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AP World History Review

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1914-Present
Myers
Which of the following was NOT a weakness
associated with the Ottoman Empire in the
eighteenth century?
 A) Weak rulers
 B) Competition within factions of the elite
 C) Conversion of much of the population to
Christianity
 D) Deteriorating conditions for artisans as a
result of competition with the West
 E) Weak and obsolete military force


C) Conversion of much of the population to
Christianity






Which of the following statements concerning the Muslim
economy at the beginning of the eighteenth century is most
accurate?
A) The Muslim economy remained dependent on Arab merchants
who traded predominantly with Africa.
B) By holding the Europeans at bay, the Muslims were able to
capitalize an indigenous industry based on the production of
cotton textiles.
C) The prosperity of the industrial base of the Muslim empires led
to a close alliance between the artisans and the government.
D) Merchants within the empire, especially those who were Jews
or Christians, grew more dependent on commercial dealings with
European counterparts, accelerating the influx of Western goods.
E) The discovery of new resources caused a resurgence of
Ottoman economic power.

D) Merchants within the empire, especially
those who were Jews or Christians, grew
more dependent on commercial dealings
with European counterparts, accelerating the
influx of Western goods.






) Which of the following European powers
seized territories of the Ottoman Empire in
the early decades of the eighteenth century?
A) Austria-Hungary
B) Britain
C) France
D) Italy
E) Russia

A) Austria-Hungary






In the later 1700s what power became the
main threat to the Ottomans’ survival?
A) Britain
B) Austria-Hungary
C) France
D) Russia
E) Germany

D) Russia






The first region to successfully rebel and
achieve independence from the Ottoman
Empire was:
A) the Crimea.
B) Greece.
C) Serbia.
D) Palestine.
E) Turkey.

B) Greece.
By the 1870s, the Ottoman Empire:
A) had recovered most of their territorial losses
to European powers.
 B) had ceased to rule any portion of Asia Minor.
 C) had been driven from virtually all of the
Balkans.
 D) had driven the Russian armies back to the
steppes.
 E) was the largest multiethnic empire in Eurasia.



C) had been driven from virtually all of the
Balkans.
What European nation supported the Ottoman
Empire in order to prevent other European
powers from gaining access to the
Mediterranean?
 A) Britain
 B) France
 C) Russia
 D) Austria-Hungary
 E) Belgium


A) Britain






What was the result of the reforms of Sultan Selim III
(1789 –1807)?
A) Western-style education was introduced
throughout the empire.
B) The Janissary corps was eliminated as a political
and military force.
C) The Sultan was toppled from the throne by a
Janissary revolt.
D) Railways were constructed connecting the empire
with Europe.
E) The empire was taken over by Muhammad Ali.

C) The Sultan was toppled from the throne by
a Janissary revolt.






What Ottoman Sultan successfully eliminated
the Janissary corps as a military and political
influence?
A) Selim III
B) Mahmud II
C) Abdul Hamid
D) Selim II
E) Ali

B) Mahmud II






Which of the following statements concerning the reforms
of Mahmud II is most accurate?
A) Mahmud patterned his reform program on Western
precedents, including the creation of a diplomatic corps.
B) Despite subtle military and administrative reforms,
Mahmud was unable to shake off the influence of the
Janissaries.
C) Mahmud, with the consent of the ulama and the ayan
returned to a traditional Islamic form of government.
D) Mahmud’s program of reform was actually less
ambitious than that of his predecessor, Selim III.
E) The reforms were a blend of Islamic and East Asian
economic influences.

A) Mahmud patterned his reform program on
Western precedents, including the creation of
a diplomatic corps






Which of the following was NOT part of the Tanzimat
reforms in the Ottoman Empire?
A) Introduction of Western-style education in the
universities
B) Addition of state-run postal and telegraph systems
C) Creation of a constitution based on European
prototypes
D) Elimination of religious protection for minority
religious groups
E) Extensive legal reforms

D) Elimination of religious protection for
minority religious groups






) In what year was the revised constitution
introduced as part of the Tanzimat reforms?
A) 1839
B) 1848
C) 1876
D) 1898
E) 1904

C) 1876






What group within the Ottoman Empire
actually suffered as a result of the Tanzimat
reforms?
A) ayan
B) ulama
C) artisans
D) merchants
E) sufis

C) artisans






Which of the following statements concerning the improvement
of women’s status as a result of the Tanzimat reforms is most
accurate?
A) The inclusion of reforms for women was not even considered in
Ottoman society during the period of the Tanzimat reforms.
B) Despite widespread discussion of the practices of seclusion,
polygamy, and veiling, few improvements in women’s social status
were won in the nineteenth century.
C) While not all women benefited, elite women were freed from
the restrictive aspects of Muslim society during the period of the
Tanzimat reforms.
D) Muslim restrictions against the social equality of women were
swept away as part of the Tanzimat reforms.
E) Women in the Ottoman Empire became as free as those in
Western Europe.

B) Despite widespread discussion of the
practices of seclusion, polygamy, and veiling,
few improvements in women’s social status
were won in the nineteenth century.






What Ottoman Sultan attempted to roll back
the Tanzimat reforms and reinstitute an
absolute monarchy in 1878?
A) Selim III
B) Mahmud II
C) Yazid II
D) Abdul Hamid
E) Muhammad Ali

D) Abdul Hamid
In which of the following areas did Sultan Abdul
Hamid continue to press for increased
Westernization?
 A) Freedom of the press
 B) Constitutional reform
 C) Military reform and the introduction of
Western technology
 D) Civil liberties
 E) Religious reform


C) Military reform and the introduction of
Western technology






Which of the following groups was
responsible for the overthrow of the Ottoman
Sultanate in 1908?
A) Black September
B) Young Turks
C) Young Arabs
D) Mamluks
E) Black Hand

B) Young Turks
Which of the following reforms resulted from
the coup in the Ottoman Empire of 1908?
 A) Sultanate was abolished
 B) Constitution of 1876 was restored
 C) Janissaries removed as a political and military
force
 D) Restrictions against women in Muslim society
removed .
 E) Removal of the political influence of the
officer corps


B) Constitution of 1876 was restored






With what European power did the Ottomans
contest the control of Libya just prior to
World War I?
A) Britain
E) Russia
B) Germany
C) Austria-Hungary
D) Italy

D) Italy






Which of the following statements concerning the relationships
between the Young Turks and the Arabs of the Ottoman Empire
after the 1908 coup is most accurate?
A) The Young Turks harbored resentment against the Arabs of the
empire for failing to support the 1908 coup.
B) Arab support of the 1908 coup waned when they discovered
that the Young Turks had no intentions of abandoning the concept
of empire.
C) The 1908 coup resulted in the immediate independence of the
Arab portions of the Ottoman empire.
D) The close alliance between the Young Turks and the Arab
leaders of the Ottoman empire continued after the 1908 coup.
E) The Young Turks supported the idea of autonomy for the Arab
portion of the empire.

B) Arab support of the 1908 coup waned
when they discovered that the Young Turks
had no intentions of abandoning the concept
of empire.






What nation’s invasion of Egypt in 1798
signaled the beginning of European
penetration of the Islamic heartland?
A) France
B) Britain
C) Russia
D) Austria-Hungary
E) Prussia

A) France






What Islamic group ruled Egypt in 1798?
A) Fatimids
B) Umayyads
C) Mamluks
D) Almoravids
E) Shiites

C) Mamluks






By 1801 what ruler had succeeded in
establishing his dominance over Egypt?
A) Murad, commander of the Mamluks
B) Napoleon, French emperor
C) Muhammad Ali, an Albanian officer in the
Ottoman army
D) Nurhaci, Almoravid military commander
E) Sultan Ahmet, Egyptian nationalist

C) Muhammad Ali, an Albanian officer in the
Ottoman army






Which of the following reforms was NOT
introduced in Egypt after 1801?
A) Restoration of the Mamluk armies
B) Introduction of Western-style military
conscription
C) Hiring of French military advisors
D) Importation of Western arms
E) Separation of church and state

A) Restoration of the Mamluk armies






What prevented Muhammad Ali from
overthrowing the Ottoman Empire?
A) His failure to develop a modern army
B) Lack of a navy
C) His defeat by the Ottomans at Omdurman
D) Opposition of European powers
E) Completion of the Suez Canal

D) Opposition of European powers
Which of the following reforms undertaken by
Muhammad Ali failed?
 A) Production of raw materials in demand in
Europe (cotton, hemp, indigo)
 B) Improvements of Egyptian harbors and
irrigation works along the Nile
 C) Build-up of an Egyptian industrial sector
 D) Modernization of the army
 E) Education reform


C) Build-up of an Egyptian industrial sector






With which of the following groups did
Muhammad All ally himself?
A) Peasantry
B) Ulama
C) Ayan
D) Sufi
E) Mamluks

C) Ayan






Muhammad Ali’s successors as rulers of Egypt
were referred to as:
A) Sultans.
B) Khedives.
C) Caliphs.
D) Kings.
E) Emperors.

B) Khedives.
European financiers lent money to the profligate
successors of Muhammad Ali because they
desired access to Egypt’s cheap cotton and, by
the 1850s, a share in the:
 A) Orient Express.
 B) Cairo Railway.
 C) Suez Canal.
 D) Panama Canal.
 E) Silk Road.


C) Suez Canal.
Which of the following was an Islamic moderate
in nineteenth century Egypt who urged the
adoption of Western scientific knowledge and
technology?
 A) al-Afghani
 B) Ibn Sina
 C) Ibn Rochd
 D) al-Mansur
 E) Ismail Pasha


A) al-Afghani






The Khedival government of Egypt was
threatened in 1882 by a rebellion of Egyptian
military officers under:
A) Muhammad Ali.
B) Ahmad Orabi
C) Muhammad Achmad.
D) Khalifa Abdallahi.
E) Muhammed Abduh.

B) Ahmad Orabi






What was the result of the rebellion by Egyptian army
officers in 1882?
A) The Khedival government was overthrown by an
indigenous Egyptian government.
B) A new constitution was instituted modeled on the
Ottoman constitution of 1876.
C) The rebellion was crushed by the Turkish elements
within the Egyptian army.
D) The Khedive called on the British to crush the
rebellion resulting in British overlordship of Egypt.
E) British influence in Egypt was ended.

D) The Khedive called on the British to crush
the rebellion resulting in British overlordship
of Egypt.






What was the center of Egyptian
administration in the Sudan?
A) Omdurman
B) Cairo
C) Aboukir
D) Khartoum
E) Fashoda.

D) Khartoum






On what basis did Muhammad Achmad claim
leadership of the Sudanic resistance to Egyptian rule?
A) He claimed direct descent from Muhammad.
B) He claimed to be a direct descendant of the kings
of Ghana.
C) He was the head of the Sunni ulama in the Sudan.
D) He claimed to be a direct descendant of Murad, the
last ruler of the Mamluks.
E) He had substantial Western support.

A) He claimed direct descent from
Muhammad.
The successor to the Mahdi, Khalifa Abdallahi,:
A) relieved the restrictive social regulations
imposed by the Mahdi.
 B) immediately lost the military advantage
gained by the Mahdi.
 C) fell in the Mahdist defeat at the battle of
Omdurman in 1898.
 D) overthrew the Ottoman Sultan and captured
Istanbul.
 E) ended slavery in the Sudan.



C) fell in the Mahdist defeat at the battle of
Omdurman in 1898.






Who was responsible for the unification of
the Manchu tribesmen prior to the invasion of
China in the seventeenth century?
A) Lin Zexu
B) Nurhaci
C) Cixi
D) Hong Liaquan
E) Kang Xi

B) Nurhaci






The dynastic name taken by the Manchu
dynasty was:
A) Song.
B) Tang.
C) Qing.
D) Chou.
E) Sui.

C) Qing.






Which of the following statements concerning the Manchu
government is most accurate?
A) They destroyed the scholar-gentry in order to consolidate their
grip on the government.
B) The civil service examination system was eliminated as a means
of entering the government.
C) Though Manchus occupied a disproportionate number of the
highest political positions, there were few limits on Chinese
promotions within the imperial bureaucracy.
D) Chinese officials were eliminated at the local administrative
levels in order to prevent the extreme regionalization that had led
to the downfall of previous dynasties.
E) They welcomed modernization and Western influence.

C) Though Manchus occupied a
disproportionate number of the highest
political positions, there were few limits on
Chinese promotions within the imperial
bureaucracy.






In what area did the Manchus attempt to take
strong measures of reform?
A) Elimination of the scholar-gentry
B) Removal of social restrictions on women
C) Overturning the Confucian social hierarchy
of age and sex
D) Alleviating rural distress and unrest
E) Eliminating the influence of religion

D) Alleviating rural distress and unrest
What accounts for the general failure of Manchu
attempts at reform?
 A) Resistance on the part of the peasantry
 B) Enormous population growth and the
disappearance of open lands
 C) Buddhist resistance
 D) Loss of territory to nomads from the Asian
steppes
 E) Strong resistance from the scholar-gentry


B) Enormous population growth and the
disappearance of open lands






The new groups of merchants that developed
in China under the more relaxed commercial
system of the Manchus were called
A) waiqin.
B) pescadors.
C) compradors.
D) Boxers.
E) Mandarins

C) compradors.
All of the following signs of dynastic decline
were apparent in the Qing regime by the
beginning of the nineteenth century EXCEPT:
 A) corruption of the examination system.
 B) diversion of revenue from state projects to
private fortunes.
 C) failure of foreign commerce.
 D) food shortages, mass migrations, and
banditry.
 E) explosive growth of the bureaucracy.


C) failure of foreign commerce.






) How large was the Chinese population by
1850?
A) 100 million
B) 200 million
C) 410 to 415 million
D) 500 million
E) 1 billion

C) 410 to 415 million
Unhappy about the unfavorable terms of trade
in China, British merchants hit on a possible
solution to reverse the flow of bullion in the form
of:
 A) cotton textiles.
 B) opium from India.
 C) teas.
 D) industrial machinery.
 E) gold and salt.


B) opium from India.






What was the impact of the British opium trade on China?
A) Its use was restricted to the peasantry of northern
China, where production of food rapidly decreased.
B) The government was quickly able to halt the
importation of opium, so that it did not have the
disastrous impact on the Chinese population that was
expected.
C) Within years China’s favorable balance of trade was
reversed and silver began to flow out of the country.
D) Due to the addiction of the imperial court, the British
were welcomed as a valuable trade partner of China.
E) The opium trade had little economic effect on China.

C) Within years China’s favorable balance of
trade was reversed and silver began to flow
out of the country.






The Chinese official charged with eliminating
the opium trade in the 1830s was:
A) Cixi.
B) Lin Zexu.
C) Hong Liuquan.
D) Kanxi.
E) Zeng Guofan.

B) Lin Zexu.






What was the outcome of the Opium War?
A) Despite technological advantages, the British forces were
overwhelmed by the Chinese numerical superiority and were
unable to penetrate China’s isolation.
B) The British soon swept the seas of opposition, but were
prevented from entering China by opposition from other European
powers who feared Britain’s overthrow of the Manchus.
C) The British victory was so overwhelming that the Manchu
dynasty was overthrown by 1850 and replaced by a republic.
D) British victory in the Opium War allowed European powers to
force China to open trade and diplomatic exchanges.
E) The Opium Was led directly to the Sino-Japanese War.

D) British victory in the Opium War allowed
European powers to force China to open
trade and diplomatic exchanges.






The semi-Christian rebellion that broke out in
southern China in the 1850s and early 1860s
was the:
A) Boxer rebellion.
B) Kwangxi rebellion.
C) Taiping rebellion.
D) Shandong rebellion.
E) Manchu rebellion.

C) Taiping rebellion.






What was the political and social position of the Manchu rulers at
the end of the nineteenth century?
A) The Manchu rulers stubbornly resisted the far reaching reforms
that were the only hope of saving the regime and Chinese
civilization.
B) The last decades of the dynasty were dominated by Cixi, a
woman who proposed radical reforms of the social order.
C) The Chinese scholar-gentry and the provincial elite allied with
the emperors to introduce significant reform of landholding
practices and regional administration.
D) The dynasty wholeheartedly embraced the ongoing
westernization of the Chinese government and economy.
E) Their capital, the Forbidden City, was a center of Chinese
culture.

A) The Manchu rulers stubbornly resisted the
far reaching reforms that were the only hope
of saving the regime and Chinese civilization.






In what year was the last emperor of China
deposed in favor of a republican form of
government?
A) 1895
B) 1901
C) 1908
D) 1912
E) 1914

D) 1912






Of the following regions, which defied the
common pattern of growing Western
domination in the nineteenth century?
A) Russia and Japan
B) The Ottoman Empire
C) Latin America
D) West Africa
E) Eastern Europe

A) Russia and Japan






Which of the following statements concerning the
development of Russia and Japan to 1900 is NOT
accurate?
A) Neither Russia nor Japan rivaled the industrial might of
the West by 1900.
B) Both nations gained sufficient power to wield important
political and military influence in the colonial scramble.
C) Russia and Japan did launch significant industrialization
by 1914.
D) Russia and Japan achieved both economic autonomy
and a share in the West’s core position.
E) Japan outstripped Russia’s industrial gains by 1900.

D) Russia and Japan achieved both economic
autonomy and a share in the West’s core
position.






Which of the following represents a significant
difference between Russia and Japan?
A) Only Japan had a significant aristocracy prior to
industrialization.
B) Only Russia participated in territorial expansion by
1914.
C) Russia engaged in selective borrowing from
Western models by 1700.
D) Only Japan underwent significant political
revolution prior to 1914.
E) Only Japan experienced Communist uprisings by
1905.

C) Russia engaged in selective borrowing
from Western models by 1700.






Which of the following reflects a significant similarity
between Japan and Russia during the period of
industrialization prior to 1914?
A) Both experienced significant political revolutions.
B) Both Japan and Russia had prior experience of
imitation, Japan from China, Russia from Byzantium and
the West.
C) Both demonstrated remarkable political flexibility
resulting in sweeping transformations of political
structure.
D) Both engaged in territorial acquisitions in the Ottoman
Empire.
E) Both had a large industrial labor force.

B) Both Japan and Russia had prior
experience of imitation, Japan from China,
Russia from Byzantium and the West.






Russia’s fear about Westernization in the first
decades of the nineteenth century was
rooted in:
A) concern about British invasion.
B) the French Revolution.
C) dislike of Western dress.
D) worry over loss of Poland.
E) German nationalism.

B) the French Revolution.
What nations were linked together in the Holy
Alliance that grouped conservative monarchies
together in defense of religion and the status
quo in 1815?
 A) Britain, France, Spain
 B) Spain, Russia, Poland
 C) Russia, Prussia, Austria
 D) Austria, Japan, Russia
 E) France, Britain, Italy


C) Russia, Prussia, Austria






What was the name of the Russian revolt
inspired by Western values in 1825?
A) Decembrist ring
B) November rebellion
C) Pushkin’s revolt
D) Pugachev rebellion
E) Potemkin mutiny

A) Decembrist ring






Which of the following accounts for Russia’s lack of
significant revolution in 1830 and 1848?
A) Russia’s lack of a substantial history of autocracy
B) Absence of a coercive labor system in Russia
leaving scant cause for rebellion
C) Political repression
D) like England, Russia’s history of participatory
government and its national parliament, forestalling
revolution
E) Major reforms, satisfying most Russians

C) Political repression






Which of the following statements concerning Russian
territorial expansion is most accurate?
A) Russia’s loss of Poland in the revolt of 1830 stimulated
other attempts at territorial expansion.
B) Russia actively opposed nationalist movements in the
Balkans in keeping with their conservative tradition.
C) Western powers actively aided Russia’s pursuit of
territories in the Ottoman Empire.
D) No massive acquisitions marked the early nineteenth
century, but Russia continued to be an aggressive
competitor for territorial expansion.
E) Russia expanded rapidly south of Alaska to Oregon.

D) No massive acquisitions marked the early
nineteenth century, but Russia continued to
be an aggressive competitor for territorial
expansion.






Which of the following statements best describes the Russian
economy at the beginning of the nineteenth century?
A) Russia had achieved economic autonomy in the eighteenth
century, although most of eastern Europe remained largely
agricultural.
B) The Russian economy was geographically oriented to the
Ottoman Empire—a feature of the Mongol domination of Russia
until the fifteenth century.
C) Russia’s economic dynamism and innovation rivaled the West.
D) In return for low-cost grain exports, Russia and other East
European areas imported Western luxury goods for the great
aristocrats to display as badges of respectability.
E) Russian heavy industry accounted for all their economic growth.

D) In return for low-cost grain exports, Russia
and other East European areas imported
Western luxury goods for the great
aristocrats to display as badges of
respectability.






What war in the mid-nineteenth century
demonstrated Russia’s widening gap with the
West?
A) Russo-Japanese War
B) Napoleon’s invasion of Russia
C) Crimean War
D) Sepoy rebellion
E) Russo-Turkish War

C) Crimean War






What accounted for the West’s victory over Russia in the
Crimean War?
A) The war was fought far from Russia, necessitating
lengthy lines of communication and supply.
B) Russia was forced to fight an offensive war against
entrenched positions.
C) The war was fought almost entirely at sea where the
Russians were unable to bring their numerical superiority
to bear.
D) The Western nations won not because of superior
tactics or inspired principles, but because of industrial
advantages.
E) Sardinian assistance to the Russians was ineffective.

D) The Western nations won not because of
superior tactics or inspired principles, but
because of industrial advantages.






What tsar began the process of reform in the
nineteenth century?
A) Alexander I
B) Alexander II
C) Nicholas I
D) Peter the Great
E) Nicholas II

B) Alexander II






Which of the following was NOT a consideration in
the reform of serfdom?
A) It was the purpose of the tsar to sweep away the
tightly knit peasant communities on which serfdom
depended.
B) The development of a vigorous and mobile labor
force.
C) A desire to meet Western humanitarian standards.
D) Periodic peasant uprisings focused on lack of
freedom, undue obligations, and lack of land.
E) The preservation of aristocratic power.

A) It was the purpose of the tsar to sweep
away the tightly knit peasant communities on
which serfdom depended.






In what year were Russian serfs
emancipated?
A) 1831
B) 1854
C) 1861
D) 1868
E) 1914

C) 1861






Which of the following statements concerning the
emancipation of the serfs in Russia is most accurate?
A) The emancipation of the serfs destroyed the Russian
aristocracy.
B) Emancipation of the serfs loosened the grip of the
tsarist state.
C) In addition to personal freedom, the serfs were granted
parcels of land subject to redemption payments.
D) Following emancipation, peasants were free to move
about Russia as they pleased leading to massive
movements of agricultural labor.
E) Few serfs were really emancipated.

C) In addition to personal freedom, the serfs
were granted parcels of land subject to
redemption payments.






All of the following were reforms introduced in
Russia in the 1860s and 1870s EXCEPT:
A) the creation of the Duma, a national
parliament.
B) the creation of local political councils, the
zemstvoes.
C) the issuance of new law codes that cut back
traditional punishments.
D) reorganization of the military.
E) universal voting rights.

A) the creation of the Duma, a national
parliament.






What was the first step toward
industrialization in Russia?
A) construction of factories
B) development of the mining sector
C) creation of an extensive system of railways
D) end of the grain trade with the West
E) mechanization of agriculture

C) creation of an extensive system of railways






The Russian minister of finance from 1892 to
1903 responsible for much economic
modernization was:
A) Stolypin.
B) Count Witte.
C) Klemenz von Metternich.
D) Gregor Mendel.
E) General Kuropatkin.

B) Count Witte.






Which of the following statements concerning the capitalization
of Russian industry is most accurate?
A) Capital for Russian investment was almost entirely derived from
liquidation of agricultural estates in Russia.
B) By 1900 approximately half of Russian industry was foreignowned by British, German, and French industrialists.
C) It was the contact with the Japanese that led to an influx of
capital for Russian industrialization.
D) Russian industry was capitalized by a substantial middle class
that had built up wealth in the grain trade with the West.
E) United Sates investors were the largest owners of machinery in
Russia by 1900.

B) By 1900 approximately half of Russian
industry was foreign-owned by British,
German, and French industrialists.






By 1900, how successful was the Russian industrialization
program?
A) Despite massive programs of forced labor and extensive
government subsidies, the Russian program of industrialization
failed.
B) Russian industrialization progressed slowly and by 1900 had
reached tenth in the world in terms of steel production.
C) By 1900, Russia had surged to fourth rank in the world in steel
production and was second to the United States in the newer area
of petroleum production.
D) Without access to plentiful raw materials, Russia was
dependent on constant territorial acquisitions to fuel its lagging
industrial program.
E) Russia was unable to industrialize any of its larger businesses.

C) By 1900, Russia had surged to fourth rank
in the world in steel production and was
second to the United States in the newer area
of petroleum production.






Which of the following was present during
the Russian program of industrialization?
A) attitudinal change among workers similar
to the West
B) large middle class
C) rich natural resources
D) small, but efficient, factories
E) highly educated work force

C) rich natural resources






All of the following were part of the rising tide
of unrest in Russia during the second half of
the nineteenth century EXCEPT:
A) the Orthodox Church.
B) ethnic minorities.
C) peasants.
D) the intelligentsia.
E) the industrial workers.

A) the Orthodox Church.






What was the general goal of the Russian
intelligentsia?
A) political freedom, social reform, and retention of
Russian culture
B) political freedom, retention of the social hierarchy,
and increased Westernization
C) restriction of civil liberties, honor and deference to
the emperor, retention of Russian culture
D) radical Westernization as part of a program of
increased industrialization
E) globally competitive economy.

A) political freedom, social reform, and
retention of Russian culture






Russian radicals who sought the abolition of
all formal government were called:
A) Decembrists.
B) Latitudinarians.
C) abolitionists.
D) anarchists.
E) socialists.

D) anarchists.






What was the chief political method used by
the anarchists to achieve reform?
A) strikes
B) terrorism
C) political
D) voter registration
E) non-violent protest

B) terrorism






Which of the following statements about Russian Marxism is most
accurate?
A) Marxist insistence on careful revolutionary organization and a
focus on the working class was rapidly assimilated by anarchists
and peasant groups.
B) Marxist doctrines were not imported from the West, but
originated among the Russian intelligentsia.
C) Lenin introduced important innovations in Marxist theory,
including the idea that a proletarian revolution could take place
without going through a middle-class phase.
D) Lenin was dedicated to the mass electioneering typical of
Western socialist parties.
E) Marxist doctrines were most applicable to an agrarian economy.

C) Lenin introduced important innovations in
Marxist theory, including the idea that a
proletarian revolution could take place
without going through a middle-class phase.






Lenin’s approach was adopted by the groups
of Russian Marxists known as:
A) Mensheviks.
B) anarchists.
C) Decembrists.
D) Bolsheviks.
E) Zemstvos.

D) Bolsheviks.
Which of the following did NOT contribute to
working-class radicalism in late nineteenth
century Russia?
 A) absence of legal political outlets
 B) severe conditions of early industrialization
 C) rural unrest and adoption of peasant
grievances
 D) absence of unions
 E) workplace reforms


D) absence of unions






Failure in what war led to the Russian
revolution of 1905?
A) Crimean
B) Sino-Japanese
C) Russo-Japanese
D) World War I
E) Russo-Turkish War

C) Russo-Japanese






What group did the imperial government
appeal to in the reforms following the
revolution of 1905?
A) liberals
B) workers organizations
C) Marxists
D) anarchists
E) conservatives

A) liberals






What minister was responsible for enacting
reforms for the peasantry following the
revolution of 1905?
A) Count Witte
B) Grigori Rasputin
C) Alexi Romanov
D) Stolypin
E) Prince Gortchakov

D) Stolypin






The Duma was:
A) the confrontation between radial workers and the
tsarist army in 1905.
B) a system of collective farms for peasants
introduced following 1905.
C) a national parliament created in the aftermath of
the 1905 revolution.
D) the imperial council that took over government
after the abdication of the tsar in 1905.
E) the Russian national labor union.

C) a national parliament created in the
aftermath of the 1905 revolution.
Peasants who responded to the reforms of 1905
by engaging in entrepreneurial activity including
increasing production and buying up land were
called:
 A) Duma.
 B) kulaks.
 C) anarchists.
 D) Bakunin.
 E) soviets.


B) kulaks.






Which of the following Russian developments
was NOT adopted in other East European
states?
A) national parliaments
B) emancipation of serfs
C) economic autonomy from the West
D) monarchic forms of government
E) nationalism

C) economic autonomy from the West






Which of the following was NOT a nineteenth
century Russian novelist?
A) Turgenev
B) Pavlov
C) Tolstoy
D) Dostoevsky
E) Gogol

B) Pavlov






Which of the following statements concerning the Tokugawa
Shogunate in the nineteenth century is most accurate?
A) The Shogunate bureaucracy had been opened to talented
commoners—a reform that improved the standing of the
government with the masses of the Japanese people.
B) By the nineteenth century, the Tokugawa were able to dispense
with the feudal organization of earlier Japan.
C) Increasingly the Shogunate depended on its long-standing
alliances with Western powers to maintain its dominance.
D) The Shogunate continued to combine a central bureaucracy
with semi-feudal alliances with regional daimyos and the samurai.
E) The Shogunate managed its finances carefully, and never
carried a deficit.

D) The Shogunate continued to combine a
central bureaucracy with semi-feudal
alliances with regional daimyos and the
samurai.






Which of the following statements concerning Tokugawa
intellectual and cultural life is most accurate?
A) Japanese literature reached its zenith during the last
decades of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
B) Confucianism rapidly lost ground to Buddhism as the
major religious and ethical basis for Japanese society.
C) Japan continued to be largely imitative of conservative
Chinese intellectual currents rather than developing
dynamic ethical and philosophical systems.
D) Literacy in Japan reached levels higher than anywhere
else outside the West.
E) The Tokugawa placed little emphasis on learning.

D) Literacy in Japan reached levels higher
than anywhere else outside the West.






Which of the following groups in Tokugawa
Japan advocated interest in Western scientific
advance?
A) Dutch Studies group
B) national studies group
C) Confucian scholars
D) Buddhist scholars
E) Shinto priests

A) Dutch Studies group






Who was responsible for the forced opening
of Japan in 1853?
A) Captain James Cook
B) Commodore Matthew Perry
C) Admiral Horatio Nelson
D) Captain William Farragut
E) Commodore George Perry

B) Commodore Matthew Perry
In what year was a new emperor, Mutsuhito but
commonly called “Meiji” or “Enlightened One,”
proclaimed, signaling the end of a major political
crisis?
 A) 1854
 B) 1868
 C) 1875
 D) 1889
 E) 1914


B) 1868






Which of the following was NOT an advantage of Japan
over China in the competition to assume leadership and to
establish industrialization in Asia?
A) Japan’s leadership was less secular and bureaucratic
than that of China.
B) Japan already knew the benefits of imitation, which
China had never acknowledged.
C) Japan had allowed a more autonomous merchant
tradition.
D) Feudal traditions limited the heavy hand of government
controls while stimulating a sense of competitiveness.
E) Japan was a heterogeneous, diverse society

A) Japan’s leadership was less secular and
bureaucratic than that of China.






Which of the following statements concerning Japanese political
reforms in the period of the Meiji state is NOT accurate?
A) Meiji leaders established a new conservative nobility, stocked
with former nobles and Meiji leaders that operated a British-style
House of Peers.
B) Samurai, destroyed by the removal of government stipends,
were banned from participation in the Meiji Diet.
C) The constitution issued in 1889 assured major prerogatives for
the emperor along with limited powers for the lower house of the
Diet.
D) The bureaucracy was reorganized, insulated from political
pressures, and opened to talent on the basis of civil service
examinations.
E) The Meiji came to power with very little violence.

B) Samurai, destroyed by the removal of
government stipends, were banned from
participation in the Meiji Diet.






What was the primary difference between the
reformed Japanese government and reformed
Russian institutions by 1914?
A) Japan retained an emperor at the head of
government.
B) Japan created a national parliament.
C) Japan’s government was elected by a broad
majority of the population.
D) Japan’s government had incorporated business
leaders into its governing structure.
E) Russian institutions were more secular than
Japan’s.

D) Japan’s government had incorporated
business leaders into its governing structure.






One of the major similarities between Japanese and
Russian industrialization was the fact that:
A) both lacked natural resources.
B) scarce capital and unfamiliarity of new technology
compelled state direction.
C) neither was able to complete construction of a
railway system.
D) neither had any experience of cultural exchange
with the West.
E) a small group of independent entrepreneurs led to
movement in each case.

B) scarce capital and unfamiliarity of new
technology compelled state direction.






Huge industrial combines put together in
Japan by the 1890s were called:
A) haiku.
B) terakoya.
C) zaibatsus.
D) khitan.
E) Samurais.

C) zaibatsus.






Which of the following statements concerning
Japanese industrialization prior to World War I is
correct?
A) Japan’s workforce was among the highest paid in
the world.
B) Abundant natural resources made Japan virtually
self-sufficient as an industrialized nation.
C) By 1914, Japan had reached the level of
industrialization found in the West.
D) Japan needed exports to pay for machine and
resource imports.
E) Japan lagged far behind the West industrially.

D) Japan needed exports to pay for machine
and resource imports.






Which of the following Western cultural
characteristics was NOT adopted by large
numbers of Japanese?
A) hair styles
B) standards of hygiene
C) Western calendar
D) Christianity
E) work styles

D) Christianity






Which of the following religions gained new
adherents in industrialized Japan?
A) Shinto
B) Confucianism
C) Buddhism
D) Christianity
E) Judaism

A) Shinto
Which of the following was NOT a sign of
significant social stress in industrialized Japan?
 A) disputes between generations over
Westernization
 B) increasing freedom and political influence of
women
 C) growth of nationalism
 D) growth of urban slums
 E) racial unrest


B) increasing freedom and political influence
of women






Which of the following was NOT a feature of
twentieth-century world history?
A) the forming of international organizations
B) a changing balance of power
C) a lessening of conflict
D) massive population growth
E) little industrial development.

C) a lessening of conflict
What disseminators of American popular culture
established distribution branches around the
world in the second decade of the twentieth
century?
 A) film companies
 B) libraries
 C) theatrical groups
 D) television networks
 E) radio networks


A) film companies






Which of the following statements most accurately
expresses the attitude of Western observers just before
1914?
A) The constant warfare involved in the scramble for
imperial possessions caused many observers to anticipate
global conflict.
B) Disease and famine were the constant reminders of a
society that had yet to achieve self-sufficiency .
C) Frustration with limited civil liberties and voting rights
gave a jaded Europe a sense of impending revolution.
D) Western leadership was bringing new enlightenment to
the inferior peoples of the rest of the world.
E) Western dominance would soon end.

D) Western leadership was bringing new
enlightenment to the inferior peoples of the
rest of the world.






Which of the following was NOT an institution
created during the period of internationalization
during the later nineteenth century?
A) International Statistical Congress
B) Red Cross
C) League of Nations
D) Postal Union
E) Concert of Europe

C) League of Nations






What was one of the weaknesses of the
international movement prior to World War I?
A) it was heavily based on Western
dominance and control of empires
B) it limited nationalism
C) it did not exist outside of Europe
D) it was opposed by the United States
E) most people did not believe in its goals

A) it was heavily based on Western
dominance and control of empires






The permanent court of arbitration created at
the Hague in 1899 was called the:
A) League of Nations.
B) United Nations.
C) Dutch Parliament.
D) World Court.
E) German Confederation.

D) World Court.






What was the region of Europe that produced
most diplomatic crises prior to World War I?
A) Scandinavia
B) the Balkans
C) Italy
D) Spain
E) Sudetenland

B) the Balkans






What two European powers were directly
involved in the Balkan diplomacy?
A) Germany and Russia
B) Russia and Britain
C) Russia and Austria-Hungary
D) France and Austria-Hungary
E) France and Germany

C) Russia and Austria-Hungary






Which of the following was NOT an event
leading to the outbreak of World War I?
A) the assassination of the Austrian Archduke
by a Serbian nationalist
B) Austria’s declaration of war on Serbia
C) the mobilization of the Russian army
D) France’s invasion of Belgium
E) France’s support of Russia

D) France’s invasion of Belgium
The sea warfare during World War I consisted
largely of:
 A) major surface battles between the fleets of
Britain and Germany.
 B) a single major battle in which the German
fleet destroyed the Russian navy.
 C) German submarine warfare.
 D) the British attempt to destroy the Russian
fleet in the Mediterranean.
 E) Russian offensives in the Black Sea.


C) German submarine warfare.






By 1916, conflict on the western front
A) had become a shifting game of rapid maneuver
with few major battles.
B) had resulted in the surrender of France and the
establishment of the Vichy government.
C) had resulted in victory for the British and French
troops who pushed the exhausted enemy to the
borders of Germany.
D) had settled into a deadly stalemate in which
hundreds of thousands of lives were expended for a
few feet of trench.
E) caused the Germans to open a second front in Italy.

D) had settled into a deadly stalemate in
which hundreds of thousands of lives were
expended for a few feet of trench.






On the Italian front, the primary combatants
were Italy and:
A) Germany.
B) Russia.
C) Austria-Hungary.
D) France.
E) Serbia.

C) Austria-Hungary.
Between 1914 and 1917, warfare on the eastern
front:
 A) pitted the forces of Russian and AustriaHungary against the invading Germans.
 B) included parts of Russia and the Balkans.
 C) resulted in the Serbian knockout of the
Austrian forces.
 D) featured bloody trench warfare in which
almost no land changed hands.
 E) was dominated by the Austrians.


B) included parts of Russia and the Balkans.






Which of the following was NOT a feature of war on
the home front between 1914 and 1919?
A) Governments organized the major sectors of the
economy to ration resources and production.
B) Executive branches of government increasingly
took over from parliaments.
C) Governments controlled public opinion through
manipulation of mass media such as newspapers.
D) Strict government regulation prevented material
shortages and famine.
E) Most civilians felt the effects of the war.

D) Strict government regulation prevented
material shortages and famine.






Which of the following statements concerning the global
aspects of World War I is most accurate?
A) The British dominions—Canada, Australia, and New
Zealand—remained aloof and virtually untouched by the
war.
B) By 1914, the United States had not entered the
scramble for colonial possessions.
C) American businessmen prior to 1917 profited by selling
goods to both sides and by taking advantage of European
distractions to seize new world markets.
D) The United States aggressively entered the war in 1914
to demonstrate its new position as a world power.
E) The world economic system was mostly unaffected.

C) American businessmen prior to 1917
profited by selling goods to both sides and by
taking advantage of European distractions to
seize new world markets.






What nation profited most by warfare in Asia
between 1914 and 1919?
A) Japan
B) China
C) New Zealand
D) the United States
E) Vietnam

A) Japan






During World War I, the Ottoman Empire
A) vainly attempted to retain its neutrality in what the
Turks perceived was a Christian conflict.
B) long attached to German military advisors, joined
Germany in the war effort.
C) used the opportunity to reassert Turkish dominance
over the Arab regions.
D) launched assaults indifferently against the colonial
possessions of Britain, France, and Germany.
E) was unable to repel British invaders at Gallipolli.

B) long attached to German military advisors,
joined Germany in the war effort.






The British promised support for a Jewish
settlement in the Middle East in the:
A) Sinai Resolution.
B) Exodus Pact.
C) Chamberlain Manifesto.
D) Balfour Declaration.
E) Fourteen Points.

D) Balfour Declaration.






By 1917 the war on the eastern front:
A) had stagnated into a stalemate in which neither
side had an advantage.
B) led to a major revolution in Russia that toppled the
tsarist government.
C) was resolved by a peace treaty between the
combatants.
D) resulted in a massive Russian offensive fueled by
the numerical superiority of Russian armies.
E) was joined by the American Expeditionary Force.

B) led to a major revolution in Russia that
toppled the tsarist government.






In what year was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
signed?
A) 1916
B) 1917
C) 1918
D) 1919
E) 1920

C) 1918






In what year did the German forces on the
western front sue for peace?
A) 1916
B) 1917
C) 1918
D) 1919
E) 1915

C) 1918






Before their surrender, the German generals running
the government:
A) installed a new civilian government to shoulder the
blame of defeat.
B) murdered the emperor.
C) issued a statement accepting blame for the policies
that had led to World War I.
D) overthrew the civilian government and established
a military dictatorship.
E) tried to break through the Allied lines at Verdun.

A) installed a new civilian government to
shoulder the blame of defeat.






The series of treaties that ended World War I
were negotiated at:
A) Potsdam.
B) Brest-Litovsk.
C) London.
D) Versailles.
E) Berlin.

D) Versailles.






Which of the following was NOT included in the final set of
treaties that ended World War I?
A) A League of Nations was formed, but the United States
refused to join.
B) Russia was rewarded for its service to the Allies by the
grant of substantial territories in Poland and the Baltic
republics.
C) Germany was forced to accept blame for the war and to
pay huge reparations to the victorious Allies.
0) Austria-Hungary was divided up into a Germanic Austria
as well as independent states of Hungary, Czechoslovakia,
and Yugoslavia.
E) The Ottoman Empire ceased to exist.

B) Russia was rewarded for its service to the
Allies by the grant of substantial territories in
Poland and the Baltic republics.






Approximately how many people died as a
result of the carnage of World War I?
A) one million
B) two million
C) five million
D) ten million
E) 500,000

D) ten million
As a result of their participation in World War I,
the Ottoman Empire:
 A) effectively collapsed.
 B) recovered their control over the Arab regions
of the empire, including Egypt.
 C) was rewarded by the grant of substantial
territories in the Balkans.
 D) recovered land previously lost to Russia.
 E) formed a new Islamic kingdom.


A) effectively collapsed.






Which of the following was NOT carved from
the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War
I?
A) Turkish republic
B) Jewish state of Israel
C) British mandates in Palestine and Iraq
D) French mandates in Syria and Lebanon
E) Arab states under tribal leaders

B) Jewish state of Israel






The League of Nations, created in the aftermath of
World War I,:
A) proved to be an effective international forum for
negotiating disputes.
B) was handicapped by the absence of Germany,
Japan, and France.
C) was led by the newly powerful United States.
D) was little more than a discussion group, as real
diplomacy continued to be on a nation-by-nation
basis.
E) created the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
(GATT).

D) was little more than a discussion group, as
real diplomacy continued to be on a nationby-nation basis.






In what year did the Great Depression begin?
A) 1919
B) 1921
C) 1929
D) 1939
E) 1924

C) 1929
All of the following were causes of the Great
Depression EXCEPT:
 A) war-induced inflation.
 B) prosperity in dependent economies leading to
competition with the Western core.
 C) overproduction of food prices and consequent
low prices.
 D) excessive debts to the United States.
 E) high economic barriers between nations.


B) prosperity in dependent economies
leading to competition with the Western
core.






Which of the following was a social result of the Great
Depression?
A) up to one-third of all blue-collar workers in the
West lost their jobs for prolonged periods
B) family farms in the United States flourished
C) white-collar unemployment exceeded the numbers
of unskilled laborers as corporations foundered in a
sea of debt
D) despite the economic dislocation, employment in
most countries rose
E) the United States turned toward communism

A) up to one-third of all blue-collar workers in
the West lost their jobs for prolonged periods






Which of the following economies was least
affected by the Great Depression?
A) Latin America
B) the Soviet Union
C) the United States
D) western Europe
E) Japan

B) the Soviet Union






) In Japan, the Great Depression:
A) had little effect due to the economic isolation of Japan’s
economy from the West.
B) actually resulted in an economic boom for the
Japanese, as they managed to seize numerous export
markets that had previously been the sole possession of
the West.
C) resulted in a slight economic downturn, but nothing
similar to the catastrophic events of western Europe and
the U.S.
D) devastated an economy still heavily dependent on
export earnings for financing imports of essential fuel and
raw materials.
E) led to a Socialist dictatorship.

D) devastated an economy still heavily
dependent on export earnings for financing
imports of essential fuel and raw materials.
The Soviet leader Joseph Stalin regarded the
Great Depression as:
 A) an outgrowth of imperialism and capitalism.
 B) a world-wide tragedy calling for international
cooperation between communist and capitalist
states.
 C) a temporary and mild economic dislocation.
 D) a result of the weakness of democratic, nonaggressive states.
 E) an opportunity to trade with the United
States.


A) an outgrowth of imperialism and
capitalism.






After 1937, the government of Japan was dominated
by:
A) socialists who gained power in the aftermath of the
depression.
B) labor unions whose position was strengthened by
their control of industry.
C) the emerging estate of middle-class liberals intent
on a broader franchise.
D) a military regime dedicated to the ultra-nationalist
goals.
E) advocates of parliamentary democracy.

D) a military regime dedicated to the ultranationalist goals.






In 1931, the Japanese army marched into
and declared it an independent state.
A) Korea
B) Vietnam
C) the Philippines
D) Manchuria
E) Mongolia

D) Manchuria






Adolph Hitler was the political and ideological
leader of the:
A) Social Democratic Party.
B) National Socialist Party.
C) Christian Democratic Party.
D) Conservative Union.
E) German Communist Party.

B) National Socialist Party.
Hitler came to power in Germany
A) as a result of entirely legal and constitutional
means.
 B) with the support of socialists.
 C) after a short, but violent, overthrow of the
constitutional government.
 D) after a lengthy civil war between forces of
conservatives and communists.
 E) immediately after World War I.



A) as a result of entirely legal and
constitutional means.






Who was the leader of fascist Italy?
A) Benedetto Croce
B) Ernesto Momigliano
C) Benito Mussolini
D) Benito Juarez
E) Antonio Gramsci

C) Benito Mussolini






In the Spanish civil war (1936 to 1939), what
nation sent effective support to the
republican forces?
A) Britain
B) Germany
C) the United States
D) the Soviet Union
E) Mexico

D) the Soviet Union






The policy followed by British Prime Minister
Neville Chamberlain at the Munich
conference of 1939 came to be known as:
A) pacification.
B) aggressive peacemaking.
C) appeasement.
D) the Germanification of Europe.
E) brinkmanship.

C) appeasement.






In what year did the Japanese attack Pearl
Harbor, thus bringing the United States into
World War II?
A) 1939
B) 1941
C) 1943
D) 1945
E) 1938

E) 1938






Which of the following statements concerning warfare in
the European theater during World War II is most
accurate?
A) France mounted a fanatic defense of its home
territories, only succumbing to the Nazi advance in 1944.
B) By the summer of 1940, most of France lay in German
hands, while a semi-fascist collaborative regime ruled in
Vichy.
C) British resistance crumbled before the air assaults of
Germany, and an amphibious assault knocked the British
from the war.
D) From 1939 on, the chief resistance to the German
advance was provided by American forces.
E) The Germans never broke through the Western front.

B) By the summer of 1940, most of France lay
in German hands, while a semi-fascist
collaborative regime ruled in Vichy.






The balance of the war in Europe shifted in
1941 when Germany invaded:
A) France.
B) Britain.
C) Italy.
D) the Soviet Union.
E) the United States.

D) the Soviet Union.
Japan’s surrender in the Pacific was precipitated
by:
 A) the use of atomic weapons on the cities of
Nagasaki and Hiroshima by the U.S.
 B) a massive land and sea assault on the
Japanese home islands.
 C) the loss of the Philippines to the U.S.
 D) the British advance through Malaya into
China.
 E) victories by China under Mao Zedong.


A) the use of atomic weapons on the cities of
Nagasaki and Hiroshima by the U.S.






All the following were conferences held among
the allied powers to determine the fate of
Europe after the defeat of Germany EXCEPT:
A) Potsdam.
B) Yalta.
C) Sarajevo.
D) Teheran.
E) Oslo.

C) Sarajevo.
Which of the following was NOT a result of the
peace treaties signed following World War II?
 A) the United States occupied Japan
 B) Germany was divided into four zones of
occupation
 C) the Soviet Union took much of eastern
Poland, while the Poles were compensated by
receiving part of eastern Germany
 D) German industrial power was destroyed.
 E) Finland remained an independent state.


D) German industrial power was destroyed.






Which of the following nations, created in the
aftermath of World War I, lost their
independence following World War II?
A) Czechoslovakia
B) Yugoslavia
C) Greece
D) Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia
E) East Prussia

D) Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia






What phrase did Winston Churchill coin to
describe the division between free and
repressed societies after World War II?
A) the red menace
B) the iron curtain
C) the Berlin wall
D) the cold war
E) appeasement

B) the iron curtain






Where was the focal point of the Cold War in
Europe immediately after World War II?
A) Hungary
B) Czechoslovakia
C) France
D) Germany
E) Switzerland

D) Germany






Which of the following states was NOT one of
the industrialized centers of the Pacific rim?
A) Japan
B) Korea
C) Taiwan
D) Sri Lanka
E) Singapore

D) Sri Lanka






What nation became the first serious
challenger to the West’s industrial
supremacy?
A) China
B) Vietnam
C) Korea
D) Japan
E) Hong Kong

D) Japan






Which of the following factors limited Japanese
economic advance prior to World War II?
A) continued dependence on relatively few
export items
B) low population growth
C) failure of the agricultural economy
D) rapidly increasing wages in the work force
E) lack of managerial expertise

A) continued dependence on relatively few
export items






By 1936 the Japanese controlled what
percentage of world trade?
A) less than 4%
B) 8%
C) 15%
D) more than 20%
E) 10%

A) less than 4%






Which of the following statements concerning the
depression in Japan is most accurate?
A) Due to government controls, the depression never
affected the Japanese.
B) The Japanese government failed to take any direct
action to modify the impact of the depression.
C) After initial results that caused great misery, Japan
suffered far less than many Western nations because of
effective government action.
D) The total concentration of the government on military
aggression led to an ineffective response to the
depression.
E) The Depression threw Japan into total chaos.

C) After initial results that caused great
misery, Japan suffered far less than many
Western nations because of effective
government action.






Who was the Japanese finance minister
responsible for the government policies
during the depression?
A) Kyoto Surimboto
B) Korekiyo Takahashi
C) Tojo Haru
D) Minamasu Yokomoto
E) Hirohito

B) Korekiyo Takahashi






Which of the following statements best describes the Japanese
government during the 1920s and early 1930s?
A) Japan was ruled exclusively by a strong liberal party that
dominated the lower house of parliament.
B) Japanese politics were fully democratic leading to the growth of
communism in Japan.
C) Japan’s oligarchic political structure allowed elite groups to
negotiate with each other for appropriate policy and allowed
military leaders to take a growing role.
D) Labor unions began to exert increasing control over economic
policy in the aftermath of the government’s failure to take direct
action during the depression.
E) Japan had a thoroughly democratic parliamentary government.

C) Japan’s oligarchic political structure
allowed elite groups to negotiate with each
other for appropriate policy and allowed
military leaders to take a growing role.






The leading military figure in the Japanese
government following the failed coup of 1936
was:
A) Kendo Nobunaga
B) Tojo Hideki
C) Ikura Kansatsu
D) Teoke Tomomi
E) Matsuhito

B) Tojo Hideki






Early Japanese military aggression resulted in
the conquest of all of the following territories
by the end of 1938 EXCEPT:
A) Manchuria.
B) Korea.
C) Malaya.
D) Taiwan.
E) Manchukuo.

C) Malaya






Which of the following statements most accurately
depicts the impact of the Japanese takeover of Korea prior
to World War II?
A) Japanese economic policies led to rapid
industrialization.
B) The Japanese takeover was widely accepted by the
Korean population.
C) The Japanese takeover disrupted the Korean tradition
of kingship leading to the abolition of the monarchy in
1909.
D) Japanese occupation led to the swift development of
parliamentary institutions based on Chinese models.
E) Japan quickly divided Korea into northern and southern
zones.

C) The Japanese takeover disrupted the
Korean tradition of kingship leading to the
abolition of the monarchy in 1909.






Singapore was originally part of what British
colony?
A) India
B) Malaya
C) Sri Lanka
D) Thailand
E) Burma

B) Malaya






The population of Singapore was largely:
A) Chinese.
B) Malayan.
C) Islamic.
D) Japanese.
E) Indian.

A) Chinese.






Who headed the American occupation
government of Japan?
A) Hap Arnold
B) Omar Bradley
C) Douglas MacArthur
D) Dwight D. Eisenhower
E) Henry Luce

C) Douglas MacArthur






Americans introduced all of the following
reforms to Japan during their occupation
EXCEPT:
A) giving women the vote.
B) abolishing Shintoism as a state religion.
C) outlawing labor unions.
D) making the emperor a symbolic
figurehead.
E) parliamentary democracy.

C) outlawing labor unions.






What party monopolized Japanese
government into the 1990s?
A) Socialist
B) Liberal Democratic
C) Labor
D) Communist
E) Republican

B) Liberal Democratic






In what year did the American occupation of
Japan come to an end?
A) 1945
B) 1947
D) 1955
E) 1950
C) 1952

C) 1952






In what way was the restoration of an independent
Korea complicated?
A) Korea had become a colony of China, which refused
to restore independence.
B) Korea was divided into zones controlled by the U.S.
and the Soviet Union.
C) Korea’s government was claimed by surviving
members of the old monarchy.
D) Korea had no prior experience as an independent
government.
E) Korea wanted to be reunited with Japan.

B) Korea was divided into zones controlled by
the U.S. and the Soviet Union.






Who was the political leader of the Sovietdominated People’s Democratic Republic of
Korea?
A) Syngman Rhee
B) Lee Ho Park
C) Kim Il-Sung
D) So Kim Chung
E) Kim Jong Il

C) Kim Il-Sung






The first leader of the U.S.-dominated
Republic of Korea was:
A) Syngman Rhee
B) Lee Ho Park
C) Kim Il-Sung
D) So Kim Chung
E) long Kim

A) Syngman Rhee






In what year did the conflict between North
and South Korea come to a temporary
conclusion with the signing of an armistice?
A) 1947
B) 1950
C) 1953
D) 1964
E) 1980

C) 1953






Who commanded the United Nations troops
who participated in the Korean conflict on
behalf of the Republic of Korea?
A) Hap Arnold
B) Douglas MacArthur
C) Omar Bradley
D) Dwight D. Eisenhower
E) William Westmoreland

B) Douglas MacArthur






Which of the following statements most accurately
reflects the situation in Korea following the Korean War?
A) Northern and southern Korea were rapidly reunited
under a single, authoritarian government controlled by
the Soviet Union.
B) Northern Korea threw off its ties with China and the
Soviet Union and sought a closer relationship with the U.S.
C) Korea remained divided with relatively authoritarian
governments in both halves of the divided nation.
D) Southern Korea became fully democratic, but moved
closer to political neutrality during the Cold War.
E) Democracy was restored in North Korea.

C) Korea remained divided with relatively
authoritarian governments in both halves of
the divided nation.






What Chinese leader established an
autocratic government on Taiwan in 1948?
A) Sun Yat-sen
B) Shi Zilin
C) Kim Il-Sung
D) Chiang Kai-shek
E) Chou En-lai

D) Chiang Kai-shek






Which of the following economic powers of
the Pacific rim remained a European colony
long after World War II?
A) Malaya
B) Indonesia
C) the Philippines
D) Hong Kong
E) Taiwan

D) Hong Kong






Which nation retained a large British naval
base until 1971?
A) Malaya
B) Taiwan
C) Singapore
D) Hong Kong
E) Burma

C) Singapore
The Japanese political system after 1955:
A) was marked by radical shifts between parties
of the left and right.
 B) was typified by the dominance of socialism.
 C) revived many of the oligarchic features of
earlier political tradition.
 D) was intent on the destruction of the big
business combines.
 E) became much more like that of the United
States.



C) revived many of the oligarchic features of
earlier political tradition.
What was the only weakness of the leadership of
the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan in the
1980s?
 A) inability to provide economic growth
 B) corruption
 C) association with military policies of World War
II
 D) adoption of a policy of nuclear armament
 E) policy of appeasement of China


B) corruption
What Western label was applied to the close
coordination of Japanese government and
business for promotion of economic growth and
export expansion?
 A) Japan, Incorporated
 B) Business, Japan
 C) Toyota, Inc.
 D) Sony United
 E) Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere


A) Japan, Incorporated






Which of the following was NOT a feature of
government involvement in Japanese industry?
A) setting production goals
B) establishing investment goals
C) limiting imports
D) selecting the heads of the major corporations
E) granting huge military contracts

D) selecting the heads of the major
corporation






Which of the following statements concerning the development of
Japanese culture in the postwar era is most accurate?
A) Japanese culture threw off its connections with the past and
wholeheartedly embraced Western styles in literature, drama, and
the arts.
B) Japanese culture was defined by its conservatism and retention
of old forms to the extent that Western forms—particularly in art
and architecture—were unknown.
C) Aside from interior decoration and film, Japanese contributions
to world culture were negligible.
D) Buddhism and Shintoism were officially banned because of
their association with the warlike Japanese past.
E) Japanese culture mimicked that of China

C) Aside from interior decoration and film,
Japanese contributions to world culture were
negligible.
Which of the following was NOT a factor in the
amazing economic growth of Japan following
the 1950s?
 A) cheap loans for technological innovation
 B) educational expansion
 C) a growing population and a reduction in the
agricultural labor force
 D) a rapidly growing military-industrial complex
 E) a productive labor force


D) a rapidly growing military-industrial
complex






Japan produced a distinctive economic culture after
the 1950s that included all of the following features
EXCEPT:
A) a strong tradition of independent unions.
B) managers who displayed active interest in
suggestions by employees.
C) a network of policies and attitudes that reflected
older traditions of group solidarity.
D) willingness among management to abide by
collective decisions and less concern for quick
personal profits.
E) the zaibatsu system.

A) a strong tradition of independent unions.






Which of the following represents a significant difference
between Japanese and Western women in the later 20th
century?
A) Women in Japan participated actively in leisure
activities with their husbands.
B) Japanese women had higher rates of divorce than their
Western counterparts.
C) The Japanese feminist movement was confined to a
small number of intellectuals.
D) Japanese women concentrated less on domestic duties
than women in the West.
E) Western styles of dress were not popular among
women.

C) The Japanese feminist movement was
confined to a small number of intellectuals.






In the 1980s the Japanese government
invested considerable money in teaching:
A) Japanese mothers to breast feed.
B) social etiquette at geisha houses.
C) eating with chopsticks.
D) Western-style dancing.
E) imported culture.

C) eating with chopsticks.






What nation other than Japan in the Pacific
rim was the most obvious example of the
spread of new economic dynamism?
A) South Korea
B) North Korea
C) Vietnam
D) Malaya
E) the Philippines

A) South Korea






What leadership was typical of South Korea
between 1960 and the late 1980s?
A) Liberal Democratic
B) Socialist
C) Communist
D) military
E) fascist

D) military


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Which of the following statements most accurately
describes Korean economic growth after 1950?
A) Economic growth was limited to production of
porcelain and silks for export.
B) Korean economic growth was much slower than that of
Japan.
C) Korean economic growth was dependent on small,
government-financed corporations producing limited
quantities of goods with little advanced technology.
D) Korea was able by the 1970s to compete successfully in
the areas of steel, automobiles, and cheap consumer
goods.
E) Korea was primarily agricultural.
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D) Korea was able by the 1970s to compete
successfully in the areas of steel,
automobiles, and cheap consumer goods.
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Which of the following companies
exemplifies the economic growth and
political influence of Korean corporations?
A) Hyundai
B) Sony
C) Mitsubishi
D) Magnavox
E) Toshiba
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A) Hyundai
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In 1978 the United States government
A) recognized Taiwan as a most-favored trading
partner.
B) severed its diplomatic ties with Taiwan and
recognized the legitimacy of the communist
government of mainland China.
C) offered significant military aid to Taiwan in its
continuing opposition to communism in Asia.
D) supported Taiwan’s invasion of Quemoy and Matsu.
E) supported Chinese claims to Taiwan.
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B) severed its diplomatic ties with Taiwan and
recognized the legitimacy of the communist
government of mainland China.
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C) Japan.
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Who was the ruler of Singapore from its
independence to the present?
A) Kim Il-Sung
B) Chiang Ching-kuo
C) Chung Ju Yung
D) Lee Kuan Yew
E) Chulalongkorn II
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D) Lee Kuan Yew
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Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the
political climate of the free port of Singapore?
A) Proximity to China and the large majority of ethnic Chinese led
to the rapid expansion of communism.
B) As a long-time colony of Britain, Singapore developed an active
parliamentary democracy with numerous political parties that
shared power in the government.
C) Although a democratic constitution was written, the
government became increasingly authoritarian with tight controls
over its citizens and active suppression of political opposition.
D) Singapore’s government remained intentionally weak, and the
free port became notorious for its lax attitudes toward drug
smuggling, sex, and economic corruption.
E) Singapore was a puppet state of China.
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C) Although a democratic constitution was
written, the government became increasingly
authoritarian with tight controls over its
citizens and active suppression of political
opposition.
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What is the primary export of Hong Kong?
A) textiles and clothing
B) steel
C) automobiles
D) agricultural products
E) small electrics
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A) textiles and clothing
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Because of the cultural influence of China on all
of the Pacific rim states, each stressed a form of
morality based on what philosophical system?
A) Buddhism
B) Confucianism
C) Shintoism
D) Hinduism
E) legalism
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B) Confucianism
Which of the following was NOT a similarity
among the Pacific rim states?
 A) Chinese cultural and political heritage
 B) special contacts with the West through
unusually intense interaction with Britain or the
U.S.
 C) the ability to maintain distinctive identity
even amid change and imitation of the West
 D) similar political structures
 E) large amounts of heavy industry
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D) similar political structures
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Taiwan’s greatest trade partner was:
A) mainland China.
B) the U.S.
C) Japan.
D) Hong Kong.
E) North Korea.
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