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Society for Acupuncture Research
2013 International Conference
Conference Program
April 18-21, 2013
Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Impact of
Acupuncture Research
st
on 21 Century Health Care
www.AcupunctureResearch.org
Welcome to the Society for Acupuncture Research 2013 Conference
Impact of Acupuncture Research on 21st Century Health Care
We are honored once again to provide an international forum that fosters interdisciplinary
dialogue and collaboration amongst acupuncture and Oriental Medicine researchers,
practitioners, students and policy makers. The program highlights research from 18 countries;
attendees span every domain of the acupuncture continuum, from bench to bedside, and
from classroom to community.
Exploration of innovative strategies that address current challenges in acupuncture research is
central to the mission of SAR 2013: to provide a nexus for communication amongst those
interested in acupuncture research, and to explore how these data may play a role in
enhancing 21st century patient care.
Given the sea change that is re-defining contemporary health care priorities in communities
around the globe, the opportunity to gather here cannot be underestimated. We hope that
the critical assessment of this ancient system of medicine will propel health care forward for
the benefit of all.
We offer major thanks to our speakers and poster presenters for their work and dedication.
We greatly appreciate our sponsors. Without them, we would not have been able to plan and
deliver this extraordinary, landmark event. Many of our sponsors have set up display tables.
Please be sure to spend time and visit with them.
We are especially grateful for our grant support from the National Center for Complementary
and Alternative Medicine within the National Institutes of Health as well as sponsorship from
our hosting institution, the University of Michigan.
And we thank each of you; your presence is what makes SAR 2013 a meaningful event.
Vitaly Napadow, PhD, LAc
Co-President
SAR Board of Directors
Rick Harris, PhD
Co-President
SAR Board of Directors
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BOARD OF DIRECTORS
ADVISORY COUNCIL
Richard E. Harris, PhD
Co-President
Richard Hammerschlag, PhD
Oregon College of Oriental Medicine
University of Michigan, Chronic Pain and Fatigue
Research Center
Lixing Lao, PhD, LAc
Center for Integrative Medicine
University of Maryland School of Medicine
Vitaly Napadow, PhD, LAc
Co-President
Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging
Massachusetts General Hospital
Roni D. Posner, EdD
SAR Sustainability / Growth Liaison
Former Executive Director
Robert Davis, MS, LAc
Treasurer
Stromatec, Inc.
STAFF
Jiang-Ti Kong, MD
Secretary
Laura Triplett
Stanford Department of Anesthesiology
and Stanford Pain Management Center
Executive Director
Wendy Reed
Remy Coeytaux, MD, PhD
Duke University School of Medicine
Helene Langevin, MD
Society for Acupuncture Research
Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, Brigham and
Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School; University of
Vermont
130 Cloverhurst Court
Winston Salem, NC 27103
www.acupunctureresearch.org
[email protected]
Hugh MacPherson, PhD
University of York, Department of Health Sciences (UK)
Ryan J. Milley, MAcOM, LAc
Oregon College of Oriental Medicine
Jongbae Park, KMD, PhD, LAc
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Rosa Schnyer, DAOM, LAc
University of Texas, College of Pharmacy
Integrative Medicine Initiative
Elisabet Stener-Victorin, PhD
Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology
Department of Physiology / Endocrinology (Sweden)
Peter Wayne, PhD
Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, Division of
Preventive Medicine; Brigham and Women’s Hospital
and Harvard Medical School
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2013 CONFERENCE COMMITTEES
Program Committee
Scientific Review Committee
Richard Hammerschlag, PhD, Co-Chair
Vitaly Napadow, PhD, LAc, Co-Chair
Oregon College of Oriental Medicine
Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging
Massachusetts General Hospital
Hugh MacPherson, PhD, Co-Chair
University of York, Department of Health Sciences (UK)
Helene Langevin, MD, Co-Chair
Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, Brigham and
Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School;
University of Vermont
Richard Harris, PhD
University of Michigan, Chronic Pain and
Fatigue Research Center
SAR Board of Directors
Vitaly Napadow, PhD, LAc
Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging
Massachusetts General Hospital
Claudia Witt, MD, MBA
Institute for Social Medicine, University Medical
Center CharitГ© Berlin; International Society for
Complementary Medicine Research
Rosa Schnyer, DAOM, LAc
Clinical Assistant Professor University of Texas,
College of Pharmacy Integrative Medicine Initiative
Claudia Witt, MD, MBA
Fundraising Committee
Institute for Social Medicine, University Medical
Center CharitГ© Berlin; International Society for
Complementary Medicine Research
Richard E. Harris, PhD, Chair
University of Michigan, Chronic Pain and
Fatigue Research Center
Robert Davis, MS, LAc
Stromatec, Inc.
Roni Posner, EdD
SAR Sustainability / Growth Liaison
Former Executive Director
Laura Triplett
SAR Executive Director
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Society for Acupuncture Research 2013 International Conference
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Impact of Acupuncture Research on 21 Century Health Care
Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Michigan League
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Society for Acupuncture Research 2013 International Conference
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Impact of Acupuncture Research on 21 Century Health Care
Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
REMINDERS
CEUs/PDA
All registrants who intend to receive CEUs/PDA points are reminded to be absolutely sure that you
complete (by initialing on the attendance verification form beside each session that you attend) and
return your completed form to the conference registration desk. CEUs/PDA points will not be awarded
unless SAR receives your completed form during the 2013 conference. CEUs/PDA points will not be
awarded for any forms that we receive after the conference ends. Please visit the conference
registration desk for questions related to CEUs/PDA points for this conference.
FRIDAY AND SATURDAY LUNCH
For those attendees who registered for the full conference, or for Friday/Saturday daily rates, a boxed
lunch is included in that fee and you will receive a meal ticket. Lunches can be picked up in the
Concourse (exhibit area) by handing in your meal ticket to the catering staff.
If you indicated a special meal preference during your initial conference registration, please request
that meal upon picking up your lunch. (For example, if you requested gluten free or vegetarian
meals, those lunches will be marked specifically.)
Presentations are scheduled during lunch on Friday and Saturday in the ballroom. Alternatively,
additional seating is available in Michigan and Hussey rooms (also on the 2nd floor).
RECEPTIONS
For those attendees who registered for the full conference, three receptions are included in the
registration fee (Thursday’s Opening Reception in the Concourse on the 2 nd Floor, Friday’s Poster
Reception on the 3rd floor, and Saturday’s Poster Reception on the 3rd Floor). One drink ticket per
reception is included with your name badge. Name badges must be worn for admission to the
receptions. Additional beverages may be purchased separately on a cash basis at the bar area located
at each reception.
PHOTOGRAPHY/VIDEO
Please be advised that photos will be taken throughout the conference, and all major sessions are
being recorded professionally for sale after the conference. If you have any restrictions on SAR's use
of your image, either photo or video, please let us know at the registration desk.
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REMINDERS (CONTINUED)
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
All poster presenters: Poster board assignments are located at the conference registration desk and in
Henderson and Koessler Rooms (3rd floor) where poster boards are located.
Please be sure that your poster is up on its assigned-number board as follows:
Friday posters -- should be up by Friday morning at 7:30am and taken down by Friday evening
between 7pm - 9pm.
Saturday posters -- should be up by Saturday morning at 7:30am and taken down by Saturday
evening between 7pm and 9pm.
NOTE: Posters that are not picked up by 9pm on your assigned day will be discarded.
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Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
We are enormously grateful for the wide-ranging support received for this
conference. Please be sure to visit our sponsors’ display tables and thank their
representatives (look for their white ribbons).
Grant Support
NIH/National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Funding for this conference was made possible (in part) by R13 AT007742 from the National Center for
Complementary and Alternative Medicine. The views expressed in written conference materials or
publications and by speakers and moderators do not necessarily reflect the official policies of the Department
of Health and Human Services; nor does mention by trade names, commercial practices, or organizations imply
endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Co-Hosted by
University of Michigan Department of Anesthesiology and Program in Integrative Medicine
Tiger Level Sponsors
National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine
Kan Herb Company
Crane Level Sponsors
American Academy of Medical Acupuncture
Council of Colleges of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine
Five Branches University - Graduate School of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Logan College of Chiropractic / University Programs
Michigan Association of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine
Stromatec
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Other Sponsors
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute
New England School of Acupuncture
Oregon College of Oriental Medicine
SAR Board of Directors
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Institutional Member Supporters
AcuCare
American Association of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine
American Academy of Medical Acupuncture
AOMA Graduate School of Integrative Medicine
Atlantic Institute of Oriental Medicine
Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital
New England School of Acupuncture
Oregon College of Oriental Medicine
Pacific College of Oriental Medicine
University of Bridgeport Acupuncture Institute
Won Institute of Graduate Studies
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Society for Acupuncture Research 2013 International Conference
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Join SAR by 4/30/13
and save 15%
Join online, or visit the SAR
exhibit table for a membership
brochure. Be sure to mention
discount code C13savings on your
printed membership form
or during the checkout process
online.
www.AcupunctureResearch.org
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Impact of Acupuncture Research on 21 Century Health Care
Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
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Society for Acupuncture Research 2013 International Conference
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Impact of Acupuncture Research on 21 Century Health Care
Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
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THURSDAY, April 18
Pre-Conference Workshops
9:00AM - 12:00PM
Workshop 1. Tools and Tips for Making Evidence Based Acupuncture Presentations: A Workshop for
Clinicians, Educators and Students
Robert Davis, MS, LAc; Ryan Milley, MAcOM, LAc; Hugh MacPherson, PhD; Rosa Schnyer, DAOM, LAc; Richard
Hammerschlag, PhD
Moderator: Robert Davis, MS, LAc
Vandenberg Room
This pre-conference workshop will offer a state-of-the-research overview designed for community outreach, education,
and practice building. Presenters will discuss examples of acupuncture research and offer guidance for how to speak
effectively about usage, safety, clinical trials, and basic science. The set of Powerpoint slides will be made available for
purchase by workshop attendees. The workshop is ideal for acupuncture practitioners, educators and students.
Workshop 2. Challenges of Acupuncture Clinical Research in China
Panel Co-Chairs: Prof. Baoyan Liu; Prof. Lixing Lao, PhD, MD (China), LAc
Panelists: Xiaohua Zhou, PhD; Hugh MacPherson, PhD; Prof. Fanrong Liang; Prof. Bing Zhu; Claudia Witt, MD; Prof.
Changen Wang
Hussey Room
This half-day symposium will introduce recent developments in acupuncture clinical research in China and discuss
challenges encountered in these trials. Specific examples to be presented are multi-center, large clinical trials on
acupuncture for severe constipation and for facial paralysis (Bell’s Palsy), and translational research on auricular
acupuncture. Research-related topics will include the role of Data and Safety Monitoring Boards, recent funding for
acupuncture research by the Chinese government and mechanisms for grant applications from the Natural Science
Foundation of China. Participation and discussion from symposium attendees are highly encouraged.
1:30PM - 4:30PM
Workshop 3. Designing Clinical Trials to Evaluate Tai Chi and Qigong: A Practical Workshop
Peter Wayne, PhD
Hussey Room
This workshop will provide an overview of the unique challenges associated with the design, conduct, and interpretation of
clinical trials of mind-body interventions, such as tai chi, qigong and meditation. The workshop, intended for individuals
with limited research experience, will employ a facilitated problem-based learning format. Participants will develop
practical experience in: framing study aims and hypotheses related to mind-body therapies; matching trial designs to study
aims; choosing appropriate study interventions, control groups, and outcomes measures; and discussing strengths and
limitations associated with different types of study designs.
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Thursday continued…
Workshop 4. Designing Translational Acupuncture Research in Women’s Health
Elisabet Stener-Victorin, RPT, PhD; Lee Hullender Rubin, DAOM, LAc
Vandenberg Room
This interactive pre-conference workshop will explore acupuncture research in women's health that bridges the gaps
between physiological studies, clinical observations and clinical trials. Based on examples from their own research, Drs.
Stener-Victorin and Hullender Rubin, will guide participants through the steps to generate a unique research question and
design a clinical trial protocol. The workshop is ideal for both clinicians and researchers.
5:00PM - 5:15PM
Welcome and Overview
Richard Harris, PhD; Vitaly Napadow, PhD
Dr. Sara Warber, MD, Co-Director of the University of Michigan Integrative Medicine Program
Dr. Kevin Tremper, MD, PhD, Chair of the Department of Anesthesiology University of Michigan
Moderator: Richard Harris, PhD
Ballroom
5:15PM - 6:15PM
Keynote 1: Acupuncture and the Connective Tissue Matrix
Helene Langevin, MD, LAc
Moderator: Richard Harris, PhD
Ballroom
This session will explain the role of connective tissue in the musculoskeletal system, review the most recent findings on the
effects of acupuncture on connective tissue, and present new evidence on the relationship between connective tissue
mechanotransduction, purinergic signaling and peripheral sensory modulation.
6:15PM - 7:30PM
Opening Reception (wine and hors d’ouevres)
Concourse (Exhibit Area)
Sponsored by:
University of Michigan Department of Anesthesiology and Program in Integrative Medicine
FRIDAY, April 19
7:00AM – 7:45AM
Qigong and Tai Chi (with Peter Wayne)
Vandenberg Room
7:30AM - 8:30AM
Breakfast Buffet
Concourse (Exhibit Area) – seating available in Michigan Room and Hussey Room
Sponsored by:
American Academy of Medical Acupuncture
Council of Colleges of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine
Five Branches University - Graduate School of Traditional Chinese Medicine
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8:30AM - 9:30AM Ballroom
Keynote 2: Acupuncture and the Trauma Spectrum Response: Evidence and Issues
Wayne Jonas, MD
Moderator: Richard Hammerschlag, PhD
Ballroom
Military fighters returning from the current conflicts, who have experienced physical and/or psychological trauma,
frequently present with co-morbid symptoms, e.g. chronic pain, depression, anxiety, and fatigue. These overlapping
conditions cut across the boundaries of mind and body, resulting in a common symptomatic and functional spectrum of
physical, cognitive, psychological and behavioral effects referred to as the �Trauma Spectrum Response’ (TSR). While
acupuncture has been shown to treat some of these components effectively, the current literature is often difficult to
interpret, inconsistent or of variable quality. Thus, to gauge comprehensively the effectiveness of acupuncture across TSR
components, a systematic review of reviews was conducted using the Samueli Institute’s Rapid Evidence Assessment of the
Literature (REALВ©) methodology. Based on the results of this review, acupuncture appears to be effective for treating
headaches and a promising treatment option for anxiety, sleep disturbances, depression and chronic pain. More quality
data are also needed to determine whether acupuncture is appropriate for treating fatigue or cognitive difficulties. Future
research should adequately address safety to increase our confidence in acupuncture’s efficacy across the identified TSR
components.
9:30AM - 10:00AM BREAK
Concourse – Exhibit Area
10:00AM - 12:00PM
Symposium 1: Multiple Components of Acupuncture: Therapeutic Outcomes from Needling, Context
and Patient-practitioner Interactions
Speakers: Hugh MacPherson, PhD; Charlotte Paterson, PhD; Prof. Ted Kaptchuk
Moderator: Hugh MacPherson, PhD
Ballroom
Acupuncture can be considered a complex intervention with multiple components. These components include not just the
acupuncture needling, but also the time and attention provided by the practitioner as well as a range of acupuncturespecific non-needling components such as the explanations and lifestyle advice given to the patient. This symposium will
explore many of these components in order to better characterize the practice of acupuncture. Hugh MacPherson will
present the results of the Acupuncture Trialists Collaboration, based on an individual patient data meta-analysis, which
identifies the proportion of benefit that can be ascribed to the actual needling in patients with chronic pain. Charlotte
Paterson will draw on her portfolio of qualitative research to illustrate the complexity of the therapeutic relationship and
the ways that this is integral to the practice of acupuncture. Ted Kaptchuk will present clinical trial findings that illustrate
the contribution of the context and therapeutic relationship to the overall effect of acupuncture. The symposium will
provide insights into our understanding of the components of acupuncture and how these, whether considered separately
or in combination, can contribute to overall benefit.
12:15PM - 1:00PM Boxed Lunches – Pick up in Concourse – Exhibit Area
Sponsored by:
National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (NCCAOM)
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Friday continued…
12:15PM - 1:45PM
Lunch: NCCAM Workshop: Clinical Research Considerations, Study Design, and Biomarker Evaluation in
Complementary Health Research
Kristen Huntley, PhD; Qian Li, PhD
Moderator: Peter Wayne, PhD
Ballroom
This session will provide updates from NCCAM regarding issues to consider when designing clinical research. Attendees will
learn of resources available on the NCCAM website to assist with study design and of NCCAM’s clinical research monitoring
process. Discussion will focus on special considerations in clinical trial design and implementation that may increase study
design rigor and efficiency as well as the likelihood of success in demonstrating treatment benefit. Further, many NCCAM
sponsored studies seek to develop or validate biomarkers as potential tests of certain clinical conditions, as a means to
understand the mechanism of an intervention, or as predictors of responses to a particular intervention. In this context,
guidance for study design and statistical methods will be offered for proposing adequate diagnostic, prognostic, surrogate
and predictive biomarker evaluation. Following this session, attendees will be able to describe important considerations in
designing clinical acupuncture research, to describe different types of biomarkers typically used in integrative health
research, and will have an increased understanding of the basic statistical methodologies used in biomarker exploration
and validation.
2:00PM - 3:00PM
Keynote 3: The Elusive Nature of Facts and the Subtle Effects of Power: Why We Need More Than the
Natural Sciences for Acupuncture Research
Volker Scheid, PhD
Moderator: Hugh MacPherson, PhD
Ballroom
Research in our field is generally presented as employing methodologies borrowed from the natural sciences in order to
ascertain if and, if so, how acupuncture works. Rarely do researchers pay more than cursory attention to the constructed
nature of the facts that they propose to examine. The term 'constructed' here refers to the social and cultural factors that
make acupuncture what it is at different places and different times. Using a case history approach, this discussion will
illuminate the idea that not paying attention to these factors risks producing knowledge that is of dubious value and
wasting limited research resources. Knowledge claims for examination include the construction of the acupuncture body,
the relation between meridians and acupuncture points, the presumed function of acupuncture points, and modes of
acupuncture diagnosis and treatment. The case will be made that, in each of these, knowledge claims cannot be
understood without paying attention to who produces such knowledge and for what goals, and that only by including the
medical humanities within the overall scope of acupuncture research will we be able to address the effects of power on
the construction of presumed facts.
3:00PM - 3:30PM BREAK
Concourse – Exhibit Area
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3:30PM - 5:30PM
Panel Discussion: Impact of Acupuncture Research on 21st Century Health Care
Speakers: Kristen Huntley, PhD; Wayne Jonas, MD; Lixing Lao, PhD, MD (China), LAc; Volker Scheid, PhD; Claudia Witt, MD
Moderator: Richard Hammerschlag, PhD
Ballroom
Panelists will explore the theme of the SAR 2013 conference, emphasizing unique aspects of healthcare that acupuncture
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offers as a 21 century option for health and healing, as well as what acupuncture and East Asian medicine contribute to
the emerging paradigm of Integrative Health. Panelists will provide varied perspectives, including those from NIH/NCCAM,
community health, military medicine, anthropology and epidemiology. The impact of acupuncture research on
acupuncture practice will be considered by speakers from the United States, Europe and China. This session will place
major emphasis on discussion among panelists and audience.
5:30PM -7:00PM
Poster Session 1: View Poster Assignments on pages 23-28
rd
Koessler Room & Henderson Room (3 Floor)
Wine and Hors d'oeuvres Reception
Sponsored by:
University of Michigan Department of Anesthesiology and Program in Integrative Medicine
SATURDAY, April 20
7:00AM - 7:45AM
Qigong and Tai Chi (with Peter Wayne)
Vandenberg Room
7:30AM - 8:30AM
Breakfast Buffet
Concourse – Exhibit Area
Sponsored by:
Logan College of Chiropractic / University Programs
Stromatec
Michigan Association of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine
8:30AM - 9:30AM
Keynote 4: Neuroimaging Approaches to Acupuncture Research: What Do We Know? What Lies
Ahead?
Vitaly Napadow, PhD, Lac
Moderator: Rosa Schnyer, DAOM, LAc
Ballroom
Acupuncture needling often evokes complex somatosensory sensations at sites that are in many cases distal to the
location of a lesion. Moreover, acupuncture has been shown to modulate both the intensity and the cognitive/affective
perception of different symptomatologies including pain. This suggests that many effects of acupuncture are supported by
the brain’s control of central nervous system networks. Modern neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic
resonance imaging provide a means to safely monitor brain activity in humans and may be used to characterize brain
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responses to acupuncture stimulation as well as to map the neurophysiological correlates of acupuncture’s effects on
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various pathologies. A major niche for acupuncture in 21 century health care will be in managing the symptomatologies
of chronic disease. Hence, in order to better understand how acupuncture alleviates symptomatology, mechanistic
approaches must be applied to humans, who can report when pain, nausea, etc. has been reduced. This talk will provide
an overview of how neuroimaging has been applied to evaluate potential acupuncture mechanisms in humans, thereby
opening a brain imaging window on clinically meaningful neuroplasticity.
9:30AM - 10:00AM BREAK
Concourse – Exhibit Area
10:00AM - 12:00PM
Oral Presentations 1 (Concurrent Sessions: Basic Science & Clinical Research)
Clinical Research - Ballroom
Moderator: Ryan Milley, MAcOM, LAc
1. Benno Brinkhaus
Acupuncture in Patients with Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis – Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial
2. Fan Qu
Auricular Acupressure Reduces Anxiety Levels and Improves Outcomes of in Vitro Fertilization: A Prospective,
Randomized and Controlled Study
3. Linlin Sun
A Randomized Comparative Effectiveness Clinical Trial of Acupuncture as an Adjunctive Therapy in Patients with
Depression
4. Suzanna Zick
Self-administered acupressure reduces chronic pain in breast cancer survivors
5. Lizhen Wang
Effectiveness of moxibustion treatment as adjunctive therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee: A randomized
controlled clinical trial
6. Xueyong Shen
Effects of CO2 Laser Moxibustion on Different Patterns of Knee Osteoarthritis
7. Lisa Conboy
Management of Gulf War Syndrome Symptoms with Acupuncture: Report on preliminary findings of an ongoing
wait-list control RCT.
8. Chris Zaslawski
Multisite International Studies- issues, challenges, obstacles and advantages- An example of the TEA IS CHAI
(Tennis Elbow Acupuncture-International Study-China, Hong Kong, Australia and Italy) project
Basic Science Vandenberg Room
Moderator: Jiang-Ti Kong, MD
1. Richard Harris
Pressure Pain Sensitivity and Insular Glutamate are Associated with Subsequent Clinical Pain Response to Sham
but not Verum Acupuncture in Chronic Pain Patients
2. Yumi Maeda
Altered brain response to acupuncture after a course of acupuncture therapy for CTS is associated with analgesia.
3. Tiffany Love
Pre-treatment Вµ-Opioid Receptor (MOR) Availability in vivo Differentially Predicts Analgesic Response to Verum
and Sham Acupuncture in Chronic Pain Patients
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4. Daniel Pach
Modulation of the Somatosensory (MU) Background Rhythm in Healthy Volunteers after Needle Stimulation on
ST36
5. Jieun Kim
Functional Brain Connectivity Predicts Acupuncture Analgesic Effect in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome patients.
6. Minghao Dong
Macrostructural plasticity subserving sensorimotor skills and emotion regulation ability in professional
acupuncturists: an fMRI study
7. Zhiming Zhang
Utilizing a computerized behavioral testing and pharmacological MRI to objectively monitor therapeutic effects of
electroacupuncture in nonhuman primates modeling human Parkinson’s disease
8. Yang Jie
Central mechanism of instant analgesia effect of aupoints on Shao-Yang Meridians to migraine patients
12:15PM - 12:45PM Boxed Lunches – Pick up in Concourse – Exhibit Area
Sponsored by:
Kan Herb Company
12:15PM - 12:45PM
Lunch talk: Acupuncture in China – Developments in Clinical Research
Professor Liu Baoyan
Moderator: Lixing Lao, PhD, LAc
Ballroom
Professor Liu Baoyan from the China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences will introduce recent developments achieved in
acupuncture clinical research in China, including large sample size, government-supported clinical trials. He will also
describe novel studies of acupuncture mechanism and their translation into practical application. He will call for a robust
interactive communication between acupuncture researchers from China and the West and for further international
collaboration in conferences and research projects.
12:45PM - 1:00PM BREAK
Concourse – Exhibit Area
1:00PM - 3:00PM
Symposium 2: Exploring the Diversity of Acupuncture: Lessons Learned from Research on Manual vs.
Electrical Stimulation
Helene Langevin, PhD, LAc; Rosa Schnyer, DAOM, LAc
Moderator: Helene Langevin, PhD, LAc
Ballroom
This session will review the state-of-the-science on similarities and differences between manual and electrical
acupuncture, gleaned from reviews of patterns of use, clinical trials, meta-analyses and basic science studies. Discussion
will highlight methodological challenges posed by designing experiments that are both scientifically rigorous and clinically
relevant, and will propose new strategies for closing the current knowledge gap on the comparative effectiveness of
manual and electrical modes of needle stimulation.
3:00PM - 3:30PM BREAK
Concourse – Exhibit Area
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3:30PM - 5:30PM
Oral Presentations 2: Concurrent Sessions: Basic Science & Clinical Research
Clinical Research – Ballroom
Moderator: Remy Coeytaux, MD, PhD
1. Florian Beissner
Acupuncture sensation without acupuncture - what is the physiological basis?
2. Hugh MacPherson
Acupuncture and other physical treatments for the relief of chronic pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee: network
meta-analysis
3. Charlotte Paterson
�Social chat’: the role of life-world talk in traditional acupuncture consultations
4. Basia Kielczynska
How Acupuncturists and Physicians View the Presence of In-Patient Acupuncture Care at Beth Israel Medical
Center – A Qualitative Phenomenological Study.
5. Elizabeth Sommers
Acupuncture in a Managed Care Program: Evaluating Clinical Outcomes, Member Satisfaction, and Costs of Care
6. Byung Ryul Lee
Utilization of acupuncture for pain management in an academic medical center for traditional Korean medicine: a
retrospective review of electronic medical records.
7. Dawn Upchurch
Do Negative Attitudes about Acupuncture Account for Non-use? Findings from the National Health Interview
Survey (NHIS) 2007
8. Lee Hullender Rubin
Adjuvant whole systems Traditional Chinese Medicine improved fresh, non-donor in vitro fertilization – a
retrospective chart review
Basic Science - Vandenberg Room
Moderator: Elisabet Stener-Victorin, PhD
1. Lixing Lao
Electroacupuncture Inhibits Spinal P-CAMKII to Suppress Chemotherapy-induced Pain in Rats
2. Luigi Manni
Increased nerve growth factor signaling in sensory neurons of early diabetic rats is corrected by
electroacupuncture
3. Hi-Joon Park
Acupuncture-induced molecular signaling pathway in mouse skin layer
4. Seung-Nam Kim
Benefits of combined treatment of L-dopa with acupuncture on Parkinson's disease mouse model
5. Ari More
Doses of caffeine relevant to dietary human intake can inhibit the acupuncture-induced analgesia
6. Lixing Lao
Effects of a topical Chinese herbal formula TLSJ Gel for bone cancer pain in rats
7. Haiping Deng
Effects of Electroacupuncture at Neiguan (PC6) on Blood Pressure in Myocardial Infarction Rats
8. Ari More
Involvement of peripheral adenosine A1 receptor in electroacupuncture analgesia
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Society for Acupuncture Research 2013 International Conference
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Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Saturday continued…
6:00PM - 7:30PM
Poster Session 2: View Poster Assignments on pages 28-34
rd
Koessler Room & Henderson Room (3 Floor)
Wine and Hors d'oeuvre Reception
Sponsored by:
University of Michigan Department of Anesthesiology and Program in Integrative Medicine
SUNDAY, April 21
7:30AM - 8:30AM
Breakfast Buffet
Concourse – Exhibit Area
Sponsored by:
SAR Board of Directors
8:30AM - 11:30AM
Concurrent Workshops
Workshop A: Designing Comparative Effectiveness Research in Acupuncture and Whole Systems East
Asian Medicine
Claudia Witt, MD; Richard Hammerschlag, PhD
Ballroom
Workshop participants will be guided through the concepts, evaluation and creation of comparative effectiveness research
(CER), i.e. trials in which two active treatment interventions are compared. Emphasis will be placed on clinical trials that
compare acupuncture to biomedical standard care as well as trials that compare whole systems of East Asian medicine
(e.g. acupuncture, herbal therapy, Tuina and exercise) to whole systems of biomedical care (e.g. pharmacotherapy, physical
therapy and exercise). In small group sessions, participants will identify components of efficacy trials (ideal conditions) vs.
effectiveness trials (real world conditions), and will create CER trial designs.
Workshop B: Assessing Objective Outcomes for Subjective Symptoms in Acupuncture Research Steven E.
Harte PhD; Robert Davis, MS, LAc; Susan Murphy, PhD, ScD; Suzanna Zick, PhD, ND; Richard Harris, PhD
Moderator: Robert Davis, MS, LAc
Vandenberg Room
Accurate and objective measurements of the complex, dynamic, and subjective sensations that occur during acupuncture
is challenging. This session will include 5 ten-minute presentations from experienced clinical and basic researchers who will
share examples of how the innovative use of state of the art tools has improved their research and by allowing the
assessment of subjective symptoms in acupuncture research. The tools and symptoms that will be covered include: 1.
ecological momentary assessment of physical activity, fatigue and sleep symptoms with the Actiwatch, 2. quantitative
automated sensory testing with the MAST device, 3. acupuncture needling force and motion with the Acusensor, 4.
assessment of fatigue and pain using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and 5. connective tissue
differences in humans using StromaTorque. Following these short talks, participants will have 90 minutes for interactive
hands-on exploration of each of the objective tools. Experts in each of the fields will discuss research advantages and
limitations of the tools as well as demonstrate data processing and analysis. A closing panel discussion will consider
additional questions from workshop attendees.
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Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Sunday continued…
11:45AM – 12:15PM
Awards Ceremony and Closing Remarks
Vitaly Napadow, PhD; Richard Harris, PhD
Moderator: Vitaly Napadow, PhD
Ballroom
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Friday, April 19
Title
Authors
Serotonergic Changes after Acupuncture Stimulation in
the Prefrontal Cortex of Maternally-Separated Rat Pups
Influence of Electroacupuncture on SCN Output Signal
Molecules of Mice Bearing Breast Cancer
Study of Intestinal Microecology in Rats with Ulcerative
Colitis Treated by Electro-Acupuncture
Acupuncture: Calcium Ion Plays an Important Role
Seung-Tae Kim, Sunoh Kwon, Dae-Hyun
Hahm, Hi-Joon Park and Hyejung Lee
Sheng-wu Li, Jia Wu and Hong Xue
Research about the Expression of BDNF, SYN In FMR1
Gene Knockout Mouse Hippocampal by Acupuncture
DU1
Electroacupuncture at �Forbidden Points’ in Pregnant
Wistar Rats’ Health
Wu Qiang, Han Ping and Lin Dong
The Effects of Moxibustion on the Myocardial Ischemia
Model Rabbits in Energy Metabolism
Involvement of Peripheral Beta-Endorphin and Mu,
Delta, Kappa Opioid Receptors in Electroacupuncture
Analgesia in Prolonged Inflammatory Pain
Effects of Electroacupuncture on the Pain Behavior and
Edema in the Rat Model of Carrageenan-Induced Knee
Arthritis
The Key MicroRNA Gene Networks in Moxibustion
Regulating Hippocampus Neurogenesis
Gene Expression Profiles at Moxibustioned Site of
Acupoint ST36
The Protective Effect of Electroacupuncture on Diabetic
Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury through
Adiponectin Signaling Pathway
Effects of Electro-Acupuncture on Muscle Condition and
Sciatic Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity of Model
Rabbits
Analysis of Mediating Local Anti-Nociceptive Effects of
Moxibustion
23
Tian-shu Hou, Xiao-xia Han, Yang Yang, Ji-lan
Zhao, Shu-Guan Yu and Qiao-Feng Wu
Guo Yi
AndrГ© Vilella Guerreiro Silva, JoГЈo Bosco
Guerreiro Silva, Mary Uchiyama Nakamura,
JosГ© Antonio Cordeiro, Luiz Lima and Gloria
Elisa Mendes
Jianzi Wei, Xiaobo Gao, kelvin Wong, Xian
Song and Xueyong Shen
Jian-qiao Fang, Yong-liang Jiang, Xiao-fen He,
Lei Huang and Sheng-chen Qiu
Bo Eun Jeong, Heun Joo Lee, Da Eun Song,
Minyoung Park and Sungtae Koo
Sheng-Feng Lu, Hai-Yan Yin, Fang Zeng, Ling
Luo, Shu-Guang Yu and Yong Tang
Hai-Yan Yin, Yong Tang, Sheng-Feng Lu, Ling
Luo, Fang Zeng, Jia-Ping Wang, Xu-Guang Liu
and Shu-Guang Yu
Fan Guo, Qiang Wang and Lize Xiong
Yao-chi Wu, Yi-jun Sun, Jun-feng Zhang, Yanyan Xie, Jing-hui Zhou, Cheng-fei Huang and
Shi-sheng Li
Chengshun Zhang, Yapeng Fan, Yong Tang,
Haiyan Yin and Shuguang Yu
Society for Acupuncture Research 2013 International Conference
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Impact of Acupuncture Research on 21 Century Health Care
Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
KEY: F=Friday; S=Saturday; H=Henderson Room; K=Koessler Room; Number=Assigned Poster Order
POSTER ASSIGNMENTS
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Friday, April 19
Title
Authors
Yali Liu, Ting Liu, Yangyang Liu, Xue Zhao,
Kuan Wang, Jiang Wang, Guilan Li and Yi
Guo
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Study on the Influence of Exciting and Blocking of Mast
Cell at Zusanli (ST36) Area on Spinal Dorsal Root Fine
Nerve Bundle Discharge Evoked by Acupuncture in
Normal Rats
Research on the Laws of Effect of Acupuncture
Manipulations Based on the Nerve (Neuron) Signals
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Herbal-Acupuncture to SP16 Ameliorates Behavioral and
Biochemical Responses to Restraint Stress in Rats
The Effect of the Electroacupuncture at ST36 in TMTInduced Memory Deficit Rats
The Anti-Depressive Mechanism of Electroacupuncture
(EA) on the Ras-MEK-ERK Signal Pathway
A Study of Acute and Chronic Moxa Smoke Toxicity in
Rats
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The Role of Hippocampal ErО± on Perimenopausal
Affective Disorders in Ovariectomized Rats: Effect of
Electroacupuncture
Electroacupuncture Protects against Cerebral Ischemic
Injury by Inhibition of Glycogen Synthesis Kinase
3ОІпј€GSK-3ОІпј‰ Via CB1 Receptor
The Expression of Aromatase P450 mRNA in Abdominal
Adipose Tissues of Ovariectomized Rats Treated with
Catgut Embedding in Points
Study of PET Functional Imaging of AD’s Brain after
Treatment of Acupuncturing Shenmen (HT7)
In Acute Inflammatory Pain Rat Model of the Analgesic
Action of Moxibustion
Anterior Cingulate Cortex Is Crucial for Contra - But Not
Ipsi-Lateral Electro-Acupuncture in the Formalininduced
Inflammatory Pain Model of Rats
Effects of Acupuncture on Intracellular Ca2+
Concentrations and Cardiomyocytes Apoptosis in the
Myocardial Ischemic Reperfused Injury Rats
Effect on Emulation Acupuncture Pretreatment to
Behavioristics of Viscera Tractive Pain Rice and Its
Mechanism Research
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Yangyang Liu, Shouhai Hong, Tao Zhou, Chao
Wang, Lei Chen, Wenhui Lu, Ting Liu, Yi Guo
and Yongming Guo
Hyun Jung Park, Hyun Soo Shim, Hye Jung
Lee, Yong Ho Ahn and Insop Shim
Hyun Soo Shim, Hyun Jung Park, Hye Jung
Lee and Insop Shim
Xinjing Yang, Jia Liang, Linlin Sun, Zhuo Guo,
Sihan Wang, Huifang Ma and Fengxian Meng
Li Han, Ping Liu, Baixiao Zhao, Hai Hu, Jia
Yang, Hong Cai, Huangfang Xu, Yingxue Cui,
Ran Jin, Maoxiang Zhu, Zhihua Yang, Xiujie
Pan and Lixing Lao
Xun Wang, Yongheng Huang, Shiwen Yuan,
Ting Xu, Gencheng Wu, Boying Chen and Yi
Feng
Qiang Wang, Haidong Wei and Lize Xiong
Yunxiang Xu, Jinyuan Cai and Guizhen Chen
Donemei Sun, Xinsheng Lai and Baoci Shan
Yapeng Fan, Chengshun Zhang, Yong Tang,
Haiyan Yin and Shuguang Yu
Haolin Zhang
Yuefeng Tian, Leiyong Li, Haining Gao,
Bingren Zhang and Jun Wang
Huayuan Yang, Tingting Guo, Youjiang Min,
Tangyi Liu and Ming Gao
Society for Acupuncture Research 2013 International Conference
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Friday, April 19
Title
Authors
Temperature Characteristics of Moxibustion with
Warming Needles Made of Different Materials
Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Synthase Attenuates Cutaneous
Vasodilation during Warm Moxibustion-Like Thermal
Stimulation in Humans
Test Observation on the Influence of Skin
Microcirculation Blood Perfusion at Zusanli Acupoint by
Stimulating with Lift-Thrust Reinforcing and Reducing
Acupuncture Manipulation Methods on Healthy Adults
Evaluating the Representativeness of Group Results: An
fMRI-Based Acupuncture Study
The Experimental Study of the Impact of ElectroAcupuncture "Shimen" Point on Hypothalamic Gnrh of
Mouse Implantation Period
How Effective Is Auricular Acupuncture for the
Treatment of Cervical Pain?
Is Auricular Acupuncture Effective in the Treatment of
Headaches?
“Getting My Life Back”: A Study of How Acupuncture
Treatment Improved Quality-Of-Life for One Woman
with Breast Cancer-Related Lymphoedema
First Steps: Involving People with Lower Limb
Lymphoedema in Evaluating Traditional Acupuncture for
Improved Wellbeing
Caring for Cancer Patients: A Survey of Licensed
Acupuncturists in the San Francisco Bay Area
Visual Evidence of Meridians and Acupoints from
Thermal Images
What Is the Impact of Pain Assessment by Subjective
Scores in Acupuncture Research?
Cupping for Treating Neck Pain in Video Display Terminal
Users: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial
Ke Cheng, Jianzi Wei and Xueyong Shen
Is the Basic Emotional Structuring Test A Valid
Instrument for Early Identification of Problematic Coping
Styles and Psychopathology in Elementary School Age
Children?
25
Kenichi Kimura, Hayato Takeuchi, Kuniko
Yuri and Ikuro Wakayama
Xiaomei Li, Yanqi Li, Dan Zhou, Jianwei Liu,
Yongming Guo and Yi Guo
Jinbo Sun, Wei Qin and Jie Tian
Hong Xiao, Ou Zhang and Changqing Guo
Wei Ling Huang and Ana Paula Huang
Wei Ling Huang and Ana Paula Huang
Beverley de Valois, Teresa Young and Elaine
Melsome
Beverley de Valois, Teresa Young and Elaine
Melsome
Michael McCulloch, Misha Cohen, Beverly
Burns and Donald Abrams
Shui Yin Lo
Susana Seca
Tae-Hun Kim, Jung Won Kang, Kun Hyung
Kim, MinHee Lee, Jung Eun Kim, Joo-Hee
Kim, Seunghoon Lee, Mi-Suk Shin, So-Young
Jung, Ae-Ran Kim, Hyo-Ju Park and Kwon Eui
Hong
Ineke van den Berg and Marion Giesberts
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Friday, April 19
Title
Authors
Pattern Differentiation for Chronic Insomnia in
Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Investigation into the
Prevailing Epistemology
Thoughts about How to Perform an Acupuncture Study
Michael Barr, Steven Carrasco and Kimberly
Zimmerman
The Effects of Twelve Weeks of Tai Chi Practice on
Anxiety in Stressed but Healthy People Compared to an
Exercise Only and Wait List Comparison Group – A Pilot
Study
Six-movement Tai Chi Rehabilitation Form for
Community-based Patients with Chronic Obstructive
Pulmonary Disease
Exploring the Effects of Self-Managed Acupressure on
Pain, Function and Osteoarthritis Biomarkers among
Postmenopausal Women with Osteoarthritic Knee Pain:
A Feasibility Study
A Chart Review of Patients Seen at an Acupuncture
College for One Hundred or More Visits
A Study on the Life Quality of Stroke Patients According
to the Constitution
Perceptions of Acupuncture Students in Research
Methods Course regarding Research Debates
The Dynamics of Developing of a Group Acupuncture
Model in a Hospital Based Joint Replacement Center
Formation of Scholars: Doctoral Education in the Field of
Acupuncture and Asian Medicine
An Evidence Informed AOM Geriatric Clinical Internship:
What Student Interns Think
Gynecology Oncology Alimentary Length of Stay
Shuai Zheng, Peter Meier and Chris
Zaslawski
The Efficacy and Safety Study of Chen-gung-gye-gitang(е·ќиЉЋжЎ‚жћќж№Ї) on the Common Cold: Randomized,
Single Blind, Active Controlled Pilot Trial
Integrative Research: Using Mixed Methods Approach
Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (AOM) Practitioners
Conducting Research: Preliminary Findings from
Interviews to Inform Workforce Training
26
Qi Zhang
Kun Shi and Jin Yan
Yan Zhang, Chwan-Li Shen, Jean-Michel
BrismГ©e, Kim Peck, Raul Y. Dagda, Di-Fan Lo
and Susan Doctolero
Forrest Cooper
Yun Young Kim, Jong Hyang Yoo, Ki Hyun
Park and SI Woo Lee
Sivarama Vinjamury and Gina Hamilton
Cynthia Miller and Pamela Weiss-Farnan
Carla Wilson
Lori Baldwin, Roni Evans, Mark McKenzie
and Kristine Westrom
Zena Kocher, Sue Sendelbach and Jason
Haupt
Jonghyang Yoo, Jihye Kwon, Yunyoung Kim
and Siwoo Lee
Carla Wilson and Misha Cohen
Kimberly Tippens, Susan Fleishman, Ashley
Russell and Heather Zwickey
Society for Acupuncture Research 2013 International Conference
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Impact of Acupuncture Research on 21 Century Health Care
Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
KEY: F=Friday; S=Saturday; H=Henderson Room; K=Koessler Room; Number=Assigned Poster Order
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Friday, April 19
Title
Authors
Dawn Upchurch, Bethany Wexler Rainisch
and Deborah Ackerman
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How Are Americans Using Acupuncture? Patterns and
Reasons for Use: Comparative Findings from National
Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2007 and an AOM
Teaching Clinic
Cancer Survivors with Lymphoedema: Perceptions of
Using Traditional Acupuncture as an Adjunct to Usual
Care
Participating in an Acupuncture Clinical Trial for Hot
Flashes: Perspectives of Breast Cancer Survivors
Acupuncture in the System of Public Health of
Florianopolis and Social Medicalization: A Study on the
Experience of Users
The Effect of Acupuncture on Working Memory and
Anxiety
Manual and Electroacupuncture for Labour Pain: Study
Design of A Longitudinal Randomized Controlled Trial
Acupuncture for Tension-type Headache in Pregnancy: A
Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study
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Can TCM Diagnosis and Prognosis Predict Biomedical
Outcomes in the Case of Irritable Bowel Syndrome?
Herbs-Isolated Moxibustion Navel Therapy For Irritable
Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Due To Spleen-qi Deficiency
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Effects of Moxa Smoke Exposure on Heart Rate and
Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Young Adults
Study of Patient-reported Outcomes on Poststroke
Patients in Community by Acupuncture
SAAM Acupuncture for Functional Dyspepsia: an
Ongoing Randomized, Controlled Pilot Clinical Trial
Protocol
Clinical Research on Women’s Climacteric Syndrome
Treated with Catgut Embedding in Points Combined by
Auricular-Plaster Therapy
Electroacupuncture for Treating Painful Diabetic
Neuropathy: Study Protocol for a Randomized, PatientAssessor Blinded, Controlled Pilot Clinical Trial
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Beverley de Valois, Teresa Young and Elaine
Melsome
Jun Mao, Elizabeth Mackenzie, Christina
Seluzicki and Fran Barg
Emiliana Silva, Charles Tesser and Ari MorГ©
Jason Bussell
Linda Vixner, Erica Schytt, Lena MГҐrtensson
and Elisabet Stener Victorin
JoГЈo Bosco Guerreiro Silva, Mary Uchiyama
Nakamura, JosГ© Antonio Cordeiro and Luiz
Kulay Jr.
Carole Wyche and Lisa Conboy
Shuzhong Gao, Yuxia Ma, Dongqing Du,
Cunzhi Liu, Gang Guo, Huaqiang Yi, Zhilei
Wang, Ping Qi, Yurong Xu, Zhongyuan Zhang
and Qi Xin
Baixiao Zhao, Yingxue Cui, Yuhai Huang,
Lixing Lao and Zhanghuang Chen
Jian Pei, Qinhui Fu, Qi Jia, Yuehua Gu and
Xiaoxing You
Joo-Hee Kim, Jung-Eun Kim, Seung-Hoon Lee
and Sun-Mi Choi
Guizhen Chen, Linqiu Liang and Yunxiang Xu
Seunghoon Lee, Joo-Hee Kim, Tae-Hun Kim
and Sun-Mi Choi
Society for Acupuncture Research 2013 International Conference
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Impact of Acupuncture Research on 21 Century Health Care
Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
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Friday, April 19
Title
Authors
Methodology for Conducting A Multi-Center
Randomized Acupuncture and Sham Acupuncture Study
to Reduce Aromatase Inhibitors Induced Arthralgia in
Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer
Acupoint Stimulation for Acne: A Systematic Review of
Randomized Controlled Trials
Acupuncture for Migraine: A Meta Analysis
Jillian Capodice, Anne Jeffres, Heather
Greenlee, Katherine Crew, Danielle Awad,
Joseph Unger, Danica Lew, Jo Anne Hartline,
Lisa Hansen and Dawn Hershman
Hui-Juan Cao
Acupuncture and Heart Rate Variability: A Systems Level
Approach to Understanding Mechanism
The Role of Acupuncture in Emergency Department
Settings: A Systematic Review
Intramuscular Stimulation Therapy for Health Care: A
Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials
Shumei Zheng, Hai Cui, Baohua Wang and Qi
Lu
Belinda Anderson, Arya Nielsen, Diane
McKee and Ben Kligler
Kun Hyung Kim, Byung Ryul Lee, Ji Ho Ryu,
Tae-Young Choi and Gi Young Yang
Tae-Hun Kim, Cha-Ro Lee, Tae-Young Choi
and Myeong Soo Lee
POSTER ASSIGNMENTS
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Saturday, April 20
Title
Authors
Scalp Electroacupuncture in Stroke Rehabilitation
Research : fMRI Methodological Issues and Solutions
Lateralisation of the Vascular Effects of Auricular
Acupuncture Evaluated via Two Digital Volume Pulse
Measurements
Needle Torque Test: A Potential Tool for Exploring
Connective Tissue Characteristics in Humans.
Kathleen Lumiere, Bensheng Qiu and Leanna
Standish
JosГ© F Rivas-Vilchis, Jorge A Cervantes-Reyes
and RubГ©n RomГЎn-Ramos
Study on Electrical Property of Internal Acupoint Based
on Insulated-Needle Probing Technology
Biomechanics’ Changes of Acupuncture Treatment for
Lower Back Pain A Clinical Study to Bridge the Concept
of Traditional Chinese Acupuncture with Western
Scientific Evidence of the Efface of Acupuncture
Treatment
Clinical Acupuncture Case Study: Profound Responders
and Heart Rate Variability Analysis
An Integrated Approach to the Management of
Temporal Mandibular Dysfunction: A Case Study
Musculoskeletal High Resolution Ultrasonography in
Acupuncture Practice
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Robert Davis, Helene Langevin, David
Churchill, Carrie Barron, Gary Badger, Chris
Coulter and Brian Gagne
Liu Tangyi, Li Ruixia and Yang Huayuan
Xiao Hong Liu, Ping Xiao and Scott N. Dr.
MacKinnon
Kristen Sparrow
Peter Shipka
Vinay Varma, Anand Varma and
Shyamsunder Joshi
Society for Acupuncture Research 2013 International Conference
st
Impact of Acupuncture Research on 21 Century Health Care
Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
KEY: F=Friday; S=Saturday; H=Henderson Room; K=Koessler Room; Number=Assigned Poster Order
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Saturday, April 20
Title
Authors
Thermal Properties of Supplementation/Drainage
Manipulation of Moxibustion
The Variation of Energy Metabolism along the
Pericardium Meridian and Its Relationship with the
Organs’ Functional Regulation during Acupuncture
Effect of Preventive Moxibustion at Mingmen (DU-4) on
Glycogen and Ghrelin Level in Swimming Exhausted Rats
Air Quality in A Moxibustion Treatment Room as
Measured through Respirable Particulate (PM10)
Concentration and Oxidative Capacity Assay
The Science of Gua Sha
Seung-Ho Yi
Simplified Model for Measuring Heat Stimulation of
Moxibustion and Heat Stimulation of Commercial
Indirect Moxa
Effect and Mechanism of 10.6Ојm CO2 Laser and 650nm
Semiconductor Laser Acupuncture on Leucopenia Rats
by Cyclophosphamide
Blood Pressure is Synchronized with Cyclic Variability of
Heart Rate and Blood Flow during Qigong Breathing
Regulation
Electromyographic Study on Tai Chi’s Activation of
Muscles Essential for Fall Prevention and Weightlifting
Warming up with Tai Chi Increases Muscle Strength and
Endurance
Effect of Moxa Smoke on Monoamine Neurotransmitters
in SAMP8 Mice
Influence of Pressing and Kneading Huantiao (GB30) on
B-endorphin in Periaqueductal Gray and Amygdaloid
Nucleus in a Model of Neuropathic Pain in Rats
Acupuncture Needling of Myofascial Trigger Points vs
Standard Acupuncture Protocol in the Treatment of
Frozen Shoulder: a Quasi-experimental Study
Acupuncture’s Effectiveness at Treating Subclinical
Hypothyroid Disease via the HPT/HPA Axis: A Multiple
Case Series
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Xu Jinsen
Zhifang Sun, Jie Mo, Xiaohong Li, Na Ding,
Shipeng Zhu and Lufen Zhang
Baixiao Zhao, Ping Liu, Chaxi Huang, Lixing
Lao and Longyi Shao
Dr. Arya Nielsen, Dr. Suk-Tak Chan and Dr.
Kenneth K. Kwong
O Sang Kwon, Seong Jin Cho, Kwang Ho
Choi, Sun Hee Yeon, Sae Bhom Lee, Sang
Hoon Lee, Sun Mi Choi and Yeon Hee Ryu
Ling Zhao, Lanlan Liu, Haiping Deng, Ke
Cheng, Haimeng Zhang and Xueyong Shen
Shin Lin, Zhongyuan Shen, Payton Lin and
Christopher Amato
Shin Lin, Ge Wu, Zhongyuan Shen, Patrick
Nguyen, Christopher Amato, Payton Lin,
Amy To and Gabriel Orenstein
Shin Lin and Asal Samadi
Huanfang Xu, Yingxue Cui, Ping Liu, Li Han
and Baixiao Zhao
Li ZhengYu, Yu ZhongYi, Sun SiTu, Zhang Jin,
Wang GuiLing, Xiao Bin, Yan JunJie, Zhang
Lei and Liu Xiao
Henry Buchtel
Raina Tsuda
Society for Acupuncture Research 2013 International Conference
st
Impact of Acupuncture Research on 21 Century Health Care
Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
KEY: F=Friday; S=Saturday; H=Henderson Room; K=Koessler Room; Number=Assigned Poster Order
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Saturday, April 20
Title
Authors
Evaluation of the National Acupuncture Detoxification
Association Protocol to Treat Combat Stress Induced
Insomnia
Treating Phlegm and Spleen Dampness Type Hyperplasia
of Mammary Glands by Indirect Moxibustion with
Electric Acupuncture
Combining Acupuncture and Paroxetine to Treat
Depression
The Effectiveness of Early Intervention for Treatment
Community Residents with Depression
Patterns of Acupuncture Licensure in the United States:
Growth and Change 1976-2011
The Effect of Low Frequency Electrical Stimulation at
BL62В·KI6 on P300 Activity in middle aged men and
women
Acupuncture’s Effect on Relieving Symptoms for PostRadiation Cystitis and Prostatitits
Comparison of Restrained and Unrestrained Rat Models
of Electro-acupuncture in Rats
Effect of Low-frequency Electrical Stimulation of the
Acupuncture Points BL62 and KI6 on the QEEG of Elderly
Women: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
Christine Cronin and Lisa Conboy
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Acupuncture for Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow):
Study Protocol for a Randomized, Practitioner-assessor
Blinded, Controlled Pilot Clinical Trial
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Acupuncture and Moxibustion for Peripheral Facial Palsy
at Different Stages: Multi-Central Large Sample
Randomized Controlled Trial
Factors Associate with Utilization of Herbal Medicine:
Evidence from 5 Years Inpatient Records in Traditional
Chinese Medicine Hospitals in China
Factors Associate with Utilization of Herbal Medicine:
Evidence from 5 Years Inpatient Records in TCM
Hospitals in China Systematic Review: Comparative
Effectiveness between Xiaoke Pill and Glibenclamide for
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
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Sihan Wang, Xuehong Ma, Yuanzheng Wang,
Zhuo Guo, Xinjing Yang, Linlin Sun and Ya Tu
Zhuo Guo, Xueqin Yang, Sihan Wang, Xinjing
Yang, Linlin Sun and Ya Tu
Tim Chapman
Kwang-Ho Choi, Min Yoo, Seong Jin Cho, O
Sang Kwon, Sanghun Lee, Sun Hee Yeon,
Sun-Mi Choi and Yeonhee Ryu
Elisabete Alves-de-Souza
Haolin Zhang, Lixing Lao and Ming Yi
Sanghun Lee, Kwang-Ho Choi, Sae-Bhom
Lee, O Sang Kwon, Seong Jin Cho, Sun-Hee
Yeon, Sun-Mi Choi, Kwon Eui Hong and
Yeon-Hee Ryu
Kyungmin Shin and Sunmi Choi, Kyung-Min
Shin1, Joo-Hee Kim, Seunghoon Lee, Mi-Suk
Shin, Hyo-Ju Park, Min-Hee Lee , Seungdeok
Lee and Sun-Mi Choi
Ying Li, Yan Li, Li-An Liu, Ling Zhao, Ka-Ming
Hu, Xi Wu, Xiao-Qin Chen, Gui-Ping Li, Wei
Zhang and Qi-Hua Qi
Chao Liu, Cheng Xu, Gordon Liu and Yitao
Wang
Chao Liu
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What Actually Constitute Acupoints? Evidence from
Moxibustion Research
Acupuncture for a Variety of Indications Has a Positive
Effect on Academic Performance in Children
Practice Management in Acupuncture and Oriental
Medicine: a Survey Study
A Pilot Study of Changes in Vision following Acupuncture
for Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients
Ming Yi
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Acupuncture for Patients with Vertebral Compression
Fractures: A Systematic Review
Acupuncture for Melasma in Women: A Systematic
Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
The Acupuncture Therapy of Childhood Autism (Review)
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“Be Still my Beating Heart” Effective Acupuncture
Treatment for Cardiac Syndrome-x: Palpitations in
Premenopausal Women, A Comprehensive Review of
Classical and Modern Literature and Recommended
Therapy
How Does Acupuncture Regulate the Milieu Interne of
Human Body
Acupressure for Anxiety in Pre-hospital Transport
Settings: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis
Development of an Evidence-based Clinical Decisionmaking Support System in Acupuncture
Acupuncture and Moxibustion Clinical Trials in China –
an Update
Topographic-Physiological Acupuncture by
Polyneuropathy
Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnostic
Categories for Breast Cancer Survivors with Symptom
Distress
A Comparison of Utilization of Primary Care Services by
Refugees Before, During and After Six Months of
Acupuncture Treatment: a Descriptive Report Measured
in Total Charges
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Demet TaЕџ and H. Volkan Acar
Timothy Suh
Ava Bittner, Jeffrey Gould, Gislin Dagnelie,
Alexandra Benavente, Collin Rozanski,
Robert DeJong and Andy Rosenfarb
Seung Hee Noh, Kun Hyung Kim, Byung Ryul
Lee, Yuri Kim and Gi young Yang
Yutong Fei, Hong Yang, Huijuan Cao,
Qianyun Chai and Jianping Liu
Yi-wen Li and Rong Zhang
Ineke van den Berg and Saskia van der
Schans-Toussaint
Wei-bo Zhang, Yu-ying Tian and Shu-yong Jia
Seung-Hun Cho, Eui-Ju Lee and Jung-Hee
Yoo
Yulan Ren, Yan Gao, XI Wu, Hongpin Shu and
Fanrong Liang
Baoyan Liu
Antonius Pollmann
Lorna Lee, Adam Schreiber, Christina
Seluzicki, Susan Li and Jun Mao
Ellen Silver Highfield, Mckenna Longacre,
Alan Sager and Michael Grodin
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A Retrospective Chart Review Comparing Two
Acupuncture Protocols on the Day of in Vitro
Fertilization Embryo Transfer: Do the Points Matter?
Using Static Balance as a Main Index to Evaluate the
Effectiveness of Convalescence Ischemic Apoplexy in
Acupuncture Patients
Current Status and Future Prospects of Acupuncture
Utilization in Palliative Care of Mongolia
A Pilot Study on the Efficacy of 10.6Ојm - 650nm
Combined Laser Acupuncture on Different TCM Patterns
of Knee Osteoarthritis
Intern Delivered Acupuncture for Pain Management: An
Observational Study
Lee Hullender Rubin, Michael Opsahl, Klaus
Wiemer, LaTasha Craig and Deborah
Ackerman
Chunyan Chen
Corresponding Points of Korean Hand Acupuncture is
Useful Method for Diagnosis and Treatment
Gold Acupuncture Model and Mirco-Meridian
Acupuncture Model of Korean Hand Acupuncture are
used instead of Body Acupuncture Points for Treatment
Coping Strategy for Electroacupuncture Stimulation
Modulates Pressure Pain Threshold in Passive Trait
Subjects
Dissociation of Somatosensory Stimulation and Needling
Credibility in Acupuncture with Sensory threshold and
Autonomic Response
A Standardized Acupuncture Protocol For the Treatment
of Wasting Syndrome in HIV+ Males: A Case Study
Acupuncture for Behavior and Psychological Symptoms
of Dementia: Phaseв… Clinical Trial
Improvements in Quality of Life in Anxious Depressive
Syndromes Treated in Acupuncture in Pitigliano Hospital
Center of Integrated Medicine (Tuscany - Italy)
Regulation of Cerebral Regional Homogeneity Exerted by
Puncturing Hao-Yang Acupoints for Migraine Patients
Acupuncture for Post-Mastectomy Pain
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Enkhtuya Vankhuu
Li-Zhen Wang, Fan Wu, Xueyong Shen, Ling
Zhao, Haiping Deng and Lixing Lao
Benjamin Marx, Tom Brunagh, Pam Johnson,
Jesse Liberty, Grace Peters, Jamie Varela and
Deborah Ackerman
Kyu-Hyun Park, Tae-Ho Kang, Hyun-Woo Kim
and Tae-Woo Yoo
Kyu-Hyun Park, Tae-Ho Kang, Hyun-Woo Kim
and Tae-Woo Yoo
Jeungchan Lee and Kyungmo Park
Jeungchan Lee, Jun-Hwan Lee, Vitaly
Napadow and Kyungmo Park
Larry Langowski, PhD and Timothy Suh, LAc
Chao-Ting Zhao, Jia-Guo Luo, Hai-Yan Yin,
Ling Luo, Fang Zeng, Shu-Guang Yu and Yong
Tang
Cecilia Lucenti, Franco Cracolici, Massimo
Rinaldi, Roberto Pulcri, Rosaria Ferreri and
Simonetta Bernardini
Lei Lan and Fan-rong Liang
Eduardo Guilherme D'Alessandro, Rebeca
Boltes Cecatto, Maira Saul, Christina May
Moran Brito, Jose Antonio Atta and Chin An
Lin
Society for Acupuncture Research 2013 International Conference
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Acupuncture Use for Wellness: Comparative Findings
from National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2007 and
an AOM Teaching Clinic
Effects of Acupuncture on Life of Quality in Patients with
Breast Cancer Treated with Tamoxifen or Aromatase
Inhibitors
Who Uses a Student Acupuncture Clinic: Demographic
and MYMOP Symptom Results
Factors Associated with Likelihood to Use Acupuncture
among Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy
Dawn Upchurch, Bethany Wexler Rainisch
and Deborah Ackerman
Minding the Gap: Using Principles of Participatory Action
Research to Develop Clinically Robust Acupuncture
Treatment Manuals for Pragmatic Trials
Children, Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA)
Undergoing Treatment for Cancer Perceive Benefits to
Acupuncture Therapy
How Effective Are Hinaishin Needles at Kidney 27
Following A Regular Acupuncture Treatment in the
Treatment of Morning Sickness?
Acupuncture for the Treatment of Patients in Palliative
Care
Using Acupuncture to Encourage Community Wellness in
Uganda
Clinical Observation on Treatment of Pain with Bo's
abdominal Acupuncture
Acupuncture Healing for Collagen Induced Arthritis
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Department: A Case Series on Patients’ Experience and
Clinical Outcome
Progress Of Brazilian Acupuncture Research over the
Two Past Decades: A Bibliometric Analysis
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Primary Hypertension Treatment Using Plum Blossom
Needle Hammer Therapy
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Jen-Hwey Chiu, Yi-Hsien Lin, Yen-Wen Peng,
Chin-Hwei Tsu and Fang-Pei Chen
Kai Yin Hsu and Lisa Conboy
Jun Mao, Eitan Frankel, Brigitte Hurtubise,
Tiffany Tan, Paula Morzenti and Krupali
Desai
Claudia Citkovitz, Belinda Anderson, Kell
Julliard and Volker Scheid
Hanna Moisander-Joyce, Michelle Bombacie,
Elena Ladas, Katherine Taromina, Diane
Rooney, Sagar Chokshi and Kara Kelly
Coleen Smith
Melissa Romeo and Lisa Conboy
Kathia Kirschner, Richard Mandel and Lisa
Conboy
Dongmei Liu, Zhi Yun Bo, Andrew Shen,
James Ho, Lu Liu, Jian Yuan Jiang, Megan
Hah, Barry Morguelan and Jonathan Wu
Dr. Sumita Satarkar
Shiu-Lin Tsai, Alexander Glick, Yaffa Vitberg
and Alexander Rialdi
Ari Ojeda Ocampo MorГ©, Shih Min Li, JoГЈo
Bosco Guerreiro da Silva and Charles
Dalcanale Tesser
Frank Yurasek and Brett Martin
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Teaching Acupuncture: The Brazilian Medical Residency
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Using the Eight Extraordinary Vessels for Treatment of
Psychoemotional Conditions: A Mixed Method Case
Series Approach
JГ©ssica Maria Costi, JoГЈo Bosco G. Silva, Li
Shih Min, Ari O. O. MorГ© and AndrГ© Luis
Hokama
Yvonne Farrell and Dawn Upchurch
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ORAL ABSTRACTS
(listed in alphabetical order by abstract title)
A Randomized Comparative Effectiveness Clinical Trial of Acupuncture as an Adjunctive Therapy in
Patients with Depression
Linlin Sun, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Xuehong Ma, Dongfang Hospital, the second clinical medical college of
Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Xinjing Yang, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Sihan Wang, Beijing University
of Chinese Medicine; Zhuo Guo, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Huifang Ma, Beijing University of Chinese
Medicine; Fengxian Meng, Dongfang Hospital, the second clinical medical college of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine;
Tuya , Beijing University of Chinese Medicine
Purpose: To determine whether acupuncture plus the antidepressant paroxetine is more effective than paroxetine alone
in patients with depression Methods: Outpatients with depression (n=88) were randomly divided into three groups: 1)
manual acupuncture plus paroxetine (n=25); 2) electroacupuncture (EA) plus paroxetine (n=28); 3) paroxetine alone
(n=35). Treatments were given for 6 weeks: manual acupuncture and EA (30 minutes every other day); paroxetine
(10mg/day for the first two days, 20mg/day from the third day onward). The Hamilton Depression (HAMD) and Zung SelfRating Depression (SDS) scales assessed treatment effect at weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6. The Side Effects Rating Scale (SERS)
was given at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6. HAMD was given at follow up in week 10. Analyses included Intention-To-Treat (ITT) and
Per-Protocol subjects (PP).
Results: The scales showed no differences among the groups at baseline (P>0.05). The acupuncture groups scored
significantly better on HAMD than did medicine alone at each time point (P<0.05); there were no statistically significant
differences between the acupuncture groups. (See Fig. 1.) The acupuncture groups scored significantly better on SDS than
did the paroxetine group at weeks 4 and 6 (P<0.05). The acupuncture groups scored significantly lower on SERS than did
the paroxetine group at weeks 2, 4, and 6 (P<0.05).
Conclusions: Our small-scale comparative effectiveness clinical trial indicates that acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy
for patients with depression may be both safe and more effective than pharmaceuticals alone.
Acupuncture and Other Physical Treatments for the Relief of Chronic Pain Due to Osteoarthritis of
the Knee: Network Meta-Analysis
Hugh MacPherson, University of York; Mark Corbett, University of York; Stephen Rice, University of York; Vichithranie
Madurasinghe, Perinatal Institute; Russell Slack, University of York; Alex J Sutton Alex J Sutton, University of Leicester;
Melissa Harden, University of York; Nerys Woolacott, University of York
Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of acupuncture with other relevant physical treatments for alleviating pain due to
osteoarthritis of the knee, where treatment is additional or alternative to pharmacological analgesics.
Methods: We conducted a network meta-analysis combining both direct (within-trial) and indirect (between-trial)
evidence, such that all treatments were compared equally with each other, standard care, placebo, or no treatment, and
which reported pain as an outcome. Data were pooled where there was sufficient clinical homogeneity. Analyses were
conducted using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation to estimate model parameters following a Bayesian approach.
Results: Of 138 eligible studies, 87 trials covering 22 different treatments and 6753 patients provided data suitable for
analysis. Results showed that only six interventions, acupuncture, aerobic exercise, interferential therapy, musclestrengthening exercise, pulsed electrical stimulation, and TENS produced a statistically significant reduction in pain when
compared with standard care. A majority of trials were rated as being of poor quality. Of the above six interventions, only
acupuncture and muscle-strengthening exercise were represented by more than one trial in a sensitivity analysis of the
better-quality studies; both interventions were statistically significantly better than standard care (8 trials of acupuncture,
SMD: -1.01, 95% credible interval -1.42 to -0.62; 7 trials of muscle-strengthening exercise, SMD: -0.38, 95% credible
interval -0.74 to -0.02) with acupuncture being statistically significantly better than muscle-strengthening exercise (SMD:
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0.64, 95% credible interval 0.13 to 1.15). The results for both these interventions were consistent across both the main
and sensitivity analyses.
Conclusions: The first network meta-analysis of physical interventions for knee pain due to osteoarthritis indicates that
acupuncture appears to be the treatment most likely to produce a clinically relevant effect in alleviating pain in the shortterm.
Acupuncture in a Managed Care Program: Evaluating Clinical Outcomes, Member Satisfaction, and
Costs of Care
Elizabeth Sommers, Boston University School of Public Health; Marilyn Moro-Carrion, Boston University School of Public
Health; Maya Rauth, Boston University School of Public Health
A community health center and clinic specializing in acupuncture partnered with a large managed care organization to
determine whether acupuncture treatment might influence clinical outcomes and costs of care for patients referred for
the following conditions: pain, headache, menstrual or menopausal symptoms, carpal tunnel syndrome. Members of the
managed care organization were referred through their physicians. Results of the project’s first 5 years of this ongoing
project will be presented.
Data for this observational assessment were collected on demographics, health history, clinical outcomes, satisfaction,
and associated costs. All patients received individualized acupuncture treatments provided by licensed acupuncturists
according to standards of care. Data were collected on 488 individuals. Three hundred eighty-two (78%) were female,
47% were Hispanic/Latino, 13% were African-American, and mean age was 39 years. Of these, 73% were referred for pain,
16% for headache, 6% for menstrual symptoms, 2% for menopausal symptoms, and 2% for carpal tunnel syndrome. Mean
reduction in pain severity based on a 10-point Likert scale was 1.88 (p < 0.0001). Mood, sleep, ability to work improved (p
< 0.0001) although quality of life as indicated by SF1 did not appreciably change (p = 0.08). Headache intensity levels were
significantly reduced by 2.9 on a 10-point Likert scale (p < 0.0001) as was quality of life (p = 0.009). Women receiving
acupuncture for menstrual difficulties reported reductions in cramps (p =0.001), insomnia (p = 0.018) and edema (p =
0.003). Preliminary cost estimates suggest a decrease in other healthcare costs ($40/member/month) and increased
likelihood that individuals who received acupuncture continued their membership in the managed care plan.
Preliminary results indicate that offering acupuncture in a community health setting is acceptable and desirable by
patients and physicians. Favorable clinical and cost-of-care outcomes were observed in this ongoing project.
Acupuncture in Patients with Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis – Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Benno Brinkhaus, Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Economics, CharitГ© University Medical Center,
Berlin; Miriam Ortiz, Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Economics, CharitГ© University Medical Center,
Berlin; Claudia M Witt, Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Economics, CharitГ© University Medical
Center, Berlin; Stephanie Roll, Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Economics, CharitГ© University
Medical Center, Berlin; Klaus Linde, Institute of General Practice, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München,
Munich; Florian Pfab, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Technische Universität München, Munich; Bodo
Niggemann, Pediatric Allergology and Pneumology, German Red Cross Hospital Westend, Berlin International; Josef
Hummelsberger, Society for Chinese Medicine (Societas Medicinae Sinensis, SMS), Munich; AndrГЎs Treszl, Department of
Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, University Medical Center Eppendorf, Hamburg; Johannes Ring, Department of
Dermatology and Allergy, Technische Universität München, Munich; Torsten Zuberbier, Department of Dermatology and
Allergology, CharitГ© University Medical Center, Berlin; Johannes Ring, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology,
University Medical Center Eppendorf, Hamburg; Stefan Willich, Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health
Economics, CharitГ© University Medical Center, Berlin
Background: Acupuncture is widely used to treat seasonal allergic rhinitis but the scientific evidence is insufficient. The
aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of acupuncture in seasonal allergic rhinitis.
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Method: Three-group randomized, controlled trial involving 422 patients suffering from seasonal allergic rhinitis (60%
woman), mean (SD) age 33 (8) years, with clinical symptoms and IgE-sensitization to birch and grass pollen. Duration of
follow-up was 3 months in the first and 8 weeks in the second year. The study interventions were acupuncture plus rescue
medication (RM, Cetirizine) (n=212), sham acupuncture plus RM (n=102) or Rescue Medication alone (n=108).
Acupuncture and sham acupuncture were administered by 46 specialized physicians in 6 hospital and 32 private
outpatient clinics and consisted of 12 sessions per patient over 8 weeks. Primary outcome parameters were the Rhinitis
Quality of Life Questionnaire overall score (RQLQ) and the RM Score (RMS) in weeks 7 and 8 post randomization. Duration
of follow-up was 16 weeks in the first and 8 weeks in the second year without further treatment in both acupuncture
groups.
Results: Compared to sham acupuncture and to RM, acupuncture was associated with improvement in RQLQ (mean
differences to sham 0.5, 97.5%CI 0.2-0.8, p<0.001, and to RM 0.7, 0.4-1.0, p<0.001) and lower RMS (mean differences 1.1,
0.4-1.9, p<0.001, and 1.5, 0.8-2.2, p<0.001, respectively). There were no differences after 16 weeks in the first year. After
the 8-week follow-up phase in the second year acupuncture was again superior to sham acupuncture (mean differences
RQLQ 0.3, 95%CI 0.03-0.6, p=0.032; and to RMS 1.0, 95%CI 0.2-1.9, p=0.018).
Conclusion: Acupuncture led to improvements in disease-specific quality of life and antihistamine intake after 8 weeks of
treatment compared to sham acupuncture and to rescue medication alone in the first and second year.
Acupuncture Sensation without Acupuncture - What is the Physiological Basis?
Florian Beissner, University Hospital Jena, Pain & Autonomics - Integrative Research; Maria Fink, University Hospital Jena,
Pain & Autonomics - Integrative Research; Irene Marzolff, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Institute for Physical Geography;
Franziska Brunn, University Hospital Jena, Pain & Autonomics - Integrative Research
Purpose: A central concept of TCM theory explaining the effectiveness of acupuncture is that of meridians (chin.:
“jingluo”), channel-like structures that traverse the body and are believed to circulate an immaterial substance called qi.
After five decades of fruitless search for a corresponding anatomical correlate of these entities, there is unlikely to be one.
Still, there is one good reason to believe in meridians: The patterns of acupuncture sensation. Here, we present the results
of three different studies investigating patterns of acupuncture sensation (chin.: "deqi").
Methods: In the first study, we used laser acupuncture under sensory deprivation to study the spatial aspect of sensation
patterns. Using a geographic information system on subjects' drawings of their sensations, we compared these to patterns
of referred pain from the literature. In the second study, we tested the importance of attention on the stimulated point,
tactile stimulation and laser stimulation for the elicitation of the acupuncture sensation by manipulating each factor in a
2x2x2 single-blinded experimental design. In the third study, we tested if acupuncture sensations would also occur under
pure placebo condition. For this purpose, the laser was left switched off during the whole experiment.
Results: GIS analysis showed a close similarity between acupuncture sensation patterns and those of referred pain. This
was true for all three experiments. Sensations were more frequent, when actual laser stimulation was taking place, but
very similar patterns, qualities and intensities of the sensation were also observed
under complete placebo conditions.
Conclusions: Acupuncture sensation may be unrelated to acupuncture stimulation and may be a phenomenon of directed
attention leading to perception of otherwise sub-threshold tonic activity of peripheral touch, pain and warm receptors.
Acupuncture-induced Molecular Signaling Pathway in Mouse Skin Layer
Ji-Yeun Park, Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center(AMSRC), Kyung Hee University, Republic of Korea;
Songhee Jeon, Dongguk University Research Institute of Biotechnology, Republic of Korea; Jongbae Park, Department of
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA; Younbyoung Chae, Acupuncture and
Meridian Science Research Center (AMSRC), Kyung Hee University, Republic of Korea; Hyangsook Lee, Acupuncture and
Meridian Science Research Center (AMSRC), Kyung Hee University, Republic of Korea; Hyejung Lee, Acupuncture and
Meridian Science Research Center (AMSRC), Kyung Hee University, Republic of Korea; Hi-Joon Park, Acupuncture and
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Meridian Science Research Center (AMSRC), Kyung Hee University, Republic of Korea
Aim of Investigation: Although acupuncture has been widely used as a therapeutic intervention, it is still unclear how
acupuncture causes therapeutic effects. To clarify the acupuncture mechanism scientifically, it is required to observe the
molecular event at the acupuncture point on the skin after acupuncture stimulation. The objective of this study is to find a
correlation between local molecular changes in the skin layer after acupuncture stimulation and the therapeutic effects of
acupuncture.
Methods : Acupuncture stimulation was performed on acupuncture point of C57BL/6 mice. Molecular changes in RNA
level were analyzed using cDNA microarray 1 hour after the stimulation. In addition, molecular changes after acupuncture
stimulation were analyzed using western blot and histological analyses in protein level. Then, the linking between
analgesic effects of acupuncture and molecular changes in the skin layer was investigated using mouse pain model.
Results : In cDNA microarray, about 200 genes were changed compared to control group after acupuncture stimulation. In
up-regulated genes, some pathways were mapped significantly. After acupuncture stimulation, molecular signals related
to MAPK signaling pathway were increased, and we also obtained similar result in histological analysis. In mouse pain
model, acupuncture stimulation attenuated nociceptive response, and this effect was partially blocked by MAPK inhibitor.
Conclusions : Molecular signals from acupuncture stimulation in skin layer seem to play an important role for the analgesic
effects of acupuncture stimulation.
Adjuvant Whole Systems Traditional Chinese Medicine Improved Fresh, Non-Donor in Vitro
Fertilization – A Retrospective Chart Review
Lee Hullender Rubin, Oregon College of Oriental Medicine; Michael Opsahl, Northwest Center for Reproductive Sciences;
Klaus Wiemer, Northwest Center for Reproductive Sciences; Angela Humphrey, Oregon College of Oriental Medicine;
Patrick Allen, Oregon College of Oriental Medicine; Scott Mist, Oregon Health and Science University; Deborah Ackerman,
Oregon College of Oriental Medicine
Background: Surveys suggest in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients seek unproven adjuvant treatments to their IVF cycles,
including whole systems traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM treatment can include acupuncture, Chinese herbs,
dietary and/or lifestyle recommendations, however research is needed to evaluate these components’ effects on IVF live
birth outcomes. In this study, live births were compared among IVF patients who (1)received usual care, (2)elected
standardized acupuncture before and after embryo transfer (ET), or (3)elected TCM pre-treatment and acupuncture the
day of ET.
Methods: Data from records of 1,069 fresh, non-donor cycles from a private infertility clinic were reviewed. The main
outcome measure was live birth beyond 24 weeks gestation. Live births were compared among: (1)Usual Care group (UC)
received no additional treatment(N=580); (2)Acupuncture (Acu) group elected adjuvant acupuncture before and after
ET(N=370); and (3)TCM group elected treatment prior to ET, which included acupuncture, Chinese herbs, dietary and/or
lifestyle recommendations, and acupuncture on the day of ET(N=119). Outcomes were compared using logistic regression
with covariates of FSH, age and number of embryos transferred.
Results: Live births were significantly higher in the TCM group (N=73, 61.3%) than the UC group (N=280, 48.3%, p=0.01)
but not the Acu group (N=188, 50.8%, p=0.39). In the TCM group, the mean number of acupuncture visits prior to ET was
12.0 ± 12.4 (1 – 73). TCM with acupuncture on the day of ET was associated with a 73% increased odds of live birth than
either UC or Acu alone (OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.16 – 2.60, p=0.008).
Conclusion: Whole systems TCM pre-treatment prior to ET and acupuncture on the day of ET significantly improved live
births in fresh, non-donor IVF cycles. This preliminary finding should be taken cautiously as adequately powered,
randomized controlled trials are necessary to confirm this observation.
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Altered Brain Response to Acupuncture after a Course of Acupuncture Therapy for CTS Is Associated
with Analgesia
Yumi Maeda, Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital/ Logan College of Chiropractic /
University Programs; Jieun Kim, Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital; Stephen Cina,
Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital; Claire McManus, Spaulding Rehabilitation
Hospital; Cristina Malatesta, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital; Pia Mezzacappa, Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging,
Massachusetts General Hospital; Leslie Morse, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital; Jessica Gerber, Martinos Center for
Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital; Rebecca Ogn-Sutherland, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital; Norman
Kuttner, Logan College of Chiropractic / University Programs; Joseph Audette, Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates; Vitaly
Napadow, Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital/ Logan College of Chiropractic /
University Programs
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common entrapment neuropathy. While brain response to acupuncture stimuli has
been well characterized in healthy adults, the response in patients with chronic pain disorders such as CTS is less well
understood. Moreover, how this response changes after a longitudinal course of acupuncture therapy and is related to
clinical outcomes are also unknown. CTS patients (N=13, 8F) were evaluated with functional MRI (fMRI) during
acupuncture stimulation at baseline and after 8 weeks of 16 acupuncture treatments. FMRI data were acquired using a
gradient echo T2*-weighted pulse sequence on a 3.0T Siemens Trio. Electro-acupuncture was applied at PC7 to TW5 on
the affected forearm using an event-related design (2-sec stimulation with randomized ISI, 6-12sec, total=5min6sec). A
paired t-test contrasted acupuncture response at baseline versus after a longitudinal course of therapy. Results were voxel
threshold at z>2.3, and cluster corrected for multiple comparisons at p<0.05. Short-term pain reduction at the time of
scan was evaluated with VAS (0-10), while long-term pain reduction after 8weeks of therapy was evaluated with the
Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTSQ, 1-5).
Acupuncture activated bilateral insulae, S2, ACC, thalamus and NRD/PAG, and deactivated ipsilateral S1 and MPFC.
Activation in ACC was significantly greater after 8weeks of therapy compared to baseline. Acupuncture produced shortterm and long-term reduction of pain (-1.2В±1.6, -0.9В±1.0, p<0.05, respectively). Furthermore, activation in ACC at the
baseline and final were negatively correlated with pain reduction (r= -0.49, -0.57, respectively). Altered ACC activation
following 8weeks of therapy was correlated with long-term pain reduction (r=0.45).
A longitudinal course of acupuncture therapy increased acupuncture-associated activation in the NRD/PAG, suggesting
that repeated acupuncture strengthens NRD/PAG-mediated descending pain modulation. Altered ACC activation following
therapy may play a role in improved clinical outcomes following acupuncture.
Auricular Acupressure Reduces Anxiety Levels and Improves Outcomes of in Vitro Fertilization: A
Prospective, Randomized and Controlled Study
Fan Qu, Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, China. 310006; Dan Zhang, Women’s Hospital, School
of Medicine, Zhejiang University, China; He-Feng Huang, Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, China
The study was to explore whether auricular acupressure (AA) can relieve anxiety during the period from trans-vaginal
oocyte retrieval to the embryo transfer in IVF treatment and whether AA can improve the outcomes of IVF. 305 infertile
patients with tubal blockage who were referred for IVF were included. The women were randomized into a control group
with 102 cases, a Sham-AA group with 102 cases and an AA group with 101 cases. The anxiety levels were rated with
Spielberger’s State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale. The levels of
neuropeptide Y (NPY) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in the follicular fluids were detected with ELISA.
After treatment, in AA group, the levels of state anxiety, preoperative anxiety and need-for-information were significantly
lower, whereas clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), implantation rate (IR), live birth rate (LBR) and NPY levels in the follicular
fluids were markedly higher than Sham-AA group and control group. No significant differences on TGF-alpha levels in
follicular fluids among the three groups. It is the concluded that AA could help to reduce anxiety levels associated with IVF
and improves the outcomes of IVF partly through increasing the levels of NPY in the follicular fluids.
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Benefits of Combined Treatment of L-dopa with Acupuncture on Parkinson's Disease Mouse Model
Seung-Nam Kim, AMSRC; Ah-Reum Doo, AMSRC; Ji-Yeun Park, AMSRC; Insop Shim, AMSRC; Younbyoung Chae, AMSRC;
Hyejung Lee, AMSRC; Hi-Joon Park, AMSRC
Parkinson’s disease is characterized by dopaminergic neuronal death and dopamine deficits in midbrain. Although it has
serious adverse events, L-dopa is the gold standard to treat early Parkinson’s patients for mitigating their motor
dysfunction. Acupuncture treatment has been studied to be a good alternative therapy for Parkinson’s disease in two
aspects, dopamine neuron protection and dopamine transmission enhancement. In this study, we firstly tried to study the
effectiveness of combined treatment of L-dopa with acupuncture treatment. 6-OHDA was administered to C57Bl/6 mice
to develop hemi-Parkinsonian mice model. Then, we found that a 50% dose of L-dopa was needed in combination therapy
to have the same efficacy on motor function recovery. In the results on L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID), which is one of
the serious adverse events of L-dopa, combination therapy showed significant alleviation of abnormal involuntary
movement induced by LID. We examined HPLC analysis of midbrain for investigating what is the mechanism of this
therapeutic effect. As the results, combined therapy significantly decreased GABA contents in substantia nigra compared
to L-dopa treatment. Interestingly, with the low dose, which is ineffective to motor function, combination therapy
improved motor function and normalized GABA and glutamate contents. All of the results showed that combination
therapy enhances the force of drug and mitigates LID by normalizing basal ganglia system. This study shows the efficacy of
novel method, which is more effective and safe treatment of L-dopa, that is combined with acupuncture treatment. And
the results give us the understanding therapeutic mechanism of L-dopa and acupuncture underlying basal ganglia system.
Central Mechanism of Instant Analgesia Effect of Aupoints on Shao-Yang Meridians to Migraine
Patients
Jie Yang, Acupuncture and Tuina School, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Yue Feng, Acupuncture and
Tuina School, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Fang Zeng, Acupuncture and Tuina School, Chengdu
University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Ji Chen, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Yu-Lan Ren,
Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Fan-Rong Liang, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Objective: To observe the changes of cerebral glucose metabolism by puncturing at the acupoints on the shaoyang
meridian for migraine patients in the attack stage and explore the central mechanism of instant analgesic effect of
puncturing at acupoints on the shaoyang meridian for migraine patients.
Methods: 20 patients who matched the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into 2 groups: Group A: acupuncture
acupoints on the shaoyang meridian once (GB20,SJ5,GB34); Group B was waiting-list group. Headache intensity grading
and VAS were assessed before and after acupuncture treatment to observe instant analgesic effect of puncturing at
different acupoints. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) was performed to detect the cerebral
glucose metabolism among 40 patients after the first administration of puncturing. Then the difference among them was
analyzed by SPM2, which was used to discuss the central mechanism of instant analgesic effect of puncturing at acupoints
on the shaoyang meridian for migraine patients.
Results: Compared to the GroupB, the patients in Group A showed increased glucose metabolism in
Middle Temporal (BA 17), Insula (BA 13), Medial Frontal (BA 9,10), Precuneus (BA31,39), ACC (BA32), MCC (BA31) е’ЊPCC
(BA23 31); decreased glucose metabolism in Left Hippocampus, Parahippocampal Gyrus, Fusiform Gyrus (BA18,19),
Postcentral Gyrus(BA2) and Cerebellum.
Conclusions: The effect of puncturing at the acupoints on the shaoyang meridian could influence the regions related with
pain, including Middle Cingulate Gyrus, Posterior Cingulate Gyrus, Insula, Hippocampus, and
Parahippocampal Gyrus, etc.
Do Negative Attitudes about Acupuncture Account for Non-use? Findings from the National Health
Interview Survey (NHIS) 2007
Dawn Upchurch, UCLA; Bethany Wexler Rainisch, California State University, Northridge; Deborah Ackerman, Oregon
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College of Oriental Medicine
Purpose: National prevalence estimates of acupuncture use among adults, although increasing, are low. In 2007, 6.8%
reported lifetime use and only 1.5% reported use in the past 12 months. Compared to other provider-based CAM
modalities (e.g., chiropractic, massage), acupuncture is 6 times less prevalent. Clearly differences in the number of
practitioners available account for some of the variability; however, little national data are available to assess people’s
attitudes toward acupuncture. The goal of this study was to evaluate reasons for non-use of acupuncture among a group
of never and prior users. We were especially interested in understanding the extent to which negative attitudes
contributed to non-use.
Methods: Data were from the 2007 NHIS, a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of adults 18+ (N=23,393).
Never-users (N=21,002) and prior users (N=1,168) were asked a battery of questions regarding why acupuncture had not
be used. Weighted univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were performed to account for complex sample design
and provide national estimates.
Results: Among never-users, the most common reasons for non-use were �no reason’ (32.5%) or �didn’t need it’ (24.7%).
Another third mentioned they either did not know or thought about it. Specific negative attitudes (�don’t believe in it/it
doesn’t work’) or concerns about safety were in single digits (only 5.5% said they did not believe it worked). Concerns
about costs (2.2%) or medical proof (0.5%) were minimal. Findings were similar among prior users, although 17.7%
mentioned acupuncture had not worked for them. As expected, demographic characteristics were significantly associated
with acupuncture attitudes among both never and prior users.
Conclusions: Negative attitudes or scientific skepticism about acupuncture were not common reasons for non-use. These
findings suggest a need for continuing outreach and education to provide the community with information on possible
uses of acupuncture.
Doses of Caffeine Relevant to Dietary Human Intake Can Inhibit the Acupuncture-Induced Analgesia
Ari Ojeda Ocampo More, UFSC; Francisco Cidral-Filho, UFSC; Leidiane Mazzardo-Martins, UFSC; Daniel Martins, UFSC;
Francisney Nascimento, UFSC; Shin Min Li, UFSC; Adair Santos, UFSC
The use of acupuncture in the treatment of pain conditions has been extensively investigated. However, the influence of
dietary ingredients on acupuncture induced analgesia (AA) remains unexplored. Recently, the role of adenosine receptors
in AA has been shown, and caffeine, one of the world’s most commonly consumed dietary ingredients, is an antagonist of
these receptors. In this study, the post-incisional pain model was used to investigate caffeine’s influence on AA. Mice were
treated with acupuncture needling after administration of acute or chronic of caffeine. Acupuncture needling was
performed using two different types of stimuli, manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture bilaterally in the acupoint
SP6. We found that acute pre-administration of caffeine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) completely reversed AA in both types of
acupuncture. In the chronic pre-administration, we used two doses that mimicked the average daily caffeine consumption
in Western countries and China. Interestingly, the “Western dose” of caffeine (70 mg/kg/day) administered during eight
days in the drinking water reversed AA and the “Chinese dose” (4 mg/kg/day) administered during the same period did
not. These results indicate that the use of caffeine can inhibit the analgesic effect of different forms of acupuncture. Also,
our findings suggest that doses of caffeine relevant to dietary human intake levels could be a confounding factor in the
context of acupuncture research.
Effectiveness of Moxibustion Treatment as Adjunctive Therapy in Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A
Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Ling Zhao, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Fan Wu, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese
Medicine; Lizhen Wang, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Haimeng Zhang, Shanghai University of
Traditional Chinese Medicine; Haiping Deng, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China; Ke Cheng,
Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Xueyong Shen, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine;
Lixing Lao, University of Maryland School of Medicine
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Objective. To observe and assess the therapeutic effect, effectiveness, and safety of moxibustion on knee osteoarthritis
(KOA) caused pain, stiffness, and physical function.
Methods. One hundred and ten patients with KOA who met the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to receive
active (n=55) or sham moxibustion (n=55). The subjects received active or sham treatment at acupoint Neixiyan (EX-LE 4),
Dubi (ST 35), and Ashi points three times a week over a period of 6 weeks. For active treatment, three consecutive moxa
cones were burned at each point. Sham moxa cones were similarly applied for sham control. WOMAC VA 3.1, Western
Ontario and McMaster University’s Osteoarthritis Scale, was used to assess the effects of treatment at weeks 3, 6, 12, and
24.
Results. There were no statistical differences in WOMAC pain, stiffness, and function scores between two groups at the
baseline. WOMAC scores for pain, stiffness, and functional disabilities showed significant improvements in both groups at
3, 6, 12, and 24 wks compared to baseline (P<0.01пЅћP<0.001). WOMAC pain scores in the active moxibustion group at 6,
12, and 24 wks decreased more than did those in the sham group (P=0.004, P=0.03, P=0.023). WOMAC physical function
score improved more in the active group than in sham at wk 12 (P=0.031), but there were no significant differences in
WOMAC joint stiffness score between the two groups. No side effects were found during the trial.
Conclusion. Moxibustion is effective in relieving pain in KOA patients up to 18 weeks after the end of treatment. The
procedure appears to be safe.
Funding: This study was supported by 973 Program of China (2009CB522901), National Natural Science Foundation of
China (81202648), Key Program of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of China; Scientific and
Technological Brainstorm Project of Shanghai (11DZ1973300, 11ZR1436700).
Effects of a Topical Chinese Herbal Formula TLSJ Gel for Bone Cancer Pain in Rats
Juyong Wang, Longhua Hospital Affiliated to the Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Ruixin Zhang,
University of Maryland School of Medicine; Changsheng Dong, Longhua Hospital Affiliated to the Shanghai University of
Traditional Chinese Medicine; Liying Jiao, Longhua Hospital Affiliated to the Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese
Medicine; Ling Xu, Longhua Hospital Affiliated to the Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Jiyong Liu,
Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Zhengtao Wang, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine;
Qi Liang Mao Ying, ShanghaiMedicalCollege, FudanUniversity; Harry Fong, University of Illinois; Lixing Lao, University of
Maryland School of Medicine
Cancer pain can result from the direct effects of malignancy. Current pharmacological therapy has limited efficacy and
severe side effects. The herbal analgesic gel Tong-Luo-San-Jie (TLSJ) are used in traditional Chinese medicine to manage
cancer pain. However, its mechanisms are still unknown. A bone cancer pain rat model was used to investigate the effects
and mechanisms of TLSJ gel on bone cancer pain. The formulated gel was analyzed with ultra performance liquid
chromatography (UPLC) for quality control. The rat model was established by inoculating Walker 256 rat carcinoma cells
directly into the right tibial medullary cavity of Sprague-Dawley rats (150-170 g); PBS tibial inoculation was used as
control. Cancer-bearing rats were treated twice a day with external TLSJ gel (0.5 g/cm2/day) or inert gel for 21 days
(n=10/group). Mechanical threshold and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) were respectively assessed with von Frey
filaments and Hargreaves' Method. Osteoclastic activities, which are involved in bone metastasis-induced cancer pain,
were determined and carboxyterminal pyridinoline cross-linked type I collagen telopeptides (ICTP) and bone-specific
alkaline phosphatase (BAP) concentrations were detected with ELISA after treatment. Adverse effects were monitored,
and biochemical and histological tests were performed in naive rats treated with local TLSJ gel for six weeks. The data
demonstrate that TLSJ treatment significantly restored bone cancer-induced decrease of PWL and mechanical threshold
compared to inert gel. It also decreased the level of blood serum ICTP and BAP and inhibited osteoclast activities. No
adverse effects or abnormal biochemical and histological changes were detected after TLSJ treatment. The present study
shows that TLSJ significantly inhibits bone cancer-induced thermal and mechanical sensitization. It suggests that the gel
may be useful in managing cancer pain and that it may act by inhibiting osteoclastic activity. Supported by the NIH (No:
1R03TW008375-01A1) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No: 81173225).
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Effects of CO2 Laser Moxibustion on Different Patterns of Knee Osteoarthritis
Fan Wu, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Ling Zhao, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese
Medicine; Lizhen Wang, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Xiaoyan Liu, Shanghai University of
Traditional Chinese Medicine; Haimeng Zhang, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Lixing Lao, Center for
Integrative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine; Xueyong Shen, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese
Medicine
Objective: To compare the therapeutic effects of CO2 laser moxibustion on different patterns of knee osteoarthritis.
Methods: Eighty-four patients were allocated to three groups in accordance with TCM pattern identification, which were
pattern of yang deficiency and cold coagulation (Group A, n=33), pattern of kidney essence and marrow deficiency (Group
B, n=26) and pattern of stasis in tendon and bone (Group C, n=25). All patients were given CO2 laser moxibustion on ST-35
for 20 minutes’ treatment, thrice a week and 4 weeks in total. WOMAC VA 3.1 were used to assess the therapeutic effects
before, in the middle (2wk), at the end (4wk) of the treatment course and follow-up (4 weeks after the treatment).
Results: There was no significant difference among three groups in terms of WOMAC pain, stiffness and function scores
before treatment (P<0.05). No significant difference was found in pain scores among three groups at 2wk(P<0.05). At 4wk
and follow-up, Group A and Group C were equally effective (P>0.05) in pain relief and both were better than that of Group
B(P<0.05). Stiffness scores were equally improved at all stages of assessment in both Group A and Group C, which were
better than that of Group B(P<0.05). At 2wk, Group A was found better in improving function scores than that of Group B
and Group C (P<0.05), which were equally effective (P>0.05). At 4wk and follow-up, there was no significant difference in
function scores between Group A and Group C (P>0.05), both of which were better than that of Group B (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Based on our previous research, we found variable therapeutic effects among different TCM patterns of knee
osteoarthritis. CO2 laser moxibustion is most effective in KOA patients with pattern of yang deficiency and cold
coagulation and least effective in pattern of kidney essence and marrow deficiency.
Effects of Electroacupuncture at Neiguan (PC6) on Blood Pressure in Myocardial Infarction Rats
Hai ping Deng, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China, Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture &
Meridian, China; Xue Ge, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Hai meng Zhang, Shanghai University of
Traditional Chinese Medicine; Ling Zhao, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Xue yong Shen, Shanghai
University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China , Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture & Meridian, China; Haimeng
Zhang, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China, Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture & Meridian,
China
To observe the effect of electroacupuncture at Neiguan on blood pressure in myocardial infarction rats, male SD rats
(weighing 250-300g) were randomly divided into electroacupuncture group, model group and control group. In
electroacupuncture group and model group, the myocardial infarction model were established by permanent ligation of
the left anterior descending (LAD) of left coronary artery. In control group, rats were underwent the same operation
except the ligation of LAD. In electroacupuncture group , rats were treated 30 min/d for consecutive 5d with EA at both
“Neiguan” after the day of the operation. 2-15 Hz , 1-4mA. In model group and control group, rats were placed as the
same mode as the electroacupuncture group. ECG had been recorded before and after the operation and after the
treatment. Using artery catheterization method for measuring femoral arterial and right carotid arterial systolic pressure,
diastolic pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and pulse pressure the day after the treatment ended. Results indicate
that Systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and pulse pressure of the femoral artery had no
statistics difference among the three groupsпј€P>0.05), and those of the right carotid artery of model group were lower
significantly than the control group (p<0.05), while those of the electroacupuncture group had no difference with the
control groupпј€P>0.05). As to the pulse pressure and the heart rate, there were no statistics significance among the three
groupsпј€P>0.05).Those results suggested that electroacupuncture at Neiguan play a role on the improvement of systolic
pressure, diastolic pressure, mean arterial blood pressure of the right carotid artery in myocardial infarction rats.
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This study was supported by 973 Program of China (2009CB522901), National Natural Science Foundation of China
(81102635пјЊ81202648), Key Program of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of China; Scientific and
Technological Brainstorm Project of Shanghai (11DZ1973300, 11ZR1436700).
Electroacupuncture Inhibits Spinal P-CAMKII to Suppress Chemotherapy-induced Pain in Rats
Lixing Lao, Center for Integrative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Maryland; Lizhen Wang, Shanghai University
of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Yu Zhang, Department of Neurobiology, Shanxi Medical University; Aihui Li, Center for
Integrative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Maryland; Ke Ren, Department of Neural and Pain Sciences, Dental
School,University of Maryland; Brian Berman, Center for Integrative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Maryland;
Ming Tan, Division of Biostatistics, University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center; Rui-Xin Zhang, Center for
Integrative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Maryland
Chemotherapy-induced pain (CIP) affects the quality of life of cancer patients, but current medical treatments are either
ineffective or have adverse side effects. Acupuncture, used for millennia to treat pain, may alleviate CIP, but its
effectiveness against this condition has not previously been studied. We evaluated the effects of electroacupuncture (EA)
on a Paclitaxel-induced CIP rat model. Either Paclitaxel, an anti-neoplastic agent widely used to treat cancer that causes
neuropathic pain in cancer patients, or vehicle was injected (2 mg/kg/ml i.p.) into respective groups of rats on alternate
days (days 0, 2, 4 and 6) after baseline assessment of mechanical sensitivity with von Frey filaments. The rats were treated
with 10 Hz/2 mA/0.4 ms pulse EA for 30 min at the equivalent of human acupoint GB30 (Huantiao). Compared to sham
control, EA significantly alleviated Paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia, as shown by less frequent
withdrawal responses to the filaments; the effects lasted for three weeks after treatment. EA did not significantly influence
mechanical sensitivity in rats receiving vehicle. Analysis showed that EA significantly inhibited phosphorylation of
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II (CaMKII) in the spinal cord. KN-93, a selective inhibitor of p-CaMKII, blocked
mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia as well as the enzyme. Additionally, intrathecal pretreatment with a 5-HT1a receptor
antagonist blocked EA inhibition of allodynia/hyperalgesia and p-CaMKII. These results demonstrate that EA treatment
activates spinal 5-HT1a receptors to inhibit p-CaMKII and alleviate and allay allodynia and hyperalgesia for a period of at
least three weeks. The data support acupuncture/EA as a complementary therapy for CIP.
Acknowledgments: The work was supported by NIH Grant # R21AT004113
Functional Brain Connectivity Predicts Acupuncture Analgesic Effect in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Patients
Jieun Kim, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General
Hospital; Yumi Maeda, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts
General Hospital; Stephen Cina, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology,
Massachusetts General Hospital; Claire McManus, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding
Rehabilitation Hospital; Cristina Malatesta, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation
Hospital; Pia Hugus, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts
General Hospital; Jessica Gerber, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology,
Massachusetts General Hospital; Rebecca Ong-Sutherland, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding
Rehabilitation Hospital; Leslie Morse, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation
Hospital; Norman Kettner, Department of Radiology, Logan College of Chiropractic/University Programs; Joseph Audette,
Department of Pain Medicine, Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates, Atrius Health; Vitaly Napadow, Athinoula A.
Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital
Acupuncture relieves pain and engenders S1 neuroplasticity in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), a common entrapment
neuropathy and neuropathic pain disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate if an objective baseline neuroimaging
biomarker, functional brain connectivity during acupuncture stimulation, can predict longitudinal changes in pain after a
course of acupuncture therapy in CTS patients. CTS patients (N=25) were randomized to receive 8 weeks (16 treatments)
of acupuncture therapy with either verum (ACUP, N=13) or sham (SHAM, N=12) electro-acupuncture (EA). Patients
completed a baseline fMRI scan, and functional connectivity MRI data were acquired during 6-minute resting and
continuous 2Hz EA. ACUP patients received EA at PC7 to TW5 on the affected forearm, while SHAM patients received non44
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penetrating sham acupuncture at local non-acupoints with disconnected EA electrodes. Functional connectivity to an S1
seed, localized with a separate EA event-related fMRI scan, was contrast between EA and rest and then used in a linear
regression analysis to predict change in pain severity (using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire) after 8
weeks of therapy. Results were threshold at voxelwise z>2.3 and cluster corrected for multiple comparisons at p<0.05.
Following 8 weeks of therapy, ACUP and SHAM both showed significant reduction of pain (ACUP: -0.86В±0.27, SHAM:0.62В±0.19, no significant group difference, p=0.47). We found that at baseline, increasing connectivity between S1 and
insula cortex during ACUP stimulation versus rest predicted greater reduction in pain following 8 weeks of ACUP therapy (r
= -0.92). There was no relationship for the SHAM group (r=0.16). Our results suggest that baseline functional connectivity
can be used to predict acupuncture responders for CTS. This relationship did not exist for SHAM, which involves less
robust somatosensory afference during stimulation.
Greater S1-insula connectivity may reflect improved salience allocation to acupuncture stimuli in patients who go on to
respond to acupuncture therapy.
How Acupuncturists and Physicians View the Presence of In-Patient Acupuncture Care at Beth Israel
Medical Center – A Qualitative Phenomenological Study
B. Basia Kielczynska, Beth Israel Medical Center NYC; Benjamin Kligler, Beth Israel Medical Center NYC
Purpose. To understand the “living experience” of acupuncturists while they provide acupuncture in-patient care and
interact with medical staff in a hospital-based acupuncture fellowship program. Little is known about how acupuncturists
and medical staff negotiate cooperation and how the limits of a hospital setting affect effectiveness of acupuncture care.
Describing challenges of integration may provide helpful information to move the process forward.
Methods. We conducted 30-120 minute interviews with six licensed acupuncturists, two physicians and a nurse at Beth
Israel Medical Center. We asked acupuncturists how it was for them to practice in a hospital setting; we solicited their
experiences, thoughts, and feelings. Data was analyzed following Colaizzi’s phenomenological methodology.
Phenomenology allows researchers to access the meaning of participants’ experience (interpretive paradigm), rather than
trying to predict their behavior (empirico-analytical paradigm).
Results. Three clusters of themes have emerged from analyzing the interviews: (1) Acupuncturists were excited about
integrative practice opportunities, disappointed about limited interactions with medical staff, creative in adjusting to
restrictions of hospital setting, and ambivalent about clinical research opportunities; (2) Acupuncturists considered their
in-patient care limited but effective and they expressed pride in holism of their practice; and (3) Physicians’ support for
acupuncture care depended more on the clinical results and patient satisfaction than on their understanding of the
philosophy behind acupuncture or acupuncture clinical research, and different departments of the hospital represented
distinct “cultures,” some of which were more receptive to acupuncture than others.
Conclusion. Understanding of the phenomenon of acupuncturists’ experience as they negotiated integration in
biomedical setting may (1) enrich the roadmap to how acupuncture and other non-biomedical traditions can be
incorporated into our healthcare system and (2) provide an example of how current acupuncture and integrative medicine
research may be informed by qualitative studies.
Increased Nerve Growth Factor Signaling in Sensory Neurons of Early Diabetic Rats Is Corrected by
Electroacupuncture
Stefania Lucia Nori, Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences FARMABIOMED NANOMATES University of
Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano, Italy; Maria Luisa Rocco, Institute of Cellular Biology and Neurobiology,
National Research Council (CNR), via del Fosso di Fiorano 64, 00143- Rome, Italy.; Fulvio Florenzano, Confocal Microscopy
Unit, European Brain Research Institute (EBRI) - S. Lucia Foundation, via del Fosso di Fiorano 64, 00143- Rome, Italy.; Maria
Teresa Ciotti, Institute of Cellular Biology and Neurobiology, National Research Council (CNR), via del Fosso di Fiorano 64,
00143- Rome, Italy.; Luigi Aloe, Institute of Cellular Biology and Neurobiology, National Research Council (CNR), via del
Fosso di Fiorano 64, 00143- Rome, Italy.; Luigi Manni, 4Institute of Translational Pharmacology, National Research Council
(CNR), via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133-Rome, Italy
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Purpose: Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is early characterized by thermal hyperalgesia and increased neurotrophism, and
lately evolves in irreversible neuropathic symptoms with dramatic reduction in nerve growth factor (NGF) support to
sensory neurons. For this latter reason, NGF has been proposed as a therapeutic in DPN. Electroacupuncture (EA) is the
western derivate of traditional Chinese acupuncture that is widely used in the clinical therapy of neuropathic pain. We
recently demonstrated that EA was able to improve thermal hyperalgesia and to modulate NGF presence in the skin and
spinal cord of early diabetic rats. In the present work we investigated the involvement of NGF signaling system in the early
DPN and its possible modulation by EA.
Methods: Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ). One week after STZ, EA treatments were started and
continued for three weeks. NGF and NGF receptors protein and mRNA, NGF signaling pathways and the presence of NGFregulated transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) were analyzed in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). NGF
receptors expression and colocalization was analyzed in spinal cord and skin.
Results: We found that STZ increased NGF and NGF receptors expression, activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38
kinase and increased TRPV1 in DRG; EA in diabetic rats decreased both NGF and NGF receptors, normalized JNK and p38
activation, decreased TRPV1 and activated the transcription factor Nf-ОєB. Expression of p75 neurotrophin receptor was
increased in diabetic skin, while receptor tyrosine kinase A was increased in the spinal cord. EA in diabetic animals
counteracted both these STZ-induced deregulations.
Conclusions: The NGF could be primarily involved in DPN establishment and EA effects on DPN be mediated through the
modulation of NGF signaling. Our findings point to EA, alone or in combination to NGF treatment, as a new possible
therapeutic tool for DPN clinical care.
Involvement of Peripheral Adenosine A1 Receptor in Electroacupuncture Analgesia
Ari Ojeda Ocampo More, UFSC; Leidiane Mazzardo-Martins, UFSC; Francisco Cidral-Filho, UFSC; Daniel Martins, UFSC;
Franciscey Nascimento, UFSC; Shih Min Li, UFSC; Adair Santos, UFSC
Peripheral nervous system influences on pain signaling and different methods to investigate this component of action for
pain-relieve are the focus of recent acupuncture studies. The role of peripheral adenosine receptors in acupunctureinduced analgesia (AA) has been documented using manual acupuncture stimuli. This study aimed to investigate the
involvement of adenosine A1 receptor in electroacupuncture analgesia. Swiss mice were submitted to the model of
postoperative pain (plantar incision) and treated with two types of stimulus: pharmapuncture (FP) and
electroacupuncture (EA); the first involves the injection of drugs into acupoints and the second electrical stimulation. Both
stimuli were performed in the SP6 acupoint bilaterally. Control animals receive treatment with saline injection in the SP6
bilaterally or adenosine injection in a non-acupoint. Twenty-four hours after plantar incision the animals were treated
with adenosine FP or EA. After investigating different doses of adenosine in the FP treatment, and different EA treatment
duration using 10 HZ frequency and 3 mA current intensity, it was found that adenosine FP doses of 30 and 100 Ојg as well
as 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes of EA stimulation, significantly inhibited mechanical hypersensitivity of the animals for 60
minutes after treatment. We also observed that intraperitoneal pre-administration of caffeine (a nonselective inhibitor of
adenosine receptors, 10 mg/kg) reversed both adenosine FP and EA effects upon mechanical hypersensitivity. Moreover,
our results demonstrate that peripheral pre-administration of DPCPX (adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, 30 mg/site),
injected bilaterally in the SP6 acupoint, reversed the effects of adenosine FP and EA. On the other hand, intrathecal preadministration of DPCPX (3 and 5 Ојg) reversed the effect of FP but not of EA. These findings provide evidence that
peripheral adenosine A1 receptor is involved in the electroacupuncture analgesia.
Macrostructural Plasticity Subserving Sensorimotor Skills and Emotion Regulation Ability in
Professional Acupuncturists: an fMRI Study
Minghao Dong, Life Sciences Research Center, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi’an, Shaanxi
710071, China; Wei Qin, Life Sciences Research Center, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi’an,
Shaanxi 710071, China; Jie Tian, Life Sciences Research Center, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University,
Xi’an, Shaanxi 710071, China
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The neural substrate of expertise, such as musicians, taxi drivers and meditation experts, has fascinated major scientific
attention. Acupuncturists, a pillar community of medical practitioners, have expertise in discriminating subtle tactile
changes in fingers, coordinating dexterous finger movement and expertise in regulating negative emotional responses
triggered by empathic pain in their daily practice. However, the neuroanatomical underpinnings supporting behavioral
proficiency of acupuncturists are not yet understood. Therefore, to answer this question, the current study recruited two
cohort groups of acupuncturists (N=22) and non-acupuncturists (N=22). Firstly, we aimed at verifying behavioral model of
acupuncturists’ skills using a set of psychophysical tasks, i.e. grating orientation task for tactile discrimination ability, a
motor proficiency test for fine motor skills and a pain rating task for emotion regulation skill. Secondly, we detected
structural basis of these expertise using the voxel-based morphometry technique. The results of behavioral tasks proved
that acupuncturists had extraordinary sensorimotor and emotion regulation skills compared with the controls. The fMRI
results revealed larger grey matter volumes in acupuncturists in several cortical and subcortical regions, such as the hand
representation of the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex, facilitating tactile discrimination ability; secondary
motor areas, i,e. the right Lobule V/VI supporting fine motor skills, as well as the bilateral ventral anterior cingulate
cortex/ ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vACC/VMPFC) subserving emotion regulation. Grey matter volumes of Lobule
V/VI and primary somatosensory cortex correlated with the duration of acupuncture practice. To our best knowledge, this
study built first behavioral model of acupuncturists’ expertise and provided first evidence for the neuroanatomical marker
underpinning acupuncturists’ tactile-motor and emotion regulation skills. Conclusively, we suggest that, our findings may
facilitate occupational skill acquisition and the results in emotion-regulation domain may serve to understand how this
skill was acquired and developed.
Management of Gulf War Syndrome Symptoms with Acupuncture: Report on Preliminary Findings
of an Ongoing Wait-list Control RCT
Lisa Conboy, New England School of Acupuncture; Meredith StJohn, New England School of Acupuncture; Rosa Schnyer,
University of Texas Austin Gulf War Illness (GWI), is a complex chronic multisymptom illness characterized by a diverse
clinical presentation, that may include fatigue, sleep and mood disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, and musculoskeletal
pain. First defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after the first Gulf War (Operation Desert
Shield/Storm), it is commonly seen with a highly individualistic presentation, associated with clusters of symptoms and comorbid medical diagnoses.
Purpose: To conduct a preliminary analysis of symptom improvement in GWI veterans associated with acupuncture
treatment. Study Design: This wait –list controlled RCT is funded by the Department of Defense (W81 XWH). Subjects
(n=104) are assigned to either 6 months of biweekly individualized acupuncture, or 2 months of wait list followed by 4
months of weekly individualized acupuncture treatments.
Methods: Because GWI is a complex illness with multiple manifestations, we offered tailored individualized treatments to
target the symptoms most important to the subjects. Our main outcome is the Sf-36; we have also included validated
measurements to capture changes in specific GWI symptoms as well as the patient-centered form, the MYMOP.
Measurements are collected every 2 months.
Results: A preliminary analysis of symptom improvement comparing baseline scores to 6 month data collection indicates
statistically significant improvements in the severity of veterans’ self-reported main (p<0.01) and secondary (p<0.009)
complaints as measured by items on the MYMOP, as well as self-reported overall health (p<0.007) as measured by a single
item on the Sf-36, and fatigue (p<0.05) as measured by a single item on the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue.
Patient satisfaction with care and confidence in treatment is also very high (95% rated satisfied and confident). The
results of our main outcome measure, the SF-36, an 8-scale health profile, which includes measures of health-related
quality of life, will be available at the completion of the study (12/2012).
Modulation of the Somatosensory (MU) Background Rhythm in Healthy Volunteers after Needle
Stimulation on ST36
Daniel Pach, CharitГ© University Medical Center Berlin; Till Nierhaus, CharitГ© University Medical Center Berlin; Wenjing
Huang, CharitГ© University Medical Center Berlin; Stephanie Roll, CharitГ© University Medical Center Berlin; Arno Villringer,
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5Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences; Claudia Witt, CharitГ© University Medical Center Berlin
Background: Acupuncture can be regarded as a somatosensory stimulation. The Mu rhythm, characterized by a central
topography and EEG peak frequency around 10 Hz, can be referred to as “idle rhythm” indicating resting state of the
somatosensory system.
Objective: To evaluate whether the point locations chosen for a complex somatosensory stimulation with acupuncture
needles have an essential impact on the change of EEG background rhythm in healthy volunteers.
Methods: Standardized manual needle stimulation was applied at three points (ST36, a non-acupuncture control point
(CP1) in the same dermatome (L5) as ST36 and a non-acupuncture control point (CP2) in a different dermatome (L2)). All
healthy subjects (n=20, 11 female) received manual needle stimulation at all 3 points on separate days in a randomized
order. Continuous recordings before and after needle stimulation were used for evaluation of somatosensory (Mu)
background rhythm modulations (main area of interest central electrode Cz). Needle sensation was measured by the
Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Scale (MASS) and correlated with EEG results.
Results: The EEG results showed a significant increase of the Mu rhythm power after needle stimulation for the
acupuncture point ST36 compared with the two control points CP1 and CP2. The Mu rhythm power was different for the
comparison of ST36 vs. CP1 (mean difference 21.02 ВµVВІ 95%CI[4.78;37.27], p=0.012) and ST36 vs. CP2 (25.38[9.12;41.65],
p=0.003), but not for CP2 vs. CP1 (-4.36[-20.53;11.81], p=0.598). The MASS index as a measure of needle sensation was
comparable for the points in the same dermatome (L5), but different in the other dermatome (L2). However, sensation
was neither positively nor negatively correlated with changes of Mu rhythm power.
Conclusion: Our results point towards somatosensory brain activations that are specific for an acupuncture point. Results
seem not to be influenced by needle sensation.
Multisite International Studies - Issues, Challenges, Obstacles and Advantages - An Example of the
TEA IS CHAI (Tennis Elbow Acupuncture-International Study-China, Hong Kong, Australia and Italy)
Project
Chris Zaslawski, University of Technology, Sydney; Sergio Bangrazi, Istituto Paracelso, Italy Istituto Paracelso, Italy Istituto
Paracels; Christine Berle, University of Technology, Sydney; Marcus Gadau, Hong Kong Baptist University; Tie Li, Changchun
University of Chinese Medicine; Weihong Li, University of Technology, Sydney; Peter Meier, University of Technology,
Sydney; Yuansheng Tan, world federation of acupuncture Moxibustion Societies; Fuchun Wang, Changchun University of
Chinese Medicine; Shi Ping Zhang, Hong Kong Baptist University
International multisite trials are frequently used in pharmaceutical research but very few have been conducted for
acupuncture. While there are some clear advantages to undertaking a multisite trial, such as more diverse patient
populations and sharing of economic burdens and resources, there may be some challenges that need to be overcome
such as language and cultural differences to assist the efficient management of the project. This presentation will
examines some of the issues associated with a multisite acupuncture trial currently being conducted in four institutions
(Changchun University of TCM-China, Hong Kong Baptist University, University of Technology, Sydney and Istituto
Paracelso-Italy) across four countries that is being coordinated by an international association, the World Federation of
Acupuncture and Moxibustion Societies (WFAS). Issues such as standardisation and monitoring of the project, ethics
approval and language difficulties are only some of the issues that need to be addressed in order to complete the project.
Strategies that were used to overcome these and other issues will be discussed and suggestions for those considering
similar projects in the future will also be identified.
Pressure Pain Sensitivity and Insular Glutamate are Associated with Subsequent Clinical Pain
Response to Sham but not Verum Acupuncture in Chronic Pain Patients
Steven Harte, University of Michigan; Daniel Clauw, University of Michigan; Richard Harris, University of Michgan
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Purpose: Clinical trials of acupuncture in chronic pain have largely failed to demonstrate efficacy of verum over sham
acupuncture. However sham acupuncture is not an inert intervention. Here we explored the ability of experimental
pressure pain assessment and chemical neuroimaging to identify differential responsiveness to sham as opposed to verum
acupuncture.
Methods: 50 chronic pain patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia were randomized to receive either 9 treatments of verum
(n = 22) or non-insertive sham (n = 28) acupuncture treatments over 4 weeks. Prior to treatment, pressure pain
thresholds were assessed at the right thumbnail bed and a median split was used to classify patients into groups of low or
high tenderness. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was also performed at baseline for 34 participants to assess
insular glutamate levels. Clinical pain was assessed at baseline and following treatment using the Short Form of the McGill
Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Independent t-Tests were performed in SPSS for clinical pain response and baseline
glutamate for low and high tenderness groups receiving either sham or verum acupuncture.
Results: Patients that displayed greater tenderness at baseline, showed significantly greater clinical pain response to sham
acupuncture (change in SF-MPQ, total mean [SD]: high tenderness -8.65 [7.91]; low tenderness -2.14 [6.68]; p = 0.03).
This relationship was not true for verum acupuncture (high tenderness -6.90 [4.51]; low tenderness -6.41 [9.25]; p = 0.88).
Sham treated patients that were more tender also displayed greater baseline levels of insular glutamate than those that
were less tender (glutamate mean [SD]: high tenderness 7.54 [0.51]; low tenderness 6.93 [0.61]; p = 0.04).
Conclusions: Pressure pain testing may identify chronic pain patients that are more likely to respond to sham but not
verum acupuncture. This effect may relate to the generalized hyperalgesia that these patients display as well as elevated
brain excitatory neurotransmitters.
Pre-treatment Вµ-Opioid Receptor (MOR) Availability in vivo Differentially Predicts Analgesic
Response to Verum and Sham Acupuncture in Chronic Pain Patients
Tiffany Love, University of Michigan; Jon-Kar Zubieta, University of Michigan; Richard Harris, University of Michigan
Purpose: Previous work has demonstrated that endogenous opioid function and receptor availability are involved in
acupuncture analgesic responses. However little is known about how resting pre-treatment MOR binding may predict
subsequent analgesia. Here we explored the ability of baseline MOR binding, using positron emission tomography (PET),
to identify differential responsiveness to verum as opposed to sham acupuncture.
Methods: 20 widespread chronic pain patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia were randomized to receive either 9
treatments of verum (n=10) or non-insertive sham (n=10) acupuncture treatments over 4 weeks. Prior to treatment,
participants underwent C11-carfentanil PET to quantify resting levels of MOR binding potential (BP). Clinical pain was
assessed at baseline and following treatment using the Short Form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). MOR BP
values were analyzed in SPM5 using ANCOVA with contrasts that differentially correlated baseline MOR BP and
subsequent changes in clinical pain following verum and sham acupuncture. A priori significant regions of interest,
identified from previous work, were extracted with MARSBAR and correlations were performed in SPSS for assessment of
correlation statistics and outliers.
Results: Patients across both groups displayed a trend towards reduced clinical pain (change in SF-MPQ mean[SD]: 2.01[6.56]; p=0.17). Baseline MOR BP within the left nucleus accumbens significantly predicted differential response to
verum and sham acupuncture (p<0.05 small volume corrected). Greater MOR BP within this region was associated with
greater subsequent decreases in clinical pain for verum (rho=-0.88; p=0.001) but not sham (rho=0.57; p=0.09)
acupuncture. No significant regions were identified which showed greater negative correlations between MOR BP and
change in pain for sham as opposed to verum acupuncture.
Conclusions: Greater baseline MOR availability, together with potential increases in endogenous opioid release as a
consequence of treatment may underlie response to verum acupuncture, as opposed to sham acupuncture.
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Self-administered Acupressure Reduces Chronic Pain in Breast Cancer Survivors
Suzanna Zick, University of Michigan; Benjamin Wright, University of Michigan; Vinita Verma, University of Michigan;
Gwen Wyatt, Michigan State University; Tohfa Khabir, University of Michigan; Richard Harris, University of Michigan
Purpose: There are nearly 3 million breast cancer (BC) survivors in the United States. Chronic pain and sensory
disturbances after BC treatment is common, occurring in approximately 50% of patients, and can persist for years. Chronic
pain in BC survivors is associated with fatigue, sleep disturbances, mood disorders and decreased quality of life. Current
treatments for chronic cancer pain have limited efficacy and/or unacceptable side-effects, and as such there is a
tremendous need for new treatments in this area.
Methods: We examined the effect of 6-weeks of the combined effects of two types of self-administered acupressure
compared to standard of care (SC) in 43 (28 randomized to acupressure, 15 to standard of care) chronically fatigued BC
survivors who reported ≥3 on the Brief Pain Inventory’s (BPI) average pain subscale and who were from an ongoing
randomized clinical trial on acupressure for persistent cancer-related fatigue. The BPI average, severity of, and
interference of pain subscales were used to determine changes in pain. Independent sample t-tests were performed on
mean differences of changes in pain scales by group.
Results: There was a significant decrease in pain severity (p=0.03; -1.6 acupressure vs. 0.2 SC on a 10 point scale) and pain
interference (p=0.05; -1.4 acupressure vs. -0.3 SC on a 10 point scale) in the combined acupressure group compared to SC.
There was also a decrease in average pain (p=0.16; -1.6 acupressure vs. -0.7 SC on a 10 point scale) in the acupressure
group versus the SC group, although this did not reach significance.
Conclusion: In this preliminary analysis two types of self-administered acupressure engender a greater analgesic response
for clinical pain as compared to SC in fatigued BC survivors. These findings should be interpreted with caution given our
small sample size and diverse types of pain. More rigorous studies are recommended.
�Social Chat’: The Role of Life-World Talk in Traditional Acupuncture Consultations
Charlotte Paterson, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, UK; Maggie Evans, School of Social
and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, UK; Richard Bertschinger, Nine Springs Natural health Centre, Yeovil,
Somerset, UK; Russ Chapman, The Minster Centre, Ilminster, UK; Rosemary Norton, The Minster Centre, Ilminster, UK; Jane
Robinson, Nine Springs Natural health Centre, Yeovil, Somerset, UK
Objective: The lack of research into the role of �social chat’ in traditional acupuncture consultations leaves a knowledge
gap about the relationship between talking and the other components of treatment and to what extent long consultations
are necessary. Our aim was to analyse the content and meaning of social talk within the consultation.
Method: Analysis of 27 audio-recorded and transcribed traditional acupuncture consultations, involving 7 practitioners in
South West England. This analysis was augmented by integrating the data from 15 patient interviews and regular
practitioner discussions. The patient consultations were a convenience sample drawn from routine consultation sessions.
Analysis was based on a social constructionist perspective and the theoretical approach of conversation analysis used
within a mixed method design (i.e. consultations and interviews).
Results: Each consultation was analysed as a trajectory in which seven categories of talk interwove with each other and
with periods of physical examination, needling and silence. The category of �social talk’ generated considerable debate
amongst practitioners and researchers, leading to its reformulation as the �life-world’ talk as conceptualised by Habermas
and Mishler. Life-world talk included talk of the patient’s everyday life, such as activities and concerns relating to work,
family, leisure and relationships. Analysis indicated that life-world talk was integral to individualising treatment and advice
and key to focusing treatment on promoting self-healing. Discussions of the patient’s life-world context not only built
rapport, leading to more disclosure and a deeper understanding of the patient’s mind, body and spirit, but the talk was
also sometimes used directly in the diagnostic process to �test emotions’.
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Conclusion: Amongst these English practitioners, life-world talk was a necessary and integral component of traditional
acupuncture which influenced the diagnosis, the needling strategy and the self-care discussions and advice.
Utilization of Acupuncture for Pain Management in an Academic Medical Center for Traditional
Korean Medicine: A Retrospective Review of Electronic Medical Records
Kun Hyung Kim, Korean Medicine Hospital, Pusan National University; Yu Ri Kim, Korean Medicine Hospital, Pusan
National University; Seung Hee Noh, Korean Medicine Hospital, Pusan National University; Jae Kyu Kim, School of Korean
Medicine, Pusan National University; Gi Young Yang, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University; Byung Ryul Lee,
School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University
Background: In Korea, acupuncture is routinely used for pain management. However, little information exists about the
use of acupuncture for pain management in real clinical situations.
Objective: This study aimed to identify the descriptive characteristics of patients with pain conditions who visited an
academic medical center for traditional Korean medicine.
Methods: A retrospective review of the electronic medical records of patients who had received at least one session of
acupuncture for pain management from March 2010 to Feb 2012 in the Korean medical hospital of Pusan National
University was performed. Demographic characteristics as well as information about patients’ conditions, received
treatment interventions, and costs associated with acupuncture treatments were analyzed.
Results: In total, we identified 2,167 patients, consisting of 2,105 outpatients, 237 inpatients, and 175 patients who
received both outpatient and inpatient care. The mean age (standard deviation; SD) of the patients was 52.0 (15.3) years,
and around two-third of the patients were female (64.0%). The average number of acupuncture treatment sessions was
8.0 (6.6 for outpatients and 14.5 for inpatients). The most treated conditions were low back pain (30.5%), neck pain
(23.9%), and shoulder pain (17.5%). Interventions included needle acupuncture with manual (53.2%) or electrical (48.1%)
stimulation, herbal medicine (44.2%), cupping (21.2%), and moxibustion (3.5%). Over one-third of outpatients (33.5%)
received at least 6 sessions of acupuncture. The mean number of treatment sessions (SD) were 15.0 (12.2) and 2.2 (1.3)
for outpatients who had been treated for at least 6 sessions and less than 6 sessions, respectively. The cost for
acupuncture treatments is currently being analyzed.
Conclusions: Acupuncture has mainly been used for treating low back, neck, and shoulder pain with a wide range of
related interventions at an academic medical center for traditional Korean medicine. This data should inform the design of
future prospective clinical researches of acupuncture.
Utilizing A Computerized Behavioral Testing and Pharmacological MRI to Objectively Monitor
Therapeutic Effects of Electroacupuncture in Nonhuman Primates Modeling Human Parkinson’s
Disease
Zhiming Zhang, University of Kentucky College of Medicine
Whether electroacupuncture (EA) can be used to effectively treat Parkinson’s disease has been controversial, in part due
to a lack of objective methods to measure EA efficacy in patients. We have previously shown that pharmacological MRI
(phMRI) could be used to objectively measure glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-induced functional
changes in MPTP-lesioned monkeys (Luan et al., 2008). In the present study, we used phMRI techniques along with
computerized behavioral testing to monitor EA-induced functional changes in six middle-aged rhesus monkeys with longterm hemiparkinsonism induced by unilateral administration of MPTP via the right carotid artery approximately 5 years
earlier. All animals underwent a series of behavioral testing and phMRI scans before and after chronic (3-4 months) EA
treatment at acupuncture points DU14 (DAZHUI) and ST36 (ZHUSANLI) with a bidirectional square wave electrical pulse
(0.2 ms duration, 100 Hz). When compared to the data collected before EA treatments, significant improvements of
movement speed and locomotor activity were seen after EA treatment (at DU14+ ST36). More importantly, phMRI did
detect functional changes after chronic EA treatment in the motor cortex, putamen and caudate nucleus. In the primary
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motor cortex and putamen ipsilateral to MPTP lesions, the MPTP-induced activations were reduced to levels similar to
those seen pre-MPTP administration. In the MPTP-treated caudate nucleus, EA treatment significantly attenuated
apomorphine-evoked activations at the end of the 3rd months of EA treatment. However, apomorphine-evoked
th
activations were slightly increased at the end of the 4 months. No significant changes were seen in the pre-motor areas.
Overall our results support the notion that 1) chronic EA can improve PD features in monkeys modeling human PD and 2)
phMRI can be used to detect EA-induced functional changes in various brain regions in PD monkeys. Since phMRI is noninvasive, sensitive and objective, it could be translated into the clinic for monitoring treatments in PD patients.
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POSTER ABSTRACTS
(listed in alphabetical order by abstract title)
A Chart Review of Patients Seen at an Acupuncture College for One Hundred or More Visits
Forrest Cooper, Oregon College of Oriental Medicine
The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients who were treated at the Oregon College of
Oriental Medicne for one hundred or more treatments. Patient charts were located of patients who had received one
hundred or more treatments at OCOM. Characteristics looked at included basic demographic information such as age,
gender, total number of visits, types of visits (regular acupuncture, herbal clinic, body work clinic, group clinic, doctoral
clinic), how long it took to reach, one hundred treatments, total length of time being treated, prescription drug use,
supplement use, being under the care of a PCP, chief complaint, severity of chief complaint, TCM syndrome
differentiation, how many bulk or granule formulas they were prescribed, variability of their chief complaint over the
course of their total number of treatments. There were eighty-five charts located. Twenty-three charts were excluded on
the basis of either not being treated within the last decade, or having been a student or employee of OCOM.
There are too many categories to detail all the results, however, a strong majority of the patients were female. The chief
complaint varied substantially. A strong majority were under the care of a PCP. Most were taking prescriptions. Pain was
a chief complaint in many, but there were many other chief complaints included leaking cerebral spinal fluid from the
nose, complete paralysis from the neck down, and the conditions associated with aging, advanced early onset Alzheimer's,
uncontrollable hypertension complicated with blindness. There was a wide variety of of syndroes used for differentiation.
Conclusions, include the basic demographic information, and what that means for potential patient recruitment. Many of
the patients suffered from severe diseases, and had already tried other treatment modalities. In a sense, OCOM, and
Oriental Medicine was the patients last resort for their conditions.
A Comparison of Utilization of Primary Care Services by Refugees Before, During and After Six
Months of Acupuncture Treatment: a Descriptive Report Measured in Total Charges
Ellen Silver Highfield, BUSM/BMC; Mckenna Longacre, BUSPH; Alan Sager, BUSPH; Michael Grodin, BUSM/BMC
Refugees in the US frequently have increased health care needs, including Primary Care, due in part to the complex
sequelae of trauma including chronic pain and somatization. In this work, we examined the relationship between
acupuncture and utilization of Primary Care services (measured in total charges) via a cohort of refugee patients with
chronic pain (n=17). We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records; the research was IRB-approved. We
compared total charges resulting from Primary Care at BMC for the cohort 6 months before, during and after a minimum
of five acupuncture treatments. Our cohort included adult refugee patients who had been seen at BMC for Primary Care
for at least one year prior to initiating acupuncture, and had been referred for chronic pain. Only three of the patients
had private insurers (HMOs). Our cohort demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in total charges from Before
acupuncture to both During and After acupuncture (2-tailed paired t-test P=.0232 and P=.0249 respectively). On average,
we found a 55.77% decrease in total charges associated with PC services at BMC and a mean difference of $3881 and
$4539 During and After acupuncture respectively per patient. Our matched control group indicated no significant
difference in total charges between the first six month interval and the second or third six month intervals (n1=17, n2=17,
P=0.3886 and P= 0.3256 respectively).
These results suggests that acupuncture may present an effective means of reducing total health care costs for patients,
private insurers, and public payers. There is a need for further research of the relationship between
acupuncture and utilization of Primary Care services by refugees with chronic pain. Also, further analysis of the financial
implications of this relationship is warranted. Additional study is needed to explore whether this
decrease in utilization is generalizable to other hospital services.
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A Pilot Study of Changes in Vision following Acupuncture for Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients
Ava Bittner, Johns Hopkins University; Wilmer Eye Institute; Jeffrey Gould, Johns Hopkins University; Integrative Medicine
and Digestive Center; Gislin Dagnelie, Johns Hopkins University; Wilmer Eye Institute; Alexandra Benavente, SUNY College
of Optometry; Collin Rozanski, Johns Hopkins University; Wilmer Eye Institute; Robert DeJong, Johns Hopkins University;
Department of Radiology; Andy Rosenfarb, Acupuncture Health Associates
Purpose: Retinitis pigmentosa(RP) is a hereditary retinal degeneration that results in a slowly progressive loss of night and
peripheral vision affecting ~1 in 4000. RP patients are motivated to try integrative therapies since treatment options are
limited to nutritional supplements attempting to slow progression. Basic science, clinical research and RP patients' selfreports support the hypothesis that acupuncture may improve vision, which we explored in a case series study.
Methods: A standard electroacupuncture and acupuncture protocol was administered to 12 RP patients at 10 half-hour
sessions over 2 weeks. Pre- and post-treatment tests included visual acuity(VA), contrast sensitivity(CS), Goldmann visual
fields(GVF), and dark-adapted full-field stimulus test(FST)(n=9); as well as dark-adaptometry and ocular blood flow(OBF) in
retrobulbar arteries with color Doppler imaging(CDI) in the last 2 subjects.
Results: Six of 12 subjects had a measurable, significant vision improvement post-treatment. Three of 9 subjects had a
significant 10.3-17.5dB (i.e. 13-53 fold) FST improvement in both eyes at 1 week post-acupuncture, maintained for at least
4-6 months, well outside typical test-retest variability (95% CI: 3-3.5dB) in RP. Dark-adaptation was shortened in both
subjects tested on average by 48.5% at 1 week (range 36-62% across 10-30dB), outside typical coefficients of variation
<30% previously determined in RP and normals. One subject had 2 lines of VA improvement; another had 0.55 log CS
improvement. Another subject developed >20% improvement in GVF retinal area in both eyes at 1-3 months posttreatment. Changes in vascular resistance index and velocity profiles in the 2 subjects who underwent CDI suggest a
moderate but significant OBF increase in the central retinal artery at 1-2 weeks post-treatment. Acupuncture was welltolerated by all, without adverse events or vision loss.
Conclusions: Acupuncture may have measurable benefits on residual vision in RP, supporting the need to explore potential
mechanisms and more rigorous methodology in future studies.
A Pilot Study on the Efficacy of 10.6Ојm - 650nm Combined Laser Acupuncture on Different TCM
Patterns of Knee Osteoarthritis
Li-Zhen Wang, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine;Center for Integrative Medicine, University of
Maryland School of Medicine; Fan Wu, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Xueyong Shen, Shanghai
University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Ling Zhao, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Haiping Deng,
Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine;Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian; Lixing Lao,
Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine;Center for Integrative Medicine, University of Maryland School of
Medicine
Introduction: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) manifests with pain, joint stiffness, and limited function. In traditional Chinese
medicine (TCM), it is differentiated into three patterns: cold predominance, caused by yang deficiency; kidney deficiency;
and blood stasis. In our previous studies, we found that 10.6Ојm-650nm combined laser treatment, which mimics classical
acupuncture-moxibustion therapy, to be effective in managing knee OA symptoms. The objective of this pilot study was to
determine if certain knee OA TCM pattern differentiations respond better to this particular laser treatment than do
others.
Methods: Fifty-two patients with OA were allocated to group A (yang deficiency; n=26) or group B (non yang-deficiency;
n=26). All patients received laser treatment at acupoint Dubi (ST 35) for 20 minutes, three times a week for two weeks and
twice a week for another four weeks, for a total of 14 treatments during the six-week period. The Western Ontario and
McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) was used for outcome assessments immediately after the first
treatment and at weeks 2, 6, and 10.
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Results: There were no significant differences at baseline between the two groups. For WOMAC pain and stiffness, there
were no statistically significant differences between the groups. However, the yang-deficiency group had significantly
better WOMAC function scores than did the non yang-deficiency group at weeks 2 (p=0.049), 6 (p=0.046), and 10
(p=0.042).
Conclusion: 10.6Ојm-650nm combined laser may be more beneficial to yang deficiency pattern knee OA patients,
particularly in function, than to knee OA patients with other TCM patterns. A clinical trial with a larger sample size is
warranted to confirm the findings of this pilot study.
A Retrospective Chart Review Comparing Two Acupuncture Protocols on the Day of in Vitro
Fertilization Embryo Transfer: Do the Points Matter?
Lee Hullender Rubin, Oregon College of Oriental Medicine; Michael Opsahl, Northwest Center for Reproductive Sciences;
Klaus Wiemer, Northwest Center for Reproductive Sciences; LaTasha Craig, Oklahoma University Physicians Reproductive
Medicine; Deborah Ackerman, Oregon College of Oriental Medicine
Background: In 2007, Craig et al reported in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy rates were reduced with acupuncture. The
first author (LHR) used the Craig protocol since 2005 at a private fertility clinic and modified the
acupuncture protocol after the results from the Craig study were known. In this retrospective chart review, we compared
the effect of original and modified Craig protocols on live births following fresh (1) non-donor or (2) donor IVF.
Methods: Live births were compared between patients who elected acupuncture treatment before and after embryo
transfer (ET) at a private fertility clinic. From 2005-2007, the acupuncture group “A” (Acu A) received the original Craig
protocol (Paulus protocol plus CV-6/Qihai before and KI-3/Taixi after ET) in fresh non-donor (N=199) and donor cycles
(N=23). From 2008-2009, the acupuncture group “B” (Acu B) received the same protocol without KI-3/Taixi after ET, in
fresh non-donor (N=188) and donor cycles (N=20). Live births after 24 weeks gestation were compared with crude risk
ratios in donor cycles and logistic regression in non-donor cycles controlling for age, FSH, and number of embryos.
Results: In fresh, non-donor cycles, there were 104 (52%) live births in the Acu A group and 106 (56%) in the Acu B group
(OR=1.18, 95%CI 0.79–1.76, p=0.41). In the fresh, donor group, there were 20 (87%) live births in the Acu A group, which
was significantly higher than 10 (50%) in the Acu B group (RR=1.74, 95%CI 1.09–2.77, p=0.02).
Conclusion: The original Craig protocol (Acu A) was associated with more live births following donor IVF than the modified
protocol (Acu B). No difference was found between the two protocols following non-donor IVF. This suggests acupoint KI3/Taixi may be important for donor IVF. This finding should be taken cautiously as more rigorous research, including
randomization and a larger sample size, is needed.
A Standardized Acupuncture Protocol for the Treatment of Wasting Syndrome in HIV+ Males: A Case
Study
Larry Langowski, Ph.D, SAR; Timothy Suh, L.Ac., OCAM
Wasting Syndrome, the extreme loss of lean muscle mass associated with HIV/AIDS, is commonly treated with
testosterone supplementation, but there are undesirable side effects such as gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, hair loss,
and various allergic reactions. Studies report disproportionately frequent cases of Erectile Dysfunction (ED) in HIV+ males
on antiretroviral medications, particularly protease inhibitors. Low testosterone levels were reported in those with ED
and testosterone is used in treatment for this condition as well. Since lab tests are beyond the acupuncture scope of
practice in Illinois, we used the diagnosis of ED as a de facto indicator of low testosterone. Since both Wasting and ED
impact HIV+ men, especially those on protease inhibitors, and low testosterone is a common symptom, stimulating
natural production of testosterone should treat both without side effects via acupuncture. We used a standardized 5needle acupuncture treatment, which appears robust to combination with other acupuncture treatments and various
clinicians. The case is a study of a 54 y/o male diagnosed with AIDS, Wasting, and ED, with an antiretroviral regimen
including two protease inhibitors. His viral load is undetectable and T-cell count over 500. The patient had had ED for 5
years, Wasting for 11, and uses appetite stimulation rather than testosterone for treatment. There were 6 bi-weekly
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treatments using the ED/Wasting protocol and a 6-month follow up assessment. There was immediate and dramatic relief
from ED, lasting for a week after the initial treatment, increasing to three by the 6th. Further study will incorporate lab
tests, extend the term of the investigation, and increase the number of participants to better assess the impact on
Wasting.
A Study of Acute and Chronic Moxa Smoke Toxicity in Rats
Li HAN, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine,Beijing,China; Ping LIU, Beijing University of Chinese
Medicine,Beijing,China; Baixiao ZHAO, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine,Beijing,China; Hai HU, Beijing University of
Chinese Medicine,Beijing,China; Jia YANG, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine,Beijing,China; Hong CAI, Beijing
University of Chinese Medicine,Beijing,China; Huangfang XU, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine,Beijing,China; Yingxue
CUI, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine,Beijing,China; Ran JIN, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine,Beijing,China;
Maoxiang ZHU, Chinese Military Academy of Medical Science; Zhihua YANG, Chinese Military Academy of Medical Science;
Xiujie PAN, Chinese Military Academy of Medical Science; Lixing LAO, Family & Community Medicineпј›TCM Research
Programпј›Center for Integrative Medicineпј›University of Maryland School of Medicine
Objective: Moxibustion, proven to be effective for many disorders, involves burning mugwort. This produces smoke and
causes inhalable particulates. This investigation was an assessment of the acute and chronic toxicity of moxa smoke.
Methods: In the acute study, 80 rats were randomly divided into five groups, 8 males and 8 females per group, at moxa
smoke dosages (opacity) of 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, and 95%. Each rat was placed in an automatic dynamic exposure device
for 2 h. In the chronic study, 144 male rats were randomly divided into four groups to evaluate the toxic effects at
different dosages: control, 0%; low, 10%; middle, 40%; high, 70%. Each rat was exposed for 20 min a day for 24 weeks.
Rats in each group were further divided into three subgroups and were sacrificed after 24 weeks or during follow up at 30
or 36 weeks.
Results: In the acute study, the 50% lethal dosage (LD50) for a 2 h-exposure to moxa smoke was 86.247%. There were no
deaths in the chronic study. There were, however, histopathological changes in the lungs in all exposed groups although
there were no functional pulmonary changes compared to control. These histopathological alterations were unchanged at
36 weeks. No significant abnormalities in body weight at the low dosage were observed when compared to control.
howeverпјЊthe middle and high dosage produced decreases in body mass but returned to normal at 36 weeks. No
significant abnormalities in blood count, blood chemistry, or routine urinalysis were observed
Conclusion: Our data suggest that long-term moxa smoke exposure at the middle dosage, which is equivalent to 50 times
the exposure that would be experienced in a regular moxibustion clinic, might adversely affect the lungs and other organs.
The clinical significance of this finding needs further study.
A Study on the Life Quality of Stroke Patients According to the Constitution
Yun Young Kim, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine; Jong Hyang Yoo, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine; Ki Hyun Park,
Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine; SI Woo Lee, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine
Objectives: Stroke which ranked as the second leading cause of death for adults in South Korea has a poor prognosis after
treatment, and make the rehabilitation difficulty even after restoration. It brings enormous burden to the person and the
society as well. Disabilities caused by the stroke such as aphasia, ataxia, paralysis and
neurologic deficit affects to the quality of personal life, and it can be appeared in different patterns depending on the
constitution. In this research, we studied on the life quality of stroke patients according to the constitution and tried to
provide basic data for improving the life quality of them.
Methods: This research was conducted from Aug. 1st 2009 to Jul. 31st 2011 for the patients diagnosed for acute stroke in
9 oriental medical hospital and clinic and not treated with thrombolytic agent or anticoagulant for 72 hours from
occurring. The constitution of patients was diagnosed by Sasang constitution specialist with a career of more than 5 years,
and life quality was analyzed with Short Form-12 Health Survey Questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed with
Frequency Analysis and ANCOVA using the computer software of SPSS 17.0
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Results: The life quality of stroke patients were separated to Physical Component Score(PCS) and Mental Component
Score(MCS) according to Sasang constitution, and both of PCS(p<.008) and MCS(p<.019) were significant. When they
were separated to male group and female group, only PCS(p<.019) was significant in male group, while both of
PCS(p<.003) and MCS(p<.005) were significant in female group.
Conclusion: It was found that there is a significant difference in the life quality of stroke patients according to the
constitution, and the approach related with the Sasang constitution is required to improve the life quality of stroke
patients.
A Systematic Review of Ear-Acupuncture/Ear-acupressure Randomised Sham-controlled Trials
Claire Shuiqing Zhang, RMIT University; Angela Weihong Yang, RMIT University; Anthony Lin Zhang, RMIT University;
Charlie Changli Xue, RMIT University
The use of ear-acupuncture/ear-acupressure (EAP) for treating clinical conditions is increasing. A number of randomised
controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted to investigate its efficacy and safety. This study systematically reviewed the
key elements of existing EAP RCTs using sham control methods. Seventeen English and three Chinese databases were
searched and 58 published RCTs comparing real and sham EAP for any clinical conditions were identified. Characteristics
of participants, real and sham interventions and outcomes were extracted using a pre-defined form. Thirty-seven studies
had a Jadad score of ≥ 3 (using 0-5 points scale). Conditions treated by EAP included pain, anxiety, substance abuse
(alcohol, drug, smoking), obesity and insomnia. EAP was applied unilaterally or bilaterally. Numbers of ear points used for
treatment varied from 1 to 10. None of the RCTs described manipulating techniques or achievement of De Qi sensation on
either real or sham ear points. Treatment sessions and durations also varied across all studies. The sham control methods
involved in the RCTs are: (1) Applying the same EAP on ear acupoints which are non-specific for the condition treated; (2)
Applying the same EAP on non-acupoints; (3) Placebo needles or adhesive patches without pellet/seed; (4) Pseudointerventions (e.g. inactive laser acupuncture devices, electro acupuncture devices with minimum emission, Vaccariae
seeds without pressing) or a combination of more than one method listed above. More than half of the RCTs chose
method 1 (non-specific ear acupoints) for sham treatment. This review revealed that the most commonly used sham
method for EAP RCT is applying the same EAP treatment on non-specific ear acupoints.
Acupoint Stimulation for Acne: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
Hui-Juan Cao, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine
Background: Acupoint stimulation, including acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, acupoint injection, and acupoint catgut
embedding, has shown beneficial effect for the treatment of acne. However, comprehensive evaluation of current clinical
evidence is lacking.
Methods: We included randomized controlled trials on acupoint stimulation for acne. Six electronic databases (China
Network Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journals Database, WanFang Database, Chinese Biomedicine,
Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and PubMed) were searched for English and Chinese language studies. All
searches ended in May 2012. Studies were selected for eligibility and assessed for quality. RevMan 5.1 software was used
for data analysis with effect estimate presented as relative risk (RR) or mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence
interval (CI).
Results: Forty-three trials involving 3453 patients with acne were included. The methodological quality of trials was
generally poor in terms of randomization, blinding, and intention-to-treat analysis. Meta-analyses showed there were
significant differences in increasing the number of cured patients between acupuncture plus herbal medicine and herbal
medicine alone (RR 1.60, 95%CI 1.19 to 2.14, p=0.002, random model, I2=46%, 9 trials), and between acupuncture plus
herbal facial mask and herbal facial mask alone (RR 2.14, 95%CI 1.29 to 3.55, p=0.003, fixed model, I2=0%, 2 trials).
Cupping therapy was significantly better than pharmaceutical medications in increasing the number of cured patients (RR
2.11, 95%CI 1.45 to 3.07, p<0.0001, fixed model, I2=6%, 4 trials). Serious adverse events were not reported in all included
trials.
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Conclusions: Acupoint stimulation therapies combined with other treatments appears to be effective for acne. However,
further large, rigorously designed trials are needed to confirm these findings.
Acupressure for Anxiety in Pre-hospital Transport Settings: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis
Seung-Hun Cho, Kyung Hee University; Eui-Ju Lee; Jung-Hee Yoo
Objectives: The purpose of a systematic review and meta analysis based on randomized controlled trials were to examine
whether acupressure and acustimulation prevent pre-hospital anxiety, taking into evaluation the efficacy of anxiety and
pain management in the pre-hospital transport phase.
Study design: Electronic databases including English, Korean, Japanese and Chinese databases were systematically
searched for RCTs investigating acupressure for anxiety in pre-hospital transport setting up to March 2011with no
language restrictions. This study included all patients with anxiety and pain during ambulance transport. Clinical trials
evaluating acupressure treatments, specifically hand and device acupressure on acupoints, were included. The
methodological qualities of eligible studies were assessed using the criteria described in the Assessing risk of bias of the
Cochrane Handbook edited by Higgins and Altman.
Results: An initial search identified 11 potentially relevant articles. Six articles were initially excluded because they did not
meet our inclusion criteria. Among them, four studies were auricular acupressure trials for preoperative anxiety. The
remaining five studies, involving 272 subjects, met our inclusion criteria and were systematically reviewed. All studies
reported the reduction of anxiety was significantly better in acupressure treatment group than in sham acupressure
group. Acupressure reduced the anxiety in four trials. Similarly all studies reported the reduction of pain was significantly
better in acupressure treatment group than in sham acupressure group. Acupressure reduced the pain in three trials.
Conclusions: Acupressure surely effective treatment of types of pain and anxiety, especially pre-hospital transport
settings. Overall, the promising findings indicate that further research is warranted in the form of large, well designed and
adequately powered studies including concealed allocation.
Acupuncture and Heart Rate Variability: A Systems Level Approach to Understanding Mechanism
Belinda Anderson, Pacific College of Oriental Medicine; Arya Nielsen, Beth Israel Medical Center; Diane McKee, Albert
Einstein College of Medicine; Ben Kligler, Beth Israel Medical Center
Recent research has elucidated several different mechanisms for acupuncture. However the inter-relationship between
these mechanisms and how acupuncture affects complex physiological systems is still not understood. Heart rate
Variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat fluctuations in the rhythm of the heart, results from the regulation of the heart by the
autonomic nervous system (ANS). Low HRV is associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and is a marker for a
wide range of diseases. Coherent HRV patterns are associated with increased synchronization between the two branches
of the ANS, and when sustained for long periods of time result in increased synchronization and entrainment between
multiple body systems. We undertook a systematic review of all randomized placebo controlled trials investigating the
ability of acupuncture to improve HRV. The trials were assessed with regard to acupuncture dosage and whether subjects
were healthy with artificially induced stress, or diagnosed with a medical condition. Our results indicate that there is
strong evidence that acupuncture improves HRV. This may represent a mechanistic pathway for global physiological
regulation, which is congruent with East Asian medical theory. The conceptual parallels between these western and
eastern perspectives are presented. The ability of acupuncture to improve HRV could be used as a tool in acupuncture
research and practice to monitor treatment effectiveness and the impact on quality of life.
Acupuncture and Moxibustion Clinical Trials in China – An Update
Baoyan Liu, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences
On November 16, 2010, Chinese acupuncture was proclaimed as a Masterpiece of Intangible Cultural Heritage of
Humanity at the 5th UNESCO Intergovernmental Committee for Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage. This report is a
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summary of the development of acupuncture and moxibustion clinical trials in China. According to the former researches,
we will try to explain the follow questions: a. what kinds of diseases can be treated with acupuncture and moxibustion? b.
what about the therapeutic effect of acupuncture and moxibustion? Is there any high quality evidence? c. what is the
effector mechanism of acupuncture and moxibustion? d. national standard for acupuncture and moxibustion in China. e.
what is the problem existing in acupuncture and moxibustion clinical trials?
Acupuncture and Moxibustion for Peripheral Facial Palsy at Different Stages: Multi-Central Large
Sample Randomized Controlled Trial
Ying Li, Chengdu University of TCM, Chengdu; Yan Li, The First Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin University of TCM; Li-an Liu,
Qingdao Haici Medical Group, Qingdao; Ling Zhao, Chengdu University of TCM, hengdu; Ka-ming Hu, Chengdu University of
TCM, Chengdu; Xi Wu, Qingdao Haici Medical Group, Qingdao; Xiao-qin Chen, Chengdu University of TCM, Chengdu; Guiping Li, The First Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin University of TCM; Wei Zhang, Chengdu University of TCM, Chengdu; Qi-hua
Qi, Qingdao Haici Medical Group, Qingdao
Objective:To explore the best intervention time of acupuncture and moxibustion for peripheral facial palsy(Bell’s palsy),
and the clinical advantage program of selective treatment with acupuncture and moxibustionпјЋ
Methods:Multi-central large-sample randomized controlled trial was carried out.900 cases of Bell’s palsy were
randomized into 5 treatment groups, selective filiform needle group(group A), selective acupuncture and
moxibustion group(group B), selective acupuncture and electro-acupuncture(group C), selective acupuncture and line-up
needling on muscle region of meridian group(group D) and non-selective filiform needle group(group E)пјЋuse eight main
acupuncture-points: Yangbai(GB14), Dicang(ST4), Jiache(ST6), Xiaguan(ST7) Taiyang(EX-HN5), Quanliao(SI18),
Yifeng(TE17), Hegu(LI4). Different acupuncture and moxibustion manipulations were applied according to different pathstages (acute stage, resting stage, restoration stage) in every group. After randomization, the patients would receive 20
sessions of acupuncture treatment over a period of 4 weeks and each session would last 30 minпјЋHouse-Brackmann Scale
(Global Score and Regional Score), Facial Disability Index Scale and Degree of Facial Nerve Paralysis were adopted for
efficacy assessment. And the efficacy systematic analysis was provided in view of the intervention time and nerve
localization of disease separately. The outcome measurements were all patients' completed scales mentioned above in
the baseline and 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 and 16 weeks after randomizationпјЋ
Results: The curative rates of intervention in acute stage and resting stage were 50.1% (223/445) and 52.1% (162/311),
which were superior to recovery stage (25.9%35/135) separatelyпјЋThere were no statistical significant differences in
efficacy in comparison among 5 treatment programs at the same stage (all p>0.05)пјЋThe efficacy of intervention of group
A and group E in acute stage was superior to that in recovery stage (both p<0.01)пјЋThe difference was significant
statistically between the efficacy on the localization above chorda tympani nerve and that on the localization below the
nerve in group D(p<0.01)пјЋThe efficacy on the localization below chorda tympani nerve was superior to the localization
above the nerveпјЋ
Conclusions:This study finds out the best intervention time for the treatment of Bell’s palsy is in acute–stage and resting
stage, meaning 1 to 3 weeks after occurrence.All of 5 treatment programs are advantageous to Bell’s palsy.
Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (AOM) Practitioners Conducting Research: Preliminary Findings
from Interviews to Inform Workforce Training
Kimberly Tippens, National College of Natural Medicine; Susan Fleishman, National College of Natural Medicine; Ashley
Russell, National College of Natural Medicine; Heather Zwickey, National College of Natural Medicine
Background: As the field of Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) responds to a call for a stronger evidence
base, it is increasingly important that alternative medicine practitioners participate in research. The relative nascency of
research curricula in AOM programs and limited research that reflects clinical practice within the discipline lead to unique
challenges to consider when designing research training for acupuncturists.
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Purpose: This study aims to identify barriers and facilitators encountered by acupuncturists and other CAM practitioners
acquiring training and experience in the design and implementation of research. Such information is of importance to
guide development of mentorship and research training programs for CAM clinician-researchers.
Methods: We conducted qualitative interviews with eighteen CAM clinicians who represent different levels of
engagement with research. Content analysis of the semi-structured interviews was performed by a team of four
researchers using an iterative coding process.
Results: Subgroup analysis of ten interviewees (55%) with degrees in AOM revealed three key themes with particular
relevance to capacity building for acupuncture research: 1) recognizing and navigating the career path for clinician
researchers, 2) opportunities for training and participation in research, and 3) strong concerns for contributing to the field.
Acupuncturists had varying understanding of the milestones needed to progress in research careers. Many described
unique challenges to engaging in research, including professional discourse regarding the role of research within the field,
limited research education, and limited funded training opportunities for those with master’s degrees.
Conclusions: The educational path for acupuncturists to participate in research is not well-defined. Acupuncturists seek
opportunities to contribute to research in various capacities, from research literate practitioner, to study clinician, to
funded principal investigator. In order to develop a highly skilled and multidisciplinary acupuncture research workforce, it
is essential to establish training, infrastructure and funding opportunities for licensed
acupuncturists to engage in research.
Acupuncture Compared to Lifestyle Change Prior to Conception for Women Having Difficulty
Conceiving: The Value of A Mixed Research Methodology including A Clinical Trial
Suzanne Cochrane, University of Western Sydney; Caroline Smith, University of Western Sydney; Alphia Possamai-Inesedy,
University of Western Sydney; Alan Bensoussan, University of Western Sydney
Background: Fertility has become a major health issue and focus of acupuncture research. This study is predominantly of
�natural’ fertility outside the IVF clinic. The aim of the research was to identify the contribution of an acupuncture
intervention as a preparation for conception and to enhance fertility in women. This paper presents the results of a
clinical trial to explore the use of acupuncture in the lead up to conception and the outcomes of interviews with both
acupuncturists and the women who received the acupuncture intervention.
Methods: Mixed research methodologies were used. The acupuncture protocol used was developed by consensus. The
clinical trial was a pragmatic design randomised to two groups –a lifestyle-only intervention and the other acupunctureplus-lifestyle – with the manualised acupuncture intervention responsive to participants’ presentation at the time of
treatment. Acupuncture recipients were interviewed after the intervention.
Results: The results for the acupuncture recipients include significant changes in fertility awareness (Relative Risk (RR)
2.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25,4.50, with an adjusted p = 0.011) and quality of life scores (adjusted p =
0.047). There were also positive menstrual changes and time to conception indicated. Participant reports reinforced the
importance of wellbeing for women with fertility problems and the contribution acupuncture treatments make to a sense
of personal transformation.
Conclusions: This study points to acupuncture as a safe and beneficial preparation for conception. A mixed methods
research methodology offered a richer data set with which to examine the outcomes for the trial population and the
individual experiences of an acupuncture intervention. The study also provides additional guidance to practice in that it
tested a particular acupuncture protocol that treated according to time in the menstrual cycle, TCM and biomedical
diagnosis, and presenting symptoms. The study results also confirm the importance of understanding acupuncture as an
intervention that assists women to transform themselves.
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Acupuncture for A Variety Of Indications Has An Positive Effect on Academic Performance in
Children
Demet TaЕџ, Department of Pediatry, Ulus State Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; H. Volkan Acar, Department of Anesthesiology
and Intensive Care, Ankara Training and Research Hospital of Ministry of Health, Ankara, Turkey
Introduction: In this retrospective study, we evaluated the changes in academic performances in pediatric patients
receiving acupuncture therapy for a variety of indications.
Materials and Methods: School reports of children receiving acupuncture treatment for a variety of indications were
evaluated. Grades of Math, Social Science, and Literature in two-half terms were compared. Data analysis was performed
by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). The Shapiro-Wilk test
was used to test the normality of distribution for continuous variables. Data were expressed as mean В± standard
deviation, or median (minimum–maximum), while nominal variables were shown as the number of cases (%). Grades of
two-half terms were compared with Paired Samples t test. p<0,05 was accepted as significant.
Results: A total of 40 children (22 male, 18 female) were studied. The mean age in this study was 11.1 years (range 7-16).
Diagnoses were as follows: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (25 patients), enuresis nocturna (8 patients),
migraine (2 patients), obesity (2 patients), atopic dermatitis (1 patient), alopecia areata (1 patient), Tourette syndrome (1
patient). Four of 25 patients with ADHD had borderline intellectual functioning. When first-half-term and second-halfterm grades of 40 children were compared for Math, Social Sciences and Literature, a statistically significant increase was
noted in all lessons (p=0.002, p=0.049, and p=0.007 respectively). In 36 patients excluding the children with borderline
intellectual functioning, there was still a statistically significant increase in grades (p<0.001, p=0.004, and p=0.015
respectively).
Conclusion: Acupuncture effects positively academic performance in children receiving acupuncture treatment for various
reeasons. This effect is independent of diagnosis and can be attributed to general systemic effects of
acupuncture.
Acupuncture for Behavior and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia : Phaseв… Clinical Trial
Chao-Ting Zhao, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Jia-Guo Luo, The 1st psycological health center of
Chengdu, Sichuan Province; Hai-Yan Yin, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Ling Luo, Chengdu University
of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Fang Zeng, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Shu-Guang Yu, Chengdu
University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Yong Tang, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture treatment on behavior and psychological symptoms of dementia
(BPSD),we conducted an open label, phaseв… clinical trial пј€NCT01055561пј‰in which 15 BPSD patients were administrated
acupuncture treatment once daily. After 7 days treatment, the efficacy was evaluated with Mini Mental Status
Evaluation(MMSE), Behavioral pathology in Alzheimer’s disease rating scale (BEHAVE-AD) and Activity of Daily Living
Scale(ADL). In the end of this study, 11 BPSD patients were received full course of acupuncture treatment. The results
showed that there were significant changesпј€P=0.004пјњ0.05пј‰in BEHAVE-AD total score although not in MMSE, ADL
scores. Therefore, acupuncture could be useful for the improvement of symptoms in BPSD patients to some extent.
Acupuncture for Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow): Study Protocol for A Randomized, Practitionerassessor Blinded, Controlled Pilot Clinical Trial
Kyungmin Shin, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine; Sunmi Choi, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine; Kyung-Min Shin,
Department of Medical Research, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon, South Korea; Joo-Hee Kim, Department of
Medical Research, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon, South Korea; Seunghoon Lee, Department of Medical
Research, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon, South Korea; Mi-Suk Shin, Department of Medical Research, Korea
Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon, South Korea; Hyo-Ju Park, Department of Medical Research, Korea Institute of
Oriental Medicine, Daejeon, South Korea; Min-Hee Lee, Department of Medical Research, Korea Institute of Oriental
Medicine, Daejeon, South Korea; Seungdeok Lee, Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine, College of Korean
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Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju, South Korea; Sun-Mi Choi, Department of Medical Research, Korea Institute of
Oriental Medicine, Daejeon, South Korea
Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of ipsilateral acupuncture(IA), contralateral
acupuncture(CA) and sham acupuncture(SA) on lateral epicondylitis.
Methods/design: 45 subjects with lateral epicondylitis will be randomized into 3 groups. The inclusion criteria will be as
follows: (1) age between 19 and 65 years with pain due to one side lateral epicondylitis that persisted for at least 4 weeks,
(2) with tenderness on pressure limited to regions around elbow joint (3) complain of pain during resistive extension of
the middle finger or the wrist (4) with average pain of NRS 4 or higher during the last week and (5) voluntarily agree to this
study and sign a written consent Acupuncture treatment will be given 10 times in total for 4 weeks to all groups. Followup observations will be conducted after the completion of the treatment, 9 weeks and 13 weeks after the random
assignment. IA and CA group will receive acupuncture on LI4, TE5, LI10, LI11, LU5, LI12 and two Ashi points. The SA group
will receive treatment on acupuncture points not related using a non-invasive method. The primary outcome will be
differences in the numeric rating scale for elbow pain. The secondary outcome will be differences in patient-rated tennis
elbow evaluation, pain-free grip strength, and the EQ-5D. The data will be analyzed with the paired t- test and ANCOVA
(p<0.05).
Discussion: The results of this study will allow evaluation of contralateral acupuncture from two aspects. First, if the CA
group shows the effects similar to IA group, this will establish clinical basis for contralateral acupuncture. Second, if the
effects of CA group are shown to be similar to the effects of the SA group, we can establish the basis for using the same
acupoints of the unaffected side as a control in acupuncture clinical studies.
Acupuncture for Melasma in Women: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
Yutong Fei, Centre for Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Hong Yang, Graduate
School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Huijuan Cao, Centre for Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine, Beijing
University of Chinese Medicine; Qianyun Chai, Centre for Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese
Medicine; Jianping Liu, Centre for Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine
Background: Acupuncture is commonly used in treating women’s melasma in China, and clinical studies have shown that
acupuncture may have beneficial effect on melasma compared with conventional medication.
Methods: We included randomized controlled trials on acupuncture for melasma in women. We searched PubMed, the
Cochrane Library, China Network Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), China Biology
Medicine (CBM) and Wan Fang Database till July 2012. Two authors extracted data and assessed the trials quality
independently. RevMan 5.1.7 software was used for data analysis.
Results: 6 RCTs involving 468 women were included, and the methodological quality of the trials was generally poor in
terms of randomization, blinding and intention-to-treat analysis. Meta-analyses showed acupuncture was significantly
better than oral Vit C plus Vit E on increasing the number of cured patients (2 trials, fixed model, I2=17%, RR 3.13, 95%CI
1.32 to 7.43, p=0.010), and on increasing the number of women whose symptoms improved (affected area decreased
more than 30%) (2 trials, fixed model, I2=22%, RR 1.38, 95%CI 1.18 to 1.62, p<0.0001). Compared with Tamoxifen plus Vit
C, or 20% Azelaic acid cream, acupuncture was significant better on increasing the number of cured women (1 trial, RR
7.94, 95% 1.07 to 59.08; 1 trial, RR 7.00, 95% 2.73 to 17.98); compared with no treatment, acupuncture was better on
increasing the number of women whose symptoms improved (1 trial, RR 4.50, 95% 2.18 to 9.30); compared with 2%
hydroquinone cream, acupuncture plus 2% hydroquinone cream was significant better on increasing the numbers of
women whose symptoms improved (1 trial, RR 1.27, 95% 1.06 to 1.52). No adverse effects related to acupuncture
reported in the included trials.
Conclusions: Acupuncture appears to be beneficial to melasma in women. But the evidence is insufficient to draw a
confirmative conclusion. Further high quality trials are required.
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Acupuncture for Migraine: A Meta Analysis
Shumei Zheng, School of Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University; Hai Cui, School of Chinese Medicine, Capital
Medical University; Baohua Wang, School of Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University; Qi Lu, School of Chinese
Medicine, Capital Medical University
Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment for migraine.
Methods: The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in PubMed, EMbase, CBM, CNKI, VIP and WanFang database from
January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2011 were electronically searched, and the references in relevant reviews were also
manually searched. The quality of the included studies was assessed. Two reviewers independently screened the trials
according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted the data, and assessed the methodology quality. Meta-analysis was
performed using the Cochrane Collaboration’s RevMan 5.1 software.
Results: Thirty-three RCTs were finally included. The results of meta-analysis showed that compared with western
medicine [28 RCTs, RRпјќ1.24, 95%CI (1.16, 1.34), Pпјњ0.00001], Chinese medicine [3 RCTs, RRпјќ1.29, 95%CI (1.14,1.45),
Pпјњ0.00001], and placebo acupuncture [(3 RCTs, RRпјќ1.87, 95%CI (1.17, 2.98), Pпјќ0.009], the improvement rates of
acupuncture were significantly higher.
Conclusions: This study shows the improvement rates of acupuncture for migraine are higher than western medicine,
Chinese medicine and placebo acupuncture, but it needs more higher quality of RCTs to enforce.
Acupuncture for Patients with Vertebral Compression Fractures: A Systematic Review
Seung Hee Noh, Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, Korean Medicine Hospital, Pusan National University,
Yangsan, South Korea; Kun Hyung Kim, Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, Korean Medicine Hospital, Pusan
National University, Yangsan, South Korea; Byung Ryul Lee, Division of clinical medicine, School of Korean medicine, Pusan
National University, Yangsan, South Korea; Yuri Kim, Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, Korean Medicine
Hospital, Pusan National University, Yangsan, South Korea; Gi young Yang, Division of clinical medicine, School of Korean
medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, South Korea
Vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is a common condition that causes back pain and motion limitation. Acupuncture is
widely used for managing the symptoms of VCF, but its effectiveness and safety for patients with VCF is unclear. This
study aimed to evaluate the current evidence for the use of acupuncture for patients with VCF. 12 databases were
searched from their inception to May 2012 with no language restriction. All clinical studies of needle acupuncture with
skin penetration for patients with VCF were considered for inclusion, and the risk of bias of the included studies was
assessed using the Cochrane criteria. Of the total of eight studies included, one randomized controlled trial (RCT)
reported benefits of abdomen acupuncture for constipation after vertebroplasty, and two non-randomized controlled
trials and five uncontrolled observational studies suggested beneficial effects of acupuncture for the management of
symptoms of VCF. None of these studies reported any adverse events. Because most studies including the RCT lacked
sufficient description to evaluate the quality of the reports, there is insufficient evidence to suggest that acupuncture is an
effective and safe treatment for patients with VCF. Further research is required to evaluate whether acupuncture has
beneficial effects on this condition.
Acupuncture for Post-Mastectomy Pain
Eduardo Guilherme D'Alessandro, The Sao Paulo Cancer Institute; Rebeca Boltes Cecatto, The Sao Paulo Cancer Institute;
Maira Saul, The Sao Paulo Cancer Institute; Christina May Moran Brito, The Sao Paulo Cancer Institute; Jose Antonio Atta,
The Sao Paulo Cancer Institute; Chin An Lin, Hospital da ClГ­nicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP
Introduction: Breast cancer is the most prevalent neoplasm in Brazil and is the main cause of death among women in the
U.S, Canada and Europe. Its treatment often requires surgical procedures like mastectomy or quadrantectomy. Despite of
the improvement of surgical tecniques, many complications derive from such interventions, the most common being
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lymphoedema, local infections and chronic post operative pain, with the last one appearing in up to 20% of women
submitted to mastectomy. The State of Sao Paulo Cancer Institute is the largest public oncology center in Latin America
and was established in 2008. Its acupuncture service aims to optimize the treatment of symptoms like post-operative,
oncologic and neuropathic pain, nausea, vomiting, xerostomia and fatigue induced by chemotherapy. This paper describes
the effects on symptom management that acupuncture may have caused on a population of women experiencing postmastectomy pain.
Method: 39 patients treated by our service between March 2010 to March 2011 were identified through review of their
medical records. Their basal and final symptoms intensity were recorded using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), ranging from 0
to 10cm. The paired t-test was used for statistical analysis. The average age of the patients was 58 years, 33,3% were
receiving chemotherapy, 23% radiation therapy, 15,5% hormone therapy and 28,2% were considered to be in remission.
The patients were submitted to an average of 7 acupunture sessions.
Results: initial VAS presented an average 6.5 pts (SD 2.0) and this was reduced to 2.35 pts (SD 2.25) (p<0.001), revealing an
improvement of 63.8% in the control of pain perceived by the patients.
Conclusion: acupuncture may have improved symptom control for patients enrolled in this study. Further well-designed
studies with randomized-placebo-controlled groups should be planned to provide more accurate conclusions.
Acupuncture for Tension-Type Headache in Pregnancy: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study
JoГЈo Bosco Guerreiro Silva, Rio Preto Medical School - Brazil; Mary Uchiyama Nakamura, Federal University of SГЈo Paulo Brazil; JosГ© Antonio Cordeiro, Rio Preto Medical School - Brazil; Luiz Kulay Jr., Federal University of SГЈo Paulo - Brazil
Aim: This study was undertaken to test, under real-life conditions, the effects of acupuncture on headaches during
pregnancy and compare this with a group of patients undergoing conventional treatment alone.
Methodology: Forty-three conventionally treated (lifestyle modifications and stretching) pregnant women were randomly
allocated into two groups to routine care or acupuncture. The severity and disability caused by this pain and its affect on
mood, sleep and work were assessed using a Numerical Rating Scale (NRS). The main end-point was the mean difference
between the first and the last interview after eight weeks of treatment. Secondary end points were the changes over time
in the NRS assessments of pain intensity, disturbances in mood, sleep and working and the use of medications. Differences
between initial and final sessions were analyzed by a two-sample test. Changes over time in the NRS assessment were
analyzed by the Fisher exact test. Mood’s test for medians was used and a p-value < 0.05 indicated a significant difference.
Results: All women completed the treatment. No important adverse effects related to acupuncture treatment or to
pregnancy’s outcome were reported. Significant improvements were demonstrated for pain at the end of the trial in the
study group, 3.9 vs 1.7 difference in favor to acupuncture group (p < 0.05). This group also used less medication and had a
greater improvement in mood and sleep when compared with the control group.
Conclusions: This study suggests acupuncture alleviates tension-type headaches during pregnancy.
Acupuncture for the Treatment of Patients in Palliative Care
Melissa Romeo, New England School of Acupuncture; Lisa Conboy, New England School of Acupuncture
Terminally ill patients turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), of which acupuncture is the most widely
used, when Western medicine fails to offer a satisfactory quality of life (QOL). The need for self-empowerment as well as
physical and emotional healing attracts patients to seek out unorthodox therapy with fewer side effects than conventional
medicine, or to control side effects of the disease or its treatment. The advantage of incorporating acupuncture into
routine palliative care is the ability to address a multitude of symptoms with one treatment. The purpose of this study
was to examine the effectiveness of acupuncture to relieve symptoms commonly observed in patients in a palliative care
setting. Nine symptoms were treated with acupuncture: pain, tiredness, nausea, depression, anxiety, drowsiness,
appetite, well-being and dyspnea. Twenty-six patients participated in the acupuncture trial, receiving a course of weekly
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treatments that ranged from 1 to 14 weeks. The average number of treatments was 5. Patients were required to
complete an Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) prior to the acupuncture treatment and directly after
receiving the acupuncture treatment. A paired T test was applied to the data to compare symptom scores before and
after each acupuncture treatment. All but 2 symptoms were statistically significantly improved with acupuncture, with the
exceptions being drowsiness and appetite. Although the ESAS scale demonstrated a reduction in symptom severity post
treatment for both drowsiness and appetite, this reduction was not found to be statistically significant. ANOVA clearly
indicated that there were statistically significant differences between each of the treatments. In conclusion, acupuncture
was found to be effective for the reduction and relief of symptoms that commonly affect patient QOL. Acupuncture
effectively reduced symptoms of pain, tiredness, nausea, depression, anxiety, and shortness of breath, and enhanced
feelings of well-being.
Acupuncture Healing for Collagen Induced Arthritis
DR Sumita Satarkar, Aarogya Santulan
Chronic arthritis is one of the most challenging modern medical problems. Similarly Auto immune diseases including
Rheumatoid arthritis with collagen show every combination & gradation from one another.Collagen induced arthritis is
mediated by anti type 2 collagen auto immunity. It is probably initiated by binding of anti bodies to the surface of intact
articular cartilage for many people with joint pain most of the medications commonly prescribed to relieve inflammation
of joints are referred to in the literature as nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs which have been found to have serious
side effects. It is a chronic inflammatory disease that is characterised by pain, swelling, stiffness, gradual joint destruction.
It was gratifying to finally see a large research study that confirms what we already know that Acupuncture decreases the
pain and heals arthritis. We have followed 2000 patients suffering from arthritis with different age groups and different
causative factors.40% had Vit B12 deficiency, 20% ca and D3 deficiency , 15%hystectomy,10% obesity, 10% infections. A
lady aged 34 yrs was c/o stiffness & small joint pain since 4 yrs.The intensity of pain was very severe. she was unable to
carry out her activities. CRP was +ve. Pulse was showing yang deficiency , ST and SP disharmony , blood stagnation and LIV
& GB disharmony. Treatment. LI11+TW5+LI4+ST36+GB39 were used and use of Bi syndrome was applied. Clinical &
Lab assessment ... visually the intensity of pain was remarkably decreased that is from scale 10-2 during 1st course
only.The wrist & ankle joints which were like a hard wood turned into semisolid resistance.Most imp reading was CRP was
negative. Summary .. This study of methodology of Acupuncture research confines a clear cut regimen. It is a form of
acupuncture therapy which is characterised by a holistic approach to the management of disease.
www.acupuncturepune.com dr sumita Satarkar India.
Acupuncture in the System of Public Health of FlorianГіpolis and Social Medicalization: A Study on
the Experience of Users
Emiliana Silva, UFSC; Charles Tesser, UFSC; Ari MorГ©, UFSC
Acupuncturet has gained acceptance in the West and in the public health system (PHS) in Brazil. Given the general social
process of medicalization, it is relevant to study the interaction of this treatment to patients, analyzing how its virtues
recognized (more holistic approach, centering on the person's care; stimulus and the potential for self-healing
participation, prevention, etc.) are present and the perceived experiences of users. The aim is to investigate the users'
perception of acupuncture on treatment and investigate the process of social medicalization. It is descriptive and
exploratory study with a qualitative approach in which users were asked in PHS of FlorianГіpolis-SC in primary care (PHC)
and specialized services. We carried out in-depth interviews, valuing the narrative of the subjects about their illness
experience, his views on the same and on the treatments, and in particular their interaction with acupuncture. Many
patients reported being referred to acupuncture when all biomedical resources failed, but some sought treatment
because of the benefit obtained from the prior art. Most reported improvements in their pain conditions and decreased
use of medications as well as reported improvement in other aspects such as quality of sleep, better disposition, greater
emotional stability, among others. Many unaware of acupuncture, but have adapted to treatment, especially when they
felt better. Few changes in the understanding of illnesses were observed, with some difference between PHC and
specialized clinics. In PHC was mentioned and appreciated the provision of other resources: discussions groups,
instructions massages, diet, breathing exercises and meditation, with some use of them. Relevant therapeutic outcomes
and few changes in the meanings and care were perceived by users. Overall, acupuncture seems to be seen as a
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biomedical treatment, albeit with a less medicalized. This contributed not only for pain relief but to other aspects,
reducing polypharmacy.
Acupuncture Needling of Myofascial Trigger Points vs Standard Acupuncture Protocol in the
Treatment of Frozen Shoulder: A Quasi-experimental Study
Henry Buchtel, Hunan University of TCM, P.R.China
Objective: This research compared the clinical efficacy of acupuncture needling of Myofascial Trigger Points (MTrPs) with
standard acupuncture protocol in the treatment of frozen shoulder.
Method: A total of 20 patients diagnosed with frozen shoulder in the Orthopaedics and Traumatology department of the
First Affiliated Hospital of the Hunan University of TCM were assigned to receive either acupuncture needling of MTrPs
(Experimental Group; n=10) or standard acupuncture protocol (Control Group;n=10). Six acupuncture treatments were
given; 3 per week for a total of 2 weeks. The abbreviated Constant Murley Assessment (abbreviated CMA) and visual
analogue scale for pain (VAS-P) scores for each patient were recorded at
baseline and at the conclusion of the final treatment.
Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the baseline data for shoulder function (abbreviated
CMA score), pain (VAS-P score), age, or sex between the two groups (p>0.05). The post-treatment abbreviated CMA and
VAS-P scores were significantly improved compared to baseline for both groups (p<0.05). However, the difference in
improvement of scores between the two groups was not statistically significant (p>0.05).
Conclusion: Both treatment methods have obvious effect in improving the symptoms of decreased shoulder function and
pain in frozen shoulder patients, and the treatment efficacy of both groups is similar. Both acupuncture needling of MTrPs
and standard acupuncture protocol are effective treatment methods for
frozen shoulder. In order to confirm the results, the study should be replicated in a larger study.
Acupuncture Therapy in An Urban Pediatric Emergency Department: A Case Series on Patients’
Experience and Clinical Outcome
Shiu-Lin Tsai, Columbia University; Alexander Glick, Columbia University; Yaffa Vitberg, Columbia University; Alexander
Rialdi, New York University
Introduction. Acupuncture use in the pediatric emergency department (ED) has not been previously studied. We present
6 cases of children who presented to an urban pediatric ED, who received acupuncture therapy.
Design. Case series
Methods. 6 children who presented to an urban pediatric ED with differing complaints, received individualized
acupuncture therapy performed by a board certified pediatric emergency medicine physician who is also a licensed
acupuncturist. Consent was obtained from the families to video tape these acupuncture sessions. Comments
by patients and caretakers were then transcribed from the videos. Charts were reviewed for physician's clinical
observations. We report patient and families qualitative perceptions of the acupuncture experience and clinical response,
as well as those of the physicians.
Results. The age of the children ranged from 4-15 years, one was male. Their ethnicities were 3 Hispanic, 2 African
American, and 1 White. Chief complaints for the 6 patients were: limp, wry neck, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing,
knee pain, and thumb trauma. Patients and their families were receptive to receiving acupuncture therapy. Physicians
were glad that a different therapeutic modality could be offered to their patients. After receiving acupuncture, all 6
children had physician documented improvement in their clinical exam, as well as self reported improvement in their
clinical symptoms. Satisfaction of both patients and their families was high.
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Conclusion. 6 Children who presented with differing acute complaints to an urban pediatric emergency room experienced
clinical improvement in their symptoms after receiving acupuncture, as reported by the patients,
families, as well as their physicians. Acupuncture shows potential as an effective therapy in the acute setting for children.
Further study is needed to validate these preliminary findings using rigorous methodologies.
Acupuncture Use for Wellness: Comparative Findings from National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)
2007 and an AOM Teaching Clinic
Dawn Upchurch, UCLA; Bethany Wexler Rainisch, California State University, Northridge; Deborah Ackerman, Oregon
College of Oriental Medicine
Purpose: Individuals’ motivations for using acupuncture are wide-ranging. Earlier studies emphasized acupuncture for
treatment of specific health conditions, but there is growing recognition of use for health and wellness. The goal of this
study was to examine patterns of recent usage of acupuncture with an emphasis on characterizing those who use
acupuncture for wellness, either independently or as part of managing a chronic health condition. In conjunction with
investigation of motivations for use, clinical patient reported outcomes were also assessed to provide a more
comprehensive and clinically relevant interpretation of national survey data.
Methods: Data were from two sources. National acupuncture data were drawn from the 2007 NHIS, a cross-sectional
study (N=23,393). Recent acupuncture users (N=342) reported on reasons for use. Prospective clinical data (N=2,485),
including reasons for use, were obtained from the teaching clinic at Oregon College of Oriental Medicine (OCOM).
Weighted univariate and bivariate analyses were employed for NHIS data; OCOM analyses were unweighted.
Results: Nationally, almost 50% of recent users they had acupuncture for wellness or wellness and treatment combined.
Few (11%) used acupuncture exclusively for wellness. There were no significant demographic differences in reason for
use. Those with poorer health were more likely to use for treatment only and those with healthier lifestyles more likely to
use for wellness. Wellness users had a greater number of acupuncture visits; reason for use was not associated with cost
of treatment. Prospective clinical data from OCOM further elucidates these findings; patients’ reason for visit (i.e.,
treatment vs. wellness) evolved over the course of care.
Conclusions: National data suggest acupuncture is commonly used for wellness in conjunction with treatment of health
conditions. Clinical data suggest patients’ rationale for visit change over time. Given only 1 in 10 reported
acupuncture treatment for �wellness only’ there are public educational opportunities.
Acupuncture: Calcium Ion Plays an Important Role
Guo Yi, Tianjin University of TCM
In order to study the distribution of the calcium ion in the acupoints and the influence on the acupuncture effect ,
applying the technology of needle-type transducer,microdialysis and electrophysiology, we have found that
physiologically, calcium ion enrichment emerged at acupoints, while pathologically, special changes of calcium ion would
occur at relative acupoints; Acupuncture enabled the redistribution of calcium ion of the acupoints; the complexation of
Calcium ion concentration of acupoints would weaken the acupuncture effect; mere injection Calcium ion could cause
the resembling therapeutic effect of acupuncture; acupuncture effect when injecting Calcium ion solution after
complexing Calcium ion could reproduced; after blocking the calcium ion channel and antagonizing Calcium ion to
combine with protein, acupuncture effect would be severely impaired and even disappeared; changing the concentration
of Calcium ion in the acupoints affects the electroneurographic signal by needle. Our results indicate that Calcium ion
could be one of the core of acupuncture effect.
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Acupuncture’s Effect on Relieving Symptoms for Post-Radiation Cystitis and Prostatitits
Elisabete Alves-de-Souza, PCOM
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the response to acupuncture of patients who had moderate to-severe
urinary symptoms, persisting after 12 months following the completion of radiation therapy for prostate cancer
treatment.
Design: This was a pilot study to generate preliminary data concerning potential effect sizes of acupuncture and sham
acupuncture in the treatment of radiation prostatitis and cystitis.
Outcomes Measures: A total of 10 subjects with cystitis and prostatitis were randomly assigned to one of three study
groups. Verum acupuncture was administered twice during week 1, then performed once a week for 8 weeks to points on
kidney-bladder-spleen-liver-lungs meridians expected to treat cystitis/prostatitis. The effect of acupuncture (on the lower
urinary tract symptoms) was assessed (every other week) using the IPSS (International Prostate Symptom Score), to
monitor results throughout the study. A paired t-test was performed to determine significant changes in IPSS before and
after the 4-months treatment period in the randomized arms.
Conclusions: Both standard acupuncture and sham acupuncture treatment appear to improve the IPSS scores over the 4month test period. Key Words: Acupuncture, radiation prostatitis, radiation cystitis, oncology, prostate cancer.
Acupuncture’s Effectiveness at Treating Subclinical Hypothyroid Disease via the HPT/HPA Axis: A
Multiple Case Series
Raina Tsuda, PCOM - San Diego
Purpose: Subclinical hypothyroid disease (SHypo) is defined as having serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
concentration above the normal reference range while serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) are
within reference range. It is estimated that 4-10% of the general population has subclinical hypothyroidism, increasing to
20% in women over 60 years of age. The current treatment recommendation for SHypo with TSH levels between 3-5
mIU/L is to monitor levels every 6-12 months. Studies have shown that levothyroxine is not effective for this TSH group.
Based on Hans Selye’s general adaption theory (GAS), it is known that acute and chronic stress can affect thyroid function
via the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axes. Acupuncture can reduce
the body’s stress response, and therefore should improve thyroid function. This research was conducted to determine if
acupuncture is a viable treatment option for SHypo.
Methods: Two cases were studied for replication. The female patients, aged 34 and 44, received twelve Japanese
Meridian acupuncture constitutional treatments, one per week. Serum TSH, FT4, FT3, salivary cortisol, Perceived
Stress Scale – 10 (PSS-10) were measured at pre-treatment, mid-treatment and post-treatment. Number of hypothyroid
symptoms present (Zulewski index) were assessed prior to each treatment. All measurements were analyzed for changes
over time and cross-case comparison.
Results: Both patients had decreases in TSH and number of hypothyroid symptoms present, increases in total cortisol load
and morning diurnal cortisol rhythm. Both patients reported improvements in bowel movements and menstruation. A
potential adverse reaction occurred in one patient at mid-treatment with the exacerbation of her anxiety and depression.
Conclusion: From this study it can be theorized that acupuncture is a viable treatment option for SHypo, however more
rigorous larger scale research studies need to be conducted to validate and extend these findings.
Air Quality in A Moxibustion Treatment Room as Measured through Respirable Particulate (PM10)
Concentration and Oxidative Capacity Assay
Baixiao Zhao, School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and TuinaпјЊBeijing University of CMпјЊ100029 BeijingпјЊPR China; Ping
Liu, School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and TuinaпјЊBeijing University of CMпјЊ100029 BeijingпјЊPR China; Chaxi Huang,
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School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and TuinaпјЊBeijing University of CMпјЊ100029 BeijingпјЊPR China; Lixing Lao, Center
For Integrative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, HSF-2, Room S209, 20 Penn Street, Baltimore, MD
21201, USA; Longyi Shao, Key Laboratory of Coal Resources of Chinese Ministry of Education and the Department of
Resources and Earth Sciences,China University of Mining and Technology, 100083 Beijing, PR China
Objective: Although moxibustion has been used for thousands of years, smoke-caused safety issues have been of concern
in recent years. To assess the air quality in a typical moxibustion treatment room, PM10 mass concentration and DNA
oxidative damage of PM10 were investegated.
Methods: The study was conducted in August 2011 and from November to December 2011 at a traditional chinese
medicine clinic in Beijing, China, in a moxibustion treatment room. A treatment room without moxibustion and the
outdoor area adjacent to the clinic were used as control sites. PM10 mass concentrations were monitored with a portable
digital dust indicator. The oxidative capacity of PM10, both whole and water-soluble fractions, were
detected using plasmid DNA assay, and the results were shown as TD40 values, that is, the toxic dose of PM10 causing
40% of plasmid DNA damage.
Results: Average PM10 concentrations in moxibustion room were 2.56 mg m-3 in summer and 2.78 mg m-3 in winter,
much higher than those of control sites. The average TD40 values of PM10, including both fractions, collected in the
moxibustion room were 791.67Вµg ml-1 and 876.33Вµg ml-1, respectively, and the winter values were 779.86Вµg ml-1 and
879.57Вµg ml-1, respectively, significantly higher (p<0.001) than the corresponding results from control sites. However,
there was no statistical difference (p=0.06) between the two winter PM10 fractions from moxibustion consulting room,
while there were significant differences between samples from control sites.
Conclusion: Our study shows that moxa smoke increases PM10 concentrations. However, the oxidative capacity of PM10
in the moxibustion room is much lower than that of control sites at the same dose, and its bioactivity is mainly from the
water-soluble fraction; this is also different from control sites. The unexpected bioactivity is assumed to relate to the low
toxicity of moxa smoke itself or to its proven antioxidant activity.
An Evidence Informed AOM Geriatric Clinical Internship: What Student Interns Think
Lori Baldwin, NWHSU; Roni Evans, NWHSU; Mark McKenzie, NWHSU; Kristine Westrom, NWHSU
Purpose: Northwestern Health Sciences University has been building an evidence informed practice (EIP) curriculum for
the integrative medicine programs. The purpose of this presentation is to describe outcomes collected from AOM
students enrolled in an EIP geriatric clinical internship taught within a long term care facility.
Methods: Quantitative evaluation methods are pre and post surveys administered at the onset and end of each trimester.
The surveys are designed to capture intern self-evaluated values, beliefs, and behaviors related to EIP criteria.
Additionally, interns keep a weekly journal and write a final paper about their internship experiences including
perceptions of utilizing EIP in a clinical environment. All written material is reviewed and EIP-related portions are
excerpted for qualitative analysis. Interns enrolling for a second trimester complete a self-selected EIP project which is
documented and categorized by topic to reflect student incorporation of EIP concepts.
Results: The AOM EIP geriatric clinical internship is in its 6th trimester and has trained 11 interns to date. All interns not
graduating have chosen to return for a second trimester for a total of 17 intern experiences. Preliminary survey results
demonstrate increases in interns’ EIP skills, behaviors, and openness to adopt EIP. Similarly, qualitative findings note
interns express this method of healthcare delivery is an enhancement to their professional and clinical knowledge.
Student projects demonstrate interns’ abilities to independently utilize EIP skills practiced throughout the internship.
Conclusions: Results to date suggest AOM students’ value utilizing the EIP model in a geriatric clinical internship. It is
hoped educating AOM interns in the EIP model may inform their approach to care as future AOM practitioners.
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An Integrated Approach to the Management of Temporal Mandibular Dysfunction: A Case Study
Peter Shipka, Private practice
Objective: The purpose of this study is to discuss the management and outcome of temporal mandibular joint dysfunction
utilizing acupuncture, active release, Traumeel, chiropractic manipulation and a dental appliance.
Introduction: Temporal mandibular joint dysfunction (TMD/TMJ) is the term used to describe acute or chronic dysfunction
of the joint between the temporal bone and the mandible. This dysfunction may involve the muscles of mastication,
nerves, tendons, ligaments, bones, connective tissues and teeth.
Clinical Features: A 43 year old female presented to a chiropractic clinic complaining of severe jaw, headaches and neck
pain contributed to an injury that occurred 10 years previous. The “lock jaw” had been present for greater than 6 weeks
and had restricted her jaw opening to less than 10mm.
Intervention and Outcome: An initial session of acupuncture and chiropractic manipulation provided significant
improvement and a series of follow up visits saw a serious reduction of symptoms and open distances. Dental appliance
modifications were also done.
Conclusion: Chiropractors who see temporal mandibular dysfunction patients should consider an integrated and holistic
approach to TMD management.
Analysis of Mediating Local Anti-Nociceptive Effects of Moxibustion
Chengshun Zhang, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Yapeng Fan, Chengdu University of Traditional
Chinese Medicine; Yong Tang, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Haiyan Yin, Chengdu University of
Traditional Chinese Medicine; Shuguang Yu, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
PURPOSE: To observe the effects of repeated moxibustion of Zusanli (ST36) in Adjuvant arthritisпј€AAпј‰mice and to reveal
its underlying mechanism in cumulative analgesia.
METHODS: Female C57/B6 mice were randomly divided into normal control (n=10), normal+mosibustion (n =10), AA (n
=10), and AA +mosibustion groups (n=10). AA model was established by injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) into
the right paw. Following injection of CFA, the mice developed mechanical allodynia to innocuous stimulation with Von
Frey filaments of the ipsilateral paw peaking at day 4. Begin on that dayпјЊafter measured pain threshold and footpat
volumes, give normal+mosibustion and AA+mosibustion groups 15 minutes moxibustion of ST36, and then tested pain
threshold with Von Frey filaments at five different time points after moxibustion. Three 5-day-sequences moxibustion had
been treated, each sequence interval of one day. Normal control and AA groups had been given fixation at same way and
duration. All groups were measured pain threshold and footpat volumes at the end of the second and the third sequence.
RESULTS: In comparison with the normal control group, pain threshold and footpat volumes of normal+mosibustion group
were not significantly (P <0.05). Compared with the AA group, the pain threshold performed significantly at 0, 30 and 60
minutes after moxibustion ending, also at the end of the second and the third sequence moxibustion, footpat volumes
performed significantly after the third sequence.
CONCLUSION: Moxibustion of Zusanli (ST36) in Adjuvant arthritis mice has effects of mediating local anti-nociceptive. The
peak of immediate effect appeared between 30 and 60 minutes after moxibustion ending. The cumulative analgesia
appeared in 15 days moxibustion.
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Anterior Cingulate Cortex Is Crucial for Contra - but Not Ipsi-lateral Electro-acupuncture in the
Formalininduced Inflammatory Pain Model of Rats
Haolin Zhang, Peking University
Acupuncture and electro-acupuncture (EA) are now widely used to treat disorders like pain. We and others have shown
previously that current frequency, intensity and treatment duration all significantly influence the antinociceptive effects of
EA. There is evidence that stimulating sites also affect the antinociception, with EA applied ipsilaterally to the pain site
being more effective under some pain states but contralateral EA under others. It was recently reported that local
adenosine A1 receptors were responsible for ipsilateal acupuncture, but what mechanisms specifically mediate the antinociceptive effects of contralateral acupuncture or EA remains unclear. In the present study, we applied 100 Hz EA on
the ipsi- or contra-lateral side of rats with inflammatory pain induced by intra-plantar injection of formalin, and reported
distinct anti-nociceptive effects and mechanisms between them. Both ipsi- and contra-lateral EA reduced the paw lifting
time in the second phase of the formalin test and attenuated formalin-induced conditioned place aversion. Contralateral
EA had an additional effect of reducing paw licking time, suggesting a supraspinal mechanism. Lesions of rostral anterior
cingulate cortex (ACC) completely abolished the anti-nociceptive effects of contra- but not ipsi-lateral EA. These findings
were not lateralized effects, since injection of formalin into the left or right hind paws produced similar results. Overall,
these results demonstrated distinct anti-nociceptive effects and mechanisms between different stimulating sides and
implied the necessity of finding the best stimulating protocols for different pain states.
“Be Still My Beating Heart” Effective Acupuncture Treatment for Cardiac Syndrome-X: Palpitations
in Premenopausal Women, A Comprehensive Review of Classical and Modern Literature and
Recommended Therapy
Ineke van den Berg, Dept.of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Saskia van der
Schans-Toussaint, Clinic for Acupuncture 's Gravenzande
Background: Modern Medicine research shows 43% of patients undergoing coronary angiograms have no evidence of
coronary heart disease: “syndrome-x”. Specific patient characteristics are self-reported anxiety, female gender and age <
50 years. Studies show that patients with “syndrome x” symptoms as shortness of breath, chest pain or palpitations, may
actually have an anxiety disorder.
Aim: Could acupuncture be an effective additional therapy to conventional Western treatment for syndrome-x in
premenopausal women, and might provide a guideline in diagnosis and treatment.
Methods: Literature review was undertaken of classical tests, next to modern studies that compared acupuncture with a
control procedure for the treatment of palpitations.
Results: In the classical texts, palpitations are found in every known Heart pattern. Responsible for mental-emotional life
is �Hearts’ functions of controlling Blood and housing the Shén. Literature mostly describes Heart-Blood deficiency with
(Liver-)Blood deficiency or liver Qi stagnation due to emotions. Treatment should be focused on dealing with coexisting
pathologies. Regulation of emotions, proper Blood-nourishing diet, good balance in work and rest should be pointed out
to enhance acupuncture treatment. The basic-formula found: REN-17, P-6 and HE-7; combining ShГ©n calming Du-20 and
DU-24, and GB-13. Enhancing combinations add SP-6, KID-6, and SP-4. In treating women, the right body-side is
considered for the principal acupuncture-points. Large randomized trials demonstrating the immediate and sustained
effect of acupuncture are missing. The 6 published acupuncture-treatment studies found no adverse side effects or
complications. Acupuncture has beneficial effects when treating palpitations, therefore is thought to be useful as
complementary therapy or to replace generally accepted pharmacological intervention.
Conclusion: Acupuncture could provide non-cardiac chest pain patients a positively impact on their QoL, is non-invasive
and safe. Diagnosed blood-deficiency in syndrome-x in premenopausal women should always be completed with the
whole (complex) picture in personalized patient-care. More research is needed.
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Being Mindful of Needles
Yao Liu, Program in Liberal Medical Education, Brown University; Heffron Robert, Department of Family Medicine, Brown
University; Kerr* Catherine, Department of Family Medicine, Brown University *(corresponding author)
Objective: Acupuncture treatment is thought to involve contextual factors and practitioner behaviors not typically found
in a conventional primary care setting. Chronic pain is a chief medical complaint driving patients to seek acupuncture. This
study’s focus is to identify acupuncture-specific physician behaviors and attitudes that may, in future studies, correlate to
positive healing outcomes in chronic pain patients. Specifically, this study examines how acupuncturist and patient attend
to pain, including pain localization, and whether this attentional processing appears relevant to the pain treatment.
Methods: The study uses a participant-observation approach, observing the acupuncturist’s attentional focus and
intention during diagnosis and treatment. This participant-observation approach is supplemented by qualitative
research using semi-structured interviews with patients.
Results: During preliminary participant-observation, patients’ complaints often started out with very non-localized,
generalized and affectively charged descriptions of the pain experience. The acupuncturist’s main focus was in
repeatedly questioning the patient in order to define the pain to a specific location, using a body-mapping technique to
choose and needle distal points thought to be effective in treatment, with the acupuncturist using localized palpation
around patient’s specified pain location to narrow the greatest source of pain to a small localized body area.
Conclusions: An important aspect of acupuncture care was the overarching physical-locational element of acupuncture
palpation, diagnosis, and needling. These aspects of treatment as a localizer of generalized pain are believed to contribute
to and possibly transform patients’ attention to their own pain. For some patients with embedded experiences of chronic
pain, the novel prospect of changing the locational experience of a previously-unchanging situation may have also
contributed to experiences of healing. The presentation concludes by offering a model correlating patient and practitioner
behaviors and mental states common to acupuncture with neural pathways mediating somatosensory attention
previously shown to be important in mindfulness meditation.
Biomechanics’ Changes of Acupuncture Treatment for Lower Back Pain: A Clinical Study to Bridge
the Concept of Traditional Chinese Acupuncture with Western Scientific Evidence of the Efface of
Acupuncture Treatment
Xiao Hong Liu, School of Human kinetics and Recreation; Ping Xiao; Scott N. Dr. MacKinnon
Background of the study: Acupuncture treatment has been used worldwide for pain management and remains one of the
most common treatments for lower back pain in North America. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of
an acupuncture treatment protocol on lower back pain and lower back range of motion.
Method of the study: Three acupuncture treatments were provided for 21 subjects with lower back pain, within 8-12 days.
A lumbar motion monitor was used to record trunk kinematics in 3-dimensions - in the sagittal (sg), lateral (lt) and twist
(tw) planes - before the first and after the third treatment.
Result of the study: In total, 21 subjects, 8 males and 13 females completed the study. The average age of the subjects
was 44 years with 9.52% referred by family physicians and 90.48% by family members, friends and chiropractors. The first
acupuncture treatment results were compared with the results at the end of the third treatment. It was found that there
was angular range of motion changes in the paired t-test at p-value less than .05 in the three planes of movement. The
respective values for each of the three planes were sg: p-value =0.02, lt: p-value =0.0009 and tw: p-value=0.0174.
Conclusion: This study is the first to demonstrate the measureable effects of acupuncture treatment for lower back pain,
in which the subjects showed measurable changes in trunk kinematics. This study suggests that acupuncture treatments
can possibly change a subject’s angular range of motion in three planes. Because the kinematics changes are greater in
the third treatment than the first, this may suggest that the acupuncture treatments can have positive accumulative
effects in as little as three treatments. More treatments may be required for further improvements.
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Blood Pressure Is Synchronized with Cyclic Variability of Heart Rate and Blood Flow during Qigong
Breathing Regulation
Shin Lin, Depts. of Developmental & Cell Biology and Biomedical Engineering, Susan Samueli Center for Integrated
Medicine, Universit of California, Irvine; Zhongyuan Shen, Shanghai Qigong Research Institute, Shanghai University of
Traditional Chinese Medicine; Payton Lin, Depts. of Developmental & Cell Biology and Biomedical Engineering, Susan
Samueli Center for Integrated Medicine, Universit of California, Irvine; Christopher Amato, Depts. of Developmental & Cell
Biology and Biomedical Engineering, Susan Samueli Center for Integrated Medicine, Universit of California, Irvine
Regulation of breathing is a defining characteristic of the many Chinese mind-body practices referred to as Qigong. This
study investigates how conscious control of respiration can affect cardiac function. We have previously reported that
regulation of breathing is accompanied by cyclic changes in heart rate variability (HRV) through the mechanism of
respiratory sinus arrhythmia (J. Altn. Complem. Med. 12: 223, 2006). In this study, over 20 healthy subjects (in their 20’s
to 80’s, male and female) participated. A Bioelectric Signals Processing System (Model SMUP-E4 from Shanghai Jia Long
Educational Instrument Factory) was used to continuously record breathing rate with a belt containing an
electromechanical transducer, heart rate with electrocardiogram (EKG) electrodes placed on the arm, and arterial blood
pressure with an electronic pressure sensor attached to the wrist. We found that when the subjects were instructed to
regulate their breathing at 5, 10, and 15 cycles per minute, heart rate (R-R interval) and blood pressure became
increasingly higher during the inhalation phase and increasingly lower during the exhalation phase at all breathing rates.
Next, 5 of the subjects were also monitored for blood flow at the Lao Gong (PC8) acupoint on the palm with a laser
Doppler flowmetry instrument (DRT4 from Moor). We found that along with the coordinated variability of heart rate and
blood pressure, cutaneous blood perfusion measured as “flux” also changed in synchrony with the inhalation and
exhalation cycles at all breathing rates. This is the first documentation showing that changes in blood pressure, heart rate,
and blood flow correlate with breathing rate. The data showing that conscious control of respiratory function leads to
autonomic control of cardiovascular functions may have implications on how Qigong breathing exercises can be beneficial
for blood pressure regulation in the prevention or treatment of high blood pressure.
Can TCM Diagnosis and Prognosis Predict Biomedical Outcomes in the Case of Irritable Bowel
Syndrome?
Carole Wyche, New England School of Acupuncture; Lisa Conboy, New England School of Acupuncture
Acupuncturists are trained to develop an individual treatment plan for each patient. That way, we can set realistic
expectations specific to a particular patient, rather than base treatment solely on the presenting disease. According to
TCM theory prognosis is affected by a number of factors outside of the disease including lifestyle, age of the patient,
chronicity of the disease, and the TCM diagnosis. This project uses an extant data set to examine if and how these
secondary factors are related to outcome following 6 weeks of manualized acupuncture. The data originate from a study
previously conducted by The Osher Institute at Harvard Medical School and the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center,
which studied, in the context of an acupuncture intervention, the placebo effect and the effects of the patient-practitioner
interaction in patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). The purpose of the study is to examine the TCM predictors of
patient outcomes, as recorded on the practitioners’ treatment record, and establish whether the patient’s clinical
outcome, as measured by validated paper and pencil measurements, were aligned with the TCM predictors. We found
clear overlap suggesting a complementary health picture when comparing the TCM and biomedical measurements across
the 97 subjects examined. The authors discuss the value of adding TCM diagnostic procedures to biomedical health
history.
Cancer Survivors with Lymphoedema: Perceptions of Using Traditional Acupuncture As an Adjunct
to Usual Care
Beverley de Valois, Lynda Jackson Macmillan Centre, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre; Teresa Young, Lynda Jackson
Macmillan Centre, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre; Elaine Melsome, Mount Vernon Lymphoedema Service, Mount Vernon
Cancer Centre
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Background: Within a mixed-methods design to investigate using traditional acupuncture to promote wellbeing and
improve quality of life in cancer survivors with lymphoedema, this qualitative study explored participants’ perceptions of
traditional acupuncture treatment. The study aimed to gather qualitative data about participants’ experiences of
traditional acupuncture treatment as an adjunct to usual care for lymphedema.
Methods: 32 lymphedema patients, who received up to 13 individualised traditional acupuncture treatments (in which
needling was avoided in the affected area, and the treatment aimed to treat the person and not the lymphoedema), were
invited to participate in focus groups to discuss their experiences. Transcripts were analysed using a thematic framework
approach, coded iteratively using NVivo, and checked by a second researcher to ensure systematic analysis.
Results: Six head & neck and 17 breast cancer survivors (n=23) participated in six focus groups. Lymphedema, the “last
straw” after cancer treatment, could leave participants disfigured, disabled and vulnerable. Despite initial scepticism,
participants responded positively to the opportunity to try traditional acupuncture. They reported short-term and longerterm benefits on a range of physical and emotional conditions, including some lymphedema-related changes. Participants
appreciated the therapeutic relationship and being treated as a “whole person”. Many felt more positive and confident,
more in control of their lives, and better able to tolerate having lymphedema.
Conclusions: Overall, participants found traditional acupuncture acceptable. Many experienced substantial and positive
impacts on various aspects of physical and emotional health, and some reported improvements in their attitude towards
having lymphoedema. Data suggest that traditional acupuncture may be a useful adjunct to usual care, offering cancer
survivors a non-pharmacological option to help manage a chronic condition.
Caring For Cancer Patients: A Survey Of Licensed Acupuncturists In The San Francisco Bay Area
Michael McCulloch, Pine Street Foundation; Misha Cohen, University of California San Francisco (UCSF); Beverly Burns,
UCSF; Donald Abrams, UCSF
Background: Many patients diagnosed with cancer seek Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Prevalence of use varies with
diagnosis, age, co-morbidities, and demographics. Modalities patients seek include acupuncture, massage, herbs, dietary
counseling and exercise instruction, usually combined with conventional therapies. TCM has a long published record, both
traditional/historical and modern, supporting its use in treating patients with cancer. However, it is not known what
proportion of licensed TCM practitioners provides services to patients with cancer, what treatment methods they employ,
or their training specific to the care of these patients.
Methods: We present the design and strategy supporting a survey sent via US Mail to all the approximately 2700 licensed
TCM providers in the 9-county San Francisco Bay Area. We gathered descriptive statistics of the proportion providing care
to people with cancer, demographic descriptors, treatment methods employed, and their training.
Results: To date, 390 of 2700 acupuncturists surveyed (14%) have responded, either by mail or the RedCAP web-tool. We
have completed data analysis on 1/3 of responses: 75% reported seeing patients with cancer. Over 60% have 10+ years’
practice-experience, and 52% had sought specialized training specific to cancer. 94% had seen 25 or fewer cancer patients
in the past month. Most (93%) reported improving quality of life as a primary treatment goal. 51% report improvements in
patient quality-of-life, with the most helpful modalities being acupuncture (86%), herbs (71%), diet (61%), and meditation
(41%). Absence of adverse reactions between conventional cancer and TCM therapies was reported by 94% of
respondents. 90% reported “hardly ever” or “never” contacting or having been contacted by patients’ oncologists to
discuss treatment.
Conclusions: Many acupuncturists treat patients with cancer, most with significant practice experience, and many having
sought specialized training. Final survey results will help understand practice patterns and future training needs of
acupuncturists seeing patients with cancer.
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Children, Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA) Undergoing Treatment for Cancer Perceive Benefits to
Acupuncture Therapy
Hanna Moisander-Joyce, Division of Pediatric Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC), New York, New York;
Michelle Bombacie, Division of Pediatric Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC), New York, New York;
Elena Ladas, Division of Pediatric Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC), New York, New York; Katherine
Taromina, Division of Pediatric Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC), New York, New York; Diane Rooney,
Division of Pediatric Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC), New York, New York; Sagar Chokshi, Division of
Pediatric Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC), New York, New York; Kara Kelly, Division of Pediatric
Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC), New York, New York
Purpose of the Study: Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of acupuncture for symptom management among
adults with cancer. Less is known about the role of acupuncture for supportive care among children and AYA patients with
cancer. We present an interim analysis of a prospective study evaluating the feasibility and acceptance of acupuncture in
this population.
Methods: All acupuncture-naГЇve children and AYA patients receiving cancer therapy at Columbia University Medical Center
were eligible for the study. Following consent and at 3-week intervals, participants completed the Memorial Symptoms
Assessment Scale (MSAS) and were offered acupuncture services which could be accepted or declined. During the sixmonth study period, the reasons for acceptance, chief complaints and perceptions of efficacy pre- and post-acupuncture
were recorded.
Results: 42 of 74 patients (57%) received acupuncture. Patients accepting acupuncture were older, with median age 15
years (range 1-25 years, 86% ≥10). 69% of patients requesting acupuncture had their first treatment during the first three
weeks on study. 76% reported relief from their chief complaint after the first treatment. 90% requested >1 acupuncture
session (median 3.5 sessions, range 1-13). The most common symptoms the patients sought relief for with acupuncture
were pain (33%), nausea (27%), fatigue (15%) and headache (13%).
Significant improvement in these symptoms was
reported within 24 hours in 87%, 81%, 78% and 89% of sessions, respectively. Acupuncture was well tolerated with few
adverse effects noted: minor bruising (1% of sessions), red
marks (1%) and pain upon insertion (1%).
Conclusions: Children and AYA patients undergoing cancer treatment find acupuncture beneficial in addressing both
cancer-related symptoms (e.g. pain) as well as side effects of chemotherapy (e.g. nausea). These results provide
preliminary evidence that acupuncture may be safe in children with cancer and may be considered an aspect of supportive
care to augment current symptom management therapy.
Clinical Acupuncture Case Study: Profound Responders and Heart Rate Variability Analysis
Kristen Sparrow, Private Practice
Acupuncture is a subtle intervention that can result in dramatic physical response. Considered in the context of complexity
theory, acupuncture exhibits nonlinearity, i.e. the degree of response can far exceed the magnitude of the input. Heart
rate is affected moment by moment by complex multiple physiological inputs and hence is also complex. Heart Rate
Variability (HRV) is a problematic but potentially sophisticated measure of inputs to heart rate, most notably sympathetic
and parasympathetic autonomic tone. HRV exhibits nonlinear and fractal characteristics. In this study, HRV data from a
group of patients considered to be “profound responders” is evaluated retrospectively. These patients exhibited rapid
and dramatic response to treatment regardless of their age or chronicity of their condition. This study focused on the HRV
response during treatment to determine if there is there anything characteristic in these patients’ HRV response that
would predict their outsized and remarkable clinical response.
Methods: 12 patients presenting to a private acupuncture clinic were studied retrospectively after having had profound
clinical response. All received body acupuncture prescribed by the tenets of Traditional Chinese Medicine, according to
their presenting pattern and diagnosis. Outcome measures were patients’ assessments of progress and functionality.
Heart rate was measured during treatment after needles were placed. The data analysis was performed with Vivosense
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software with artifact management. LFR/HFR (Low frequency to high frequency ratio), Sample Entropy, pnn50, (nonnormalized) HF, and SD1/SD2 readings were analyzed. These results were compared to 18 partial or non-responder
patients.
Results: Data analysis showed 11 out of 12 patients exhibited an increase in HRV from the first to the second 10 minute
segment. The most consistent measurement was the LFR/HFR measurement.
Conclusion: Clinical utility of HRV is limited but nonetheless provocative in its potential to provide a biomarker of effective
acupuncture treatment, perhaps because of its nonlinear characteristics.
Clinical Observation on Treatment of Pain with Bo's abdominal Acupuncture
Dongmei Liu, Alhambra Medical University; Zhi Yun Bo, Beijing Zhiyun’s Chinese Medical Clinic of Abdominal
Acupuncture; Andrew Shen, Alhambra Hospital Medical Center; James Ho, Alhambra Hospital Medical Center; Lu Liu,
Alhambra Hospital Medical Center; Jian Yuan Jiang, Alhambra Medical University; Megan Hah, Alhambra Medical
University; Barry Morguelan, Garfield Medical Center; Jonathan Wu, Alhambra Medical University
Purpose: Bo’s abdominal acupuncture is a unique technique that only uses abdominal acupuncture points to treat
different diseases. We have applied this method to the patients in Alhambra Medical University and Alhambra Hospital
Medical Center, Alhambra, CA. This study is to observe and analyze the effectiveness of abdominal acupuncture for pain
management.
Methods: 59 cases were diagnosed with low back pain, upper back pain, shoulder and arm pain, and leg pain based on the
locations of pain. They were treated with Bo's abdominal Acupuncture technique. The primary outcome was subjective
pain as measured by 10-point pain scale, ranging from 0 (no pain), to 10 (worst pain ever). Patients’ self-rated pain scores,
both before and immediately after acupuncture treatment were compared. The accumulative effectiveness was also
evaluated at 4th, 6th, and 12th visit by comparing the pain scores with baseline pain scores at the first visit.
Results: Immediately after abdominal acupuncture treatment there was more than 70% pain scores reduction in 90% of
patients. The high effectiveness rate of immediate pain relief was 90%. The mean pain scores between pre-treatment and
post-treatment were significantly different (P<0.0001). The high accumulative effectiveness rate (more than 70% of pain
reduction) was 32% at 4th visit, 63% at 8th visit, and 78.9% at 12th visit. Moderate effectiveness (35% – 70% pain
reduction) at 12th visit was 20.45%, and no effectiveness rate was 5.2% in total.
Conclusion: Bo's abdominal acupuncture technique has high effectiveness for immediate pain relief. It also has high
accumulative effectiveness. It has less needling pain without evident side-effects. Randomized controlled clinical trial
needs to be done to confirm the effectiveness of abdominal acupuncture technique in the future.
Clinical Randomized Controlled Study on the Relief of Pain in Herpes Zoster with Fire Needle
Chen Hongpei, 13981709136; Luo Rong, 02866875869; Shen Xiaocong, 15983268873; Liu Xuemei, 13458546652; Yang
Yunkuan, 02866875835
Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the curative effect of fire needle with that of western medicine on
the relief of pain in herpes zoster.
Design: The study was a single-blind, multi-center randomized, controlled trial.
Settings/Location: The study was conducted in the outpatient and hospitalized of Chengdu Second People's Hospital, the
affiliated hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Sichuan Institute of Traditional Chinese
Medicine.
Subjects: The participants were adults who did not receive antivirus and pain relief treatment with the diagnostic of
herpes zoster and herpes occurs within 1-7 days.
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Interventions: Fifty (50) subjects were randomized to two treatment groups: в‘ fire needle group (n = 25): Perform
needling with fire needle, acupuncture and electro-acupuncture, at Ashi Points, EX-B-2 (Jiaji), SJ-6 (Zhigou) and SI-3
(Houxi), once per day for 10 days. в‘Ў Western medicine group (n = 25): Conduct the treatment with Valaciclovir
Hydrochloride and Vitamin B1 for 10 days.
Outcome measures: The primary outcome evaluated were the mean change of pain intensity, pain relief degree, time
when the pain begins to relieve, duration of pain and occurrence of postherpetic neuralgia during the period of treatment.
Results: The cure and marked efficacy rate was significant different (p<0.01) between the fire needle group (84.21%) and
western medicine group (47.83%).The durations of pain, along with the follow-up examination of relief degrees from the
2nd day to the 7th day of treatment and on the 22nd and 30th day, showed the difference of the two groups was
statistically significant (P < 0.05), and the fire needle group was more favorable than western medicine group.
Clinical Research on Women’s Climacteric Syndrome Treated with Catgut Embedding in Points
Combined by Auricular-Plaster Therapy
Guizhen Chen, Baoan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Linqiu Liang, Acupuncture and Massage College,
Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine; Yunxiang Xu, Acupuncture and Massage College, Guangzhou University of
Chinese Medicine
Purpose: To investigate the therapeutic effect of catgut embedding in points combined with auricular-plaster therapy on
Women’s Climacteric Syndrome.
Methods: 62 cases of climacteric syndrome women aged from 41 to 60 were selectedпјЊand randomly assigned to
treatment group (n=31) and control group (n=31). Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Shenshu (BL 23) and Guanyuan ( CV 4) were used as
main points combined with adjunct points according to syndrome differentiation in the acupoint catgut implantation
group (control group), once a week. The treatment group was treated with auricular-plaster therapy in which the tender
spots on the auricular were pressed by vacarria seeds, once every other day, in combination with catgut embedding
therapy as that of control group. One month made up an observing therapeutic course, the improved method of
Kupperman grade point was adopted to estimate symptoms and curative effect. Simultaneously, investigated the adverse
reaction in recentness.
Results: (1) There was a statistic significant difference of the Kupperman grades (KI index) between two groups before and
after treatment. Among them, the effect of the treatment group on the hectic fever, sweating, paraesthesia, great
excitability of the patients was much better than that of the control group (P<0.05). (2) The total effective rate of the
group of catgut embedding in points combined by auricular-plaster therapy was 96.77%, higher than control group’s
90.32%.There was significant difference between two groups’effect(P﹤0.05). (3) The total occurrence rate of adverse
reaction in the treatment group was 9.68%,higher than control group’s 3.23%,but there was no difference between
two groups(P﹥0.05).
Conclusion: Catgut embedding in points combined with auricular-plaster therapy has better effect on the treatment of
climacteric syndrome, which could improve various kinds of clinical symptoms of the climacteric syndrome notably.
Comparison of Physical Properties of Commonly Used Acupuncture Needles
Yi Min Xie, RMIT University; Claire Zhang, RMIT University; Shanqing Xu, Swinburne University of Technology
The purpose of this study is to investigate various physical properties of several widely used brands of acupuncture
needles (such as Seirin from Japan and Hwato from China). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images have been
taken for at least 10 needles randomly chosen from each brand. These images reveal significant surface irregularities and
variations, especially at the needle tip. Nano-scale particles of various shapes have been observed on the surfaces of some
of the needles. Using an ultrasound cleaning process, it has been discovered that some of the nano particles are loosely
attached to the needle surface while others are firmly bonded to the surface. The surface roughness of the needles has
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been quantified by using a profilometer. Considerable differences have been found in the surface roughness of different
needles. The difference in the surface roughness of the needle may result in different biomechanical responses, e.g. the
level of “needle grasping” during manual needle stimulation. It is concluded that although all acupuncture needles seem
to be similar to the naked eye, there are actually important differences in different needles in terms of surface
smoothness, sharpness of the tip, irregular shape of the tip, loose particles on the needle surface etc. These differences
may have ramifications in biomechanical responses and downstream therapeutical effects during and after the
acupuncture needling.
Comparison of Restrained and Unrestrained Rat Models of Electro-Acupuncture in Rats
Haolin Zhang, Peking University; Lixing Lao, University of Maryland; Ming Yi, Peking University
Acupuncture and electro-acupuncture (EA) are widely used to treat a variety of diseases including pain. In preclinical basic
science research, EA is usually applied by inserting acupuncture needles into the hindlimbs of rats restrained in small
tubes or bags. This restrained model of EA may cause stress and have limitations in stimulating locations and intensities. In
2004, a novel, unrestrained rat model of EA stimulation was introduced to solve these problems. However, it was unclear
whether there were any differences in the anti-nociceptive effects and intensity tolerance between the restrained and the
unrestrained EA methods. To answer these questions, we measured current intensity tolerance and stress levels during
restrained and unrestrained EA, and compared their anti-nociceptive effects in rats of acute inflammatory pain induced by
intra-plantar injection of CFA. Our data showed similar anti-nociceptive effects of restrained and unrestrained EA. In
addition, rats showed less stress-like behaviors during the unrestrained EA procedure and tolerated higher current
intensity. These advantages suggest that this method can replace the restrained EA procedure and be used with novel
electrophysiological techniques such as single unit and field potential recording in conscious rats.
Key words: pain, acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, restrained model, unrestrained model, rat
Coping Strategy for Electroacupuncture Stimulation Modulates Pressure Pain Threshold in Passive
Trait Subjects
Jeungchan Lee, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, South Korea; Kyungmo Park,
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, South Korea
INTRODUCTION: Acupuncture stimulation including electroacupuncture (EA) is reported to modulate the pressure pain
threshold (PPT). But there’s no study whether the coping with acupuncture stimulation, also a noxious mechanical
stimulation, affects PPT. We investigated how experimentally induced coping strategies for acupuncture needling, active
and passive strategies, influenced somatosensory perceptions and autonomic activities in passive trait subjects.
METHODS: Thirty-eight volunteers were screened by �Coping Checklist (Folkman, 1980)’ and the active trait subjects
(n=13) were excluded. Only passive trait subjects (n=25) were randomized into experimentally induced active and passive
coping strategy groups (AC and PC). Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was performed at left lower leg before and after
EA. EA stimulation was applied at two acupoints (ST36 and GB39). To induce AC and PC groups experimentally, PC group
were asked to endure the stimuli, but AC group were allowed to ask actively to reduce the stimulation intensity by
pressing the button. Neither PC nor AC, stimulation intensity was not changed (95% of individual electrical pain threshold).
During the EA stimulation session, heart rate and skin conductance were measured.
RESULTS: We found the decrease only in PPT (-0.74В±1.05kPa, P<0.05) in AC group after the EA stimulation whereas the
PPT was slightly increased in PC (0.31В±0.52kPa, P=0.07). PC group shows significant decrease in heart rate (HR,
maximally in 2-4sec, -1.41В±2.50BPM, P<0.05), while in AC group, HR was increased compared to PC group in 10-12
seconds (AC=0.83В±1.63BPM, PC=0.69В±1.65BPM, P<0.05). The increase of skin conductance response was found
in AC (0.73В±0.75ВµS, P<0.005).
DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION: We found, for the pass trait subjects, passive coping to EA stimulation increased PPT with HR
decrease, while active coping decreased PPT with HR increase. It can be speculated that experimentally induced coping
strategy, coupled with autonomic activity, might affect inhibitory control of pressure pain through PAG.
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Corresponding Points of Korean Hand Acupuncture Is Useful Method for Diagnosis and Treatment
Kyu-Hyun Park, Pusan National University Hospital; Tae-Ho Kang, Pusan National University Hospital; Hyun-Woo Kim,
Pusan National University Hospital; Tae-Woo Yoo, Korean Hand Acupuncture Institute
Background and Object: High proportion of headache patients are underdiagnosed and undertreated. There
is no practical guideline to use the concept of localization practically. We need guideline to improve the diagnostic
accuracy using the concept of localization mentioned as criteria of International Headache Classification.
Method: There are Meridians and Acupuncture Points on the whole body. The system is very complicated and is not easy
to use in clinical practice. In Korean Hand Therapy, there is Micro-meridian and Acupuncture Points on the hand. Gold
Meridian and Acupuncture Points were developed based on Micro-meridian system. We use Corresponding Points to
determine the location of tender points of migraine and tension type headache. This procedure was performed as one
part of physical examination at department of neurology, Pusan National University Hospital from March 2009 to Feb.
2011. The 200 patients with primary headache patients were included. We checked pain location on both sides of head
and neck on Gold Acupuncture Points on the head and corresponding micro-acupuncture points on the hand.
Results: We checked tender points along the Gold Meridian and Acupuncture Points on the head and Corresponding
Points on the middle finger of 200 headache patients. We analyzed them into three groups, such as migraine, tension type
headache, and mixed form. The location of migraine group were divided into right, left and both side, that of tension type
headache were divided right, left and both sides, and that of mixed form was various combination. The numbers of pain
location pattern were 15 kinds. The numbers of pure migraine pattern was 3, of pure tension type was 3, and of mixed
form was 9 demonstrated.
Conclusion: We suggest Micro-meridian System on the hand and Gold Meridian System on the head as new protocol to
decide location. Pain of primary headache is closely related with meridian systems. We can improve the diagnostic value
of migraine and tension type headache using Corresponding concept.
Cupping for Treating Neck Pain in Video Display Terminal Users: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial
Tae-Hun Kim, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine; Jung Won Kang, Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, College
of Oriental Medicine, Kyung-Hee University; Kun Hyung Kim, Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, Korean Medicine
Hospital, Pusan National University; MinHee Lee, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine; Jung Eun Kim, Korea Institute of
Oriental Medicine; Joo-Hee Kim, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine; Seunghoon Lee, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine;
Mi-Suk Shin, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine; So-Young Jung, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine; Ae-Ran Kim, Korea
Institute of Oriental Medicine; Hyo-Ju Park, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine; Kwon Eui Hong, Department of
Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Daejeon University, Daejeon
Objectives: This was a randomized controlled pilot trial to evaluate the effectiveness of cupping therapy for neck pain in
video display terminal (VDT) workers.
Methods: Forty VDT workers with moderate to severe neck pain were recruited from May, 2011 to February, 2012.
Participants were randomly allocated into one of the two interventions: 6 sessions of wet and dry cupping or heating pad
application. The participants were offered an exercise program to perform during the participation period. A 0 to 100
numeric rating scale (NRS) for neck pain, measure yourself medical outcome profile 2 score (MYMOP2 score), cervical
spine range of motion (C-spine ROM), neck disability index (NDI), the EuroQol health index (EQ-5D), short form stress
response inventory (SRI-SF) and fatigue severity scale (FSS) were assessed at several points during a 7-week period.
Results: Compared with a heating pad, cupping was more effective in improving pain (adjusted NRS difference: -1.29 [95%
CI -1.61, -0.97] at 3 weeks (p=0.025) and -1.16 [-1.48, -0.84] at 7 weeks (p=0.005)), neck function (adjusted NDI difference:
-0.79 [-1.11, -0.47] at 3 (p=0.0039) and 7 weeks (p<0.0001)) and discomfort (adjusted MYMOP2 difference score: -0.72 [1.04 to -0.40] at 3 weeks and -0.92 [-1.24, -0.60] at 7 weeks). Significant improvement in EQ-5D was observed at 7 weeks
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(1.0 [0.88, 1.0] with cupping and 0.91 [0.86, 0.91] with heating pad treatment, p=0.0054). Four participants reported mild
adverse events of cupping.
Conclusion: Two weeks of cupping therapy and an exercise program may be effective in reducing pain and improving neck
function in VDT workers. CRIS registration: KCT0000106
Current Status and Future Prospects of Acupuncture Utilization in Palliative Care of Mongolia
Enkhtuya Vankhuu, Health Sciences University of Mongolia
Role of acupuncture for symptom management in oncology is well established, with substantial data supporting its ability
to alleviate pain, chronic fatigue, postoperative and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and xerostomia. In
Mongolia, most physicians considered acupuncture for cancer patients is contraindicated. In the preliminary study
conducted between Apr to Sep 2009, single blind, randomized controlled clinical trial, recruiting 24 gastric cancer patients
undergoing post-operative chemotherapy, moxa at Guanyuan had significantly decreased fatigue score of the postoperative chemotherapy gastric cancer patients (P<0.05) and positively regulated Global Health score and other symptom
scales especially nausea & vomiting, appetite loss scores by EORTC QoL 30. From Nov 2011, I have been employed as part
time acupuncturist at the National Cancer Center of Mongolia, provided acupuncture treatment, for 90 patients in 148
treatments on their palliative care practitioner’s request. Analysis of data on patients received acupuncture between Jan
to Jun 2012, shows 30 % of the patients had poorly controlled pain, 28% patients for nausea and vomiting, 24% were for
insomnia. Moreover, there are certain needs of acupuncture in oncology: after the head and neck surgery- recovering or
preventing facial paralysis and speech impairment; treating post surgery–intestinal paralysis and anuria or oliguria and
radiotherapy induced diarrhea. Therefore, acupuncture is the useful in palliative care settings. For the future, we will
work to establish acupuncture treatment guideline for cancer patients in Mongolia.
Development of An Evidence-Based Clinical Decision-Making Support System in Acupuncture
Yulan Ren, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan, PR China; Yan Gao, Chengdu University
of Information Technology, Chengdu, Sichuan, PR China; XI Wu, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine,
Chengdu, Sichuan, PR China; Hongpin Shu, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu, Sichuan, PR China;
Fanrong Liang, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan, PR China
Acupuncture is widely employed to treat different disease symptoms. However, the experience-based decision-making
system used in acupuncture limits its clinical application and the ability to conduct research. The establishment of a
scientific and internationally accepted evidence-based decision-making system could effectively overcome this limitation
of traditional acupuncture. Here, we describe a novel evidence-based decision-making support system for acupuncture.
We discuss the establishment of this system, including evidence evaluation and the construction of a data warehouse and
data mining models. This system consists of several modules: a data update module for data input and output, a data
preprocessing module, an electronic medical recording module, a diagnostic module, a treatment decision module, an
auxiliary system module, and a result output module, which enable the evaluation, storage, analysis, and application of
acupuncture evidence from clinical diagnosis. Although this version of the system lacks networking capability, it provides a
convenient and rapid platform for the continuous two-way transfer of information between a computer and the person
using it.
Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnostic Categories for Breast Cancer Survivors with
Symptom Distress
Lorna Lee, Won Institute of Graduate Studies; Adam Schreiber ; Christina Seluzicki, University of Pennsylvania; Susan Li,
University of Pennsylvania; Jun Mao, University of Pennsylvania
Background: Breast Cancer survivors experience a range of symptom side effects such as hot flashes, fatigue, joint pain,
and insomnia for which conventional medication treatments are limited. Acupuncture has the potential to address these
common side effects and is perceived as a natural alternative by cancer patients. The development of Traditional Chinese
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Medicine (TCM) diagnostic criteria is an essential step in performing epidemiology and intervention research to increase
the authenticity of acupuncture treatment that is reflective of clinical practice.
Methods: We are in the process of analyzing baseline data from two acupuncture clinical trials among breast cancer
survivors who finish primary care treatment (chemotherapy, surgery, radiation) and experience symptom side effects of
hot flashes and arthralgia. The physician acupuncturist performed a detailed biomedical and TCM history and physical for
each participant. The non-physician acupuncturists performed a TCM history and physical. The TCM diagnostic criteria
were assigned by the two acupuncturists, and when there was a discrepancy, the third acupuncturist served as the tie
breaker. We will perform descriptive and correlative analyses between the TCM criteria and the important sociodemographic factors and patient reported outcomes (hot flashes, pain, fatigue).
Anticipated Results: We will be presenting data from over 120 breast cancer survivors on the distribution of TCM
diagnostic categories. We will also present how the TCM categories break down by key social demographic and
clinical. Furthermore, we will describe the distribution of the TCM categories among individuals with the symptoms of
pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, hot flashes, anxiety and depression.
Discussion: This research presents an important first step in quantifying TCM diagnostic categories among breast cancer
survivors who experience symptom distress. Data from the study may inform both TCM diagnoses and intervention
development, which can then be used to create personalized integrative care for breast cancer survivors.
Dissociation of Somatosensory Stimulation and Needling Credibility in Acupuncture with Sensory
threshold and Autonomic Response
Jeungchan Lee, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, South Korea; Jun-Hwan Lee,
Acupuncture, Moxibustion & Meridian Research Group, Medical Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine,
Daejeon, South Korea; Vitaly Napadow, Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts
General Hospital; Kyungmo Park, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, South Korea
INTRODUCTION: In order to dissociate somatosensory stimulation from placebo effect in acupuncture, we investigated
manual acupuncture stimulation (REAL) and a sham (phantom acupuncture; PHNT) using quantitative sensory testing
(QST) and autonomic activity.
METHODS: Thirty-eight healthy subjects were randomized into REAL and PHNT groups. In REAL, the procedure of needling
and manipulation at acupoint ST36 was performed, video-recorded and simultaneously displayed to the subject. In PHNT,
to create only credibility that they were getting stimulated, the video clip recorded in REAL session was replayed to the
subject with pretending the acupuncturist inserts and manipulates needle. QST was performed before and after REAL or
PHNT session. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance response (SCR) were acquired during each session. Acupuncture induced sensation was inquired after the sessions.
RESULTS: After the manual acupuncture stimulation (REAL), vibration and mechanical detection threshold were increased
with significant HR decrease and SCR increase (О”VDT=0.61В±0.24, P<0.05; О”MDT=0.55В±0.22g, P<0.05; О”HR -5.76В±0.66 BPM,
P<0.001; О”SCR=2.15В±0.67uS/Sec, P<0.01). Increased MDT was observed after phantom acupuncture stimulation (PHNT)
with HR decrease and SCR increase (О”MDT=1.06В±0.36g, P<0.05; О”HR=-4.53В±0.41BPM, P<0.001; О”SCR=0.67В±0.28uS/Sec,
P<0.05). No significant difference between REAL and PHNT group in HR decrease, but greater SCR. Acupuncture sensation
intensity in REAL group were observed (REAL=5.59В±0.44, PHNT=2.25В±0.56, P<0.0001).
DISCUSSION &CONCLUSION: Vibration and mechanical sensation are mediated by A-beta fiber which is innervated to
deep layer in dorsal horn. The deep layer is inhibited by descending pathways from periaqueductal gray (PAG) and
anterior pretectal nucleus (APtN). With our result, it can be speculated that somatosensory stimulation (an ascending
input to PAG/ACC and APtN) activated the descending inhibitory pathways to deep layer and then created VDT increase,
which is not influenced by affection, and SCR change. Needling credibility (a descending input from cortex like ACC to PAG
again to deep layer) induced MDT, HR, and partially SCR change.
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Effect and Mechanism of 10.6Ојm CO2 Laser and 650nm Semiconductor Laser acupuncture on
leucopenia rats by cyclophosphamide
Ling Zhao, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China; Lanlan Liu, Shanghai University of Traditional
Chinese Medicine, China; Haiping Deng, 1.Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China; 2. Shanghai
Research Center of Acupuncture & Meridian; Ke Cheng, 1.Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China; 2.
Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture & Meridian; Haimeng Zhang, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese
Medicine, China; Xueyong Shen*, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China
Objective: To assess the effect of 10.6Ојm laser and 650nm laser simultaneously or separately irradiation on leucopenia
rats caused by cyclophosphamide.
Methods: Sixty-six healthy male SD rats were randomly allocated to six groups, eleven rats in each group. Eleven rats as
normal control and fifty-five rats received cyclophosphamide injection as model of leucopenia .The fifty-five rats were
th
injected with cyclophosphamide 80mg/kg first time and 40mg/kg at the 4 day and the 8th day to establish leucopenia
model. Rats of the four treatment groups received either a 5-minute laser irradiation with single 10.6Ојm, 650nm laser or
10.6Ојm-650nm laser irradiation or a sham treatment every day for sixteen days on acupoint Dazhui (DU 14) and both
Zusanli (ST 36) .Rats of model control group received no treatment. The WBC in blood collected from tail end before the
treatment and the 1th 5th 9th 15th 16th day after injecting cyclophosphamide the first time were taken as assess index.
And the spleen index was counted on day 17.
Results: The WBC of rats decreased continually from the second day after injected cyclophosphamide, and maitain lower
level on the fifth day, then began to recover. Compare with normal control group, spleen index of 650nm laser group
recoveredпј€P=0.121>0.05пј‰. Spleen index of the single 10.6Ојm laser, 10.6Ојm-650nm lasers, sham control and model
control group were all significantly increased (P<0.05). The WBC of 10.6Ојm laser, 650nm laser and 10.6Ојm-650nm laser
group reach the normal level after 15 days laser irradiation compared with the control group (P>0.01), while the WBC of
model and sham control group were significantly lower than normal control
group (P<0.001).
Conclusion: 10.6Ојm laser and 650nm laser seperately or simultaneously irradiation on ST36 and DU14 can accelerate the
recovery of the WBC and 650nm laser irradiation increase the index of spleen on leucopenia rat.
Effect of Low-frequency Electrical Stimulation of the Acupuncture Points BL62 and KI6 on the QEEG
of Elderly Women: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
Sanghun Lee, Korea Institution of Oriental Medicine; Kwang-Ho Choi, Korea Institution of Oriental Medicine; Sae-Bhom
Lee, Korea Institution of Oriental Medicine; O Sang Kwon, Korea Institution of Oriental Medicine; Seong Jin Cho, Korea
Institution of Oriental Medicine; Sun-Hee Yeon, Korea Institution of Oriental Medicine; Sun-Mi Choi, Korea Institution of
Oriental Medicine; Kwon Eui Hong, Daejeon University Hospital; Yeon-Hee Ryu, Korea Institution of Oriental Medicine
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of low-frequency electrical stimulation of the ankle joint
acupuncture points (BL62 and KI6) on the brain waves of elderly women.
Methods: A randomized, controlled, double-blinded clinical trial was performed in 31 healthy women (mean age, 54.5
years) within a treatment duration of 12 sessions. In the experimental group, low-frequency electrical stimulation was
applied using the maximum range of the individual insensible strength (mean current, 0.04 гЋ‚). The control group
received sham stimulation. The background electroencephalographic activity was measured before and after the 12
sessions.
Result: After 12 sessions of stimulation, the relative power of the alpha wave decreased (32 of 32 channels: significant
difference in 11 channels 11 channels-significantly, p < 0.05); the theta (30 of 32 channels: significant
difference in 10 channels, p < 0.05), beta (31 of 32 channels), and gamma (30 of 32 channels: significant difference in 7
channels, p < 0.05) powers were also decreased compared with the sham group.
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Conclusion: Electrical stimulation on the acupuncture points (BL62 and KI6) of the ankle joint seemed to stabilize the
elderly women by inducing the alpha power and reducing beta, theta, and gamma powers.
Effect of Moxa Smoke on Monoamine Neurotransmitters in SAMP8 Mice
Huanfang Xu, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Yingxue Cui, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Ping Liu, Beijing
University of Chinese Medicine; Li Han, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Baixiao Zhao, Beijing University of Chinese
Medicine
To determine whether smoke produced by moxibustion influences brain monoamin neurotransmitters in the senescence
accelerated mouse (SAM), 10 normal SAMR1 mice were used as control and 70 SAMP8 mice were randomly assigned to a
model group (n=10) or to one of six moxibustion groups (n=10/group) according to a 2Г—3 factorial design: exposure time,
15 or 30 minutes daily, and moxa concentration, low (5пЅћ15 mg/m3), middle (25пЅћ35 mg/m3), or high (85пЅћ95 mg/m3).
The six moxibustion groups were exposed to moxa smoke six times a week for four weeks; the model and normal control
mice were not exposed. Brain 5-HT, DA, and NE levels were determined using ELISA. Compared to normal control, the
model group showed a remarkable decrease in 5-HT, DA, and NE. There was no difference between mice fumigated for 15
and 30 minutes, but a marked increase in neurotransmitter levels was observed in both of these groups when compared
to the model mice. In groups fumigated at any concentration, 5-HT and NE concentrations were higher than in model
control. There were no differences between the middle and low concentration groups, but those groups showed higher
neurotransmitter levels than did mice in the high concentration group. DA levels were the same in all three concentration
groups. Compared to model control, mice receiving both middle and low concentrations showed an increase; high
concentration produced no difference. Time and concentration clearly affected outcomes: moxibustion at the middle
concentration for 15 minutes was most effective in increasing brain monoamine neurotransmitters in the SAMP8 mice.
Our findings suggest that moxa smoke may contribute to anti-aging by increasing monoamine neurotransmitter levels and
that this effect varies according to concentration and time.
Effect of Preventive Moxibustion at Mingmen (DU-4) on Glycogen and Ghrelin Level in Swimming
Exhausted Rats
Zhifang Sun, School of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Jie Mo, Graduate School of
Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Xiaohong Li, School of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Beijing University of Chinese
Medicine; Na Ding, School of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Shipeng Zhu, School of
Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Lufen Zhang, School of Acupuncture and
Moxibustion, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine
Objective: To observe the effect of preventive moxibustion at Mingmen (DU-4) on liver glycogen, muscle glycogen and
serum ghrelin level of swimming exhausted rats.
Methods: Randomly divided rats into normal control group, Mingmen moxibustion group, exhaustion control group,
Mingmen moxibustion + exhaustion group according to their primary swimming exhausted time. Rats received an
exhaustive swimming after 20 days of intervention. The serum ghrelin were detected by ELA method. The liver glycogen
and muscle glycogen of rats were detected by biochemical method and compared.
Results: Compared with normal control group, the liver glycogen, muscle glycogen and serum ghrelin of Mingmen
moxibustion group had no significant changes. The liver glycogen and muscle glycogen of the exhaustion control group
were significantly decreased (P<0.05пјЊP<0.01),and the serum ghrelin of the exhaustion control group was
significantly increased (P<0.01).Compared to the exhaustion control group,the liver glycogen and muscle glycogen of
Mingmen moxibustion + exhaustion group were significantly increased (P<0.05) , and the serum ghrelin of Mingmen
moxibustion + exhaustion group was significantly decreased (P<0.01).
Conclusions: The mechanism of exercise tolerance improvement by moxibustion on Mingmen(DU-4) may be associated
with the glycogen on different parts of the body. As a brain-gut peptide, ghrelin is involved in the metabolism of glycogen.
Ghrelin may be the key factor of energy regulation on exhausted state.
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Effect on Emulation Acupuncture Pretreatment to Behavioristics of Viscera Tractive Pain Rice and Its
Mechanism Research
Huayuan Yang, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Tingting Guo, Shanghai University of Traditional
Chinese Medicine; Youjiang Min, Attached hospital of JiangXi College of TCM; Tangyi Liu, Shanghai University of Traditional
Chinese Medicine; Ming Gao, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Objective: Research on mechanism and effect on emulation acupuncture pretreatment to behavioristics of viscera tractive
pain rice and its mechanism research.
Method: 40 male SD rice are divided into four groups (sham surgery group, VTP group, emulation group and electroacupuncture group), 10 rice per group, The latter two groups will be acupuncture and electro-acupuncture respectively,
30 min after treating, preparing VTP model, observing all group’s pain integral, and detecting SP positive expressive
matter, activity of AChE, contents of LEK in ileum enteric nerve and contents of c-Fos protein, GFAP positive index in
medullary visceral belt.
Result: pain integral improves significantly for VTP group to sham surgery group(Pпјњ0.05), the same to SP positive
expressive matter, activity of AChE in ileum enteric nerve and contents of c-Fos protein, GFAP positive index in
medullary visceral belt, but LEK content isn’t changes no significantly (P>0.05).Contrast to VTP group, SP positive
expressive matter, activity of AChE in ileum enteric nerve and contents of c-Fos protein, GFAP positive index in medullary
visceral belt decline significantly for emulation group and electro-acupuncture group. Content of LEK in electroacupuncture group raise no significantly(Pпјћ0.05), but it is significant in emulation group(P<0.05).Contrast to electroacupuncture group, pain integral declines significantly(P<0.05), and content of LEK raise significantly(P<0.05), but else
index have no significant difference(P>0.05).
Conclusion: Emulation acupuncture pretreatment can decrease releasing of SP, reducing activity of Ache, raising releasing
of LEK in rice ileum enteric nerve, and reducing expressive of c-Fos protein and GAFP, inhabiting viscera
tractive pain effectively. And emulation acupuncture takes more effect in inhabiting viscera tractive pain to electroacupuncture, it may be related with that emulation acupuncture can raise releasing of LEK in rice ileum enteric nerve
effectively to electro-acupuncture.
Effects of Acupuncture on Intracellular Ca2+ Concentrations and Cardiomyocytes Apoptosis in the
Myocardial Ischemic Reperfused Injury Rats
Yuefeng Tian, Shanxi College of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Leiyong Li, The Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical
University; Haining Gao, Shanxi College of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Bingren Zhang, Shanxi College of Traditional
Chinese Medicine; Jun Wang, Shanxi College of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Our previous study observed that acupuncture stimulation at the acupoints in the Pericardium Meridian of Hand-Jueyin
could inhabit cardiomyocytes apoptosis by electron microscopic. The present study explored further the influence
between the intracellular calcium ions and apoptosis with acupuncture at bilateral Neiguan (PC6) and Ximen (PC4) of the
Pericardium Meridian in rats. Forty Wister rats were evenly randomized into normal control group(NC),
ischemia/reperfusion group(IR), Neiguan group(PC6), Ximen group(PC4), Zhigou group(TE6). After electro-acupuncture
stimulating the acupoints for 20 min, the ligation was done on the anterior-descending branch of the left coronary artery
for 40 min. Electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring was followed to observe the S-T segment. The ligation was released after
EA stimulating the points for another 20 min and perfusion was restored for 60 min. Afterwards, the heart was extracted,
the cellular suspension was prepared for the density of 109/L-1 by the left ventricle. The fluorescent dye is dissolved by
dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), followed by adding Fluo-3/AM for labeling Ca2+ , and assaying the concentrations of Ca2+ in
the myocardial cells by using laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). Another part of cellular suspension was dyed by
propidium iodide (PI) to observe apoptosis with a flow cytometry (FCM). In conclusion, our results indicate acupuncture
stimulation the acupoints in the Pericardium Meridian of Hand-Jueyin can effectively inhibit intracellular Ca2+ overload
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and cardiomyocytes apoptosis, caused by myocardial ischemic reperfused injury, which may contribute to the effect of
acupuncture in reducing myocardial injury and protecting myocardial performance.
Effects of Acupuncture on Life Of Quality in Patients with Breast Cancer Treated with Tamoxifen or
Aromatase Inhibitors
Jen-Hwey Chiu, Institute of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University; Yi-Hsien Lin, Division
of Radiotherapy, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei; Yen-Wen Peng, Center of Traditional Medicine, Taipei Veterans
General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC; Chin-Hwei Tsu, Center of Traditional Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital,
Taipei, Taiwan, ROC; Fang-Pei Chen, Center of Traditional Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
Patients with breast cancer are troubled with severe postmenopausal syndromes such as insomnia, hot flash and cancerrelated fatigue during their treatment with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors. The aim of this study was to investigate the
effect of acupuncture on symptoms relief and life of quality in breast cancer patients receiving hormonal therapy. 97
breast cancer patients were prospectively included from 2010-9 to 2011-9. Under the approval of IRB, the general
information, degree of symptoms and quality of life (QOL) were recorded by questionnaire and SF-12 QOL analysis.
Acupuncture was performed by doctors of the same institute under the guideline of traditional Chinese medicine. The
results showed that the severity of symptoms were mild to moderate after acupuncture treatment compared to baseline
(moderate to severe). Interestingly, the mental component scale (MCS), but not physical component scale (PCS), improved
after acupuncture treatment in breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors. We conclude that
acupuncture provide an important non-pharmacological support in patients with breast cancer during their treatment
with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors.
Effects of Electro-acupuncture on Muscle condition and Sciatic Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity of
model rabbits
Yao-chi WU, Sixth People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China; Yi-jun SUN, Sixth People’s
Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China; Jun-feng ZHANG, Sixth People’s Hospital Affiliated to
Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China; Yan-yan XIE, Sixth People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong
University, Shanghai, China; Jing-hui ZHOU, Sixth People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai,
China; Cheng-fei HUANG, Sixth People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China; Shi-sheng LI,
Sixth People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China
Objective: To observe the effects of electro-acupuncture on the muscle condition and electrophysiology of the muscles in
model rabbits with lumbar nerve root compression and to explore potential mechanisms.
Methods: Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group and a
medication group and electro-acupuncture group. The rabbit model by surgical lumbar nerve root compression was
established in the model group, the medication group and the electro-acupuncture group. The normal group was not
modeling and treatment. The medication group was treated with oral administration of Loxoprofen sodium tablets at a
dose of 4mg/kg/d for 14 days. The electro-acupuncture group got electro-acupuncture at “Jiaji”
pointпј€Ex-B2пј‰of L5 and L6 for 14 days. All the groups were determined the states of bilateral muscle, EMG and motor
nerve conduction velocity(MNCV) before modeling, after modeling and after treatment.
Results: The spontaneous potential and the insertion potential were increased in the model group, the medication group
and the electro-acupuncture group after modeling. The relaxation and activation force-displacement values (RAFDV) in
the right muscle was significantly decreased. The motor nerve conduction velocity of sciatic (MNCV) and wave amplitude
of evoked potential (WAEP) were significantly decreased in the model group, the medication group and the electroacupuncture group, but the value of MNCV and WAEP in the electro-acupuncture group, and
RAFDV in the right muscle in the electro-acupuncture group and the medication group were closed to those level in the
normal group.
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Conclusion: Electro-acupuncture can improve the force-displacement condition of the muscle that damaged nerve place
controls and the electrophysiology of the muscle can recover the MNCV and the wave amplitude of evoked potential in
the compression nerve root.
Effects of Electroacupuncture on the Pain Behavior and Edema in the Rat Model of CarrageenanInduced Knee Arthritis
Bo Eun Jeong, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University; Heun Joo Lee, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan
National University; Da Eun Song, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University; Minyoung Park, Division of
Meridian and Structural Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University; Sungtae Koo, 2Division of
Meridian and Structural Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University
We investigated the analgesic and anti-edematous effects of electroacupuncture (EA) in the rat model of carrageenan (CA)
induced knee arthritis. For induction of knee arthritis, the rats were injected with 100гЋ• of 2% lambda CA into the anterior
synovial cavity of the right knee joint. EA was applied to bilateral ST36 for 30 min except for the control group. To find out
st
the optimal condition of EA, we delivered the EA stimulation at 3 different conditions. For the 1 group, EA was given at
nd
immediately after CA injection (EA0h). For the 2 group, EA was given at 2h after CA injection (EA2h). For the 3rd group,
EA was given twice at immediately and 2h after CA injection (EA0h+2h). To evaluate the level of pain and the volume of
swelling in the CA-induced arthritic knee, the amount of weight bearing force (WBF) of the foot and the circumference of
the knee joint was measured, respectively. To elucidate the effects of EA, the level of TNF-О±, IL-1ОІ and PGE2 in synovial
fluid were analyzed using ELISA. The WBF was reduced gradually after CA injection and the reduction of WBF was
maximized at 4h in the control group. While the reduction of WBF was improved significantly in the EA treated group. The
improvement can be interpreted as an analgesic effect and the effect was most powerful in the EA0h+2h group. And the
EA also suppressed the increase of the circumference of the knee joint. Furthermore, the EA inhibited the expression of
TNF-О±, IL-1ОІ and PGE2 in the affected synovial fluid. The data suggest that EA applied to bilateral ST36 produce both
analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect via, at least in part, down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2 in
knee joint of arthritic rats.
Effects of Moxa Smoke Exposure on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Young Adults
Baixiao Zhao, Shool of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine,Beijing,China; Yingxue Cui,
Shool of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China; Yuhai Huang, Shool of
Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China; Lixing Lao, Center For Integrative
Medicine, Dept. of Family and Community Medicine ,School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD,USA;
Zhanghuang Chen, Chinese Astronaut Scientific Research Training Center, Beijing, China
Objective: To evaluate changes in human heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters during and after
exposure to moxa smoke.
Methods: Fifty-five healthy young adults were randomly divided into experimental (n=28) and control (n=27) groups.
Subjects in the experimental group were exposed to moxa smoke (1.8пЅћ2.5 mg/m3) for 20 minutes twice in a single week.
ECG monitoring was performed in three phases: before, during, and after the exposure. HRV analysis software was used to
analyze short-term (5-min) heart rate variability parameters, including the time-domain parameters (SDNN, SDANN,
RMSSD, PNN50) and the frequency-domain parameters (TP, HF, LF,
LF/HF, INTP, INLF, INHF). Control group subjects were similarly placed in the same environment but not exposed to the
moxa smoke. Follow-up measurements were performed in the following week. SPSS statistical software was used for data
analysis.
Results: In the first test, the percentage increase of SDANN in the experimental group was significantly higher
(p=0.031)than that in the control group in the third phase. In the second test, the percentage decrease in
HR (pпјњ0.001), the percentage increases in SDANN (p=0.007), RMSSD (pпјњ0.001), TP(p=0.17), and HF(p=0.12), and
increases in PNN50 (p=0.022), INTP (pпјњ0.001), INHF (pпјњ0.001), and INLF (pпјњ0.001) in the experimental group were
significantly greater than those in the control group in the second phase. In the third phase, the percentage
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increases of LF(p=0.031) and INTP (p=0.039)in the experimental group were significantly greater than those in the control
group .
Conclusion: Moxa smoke exposure may improve autonomic nervous system activity to induce a relaxation in the human
body.
Electroacupuncture at �Forbidden Points’ in Pregnant Wistar Rats’ Health
AndrГ© Vilella Guerreiro Silva, Federal University of SГЈo Paulo - Brazil; JoГЈo Bosco Guerreiro Silva, Rio Preto Medical School
- Brazil; Mary Uchiyama Nakamura, University of SГЈo Paulo - Brazil; JosГ© Antonio Cordeiro, Rio Preto Medical School Brazil; Luiz Lima, Rio Preto Medical School - Brazil; Gloria Elisa Mendes, Rio Preto Medical School - Brazil
Many complaints in prenatal time can be resolved by acupuncture like nauseas and vomits, low-back pain, insomnia,
digestive problems and depression. Even so, many acupuncturists are afraid of using some points – so called �forbidden’,
according traditional knowledge – in this period. In a recent paper we showed that we could not produce any harm in
Wistar rats’ pregnancy outcome. In this study we search for any problems in the pregnant rat’s health using this
�forbidden’ points.
Participants: Forty-eight pregnant Wistar rats randomly divide into 4 groups: total control, where the animals were left in
cages without manipulation; anesthetized control, where they were manipulated and anesthetized but did not received
Electroacupuncture; peripheral and sacral points, where the rats were anesthetized and received 4 acupuncture points –
LI4-SP and BL27-28, respectively.
Methods: Primary end point was Maternal weight gain. Other evaluated parameters were Glucose, Creatinine, Alanine
aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) rates, and the histopatological evaluation of rats’ livers and
kidneys.
Analysis: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis weres used to compare groups. If any difference was seen, it
was calculated as between-group comparisons with the Bonferroni correction. The adopted significance level was О±=0.05.
Results: Total Control group gained more weight than the Anesthesia control group (p = 0.0064) and Sacral Points group (p
= 0.0004). There was no difference, however, between the total control group and rats that received
peripheral points, the most famous points commonly cited as responsible for harm in pregnancy. It is not possible,
therefore, to conclude from this data that acupuncture in those points could reduce weight gain. We did not find any
difference between the other parameters.
Conclusions: We found no evidence that acupuncture in LI4-SP6 and sacral points could be harmful to the health of
pregnant Wistar rats.
Electroacupuncture for Treating Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: Study Protocol for a Randomized,
Patient-Assessor Blinded, Controlled Pilot Clinical Trial
Seunghoon Lee, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine & Kyunghee University; Joo-Hee Kim, Korea Institute of Oriental
Medicine; Tae-Hun Kim, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine; Sun-Mi Choi, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of massive clinical research and to make a basic analysis
on the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture on painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) compared to placebo and
usual care.
Methods and Results: This study is a protocol for a randomized, patient-assessor blinded, controlled pilot trial (Clinical
Research information Service: KCT0000466). The study was approved by the Ethic Committee of the oriental hospital of
Daejeon University in Korea. Forty-five participants will be assigned to the electroacupuncture group (EA, n=15), sham
electroacupuncture group (SEA, n=15), and usual care group (UC, n=15). Participants assigned to the EA will receive
electroacupuncture (retaining for 30 minutes with a mixed current of 2Hz/120Hz and 80% intensity of being able to bear)
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at 12 standard acupuncture points (bilateral ST36, GB39, SP9, SP6, LR3, GB41) 2 times per week for 8 weeks (total of 16
sessions). Participants in the SEA will receive sham electroacupuncture (no electrical current will be passed to needle, but
the light of lamp will be seen and the sound of the pulse generator will be heard by the participants) at the nonacupuncture points. Participants in the UC will not receive electroacupuncture treatment during the study period. Followup will be made on the 5th, 9th, and 17th weeks after random allocation. 11-point pain intensity numerical rating scale
(PI-NRS) is the primary outcome measurement used in this study. The Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ),
sleep disturbance score (11-point Likert scale), The Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI),
and Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) will be used as outcome variables to evaluate the effectiveness of
acupuncture. Safety will be assessed at every visit.
Discussions: The result of this trial will provide a basis for the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture for PDN.
Electroacupuncture Protects against Cerebral Ischemic Injury by Inhibition of Glycogen Synthesis
Kinase 3ОІпј€GSK-3ОІпј‰ via CB1 Receptor
Qiang Wang, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University; Haidong Wei, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical
University; Lize Xiong, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University
Background and purpose--Stroke especially ischemic stroke is still threatening people’s lives and costs the society and
families too much. EA pretreatment has been proved effective in laboratory and some clinic practice. But the
further mechanism still needed to be revealed for a better understanding. A link between EA pretreatment and GSK-3ОІ
was to be investigated to explain the molecule signal transduction.
Methods--GSK-3ОІ activity was detected by Western blotting of p-GSK-3ОІ(9ser) and GSK-3ОІ in the ipsilateral penumbra at 2
hours after reperfusion induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Infarct volume was examined by TTC staining, and
neurologic score was evaluated by Garcia score system. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining and Western blotting
of Bax, Bcl-2 and active caspase-3.
Results--EA pretreatment reduced the infarct volume and neurologic score at 72 hours after reperfusion. EA pretreatment
increased the site 9ser phosphorylation of GSK-3ОІ at 2 hours after reperfusion in the ipsilateral penumbra. PI3K inhibition
reversed the increasing of p-GSK-3ОІ(9ser) and the protective effect. GSK-3ОІ inhibition induced similar effect as EA
pretreatment. Apoptosis protein detection and TUNEL staining showed the same change as formers. The regulation of
GSK-3ОІ by EA pretreatment was abolished when CB1 was blocked, and CB1 activation promoted the phosphorylation of
GSK-3ОІ.
Conclusion--The data showed that EA pretreatment promote the inhibition of GSK-3ОІ to induce the ischemic tolerance.
And this effect may due to the CB1 activation induced by EA pretreatment. And the protection induced by EA may
eventually attribute to the decreasing of apoptosis.
Electroacupuncture Reduces Heroin Extinction Responding and FosB Protein Expression in the
Nucleus Accumbens Core in Rats
Sheng Liu, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Airong Hu, Ningbo No.2 Hospital; Wenhua Zhou, Ningbo
Addiction Research and Treatment Center; Fenglei Zhu, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Augmentation of extinction therapy with learning enhancing therapy may offer an effective strategy to combat heroin
relapse evoked by drug associated cues. Our lab previously found that Electroacupuncture (EA) significantly reduced cueinduced reinstatement of heroin seeking, and exhibited a promoting effect on the ability of learning and memory. In
present study, we investigated the effects of EA on the extinction of heroin-seeking behavior in rats. We trained SpragueDawley rats to nose-poke for i.v. heroin either daily for 4 h or 25 infusions for 14 consecutive days, and then rats
underwent 7 daily 3-hour extinction sessions in the operant chamber. To assess EA’s effects on acquisition of extinction
learning, 2Hz EA was administered 30 min prior to each of 7 extinction sessions. We tested whether repeated EA
administration during extinction training reduced active extinction-responding. We also applied immunohistochemistry to
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detect FosB-positive nuclei in the nucleus accumbens core, a brain region involved in the learning and execution of motor
responses. We found that EA treatment facilitated the acquisition of extinction learning after the last extinction training
session (active responses in extinction group (EXT), extinction and EA (EXT + EA) group, extinction and restraint (EXT +
Restraint) group and no extinction (No EXT) group were 28 (SEM=6.9), 15 (SEM= 3.6), 31 (SEM=5.2) and 91 (SEM=12.3),
respectively. F (3, 57) = 18.6, p < 0.001). EA did not alter locomotor activity in an open field testing environment (p пјћ 0.05
). EA stimulation attenuated FosB expression in the nucleus accumbens core (the number of FosB positive nuclei in EXT
and EXT + EA group were 57 (SEM=6.2), 31 (SEM= 5.7), respectively. p < 0.01). Altogether, these results suggest that EA
may be of potential use in conjunction with extinction therapy in facilitating the extinction of drug craving evoked by
drug associated cues.
Electroacupuncture Suppresses NDRG2 Up-regulation and Attenuates Cognitive Impairment in
APP/PS1 Double Transgenic Mice
Feng Wang, Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University; Haixing Zhong,
Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University; Xuying Li, Department of
Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University; Ye Peng, Department of Orthopaedics, Xijing
Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University; Xin Li, Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military
Medical University; Bo Hu, Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University; Ming Shi,
Department of Neurology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an; Lixin Lie, Department of
Anesthesiology, Stony Brook University School of Medicine; Qiang Wang, Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital,
The Fourth Military Medical University; Lize Xiong, Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military
Medical University
Electroacupuncture (EA) has therapeutic potential for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A previous study found that
N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) was up-regulated in brains of AD patients. Here, we investigated the
effects of EA on cognitive impairment, pathological changes, and the role of NDRG2 in an amyloid precursor protein
(APP)/presenilin-1 (PS-1) double transgenic mouse model. Age-matched wild-type mice and transgenic mice were treated
with EA (1/d, 30 min) for 4 weeks from the age of 10 months. Our results showed that in the 7th month after birth,
APP/PS1 mice began to show cognitive impairments in the Morris water maze test, which was associated with upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and NDRG2. EA for 4 weeks attenuated Aβ1–42 deposition, suppressed
GFAP and NDRG2 up-regulation, and ameliorated cognitive impairment. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that EA can
alleviate cognitive impairment and suppress NDRG2 up-regulation in an AD mouse model, suggesting that EA may be an
effective therapeutic strategy and NDRG2 may be a novel target for treating AD.
Electromyographic Study on Tai Chi’s Activation of Muscles Essential for Fall Prevention and
Weightlifting
Shin Lin, Depts. of Developmental & Cell Biology and Biomedical Engineering, Susan Samueli Center for Intergrative
Medicine, University of California, Irvine; Ge Wu, Dept. of Rehabilitation and Movement Science, University of Vermont;
Zhongyuan Shen, Shanghai Qigong Research Institute, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Patrick Nguyen,
Depts. of Developmental & Cell Biology and Biomedical Engineering, Susan Samueli Center for Intergrative Medicine,
University of California, Irvine; Christopher Amato, Depts. of Developmental & Cell Biology and Biomedical Engineering,
Susan Samueli Center for Intergrative Medicine, University of California, Irvine; Payton Lin, Depts. of Developmental & Cell
Biology and Biomedical Engineering, Susan Samueli Center for Intergrative Medicine, University of California, Irvine; Amy
To, Depts. of Developmental & Cell Biology and Biomedical Engineering, Susan Samueli Center for Intergrative Medicine,
University of California, Irvine; Gabriel Orenstein, Depts. of Developmental & Cell Biology and Biomedical Engineering,
Susan Samueli Center for Intergrative Medicine, University of California, Irvine
Tai Chi is effective for fall prevention in the elderly and for treatment/prevention of various muscular disorders. In this
pilot study involving six healthy male and female college students, electromyography (EMG) was used to investigate these
healthful benefits. A Holter-type EMG device (Pre-Ideal Company, Shanghai) was used to continuously record from pairs
of electrodes placed over different muscle groups. Muscle activation levels (determined as average height of the highest
EMG peaks recorded at a sampling rate of 125X/sec) for pectoralis major on the chest, anterior deltoid and posterior
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deltoid on the shoulder were 24/57/35 (arbitrary units for the 3 muscles) for 100-lb and 30/81/40 for 160-lb military
press, and 43/25/25 for 100-lb and 65/26/26 for 160-lb bench press on a Bowflex machine. By comparison, activation
levels were 13/44/22 for Chen Style Tai Chi Silk Reeling. For vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and vatus lateralis
(quadriceps muscles on the upper leg), activation levels were 14/19/14 during normal walking and 27/28/27 during an 8inch step. These levels are in comparison with 46/42/38 with or 43/39/35 without up-down motion during 70-30% frontto-back body weight shifting in Tai Chi front stance (as in “silk reeling”); 30/25/23 for cover step (as in “firecracker”);
20/21/24 for horse stance; and 37/27/13 for side stretch kick. Finally, for tensor fasciae latae at side of thigh (functions as
stabilizer), retus femoris at front of thigh and tibialis anterior at front of lower leg (both function as brakes) activation
levels recorded during Tai Chi forward twist steps (as in “parting wild horses mane”) were 2 to 4 times higher compared to
levels recorded during normal walking. In conclusion, this study shows that certain Tai Chi movements can be effective
exercises for upper body muscles for weightlifting while others are superior to walking and stepping for leg muscles
essential for fall prevention.
Evaluating the Representativeness of Group Results: An fMRI-based Acupuncture Study
Jinbo Sun, Life Sciences Research Center, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University; Wei Qin, Life Sciences
Research Center, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University; Jie Tian, Life Sciences Research Center, School
of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University
When exploring the neurobiological mechanisms of acupuncture, most functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
acupuncture studies constructed their theories mainly relying on group analysis results, which were considered as the
representation of consistent responses patterns across subjects. However, most of these group results showed significant
discrepancies in both intra- and inter-studies. Therefore, it is vital to systematically evaluate the representativeness of the
group results, i.e. do the group results represent the consistent significant Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD)
responses across individuals. Due to a lack of corresponding observations in the past few decades, we evaluated the
credibility of the group results in representing individual response patterns evoked by acupuncture stimulation in this
study. fMRI scanning was performed on 16 healthy subjects during manual acupuncture at ST36 (Zusanli) under the ONOFF modal experimental design. Starting from the methodological aspect, this paper adopted the random-effect model
(REM) for group analysis and systematically evaluated the discrepancy between the group-and individual-level results. A
checkerboard experimental design was chosen as the 'standard' because of its high consistency between group- and
individual-level responses. The results showed that liberally thresholded REM-based group results contained an
overestimated consistency of acupuncture-induced individual-level BOLD response patterns, because acupuncture evoked
extensive, strong but individually variant responses. Additionally, our findings demonstrated that the checkerboard and
acupuncture stimulation induced similar liberally thresholded deactivations, which suggests that acupuncture-associated
deactivations may not be stimulus-specific. We propose that a conservative threshold should be chosen, since little
reliable a priori anatomical and functional knowledge on central nervous system (CNS) is available in the human
acupuncture community. As a whole, we suggest that both credible individual- and group-level results should be taken
into consideration in future acupuncture studies.
Evaluation of the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association Protocol to Treat Combat Stress
Induced Insomnia
Christine Cronin, Pacific College of Oriental Medicine - San Diego; Lisa Conboy, New England School of Acupuncture
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the NADA protocol on Combat Stress Induced Insomnia.
METHOD: Using a randomized pretest-posttest design with a delayed treatment waitlist, this study evaluated the
relationship between the NADA protocol and insomnia symptoms. To determine a baseline for each participants’ Combat
Stress and insomnia severity, the Pre-Study Data Collection Sheet, Combat Exposure Scale (CES), Post-Traumatic Stress
Disorder Military Test (PCL-M unlabeled) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were completed before receiving
treatment. The auricular acupuncture treatment points used were shenmen, sympathetic, kidney yin, liver and lung/heart
area using Seirin D-Type ear needles. Each point was needled bilaterally and retained for 45 minutes each day for five
days. Each participant completed the Post-Study Data Collection Sheet, PCL-M unlabeled and PSQI as the post-test after
completion of the treatment course. A follow up assessment was completed using the samemeasures one week after
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post-test. After the one week follow-up, the control group underwent the treatment protocol. The pre and post-tests
were compared to determine if the NADA protocol effectively reduced insomnia symptoms.
RESULTS: The NADA protocol has shown a trend with statistically significant improvements in the global scores of both
the PSQI (p ≤ 0.04 at post treatment and follow up) and PCL-M(p ≤ 0.05 at post treatment and follow up).
The PSQI showed sleep quality statistically significant post treatment (p ≤0.05). Reexperiencing (p ≤ 0.04 follow up) and
hypervigilance symptoms (p≤ 0.003 post treatment) were statistically significant on the PCL-M.
CONCLUSIONS: If the NADA protocol continues to be effective, it would give military medical personnel a simple
treatment option that could be used in any military setting. This treatment could be used preventively, shortly following
combat stress and/or trauma exposure to reduce the risk of the development of future symptoms.
Exploring the Effects of Self-Managed Acupressure on Pain, Function and Osteoarthritis Biomarkers
among Postmenopausal Women with Osteoarthritic Knee Pain: A Feasibility Study
Yan Zhang, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center; Chwan-Li Shen, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center;
Jean-Michel BrismГ©e, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center; Kim Peck, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center;
Raul Y. Dagda, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center; Di-Fan Lo, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center; Susan
Doctolero, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
Purpose: The prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) is higher in women who tend to display more severe knee OA, particularly
after menopausal age. Women are more likely to seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches. Little
research has been conducted to examine the impact of acupressure on knee OA. We examined the feasibility of training
self-administered acupressure exercise and assessed its effects on OA symptoms among women with knee OA.
Methods: A total 36 of eligible women aged 50 years and older were randomly assigned in the acupressure exercise group
(n=15) or the control group (n=21) for 12 weeks. Two training sessions and a training kit were offered to the acupressure
group. Feasibility outcomes such as compliance and adverse effects were assessed. Feedback regarding the training and
self-administrated acupressure exercise was collected. Primary outcomes included Western Ontario and McMaster's
University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and pain and function subscales of SF-36. Secondary outcomes were OA
biomarkers (serum C-telopeptide of type II collagen, serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein). Data were collected at
baseline, 6weeks and 12weeks. Both per-protocol and intention-to-treat analysis were employed. All information was
de-identified and analyzed using SPSS statistics.
Results: Although the attrition rates were high, the training materials were well received. The feedback suggested that
self-administered acupressure exercise is easy to learn and safe to perform at home. No statistically significant results of
the clinical outcomes and biomarkers were observed. Our findings didn’t reveal superiority or inferiority of acupressure
compared with usual care in terms of WOMAC, SF-36 scores or OA biomarkers.
Conclusion: Acupressure exercise is feasible to be trained among postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis. Due
to the limitations of this study such as small sample size and high attrition rate, acupressure’s efficacy needs to be further
explored in larger scale studies with more rigorous design.
Factors associate with Utilization of Herbal Medicine: Evidence from 5 years Inpatient Records in
TCM Hospitals in China Systematic Review: Comparative Effectiveness between Xiaoke Pill and
Glibenclamide for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Chao Liu, University of Macau
Purpose: The most popular Chinese medicinal product of type 2 Diabetes treatment in clinical practice is Xiaoke Pill(XKP).
XKP is synthesized by medical herb extractives and Glibenclamide and is the only drug of this kind
approved by SFDA in diabetes treatment. This study aims to provide a comprehensive systematic review and metaanalysis between XKP and Glibenclamide in clinical efficiency and safety.
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Methods: Randomized clinical trails(RCTs) published before 2012 on XKP versus Glibenclamide in treating type 2 diabetes
for more than 4 weeks were retrieved form major databases, including PubMed, Chinese National Knowledge
Infrastructure, and WanFang database. Fasting plasma glucose(FPG), 2h postprandial plasma glucose(2hPG) and
hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c) improvements were tested by meta-analysis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted on the study
quality of RCTs and efficacy.
Results: 8 qualified Randomized Clinical Trails(RCTs) with 1155 participants were screened out. The pooled mean
difference in FPG is -0.43mmol/L(95%CI -0.75mmol/L to -0.12mmol/L; P=0.007), in 2hPG is -0.71mmol/L(95%CI 1.25mmol/L to -0.18mmol/L; P=0.009) and in HbA1c is -0.30% (95%CI -0.53% to -0.08%; P=0.008).
Conclusions: The current evidences indicate that XKP improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetes treatments a little more
effective than Glibenclamide. Given the limitations of available studies, further high quality, large controlled trials are
warranted to verify the long-term efficacy on glycemic control and occurrence of the complications control as well.
Factors associate with Utilization of Herbal Medicine: Evidence from 5 years Inpatient Records in
Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospitals in China
Chao Liu, Institute of Chinese Medical Science, University of Macau; Cheng Xu, Southwestern University of Finance and
Economics, School of Public Administration; Gordon Liu, Peking University; Yitao Wang, Institute of Chinese Medical
Science, University of Macau
Purpose: We analyzed the pattern and factors associate with the utilization of herbal medicine in Traditional Chinese
Medicine (TCM) hospitals in China.
Methods: Total number of 87248 inpatient records in 100 TCM hospitals from 2003 to 2007 was used. Use of herbal
medicine are analysed by a logit model. Major factors associate with the utilization includes patients’ and hospitals’
characteristics.
Results: Herbal medicine use is positively related to a patient’s age. Female, ethnic group, health insurance status, and
disease types also associate with herbal medicine utilization. Patients in critical conditions (OR=1.27, P<0.01) are more
likely to useherbal medicine than those in stable conditions. However, patients admitted from emergency department are
less likely to use herbal medicine (OR=0.75, P<0.01). Patients from higher rank hospitals received more herbal medicine
treatment (OR=1.12, P<0.01) than their counter parts. Use of herbal medicine is also higher (OR=2.49, P<0.01) in
eastern(developed area) than in mid-western(developing area).
Conclusion: Factors associate with utilization of herbal medicine include both patient demand and herbal medicine
service supply. The study calls for further investigations on availability of herbal medicine and practitioners in different
geographic locations. It is also worthwhile to identify comparative advantages of herbal medicine to western medicine in
treating different conditions in order to fulfill its roles with the current Chinese health care reform.
Factors Associated with Likelihood to Use Acupuncture among Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation
Therapy
Jun Mao, Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania; Eitan Frankel, Perelman School of Medicine at
University of Pennsylvania; Brigitte Hurtubise, Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania; Tiffany Tan,
Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania; Paula Morzenti, Perelman School of Medicine at University of
Pennsylvania; Krupali Desai, Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania
Background: Acupuncture has potential as a supportive care service for cancer symptom management, however, little is
known about patients’ preferences regarding acupuncture integration, which is critical for developing tailored, integrative
services.
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Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey study at an urban, academic cancer center. Participants included
individuals with different cancer types who were recruited during their last week of Radiation Therapy (RT). The main
outcome variable was self-reported �likely to utilize acupuncture’. Knowledge about acupuncture and pain severity were
measured along with socio-demographic and clinical variables. Multivariate logistic regression was
used to identify factors associated with likelihood to utilize acupuncture.
Results: Among the 305 participants, 231 (75.7 %) identified as White, 60 (19.7%) as Black, 8 (2.6%) as Asian, and 6 (2.0%)
as Other. 145 (47.5%) were females. 143 (46.9%) of patients had no knowledge of acupuncture and 209 (68.5%) reported
having pain. Seventy-nine (25.9%) of the subjects were likely to use acupuncture during RT if such services were offered.
In multivariate analysis, non-whites (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.93, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.06-3.51) and those
with pain (AOR 2.62, CI 1.35-5.07) were more likely to use acupuncture. In addition, patients who had knowledge about
acupuncture were also more likely to use acupuncture than those without (AOR 2.27, CI 1.31-3.96).
Conclusion: Patients who identified themselves as non-white, who experienced pain, and had a greater knowledge about
acupuncture were more likely to utilize acupuncture during RT. This suggests that acupuncture may play an important role
in meeting the unmet symptom needs of cancer patients, particularly among minority patients. The data also suggests
that half of the patients have no knowledge about acupuncture, which warrants interventions to improve patients’
knowledge and facilitate the integration of acupuncture into cancer care.
First Steps: Involving People with Lower Limb Lymphoedema in Evaluating Traditional Acupuncture
for Improved Wellbeing
Beverley de Valois, Lynda Jackson Macmillan Centre, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre; Teresa Young, Lynda Jackson
Macmillan Centre, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre; Elaine Melsome, Mount Vernon Lymphoedema Service, Mount Vernon
Cancer Centre
Purpose: Public and patient involvement (PPI) is a prerequisite for applying for funding to the UK’s NIHR Research for
Patient Benefit funding programme. Following promising results from research with cancer survivors with upper body
lymphoedema, we plan to apply for funding to explore the feasibility and acceptability of offering traditional acupuncture
to people with lower body lymphoedema. Our initial requirement is to involve patients in developing the research
proposal. Step one was to offer “taster sessions” so they could experience and evaluate traditional acupuncture.
Methods: We invited patients attending the lymphoedema service for usual care for lower limb lymphoedema to
experience traditional acupuncture. Following a meeting to explain traditional acupuncture, 6 patients consented to
have up to 7 treatments and to complete questionnaires including the Measure Yourself Medical Outcomes Profile
(MYMOP), LYMQOL-Leg, SF-36, and semi-structured questionnaires at baseline, end-of-treatment (EOT), and 4 and 12
weeks after EOT.
Results: Two patients with primary, 2 with cancer-related, and 2 with non-cancer-related secondary lymphoedema
attended for 35 treatments in total. Five had bilateral lymphoedema; none were needled below the waist. Mostly,
patients found treatment relaxing and reported some reduction of symptoms. Improvements in sleep facilitated improved
self-care. MYMOP scores showed clinically and statistically significant improvement at all measurement points; LYMQOLLeg showed improved Function and Mood and SF-36 showed improved Role Emotional and Mental Health scores at EOT.
Five patients would recommend acupuncture to a friend.
Conclusions: Patients were positive about traditional acupuncture. They reported benefits, despite limiting acupuncture to
points on the upper body. We will continue building on these first steps to progress initiatives for service development
and research into using traditional acupuncture to improve wellbeing for people with lower limb lymphoedema.
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Formation of Scholars: Doctoral Education in The Field of Acupuncture and Asian Medicine
Carla Wilson, American College of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Purpose: Practitioners of acupuncture and Asian medicine have begun to engage in doctoral education, yet the impact of
doctoral level education on this medicinal discipline and research in teh field is yet to be fully evaluated. This research
examines for graduated cohorts and assesses the impact of doctoral education on clinical practice, employment, research
and integrated health care settings.
Methods:This research surveys and analyzes Asian Medicine practitioners that have completed the doctoral program at
the American College of Traditional Chinese Medicine (ACTCM) in San Franciso, CA ACTCM began it's first doctoral cohort
in fall 2006.The graduated cohorts were surveyed to assess the impact that doctoral education is having thus far on
clinical practice, employment, research,integrated health care settings and professionalism. A mixed methods approach
was used to evaluate both qualitative and quantitative information.
Results This research project indicates that practitioners of acupuncture and Asian Medicine are entering doctoral
programs for a variety of reasons and pursuing research in acupuncture, herbal medicine.Graduates that were surveyed
indicated that there is value in doctoral level training and that this level of training is needed in order to move ahead in
clinical practice, prepare to work in integrated healthcare settings, and to develop specialties in the field.
Conclusion: The outcfomes of the study indicate the strong growing interest in inter professional medical education,
integrated health care settings, and cross-disciplinary research.
Gene Expression Profiles at Moxibustioned Site of Acupoint ST36
Hai-Yan Yin, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Yong Tang, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese
Medicine; Sheng-Feng Lu, Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Ling Luo, Chengdu University of Traditional
Chinese Medicine; Fang Zeng, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Jia-Ping Wang, Chengdu University of
Traditional Chinese Medicine; Xu-Guang Liu, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Shu-Guang Yu, Chengdu
University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
As a major alternative therapy in Traditional Chinese Medicine, moxibustion has been demonstrated that it could yield
significant expression of immune-related genes in blood, spleen or brain, etc. However, what will take place at
moxibustioned site remaining unclear. To answer this question, we applied adjuvant arthritis rat model and performed
microarray analysis with skin tissue taken from the moxibustioned site of acupoint Zusanli (ST36) at where 15 minutes
moxibustion stimulation was administrated. The results exhibited 27 up-and 82 down-regulated genes which responded
immediately at the moxibustioned site. Interestingly, fifty percent of enriched pathways and forty-three percent of
enriched biological progresses of the 109 DEGs contributed to immunity directly.
“Getting My Life Back”: A Study of How Acupuncture Treatment Improved Quality-Of-Life for One
Woman with Breast Cancer-Related Lymphoedema
Beverley de Valois, Lynda Jackson Macmillan Centre, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre; Teresa Young, Lynda Jackson
Macmillan Centre, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre; Elaine Melsome, Mount Vernon Lymphoedema Service, Mount Vernon
Cancer Centre
Purpose: Acupuncture is an unusual treatment for lymphoedema patients, with fears that it might exacerbate
lymphoedema and introduce infection. Furthermore, research often focuses on a single symptom, overlooking
acupuncture’s beneficial effects on overall wellbeing. This case study reports “Ann” who participated in research
investigating the use of acupuncture as an adjunct to usual lymphoedema care to promote wellbeing and improve qualityof-life. It illustrates the range of benefits associated with acupuncture treatment.
Methods used: Data from treatment notes, questionnaires, clinical observation, and communications with the patient
were drafted by the author, and sent to “Ann” for feedback and verification. Keen to share her experience, “Ann” has
consented to disseminating her details.
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Results: “Ann”, age 60, developed lymphoedema in her left arm soon after breast cancer surgery nine years previously.
Her arm felt heavy and constantly painful; swollen fingers restricted her grip. She reported frustration, lack of control, loss
of confidence, and guilt about surviving cancer. Her treatment priorities were 1) relief of arm pain, and 2) to get back “in
balance”. A seamstress, she wanted to resume sewing. Ann received 13 acupuncture treatments over 16 weeks; after
three treatments she reported that her arm felt less heavy, pain reduced, her grip improved and she completed a small
sewing project. Sleep, energy, and bowel habits improved; nightmares and headaches reduced. Seventy pounds
overweight, Ann worked with her acupuncturist to improve her dietary habits, losing 10 pounds “without dieting”.
Emotionally, she reported reduced anxiety and guilt. Her confidence increased, and self-management of lymphoedema
improved.
Conclusions: Ann illustrates the complex ways that acupuncture can facilitate physical and emotional healing, and
influence lifestyle habits. Through treatment, Ann processed difficult emotions related to cancer and lymphoedema. She
dealt with symptoms in a more positive way, an essential change for managing a chronic
condition like lymphoedema.
Gold Acupuncture Model and Mirco-Meridian Acupuncture Model of Korean Hand Acupuncture Are
Used instead of Body Acupuncture Points for Treatment
Kyu-Hyun Park, Pusan National University Hospital; Tae-Ho Kang, Pusan National University Hospital; Hyun-Woo Kim,
Pusan National University Hospital; Tae-Woo Yoo, Korean Hand Therapy Institute
Modernization of acupuncture has been top issue in academic meetings in the world. It is necessary to undertake scientific
studies of acupuncture. It needs to prove scientific evidence based on principles or hypothesis. For treatment, a manual
acupuncture needle has been used for long time, but it cause pain for patients. Some researchers said that we consider
the frequency of adverse effects from acupuncture treatment, plus the need for treatment of the adverse effects and the
costs involved for treatment of side effect. To avoid this, some institutes used electric and laser acupuncture in clinics and
research. These institutes published research claiming that laser acupuncture was more effective than hand-inserted
acupuncture. However, there is insufficient research into issues regarding the use of electric and laser acupuncture Korean
Hand Acupuncture uses numerous therapeutic methods, among them, Cyber Korean Hand Therapy Plate and Gold
Meridian- Acupuncture Model has been used without manual needling. The participants did not be exposed to sideeffects or danger of acupuncture. I present new therapeutic methods without manual acupuncture on Korean Hand
Model and Gold Meridian Model. KHT Micro-Meridian and Gold Meridian Acupuncture have been developed since 1971.
There are 14 micro-meridians and 404 corresponding acupuncture points in the hands. Gold meridians and acupuncture
points are based on micro-meridians. Micro-meridians in the hands reflect the corresponding points of the body, but Gold
Meridians in the body correspond to the micro-meridians of KHT. It is simple to learn and to practice without side effects.
For Gold Meridian Therapy, only newly developed tools of KHT are used. I also present some important issues of usage of
acupuncture in the view of Korean Hand Acupuncture. What are problems in application of acupuncture?
What is the theory of acupuncture and role of acupuncture? What are diagnostic methods? What are therapeutic
methods? How to study acupuncture?
Gynecology Oncology Alimentary Length of Stay
Zena Kocher, Penny George Institute for Health and Healing, Abbott Northwestern Hospital; Sue Sendelbach, Abbott
Northwestern Hospital; Jason Haupt, Allina Performance Resources
This study, (Gynecology Oncology Alimentary Length of Stay (GOALS) was conducted at a major medical center in
Minneapolis, Minnesota with an inpatient integrative therapies department.
Aims: A. Determine the difference in the length of hospitalization of women having surgery for known or
suspected cervical, ovarian, and/or endometrial cancer versus usual care. (i.e., pre-intervention); B. The “bundle”
approach to care includes early feeding (surgical soft dinner on the evening of surgery, increased protein), integrative
therapies (acupuncture), epidural pain management, and education; C. Describe: 1. Quality of life; 2.
Anxiety; 3.
Knowledge, skills and self-management; and, 4. Pain, nausea, activity, time from removal of catheter to first void; D.
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Determine the difference between usual care and bundled care: a. Medical variables; b. Time to first ambulation; c. Time
to bladder catheter discontinuation; d. Pain; e. Time to meals; f. Amount of opioid; g.
Medication of nausea.
Methods:
•
Study design
•
Quasi-experimental design with a convenience sample
•
Sample
•
A total of 67 women whom met inclusion and exclusion requirements Data Collection Methods
•
Demographic data, quality of life, anxiety, knowledge, skills and self-management.
•
Medical variables, hospital length of stay, time of first activity, time of first void from the electronic health record.
•
Pain and nausea obtained verbally.
Analysis:
Descriptive and comparative analyses were completed.
Results:
•
A statistically significant 0.5 day improvement with the overall length of stay
•
Adjusting for patient characteristics, the difference to -0.4 days and retained the statistical significance.
Describe:
•
Quality of life
•
Anxiety
•
Knowledge, skills and self-management
•
Pain, nausea, activity and time from removal of bladder catheter to first void
Implications:
Further analysis of data is planned to determine the specific effect of providing the integrative services, particularly the
acupuncture. In this acute care real time setting, it is difficult to control for all of the confounding variables that influence
patient outcomes.
Herbal-acupuncture to SP16 Ameliorates Behavioral and Biochemical Responses to Restraint Stress
in Rats
Hyun Jung Park, Kyung Hee University; Hyun Soo Shim, Department of Oriental Medical Science, College of Oriental
Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University; Hye Jung Lee, Kyung Hee University; Yong Ho Ahn, Kyung Hee University;
Insop Shim, Kyung Hee University
Acupuncture has been used for the treatment and prevention of stress-related disorders. In the present study, the effect
of herbal-acupuncture on the behavioral and biochemical responses to restraint stress was evaluated in rats. SpragueDawley male rats underwent to immobilization stress for 21 days (6 hours/day). Herbal-acupuncture (0.05ml/site) was
applied either to the acupuncture point SP16 (Fuai) or saline to the acupuncture point SP16 (Fuai) for the last 7 days. Rats
were randomly divided into four groups: the normal group (n=10, without the restraint stress), the stress group (n=10,
with restraint stress), the SP16 group (n=10, with restraint stress and herbal-acupuncture to the SP16), and the saline
group (n=10, with restraint stress and saline to the SP16). The anxiety-related behavior was tested using the elevated plus
maze and the Vogel test on day 22. The expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the locus coeruleus was measured by
immunohistochemistry. Restraint stress increased the response of the anxiety-related behavior. The serum level of
corticosterone and the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells were also increased. The SP16 group
showed a significant decrease of anxiety-related behavioral response, compared to the stress group. The tyrosine
hydroxylase-immunoreactive expression was also decreased in the SP16 group. These findings suggest that herbalacupuncture to SP16 might play a role in reducing the stress-related responses, which may be helpful for the treatment of
stress-related disorders.
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Herbs-isolated Moxibustion Navel Therapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Due to Spleen-qi
Deficiency
Shuzhong Gao, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Yuxia Ma, Shandong University of Traditional
Chinese Medicine; Dongqing Du, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Cunzhi Liu, Beijing Traditional
Chinese Medical Hospital; Gang Guo, QiLu Hospital of Shandong University; Huaqiang Yi, Shandong University of Traditional
Chinese Medicine; Zhilei Wang, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Ping Qi, Shandong University of
Traditional Chinese Medicine; Yurong Xu, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Zhongyuan Zhang,
Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Qi Xin, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
The purpose of this study was to approve the effectiveness of navel therapy with herbs-isolated moxibustion for Irritable
Bowel Syndrome (IBS) due to spleen-qi deficiency (IBS-D). There were three groups which were treated with herbsisolated moxibustion navel therapy, farina-isolated moxibustion navel therapy and Pinaverium Bromide respectively. 210
patients with IBS due to spleen-qi deficiency were divided into the three groups randomly and evaluated the efficacy by
Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale and Main Symptoms of Diarrhea due to Spleen-qi Deficiency Rating Scale. The
patients were treated two times every week and four weeks as one treatment course and followed up for one month. We
observed the changes of scores of gastrointestinal symptoms and and spleen-qi deficiency syndromes after one treatment
course and the follow-up period respectively. The results showed that the three therapies were all effective and the two
navel theapy moxibustion groups were better than Pinaverium Bromide group in improving the symptoms of diarrhea,
abdominal distension and pain and borborygmi. And the herbs-isolated moxibustion navel therapy group was better than
farina-isolated moxibustion group in improving the symptoms of abdominal distension, pain and fullness and poor
appetite. We came to a conclusion that the effect of navel therapy with herbs-isolated moxibustion was closely related
with the acupoint and herbs.
How Are Americans Using Acupuncture? Patterns and Reasons for Use: Comparative Findings from
National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2007 and an AOM Teaching Clinic
Dawn Upchurch, UCLA; Bethany Wexler Rainisch, California State University, Northridge; Deborah Ackerman, Oregon
College of Oriental Medicine
Purpose: Researchers have articulated the need to move beyond the paradigm of experimental studies to more
comprehensively characterize how acupuncture is used in the �real world.’ The goal of this study was to assess patterns of
acupuncture use in a national sample and supplement these findings with more detailed, clinical outcomes data from a
high-volume AOM clinic.
Methods: Data were from two separate sources. The 2007 NHIS (N=23,393), a cross-sectional, nationally representative
sample of adults, was used to assess acupuncture user patterns (e.g., number of visits, cost, reasons for use, combined use
with conventional medicine). Prospective clinical data (N=2,485), including patterns of use, were obtained from the
teaching clinic at Oregon College of Oriental Medicine (OCOM). Patient oriented outcome measures (e.g., MYMOP and
PROMIS) were also collected. Weighted univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were performed to account for
sample design and provide national estimates. OCOM analyses were unweighted.
Results: Nationally, 1.4% of Americans used acupuncture in the past 12 months. Mean number of visits was 2.3. 46.4%
used acupuncture because conventional medicine did not help; 25.4% were recommended by conventional provider. The
most common conditions treated were musculo-skeletal pain. Prospective clinical data from OCOM also showed musculoskeletal pain as the most common conditions treated. Also, 4 years of data collection revealed 60% of new patients did
not have a 5th visit. Global and physical health scores were 1 SD lower than the US average and pain interference ~ 1 SD
higher.
Conclusions: The chief complaint in both a national sample of acupuncture users and patients in AOM clinic pertained to
musculo-skeletal pain. Moreover, in both samples, the number of visits was relatively small, suggesting a somewhat low
�dose’ of acupuncture. Last, the findings demonstrate the utility of using multiple data sources to inform how acupuncture
is actually used.
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How Does Acupuncture Regulate the Milieu Interne of Human Body
Wei-bo Zhang, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Science; Yu-ying Tian,
Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Science; Shu-yong Jia, Institute of
Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Science
Purpose: Acupuncture has been proven in clinic to have curative effects on many chronic diseases and stress related
diseases. The mechanism remains to be answered.
Methods: Systematic analysis of experimental results, related clinic facts and modern biological knowledge.
Results: Many scientists agree that acupuncture can regulate milieu interne to homeostasis which can improve the
function of cells, tissues and organs. Milieu interne is influenced by whole circulatory system containing vascular bloodlymph flow and non-vascular interstitial flow. Recent experiments showed that acupuncture can increase the blood
perfusion. But this increasing is much smaller than the effects of moxibustion and cupping. What is the most impact of
acupuncture? More recent experiments implied that acupuncture may influence the interstitial fluid flow through muscle
system. One experiment showed that continuous muscle contraction induced by constant electric current can increase the
hydraulic resistance of meridian channels. This result implied that stress related disease presented by a continuous,
unconscious muscle contraction can cause a stasis of meridian channels. The interstitial flow will be reduced according to
the Darcy’s law for hydromechanics of interstitial fluid. This reduction will make milieu interne offsetting the homeostasis
and cause a disease. The other experiment revealed that hydraulic resistance of meridian channels decreased after several
minutes of acupuncture. Acupuncture can reduce muscle stress by tendon reflex which inhibited the activity of О± motor
neuron. The other mechanism concerns on the muscle-skeleton structure changes when increasing the stress of one
muscle unit by positive feedback of О± motor neuron during which swell feeling appears.
Conclusion: Acupuncture can change the milieu interne by regulating interstitial fluid flow through various neural-muscle
reflections.
How Effective are Hinaishin Needles at Kidney 27 Following a Regular Acupuncture Treatment in the
Treatment of Morning Sickness?
Coleen Smith, Point of Origin PLLC
Research Question: How effective are hinaishin needles at Kidney 27 following a regular acupuncture treatment in the
treatment of morning sickness?
Background: Morning sickness is a condition that 50-90% of women experience in varying degrees during their pregnancy.
The current medicines help but there is no remedy. Women continue to suffer with nausea and vomiting and that lead to
this case study research.
Methods: The embedded case study includes 4 patients over the span of 1 year. The data in the case study was compiled
using multiple methods- questionnaires then direct and participatory observations.
Results: This paper may advance two insights: first, treating morning sickness with acupuncture is effective. Second, while
valuing acupuncture and Chinese medicine the respondents experienced significant improvement with tiny imbedded skin
needles at Kidney 27. The data will reveal that the hinaishin needle treatment had a more significant outcome than
regular acupuncture treating morning sickness.
Conclusion: Hinaishin acupuncture is a Japanese approach and little to no research was available in English at the time of
this study. The immediate and long-term relief resulting from the subcutaneous needle technique suggests that this area
needs to be developed and more widely used. The implications of this case study propose an entirely new way of treating
nausea during pregnancy and may help further the usefulness of acupuncture. Further studies could be done using Kidney
27 for all types of nausea and vomiting.
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How Effective Is Auricular Acupuncture for the Treatment of Cervical Pain?
Wei Ling Huang; Ana Paula Huang
Introduction: Cervical pain (CP) is characterized by pain and hypersensitivity at different degrees, muscular tension and a
heavy sensation of the neck. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) it is related to Cold-Wind that invades the meridians,
Liver’s Blood deficiency, hyperactivity of Kidney’s Yang, Qi and/or Blood stagnation, internal accumulation of Cold, etc.
Aim: Retrospective investigation on Auricular Acupuncture (AA) patients with CP using a questionnaire to evaluate the
effectiveness of AA treatment.
Methods: Over 1500 AA patient records analyzed: 23 (1.53%) selected (CP), Questionnaire by phone: main symptom,
irradiation to superior members, male/female proportion, age, sessions for improvement, hospitalization, pain-control
medication, previous treatment, previous x-ray exams, surgery, dietary restrictions, patient-evaluation, recommendation
of AA.
Results: Main symptom: 23 (100%); Irradiation to superior members: 12 (52%) –Yes; 11 (48%) – No; Male/Female:
5 (22%) – M; 18 (78%) – F; Age: min. 21; max. 85; Improvement:
Session Patients
1
2
9
2
3
13
3
10
43
4
3
13
+4
5
22
%
Hospitalization: 23 (100%) – No; Medication: 9 (39%) – Yes; 14 (61%) – No; Previous treatment: 15 (65%) – Yes; 8 (35%) –
No; Previous x-rays: 6 (26%) – Yes; 17 (74%) – No; Surgery: 23 (100%) – No; Dietary restrictions: 13 (57%) – Yes; 10 (43%) –
No; Patient-evaluation: Excellent: 13 (57%); Good: 9 (39%); Regular: 0; Bad: 1 (4%); Recommendation of AA: 22 (96%) –
Yes; 1 (4%) – No
Conclusions: Almost all patients recommended their AA treatment for CP and gave good or excellent evaluation.
More than three quarters of the group were females. 10% felt improvement after the first session. Almost 80% improved
after the first month of treatment. Three fifths had previous treatment and three quarters did not have any x-rays taken.
More than half had not taken medication.
Improvements in Quality of Life in Anxious Depressive Syndromes Treated in Acupuncture in
Pitigliano Hospital Center of Integrated Medicine (Tuscany - Italy)
Cecilia Lucenti, Pitigliano Hospital Centre of Integrated Medicine; Franco Cracolici; Massimo Rinaldi; Roberto Pulcri;
Rosaria Ferreri; Simonetta Bernardini
Improvements in Quality of life in anxious depressive syndromes treated in acupuncture in Pitigliano Hospital Center of
Integrated Medicine In Europe, mental health issues account for nearly 20% of the total disease, affecting one in four
persons during their lifetime. Half of those who suffer of depression is never treated, and even in countries with a
developed health system 44-70% of those who suffer from mental illness is not subjected to any treatment. Among the
ten countries with the highest suicide rates in the world, nine are located in Europe where the social cost of psychological
diseases represents 3-4% in gross domestic product and about 20% of health expenditure. The specific investments on
mental health are on average only 5.8% in government expenditures. Tuscany is among the top places in Italy for
prescription anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs.Despite this often the services offered do not meet the necessity and
requirements of patients and most countries recognize the need to introduce more advanced and more effective policies.
The Hospital Centre of Integrated Medicine of Pitigliano (National Healtcare Service of Tuscany Region) is the first Public
Italian facility providing acupuncture and homeopaty toward outpatients and inpatients. The overall approach to patient
offered by traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture allows a better interpretation of the disease and its energetics,
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organic, existential bases. Treatment with acupuncture permits better management of anxiety and exacerbations, a
decrease in consumption of drugs and a better perception of health status. This paper reports the encouraging
experience of the Public Hospital of Pitigliano evaluating the therapeutic results on anxiety, fatigue, gastrointestinal
disorders.
In Acute Inflammatory Pain Rat Model of the Analgesic Action of Moxibustion
Yapeng Fan, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Chengshun Zhang, Chengdu University of Traditional
Chinese Medicine; Yong Tang, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Haiyan Yin, Chengdu University of
Traditional Chinese Medicine; Shuguang Yu, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Background: Moxibustion as an important part of traditional Chinese medicine, it is the role of the analgesia has been
controversial.
Objective: To prove moxibustion in acute inflammatory pain disease of analgesic action.
Methods: Choose the female rats 40 pes, weight of 200В±20g, randomly divided into blank group, empty moxibustion
group, model group, die moxibustion group. In the big mouse right foot injection CFA reagent made acute inflammatory
pain model, In four days injection in rats Zusanli point moxibustion with 15 min after Von Fre cellosilk on pain threshold
evaluation.
Results and conclusion: Die moxibustion group and model group have difference (P <0.05), blank group and empty
moxibustion group no difference (P > 0.05),die moxibustion group, model group and the blank group have the difference
(P <0.05). Above results show that moxibustion in acute inflammatory pain has a
good effect on relieving pain.
Influence of Electroacupuncture on SCN Output Signal Molecules of Mice Bearing Breast Cancer
Sheng-wu Li, Chengdu University of TCM; Jia Wu, Chengdu University of TCM; Hong Xue, Chengdu University of TCM
Objective: Discuss on the SCN output signal molecules regulating mechanism of electroacupuncture on the animals
bearing tumors.
Method: 18 male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 3 groups with 6 in each group.Each group received LD
domestication for 10 days. After that, light source was blocked so that the mice were kept in free movement for 10 days.
Upon successful model establishment, the spontaneous activity rhythms of mice were monitored for 7 days and then they
were given electroacupuncture therapy. Electroacupuncture was administered at Changqiang (GV 1) and Baihui (GV 20) on
CT4 for 15 min each time and one time a day. Animals were immediately sacrificed 2 hours after the third time. Samples
were then extracted and the concerned readings were obtained by ELISA.
Results: There were no significant differences in SCN TGFО±levels among 3 groups. In the serum and tumor tissues, the
mean value of TGFαlevels of model group were significantly higher than blank group’s(P<0.05) while there
were no significant differences between electroacupuncture group and model group. The EGFR levels of the
electroacupuncture group were significantly higher than the model groupпј€Pпјњ0.05). In the serum and tumor tissues, the
EGFR levels of the model group were significantly higher than the blank groupпј€Pпјњ0.05). In SCN and serum, the PK2
levels of the electroacupuncture group were significantly higher than the model groupпј€Pпјњ0.05).
Conclusions: Electroacupuncture affected on the spontaneous activity rhythms probably through regulating PK2 levels in
SCN and EGFR levels in SPZ which regulate TGF-О±levels indirectly. The effect on EGFR levels in SPZ of
tumor-bearing mice of electroacupuncture also suggested its anti-tumor effect.
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Influence of Pressing and Kneading Huantiao (GB30) on B-endorphin in Periaqueductal Gray and
Amygdaloid Nucleus in a Model of Neuropathic Pain in Rats
Li ZhengYu, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Yu ZhongYi, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese
Medicine; Sun SiTu, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Zhang Jin, Shanghai University of Traditional
Chinese Medicine; Wang GuiLing, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Xiao Bin, Shanghai University of
Traditional Chinese Medicine; Yan JunJie, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Zhang Lei, Shanghai
University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Liu Xiao, College of Pharmacy, Fudan Universtiy
Objective: To research on the analgesic effect on rats with neuropathic pain treated by pressing and kneading Huantiao
(GB30) and also central mechanism of Tuina analgesia.
Methods: In our experiment, the method of chronic constriction injury (CCI) was used in making models of rats with
neuropathic pain. Applied heating test to observe the change of pain tolerance values of model rats and researched on
the change of ОІ-endorphin in some central nuclei and prepro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in arcuate nucleus in rats with
neuropathic pain treated by pressing and kneading tender point with the methodology of molecular biology.
Results: Pressing and kneading Huantiao (GB30) (where there had CCI) for once could immediately and remarkably
increase the pain tolerance value, and had statistic difference with the control group (P<0.05). In experiment of
treating with the Tuina therapy for several times, with the increase of times, the pain tolerance value of the therapeutic
groups gradually increased, and had statistic difference with the control groups (P<0.05). Furthermore, the number
of ОІ-Endorphin positive cells in amygdaloid nucleus and periaqueductal gray (PAG) of the therapeutic groups was much
more than that of the control group (P<0.05). And so was the number of POMCmRNA positive neurons in arcuate nucleus
(P<0.05).
Conclusion: Pressing and kneading tender point had a good immediate and accumulative analgesic effect on rats with
neuropathic pain, and also could raise the number of ОІ-endorphin positive cells in amygdaloid nucleus and PAG
as well as the number of POMCmRNA positive neurons in arcuate nucleus in Tuina groups, which revealed a part of
mechanism of Tuina analgesia.
Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Synthase Attenuates Cutaneous Vasodilation During Warm Moxibustionlike Thermal Stimulation in Humans
Kenichi Kimura, Department of Health Sciences, Kansai University of Health Sciences; Hayato Takeuchi, Department of
Health Sciences, Kansai University of Health Sciences; Kuniko Yuri, Department of Health Sciences, Kansai University of
Health Sciences; Ikuro Wakayama, Department of Health Sciences, Kansai University of Health Sciences
Objectives: This study investigated if nitric oxide (NO) and/or prostaglandin (PG) are responsible for cutaneous
vasodilation during warm moxibustion-like thermal stimulation (WMTS).
Design: For two protocols, two microdialysis membranes were placed in the medial forearm skin. In the first protocol
(n=8), the sites were randomly assigned and perfused with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), an
NO synthase inhibitor or Ringer's solution (control site). Similarly, two microdialysis membranes were placed in the medial
forearm skin in the second protocol (n=6). One site was perfused with ketorolac (Keto), the cyclo-oxygenase (COX)
pathway inhibitor, and the other site was perfused with Ringer's solution (control site). In both protocols, cutaneous
vasodilation was induced using WMTS with an electronic warm moxibustion treatment appliance. After 10 minutes of
baseline recording, WMTS was applied to the forearm skin for 20 minutes and recovery was monitored over a period of 20
minutes. Skin blood flow (SkBF) at each site was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry. Cutaneous vascular
conductance (CVC) was calculated as laser-Doppler flux/mean arterial blood pressure (BP).
Settings/location: The study was conducted in a laboratory at the Kansai University of Health Sciences.
Subjects: The subjects were 14 healthy male volunteers. Interventions: WMTS was applied to the medial forearm skin
using an electronic warm moxibustion treatment appliance.
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Outcome measures: SkBF, skin temperature (Tsk), core body temperature (Tc), heart rate (HR), and BP were outcome
measures.
Results: In the first protocol, peak CVC values during WMTS at the site perfused with L-NAME were significantly
decreased, compared to those at the control site (p<0.05). In the second protocol, peak CVC values during WMTS did not
differ between the control site and the Keto site (p>0.05).
Conclusions: These data demonstrate that NO is involved in the mechanism of cutaneous vasodilation induced by WMTS.
Furthermore, increases in CVC despite inhibition of the COX pathway suggest that PG does not contribute to cutaneous
vasodilation during WMTS.
Integrative Research: Using Mixed Methods Approach
Carla Wilson, American College of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Misha Cohen
Purpose: Anal cancer is a growing public health concern for immunocompromised people.The mainstay of customary
treatment is based on ablative therapy particularly cold knife surgical removal and/or fulguration of
the affected area. This research study is a phase II randomized blinded cancer integrative medicine Chinese herb efficacy
trial for treatment of anal HSIL in HIV-positive people using both qualitative and quantitative methods.
Methods: This study is a 60-week, randomized placebo-controlled trial of a Chinese topical herbal medicine cream in 60
participants ( the University of California at San Francisco Cancer Research Center. Both qualitative and
quantitative methods are used in the project. The Chinese traditional medicine diagnoses will be correlated with westernbased bio-markers, and a qualitative survey instrument.
Results: In this study we are working to develop a model of interpreting HSIL, especially with HIV co-infection, according to
Chinese traditional diagnoses in order to gain experience integrating Western and Eastern
approaches. The inclusion of qualitative research methods will bring the lived experience of the research participants in to
the analysis of the outcomes of this research project. While this is exploratory, it could lend credibility to the Chinese
medicine paradigm and lead other CAM researchers to consider the use of blend qualitative and quantitative research
methods.
Conclusion: All 60 research particpants have been recrutied and 52 have completed the study. Outome of the study have
not been finalized but preliminarty results will be presented.
Intern Delivered Acupuncture for Pain Management: An Observational Study
Benjamin Marx, OCOM; Tom Brunagh, OCOM; Pam Johnson, OCOM; Jesse Liberty, OCOM; Grace Peters, OCOM; Jamie
Varela, OCOM; Deborah Ackerman, OCOM
BACKGROUND: There are 62 accredited AOM educational institutions currently in the US. Each institution maintains an
intern teaching clinic delivering thousands of acupuncture treatments per year. Little has been published regarding
patient characteristics and outcomes in these clinics. Since September 2009, the Oregon College of Oriental Medicine has
utilized standardized data collection questionnaires to track patient outcomes in its intern clinic.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate patient characteristics and outcomes of five consecutive acupuncture treatments for pain
management in an intern clinic, and to analyze patient reported changes in medication use.
METHODS: Demographic and outcomes data were analyzed on patients who received five consecutive acupuncture
treatments at the OCOM intern clinic between November 2009 and September 2011 for musculoskeletal pain. On intake
and at fifth visit, patients completed several questionnaires including the Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile
(MYMOP) and the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pain Severity Scale. The
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MYMOP asks patients to indicate their condition and score its severity on a seven point scale. The PROMIS assesses pain
severity on a 0 to 10 scale.
RESULTS: A total of 159 patients received five consecutive acupuncture treatments. The majority (108, 68%) were female.
The mean age was 54 (SD=16.34). One hundred sixteen (74%) reported chronic pain (>3 months), while 40 (26%) reported
acute pain. At fifth visit, MYMOP symptom scores decreased by a mean of 1.55 points (SD=1.67), and PROMIS Pain
Severity Scores decreased by a mean of 1.91 points (SD=2.68). At visit one, 48 patients (30%) reported using medication
for their condition. At fifth visit, 22 (46%) had discontinued medication, 11 (23%) reduced medication use, and 15 (31%)
reported no change.
CONCLUSIONS: On average, patients who received at least 5 consecutive acupuncture treatments, report clinically
important reductions in symptom scores, pain levels, and medication use.
Intramuscular Stimulation Therapy for Health Care: A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled
Trials
Tae-Hun Kim, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine; Cha-Ro Lee, Jaseng Hospital of Oriental Medicine; Tae-Young Choi,
Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine; Myeong Soo Lee, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine
Objective: We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of
intramuscular stimulation (IMS).
Methods: We searched electronic databases, including Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, AMED, the Cochrane Library,
CNKI, KoreaMED, KISS, RISS and DBPIA, through December 2011. The Cochrane criteria were used to assess the risk of bias
for the individual studies.
Results: A total of 416 publications were initially collected, and four studies were included in this review. One study
evaluated the efficacy of IMS for chronic, tension-type headaches, and IMS showed a better effect than the sham
(headache index: MD -4.90, 95% CI [-9.53, -0.27]). Three studies tested the effectiveness of IMS for various conditions. In
the first study, no significant difference was observed in a comparison of IMS and meloxicam therapy for chronic shoulder
pain (pain-visual analogue scale: MD -0.05, 95% CI [-0.25, 0.16]). The second study was about patients with MPS of the
upper trapezius muscle, in which IMS had a greater effect than simple dry needling by the pain visual analogue scale (MD 2.70, 95% CI [-3.7, -1.63]). In the third study, patients with a lower back pain who received IMS plus the standard
treatment had a better status at discharge than those receiving the standard treatment alone (RR 1.63, 95% CI [1.18,
2.24]).
Conclusion: Despite the positive results of these individual studies, the level of evidence supporting the efficacy and
effectiveness of IMS for several conditions remains insufficient because of concerns for a lack of precision and a high risk
of bias of the included studies. Rigorous and large-scaled clinical trials of IMS will be necessary to evaluate the clinical
utility of this technique in the future.
Involvement of Peripheral Beta-Endorphin and Mu, Delta, Kappa Opioid Receptors in
Electroacupuncture Analgesia in Prolonged Inflammatory Pain
Jian-qiao Fang, The Neurobiology and Acupuncture Research Department, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University; Yong-liang
Jiang, The Neurobiology and Acupuncture Research Department, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University; Xiao-fen He, The
Neurobiology and Acupuncture Research Department, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University; Lei Huang, The Neurobiology
and Acupuncture Research Department, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University; Sheng-chen Qiu, he Neurobiology and
Acupuncture Research Department, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University
Background: Acupuncture is commonly used to relieve chronic pain worldwide. Accumulating evidence shows that
peripheral opioid system plays an important role in inhibiting inflammatory pain.
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Aim: This study aimed to investigate the involvement of peripheral opioid system in electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia in
prolonged inflammatory pain.
Methods: Inflammatory pain was induced by an intraplantar injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) into the right
hind paw. EA (2/100 Hz, 2 mA) was applied to the ipsilateral Zusanli (ST36) and Kunlun (BL 60) acupoints for 30 min once
everyday. Block studies on EA analgesia were performed on day 18 after CFA injection using О±-helical corticotrophinreleasing factor (CRF), a CRF antagonist, and naloxone methiodide, a peripherally restricted opioid receptor antagonist.
Paw withdrawal latency to a noxious thermal stimulus was measured as the pain behavioral change. Radioimmunoassay
for beta-endorphin (beta-END), Met-ankephalin, and dynorphin A in paw inflammatory tissue and immunohistochemistry
study of mu, delta, kappa opioid receptors in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were carried out. The subsequent validation
experiment by exogenous beta-END locally delivered was also performed.
Results: Locally administered О±-helical CRF blocked EA-produced analgesia. The increased beta-END in paw inflammatory
tissue by EA was fully reversed by О±-helical CRF. Intraplantar injection of exogenous beta-END alleviated prolonged
inflammatory pain. EA up-regulated DRG mu, delta, kappa opioid receptors, and locally delivered naloxone methiodide
abolished EA analgesia.
Conclusion: These observations indicate that peripheral beta-END and three subtypes of opioid receptors may involve in
EA analgesia in prolonged inflammatory pain.
Is Auricular Acupuncture Effective in the Treatment of Headaches?
Wei Ling Huang, Medical Acupuncture and Pain Clinic; Ana Paula Huang
Introduction: A headache or cephalalgia is pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck. According to Traditional
Chinese Medicine (TCM), headaches can be caused by Liver energy disturbances but can also stem from Wind, Cold,
Summer Heat, Humidity, Fire, Accumulation of Humidity and Mucous, and Blood stagnation.
Aim: A retrospective investigation of the effectiveness of Auricular Acupuncture (AA) on patients who had suffered from
headaches. A questionnaire was used by phone: How many sessions were necessary to show relief from headaches using
AA, How each patient evaluated the effectiveness of AA, History of hospitalization, Treatment before AA, Recommending
AA, Felt cured or not.
Methods: Research of over 1500 patient records: 160 (10.66%) had headaches; 78 (48.75%) phone contact, A
questionnaire was filled. How many AA sessions? How many sessions to notice improvement? How would you evaluate it?
Hospitalization? Previous treatments? Would you recommend AA? Did you feel cured?
Results: Improvements: 5 (7.25%) after 1 session; 63.78% (44 patients) showed improvement in the first month of
treatment. 19 (27.54%) after 2 sessions. 16 (23.19%) after 3. 4 (5.80%) after 4. 21 (30.43%) after more than 4. 4 (5.80%)
felt no improvement. Their evaluation: Excellent / good: 65 (94.20%); Regular: 3 (4.35%); Unsatisfactory: 1 (1.45%);
Hospitalization: Yes: 10 (14.49%); No: 59 (85.51%); Previous neurological treatment: Yes: 36 (52.17%); Recommending AA:
Yes: 65 (94.20%); No: 4 (5.80%); Felt cured: Completely cured: 14 (20.29%); Not cured: 14 (20.29%); Significant
improvement: 41 (59.42%)
Conclusions: Two thirds improved in the first month of treatment. One seventh had previous hospitalization, and more
than half had previous neurological treatment. Four fifths of the patients felt completely cured or significant
improvement. The majority of the patients in this study had improvement with AA treatment and evaluated their
treatment as excellent or good, and recommended AA to others.
Is the Basic Emotional Structuring Test a Valid Instrument for Early Identification of Problematic
Coping Styles and Psychopathology in Elementary School Age Children?
Ineke van den Berg, Dept. Epidemiology Erasmus University MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Marion Giesberts, Erasmus
University MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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Background: Behavioral problems in elementary school age children are common. Not only the child, also fellow students,
teachers and parents suffer discomfort because of these problems. Through early recognition and applying certain coping
mechanisms, problem behaviors can be reduced, for instance by providing adjusted education. In practice, the diagnostic
route for conditions such as ADHD and autism time-consuming, hindered by language skill problems, which causes
impressive delays before children receive proper care and counseling. 
The Basic Emotional Structuring Test (BEST) is
based on the TCM five-element system. This projective test, with ten colored dolls, is completed within minutes, and
requires no language-related skills of child or parent. The main coping style can be diagnosed from two dolls, designated
by the child.
Aim: To validate the BEST for diagnosing coping style, and to assess prevalence of defined coping styles in children of
adapted education compared to children of regular education at elementary school level. Furthermore, the BEST-coping
style will be compared with regular psychological tests at elementary school students of adapted education.
Method: Children with behavioral problems of a special educational school (C-SES) will be enrolled, and 100 children of a
regular school (C-REG). Socio-demographic data of both groups will be recorded. The psychological
diagnoses of the C-SES will be compared to the BEST coping styles.
Results: 100 C-SES and 100 C-REG students will enroll the study in October 2012. The preliminary results will be discussed.
The results of a pilot study to test the feasibility and acceptability of the BEST were promising.
Concusion: In April we can show the conclusion of this validation study.
Lateralisation of the Vascular Effects of Auricular Acupuncture Evaluated via Two Digital Volume
Pulse Measurements
JosГ© F Rivas-Vilchis, Universidad AutГіnoma Metropolitana; Jorge A Cervantes-Reyes, Universidad AutГіnoma
Metropolitana; RubГ©n RomГЎn-Ramos, Universida AutГіnoma Metropolitana
Purpose. Several studies have suggested hemispheric lateralisation of autonomic cardiovascular control. The correlation
between auricular acupoint vascular activity and lateralisation of its activity has not yet been evaluated. To determine
lateralisation of vascular effects during auricular acupoint stimulation in healthy subjects, we assessed the different
effects elicited by acupuncture in auricular acupoints located in the left and right ear based on changes in reflection index
(RI) and stifness index, two indices derived from the digital volumen pulse (DVP).
Methods. Twenty healthy subjects aged 23.5В±1.37 years (meanВ±SEM) were randomly assigned to group A or B,
corresponding to auricular acupuncture in either the left or right ear, respectively. DVP was recorded by
photoplethysmography. Shenmen and Knee auricular acupoints were stimulated by manual acupuncture. The RIDVP and
SIDVP indices were calculated for basal and post-acupuncture conditions.
Results. The reflexion index (RI) significantly decreased by acupuncture of the right Knee auricular acupoint, and the
stiffness index (SI) was significantly increased by acupuncture of the left Knee auricular acupoint when comparing the preand post-acupuncture values.
Conclusion. These results indicate that manual acupuncture of auricular acupoints produces acute effects on vascular DVP
indices. Moreover, the effects of such acupuncture differ between ears, and these differences are probably related to
hemispheric lateralisation of the ear nervous relationships.
Manual and Electroacupuncture for Labour Pain. Study Design of A Longitudinal Randomized
Controlled Trial
Linda Vixner, Karolinska Institutet, University of Dalarna; Erica Schytt, Karolinska Institutet; Lena MГҐrtensson, University
of Skövde; Elisabet Stener Victorin, University of Gothenburg
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Introduction: Results from previous acupuncture studies for labour pain are contradictory and lack important information
on methodology. The sample sizes are in general small, information about the intervention such as needle placement,
number of acupuncture points, type of stimulation, and duration of treatment, is often sparse or lacking However, studies
indicate tha acupuncture has a positive effect on women’s experiences of labour pain.
Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of two different acupuncture stimulations, manual or
electrical stimulation, compared with standard care in the relief of labour pain. Our hypothesis is that acupuncture with
manual or electrical stimulation is more effective than standard care in the relief of labor pain, and that acupuncture with
electrical stimulation is the most effective.
Outcome measures: Primary outcome: Labour pain measured with visual analogue scale (VAS). Secondary outcomes are
use of epidural analgesia, experience of relaxation, labour outcomes and infant outcomes. Biochemical markers of
proinflammatory cytokines, memory of labour pain and overall childbirth experience.
Methods: The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial based on Western medical theories. Nulliparous
women with normal pregnancies admitted to the delivery ward after a spontaneous onset of labour were randomly
allocated into one of three groups: manual acupuncture, electroacupuncture or standard care. Sample size calculation
gave 101 women in each group, including a total of 303 women. VAS was used for assessing pain every 30 minutes for five
hours and thereafter every hour until birth. Questionnaires were distributed before treatment, directly after the birth, and
at one day and two months postpartum. Blood samples were collected before and after the first treatment. At the
conference, information on the design of the study will be presented and the considerations of whether to use placebo
controls or not will be discussed. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01197950
Methodology for Conducting A Multi-Center Randomized Acupuncture and Sham Acupuncture
Study to Reduce Aromatase Inhibitors Induced Arthralgia in Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer
Jillian Capodice, Columbia; Anne Jeffres, Columbia; Heather Greenlee, Columbia; Katherine Crew, Columbia; Danielle
Awad, Columbia; Joseph Unger, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research; Danica Lew, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research; Jo Anne
Hartline, Cancer Research And Biostatistics; Lisa Hansen, Legacy Health; Dawn Hershman, Columbia
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) prolong breast cancer survival but often cause debilitating musculoskeletal pain and joint
arthralgias leading to discontinuation of this life-extending treatment. Single center clinical trials have shown that
acupuncture improves AI-induced joint arthralgias. The S1200 trial is a multi-center randomized blinded sham- and
waitlist-controlled trial of a standardized and manualized full body and auricular acupuncture protocol to treat AI-related
joint symptoms in women with early stage breast cancer (n=228). The trial is funded by NCI/NCCAM and will be
conducted within SWOG, one of the NCI’s cancer clinical trial cooperative groups. Briefly, postmenopausal women with a
history of stage I-III breast cancer currently taking a third-generation AI, who report a worst pain of at least 5 out of 10,
and who report that the pain has started or increased since initiating AIs, will be enrolled at pre-selected SWOG sites (n=7)
with a minimum of two acupuncturists on staff. As the lead site, we have devised, tested and implemented methods
specific to conducting a multi-center trial of acupuncture including 1) methods to create standardized true and sham
acupuncture point protocols using expert opinion, clinical experience, and pilot data; 2) methods to train multiple
acupuncturists at multiple sites using a combination of online training videos, slide presentations, testing and live
centralized and onsite training; and 3) methods to blind participants and study staff to randomization assignment. These
methodological and quality assurance issues, challenges and solutions will be presented.
Minding the Gap: Using Principles of Participatory Action Research to Develop Clinically Robust
Acupuncture Treatment Manuals for Pragmatic Trials
Claudia Citkovitz, Lutheran Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY; Belinda Anderson, Pacific College of Oriental Medicine, New
York, NY; Kell Julliard, Lutheran Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY; Volker Scheid, University of Westminster, London, England
Manualization of acupuncture treatment aims to bridge the gap between research and clinical practice. However, manuals
developed for efficacy trials by consensus as to best practice provide little flexibility and may lack clinical adequacy for
conditions that are widely heterogenous or changeable in presentation. This paper presents a method of practice-based
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manual development that was used in labor and delivery and acute stroke rehabilitation. Manuals were developed for
four studies at a community hospital between 2006 and 2012 (see Table 1). Development was conducted by a team of 3-6
acupuncturists with relevant experience, using principles of participatory action research (the practitioners undertake
cyclic revision of their own practice based on experience). In a 3- to 12-month development period before each study,
the manual evolved from a flexible exploratory document to a more standardized experimental manual, through
practitioners cyclically observing and operationalizing their own clinical decision-making, and reassessing clinical adequacy
in weekly meetings. The reassessment process itself evolved across projects, from informal talks to anonymous email
surveys. Evaluation criteria included clinical validity of the manual's strategies and sense of constraint within its protocols,
as well as ease of use and perceived effectiveness. Verbal self-evaluation conducted in early studies shows a steep decline
in perceived effectiveness when a manual strongly associated with positive outcomes in a general population was used in
a specific subgroup. After extensive revision, the manual is currently associated with high perceived effectiveness and
positive early interim results. Acupuncturists’ self-reported level of compliance with manual protocol appears to decrease
when acupuncturists feel constrained by the protocol and when the manual is perceived as difficult to use. Practice-based
manual development is a process of iterative revision based on self-assessment that may be useful in pragmatic trials, to
improve protocol compliance and stabilize experimental exposure while maximizing treatment effect.
Musculoskeletal High Resolution Ultrasonography in Acupuncture Practice
Vinay Varma, Anand Pain Relief & Rehabilitation Institute; Anand Varma, Anand Pain Relief & Rehabilitation Institute;
Shyamsunder Joshi, SDM College of Medical Sciences & Hospital
INTRODUCTION : High Resolution Ultrasonography (HRUSG) is a versatile imaging modality that allows real-time imaging
of joint structures and may be used to complement clinical examination in musculoskeletal diseases and is more sensitive
than clinical examination. Three decades of acupuncture practice has taught me to improve my simple acupuncture
practice to Evidence Based Medical Acupuncture which led me into investigating pre and post acupuncture treatment
HRUSG in knee and shoulder pains.
AIM: To study the effect of acupuncture in musculoskeletal disorders by HRUSG and to generate preliminary clinical
evidence to support acupuncture in musculoskeletal disorders. Instilling an optimistic attitude amongst medical
professionals and public was also intended.
Material and Methods: The study comprised of 60 patients of either gender presenting with knee & shoulder pain who
were clinically examined and for whom HRUSG of the affected region was performed followed by acupuncture therapy
supported by therapeutic exercises.
CLINICAL RESULTS: Amongst the knee cases, 28 (56%) patients reported with good response (80 –100% pain relief).
Satisfactory response (50% pain relief but less than 80%) was seen in 16 (32%) patients. Five (10%) patients
demonstrated poor response (overall less than 50% pain relief). No improvement, i.e. failure was observed in 01 (02%)
patient. HRUSG analysis of knee showed 35 cases with significant positive outcome, 10 cases with insignificant outcome
and 04 cases showed a worsened picture. Positive clinical correlation was seen in 40 (80%) cases and no correlation in 10
(20%) cases. Similar encouraging results were found in shoulder cases also.
CONCLUSION: This study concludes that acupuncture induced changes in musculoskeletal disorders were radiographically
documented in HRUSG with a positive clinical correlation. The frequent use of HRUSG in musculoskeletal disorders may be
beneficial in exhibiting clinical changes following acupuncture therapy to boost confidence and should be employed in
practice when indicated.
Keywords: Acupuncture, High resolution Ultrasonography (HRUSG), Musculoskeletal disorders
Needle Torque Test: A Potential Tool for Exploring Connective Tissue Characteristics in Humans
Robert Davis, Stromatec, Inc.; Helene Langevin, University of Vermont; David Churchill, Stromatec, Inc.; Carrie Barron,
Stromatec, Inc.; Gary Badger, University of Vermont; Chris Coulter, Stromatec, Inc.; Brian Gagne, Stromatec, Inc.
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This study explored needle torque (measured by rotating an acupuncture needle in connective tissue, CT) as a biomarker
for CT abnormalities. Test-retest reliability was estimated and variability measured across location, individuals, and
groups. 165 subjects were tested: 99 healthy(CTL), 21 low back pain(LBP), 15 restricted hamstring(RHS), 15 joint
hyperlaxity(HYPL), 15 scleroderma(SCL). Twelve sites on legs and back were located using ultrasound. Acupuncture
needles were inserted (depth=30mm), attached to an automated torque sensor, and rotated 1 rev/sec until 300uNm or 20
rotations. Retests occurred 30-minutes and 1-week later. Primary outcome was torque at 3 revolutions. Torque was log
transformed to normalize. Intraclass correlations (ICC) associated with repeated measurements were calculated at
individual sites and for subjects’ average across sites. ICC for subject’s average torque repeated at 30 minutes was 0.78,
ranging from 0.17 to 0.38 for individual sites. ICC for average torque repeated 1-week apart was 0.58. Needle torque can
be reliably measured as a subject-specific characteristic when multiple measurements are made in one session. Needle
Torque discriminated between CTL and SCL subjects (torque significantly higher) and RHS subjects (torque significantly
lower), but did not discriminate LBP or HYPL subjects from CTLs. Decreased ICCs for average torque 1-week apart may be
due to lower reliability or systemic factors (metabolic/hormonal fluctuations) which result in real heterogeneous changes
in subjects over time. Group differences suggest average needle torque may be affected by stable CT characteristics
(genetic factors, tissue composition). Further investigation may illuminate tissue or systemic characteristics that influence
individual responses to acupuncture.
Participating in an Acupuncture Clinical Trial for Hot Flashes: Perspectives of Breast Cancer Survivors
Jun Mao, Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania; Elizabeth Mackenzie, University of Pennsylvania;
Christina Seluzicki, University of Pennsylvania; Fran Barg, Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania
Purpose: Evidence-based decisions about acupuncture use rests on outcomes of randomized clinical trials, but little is
known about cancer patients’ attitudes and beliefs about participating in clinical trials involving acupuncture. We
conducted this study to understand how breast cancer survivors make decisions regarding participation in an acupuncture
clinical trial for hot flashes.
Methods: 25 breast cancer survivors (12 African-Americans /13 Caucasian) were interviewed and verbatim transcripts
were made. These transcripts were analyzed with NVivo software, and major recurring themes were identified. Multiple
readers independently verified the results.
Results: Five major themes emerged: 1) symptom appraisal (e.g. determining if/when symptoms become bothersome
enough to necessitate intervention), 2) practical barriers (e.g. distance, travel), 3) beliefs about the interventions (e.g. fear
of needles, dislike of medications), 4) comfort with clinical trials (e.g. randomization, blinding, placebo), 5) trust and
altruism. Breast cancer survivors weighed benefits and costs associated with the decision to participate in a clinical trial
involving acupuncture. Symptom appraisal was weighed against practical barriers to determine whether the potential
benefits outweighed the costs (in time and effort) involved. Women also reflected on the nature of the interventions.
Some favored acupuncture due to concerns about taking additional medications; others favored medication due to their
fear of needles and/or skepticism about acupuncture’s effectiveness. Finally, women were more likely to express
willingness to participate in a clinical trial if they had some understanding of the purpose of trial design (e.g.
randomization, placebo, blinding); suspicions about placebo, blinding and randomization were barriers to participation.
However, the presence of trust and altruism mitigated these concerns.
Conclusions: Breast cancer survivors expressed specific attitudes about perceived barriers and facilitators to participating
in acupuncture research. Incorporating patients’ perspectives in study design and recruitment strategies may facilitate
conducting rigorous clinical trials of acupuncture t guide evidence-based care.
Pattern Differentiation for Chronic Insomnia in Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Investigation into
the Prevailing Epistemology
Michael Barr, Pacific College of Oriental Medicine; Steven Carrasco, UCLA School of Public Health; Kimberly Zimmerman,
Loma Linda University Medical Center
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BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese medicine invokes its application of individualized pattern differentiation as evidence of
its greater sophistication and sensitivity vis-Г -vis biomedicine with regard to diagnosis and treatment. In the case of
pattern differentiation for the treatment of chronic insomnia, however, it has been noted that different institutions and
curricula propose varying and oftentimes conflicting interpretations of insomnia symptoms.
METHODS: Four commonly used textbooks in U.S. schools of Traditional Chinese medicine (Chinese Acupuncture and
Moxibustion (Cheng), Foundations of Chinese Medicine (Maciocia), Herbal Formulas & Strategies (Bensky), Practical
Therapeutics of TCM (Fischer)) were consulted for their respective interpretations of insomnia presentations commonly
used for the purpose of pattern discrimination and diagnosis in Traditional Chinese medicine: trouble falling asleep (initial
insomnia), restless sleep (nocturnal awakening), dream disturbed sleep (nocturnal awakening), early waking (matitudinal
insomnia), and total insomnia. Findings were tabulated for ease of comparison.
RESULTS: While overlap of the basic patterns was considerable among the texts consulted, causal relationships between
any of the five clinical presentations and a proposed, corresponding TCM pattern identification varied considerably. Initial
insomnia, for example, was variously attributed to Heart blood deficiency (Maciocia), Liver blood deficiency (Bensky),
Heart and Spleen qi deficiency (CAM), and Kidney yin deficiency (Fischer). Matitudinal insomnia was explained to be a
result of Gallbladder qi deficiency in the Maciocia text, Spleen qi deficiency in Fischer, and Liver blood deficiency in
Bensky.
CONCLUSIONS: This analysis identified an inconsistency among commonly used Traditional Chinese medicine texts in the
interpretation of various insomnia presentations and the subsequent attribution to a particular Zang Fu organ pathology.
This incoherence is likely to confuse students and new practitioners alike and otherwise diminish or delay the probability
of successful resolution of symptoms in patients. Implications for the use and misuse of both Chinese herbal formulas and
acupuncture point prescriptions will be discussed.
Patterns of Acupuncture Licensure in the United States: Growth and Change 1976-2011
Tim Chapman, Oregon College of Oriental Medicine
Purpose: To survey patterns of growth in the supply of licensed acupuncturists in the USA over the period since the states
began licensing practitioners in the mid-1970's.
Methods: Complete acupuncture practitioner licensing history on all individual ever-licensed practitioners was collected
from the 23 US states that make this data publicly available. For each state included in the sample, individual licensure
data were aggregated into year-by-year state-level statistics. Annual patterns of change in numbers of active licenses, percapita supply of active licenses, and active license attrition, were calculated.
Results: For the 23 states in the sample, N=28,413 acupuncture licenses were issued from 1976 to 2011. By 2011 more
than 70% of all ever-issued licenses (N=19,977) were still currently in active status. Growth in the number of active
licenses was strongest in the 1980s and 1990's, with 12% annual growth rates not atypical. By 2000, practitioner supply
was growing at 14% per year. Starting in 2000, growth began to slow conspicuously. Current 2011 data show an annual
2.8% rate of increase. Persistent variations exist among the sample states in per-capita supply of actively licensed
practitioners, even after many years of legal licensure. Annual active license attrition rates are generally low (<3%),
particularly in California.
Conclusions: The acupuncture profession has seen dramatic growth in the supply of licensed practitioners, with growth
rates in excess of 12% per year for most of the first three decades after licensure was introduced. Growth slowed
consistently over the past decade, but is nevertheless continuing. Lingering differences in per-capita practitioner supply
exist among the sampled states, even after many years of available licensure. This pattern may suggest the existence of
between-state variations in the acceptance of the medicine. Low annual active license attrition rates do not support the
theory that the acupuncture profession sees conspicuously high turnover.
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Perceptions of Acupuncture Students in Research Methods Course Regarding Research Debates
Sivarama Vinjamury, So Cal Univ of Hlth Sciences; Gina Hamilton, So Cal Univ of Hlth Sciences
Background: Research Methods is an essential course for all professional degrees including in Acupuncture programs. It is
important that acupuncture students are taught “Research literacy” so that they are able to find, understand, and critically
evaluate research evidence for application in professional practice. Recent survey of AOM students by Wayne et al (2010)
indicates that self interest and importance of staying current with clinical research and perceived value of research to the
AOM profession diminishes as the students progress through the programs. We adopted Research debates as an active
learning tool to encourage students learn and retain research skills such as retrieving articles, critically appraising them,
and applying the results of a study in a simulated clinical setting.
Purpose: To describe the perceptions of acupuncture students in Research Methods Course regarding an educational
approach (Research Debates) that encourages active learning and helps comprehend the topics better.
Methods: An informal survey questionnaire was administered to all the students in the research methods course for three
consecutive trimesters after the research debates at the end of the trimester. The students were asked to reflect
anonymously on what they liked most about the debate project and what they learned from the project. Additionally,
there were also asked to provide suggestions for improving the project.
Results and Conclusion: The debates helped promote greater student-faculty and student-student interaction and
discussions on the topics and research methodologies. Based on the student involvement and the qualitative feedback,
the research debates appear to motivate the students and make them understand the value of research literacy. The
following feedback from a student summarizes the general perception among students –“The debates consolidated for
me what I learned in the rest of the class. Very useful, both listening and giving them and coming up with questions etc.
Grueling and great activity.”
Practice Management in Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine: A Survey Study
Timothy Suh, OCOM
Background: Unemployment and under-employment of acupuncturists graduating from Acupuncture and Oriental
Medicine (AOM) programs is understated. For example, in California the job market for acupuncturists is very limited with
the only significant employers being drug treatment centers and acupuncture schools. In other studies, 50% of licensed
acupuncturists are working less than 30 hours a week and are earning less than $60,000 per year gross.
Objective: This project has two goals: (1) to survey current practitioners to find if they are financially successful, and (2) to
survey what, if any, practice management courses they have completed in AOM school or in continuing education. The
responses will give general indications of the relationship between practice management courses and financial success.
Methods: An internet-based survey was emailed and distributed to various acupuncture websites. The survey was
anonymous and included 22 questions. The questions were divided into four categories: (1) demographics; (2) education;
(3) income; and (4) practice management. The survey results were then cross-tabulated and analyzed.
Discussion: The data collected is very small in comparison to the total number of AOM practitioners in the United States.
The data collected shows limited relationship between formal practice management education and financial success.
Rather, mentorship appears to be the most preferred way to learn practice management for those who have graduated
and are practicing as licensed acupuncturists.
Next Steps: Increasing the sample size of AOM practitioners would lend to additional insight into which educational tools
lead to the most financial success after graduation.
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Primary Hypertension Treatment Using Plum Blossom Needle Hammer Therapy
Frank Yurasek, AOM Chair, NUHS; Brett Martin, Instructor, NUHS
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of seven star plumb blossom needle hammer therapy on a patient
with primary hypertension.
Method: A disposible seven star plum blossom needle hammer was used to stimulate specific acupunctue points twice a
week for 6 weeks. A sphygmomanometer was used to evaluate the patient's blood pressure before and after each
treatment. The patient's blood pressure was also monitored at home by a nurse for the 6 week treatment duration, and
then monitored for 19 days following treatment.
Results: Blood pressure values changes were variable throughout the 6 week treatment period. However, a majority of
the time a reduction of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed after treatment. The most drastic changes
can be seen in the decrease of systolic blood pressure, with the average before the start of treatment being 141.1 mmHg,
and the average at the end of the course of treatment being 128.9 mmHg. The therapy did not have a remarkable affect
on diastolic blood pressure, with the average drop following treatment being 6 mmHg.
The seven star plum blossom needle therapy may be an effective alternative treatment for primary hypertension.
Throughout the study, the blood pressure became more stable and consistent. Although the patient's blood pressure was
not below prehypertensive values until the end of the therapeutic period, it was in predominantly normal values during
the follow-up period.
Progress about Acupoint Specificity in China: Review
Fan-rong Liang, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Ling Zhao, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese
Medicine; Lei Lan, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Background: Acupoint specificity has been an important component of acupuncture theory to clarify acupoint functions
and instruct clinic. It has been a hot issue in acupuncture researches. Thus, we have performed a national program
named’973 Program’) supported by State Ministry of Science and Technology of China during 2006 and 2010.
Methods: Acupoint specificity has been inspected in ancient and modern literature reassessment (evidence-based
medicine methods), efficacy evaluation (randomized controlled trials) and biomedical mechanisms (neuroimaging,
molecular biology, neural-electro biology and metabonomics).
Results: On literature, more than 2,600,000 items of literature have been retrieved by databases search and hand search,
and results show us the widespread of acupoint specificity that Shao-yang acupoints, Yang-ming acupoints, Ren meridian
and Kidney meridian are separately superior in acupuncture for migraine, functional dyspepsia and dysmerrhea. On
efficacy evaluation, 2337 cases of acupuncture for migraine, functional dyspepsia, dysmerrhea and cerebral infarction give
us instinct evidence for acupoint specificity on three levels, acupoints versus non-acupoints, acupoints on different
meridians, specific acupoints versus the others on the same meridians. On biomedical mechanisms, we found that
acupoint stimulation could induce more concentrated regulation to functional brain activities and critical metabolic
products of diseases compared with non-acupoints; also, acupoint specificity is dynamic due to healthy situations and
degranulation of mast cells.
Progress of Brazilian Acupuncture Research over the Two Past Decades: A Bibliometric Analysis
Ari Ojeda Ocampo MorГ©, UFSC; Shih Min Li, UFSC; JoГЈo Bosco Guerreiro da Silva, FAMERP; Charles Dalcanale Tesser, UFSC
Acupuncture research has been the subject of increasing interest in the past two decades in Brazil. Considering that
scientific publications are valuable markers of research activity, this study was designed to evaluate the
scientific output of acupuncture-related publications written by Brazilian authors. The analyzed data was retrieved from
the online version of Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E) database. The keywords “electroacupuncture”
or “electro-acupuncture” or “acupoint*”, “acupunctur*” or “percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation” were searched in
the SCI-E from 1991 to 2011. In addition, to analyze the Brazilian publication outputs the country/territory “filter” was
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added to the search strategy. Documents were assessed by distribution of document types, times cited, journals, subject
categories, source countries and source institutes. Results showed that Brazil, with 151 acupuncture-related publications,
is in the twelfth position in the rank of the world’s top 20 producing countries. Moreover it is the only Latin American
country present in that rank. The average of citation Brazilian documents was 4.84 per document. Article is the most
common document type, comprises 111 (73.5%) of the total production and was followed by reviews (9.2%), meeting
abstracts (8.3%) letters (7.2%) and editorial materials (1.3%). The main subject categories of Brazilian acupuncture
publication were integrative & complementary medicine (21%), clinical neurology (16%) and neurosciences (15%).
Acupuncture in Medicine and Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine are the two leading journals in number
of Brazilian acupuncture-related documents. Universidade de SГЈo Paulo and Universidade Federal de SГЈo Paulo are the
most productive universities in number of acupuncture publications. The six most cited articles include four systematic
reviews, one randomized control trial and one basic science study. Taken together these data demonstrate the
performance of acupuncture research in Brazil over the past two decades and the contributions of the Brazilian authors to
the global acupuncture research community.
Regulation of Cerebral Regional Homogeneity Exerted by Puncturing Hao-Yang Acupoints for
Migraine Patients
Lei Lan, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Fan-rong Liang, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese
Medicine
AIMS: To investigate central mechanisms of acupoint specificity by puncturing Shao-yang acupoints for migraineurs.
METHODS: 13 migraine patients were enrolled. The experiment duration was 8 weeks. Week 1 to 4 was baseline. Week 5
to 8 was treatment period, in which GB40 (Qiu-xu), SJ5 (Wai-guan) and GB34 (Yang Ling-quan) were punctured five times
per week, totally 20 times. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and efficacy assessment (days off work, pain
intensity, average headache duration and the Migraine-Specific Questionnaire (MSQ)) were performed respectively before
and after acupuncture treatment. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis was applied to detect central responses of
migraineurs by puncturing Shao-yang acupoints.
RESULTS: After the treatment, days off work, pain intensity, and average headache duration and MSQ were all improved
with a statistic significanceпј€pпјњ0.05пј‰. Regions with increased regional consistency after the treatment: left insula, left
amygdale, left hippocampus, left superior temporal cortex, left inferior temporal gyus, left superior parietal lobule, left
caudate. Regions with decreased regional consistency after the treatment: bilateral precuneus, bilateral cerebella,
bilateral orbital gyri, left supramarginal gyrus, right temporal pole, right posterior cingulate cortex and right middle
cingulate cortex. After acupuncture treatment, ReHo value of bilateral cerebella (r=0.567, p=0.043), bilateral gyri orbitales
(r=0.595, p=0.032) and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex(r=0.582, p=0.037) were all positively correlated with days off
work due to headache.
CONCLUSIONS: Puncturing acupoints along Shaoyang meridians could improve days off work due to headache, pain
intensity, average headache duration and MSQ (pпјњ0.05), indicating acupuncture is effective in improving migraine
symptoms. And acupuncture works due to its regulation of homogeneity of pain-related cerebral
regions.
Research about the Expression of BDNF, SYN in FMR1 Gene Knockout Mouse Hippocampal by
Acupuncture DU1
Wu Qiang, 86-059122861866; Han Ping, 86-059122861866; Lin Dong, 86-059122861889
Objectives: The study of expression of upstream activator BDNF, downstream synaptophysin illustrates the mechanisms of
plasticity on Fmr1 knocking out mice synapse by puncturing, and provides theoretical basis for mechanisms of modifying
cognitive function of mental retardated children by puncturing Chang qiang point.
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Methods: We Select the age of 28-day FMR1 knockout mice (KO) and wild type (WT) miceпјЊeach were 30, which were
divided into 6 groupsпјљKO Chang Qiang groupгЂЃKO Non-Point groupгЂЃKO cntrol groupгЂЃWT Chang Qiang groupгЂЃWT
Non-Point groupгЂЃWT control groupпјЊeach are 10. Continuous intervention on them lasted 6 days, and the brains were
th
removed on the 7 dayпјЊand detected the expression of BDNF and the SYN protein by immunohistochemical methods in
mouse hippocampus region. BDNF are observed under a microscope.
Results: The expression of BDNF positive cells is mainly in the part of nucleus and membrane. The expression of BDNF of
FMR1 knockout mice in hippocampus were lower than Wild-type mice, there are significant difference (P<0.05) in
statistical comparison. The expression of BDNF FMR1 knockout mice in Chang Qiang group was significantly higher than
Non-acupoint group and the control group, and there are statistically significant difference (P<0.05).The expression of SYN
positive cells is mainly in the cytoplasm and intercellular space. The expression of SYN of FMR1 knockout mice in
hippocampus were lower than Wild-type mice.
Conclusion: The expression of BDNF and SYN in brain were regulated positively by FMRP in normal circumstances. The
acupuncturing the point of Chang Qiang may improve the hippocampus BDNF and SYN of FMR1 knock out
mice.
Research on the Laws of Effect of Acupuncture Manipulations Based on the Nerve (Neuron) Signals
Yangyang Liu, 1 Research Center of Experimental Science of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Tianjin University of TCM
Tianjin; Shouhai Hong; Tao Zhou; Chao Wang; Lei Chen; Wenhui Lu; Ting Liu; Yi Guo; Yongming Guo
Objective: To explore the laws of effect of acupuncture manipulations based on the nerve(neuron)electric signals.
Methods: Applying different acupuncture manipulations (rotate-twirl methods (Rt) and lift-thrust methods (Lt)) to
stimulate ST36 acupoint, recording the nerve(neuron) discharge signals in the nerve pathways correspondingly,
including spinal dorsal root nerve, WDR neuron in the spinal dorsal horn, neuron in Nucleus tractussolitarii (NTS) and
Ventral Poster later Thalamic Nucleus(VPL), EEG and gastric vagal nerve. The data are analyzed with nonlinear
time series analysis methods.
Results: In the peripheral nervous system and lower central nervous system, the nerve (neuron) discharge increased
significantly with the increasing frequency of acupuncture manipulation stimulating. In the senior nerve center, neuron
discharge stimulated by acupuncture manipulation displayed complex dueto the increased spontaneous firing.
Acupuncture can enhance the EEG synchronization. Nerve(neuron) discharge can be increased either by Rt or by Lt, but
the effect by Lt is more significant.
Conclusion: The acupuncture electric signals have the characteristic of chaos. Different acupuncture manipulation electric
signals have different features which distinguish from each other.
SAAM Acupuncture for Functional Dyspepsia: an Ongoing Randomized, Controlled Pilot Clinical Trial
Protocol
Joo-Hee Kim, KIOM; Jung-Eun Kim, KIOM; Seung-Hoon Lee, KIOM; Sun-Mi Choi, KIOM
Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate feasibility for massive clinical research and make basic analysis of efficacy,
safety and cost-effectiveness of SAAM acupuncture on functional dyspepsia (FD).
Relevance: FD is a common gastrointestinal disorder, and its symptoms, including epigastric pain, and early satiation,
significantly affect patient's QoL and increase an economic burden on society. SAAM acupuncture, a form of traditional
Korea acupuncture, is frequently used to treat gastrointestinal diseases, and simultaneously modulates other relative
channels, which are selected based on the theory of nourishing or suppressing cycle relationships, to ensure whole-body
balance.
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Methods: 40 participants diagnosed with FD pursuant to ROME III criteria; aged 20 to 65; with moderate to severe chronic
dyspepsia during last 6 months will be recruited, and randomly allocated into two groups. Acupuncture group will receive
SAAM acupuncture three times per week during four weeks. Usual care group will not receive acupuncture during study
period. Both groups will be allowed to use any kind of treatment including over-the-counter drugs, conventional
medication and other active treatments. Education material for explaining on FD and current management options will be
provided in each group. Gastrointestinal symptom (GIS) score, FD-QOL scale, NRS, patient global assessment and EQ-5D
will be assessed. Safety will be assessed at every visit.
Results: This protocol was registered at CRIS registry(KCT0000164). Currently, 21 participants were enrolled in the study
and the remaining participants’ recruiting is in progress. Data will be analyzed before and after treatment, and at 4week/8-week of f/u after the end of treatment. Cost-effectiveness will be analyzed using the GIS score and EQ-5D
comparing the cost of acupuncture with usual care during the four-week treatment period and the follow-up period.
Conclusions: The results of the trial will provide basis for the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of acupuncture for FD.
Scalp Electroacupuncture in Stroke Rehabilitation Research : fMRI Methodological Issues and
Solutions
Kathleen Lumiere, Bastyr University; Bensheng Qiu, University of Washington; Leanna Standish, Bastyr University
This presentation focuses on the challenges of evaluating the effects of scalp electroacupuncture for stroke rehabilitation
using fMRI. Scalp electroacupuncture is a common form of treatment in TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) stroke
rehabilitation, with demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials. To date, fMRI studies of stroke and electroacupuncture have
focused on distal points, as opposed to scalp acupuncture points, in regard to hemodynamic brain function. A major
challenge presenting scalp acupuncture research is material. Magnetic substances such as ferrous metals produce distort
magnetic signaling and can produce heat, a significant safety issue. Non-ferrous metals such as gold and copper have
been approved for use in fMRI, however, gold and copper are soft metals and extremely difficult to manipulate. An
austentistic (non-ferrous) needle has been developed in China for MR research purposes with the collaboration of Dr. Qiu
at the University of Washington’s Biomedical Imaging Center. Austentistic needles can be safely used in this study.
Insulated solid copper wire would be used to conduct the electrical impulse to the needles. Copper has been
demonstrated to be safe with fMRI technology. The issue of clips would be eliminated by wrapping the copper wire
around the needle handle, then securing it with electrical tape. The electroacupuncture machine itself would be outside
the MR room, in the control area, beyond the range of the magnetic bore. Other challenges with such research would be
addressed by the proposed study design. An fMRI study of short- and long-term effects of scalp electroacupuncture is
significant because it more closely mimics effective TCM stroke rehabilitation clinical practice than many research
protocols to date. fMRI allows investigation of mechanisms of action of for scalp electroacupuncture including
neurological response to a specific electrical frequency, and the effects on localized perfusion and blood flow in the
damaged motor cortex.
Serotonergic Changes after Cupuncture Stimulation in The Prefrontal Cortex of MaternallySeparated Rat Pups
Seung-Tae Kim, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University; Sunoh Kwon, Acupuncture & Meridian Science
Research Center, Kyung Hee University; Dae-Hyun Hahm, Acupuncture & Meridian Science Research Center, Kyung Hee
University; Hi-Joon Park, Acupuncture & Meridian Science Research Center, Kyung Hee University; Hyejung Lee,
Acupuncture & Meridian Science Research Center, Kyung Hee University
The present study investigated a possible role of acupuncture in alleviating depression-like behavioral changes and
regulating serotonin signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of maternally-separated rat pups. On postnatal day 15,
rat pups were maternally-separated and received acupuncture stimulation at acupoint HT7 or ST36 once a day for 7 days.
On postnatal day 21, the tail suspension test was performed and the PFC was harvested. Tissue levels of serotonin (5-HT)
and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) were then measured by high performance liquid chromatography analysis and
the expressions of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were assessed by Western
blotting. The levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA were not significantly changed, but 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was significantly increased
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by maternal separation. The immobility time of maternally-separated rat pups was increased, and increased 5-HTT
expression and decreased BDNF level were observed in the PFC. But acupuncture stimulation at HT7 alleviated the
behavioral change and regulated the changes of 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio, 5-HTT and BDNF. In conclusion, acupuncture
stimulation at HT7 can relieve the maternal separation-induced changes, and we propose that the regulations of 5HIAA/5-HT ratio and 5-HTT expression by acupuncture stimulation play an important role in the acupuncture-induced
benefits in this animal model of depression.
Simplified Model for Measuring Heat Stimulation of Moxibustion and Heat Stimulation of
Commercial Indirect Moxa
O Sang Kwon; Seong Jin Cho; Kwang Ho Choi; Sun Hee Yeon; Sae Bhom Lee; Sang Hoon Lee; Sun Mi Choi; Yeon Hee Ryu
Objective: Moxibustion treatment uses heat stimulation and chemical stimulation. Heat stimulation is mainly heternined
by heat temperature and heating duration. In due here stimulation can remoke thermal injury and insufficient heat
stimulation does not effectable.
Methods: We build a simple model for measuring heat stimulation (MMHS) of moxibustion by using specific heat, density
of 3% agarose gel and human skin. Six brands of commercial indirect moxa has used to measure character of heat
stimulation
Result: With the MMHS, we could calculate human skin temperature, quantity of effective heat stimulation and safety
from thermal injury.
Conclusion: We made a simple heat measuring model for moxibustion and measured character of heat stimulation of six
commercial indirect moxa, and has a measuring as a first heat measuring model for moxibustion. It is expected that this
model could easily measure quantity of heat stimulation without using animal model. Model made by this study does not
considering blood perfusion and it should be included for accurate result.
Six-movement Tai Chi Rehabilitation Form for Community-based Patients with Chronic Obstructive
Pulmonary Disease
Kun Shi, Xiangya Medical College, Central South University, P.R.China; Jin Yan, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South
University, P.R.China
Objectives: Evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-week program involving the modified 6-movement Tai Chi form for
community-based stable COPD patients by measuring exercise capacity, pulmonary function, dyspnoea and quality of life.
Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used. 20 patients were recruited from July 2011 to October 2011. Participants
were assigned to one of 2 groups: The Tai Chi group (Experimental group; n=10), which received modified Tai Chi training
3 times each week, 50 minutes per session, for a total of 12 weeks from October 2011 to January 2012; and the control
group (Control group; n=10), which received usual care for the same period of time.
Results: There were 10 patients in each group. There were no statistically significant differences between two groups
regarding sex, age, smoking status, education level, family income, daily activity, occupation, or medical expense payment,
nor were there any statistically significant differences between the baseline data of exercise capacity, pulmonary function,
dyspnea, or quality of life between the two groups. After the 12-week intervention, the Tai Chi group’s 6MWT, FEV1, FVC,
VC and CAT scores were significantly improved compared to baseline. In the control group, the 6MWT, CAT score and
BODE were significantly worsened after 12 weeks when compared to baseline. Comparing the changes from baseline to
12-week evaluation in each group showed significant differences between the two groups in 6MWT, FEV1, FVC and CAT
score, but the differences in FEV1/FVC, VC, MVV, mMRC and BODE were not significant.
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Conclusions: The 6-movement Tai Chi Rehabilitation form can improve exercise capacity, pulmonary function and quality
of life among COPD patients. The 6-movement Tai Chi Rehabilitation form exercise is an effective rehabilitation exercise
for COPD patients. The authors would like to replicate the study in a larger study to confirm the findings.
Study of Intestinal Microecology in Rats with Ulcerative Colitis Treated by Electro-Acupuncture
Tian-shu Hou, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Xiao-xia Han, Chengdu University of Traditional
Chinese Medicine; Yang Yang, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Ji-lan Zhao, Chengdu University of
Traditional Chinese Medicine; Shu-Guan Yu, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Qiao-Feng Wu, Chengdu
University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Objective: To study the abundance and diversity of the gut flora on Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS) induced Ulcerative
Colitis (UC) rat model when treated by electro-acupuncture and to clarify whether electro-aucpuncture has the protective
effect on gut microflora .
Methods: 39 healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group and Electro-Acupuncture (EA)
treatment group. Ulcerative colitis model rats were induced by DSS with 40g/L concentration. The EA treatment group
was acupunctured at "Tianshu", "Zusanli" and "Shangjuxu". Feces of the rats were collected and Polymerase Chain
Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was employed to analysis the composition and diversity of
gut flora. The specific bands were obtained and sequenced; data were analyzed by Quantity-one, Chromas, SIMCA-P+,
MGAE5 and SPSS18.0 software.
Results: 7-day DSS induced ulcerative colitis model in rats showed typical symptoms and characteristics of ulcerative
colitis. The DGGE results showed the content of Lactobacillus sp. And Lachnospiraceae bacterium were significantly
decreased in the model group. The content of Clostridium bifermentans increased significantly in the model group (all P
values are lower than 0.05). EA can significantly increase the content of Lactobacillus sp. and Lachnospiraceae bacterium
and decrease the content of Clostridium bifermentans.
Conclusion: EA can influence the abundance and diversity of gut flora of the UC rat models, which is likely to be one of the
mechanisms of acupuncture in treatment of UC.
Study of Patient-reported Outcomes on Poststroke Patients in Community by Acupuncture
Jian Pei, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Chinese Medicine; Qinhui Fu, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of
Chinese Medicine; Qi Jia, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Chinese Medicine; Yuehua Gu, Longhua Hospital,
Shanghai University of Chinese Medicine; Xiaoxing You, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Chinese Medicine
Objective: to evaluate the clinical effect on the Patient-reported Outcomes (PROs) of patients with acute ischemic stroke
by acupuncture.
Methods: 60 patients with acute ischemic stroke from January 2008 to October 2010 were recruited and randomly divided
into the acupuncture group and the control group. The acupuncture group received acupunctural treatment plus routine
western medicine. The control group only received routine western medicine. The PROs, including NIH Stroke Scale, FuglMeyer Assessment of Motor Function (FMA), the Burden of Stroke Scale (BOSS) and the Stroke Specific Quality of Life
Measure (SS-QOL), were assessed in the acupuncture group and the control group before and after treatment.
Result: 1. The baseline including NIH Stroke Scale, FMA was assessed in the acupuncture and the control groups. The
difference between the two groups has no significance on statistics (P > 0.05). FMA in 14 days, 28 days after
acupuncture treatment was better than that in the control group, show a significant difference on statistics (P < 0.05). 2.
SS-QOL and BOSS scale in 14 days, 28 days, 60 days and 90 days after acupuncture treatment were also
better than those in the control groups, show a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.01).
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Conclusion: The acupuncture treatment could improve the limbs function on patient with acute ischemic stroke. Patientreported Outcomes including SS-QOL and BOSS could improve on the patient with acute ischemic stroke after
acupuncture treatment.
Acknowledgement: Supported by grants from Key Projects Foundation (2010003), Inherited study base of Shanghai TCM,
the Shanghai Municipal Health Bureau, and the Key Program of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of
China.
Study of PET Functional Imaging of AD’s Brain after Treatment of Acupuncturing Shenmen(HT7)
Donemei Sun, Guanghzou University of Chinese medicine; Xinsheng Lai, Guanghzou University of Chinese medicine; Baoci
Shan, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Objective: The traditional Chinese medcine has special ways to prevent or treat senile diseasesпјЊand it has shown good
curative effect on AD’treatment. The traditional Chinese medicine treats AD with Chinese medcine and acupuncture while
Shenmen(HT7) point always been used as a effective point in the AD’s therapy. But its mechanism of action is not very
clear. We applied the 18F-PET functional image to study the metergasis feature of AD’s brain which treated by needling
Shenmen Ponit,and analysis different Point’ s various action on the various encephalic regions. From them,we could
choose effective acupoints of AD’s treatment, and offer an experimental basement of standard prescription of AD’ s
treatment.
Methods: SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: the normal groupпјЊmodel group and Shenmen groupпјЊShenmen
group had an examination on brain with 18F-PET functional image during the process of needling after twenty days’
acupuncture treatment only in shenmen group.
Results:в‘ The instant effect of Shenmen acupuncture: Compared with the model group, there was high reactive site in
corpus striatum of brains of Shenmen group. в‘ЎThe curative effect of Shenmen acupuneture: Compared with the model
groupпјЊ there was various high reactive site in corpus striatum of brains of Shenmen group, inclnding left Frontal Lobe:
Motor Cortex, Left Corpus CallosumпјЊ Left Limbic System: Septal AreaпјЊ Left riatumпјЊ Left ocampus, L Third Ventricle, L
Frontal Lobe: Orbital CortexпјЊL Frontal Lobe rontal Assoation Cortex.
Conclusions: This experiment also showed acupunture had curative effect on many diseases by multi-target,multichannel,multi-strata. This experiment offered laboratory evidence on AD’s treatment by acupuncture,meanwhile, it
also established the foundation to better acupuncture treatment of AD.
Study on Electrical Property of internal Acupoint Based on Insulated-needle Probing Technology
Liu Tangyi; Li Ruixia; Yang Huayuan
Background: Acupoint electrical property research (especially low-resistance characteristic) is still one interesting issue.
But acupoint internal electrical property doesn’t lead to enough attention. In order to observe acupoint internal electrical
property, we explore one kind of insulated-needle probe technology, and with the resistance examining system, we can
observe acupoint internal electrical property and its change during acupuncture treating course. We also observe the
differences of acupoint’s internal resistance by applying with different needle probe.
Methods: We conducted a systematic review to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of detecting Zusanli(ST36)
internal resistance with insulated-needle probe and common acupuncture needle with a total of 30 healthy volunteer
analyzed. Acupoint internal resistance is recorded by Agilent 34401A 6 1/2 digital multimeter. The internal resistance of
acupoint is continuing detected for 5 minutes, so we can get two resistance data including: the primary resistance data as
puncture and the last data as puncture after 5 minutes. So do it with non-acupoint(outside about 2 cm of the acupoint).
And another day, we repeat the test with common acupoint needle.
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Results: It is significantly different for the acupoint’s internal resistance between before and after acupuncturing when
detecting by two kinds of probing needles (ordinary needle and insulated needle). The acupoint’s internal resistance after
acupuncturing is higher than before when using ordinary needle, and smaller than before when using insulated needle. It
is same to non-acupoint.
Conclusions: ①The acupoint’s internal resistance which detected by the two kinds of needle probe is different before
and after acupuncturing. ②The acupoint’s internal resistance shows different varies discipline in the
process of acupuncturing detected by two kinds of probing needles. в‘ўThe difference of acupoint to non-acupoint is not
found by this test.
Study on the Influence of Exciting and Blocking of Mast Cell at Zusanli (ST36) Area on Spinal Dorsal
Root Fine Nerve Bundle Discharge Evoked by Acupuncture in Normal Rats
Yali Liu, Tianjin University of TCM; Ting Liu; Yangyang Liu; Xue Zhao; Kuan Wang; Jiang Wang; Guilan Li; Yi Guo
Objective: To observe the influence on electro-discharge of rats’ spinal dorsal root nerve bundle with puncturing Zusanli
(ST36) after injecting Mast cell stabilizer and activator into Zusanli (ST36) points.
Methods: Healthy male SD rats were used in the present study. After anesthctizing, nerve filaments innervating ST36
region were isolated from spinal dorsal root ganglia L4. Then put it on the bipolar platinum electrode. ST36 was stimulated
by point injection with four material which are nothing, physiological saline, intal, Compound 48/80 and acupuncture. The
nerve filaments discharges evoked by the same acupuncture. It was respectively recorded the before-after electrodischarge situation of the spinal dorsal root fine filaments and observed the number of master cells and the change rate of
dropt particles. To adopted nonlinear time series analytic method, wavelet energy entropy analytic method and
interspike-interval (ISI) method to analyze the collected data.
Results: 1.The discharge frequency of spinal dorsal root, the complexity and the existing information increased, but the
divergence factor and the number of degranulation reduced when punctured with rejecting MC stabilizer. 2. The
divergence factor and the number of degranulation rate increased, but the discharge frequency of spinal dorsal root, the
complexity and the existing information reduced when punctured with rejecting MC activator.
Conclusion: MC is one of the key factors in the acupuncture amplification effect, and it’s one of the links of the mechanism
of acupuncture conduction process.
Teaching Acupuncture: The Brazilian Medical Residency Programme
JГ©ssica Maria Costi, Hospital Geral de SГЈo JosГ©, SГЈo JosГ©, Santa Catarina, Brazil; JoГЈo Bosco G. Silva, Rio Preto Medical
School, SГЈo JosГ© do Rio Preto, SГЈo Paulo, Brazil; Li Shih Min, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, FlorianГіpolis, Brazil;
Ari O. O. MorГ©, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, FlorianГіpolis, Brazil; AndrГ© Luis Hokama, Rio Preto Medical School,
SГЈo JosГ© do Rio Preto, SГЈo Paulo, Brazil
Acupuncture has had a successful story in Brazil. With its use in the public health system supported by legislation since
1988, its recognition as a medical specialty in 1995 enabled the introduction of an annual board examination and the
creation of an official Medical Residency Programme. Since then, medical acupuncture has developed considerably,
mostly through its massive spread into the Brazilian public health system. Brazil is the only country outside China that has
created a Medical Residency Programme on Acupuncture. The 2-year programme consists of 5760 training hours,
beginning with major clinical areas (internal medicine, neurology, orthopaedics and gynaecology) during 24 weeks in the
first year. The residents study and practice acupuncture using the traditional Chinese Medicine approach and also the
biomedical model. Specialists educated by this programme are therefore expected to have an optimum knowledge of
both Western and Eastern medicine. Since it was first created, nine public health institutions have adopted the residency
programme on acupuncture so, rather than being an alternative therapy, acupuncture has become an easily accessible
and well-accepted conventional medical resource in Brazil.
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Temperature Characteristics of Moxibustion with Warming Needles Made of Different Materials
Ke Cheng, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Acupuncture-moxibustion and Tuina College; Shanghai
Research Center for Acupuncture and Meridians; Jianzi Wei, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine,
Acupuncture-moxibustion and Tuina College; Xueyong Shen, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine,
Acupuncture-moxibustion and Tuina College; Shanghai Research Center for Acupuncture and Meridians
Purpose: To observe the temperature characteristics of moxibustion with warming needle of different materials at
acupoint and the response of the subjects.
Methods: 10 healthy volunteers were recruited. Three kinds of needle including stainless steel needle, gold needle and
silver needle with two different weights of moxa (1.2g and 1.5g) were used. The temperature at the acupoint
where needle penetrate the skin was recorded with a digital thermometer. During the experiment, the heat pain
threshold and the heat pain tolerance were recorded according to the response of subjects. The sense of comfort, sense
of hotness, side effects and the acceptance of the moxibustion were surveyed after the experiment.
Results: moxibustion with silver needle (moxa of 1.5g) produced the warmest and the longest stimulation. Next to silver
needle (moxa of 1.5g) is in turn moxibustion with silver needle (moxa of 1.2g), gold needle (moxa of 1.5g) and stainless
steel needle (moxa of 1.5g). Subjects could tolerate moxibustion with stainless steel needle and gold needle, while 30% of
subjects felt too hot to tolerate two kinds moxibustion with silver needle. There was no side effect after moxibustion with
stainless steel needle and gold needle. 40% and 90% subjects got mild burn after two kinds of moxibustion with silver
needle (moxa of 1.2g and 1.5g) respectively. Moxibustion with stainless steel needle, gold needle and silver needle (moxa
of 1.2g) were accepted by all subjects, while moxibustion with silver needle (moxa of 1.5g) were accepted by 70% of the
subjects. All subjects accepted the side effect of mild burn at surface if in treatment.
Conclusion: Moxibustion with silver needle (moxa of low dose) could produce enough warm stimulation and would not
cause apparent side effects and discomfort. In clinic, it’s still necessary to inform the patients about the
possible side effects before treatment.
Test Observation on the Influence of Skin Microcirculation Blood Perfusion at Zusanli Acupoint by
stimulating with Lift-thrust Reinforcing and Reducing Acupuncture Manipulation Methods on
Healthy Adults
Xiaomei Li, Experimental acupuncture research centre of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Yanqi Li; Dan
Zhou; Jianwei Liu; Yongming Guo; Yi Guo
Objective: To observe the influence of skin microcirculation blood perfusion at Zusanli acupoint by stimulating with liftthrust reinforcing and reducing acupuncture manipulation methods on healthy adults.
Method: The acupuncture manipulations of reinforcing by lifting and thrusting, reducing by lifting and thrusting, even
reinforcing-reducing method and non-manipulation method were respectively applied to the 15 healthy volunteers and
the changes of blood perfusion at the Zusanli acupoint area were monitored for 5 minutes before
needling, and 30 minutes after needling.
Result: Both of the manipulations of reinforcing by lifting and thrusting and reducing by lifting and thrusting have the
effect of increasing the amount of blood perfusion at Zusanli acupoint area while the increasing level of the amount of
blood perfusion in the reinforcing group is significantly higher than that in the reducing group.
Conclusion: Different influences on the amount of blood perfusion can caused by both of the acupuncture manipulation
of reinforcing and reducing by lifting and thrusting.
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The Acupuncture Therapy of Childhood Autism (Review)
Yi-wen Li, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University; Rong Zhang, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking
University
With the development of autism therapy, acupuncture is becoming popular among patients as an alternative therapy.
There are 31 papers about acupuncture therapy of autism so far. The review summarized the most relational papers,
introduced the traditional medicine basis and history of acupuncture therapy of autism and compare methods and
effectiveness of this therapy. It is suggested that acupuncture is a relatively effective therapy for autistic children, which
has positive role in improving autistic syndromes especially in language development, self-life day care, social
communications and without any side-effect. Although there are lots of questions to be answered in this rather new
therapy, we hold the positive opinion that acupuncture therapy might be a green therapy for autistic children in future.
The Anti-Depressive Mechanism of Electroacupuncture (EA) on the Ras-MEK-ERK Signal Pathway
Xinjing Yang, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Jia Liang, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Linlin Sun, Beijing
University of Chinese Medicine; Zhuo Guo, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Sihan Wang, Beijing University of
Chinese Medicine; Huifang Ma, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Fengxian Meng, Dongfang Hospital, the second
clinical medical college of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Xiaotian He, Division of Traditional Chinese Medicine,
Sanlitun Community Health Service Center; Chao Liu, University of Macau, Institute of Chinese Medicine Science; YI SAK
LEE, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; YOUNGJUNG IHM, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Wuye Bao, Beijing
University of Chinese Medicine; Tuya
Purpose: Electroacupuncture (EA) has been reported to be effective for treating depression. The purpose of the present
study was to explore the mechanisms of EA’s actions on the Ras-MEK-ERK signaling pathway, which is known to be
associated with depressive disorders.
Methods: A rat model of depression induced by chronic stress was established by alternating the following methods,
water-break (24h), night light (12h), swimming (4в„ѓ, 5min), shaking (30min), and bounding (3h), every day for four weeks.
Rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 each): normal, normal + EA, model, model + EA, and model +
paroxetine. EA was given at acupoints Baihui (Du 20), Yintang (Extra) and Neiguan (PC6) for ten minutes (2/100 Hz
alternating, 0.2mA) every other day for four weeks. The rats were decapitated and brain tissues were collected following
the four-week treatment. Because ERK1/2 phosphorylation is a key indicator of activation of the signaling pathway, the
hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were isolated for p-ERK1/2 content assay using western blot.
Results: Compared to the normal group, p-ERK1 significantly decreased in the model group (P<0.01) in the hippocampus
and prefrontal cortex. Compared to the model and paroxetine groups, the EA group showed significantly increased p-ERK1
(P<0.05). Similarly, p-ERK2 levels were lower in the model group compared to normal rats (p<0.01). P-ERK2 increased in
the EA and paroxetine groups compared to the model group (P<0.01) and in the EA group compared to the paroxetine
group (P<0.01).
Conclusions: Acupuncture had no effect on ERK phosphorylation in normal animals. However, in depression, acupuncture
appears to have raised levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein kinase. These data suggest that acupuncture might act on
depression by stimulating the Ras-MAPK-ERK pathway and expanding protein expression of BDNF to protect the neurons.
The Combining Acupuncture and Paroxetine to Treat Depression
Sihan Wang, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Xuehong Ma, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Yuanzheng
Wang, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Zhuo Guo, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Xinjing Yang, Beijing
University of Chinese Medicine; Linlin Sun, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Ya Tu, Beijing University of Chinese
Medicine
Purpose: To compare the efficacy of acupuncture plus paroxetine with paroxetine alone in treating depression.
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Methods: A large sample, multi-centred, randomized controlled clinical trial was performed. In four clinical centres,
patients with depression (n=477) were randomly divided into three groups: EA and paroxetine (n=161), MA and
paroxetine (n=162), paroxetine (n=154). EA and MA were given for 30 minutes every other day for six weeks; 10 mg/day
of paroxetine was given for the first two days, 20 mg/day from the third day onward. Outcome was assessed with HAMD
at baseline and week 1, 2, 4, and 6. Side effects were assessed with SERS at baseline and week 2, 4, and 6. The WHOQOLBREF scale on quality of life was given at baseline and week 6. Four weeks after the end of treatment, participants were
reassessed with HAMD.
Results: There was no difference among the three groups at baseline (p>0.05). In the two acupuncture plus paroxetine
groups, HAMD scores improved significantly greater than those in the paroxetine group (p<0.05); no significant difference
was found between the two acupuncture groups (p>0.05). In HAMD scores, significant differences from baseline appeared
in the two acupuncture groups after the 1st week of treatment (p<0.01); while after the 2nd week in the paroxetine group
(p<0.01). It indicates that acupuncture may have a faster treatment effect. SERS scores in the acupuncture groups were
significantly lower than those in paroxetine group at weeks 2, 4, and 6 (p<0.05). WHOQOL-BREF scores for total subjective
feelings regarding quality of life and health were significantly higher in the two acupuncture groups than those in
paroxetine group (p<0.05).
Conclusions: Acupuncture plus paroxetine was more effective for patients with depression than paroxetine. The two
groups given the combined therapy experienced earlier treatment effects, fewer side effects, and better quality of life.
The Dynamics of Developing of a Group Acupuncture Model in a Hospital Based Joint Replacement
Center
Cynthia Miller, Penny George Institute for Health andHealing, Abbott Northwestern Hospital; Pamela Weiss-Farnan, Penny
George Institute, Abbott Northwestern Hospital
Purpose: To discuss the operational dynamics of providing group acupuncture treatment for joint replacement patients in
an acute care setting.
Methods: In a large Midwestern hospital, group physical therapy is provided to joint replacement patients. Orthopedic
surgeons added acupuncture to the standard post-operative care provided through the specialized nursing unit, the Joint
Replacement Center (JRC). Acupuncture is introduced in the pre-hospital class for surgery preparation and provided
immediately after physical therapy on post-operative days one two and three. Multiple factors affect the success of this
program.
Results: Between 1/1/2010 and 12/31/2011, 1321 patients were provided acupuncture. This accounts for 67.5% of the
patients who had surgery during this period of time. This is a higher proportion of adults who have had
acupuncture compared to the general public (which is approximately 9 %).
Discussion: The addition of acupuncture to the JRC model of delivery is a distinguishing characteristic of the services
provided by this Midwestern hospital that competes with other hospitals to provide joint replacement surgery, making it
unique among the community options. Coordination of multiple hospital departments and services as well as enlisting
support and commitment is required to provide this service effectively. Data are being collected about the effectiveness
of acupuncture on pain and nausea control as well as patient satisfaction with their care. Patient satisfaction scores are
becoming increasingly important in the health care industry with the ongoing changes in reimbursement methods.
Conclusions: Group acupuncture can improve the patient experience and can be developed with coordination of multiple
stakeholders including physicians, nursing, physical therapy, support staff and administration. It provides the patient with
an initial positive experience of acupuncture and motivates ongoing interest in continuing in the care of an acupuncturist.
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The effect of Acupuncture on Working Memory and Anxiety
Jason Bussell, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine
Context: Memory is an area that everyone would like to improve. Anxiety has been shown to impair memory and
acupuncture has been shown to reduce anxiety.
Objective: To investigate whether acupuncture can improve memory and reduce anxiety in healthy subjects and, if so,
whether those effects are correlated.
Design, Setting and Subjects: A two-group, randomized, single-blind study (Jan to Dec of 2011) involving 90 healthy
undergraduate students recruited from local universities and treated at private acupuncture clinics in the Chicagoland
area. Interventions: All subjects completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) form Y-1 (State Anxiety, SA) and Y-2
(Trait Anxiety, TA). Then all subjects were laid on a treatment table for 20 minutes. Subjects randomized to the
Acupuncture group had needles inserted into Sishencong, Shenting (Du24), Yintang, Neiguan (PC6), Shenmen (Ht7), and
Taixi (Kd3). Subjects randomized to the Control group had the same points touched and swabbed with alcohol but not
needled. After the 20 minutes, all subjects completed the STAI form Y-1 again. All subjects then completed the
Automated Operation Span Task (AOSPAN)- a computerized test of working memory.
Main outcome measures: Performance on the AOSPAN and STAI scores.
Results: Acupuncture group scored 9.5% higher than Control (65.39 vs. 59.9, raising percentage correct to 87.2% vs.
79.6%, p=0.0134) on the AOSPAN Total Correct Score, and committed 36% fewer math error (2.68 vs. 4.22, p= 0.0153).
Subjects who received acupuncture also reported lower SA after intervention than control (26.14 vs. 29.63, p=0.0146).
Regression analysis showed no correlation between AOSPAN score SA.
Conclusion: Acupuncture improves performance on a test of working memory and reduces anxiety, but those effects are
not correlated.
Clinical Trial Registry: Clinicaltrial.gov ID = NCT01492738.
The Effect of Low Frequency Electrical Stimulation at BL62В·KI6 on P300 Activity in Middle Aged Men
and Women
Kwang-Ho Choi, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine; Min Yoo, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine; Seong Jin Cho, Korea
Institute of Oriental Medicine; O Sang Kwon, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine; Sanghun Lee, Korea Institute of Oriental
Medicine; Sun Hee Yeon, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine; Sun-Mi Choi, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine; Yeonhee
Ryu, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine
Objectives : The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of constant low frequency electrical stimulation applied to
BL62В·KI6 on brain activity by analyzing P300 and slow alpha wave.
Methods : The study was done as a double-blind test to 55 subjects of 26 males and 29 females in their 50’s and it lasted
for a month with 12 sessions. In each session, on average of 24 A, 2Hz low frequency electrical stimulation
was applied to BL62В·KI6 and background quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) and Event related potentials (ERPs)
were measured before the first session and after the last session of the electrical stimulation.
Results : The result of chi-square test indicated that double-blind test was done correctly. Compared to the sham group,
the real group showed the tendency of decreasing P300 latency and increasing P300 amplitude after all 12 sessions of the
low frequency electrical stimulation in all subjects. In women the amplitude significantly increased at Fz, Fcz, Cz, Cpz and
Pz and Slow alpha mean frequency significantly increased at Fz, Fcz and Pz.
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Conclusion : Electrical stimulation applied to BL62В·KI6 induces the activation of P300 amplitude in more male subjects
than in female subjects. Further study is necessary to investigate the effects of electrical stimulation in different ages and
sexes and to discover the underlying mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of P300 amplitude.
The Effect of the Electroacupuncture at ST36 in TMT-induced Memory Deficit Rats
Hyun Soo Shim, Department of Oriental Medical Science, College of Oriental Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee
University; Hyun Jung Park, Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center, Kyung Hee University,; Hye Jung Lee,
1Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center, Kyung Hee University; Insop Shim, Department of Oriental Medical
Science, College of Oriental Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University
In order to the neuroprotective effect of electroacupuncture (EA), the present study examined the effects of
electroacupuncture in acupoint ST36 (Zoksamni) on TMT-induced cognitive impairments rat using the Morris water maze
(MWM) task and immunohistochemistry staining. The rats were randomly divided into the following groups: naГЇve rat
(Normal), TMT injection rat (Control), TMT injection + EA treated rat in acupoint ST36 (ST36) and TMT injection + EA
treated rat in non-acupoint, base of tail (Non-AC). Electroacupuncture (2Hz, 2mA, and 10 minutes) was applied either to
the acupuncture point ST36 (Zoksamni) or the nonacupuncture point in the tail for the last 14 days. In the water maze
test, the animals were trained to find a platform in a fixed position during 4d and then received 60s probe trial on the 5th
day following removal of platform from the pool. Rats with TMT injection showed impaired learning and memory of the
tasks and treatment with EA in acupoint ST36 (P<0.05) produced a significant improvement in escape latency to find the
platform after 2nd day and retention trial in the Morris water maze. Consistent with behavioral data, treatment with EA in
acupoint ST36 also significantly increased expression of ChAT and AChE immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampus
compared to the control group. These results demonstrated that EA in acupoint ST36 has a protective effect against TMTinduced neuronal and cognitive impairments. The present study suggests that EA in acupoint ST36 might be useful in the
treatment of TMT-induced learning and memory deficit.
The Effectiveness of Early Intervention for Treatment Community Residents with Depression
Zhuo Guo, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina; Xueqin Yang, Beijing
University of Chinese Medicine School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina; Sihan Wang, Beijing University of Chinese
Medicine School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina; Xinjing Yang, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine School of
Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina; Linlin Sun, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine School of AcupunctureMoxibustion and Tuina; Danmei Zhang, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and
Tuina; Chen Hu, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina; Ya Tu, Beijing
University of Chinese Medicine School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina
Purpose: Apply early intervention to depressed residents of convenient treatment; compare acupuncture, psychology
(Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, CBT), and combined methods for efficacy in improving depressive state and quality of life;
analyze the features and advantages of acupuncture and psychological treatments for depression.
Methods: Community residents (n=650) were studied between Nov. 2009 and Nov. 2010. Residents were assessed using a
general statement, CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), and HAMD (Hamilton Depression Rating
Scale). Residents (n=60) with CES-D scores ≥16, HAMD scores >7 and <17 were selected for early intervention. Residents
were randomly divided into control(n=15), electro-acupuncture(n=14),psychological treatment(n=15), and combined
therapy(n=16) groups to receive treatment over an 8-week period to evaluate the efficacy of these methods in improving
the depressive state.
Results: After 8 weeks, there were significant differences in HAMD score reduction rates and HAMD scores among groups
post-intervention and between baseline and post-intervention. According to HAMD score reduction rates: the control
group 41.18%, psychological group 66.67%, electro-acupuncture group 75%, and combined group 94.12%. According to
HAMD scores among groups: the control group showed no significant(t=2.031,pпјћ0.05); psychological group showed
significant differences(t=7.808,Pпјњ0.01);electro-acupuncture group showed significant differences (t=8.720,Pпјњ0.01);
combined group showed significant differences(t=11.123,P<0.01), and after the treatment, the last three groups’ HAMD
score markedly reduced.
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Conclusion: Early intervention with acupuncture, psychological therapy, and combined methods can improve depression.
The combined intervention is better than either acupuncture or psychological methods alone.
The Effects of Laser Acupuncture (830nm) on Myofascial Pain Syndrome in Neck - A Randomised
Controlled Trial on Female Subjects
Narges Sadat Ebneshahidi, Physiotherapist,Department of Physiotherapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Isfahan
University of Medical Sciences andSadi Physical Therapy-Laser therapy clinic,Sadi hospital, Isfahan, Iran; Seyyed Mohsen
Mirbod, .Faculty Member, Department of Physiotherapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical
Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; Hajar Sarami, Physiotherapist, Department of Physiotherapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences,
Isfahan University of Medical Science,Isfahan.Iran; Mina malekiyan and Peyman Ghahremani , BSc,PT Student, Department
of Physiotherapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
Purpose: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is the most prevalent cause of skeletal muscle illnesses.Acupuncture is a wellknown method for relief of chronic pain.laser therapy, as complimentary or even augmentative approaches can lead to
favorable results.However therapeutic effects of laser therapy depend on the applied method and intensity of the
radiated energy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of laser acupuncture (830nm)on MPS in Neck.
Materials and Methods:In a single-blind clinical trial study, 60 women with MPS were randomly assigned to two groups of
30.For one of the groups laser was applied on 13 acupuncture points C7 and (SI3,LU7,GB21,GB34,GB39, UB10 bilaterally)
with 1.5 Joules intensity ,30 mw output power and total of 10 sessions(3 per week),while the laser system was on
(treatment group) and off (control group). Both groups performed upper trapezius muscle stretching exercises every
session.The outcome variables were pain score(rest &activity LVAS,Sensivity to pressure on active trigger point with
mechanical pressure algometer,cervical active range of motion(ROM)with goniometer(Ext,Flex,L/R LatRot and lat flex)
were collected in four points of time(baseline, on the 5th ,10th session and 1 month after treatment),then data analyzed
using analysis of variance, t-test, and chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests.
Results: Both groups showed improvements in pain intensity during rest and exercise, right and left latflexion, and
sensitivity to pressure. In other words,laser acupuncture failed to significantly enhance the mentioned variables
in the treatment group. However, compared to the control group, better results in range of left and right rotation,
extension, and flexion were observed in the treatment group.
Conclusion: Although both treatment and control groups showed some improvements in pain intensity, ROM, and
sensitivity to pressure, better results were seen in the treatment group. Stretching exercises and touching acupuncture
points could have been responsible for the observed enhancements in the two groups.
The Effects of Moxibustion on the Myocardial Ischemia Model Rabbits in Energy Metabolism
Jianzi Wei, Shanghai University of TCM; Xiaobo Gao, Shanghai University of TCM; kelvin Wong, Shanghai University of
TCM; Xian Song, Shanghai University of TCM; Xueyong Shen, Shanghai University of TCM
Objective: Observe the influences of moxibustion on the content of myocardial ATP, ADP, AMP of rabbits with myocardial
ischemia, and explore the mechanism of moxibustion in treating myocardial ischemia from the aspect of modulation
effect of energy metabolism of myocardial cells.
Methods: 30 cases of New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: normal group, control group, and
moxibustion group. Coronary artery LCX ligation was used to establish the myocardial ischemia model. Every rabbit was
controled by a self-made holder whether it received invention or not. For normal group, no modeling no invention. For
thecontrol group, no invention. For the moxibustion group, the rabbits were treated by moxa on acupoint PC6(Neiguan)
for 20 minutes. The first treatment was performed three days after modeling, and repeated every other day in 12 days.
There were 7 treatments totally. All the rabbits were killed after the last treatment finished. The hearts were taken and
preserved in -80в„ѓ. HPLC method was used to quantify the levels of ADP, ATP, AMP in myocardial cells.
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Results: Comparing with the normal group, the ATP, AMP and TAN of the control group are significantly lower(the P value
was0.001, 0.008 and 0.007) while the ADP shows no significance(P>0.05).Compare to the control group, the ATP and TAN
in myocardial cells of the moxibustion group are significantly higher (the P value was 0.004, 0.04).
Conclusion: The energy metabolism of the myocardial ischemia.rabbit was weaker than normal rabbit. Moxibustion on
PC6 can enhance energy metabolism of myocardial cells.
The Effects of The Dragon's Way program on Stress, Weight loss, Health and Well Being
Nan Lu, Traditional Chinese Medicine World Foundation and Stony Brook University, School of Social Welfare
Since its inception 12 years ago, thousands of health-seekers have participated in the six-week self-healing Dragon’s Way
Program ®, designed to promote stress management, weight loss, and overall health and well being. The Dragon’s Way
Program, developed by Nan Lu, O.M.D., L.Ac.is based on the five element theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine and
involves practicing 10 Wu Ming Qigong meridian movements on a daily basis, taking herbs, incorporating lifestyle changes,
and eating for self-healing (foods that enhance and restore Qi). Participants routinely report feeling happier and healthier,
losing weight, and generally managing their lives better. Preliminary data collected by reviewing the pre- and postprogram evaluation forms of 102 participants over the past two years, show a majority rated themselves as improved,
reporting a decrease in the number of negative physical symptoms experienced at the program's conclusion. Additionally,
90 percent of those who reported depression and anxiety prior to the program reported improvement. However, research
has not been conducted to substantiate the specific effects of the program on physical health and well being. Given the
positive participant feedback, it is important to examine whether changes that occur as a result of the Dragon’s Way
Program are statistically significant. This presentation will review the findings of a quasi-experimental study examining the
effects of the Dragon’s Way Program. Sixty participants are compared to a control group on standardized pre- and postprogram measures assessing presence of physical symptoms (Cohen-Haberman Inventory of Physical Symptoms – CHIPS),
perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale – PSS), and depression and anxiety (Brief Symptom Inventory – BSI-18). Data
analysis presented will compare results between groups (repeated measures ANOVA) as well as the correlations between
specific participant practices (ie., how often they practiced Qigong movements, took herbs, and followed the eating for
healing plan) and scored on standardized measures.
The effects of Twelve Weeks of Tai Chi Practice on Anxiety in Stressed but Healthy People Compared
to An Exercise Only and Wait List Comparison Group – A Pilot Study
Shuai Zheng, University of Technology, Sydney; Peter Meier, University of Technology, Sydney; Chris Zaslawski, University
of Technology, Sydney
Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the effects of Tai Chi (TC) on stress in healthy individuals when compared with an
exercise and wait list group.
Methods: This pilot study is a three arm parallel randomised controlled trial. Twenty one participants were randomised to
a TC, exercise or wait list group. TC and exercise groups were required to complete five hours per week of either TC or
exercise for 12 weeks. The wait list group maintained their current lifestyle. The primary outcome measure was the State
Trait Anxiety Inventory which assesses both state anxiety (Y-1) and trait anxiety (Y-2). The secondary outcome measure
was the Perceived Stress Scale 14 (PSS14). Data was collected at baseline, midway (week 6) and at the completion of the
trial (week 12).
Results: An ANOVA was computed however there were no significant changes observed from baseline across groups at
either week 6 or 12. This may have been due to the small sample size. However using a paired t-test the within group
results showed that for Y-1 there were significant difference within the TC group at week 6 (p=0.028) and at week 12
(p<0.000) compared to baseline, the exercise group only showed a significant change at 12 weeks (p=0.02). For Y-2 data
there were significant differences in the TC group at weeks 6 (p=0.032) and 12 (p=0.003) and similarly with the exercise
group at both weeks 6 (p=0.014) and 12 (p=0.025). This trend was also reflected within the PSS14 scores for TC at weeks 6
(p=0.009) and 12 (p=0.009) and the exercise group at weeks 6 (p= 0.016) and 12 (p=0.005).
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Discussion: The findings from this pilot study permitted a power analysis to be computed and a larger study using a
sufficiently powered sample size is currently being undertaken based on these pilot findings.
The Efficacy and Safety Study of Chen-gung-gye-gi-tang(е·ќиЉЋжЎ‚жћќж№Ї) on the Common Cold:
Randomized, Single Blind, Active Controlled Pilot Trial
Jonghyang Yoo, Korean Institute of Oriental Medicine; Jihye Kwon, Korean Institute of Oriental Medicine; Yunyoung Kim,
Korean Institute of Oriental Medicine; Siwoo Lee, Korean Institute of Oriental Medicine
Objective: The common cold is one of the most widespread illnesses, with adults having two to four episodes annually.
Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique Korean traditional medicine and humans are classified into four
constitutions based on their body shape, facial appearance and psychological characteristics. Chen-gung-gye-gitang((е·ќиЉЋжЎ‚жћќж№Ї, CGT), which is also called as Chuan-xiong-gui-zhi-tang, has been claimed to be suitable for Soeumin
with common cold according to SCM. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the CGT on So-eumin
with common cold.
Method: In this single-blind trial, we treated 41 patients undergoing common cold for 7 days with CGT or Yeon-gyo-paedok-san(YPS(и“®зї№ж•—жЇ’ж•Ј Lian-qiao-bai-du-san)) three times a day. The primary efficacy outcome measurement was to
change of total Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 (WURSS) score between baseline and 7th day. Analyses
were on an intention-to-treat basis.
Result: 40 patients were included in the analysis. For CGT group, the total WURSS-21 score decreased from 93.00В±35.57 at
baseline to 24.05В±16.88 at last visit for CGT group and for YPS group, from 90.0В±33.57 to 22.05В±17.07. But there was no
statistically significant difference between two groups (p-value=0.602). Adverse events were seen in two cases (diarrhea,
sweating) in CGT group and in 6 cases (2 abdominal pain, 1 diarrhea, 2 headache, lethargy) in YPS group.
Conclusion: This randomized controlled pilot trial did not find that CGT was more effective than YPS in relieving common
cold of Soeumin. Because of the modest sample size and single blinded design, these results do not support the efficacy of
CGT in Soeumin with common cold. It is necessary to do double-blind studies for more patients in the subsequent trial.
The Experimental Study of the Impact of Electro-Acupuncture "Shimen" Point on Hypothalamic
GnRH of Mouse Implantation Period
Hong Xiao, Acupuncture and MassageCollege of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; Ou Zhang, Acupuncture and
MassageCollege ofLiaoNing University of Chinese Medicine; Changqing Guo, Acupuncture and MassageCollege of Beijing
University of Chinese Medicine
Objective: In this study, compare the EA group with mifepristone drug group and blank group ,by observing the electroacupuncture "Shihmen" points to the impact of hypothalamic GnRH to explore electro-acupuncture "Shihmen" Point in
mice affecting the hypothalamus - pituitary - ovarian axis function.
Method: Clean Kunming female, male mice, each 30. According to body weight were randomly divided into blank group,
electro-acupuncture group,mifepristone drug group, 10 in each group.Male and female according to 1:1 in cage.The next
morning the 7:00 vaginal examination,vaginal plug was the first day ofpregnancy.Electro-acupuncture group: Pregnancy 15 days earlier at 9:00 electro-acupuncture; mifepristone drug group: 9:00 the 4th day of pregnancy the first subcutaneous
injection of mifepristone ; blank Group: crawling in the same fixed time, but not acupuncturing, measuring by
radioimmunoassay the level of GnRH.
Results: Electro-acupuncture group than the blank group GnRH, with the mifepristone group close to the hormone levels.
Conclusion: Electro-acupuncturing "Shihmen" hole can have an impact on the hypothalamic GnRH , and electro-acupuncturing "Shihmen" hole can affect the hypothalamus -pituitary - ovarian axis.
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Key words: Acupuncture; Point, Shihmen; GnRH
The Expression of Aromatase P450 mRNA in Abdominal Adipose Tissues of ovariectomized rats
Treated with Catgut Embedding in Points
Yunxiang Xu, Acupuncture and Massage College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine; Jinyuan Cai, Acupuncture
and Massage College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine; Guizhen Chen, Baoan District Hospital of Chinese
Medicine
Purpose: To probe the influence of Catgut Embedding in points on the expression of aromatase P450 mRNA in abdominal
adipose tissues of ovariectomized rats.
Methods: The ovariectomized SD rats were divided randomly into ovariectomized model group(AпјЊn=10)пјЊcatgut
embedding in points group(BпјЊn=11)пјЊdrug group(CпјЊn=10).At the same timeпјЊbuilt sham model group(DпјЊn=9)and
normal group(EпјЊn=10).Group B was treated with catgut embedding in points. Acupoints chosen in group A were as
followsпјљGuanyuan(CV4),bilateral Sanyinjiao(SP6)and bilateral Shenshu(BL23); Group C was infused with Nilestriol
5ml/kg(1mg/kg); Group A,D and E were infused with water 5ml/kg, the intervention for each group was given once every
5 daysпјЊfour times as a therapeutic course. After a therapeutic courseпјЊall of the experimental animals were put to
deathпјЊreal time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to detect aromatase P450 mRNA in abdominal adipose
tissues of each groupпј›The effects were evaluated by measuring the change of body weight, and the weight coefficient of
relative organs was investigated.
Result: (1) Acupoint catgut embedding therapy can curb the increase weight of ovariectomized rat and increase the organ
coefficient of the hypothalamus to improve the degradation of the relative organs. (2) The aromatase P450 mRNA
expression level of group B and C was increased significantly (P<0.05) than group A, while there is not significantly
difference between B and C (P>0.05); Compared with sham group: the aromatase P450 mRNA expression level of the
embedding group and ovariectomized model group were increased, but there was not significantly different(P>0.05).
Conclusions: Catgut embedding in points can affect the aromatase P450 mRNA expression to regulate the function of
estrogen.
Keywords: Climacteric Syndrome; Aromatase P450 mRNA; Catgut Embedding in point; ovariectomized rat
The Key MicroRNA Gene Networks in Moxibustion Regulating Hippocampus Neurogenesis
Sheng-Feng Lu, key Laboratory of Acupuncture Combined with MedicationпјЊNanjing University of TCM; Hai-Yan Yin,
Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Fang Zeng, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Ling
Luo, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Shu-Guang Yu, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese
Medicine; Yong Tang, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
To explore the effect of microRNA and its target genes on moxibustion regulating hippocampus neurogenesis, we
constructed microRNA-Gene regulatory networks with Mouse Neurogenesis and Neural Stem Cell Microarray profiles and
microRNA expression profiles which were obtained from senescence accelerated mice prone-8 (SAMP 8) received
moxibustion treatment. The results indicates that mmu-miR-466d-5p, mmu-miR-590-3p and mmu-miR-297b-3p and Dcx,
Dclk1, Pten, Crebl,Sema3a, Fmr1, Foxg1, Hdac9, Robo2, Sema5a , Unc5c, Pafah1b1, Zfp91 would
be the key components of MicroRNA Gene Networks in moxibustion regulating hippocampus neurogenesis.
The Protective Effect of Electroacupuncture on Diabetic Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury
through Adiponectin Signaling Pathway
Fan Guo, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University; Qiang Wang, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical
University; Lize Xiong, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University
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Purpose: Hyperglycemia is known as an exacerbating factor in stroke and many beneficial methods for preventing cerebral
ischemia-reperfusion injury have been proved blunting in the diabetic models. Adiponectin (APN) is an adipokine with
anti-diabetic and anti-ischemia effects. Electroacupuncture (EA) preconditioning could induce cerebral ischemic tolerance
in normal animal models. However, it is unknown whether EA can attenuate APN deficiency and cerebral ischemia
reperfusion injury in diabetic mice.
Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected streptozocin (STZ) for diabetic models. STZ-induced diabetic mice were
either untreated or treated with EA (30 min at acupoint “Baihui” with intensity of 1 mA and frequency of 2/15Hz). One
hour after the end of EA pretreatment, focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury was induced. After 24 hours, animals
were sacrificed and brain injury was evaluated by neurobehavioral scores, infarction volumes, neuronal apoptosis and
oxidative stress. The expression of plasma and cerebral APN levels were measured after 24 hours, as well as the cerebral
adiponectin receptors expression.
Results: EA pretreatment reduced infarct size, improved neurological outcome and inhibited neuronal apoptosis at 24
hours after reperfusion in the diabetic mice. EA pretreatment also decreased cerebral malondialehyde (MDA), reactive
oxygen species (ROS) and NADPH oxidase level in diabetic mice compared to the control group while the superoxide
dismutase (SOD) levels were upregulated. In addition, plasma and cerebral APN levels were decreased in diabetic mice
accompanied by decreased cerebral APN receptor 1 (AdipoR1), while EA pretreatment could unregulate the plasma and
cerebral expression of APN, as well as AdipoR1 but not AdipoR2.
Discussion: We concluded that pretreatment with EA increased the production of plasma and cerebral APN, which elicited
protective effects against cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury by anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects. These results
suggest a novel mechanism of EA pretreatment-induced tolerance to diabetic cerebral ischemia.
The Research of Brain Protective Effect on Bloodletting at the Jing-Points Treating Experimental
Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
Zhou Dam, Tian Jin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Objective: To observe the effect of cerebral protective on bloodletting at the jing-points treating experimental severe
traumatic brain injury (sTBI) rats.
Method: There are 34 healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, and they were randomly divided into the normal group
(n=5), the sham operation group (n=5), the model group (n=12), and the bloodletting group (n=12).We made the sTBI
model by fluid percussion brain injury. Then we immediately evaluated the neuroethology score of rats in each group and
gave them corresponding treatment after injury. After 48 hours, we measured the brain water content of rats by wet-dry
brain weight method and evaluated neuroethology score once again.
Result: The brain water content of rats in the model group was significant higher than rats’ in the normal group and the
sham operation groups. After being treated 48 hours with bloodletting at the jing-points, the brain water
content of rats decreased, this had statistic significance compared with the model group. The immediate neuroethology
score of rats after injury were significant decreased. After be treated 48 hours, the neuroethology score of rats in all
groups were higher than instantly score after injury. Comparing with the model group, the neuroethology score of rats in
treatment groups increased more significantly, it had statistic difference.
Conclusion: Bloodletting at the jing-points can relieve cerebral edema and improve the neuroethology score of rats after
severe traumatic brain injury 48 hours.
The Role of Acupuncture in Emergency Department Settings: A Systematic Review
Kun Hyung Kim, Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, Korean Medicine Hospital, Pusan National University; Byung
Ryul Lee, Division of Clinical Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University; Ji Ho Ryu, Department of
Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Pusan National University; Tae-Young Choi, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine;
Gi Young Yang, Division of Clinical Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University
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Objectives: Patients with non-emergent and non-life threatening conditions often present to the emergency department
(ED), which hinders the efficient utilization of healthcare resources. Acupuncture has frequently been used for such
common conditions, although not in the ED context. This study aimed to evaluate the current evidence for acupuncture
treatment in the ED and to inform future randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for acupuncture in ED settings.
Methods: Four English databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and AMED) were systematically searched to identify
studies that tested the effects of acupuncture in ED settings using the search terms of “acupuncture” and “emergency”.
Data extraction and the risk of bias assessments were performed by two independent reviewers.
Results: Of the 102 screened studies, two RCTs and two uncontrolled observational studies were deemed eligible. Sample
sizes ranged from 42 to 100. The conditions treated included various musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal symptoms
and showed substantial clinical heterogeneity. Acupuncture was delivered in conjunction with standard medical care with
the goal of immediate pain alleviation; in one RCT, acupuncture resulted in a positive outcome, but it did not in the other.
The risk of bias was generally high or unclear. Uncontrolled studies reported beneficial effects for acupuncture, although
these studies were prone to bias. Two studies reported mild and transient adverse events associated with acupuncture.
Conclusions: The current evidence is insufficient to make any recommendations concerning the use of acupuncture in the
ED. The effectiveness and safety as well as the feasibility of acupuncture should be tested in future RCTs.
The Role of Hippocampal ERО± on Perimenopausal Affective Disorders in Ovariectomized Rats: Effect
of Electroacupuncture
Xun Wang, Department of Integrative Medicine and Neurobiology, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology,
Shanghai medical college; Institute of acupuncture research (WHO collaborating center for traditional medicine), Institutes
of brain science, Fudan Universi; Yongheng Huang, Department of Integrative Medicine and Neurobiology, State Key
Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Shanghai medical college; Institute of acupuncture research (WHO collaborating
center for traditional medicine), Institutes of brain science, Fudan Universi; Shiwen Yuan, Department of Integrative
Medicine and Neurobiology, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Shanghai medical college; Institute of
acupuncture research (WHO collaborating center for traditional medicine), Institutes of brain science, Fudan Universi; Ting
Xu, Department of Integrative Medicine and Neurobiology, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Shanghai
medical college; Institute of acupuncture research (WHO collaborating center for traditional medicine), Institutes of brain
science, Fudan Universi; Gencheng Wu, Department of Integrative Medicine and Neurobiology, State Key Laboratory of
Medical Neurobiology, Shanghai medical college; Institute of acupuncture research (WHO collaborating center for
traditional medicine), Institutes of brain science, Fudan Universi; Boying Chen, Department of Integrative Medicine and
Neurobiology, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Shanghai medical college; Institute of acupuncture research
(WHO collaborating center for traditional medicine), Institutes of brain science, Fudan Universi; Yi Feng, Department of
Integrative Medicine and Neurobiology, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Shanghai medical college; Institute
of acupuncture research (WHO collaborating center for traditional medicine), Institutes of brain science, Fudan University
To study the mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) treatment on perimenopausal affective disorders at the behavioral
and cellular levels and to make comparisons regarding the effects of EA and estrogen treatments, adult female SpragueDawley (SD) rats were divided into intact (INT), ovariectomy (OVX), chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) and
ovariectomy+chronic unpredictable stress (OVX+CUS) groups. The OVX and CUS groups were created to model
perimenopausal affective disorder conditions in the animals. EA and E2 treatments were applied to each group once the
conditions had been established. The behavioral tests used to assess the conditions of the affective disorders included the
elevated plus maze (EPM), the open field (OF), and the forced swimming (FS) tests. Brain sections that were processed for
immunofluorescence of ER-О± in the hippocampus were examined to evaluate neuronal changes in the hippocampus. After
EA and E2 treatment, the estrous cycles of the ovariectomized rats were restored. Across the different groups, the effects
of the EA and E2 treatments were comparable for both the behavioral results and the ER levels. EA treatment restored the
estrous cycle of the OVX rats and ameliorated the affective disorder indices of the model rats in the behavioral tests.
Importantly, within each group, compared to the control group, the thickness of the CA1 region of the hippocampus after
EA or E2 treatments was significantly larger, with enlarged numbers and volumes of ERО±-positive neurons. Therefore, the
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EA treatment had a positive effect on the affective disorders caused by estrogen deficiency or stress, and hippocampal
ERО± neurons may contribute to its mechanism of action.
The Science of Gua Sha
Dr. Arya Nielsen, Beth Israel Medical Center, Department of Integrative Medicine, New York, NY; Dr. Suk-Tak Chan,
Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School; Dr. Kenneth K. Kwong, Department of
Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Purpose: To evaluate research on Gua sha therapeutic mechanism.
Background: Gua sha has been used for centuries in Asia, in Asian immigrant communities and by acupuncturists and
practitioners of traditional East Asian medicine worldwide. Sometimes called coining, spooning or scraping, Gua sha is
defined as instrument-assisted unidirectional press-stroking of a lubricated area of the body surface that intentionally
creates �transitory therapeutic petechiae’ representing extravasation of blood in the subcutis. Gua sha is valuable in the
treatment of pain and for functional problems with impaired movement, the prevention and treatment of acute infectious
illness, upper respiratory and digestive problems, and many acute or chronic disorders.
Methods: Analysis of research literature to elucidate Gua sha’s therapeutic mechanism.
Results: Gua sha radically increases surface micro perfusion and has been shown to upregulate gene expression of heme
oxygenase-1 (HO-1) at multiple internal organ sites immediately after treatment and over a period of days following Gua
sha treatment[1]. Biliverdin, bilirubin and carbon monoxide (CO), the products of hemoglobin breakdown and heme
degradation, catalyzed by HO-1, exhibit potent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. HO-1 has been shown to
provide protection in many disease models among them asthma, organ transplantation rejection, inflammatory bowel
disease, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and many others by modulating immune reactions. Evidence-based
studies both in China and the US, find Gua sha is hepatoprotective in active hepatitis B and C, reducing liver inflammation
and improving liver profile.
Conclusion: Gua sha results in modulation of HO-1 that likely accounts for Gua sha’s long-term anti-inflammatory and
immunoprotective role. Analysis of current research clarifies a role for Gua sha in treating organ pathology.
[1] Kwong KK, Kloetzer L, Wong KK et al. Bioluminescence imaging of heme oxygenase-1 upregulation in the Gua Sha
procedure. J Vis Exp. 2009;30 (August 28):1385
The Use of Communications Technologies in Primary Care Medicine
Michael Weinstein, L.Ac., HI. & CA
Can the use of technology be used to improve communications between doctor and patient? If so, what communications
technologies would be most effective and easily used? How do they effect the doctor patient relationship and potential
outcomes? How the use of communications technology runs parallel with the wider social shift in medicine; the shift
toward patient centered clinical practice and the move toward shared decision making. Qualitative and quantitative
methods were used in this study. There were three cycles of action research. Written questionnaires, audio/video field
interviews, and field interviews were used. Notes from the three cycles were analyzed inductively. Patients surveyed said
that the use of technology can improve the doctor patient relationship. 81% of patients believe that communications
technology changes the interaction between doctor and patient, 92% believe that technology improves the doctor patient
relationship, 57% of patient prefer to use email communications with their doctor between visits, and 98% of patients
believe that better communications promotes trust, understanding and is a key to positive healing outcomes. Patients as a
group want to be a part of the healing, treatment, and decision making process with their doctors in a partnership
relationship. Communication and access can create a better connection which is a key component to better relationship
and an influence on outcomes. More frequent and open communications also potentially shifts the centered focus from
doctor to patient and develops a partnership. A partnership has at its core a dialogue. With value placed on listening,
caring, and shared decision making, patients believe that positive healing outcomes are increased.
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The Variation of Energy Metabolism along the Pericardium Meridian and Its Relationship with the
Organs’ Functional Regulation during Acupuncture
Xu Jinsen, Fujian Association of Acupuncture
Objective: To observe the variation of transcutaneous oxygen pressure/ carbon dioxide pressure (tcpO2/tcpCO2),
microcirculatory blood perfusion and cardiac function along the pericardium meridian with acupuncture at Neiguan; To
explore the variation of energy metabolism along the pericardium meridian and its relationship with the organs’ functional
regulation in the process of acupuncture.
Methods: We recruited 48 healthy volunteers in this study, separately used 3-channel Laser Doppler Perfusion
Monitor(LDPM), tcpO2/tcpCO2 detection system produced by Swedish J & Companyпј€PeriFlux System 5000пј‰and
hemodynamic monitor пј€sizeпјљBZ-4110-121пј‰produced by American Cardio Dynamics Company, and detected
tcpO2/tcpCO2, microcirculatory blood perfusion and cardiac function along their pericardium meridian.
Results: в‘ In normal state, the microcirculatory blood perfusion was significantly more along the pericardium meridian
than the non-acupoint on both sides of the meridian. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). With electro
acupuncture (EA) at Neiguan point, the microcirculatory blood perfusion along the pericardium meridian varied little,
additionally some increased. в‘Ў In normal state, tcpO2 along the pericardium meridian was higher than that of both sides
of the meridian. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conversely, tcpCO2 along the pericardium meridian
was lower than that of both sides of the meridian. In comparison with normal state, EA could decrease tcpO2 along the
meridian, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conversely, tcpCO2 increased. в‘ў With EA at Neiguan
point of healthy volunteers treated by artificial acute mild hypoxiaпјЊascending cardiac output (CO) and cardiac index (CI)
decreased, descending systemic vascular resistance (SVR) after oxygen inhalation increased. All the differences were
statistically significant (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: в‘ In normal state, the microcirculatory blood perfusionпјЊtcpO2 along the pericardium meridian were both
higher than the non-acupoint on both sides of the meridian. Energy metabolism was vigorous along the meridian. в‘ЎThe
decrease of oxygen pressure along the pericardium meridian might be a result of that the energy metabolism of
associated tissue strengthened and oxygen consumption increased. в‘ўThe variation of energy metabolism along the
pericardium meridian with acupuncture had a close relationship with organs’ functional regulation.
Thermal Properties of Supplementation/Drainage Manipulation of Moxibustion
Seung-Ho Yi, Kyung Hee University
The purpose of this study was to understand supplementation /drainage (S/D) manipulation of moxibustion, which is one
of major treatment methods in TCM. S/D manipulation could make imbalanced human state balanced, which is the main
purpose of moxibustion and acupuncture. Despite its importance, few papers have been reported for S/D manipulation
except acupoint selection and not much has been known for the basic physical properties of the manipulation. Several
methods have been known for S/D manipulation of acupuncture. However, there is practically only one method for
moxibustion. According to �Ling Shu’, supplementation manipulation can be achieved by letting a moxa burn out itself to
achieve and drainage manipulation can be achieved by supplying external air flow after lighting a moxa. To differentiate
the thermal properties of moxibustion for S/D manipulation, we measured temperature of a burning minimoxa ( 1 x 10
mm, dia. X length) while we applied varied the magnitude of air flow (0.3 - 1.0 m/s) for drainage manipulation to compare
with supplementation manipulation ( 0 air flow). To reflect clinical situation, we also varied the incident angle of the flow
(0-60В°). According to our measurement, a peak temperature for the moxibustion is not meaningfully relevant to the
magnitude of air flow. But the temperature increase rate is proportional to the magnitude. The decrease rate after the
peak temperature is similar each other. The incident angle of air flow does not affect the overall trend of S/D manipulation
of moxibustion. The results of this measurement show that S/D manipulation of moxibustion might be to manipulate the
ramp rate of heat stimulus rather than the amount of heat stimulus as thermodynamically point of view. Based on the
results, the concept of the S/D manipulation of moxibustion could be tested for clinical application as well as basic
understanding of TCM.
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Thoughts about How to Perform an Acupuncture Study
Qi Zhang, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Acupuncture is a therapeutic method to stimulate human acupoints on meridians by puncturing them with needles to
prevent and cure diseases. With millenia development, an integrated acupuncture system has been constructed, including
theories, methods, formula (acupoints and operations). Nevertheless, nowadays, acupuncture needs to take big steps to
make itself refreshed. Therefore, it is essential to know what to do and how to deal with them in acupuncture researches.
Based on our current experience in China, it would be better for acupuncture researches to keep acupuncture centralized
and combine with multi-subjects on basis of clinical practice, which would guide acupuncture on a flatter way in the
future.
Topographic-Physiological Acupuncture by Polyneuropathy
Antonius Pollmann, DГ„GfA
Topographic-Physiological Acupuncture by Polyneuropathy Now I transfered the traditional acupuncture into the current
physiology. I define acupuncture as an overlap of the superordinate functions of the germ layers with fascial trains and
segmental innervation. On this way I found a highly effective method of treating Polyneuropathy. Each of the three
circulations of the meridians can be attributed to the functions of one oft the germ layers. The Posterior Circulation with
the channels of the heart, small intestine, bladder and kidney has been linked with the functions of information
processing, dissemination and saving. These are functions of the organs and tissues of ectodermal origin - nervous system,
superordinated controlling hormones, genetic information transfer and transcription. In TCM the current information
processing and control system is called Shen / spirit. The genetic system for outlive information is called Jing / essence.
Shen and Jing belong to the channels of heart and kidney. The acupuncture points in this circulation have an effect on
diseases of information processing and controlling. A typical disease in the function of ectodermal tussues is the
Polyneuropathy. Based on this consideration, I have chosen distance points on the meridians heart and small intestine, to
treat a Polyneuropathy of the leg. The localization of acupuncture points is not done by Cun-unit of measure but according
topographic-anatomic criterias. I have performed in a small multi-center observational study to demonstrate the practical
relevance and effectiveness of this new form of acupuncture. The study shows an impressive efficiency: 17 of 21 patients
had improved conciderably from Polyneuropathy. First, I was afraid that essential contents could be lost with the inclusion
of acupuncture in modern medicine. Now I realize, that acupuncture conforming to our scientific medicine,
misinterpretation and errors can be corrected. Now acupuncture is even more precise and thus more effective.
Treating Phlegm and Spleen Dampness Type Hyperplasia of Mammary Glands by Indirect
Moxibustion with Electric Acupuncture
Nomin-Erdene Ulambayar, Prof. Dongfang Gong
Objective: To observe the effects of Indirect Moxibustion with electro-acupuncture in treating phlegm and spleen
dampness type mammary glands.
Methods: 60 patients met the inclusion criteria of phlegm and spleen dampness type mammary glands were divided into
treatment group and control group, 30 cases in each. Control group and treatment group received electro-acupuncture
therapy, treatment group received indirect moxibustion during the process of electro-acupuncture therapy, each taking 2
points, moxibusting 3 moxa cone each per hole . Two groups of patients were treated once a day, three times a week,
menstrual suspended. A menstrual cycle is a course of treatment, continuous treatment of 3 courses. According to the
2002 Chinese Medicine, Chinese Society of Breast Disease Committee of the eighth meeting of the efficacy evaluation of
reference through the standard score for each patient before and after treatment, the patient's breast pain, tumor size,
hardness, range, accompanied by symptoms such as descriptive indicators studies and infer, evaluation of Indirect
Moxibustion with acupuncture treatment of phlegm and spleen dampness type mammary glands of clinical efficacy.
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Results: Baseline data were tested two groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05),comparable. Two groups of
patients clinical symptoms improved after treatment, compared with before treatment with statistically significant
(P<0.05).
Conclusions: Two groups of phlegm and spleen dampness type mammary glands of treatment are effective, in the
treatment of early and the in the treatment of the late the effects of two groups was considerable. In the treatment of the
late and follow to three months treatment groups was remarkable (P<0.05).
Keywords: Indirect Moxibustion; Electro-acupuncture; Phlegm and spleen dampness; Hyperplasia of mammary glands;
Effect
Using Acupuncture to Encourage Community Wellness in Uganda
Kathia Kirschner, New England School of Acupuncture; Richard Mandel, New England School of Acupuncture; Lisa
Conboy, New England School of Acupuncture
This project considers the treatment benefits and challenges to using a manualized acupuncture protocol in the context of
Ugandan health care system. Treatments and data collection were performed by members of the Pan African
Acupuncture Project (PAAP) (http://www.panafricanacupuncture.org/). PAAP was created in 2001 and is a volunteerbased not-for-profit training organization. It encourages community empowerment and wellness by training local healthcare providers how to use simple, effective acupuncture protocols to treat the symptoms of HIV/AIDS, malaria,
tuberculosis, and other chronic conditions. PAAP organizes and administers this manualized, symptom-based treatment
program through three week-long trainings. The training manual explains the theory of acupuncture and the techniques
associated with it in clear and simple terms. The bulk of the manual is the presentation of specific acupuncture protocols
associated with the signs and symptoms manifested by malaria, as well as and other illnesses, commonly seen in Uganda.
Both acupuncture and herbs have been used throughout history to combat malaria in China. Several clinical studies will be
reviewed that indicate that acupuncture is an undervalued tool in the global fight against malaria. With further research
and acceptance by public health workers, acupuncture could join herbal medicine as a pivotal aid against this disease, as
well as being an effective treatment for other health complaints. Methods: Pre-post acupuncture treatment data was
collected on 117 patients at Isingiro, Uganda over the course of 4 days (17/4/12 – 20/4/12). A personalized scale in which
the subjects offered a main and secondary symptom with corresponding severity was used. Student’s t-tests were
conducted on the 24 subjects with complete data, which indicate that the acupuncture treatments significantly reduced
main symptom severity from a mean of 4.2 on a 7 point scale to 2.3. Also reviewed are types of symptoms reported, and
rich demographics to describe this novel data collection.
Using CONSORT and STRICTA to Assess the Quality of Reports about Randomized Controlled Trials of
Acupuncture Treatment on Primary Dysmenorrhea
Yue Zhang, Department of Acupuncture-Moxibustion, Tianjin University of TCM; Yi Guo, Department of AcupunctureMoxibustion, Tianjin University of TCM; Chao Wang, Department of Acupuncture-Moxibustion, Tianjin University of TCM;
Rui Wang, Department of Acupuncture-Moxibustion, Tianjin University of TCM; Zhankui Wang, Department of
Acupuncture-Moxibustion, Tianjin University of TCM; Ye Zhao, Clinical Assessment Department, China Academy of Chinese
Medical Sciences
Objective: To evaluate the reports‟ qualities of RCTs about acupuncture application on primary dysmenorrhea.
Methods: Eleven databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PUBMED, MEDLINE, ISI web of
knowledge, Springerlink, Biomed, Highwire Press, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, VIP and Chaoxing
were searched independently. Hand search for further references was also conducted. Written languages were limited to
Chinese and English. RCTs fit our criterions were collected and assessed against the CONSORT 2010 and STRICTA 2010.
Results: 22 RCTs (19 of Chinese, 3 of English) were included. In regard to the items in the CONSORT 2010, no RCT reported
the sample size calculation. 8 (36.36%) mentioned the method of generating the random sequence, 2 (9.09%) reports
represented adequate allocation concealments. Two RCTs used blinding. 7 (31.82%) described baseline demographic and
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clinical characteristics. 16 (72.73%) portrayed statistical methods. According to STRICTA 2010, 5 (22.73%) numbered
acupoints and 8 (36.36%) named acupoints (marked with lateral/bilateral). 13 (59.09%) described the depths of insertion,
15 (68.18%) reported acupuncture response, 16 (72.73%) mentioned the technique of acupuncture, 21 (95.45%) recorded
the time, and only 3 RCTs (13.64%) reported the background and professional title of practitioners.
Conclusion: The reporting quality of RCTs on acupuncture for PD was generally poor. The main factors influencing the
reporting quality were speculated: the insufficient of RCT designs, the undetailed description of acupuncture and the
incomprehensive of reporting. It is high time to promote and advocate using the CONSORT and STRICTA to standardize
RCT reports of acupuncture in the future.
Key words: Acupuncture, Primary dysmenorrhea, RCT, CONSORT, STRICTA
Using the Eight Extraordinary Vessels for Treatment of Psychoemotional Conditions: A Mixed
Method Case Series Approach
Yvonne Farrell, LA Herbs and Acupuncture; Dawn Upchurch, UCLA
Purpose: Although acupuncture research has emphasized treatment of physical conditions, there is a long tradition in
Chinese medicine identifying the eight extraordinary vessels as gateways to treat psychoemotional problems. The goal of
this clinical study was to describe treatment protocols and assess patient subjective outcomes over time.
Methods: A mixed methods design was used. Quantitative clinical data and qualitative data were both obtained on a case
series of 3 patients. Patients were assessed and treated by a provider (YF) with training and expertise in eight
extraordinary vessel applications. Patients were prospectively followed for up to 12 weeks.
Results: Patients presented with a diversity of psychoemotional concerns (e.g., anxiety, depression, obsessive thinking,
sleep disorders). Following 8EV theory Ren Mai treatments, self-reports indicate substantial specific improvements in
intensity and frequency of anxious episodes and non-specific improvements in the ability of patients to self-soothe. Based
on self-reports, Du Mai treatments resulted in a decrease in severity of depression and increased self-motivation. The
Chong Mai also improved depressive states and patients reported increases in self-esteem and reduction in feelings of
shame.
Conclusions: Clinically, an 8EV approach offers an opportunity to access and successfully treat psychoemotional concerns.
These vessels are linked to the concept of pre-natal qi in Chinese medicine and are therefore associated with genetic
predisposition and personality. There support the Mind-body connection allows patients to have increased body
awareness and increased control over their thoughts and emotional states. This study demonstrated the utility of mixed
method design in this emerging area of research.
Visual Evidence of Meridians and Acupoints from Thermal Images
Shui Yin Lo, Quantum Health Research Instittue and American University of Complementary Medicine
1. To obtain thermal images of meridians and acupoints
2. Take thermal images of subjects with infrared camera.
3. Thermographs were first pointed out to show images of in 2002.1,2 Since that time we have taken more than ten
thousand thermal images of human subjects. In almost every thermographs we take on subject above 50 years
old we can identify hot lines and hot spots as meridians and acupoints. People above 50 years inevitably have some health
issues that have inflammation somewhere in the body. This inflammation somewhere in the body will be transmitted
through meridians to the skin surface, which is shown as hot lines or hot spots in thermographs . In Fig 1 we show the
Bladder meridians as two short line segment above two eyes on the forehead, which are identified to be Bladder
meridian. Two hot spots are shown at the inner corner of two eyes, which are identified to be acupoints BL1. The subject
has nothing wrong with his eyes, and there is nothing wrong on the skin at the forehead. It is logical to identify the hot line
and hot spots are something inflamed along the Bladder meridians. For this case he had serious neck pain. In Fig 2 in
another subject who is weak in the kidney meridian, we see a hot circular line around the ankle, which is identified with
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kidney meridian. 1.Shui Yin Lo, Meridians in acupuncture and infrared imaging, Medical Hypothesis 2002, v58(1), 72-76. 2
Shui Yin Lo, The Biophysics basis for Acupuncture and health, 2004, Dragon Eye Press 4. Conclusion: We have visual
evidence of the existence of all meridians from thermal images
Warming up with Tai Chi Increases Muscle Strength and Endurance
Shin Lin, Depts. of Developmental & Cell Biology and Biomedical Engineering, Susan Samueli Center for Integrative
Medicine, University of California, Irvine; Asal Samadi, Depts. of Developmental & Cell Biology and Biomedical
Engineering, Susan Samueli Center for Integrative Medicine, University of California, Irvine
With integration of whole body movement with deep breathing cycles and mental concentration, Tai Chi has a good
potential as an effective warm up exercise for various types of athletic activities. The purpose of this pilot study is to
determine whether the basic exercise of "Silk Reeling" from Chen style Tai Chi can improve muscle function in
weightlifting tests. In the initial part of the study involving a group of 5 healthy male and female college students, “1-Rep
Max” for bicep curls on a Bowflex machine was determined as described
(http://www.timinvermont.com/fitness/orm.htm). For each subject, the measurement was made on one day without
warm up and repeated on a different day after 15 minutes of 2-handed silk reeling (4 cycles/minute, half the time with
hands-arms sweeping clockwise and the other half counterclockwise) coordinated with deep breathing and mental
concentration. We found that all 5 subjects were able to lift an average of 10% more weight when warming up with silk
reeling compared to no warm up. Next, we measured 10 new subjects (similar personal characteristics)in the number of
repetitions of bicep curls at 50% of “1-Rep Max” using a set of barbells. As control, the subjects performed the test on 4
different days using conventional warm up of 20 empty-handed curls and the results were averaged. On 4 alternative
days, the subjects did the same test but used silk reeling as a quick warm up (10 times clockwise and 10 times
counterclockwise). We found that the subjects increased their number of repetitions by an average of 33% (range: 1178%) when warming up with silk reeling compared to empty-handed curls. The results of this study show that Tai Chi silk
reeling is a highly effective warm up exercise that can measurably increase muscle strength and endurance in weightlifting
tests.
What Actually Constitute Acupoints? Evidence from Moxibustion Research
Ming Yi, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University
Acupoints are specific points in the body which, when stimulated with acupuncture or electric stimulation, produce
therapeutic effects such as analgesia. In the “WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations in the Western Pacific Region
(WHO Standard)”, acupoints are primarily defined under the anatomical basis. However, our recent work on moxibustion,
thermal stimulation with herbal products, provides evidence for an alternative definition of acupoints. Our previous work
shows that a large proportion of patients, but not healthy volunteers, report strong thermal and emotional sensations
during moxibustion at specific locations. These locations are spatially fixed to some extent but might change slightly
during the course of diseases and do not always match acupoints. Moxibustion at these “heat-sensitive” locations produce
significantly better therapeutic effects than regular moxibustion at fixed acupoints. Here we show that such heat-sensitive
moxibustion produces robust electroencephalographic changes, including increased theta and beta band power densities,
which are not present during regular moxibustion. This evidence suggests a possibly more rational definition of
“acupoints” under functional rather than anatomical basis, and provides a novel means of personalized medicine, which is
a core in traditional Chinese medicine.
What Is the Impact of Pain Assessment by Subjective Scores in Acupuncture Research ?
Susana Seca, Institut fГјr Chinesische Medizin
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the way of pain assessment may influence the outcome of acupuncture
studies. This prospective, randomized, controlled, blinded preliminary clinical study compared Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)
assessment to Physical measurement of increases of mobility in patients with clinical features of a Yang Major syndrome,
as defined by the Heidelberg Model of TCM, suffering from Low Back Pain. In all participants pain was assessed before and
10 minutes after treatment using VAS and angle between the
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trunk and leg was determined using a goniometer as an objective measurement parameter. The improvement of pain and
mobility was stastically significantly better in the verum group than in the controls. In comparison to 12
conventional acupuncture studies, under experimental conditions, come to the result that acupuncture effects may be
unspecific, one can state: (1) Assessment of subjective pain and objective physical mobility can be combined in
acupuncture research, being that subjective assessment may be due to a higher extent of subject to individual
expectations, suggestive effects and other factors and objective functional assessment showed to be more reliable in
demonstrating acupuncture effects (2)Including both western and TCM diagnoses may be necessary to show acupuncture
effects.
KEYWORDS: Visual Analogue Scale (VAS); Traditional Chinese Medicine theories; Acupuncture; Heidelberg Model of TCM
Who Uses a Student Acupuncture Clinic: Demographic and MYMOP Symptom Results
Kai Yin Hsu, New England School of Acupuncture; Lisa Conboy, New England School of Acupuncture
While Acupuncture is becoming become more widely accepted by the American public as well as federal policy makers,
relatively little data has been obtained to date of acupuncture users’ demographic characteristics and
reasons for using acupuncture teaching clinics in the U.S. It is important to understand patients’ sociodemographics as
well as their symptoms in order to better serve acupuncture consumers and provide information to health care providers
and investigators.
DESIGN: This retrospective chart review reports on the 676 patients using one of the student clinics at the New England
School of Acupuncture (NESA) in Massachusetts, USA in 2011. Annually, NESA interns administer over 27,000 treatments
for a variety of conditions across all of its clinics. The NESA teaching clinics are learning environments where student
interns treat patients under the direct supervision of experienced and licensed
acupuncturists.
METHODS: A retrospective chart review was used to look at all patients who visited the NESA main clinic site in 2011. This
report focuses on patient demographics and “Measure Your Medical Outcome Profile” (MYMOP)
results.
RESULTS: Patients were mostly female (72%) and White (82%) with 62% having at least a college education. Common
activities that subjects sought help for are improvements in their ability to exercise, and work. Twenty-nine percent
desired that their acupuncture treatment would them reduce their prescribed and over the counter medication use. Pain,
fatigue, and anxiety were the most common symptoms for which treatment was sought. The sample self-reported a high
level of general �wellbeing” on the MYMOP, with 64% reporting at most a 4 out of 6, on a wellbeing scale of 0 (as good as
it could be) to 6 (as bad as it could be).
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ATTENDEE LIST
Dr. Deborah Ackerman
Oregon College of Oriental Medicine
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Portland OR 97211 USA
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Lori Baldwin
Northwestern Health Sciences University
2501 W. 84th Street
Bloomington MN 55431 USA
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Veterans Health Administration
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1383 Clavey River Ct.
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Alliance Institute for Integrative Medicine
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Cincinnati OH 45236 USA
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Beijing University of Chinese Medicine
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Pacific College of Oriental Medicine
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Pacific College of Oriental Medicine
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Stromatec
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Healthy Living Acupincture
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Northwestern Health Sciences University
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Wake Forest University School of Medicine
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Beardall Acupuncture and Chiropractic Clinic
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A Center for Oriental Medicine
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Johns Hopkins University
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UCSF
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Penny George Institute for Health and Healing
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Oregon College of Oriental Medicine
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New York College of Traditional Chinese Medicine
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CharitГ© University Medical Center
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Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
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2208 South Rd.
Cincinnati OH 45233 USA
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Healing Touch Acupuncture & Oriental Medicine
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Institute of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine,
National Yang-Ming University
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Taipei 115 Taiwan
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+ 886-2-28267178
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Kalamazoo MI 49008 USA
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Oregon College of Oriental Medicine
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Acupuncture Council of Ontario
187 Madison Ave.
Toronto Ontario M5R2S6 Canada
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rua SГЈo Francisco, 170/101
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UCLA Center For East-West Medicine
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Pacific College of Oriental Medicine
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Lutheran Medical Center
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ICESP
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NCCAOM
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Duke University
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Lynda Jackson Macmillan Centre
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Northwood Middlesex HA6 2RN United Kingdom
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New England School of Acupuncture
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Newton MA 02458 USA
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Beaumont Hospitals
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Beijing University of Chinese Medicine
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AOMA Graduate School of Integrative Medicine
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Cancer Treatment Centers of America
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Finger Lakes School of Acupuncture and Oriental
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Atlantic Institute of Oriental Medicine
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Helms Medical Institute
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HNO Praxis
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University of Minnesota
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Minneapolis MN 55455 USA
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Pacific College of Oriental Medicine
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Ziv Greenfeld
561 Darlington Ln, Apt. 1
Crystal Lake IL 60014 USA
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Liyun He, MD
China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences
Room 418, No. 16, Dongzhimennei Nanxiaojie,
Dongcheng District, Beijing, China
Beijing 100700 China
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Catalyst Acupuncture & Traditional Oriental Medicine;
OCOM
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Portland OR 97232 USA
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(503) 274-9360
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100 Bush St. #1900
San Francisco CA 94104 USA
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Rio Preto Medical School - Brazil
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Sao Jose do Rio Preto SP 15015-770 Brazil
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11 Chesley Road
Newton MA 02459 USA
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121 Silver Street
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Institute of Mental Health
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539747 Singapore
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Oregon College of Oriental Medicine
612 SE 73rd Ave
Portland OR 97215 USA
[email protected]
Craig Houchen
Wege Inst. Mind, Body, Spirit
365 Scott Ave nw (home)
Grand Rapids MI 49504 USA
[email protected]
(616) 617-9223
Amber Hammes, LAc
Mayo Clinic
32072 County Rd 17
Rushford MN 55971 USA
[email protected]
(507) 284-8982
Kai Yin Hsu, BSN LicAc
New England School of Acupuncture
150 California Street
Newton MA 02458 USA
[email protected]
(617) 558-1788
Richard Harris, PhD
University of Michigan
24 Frank Lloyd Wright Drive, Lobby M
Chronic Pain and Fatigue Research Center
Ann Arbor MI 48106 USA
[email protected]
(734) 998-6996
Florence Huang, BS
Five Branches University, Graduate School of TCM
3031 Tisch Way, Suite 508
San Jose CA 95128 USA
[email protected]
(408) 260-0208
Shi-xi Huang
No.5 Beixiange, Xicheng District
Beijing 100053 China
Steven Harte
24 Frank Lloyd Wright Dr 385 Lobby M
Ann Arbor MI 48105 USA
[email protected]
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Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Ms. Wei Ling Huang, MD
Rua Homero Pacheco Alves, 1929
Franca Sao Paulo 14400-010 Brazil
[email protected]
55 16 37212437
Dr. Elizabeth Kauric, RN, DC
Wyandotte Chiropractic Centre
4758 Wyandotte St E
Windsor Ontario N8Y-1H7 Canada
[email protected]
(519) 948-7434
Yongheng Huang
P.O.Box 291,138 Yi-Xue-Yuan Road, Shanghai
Shanghai 200032 China
[email protected]
B. Basia Kielczynska
12 Schubert Street
Staten Island NY 10305 USA
[email protected]
Lee Hullender Rubin, DAOM, MS
Oregon College of Oriental Medicine
1304 NE Roselawn St
Portland OR 97211 USA
[email protected]
(206) 409-7718
Ms. Esther Shinsung Kim
Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI)
Seoul Korea
[email protected]
Anne Jeffres, DAOM
Columbia University
61 Lexington Ave. #6A
New York NY 10010 USA
[email protected]
Jaekyu Kim
Pusan National University Korean Medicine Hospital,
Beomeo-ri, Mulgeum-eup, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnamdo, Korea
Yangsan-si Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 Korea
[email protected]
Dong Ji
13417 Tiverton Road
San Diego CA 92130 USA
[email protected]
Jieun Kim
149 13th street
Charlestown MA 02129 USA
[email protected]
Xianghong Jing
Beijing Dongzhimennei Nanxiaojie NO16
Beijing 100700 China
[email protected]
Seung-Nam Kim
AMSRC, Kyung Hee University
1 Hoegidong
Seoul Dongdaemoongu 130-701 Republic of Korea
[email protected]
Wayne Jonas, MD
Samueli Institute
1737 King Street Suite 600
Alexandria VA 22314 USA
[email protected]
(703) 299-4800
Tinna Kim
120 Millburn Ave Suite M6
Millburn NJ 07041 USA
[email protected]
Dae In Kang
AKOM 4F, Gayang-2ding, Gangseo-gu
Seoul 157200 Korea
[email protected]
Yuri Kim
Pusan National University Korean Medicine Hospital,
Beomeo-ri, Mulgeum-eup, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnamdo, Korea
Yangsan-si Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 Korea
[email protected]
Ted Kaptchuk
USA
[email protected]
Kenichi Kimura
2-8-14 Akashiadai
Kawachinagano Osaka 586-00095 Japan
[email protected]
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Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Kathia Kirschner
173A Rindge Ave Apt 3
Cambridge MA 02140 USA
[email protected]
Jill Larsen, DAOM
NWHSU
3153 Mckinley St ne
Minneapolis MN 55418 USA
[email protected]
Ian Koebner
643 44th Street
Sacramento CA 95819 USA
[email protected]
Byungryul Lee
Pusan National University Korean Medicine Hospital,
Beomeo-ri, Mulgeum-eup, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnamdo, Korea
Yangsan-si Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 Korea
[email protected]
Jiang-Ti Kong, MD
Stanford Department of Anesthesiology
780 Welch Road, Suite 208
Palo Alto CA 94304 USA
jtkong@stanford.edu
Lorna Lee, M Ac
Won Institute of Graduate Studeies
222 Philadelphia Pike
Wilmington DE 19809 USA
walter.singer@woninstitute.edu
(302) 761-9191
Sungtae Koo, DKM, PhD
Pusan National University
Busandaehak-ro 49, Mulgeum-eup
School of Korean Medicine
Yangsan Gyeongnam 626-870 Republic of Korea
stkoo@pusan.ac.kr
Sanghun Lee
Korea Institute of Oreintal Medicine
1672 Yuseong-daero Yuseong-gu
Daejeon 305-811 Republic of Korea
ezhani@kioim.re.kr
David Krofcheck, OMD, LAc(CA), RAc
Health & Energy, P.C.
501 E. Columbia Ave.
Battle Creek MI 49014 USA
dkrof@comcast.net
(269) 441-1100
Dr. Seunghoon Lee, PhD candidate
Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine
1672 Yueseongdae-ro, Yuseong-gu
Daejeon 305-811 South Korea
aimforyou@hanmail.net
Helene Langevin, MD
University of Vermont College of Medicine
89 Beaumont Ave
Burlington VT 05405 USA
helene.langevin@uvm.edu
(802) 656-1001
Patricia Leighton, BS, MS
Michigan Acupuncture Association and Oriental
Medicine (MAAOM)
1420 Bemis S. E.
Grand Rapids MI 49506 USA
leightonpat@hotmail.com
Dr. Larry Langowski, MA, Economics, MBA, Finance,
PhD, Finance
Midwest College of Oriental Medicine
2507 N. Sawyer Avenue
Chicago IL 60647 USA
ll-law@msn.com
Qian Li
6707 Democracy Blvd Suite 4000
Bethesda MD 20895 USA
qian.li@nih.gov
Lixing Lao, PhD, LAc
University of Maryland School of Medicine
520 W. Lombard Street
Baltimore MD 21211 USA
llao@compmed.umm.edu
(410) 706-6187
Ms. Deborah Lincoln, RN MSN Registered
Acp,DiplAcpNCCAOM
AAAOM
1614 Colorado Dr
East Lansing Mi 48823 USA
lincolndeborah@gmail.com
(517) 853-1201
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Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Baoyan Liu
R308, No. 16, Dongzhimen Nanxiaojie, Dongcheng
District
Beijing 100700 China
baoyan.liu.cacms@gmail.com
Dr. Kathleen Lumiere, DAOM, LAc
Bastyr University
71317th Ave. East
Seattle WA 98112 USA
klumiere@bastyr.edu
(206) 834-4184
Jia Liu, PhD, MD
China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences
Room 424, No. 16, Dongzhimennei Nanxiaojie,
Dongcheng District, Beijing, China
Beijing 100700 China
marie.liujia@yahoo.com.cn
Dr. Vera Machtelinckx
Tervuursesteenweg 461
Elewijt Brabant 1982 Belgium
vera.machtelinckx@gmail.com
Hugh MacPherson, PhD
University of York, Dept. of Health Sciences
39 Wentworth Road
York N Yorks YO24 1DG United Kingdom
hugh.macpherson@york.ac.uk
44 0 1904 321394
Prof. Jianping Liu
Beijing University of Chinese Medicine
Bei San Huan Dong Lu 11
Beijing 100029 China
jianping_l@hotmail.com
Xiao Hong Liu, Masters
Memorial University of St.John's Newfoundland
816 Southside Rd
St. John's NL A1E 1A7 Canada
xhliu@nfld.net
(1709) 753-1150
Yumi Maeda
10 Emerson Pl 15F
Boston MA 02114 USA
ymaeda@nmr.mgh.harvard.edu
Thomas Malone, MAc, PhD, LAc, DiplAc
Hygeia Industries
1855 Elmdale Ave.
Glenview IL 60026 USA
thomas.malone@hyg-ind.com
(847) 834-0822
Zhi-shun Liu
No.5 Beixiange, Xicheng District
Beijing 100053 China
zhuwenzeng530@163.com
Robert Livingston, MD, DOM
Oregon College of Oriental Medicine
5645 SE Morrison St
Portland OR 97215 USA
chicolivingston@yahoo.com
(505) 577-3037
Luigi Manni, PhD
Institute of Translational Pharmacology - CNR, Italy
via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100
Rome Rome 00133 Italy
luigi.manni@ift.cnr.it
Jun Mao, MD, MSCE
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
1638 Fairfield Road
Yardley PA 19067 USA
jun.mao@uphs.upenn.edu
Tiffany Love
University of Michigan
205 Zina Pitcher Place, Rm 1062
Ann Arbor MI 48109 USA
tiflove@umich.edu
(734) 219-3674
Lena MГҐrtensson, Associate Professor
University of Skövde
P.O. Box 408
Skövde Västra Götaland SE54128 Sweden
lena.martensson@his.se
+46500448000
Dr. James Lugo, DAOM, LAc
1619 Jeffords St.
Clearwater FL 33756 USA
drjlugo@gmail.com
(727) 455-7362
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Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Benjamin Marx, MAcOM
Oregon College of Oriental Medicine
75 NW Couch St.
Portland OR 97209 USA
bmarx@ocom.edu
(503) 253-3443
Shirley Moore, MS,RAc
Family Wellness Center Inc.
604 Wanetah Dr
Midland MI 48640 USA
shirleymoore@fwc1.net
(989) 496-7472
Terri Matson, RAc, Dipl, Ac
Michigan Acupuncture Association and Oriental
Medicine (MAAOM)
43155 Main Street #2210-A
Novi MI 48375 USA
terrimatson@me.com
(248) 946-4755
Ari More
UFSC
Rod. Mauricio Sirotsky Sobrinho n.6101 apto 301
Florianopolis SC 88053700 Brazil
darimore@hotmail.com
Paras Mehta, MD
1614 Fountain View St.
Charlotte NC 28203 USA
paras.mehta@carolinas.org
Katie Moriarty, PhD, CNM, CAFCI
University of Michigan, Nurse Midwifery
21579 Sunflower Road
Novi MI 48375 USA
katiecnm@umich.edu
(734) 846-7299
Barbara Mikicki, MD
Acuintegra
530 Stonegate Dr
Clarksville TN 37043 USA
mirom2000@aol.com
(931) 358-4146
Mrs. Mary Nagle, MBA
Logan College of Chiropractic/University Programs
534 Country Circle Drive
Chesterfield MO 63006-1065 USA
mbnagle@logan.edu
(636) 230-1724
Miroslaw Mikicki, LAc
Acuintegra
530 Stonegate Dr
Clarksville TN 37043 USA
mirom2000@aol.com
(931) 358-4146
Vitaly Napadow, PhD, LAc
Massachusetts General Hospital
#2301 149 Thirteenth St.
Charlestown MA 01890 USA
vitaly@nmr.mgh.harvard.edu
Becky Nauta
University of Detroit Mercy
4931 36th Avenue
Hudsonville MI 49426 USA
beckynauta@gmail.com
(616) 632-2911
Ryan Milley, MAcOM, LAc
Oregon College of Oriental Medicine
75 NW Couch
Portland OR 97209 USA
rmilley@ocom.edu
(503) 253-3443 x164
Mrs. Jennifer Nemeth, MEd
NCCAOM
72 S. Laura Street, Suite 1290
Jacksonville FL 32202 USA
jnemeth@thenccaom.org
(904) 674-2474
Hanna Moisander-Joyce
730 Columbus Avenue #3H
New York NY 10025 USA
hmm2112@columbia.edu
(212) 305-4030
Tuyet Nguyen
190 E 9th Ave Suite 470
Denver CO 80203 USA
nancy@fusionhealthacu.com
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Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Arya Nielsen, PhD
Beth Israel Medical Center, Department of Integrative
Medicine
1923 Glasco Tnpk
Woodstock NY 12498 USA
anielsen@chpnet.org
(646) 935-2231
Barbara Phibbs
National College of Oriental Medicine
26282 West River Road
Perrysburg OH 43551 USA
baphibbs@aol.com
Chandra Niwaz, Licensed Acupuncturist
220 Oaks Edge Dr
Oakland Tn 38068 USA
chandra350@yahoo.com
Dr. Hazel A. Philp, MS, ND, LAc
Bastyr University
14500 Juanita Dr. #312
Kenmore WA 98028 USA
hphilp@bastyr.edu
(425) 602-3120
Valerie Overby
NWHSU
155 Western Ave N #1
St. Paul MN 55102 USA
voverby@nwhealth.edu
John Pirog, MSOM
Northwestern Health Sciences University
3953 Bryant Avenue South #11
Minneapolis MN 55409 USA
jpirog@nwhealth.edu
Daniel Pach
Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health
Economics CharitГ© University Medical Center
LuisenstraГџe 57
Berlin 10117 Germany
daniel.pach@charite.de
Adam Reinstein, LAc
Integrative Health Research Center at Abbott
Northwestern Hospital
4318 York Ave S
Minneapolis MN 55410 USA
adam.reinstein@allina.com
(612) 863-9865
Hi-Joon Park
AMSRC, Kyung Hee University
Seoul Dongdaemoongu 130-701 Republic of Korea
acufind@khu.ac.kr
Portia Richardson
1318 Powderhorn Terr #311
Minneapolis MN 55407 USA
portia.mr@gmail.com
Professor Kyu-Hyun Park, Professor of Neurology, MD,
PhD
Pusan National University, School of Medicine
1-10 Amidong,
Dept. of Neurology, Pusan National University Hospital
Busan Korea 602-739 Korea
qhynbak@pusan.ac.kr
82-51-240-7315
Galina Roofener
11863 Edgewater Dr. Apt 201
Lakewood OH 44107 USA
galinaroofener@yahoo.com
Dr. Andy Rosenfarb, ND, LAc
332 South Ave East
Westfield NJ 07090 USA
acupunkk@aol.com
Kyungmo Park
Rm. 705, Dept. of Biomed. Eng., Kyung Hee Univ.
1, Seo-cheon, Gi-heung
Yong-in Gyeong-gi 446-701 South Korea
saenim@khu.ac.kr
Carey Ryan, RAc, Dipl, OM
Michigan Acupuncture Association and Oriental
Medicine (MAAOM)
102 Longman Lane
Ann Arbor MI 48103 USA
careyryan876@aol.com
(734) 846-4510
Charlotte Paterson
8, Millar House
Merchants Road
Bristol BS84HA United Kingdom
charlotte.paterson@bristol.ac.uk
146
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Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Yeon Hee Ryu, PhD
Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine
1672 Yuseongdae-ro, Yuseong-gu
Daejeon 305-811 Republic of Korea
yhryu@kiom.re.kr
+82-42-868-9484
Eli Sigler, MSOM, LAc, RN
19 Westwood Place
Asheville NC 28806 USA
siglereli@yahoo.com
Dr. Reginaldo Silva Fillho
EBRAMEC
Rua Dias Leme, 220
Mooca
Sao Paulo 03118-040 Brazil
regis@ebramec.com.br
Prof. Volker Scheid, PhD, FRCHM, MBAcC
University of Westminster, London, UK
20 Merino Court
154 Lever Street
London EC1V 8BG United Kingdom
jiangxide@mac.com
+4420 792 88333
Gurneet Singh, ND, LAc
Cancer Treatment Centers of America
3315 West Penn Street
Philadelphia PA 19129 USA
atmypeace@yahoo.com
Julie Schindler-Cohen
Michigan Acupuncture Association and Oriental
Medicine (MAAOM)
7001 Orchard Lake Road, Ste. 120
West Bloomfield MI 48322 USA
jpshindler@gmail.com
(248) 737-7126
Heather Sloan, Dipl Ac, Dipl CH, MSOM
Michigan Acupuncture Association and Oriental
Medicine (MAAOM)
2711 Carpenter Road City
Ann Arbor MI 48108 USA
heathersloan123@gmail.com
(734) 975-2745
Rosa Schnyer, DAOM, LAc
University of Texas, School of Nursing
6004 Satsuma Cove
Austin TX 78759 USA
rschnyer@mail.utexas.edu
(512) 743-6321
Dr. Coleen Smith, RN, DAOM
Point of Origin Acupuncture
12211 East Broadway Suite 2&3
Spokane Valley WA 99019 USA
mark_coleen@yahoo.com
(509) 928-2777
Kun Shi, MMed
2016 Manchester Rd. Apt 26
Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA
jasminekun@gmail.com
Dr. Richard Smolen, DC
4758 Wyandotte St E
Windsor ON N8Y 1H7 Canada
horatiodc@hotmail.com
Prof. Li Shih Min, MD, PhD
Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Departamento de Clinica Medica, 3o. Andar, Hospital
Universitario, UFSC
Florianopolis Santa Catarina 88040-900 Brasil
liconta@gmail.com
+55 48 37219876
Carol Soborowski
1407 East Lake Drive
Novi MI 48377 USA
csoborowski@gmail.com
Kyungmin Shin
Jeonmin Dong 461-24
Daejeon South Korea 305-811 South Korea
kyungmin7221@gmail.com
Elizabeth Sommers, PhD, MPH, LAc
Boston University School of Public Health
1 Bailey Place
Cambridge MA 02139 USA
bsommers@pathwaysboston.org
(617) 859-3036 ext 240
Horng-Sheng Shiue
No.6, lane 48, Roosevelt Rd, Sec 2
Taipei 100 Taiwan
hongseng@ms1.hinet.net
147
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Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Ms. Mok Won Son
Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI)
Seoul Korea
handtree@unitel.co.kr
Linlin Sun
Beijing University of Chinese Medicine
Bei San Huan Dong Lu 11
Beijing 100029 China
tuyab@263.net
Kristen Sparrow, MD
Kristen Sparrow, MD
2641 Greenwich St.
San Francisco CA 94123 USA
collinssparrow@cs.com
(707) 290-5610
Tsutomu Tanaka, LAc, CDE
Hosaka Diabetes Clinic
1773 Shimoyoshida
Fujiyoshida Yamanashi 403-0004 Japan
tanaka.ahac@gmail.com
Ms. Meredith St. John, Mac
New England School of Acupuncture
150 California St
Newton MA 02458 USA
mstjohn@nesa.edu
(617) 558-1788 ext 118
Mrs. Demet Tas, MD
Republic Of Turkey Ministry Of Health
MSB ORAN LOJ. 587 SOK. NO:12/1
Cankaya Ankara 06450 Turkey
demettas19691@hotmail.com
+90 312 5851480
Jamie Starkey
12000 Edgewater Dr. Apt 808
Lakewood OH 44107 USA
jstarkey101@gmail.com
Phil Trabulsy, MD
University of Vermont
192 Tilley Drive orthopedics
South Burlington VT 05446 USA
philip.trabulsy@vtmednet.org
(802) 847-4690
Elisabet Stener-Victorin, PhD
Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology
Box 434
Department of Physiology / Endocrinology
Göteborg Halland 40530 Sweden
elisabet.stener-victorin@neuro.gu.se
+46 (0) 31 7863557
Shiu-Lin Tsai, MD
Columbia University
250 Marietta Street
Englewood Cliffs NJ 07632 USA
shiulin@aol.com
(212) 305-9825
Jennifer Stone, LAc
AAAOM, The American Acupuncturist
357 S. Landmark Ave. Suite B
Bloomington IN 47403 USA
jstone@aaaomonline.org
(812) 334-5815
Raina Tsuda, DAOM, LAc
26701 Quail Creek #237
Laguna Hills CA 92656 USA
wellnesswithaloha@cox.net
(714) 392-5656
Timothy Suh, DAOM
Oregon College of Oriental Medicine
1834 W. North Ave.
Chicago IL 60622 USA
tsuh@althealthgroup.com
Angela Tu-Danzig, LAc, OMD
NFCTCMO
2021 Ygnacio Valley Rd. Bldg. D-1
Walnut Creek CA 94598 USA
atu12432@yahoo.com
(925) 932-4002
Judy Summerville, MM, MSOM, BSN
Acupuncture and Herbal Health, LLC
901 S. Rogers Street Suite A
Bloomington IN 47403 USA
jsummerv@indiana.edu
(812) 391-1011
Dawn Upchurch, PhD, LAc
UCLA School of Public Health
1631 Shell Avenue
Venice CA 90291 USA
upchurch@ucla.edu
148
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Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Ineke van den Berg, PhD
Erasmus University Medical Center
Rodenrijseweg 223
Rotterdam Zuid-Holland 2651 BR The Netherlands
ineke.vandenberg@erasmusmc.nl
Peter Wayne, PhD
Harvard Medical School Osher Inst.
900 Commonwealth Ave
Boston MA 02215 USA
pwayne@partners.org
(617) 732-6271
Sivarama Vinjamury, MD(Ayurveda), MAOM, MPH
SoCal Univ. of Hlth Sciences
16022 Sugarpine Ln
Cerritos CA 90703 USA
sivaramavinjamury@scuhs.edu
Dr. Carla Wilson, DAOM, PhD candidate
American College of Traditional Chinese Medicine
21 Albion Street
San Francisco CA 94103 USA
carlajwilson@yahoo.com
Linda Vixner
Furustrand 28
Falun Dalarna 79195 Sweden
linda.vixner@ki.se
Claudia Witt
Charite Universitätsmedizin Berlin
Luisenstr. 57
Berlin 10117 Germany
claudia.witt@charite.de
Prof Chang-En Wang
Division of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Department of
Health Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of
China (NSFC)
No. 83 Shuangqing Road, Haidian District
Beijing 100085 China
wangce@nsfc.gov.cn
Fan Wu
9407, 1200 Cailun Road, Pudong District
Shanghai 201203 China
lunchwf@hotmail.com
Qiang Wu
No.1 Huatuo Road,Minhou, Shangjie, Fujian university of
TCM, P.R.china
Fuzhou Fujian 350108 China
wq2033@yahoo.com.cn
David Wang
4830 Belfield Dr.
Dublin OH 43016 USA
dhwang88@yahoo.com
Dr. Lizhen Wang
Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
1200 Cailun Road
Shanghai 201203 China
wlz@shutcm.edu.cn
+862151322605
Yi-Li Wu
5131 Green Knolls Lane
Ann Arbor MI 48103 USA
yiliwu2010@gmail.com
Carole Wyche, Lic Ac
New England School of Acupuncture
150 California Street
Newton MA 02458 USA
carole.wyche@gmail.com
(617) 558-1788
Dr. Nan Wang, LAc
Five Branches University, Graduate School of TCM
3031 Tisch Way, Suite 508
San Jose CA 95128 USA
DAOM@fivebranches.edu
(408) 260-0208
Ping Xiao, MSc
Chinese Therapy Centre
816 South Side Rd.
St. John's NL A1E 1A7 Canada
pingxiaohan@hotmail.com
(709)753-1150
Xun Wang
P.O.Box 291,138 Yi-Xue-Yuan Road, Shanghai
Shanghai 200032 China
08301010222@fudan.edu.cn
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Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Weiguo Xue
9500 Gilman Drive #0863, La Jolla
San Diego CA 92093-0863 USA
snowmanxue@hotmail.com
Yan Zhang, PhD, LAc
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
3601 4th Street, STOP 8143
Lubbock TX 79430 USA
yan.zhang@ttuhsc.edu
(806) 743-1100
Prof. Dr. Seung-Ho Yi
Kyung Hee University, AMSRC
Hoegi 1, Dongdaemoon-gu
Seoul 130-701 South Korea
shyi@khu.ac.kr
Zhiming Zhang
800 Rose Street
Lexington KY 40536 USA
zzhan01@uky.edu
Prof. Edwin Yiu, PhD
University of Hong Kong
Division of Speech & Hearing Sciences
University of Hong Kong
Pokfulam Hong Kong No code Hong Kong
eyiu@hku.hk
+852-28590599
Baixiao Zhao
Acupuncture College of Beijing University of Chinese
Medicine, Beijing 100029, China
Beijing 100029 China
baixiao100@yahoo.com.cn
Shiwen Yuan
P.O.Box 291,138 Yi-Xue-Yuan Road
Shangha 200032 China
08301010192@fudan.edu.cn
Dr. Joanna Zhao, LAc
Five Branches University, Graduate School of TCM
3031 Tisch Way, Suite 508
San Jose CA 95128 USA
DAOM@fivebranches.edu
(408) 260-0208
Dr. Frank Yurasek, PhD (China), MSOM, MA, LAc
National University of Health Sciences
200 E. Roosevelt Road
Lombard IL 60148 USA
fyurasek@nuhs.edu
(630) 889-6618
Shuai Zheng, BHlthSc (TCM), BA
University of Technology, Sydney
2 Fleetwood St
Shalvey New South Wales 2770 Australia
shuai.zheng@student.uts.edu.au
Christopher Zaslawski
University of Technology Sydney
PO Box 123 Broadway
Sydney NSW 2007 Australia
chris.zaslawski@uts.edu.au
Wen-zeng Zhu
No.5 Beixiange, Xicheng District
Beijing 100053 China
zhuwenzeng530@163.com
Suzanna Zick, ND
University of Michigan
24 Frank Lloyd Wright Drive Lobby M
Ann Arbor MI 48106 USA
szick@umich.edu
(734) 998-9553
Haimeng Zhang
Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
1200 Cailun Road
Shanghai 201203 China
zhm1@shutcm.edu.cn
Weibo Zhang
16 Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimennei
Beijing 100700 China
zhangweibo@hotmail.com
150
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