80 % EtOH
48.77815 gm
11
Elettaria cardamomum
20% H2O:80 % EtOH
20.30162 gm
9
Maton.
12
Embelia ribes Burm.f.
20% H2O:80 % EtOH
29.4802 gm
14
Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
20% H2O:80 % EtOH
105.4958 gm
15
Lallemantia royleana Benth.
20% H2O:80 % EtOH
17.1449 gm
(Leaves)
16
Mentha Piperita L.
20% H2O:80 % EtOH
77.0889 gm
17
Origanum vulgare L.
20% H2O:80 % EtOH
22.8631 gm
18
Papaver somniferum L.
20% H2O:80 % EtOH
7.2854 gm
19
Piper nigrum L.
20% H2O:80 % EtOH
48.77815 gm
20
Quercus infectoria Olivier.
20% H2O:80 % EtOH
205.5313 gm
21
Salvia plebeian R. Brown.
20% H2O:80 % EtOH
18.9748 gm
22
Symplocos racemosa Roxb.
20% H2O:80 % EtOH
40.5219 gm
23
Terminalia chebula Retz.
20% H2O:80 % EtOH
179.0312 gm
24
Trachyspermum ammi L.
20% H2O:80 % EtOH
28.3128 gm
25
Trigonella foenumgraecum
20% H2O:80 % EtOH
11.3454 gm
L.
53
16
Biological Screening
16.1
In vitro Antifungal Assay:
The following two methods were used to determine the antifungal activity of the
medicinal plant extracts against C. albicans.
a) Agar-well Diffusion Method
b) Micro-well Dilution Method
16.2
Agar well Diffusion Method:
1) 100 ВµL of 1 Mc-farland solution of C. albicans culture in sabouraud dextrose
broth (SDB) was placed over the surface of an agar plate and keep it for
solidification.
2) By using a sterile 5 cm plastic pipette, four holes were punched (2 mm in
diameter) in each of the culture plate.
3) In the first hole, 10 ВµL of the drug was added as positive control and DMSO as
negative control, while in rest of the holes 5, 10, 20, and 30 ВµL was added.
4) The culture plates were than incubated at 37Вє C and results were observed after
48 h.
16.3
S.no.
Results of in vitro antifungal assay
Scientific
Name
Local
Name
1.
Anethum
sowa Roxb.
Sowa
2.
Areca catechu
Supari
Part
Used
Zone Of Inhibition (mm)
400
300
200
150
100
Вµg/m Вµg/m Вµg/m Вµg/m Вµg/m
L
L
L
L
L
19
16
-
20
18
-
-
Picture
-
L.
54
23
18
15
-
-
Zeera
16
-
-
-
-
Chotti
illaichi
20
-
-
-
-
17
-
-
-
-
Mulethi
15
12
-
-
-
Nazboo
19
16
-
-
-
Mentha
Podina
15
-
-
-
-
piperita L.
tikki
10.
Piper nigrum
L.
Kali
mirach
19
12
-
-
-
11.
Trigonella
foenumgraecum L.
Methi
dana
20
12
-
-
-
12.
Terminalia
Har
22
20
18
17
15
chubula Retz.
sihya
13.
Trachyspermu
m ammi l.
Ajwain
20
17
12
-
-
14.
Papver
somniferum L.
Khashkhash
15.
Origanum
vulgare L.
3.
4.
Azadirachta
indica J. Juss
Cuminum
Nim
Fruit
cyminum L.
5.
Elettaria
cardomomum
Maton.
6.
Embelia ribes
Burm.f.
7.
Glycyrrhiza
glabra L.
8.
Lallemantia
royleana
Benth.
9.
Sather
No- Activity
No- Activity
55
16.4
Drug Susceptibility assay for candida albicans
S.No.
Drugs
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Miconazol
Ketoconazol
Fluconazol
Nystatin
Amphotericin
B
400
Вµg/mL
36
300
Вµg/mL
35
32
25
31
22
Miconazol
Zone of Inhibition (mm)
200
150
100
Вµg/mL
Вµg/mL
Вµg/mL
34
28
27
30
20
29
20
26
-
50
Вµg/mL
26
25
-
25
Вµg/mL
25
30
35
22
-
Nystatin
Criteria for Zone of Inhibition (ZIH):
18 or > 18 mm = Significant activity
16-<18 mm = Good Activity
<16 mm
= Low activity
16.5
Conclusion:
Ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica J. Juss. and Terminalia chubula Retz.
showed significant anti-candidal activity at the conc. of 400 Вµg/mL with the 23 and 22
mm zone of inhibition respectively ,while in comparison of standard drugs Fluconazol,
Miconazol and Ketaconazol showed significant zone of inhibition 25 to 35 with very low
concentration (25 Вµg /mL)of extracts.
56
17
In vivo Experiments
17.1
Development of Animal Models
17.1.1
In vitro experiment for uterus contractility
Take Female ICR mice (unpregnant)
Wt. 18-22g
↓
Estrogenized mice with estradiol benzoate
(1mg/kg/d s.c) 3 days before experiment
↓ (sacrificed by decapitation)
Excised uterine horn and place in organ bath
incubate in Locke’s solution at 37±1 C and
bubble with gas (95% O2, 5% CO2)
↓the preload will be 1 g and equ
period not less than 45 min.
Measure spontaneous uterine contractions after
its amplitude become stable
↓
Plot normal concentration – response curve for
5-10 min as control curve
↓
Then add oxytocin (0.01 U/ml) in bathing
solution and react for 15 min to induce
contractions
↓
Different concentrations of the extracts are added
to the bathing solution and plot concentration –
response curve of the prescription against the
phasic response to oxytocin
57
17.1.2
Dysmenorrheal mice model preparation
Take Female ICR mice (unpregnant)
Wt. 18-22g and divide in groups (normal control and
model control)
↓
Normal control group is treated with distilled water
intragastrically
↓
Model control group is given estradiol benzoate
(0.01g/kg/d s.c) for 6 days and on 7th day oxytocin
0.01L/kg intra peritoneal and distilled water (i.g.)
intragastrically regularly
↓
Dose of drug is administered for five days in seven
days modeling period
↓
Record the number of writhing occurring for 5 to 10
min after oxytocin administered
↓
Sacrifice the mice after writhing recording and the
contents of Ca2+ and NO in homogenaye uterus are
determined according to specification of kits.
58
17.1.3 Conclusion:
The protocols for the animal model for dysmenorrhea have been developed and
work will be started as the requirements will be completed for the experiment.
18
Conclusion of Survey Report:
The district Larkana is very well developed and people are aware and conscious
for there health care. They refer doctor for consultation. There is still widespread use of
herbal treatment or folk medicines in small villages of the District and useful information
is collected during the field survey. The literature survey of plants has been done and
some of the experimental work is done further work will justify the statements. The
people were very poor in some villages and living very hard life due to lack of basic
facilities while some villages have better living standard.
59
19
Map:
Map of Sindh showing different districts and its sub-areas
60
Map of Larkana District
61
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78
21
S.NO
1
Herbal formulation for the treatment of diseases:
CONDITION
For expulsion of plasma
membrane
HERBAL FORMULATION
пѓ� Take
waowal
(Apium
graveolens
L.),
wavodang (Embelia ribes Burm.f.), dry
leaves of podina (Mentha piperita L.), mithi
kathi (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.), choti illaichi
(Elettaria cardamomum Maton.), bari illaichi
(Ammomum subulatum Roxb.), mint slug
(Mentha piperita L.), misri (Rock Sugar), and
nibat (Candy sugar), in equal amount .Grind
all together and make ball like marble from
it. Place intra-vaginally once daily for 6 days.
пѓ� Take
methi
dana
(Trigonella
foenum-
graecum L.), zeera ((Cuminum cyminum L.),
nazboo (Lallemantia royleana Benth.), sowa
(Anethum sowa Roxb.), saunf (Foeniculum
vulgare var. Dulce), mint slug (Mentha
piperita
L.)
cardamomum
chotti
ilaichi
Maton.),
bari
(Elettaria
ilaichi
(Ammomum subulatum Roxb.), misri (Rock
sugar), dry leaves of podina (Mentha
piperita L.), sathar (Origanum vulgare L.),
79
ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.), waowal
(Apium graveolens L.), wavodang (Embelia
ribes Burm.f.) in equal amount . Grind them
all together to make finer. Take 1 spoon daily
in night orally for 8-10 days.
2
Leucorrhea
пѓ� Take 1spoon of zeera (Cuminum cyminum
L.) with water daily for 15 days.
пѓ� Take saunf (Foeniculum vulgare var. Dulce)
orally.
пѓ� Take tukhm-e-balangh (Lallemantia royleana
Benth.), mint slug (Mentha piperita L.), zeera
(Cuminum cyminum L.), sowa (Anethum
sowa Roxb.), and sathar (Origanum vulgare
L.), in equal amount and grind all together to
make a fine powder. Then take butter and
add gurr (Jaggery) in it. Now add powdered
ingredients to make vaginal suppositories.
Place
them
intra-vaginally
for
4
days
regularly in night.
пѓ� Take misri (Rock sugar), chotti ilaichi
(Elettaria
cardamomum
Maton.),
supari
(Areca catechu L.), and dried and fried
mango seeds (Mangifera indica L.). Grind all
80
together to powder it and take this remedy
twice daily with milk for a month.
пѓ� Take mawa (Quercus infectoria Olivier.),
supari (Areca catechu L.), behra*, flowers of
pistachio, and sugar in equal amount. Grind
them all together & make remedy.
3
Menorrhea
пѓ� Place dipped cotton swab of black and white
glycerin intra-vaginally after menstruation
ends for 3-5 days twice daily.
пѓ� Take zeera (Cuminum cyminum L.), saunf
(Foeniculum vulgare var. Dulce), waowal
((Apium graveolens L.), mawa (Quercus
infectoria Olivier.), supari (Areca catechu L.),
kamarkas (Salvia plebeia R. Brown.), kahri
(Symplocos
racemosa
Roxb.),
behra*,
sakhoro*, sugar, and chotti ilaichi (Elettaria
cardamomum Maton.) in equal amount.
Grind all together and make remedy, take it
twice daily for 5 days.
пѓ� Soak nishasta over night in water and take
ponstan forte tablet with this water in
morning regularly during menstruation days.
пѓ� Take mawa (Quercus infectoria Olivier.),
81
supari (Areca catechu L.), behra*, flowers of
pistachio, and sugar in equal amount. Grind
them all together & make remedy.
4
For labor pain
пѓ� Add caster oil (Ricinus communis L.) 2-3
spoons in sulmani tea (normal tea without
milk) and give to lady to take orally.
For Dysmenorrhea
пѓ� Take
methi
dana
(Trigonella
foenum-
graecum L.), zeera ((Cuminum cyminum L.),
nazboo (Lallemantia royleana Benth.), sowa
(Anethum sowa Roxb.), saunf (Foeniculum
vulgare var. Dulce), mint slug (Mentha
piperita
L.)
cardamomum
chotti
ilaichi
Maton.),
bari
(Elettaria
ilaichi
(Ammomum subulatum Roxb.), misri (Rock
sugar), dry leaves of podina (Mentha
piperita L.), sathar (Origanum vulgare L.),
ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.), waowal
(Apium graveolens L.), wavodang (Embelia
ribes Burm.f.) and nibat (candy sugar) in
equal amount. Grind them all together to
make finer. Take 1 spoon daily in night orally
with 2-3 spoon of milk cream for 8-10 days.
пѓ� Take fresh leaves of nazboo (Lallemantia
82
royleana Benth.) add a pinch of salt in it and
tie it with thread. Place it intra-vaginally for 3
days.
5
Infertility
пѓ� Take khopra (Cocos nucifera L.), sounf
(Foeniculum vulgare var. Dulce), mint slug
(Mentha
piperita
cyminum
L.),
cardamomum
L.),
chotti
Maton.),
zeera
(Cuminum
ilaichi
and
(Elettaria
misri
(rock
sugar) in 125gm and har siya (har siya)
(Terminalia chebula Retz.)(60 gm).Grind all
together to make fine powder and take 1
spoon daily in night for 4 days. Start therapy
on second day of menstruation.
пѓ� Place dipped cotton swab of black and white
glycerin intra-vaginally after menstruation
ends for 3-5 days twice daily.
пѓ� Take zeera (Cuminum cyminum L.), saunf
(Foeniculum vulgare var. Dulce), waowal
((Apium graveolens L.), mawa (Quercus
infectoria Olivier.), supari (Areca catechu L.),
kamarkas (Salvia plebeia R. Brown.), kahri
(Symplocos
racemosa
Roxb.),
behra*,
sakhoro*, sugar, and chotti ilaichi (Elettaria
83
cardamomum Maton.) in equal amount.
Grind all together and make remedy, take it
twice daily for 5 days.
6
Amenorrhea
пѓ� Place peppermint slug (Mentha piperita L.),
intra-vaginally for 4 days daily. Firstly water
discharge will come out then menstruation
will start.
пѓ� Take zeera (Cuminum cyminum L.) orally
with water.
пѓ� Give cooked stomach of goat to lady in food.
7
Lactation
пѓ� Take zeera ((Cuminum cyminum L.), ВЅ
spoon orally with water daily for a month.
8
For lower abdomen
пѓ� After delivery do message of body with
mustard oil and then place mud plate on
stomach and then keep red bricks (2-3) over
it for 15-20 min for 11 days.
9
Prolapsed Uterus
пѓ� Give steam to gurr (jaggery) intra-vaginally
пѓ� Take dried leaves of nazboo (Lallemantia
royleana Benth.), bhang (Crocus sativus L.),
sowa
(Anethum
sowa
Roxb.),
sathar
(Origanum vulgare L.), powari* in equal
amount. Grind these and put in cloth & tie
with thread. Place it intra-vaginally for 5
84
days daily once in night.
10
Contraception
пѓ� Place cotton swabs of diluted detol intravaginally after inter course.
11
To induce abortion
пѓ� Take a piece of dried stem of aak (Calotropis
gigantean (L.) W.T.Aiton) make hole in it at
one end and tie a thread .Place this stem
intra-vaginally for 3 days. In 3 days baby will
be aborted and bleeding starts.
12
пѓ� Mesh nazboo leaves (Lallemantia royleana
Dyspareunia
Benth.)
and
bari
illaichi
(Ammomum
subulatum Roxb.) on palm of hand and tie it
with thread and place intra-vaginally for 4
days regularly.
13
Post partum hemorrhage
пѓ� Dip cloth in ice cold water and place on
groins.
14
Sexually
Transmitted
Diseases (STD)
пѓ� Take
neem
leaves
(Azadirachta
indica
J.Juss )& boil them for 20 min in water then
add pyodine and use for vaginal cleaning
every time when ever you go to toilet for 15
days (avoid usage of normal water).
15
Poly menorrhea
пѓ� Take Araq 32 in 2:2 ratios with water for 3
days in menstruation.
85
22
GLOSSARY
Abortifacient:
An abortifacient is a substance that induces abortion.
Abortion:
Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by the removal or
expulsion of a fetus or embryo from the uterus, resulting in or
caused by its death.
Amoebiasis/ Amebiasis: refers to infection caused by the amoeba Entamoeba
histolytica.
Amenorrhea:
Amenorrhea is the absence of a menstrual period in a
woman of reproductive age.
Analgesic:
It is also known as a painkiller, is any member of the group
of drugs used to relieve pain.
Anthelmintics:
Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are drugs that expel
parasitic worms (helminths) from the body, by either stunning
or killing them.
Antibacterial:
Antibacterial are antiseptics that have the proven ability to
act against bacteria.
Anticholinergic:
Anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the
neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the
peripheral nervous system.
Antifungal:
An antifungal drug is a medication used to treat fungal
infections such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis
(thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal
meningitis, and others.
86
Antimicrobial:
An anti-microbial is a substance that kills or inhibits the
growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, or
protozoans.
Antipyretics:
Are drugs or herbs that reduce fever.
Aphrodisiac:
An aphrodisiac is a substance that increases sexual desire.
Backache:
It is pain felt in the back that usually originates from the
muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the
spine.
Bloating:
The bloating is any abnormal general swelling, or increase in
diameter of the abdominal area. The patient feels a full and
tight abdomen, which may cause abdominal pain.
Bronchitis:
Is inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi,
the airways that carry airflow from the trachea into the lungs.
Carminative:
is a herb or preparation that either prevents formation of gas
in the gastrointestinal tract or facilitates the expulsion of said
gas, thereby combating flatulence
Cervical swelling:
The medical term for cervical swelling is cervicitis. Cervical
swelling
includes
abnormal
vaginal
bleeding,
painful
intercourse, unusual vaginal discharge, and vaginal pain.
Some cases, particularly those associated with sexually
transmitted infection, have no symptoms
Contraception:
Contraception is techniques and methods use to prevent
human fertilization.
87
D&C:
D&C, also known as dilation and curettage, is a surgical
procedure often performed after a first trimester miscarriage.
Dilation means to open up the cervix; curettage means to
remove the contents of the uterus. Curettage may be
performed by scraping the uterine wall with a curette
instrument or by a suction curettage (also called vacuum
aspiration), using a vacuum-type instrument.
Diaphoretic:
It is an agent that promotes sweating.
Dysmenorrhea:
Dysmenorrhea is a gynecological medical condition of pain
during menstruation.
Dyspareunia:
is
painful
sexual
intercourse,
due
to
medical
or
psychological causes.
Emmenagogue:
Emmenagogue is herbs which stimulate blood flow in the
pelvic area and uterus; some stimulate menstruation.
Expectorant:
A medication that helps bring up mucus and other material
from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea.
Fibroids:
Fibroids are the most common benign tumors in females and
typically found during the middle and later reproductive
years.
Galactagogue:
A galactagogue is a substance that promotes lactation in
humans and other animals.
Gingivitis:
Inflammation of the gum tissue is a term used to describe
non-destructive periodontal disease.
88
Gonorrhea:
Gonorrhea is a common sexually transmitted infection
caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The usual
symptoms in men are burning with urination and penile
discharge. Women, on the other hand, are asymptomatic
half the time or have vaginal discharge and pelvic pain.
Habitual abortion:
The miscarriage of 3 or more consecutive pregnancies. The
abortion of 3 or more miscarriages (spontaneous abortions)
with no intervening pregnancies is also termed recurrent
abortion.
Habitual or recurrent abortion is a form of infertility. It is
sometimes due to chromosome abnormalities or other
genetic causes.
Hemorrhoids:
are vascular structures in the anal canal which help with
stool control.
Hepatoprotection:
Hepatoprotection or antihepatotoxicity is the ability to
prevent damage to the liver.
Hypo sexuality:
Inability to experience a sexual response of any kind.
Impotence:
Impotence is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the
inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis
sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance.
Infertility:
Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a person
to contribute to conception.
Infusion:
An infusion is the outcome of steeping plants with desired
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chemical compounds and/or flavors in water or oil.
Labour pain:
The pain before gestation period
Lactation:
Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary
glands.
Leucorrhea:
Leucorrhea is a medical term that denotes a thick, whitish or
yellowish vaginal discharge.
Laxatives (purgatives, aperients): are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce
bowel movements or to loosen the stool, most often taken to
treat constipation.
Leprosy or Hansen's disease (HD): It is a chronic disease caused by the bacteria
Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
Lumbago:
Lumbago is a common musculoskeletal disorder, in which
low back pain occurs.
Menorrhea:
Menorrhea is an abnormally heavy and prolonged menstrual
period at regular intervals.
Menopause:
Menopause is the transition period in a woman's life when
her ovaries stop producing eggs, her body produces less
estrogen and progesterone, and menstruation becomes less
frequent, eventually stopping altogether.
Menoxenia:
Any abnormality of menstruation.
Menstrual flow restoration: To regularize menstrual flow.
Menstruation:
Menstruation
is
the
shedding
of
the
uterine
lining
(endometrium). It occurs on a regular basis in reproductive-
90
age females of certain mammal species.
Menstrual cramps:
Menstrual cramps are caused by uterine contractions
(when your uterus tightens and relaxes allowing blood to
leave your uterus). The lining of your uterus releases
special
chemicals
substances
can
called
increase
"prostaglandins."
the
intensity
These
of
the
contractions, especially if the levels rise. High levels of
prostaglandins
may
also
cause
nausea
and
lightheadedness.
Miscarriage:
Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the spontaneous end
of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or fetus is
incapable of surviving, generally defined in humans at prior
to 20 weeks of gestation.
Missed abortion:
A missed abortion is characterized by there being no
reasons to have suspected that the pregnancy is not going
to continue but the embryo has died.
Oestrogenic:
Ability of a substance to promote or mimic the action of
female hormones.
Oxytocic:
Oxytocic is an agent which acts as oxiytocin. Oxytocin is a
mammalian hormone which is best known for roles in female
reproduction.
Painful micturation:
Pain in passage of urine
Pregnancy:
Pregnancy is the carrying of one or more offspring, known as
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a fetus or embryo, inside the womb of a female.
Prolapsed uterus:
Uterine prolapsed is a form of female genital prolapsed also
called pelvic organ prolapsed or prolapsed of the uterus
(womb).
Pelvic inflammatory disease: Pelvic inflammatory disease (or disorder) (PID) s a
generic term for inflammation of the uterus, fallopian tubes,
and/or ovaries as it progresses to scar formation with
adhesions to nearby tissues and organs. This may lead to
infections.
Polymenorrhea:
When menstruation cycle repeats more than once in a
month.
Postpartum hemorrhage: Hemorrhage after delivery is the loss of greater than 500 ml
of blood following vaginal delivery, or 1000 ml of blood
following cesarean section.
Pruritus:
Is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
Pruritus vulva:
with profuse leucorrhoea and sexual excitement.
Sexually transmitted diseases: Sexually transmitted disease (STD) or venereal
disease (VD) is an illness that has a significant probability of
transmission between humans by means of human sexual
behavior.
Threatened abortion:
Threatened abortion is a condition that occurs during the first
20 weeks of pregnancy, in which vaginal bleeding suggests
an increased risk of miscarriage.
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Toxaemia:
It is literally the presence of toxins within the blood. It
commonly causes a number of systemic symptoms including
malaise, fever and vomiting.
Vaginitis:
Vaginitis is an inflammation of the vagina. It can result in
discharge, itching and pain, and is often associated with an
irritation or infection of the vulva.
Vasoconstriction:
This is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from
contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, particularly
the large arteries, small arterioles and veins.
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