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Contents
Volume 1
Section 1:  Milestone of Urology
1. History of Urology
MA Salam
Prehistoric Urology in Different Parts of World  4; Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century  6;
Nineteenth Century  7; Great Mind and Philosophers in Urology  22
3
Section 2:  Presentation of Urological Disease
2. Presentation of Urological Disease
MA Salam, Mohammad Shafiqur Rahman
Art of History Taking (Careful Listening to the Patient is an Art)  33; Smoking and Urological Disease  41;
Drug Allergies  41; Physical Examination of Urological Patients  42
33
Section 3: Investigations of Urological Disease
3. Laboratory Test for Urological Work-up
47
4. Application of X-ray in Urology
57
5. Intravenous Urography and Contrast Study of Lower Urinary Tract
64
6. Principles of the Ultrasound and its Applications in Urology
68
7. Computed Tomography
85
MA Salam, MA Wahab
Urinalysis  47; Laboratory Tests  51; Hormonal Studies in Urine  55
AKM Zamanul Islam Bhuiyan
Radiology Techniques  57; Radiation Exposure Hazard  57; Contrast Media  58; Anaphylactic Reactions  59;
Nephrotoxicity  59; Cardiovascular Toxicity  59; Radiological Investigations for Urological Patients  59
AKM Anwarul Islam, Zahirul Islam Miah
Procedure  64; Basic Techniques and Principle of Intravenous Urography  64;
Contraindications of Intravenous Urography  65; Indications of Intravenous Urography  65;
Advantages of Intravenous Urography  65; Limitations of Intravenous Urography  65;
The Future of the Intravenous Urography  65; Antegrade Urography and Retrograde Urography  66;
Voiding Cystourethrogram or Micturating Cystourethrogram  66; Cavernosography and Cavernosometry  67
MA Salam
Physics of Medical Ultrasound  68; Ultrasound Imaging Methods  68; Intraoperative Use of Ultrasound  72;
Renal Ultrasound  72; Bladder Ultrasound  76; Ultrasound Imaging of Prostate Prelude  78;
Determination of Prostate Volume with Ultrasound  78; Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy  78; Prostate Cancer  78;
Prostatic Infection  79; Techniques of Ultrasound Study of Prostate  79; Perineal Approach  79;
Biopsy of Prostate  80; Seminal Vesicle Cyst  80; Ultrasound Scan of Urethra  80;
Scrotal Ultrasonography  81; Doppler Principles  82
Jahangir Kabir
History of CT Scan  85; Principle of Techniques of CT Scan  85; Principles of Three-dimensional Image Reconstruction  87;
Recent Advances in CT  87; Common Problems in Interpreting CT Scan  87; Limitations of CT Scan  87;
Criteria for CT  87; CT Renal Arteriography  89; Digital Subtraction Angiography  89; CT Urography  89
xx
Principles and Practice of Urology
8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
9. Nuclear Medicine in Genitourinary Tract
Abdul Mannan Khan
Physics of MRI  92; Recent Advances of Mri  92; Basic Principles of Mri  93; Clinical Applications of Mri 94;
Advantages of Mri  97; Contraindications of Mri  97; Magnetic Resonance Urography  97;
Advantages and Disadvantages of Mri 98
SA Khan, Shankar Kumar Biswas
Radioisotope Measurement of Glomerular Filtration Rate  101;
Radionuclide Techniques Available for Studying the Function of the Renal Tract  102
10. Abdominal Positron Emission Tomography or Computed Tomography
Ali Akbor
Radioisotopes  108; Cyclotron Centers  109; Indications of Pet/CT  110; Transitional Cell Carcinoma  110;
Renal Cell Carcinoma  110; Testicular Malignancies  110
92
101
108
Section 4: Emergency Urology
11. Acute Ureteric Colic
115
12. Acute Urinary Retention
126
13. Renal Trauma
130
14. Ureteral Injury
137
15. Lower Genitourinary Tract Trauma
142
16. Urinary Bladder Injury
145
MA Wahab, MA Salam
Presentation  115; Diagnosis  115; Differential Diagnoses of Flank Pain  118; Management  121
SAM Golam Kibria, AKM Anwarul Islam
Etiology  126; History  127; Physical Examination  127; Management  127; Complications of Relieving Obstruction  128
Shivaji Basu
Principle of Treatment of Acute Upper Genitourinary Tract Injury  130;
Upper Tract Trauma (Renal Injuries and Ureteral Injuries)  130
MA Salam, AKM Khurshidul Alam
Etiology of Ureteric Trauma  137; Clinical Diagnosis  137; Radiological Diagnosis  137;
Classification of Ureteric Injury  138; Management of Ureteric Injury  138
MA Salam, Md Sayedul Islam
Causes of Lower Genitourinary Tract Trauma  142; Pathophysiology of Lower Genitourinary Tract Trauma  142;
History  142; Physical Examination  143; Prehospital Care  144;
Principle of Management of Lower Urinary Tract Trauma  144
K Sasidharan
Diagnosis of Bladder Injury  145; Cause and Pathophysiology of Bladder Injury  145;
Classification of Bladder Injury  146; Computed Tomography Scan  148;
Cystography  148; Excretory Urography  148; Management of Bladder Rupture  148;
Penetrating Bladder Injury  148; Postoperative Care  148; Follow-up  149
17. Urethral Injury
150
18. Penile Injuries
156
Sanjay Kulkarni, MA Salam
Applied Anatomy and Pathophysiology  150; Etiology  151; Mechanism of Injury  151; Clinical Assessment  152;
Classification of Urethral Injury  152; Presentation  152; Work-up  152; Anterior Urethral Injuries  153;
Posterior Urethral Injuries  153; Female Urethral Injuries  154; Complications of Urethral Injury  154;
Outcome and Prognosis  154
MA Salam, SM Mahbub Alam
Common Injuries of Penis  156; Strangulation of Penis by Metallic or Nonmetallic Ring  160
xxi
Contents
19.Scrotal and Testicular Injury
MA Salam, Mirza M Hasan
Mechanism of Injury  162; Etiology  162; Presentation  162; Physical Examination  162; Imaging of Scrotal Injury  163;
General Management of Scrotal Injury  163; Complications of Scrotal Injury  164; Indications for Scrotal Exploration  164;
Follow-up  164; Complications of Testicular Injury  164
162
Section 5: Genitourinary Infection
20. Urinary Tract Infections
169
21. Urinary Tract Infection in Children
179
22.Urosepsis
187
23. Prostatitis or Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome
193
24. Epididymitis and Orchitis
197
25. Perioperative Antibacterial Prophylaxis in Urology
200
26. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection
204
27. Sexually Transmitted Diseases
212
28. Genitourinary Tuberculosis
217
29. Interstitial Cystitis
221
Jahangir Kabir
Pathogenesis of Urinary Tract Infection  169; Bacteriological Evidence of Infection  169; Pathophysiology  170;
Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection  171; Risk, Mortality and Morbidity  171;
The Natural History of Urinary Tract Infection  171; Physical Examination  172; Differential Diagnoses  172;
Work-up of Urinary Tract Infection  172; Treatment  174; Prevention of Urinary Tract Infection  177; Complications  177
Isteaq Ahmed Shameem
Etiology  179; Pathogenesis and Risk Factors  179; Signs and Symptoms  179; Classification  179;
Diagnosis  180; Schedule of Investigation  183; Treatment  183; Management  184
Rajeev Kumar
Definition  187; Pathophysiology of Sepsis  188; Clinical Manifestation of Urosepsis  188; Treatment  189;
Focus on the Management of the Septic Patient  190; Focus on Outcome from Sepsis  191
AKM Khurshidul Alam
Diagnosis  193; Classification Systems  194; Treatment  195
Golam Mowla Chowdhury
Incidence and Prevalence  197; Pathogenesis and Pathology  197; Diagnosis  197; Treatment  198
AKM Khurshidul Alam, MA Salam
Aims and Objectives  200; Risk Factors  201; Principles of Antibiotic Prophylaxis  201;
Regimens for Prophylaxis for Different Procedures 202
Mohammad Shafiqur Rahman
Definitions  204; Risk Factors  204; Diagnosis  205;
Antimicrobial Strategy for the Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection  205; Management of Specific Urological Infection  206;
Recommendations on Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection  210; Conclusion and Future  210
Pranashish Saha, Kazi Rafiqul Abedin
Factors Responsible for the Sexually Transmitted Diseases  212; Nongonococcal Urethritis  212; Gonorrhea  213;
Syphilis  213; Chancroid  214; Lymphogranuloma Venereum  214; Granuloma Inguinale  214;
Condyloma Acuminata or Venereal Warts  214; Genital Herpes Simplex  215;
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome   215; Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases  215
NP Gupta, Md Sayedul Islam
Incidence   217; Etiopathogenesis   217; Pathogenesis  218; Presentation  218; Diagnosis  218; Treatment  218;
Follow-up of Genitourinary Tuberculosis  219; Management of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis  219
Shahidul Islam Sugom
New Concepts  221; Interstitial Cystitis Symptoms  221; Diagnosis  221;
Potassium Test (Persons Test)   222; Management  222
xxii
Principles and Practice of Urology
Section 6: General Urology
30.Advances of Radiation Oncology and its Applications to Urology
227
31. CyberKnife in Urology
236
32. Application of Gene Therapy in Urology
239
33. Lasers in Urology
243
34. Image-guided Percutaneous Treatment of Genitourinary Cancer
259
AFM Kamal Uddin, Afiquor Rahman
Kidney Tumors  227; Role of Radiotherapy in Renal Cell Carcinoma  227;
Carcinoma of Bladder  229; Carcinoma Prostate  231
Dev Narayan Dutta
Important Features  236; Imaging Techniques of CyberKnife  236;
Other Stereotactic Systems  238; Clinical Uses  238
AFM Kamal Uddin, MA Salam
Gene Therapeutic Strategies  239; The Future of Gene Therapy  241
Prem Nath Dogra, Prabhjot Singh
History  243; Basic Principle of Laser  243; Components of Laser System  244; Laser Tissue Interaction  245;
Types of Lasers  246; Laser Applications in Urology  249; Lasers in Laparoscopy  255
MA Salam, Md Faisal Islam
Indications  259; Patient Preparation/Anesthesia  260; Image Guidance  260;
Image-guided Tumor Ablation Modalities  261;
Complications of Percutaneous Ablation  263; Follow-up  264
35. Stem Cells Research and its Practical Applications
266
36. Telemedicine in Urology
270
37. Tissue Engineering in Urology
273
Laila Anjuman Banu, Mohsin Uddin
Embryonic Stem Cell Lines  266; Adult Stem Cells  266; Amniotic Stem Cells  267;
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells  267; Practical Applications of Stem Cell Research  269
Ishtiak Al Mamoon, MA Salam
History of Telemedicine  270; Types of Telemedicine  270
Mohsin Uddin, MA Salam
Principles of Tissue Engineering  273; Application of Stem Cells  274;
Urological Applications of Tissue Engineering  274;
Generation of Histocompatible Tissues Using Nuclear Transplantation  275
38. Ideal Operating Theater Complex 277
39. High Frequency Electrosurgical Apparatus (Diathermy Equipment)
284
40. Ultrasonic Surgical Shears (Harmonic Scalpel)
292
MA Salam, Nitin S Kekre
Statutory Regulations for Operating Theater Complex  277; Different Zones of Operation Theater Complex  277;
Sub Areas  278; Types of Operating Theater Complex  279;
Principles to be Taken into Consideration While Planning an Operating Theater (Physical/Architecture)  279;
Usual Disadvantages of Existing OT in Old Hospitals  282; Operating Theater for the Urologist  283
Prem Raj Gyawali
Technical Concept  284; Tissue Effect  284; Unipolar Diathermy  285; Bipolar Diathermy  286;
Urological Applications  286; Mode of Action  287; Quality of High-frequency Current (Modulation)  288;
Factors Influencing the Therapeutic Effect  288; Safety Considerations  288
Jahangir Kabir, MA Salam
Mechanism of Tissue Coagulation  292;
Use of the Ultrasonic Surgical Shears or Harmonic Scalpel  292
xxiii
Contents
41.Tissue Fusion System (LigaSure) and Evident Microwave Ablation System
294
42. Principles of Intravesical Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy
297
Pranjal R Modi
The Evident™ Microwave Ablation System  295
Hemant B Tongaonkar
Intravesical Chemotherapy  297; Intravesical Immunotherapy  297; Indications of Intravesical Chemotherapy  297;
Contraindications  297; Prerequisite for Intravesical Therapy  297
Section 7:  Pediatric Urology
43. Applied Anatomy of Genitourinary Tract
301
44. Developmental Anomalies of the Upper Urinary Tract
306
45. Polycystic Kidney Disease
309
46. Wilms’ Tumor
311
47. Congenital Ureteral Obstruction (Congenital Pelviureteric Junction and Vesicoureteral
Junction Obstruction) 317
48. Abdominal Masses in Children
324
49. Bladder Exstrophy Complex
326
50. Diseases of Urachus
330
51. Prune Belly Syndrome
332
52. Vesicoureteric Reflux
334
53. Neuropathic Bladder in Children
342
Laila Anjuman Banu
Development of Kidney  301; Kidney  302; Ureter and Renal Pelvis  304
Zahid Hossain Bhuiyan
Clinical Embryology of the Upper Urinary Tract  306; Renal Agenesis  306; Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney  306
Mozzam Hossain
Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease  309; Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  309;
Multilocular Renal Cyst  310; Solitary Renal Cyst  310
Shafiqul Haque, Matiur Rahman
Etiology  311; Causes  311; Pathology  311; Work-up  312; Presentation  313; Staging of Wilms’ Tumor  313;
Management Principles  313; Treatment by Type and Stage of Wilms’ Tumor  314; Prognostic Factors  316
Jahangir Kabir, MA Salam
Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction  317; Bilateral Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction  321; Complications  322;
Outcome and Prognosis  322; Future and Controversies  322; Follow-up  322
Isteaq Ahmed Shameem
Imaging Techniques  324
Paddy Dewan
Cloacal Exstrophy (10%)  326; Classical Bladder Exstrophy (60%)  326; Epispadias (30%)  326;
Diagnosis of Bladder Exstrophy  328; Management of Bladder Exstrophy  328; Prognosis and Natural History  328
Ishteaq Ahmed Shameem
Patent Urachus  330; Urachal Cyst  330
Matiur Rahman
Major Characteristics  332; Associated Anomalies  332; Management  332; Work-up  333; Treatment  333
Paddy Dewan
Incidence  334; Pathophysiology  334; Causes  335; Consequences  335; Incidence  335; Grading System  335;
Diagnosis  336; Work-up  336; Management  337; Surgical Techniques  340; Follow-up  340
Paddy Dewan
Definition  342; Classification  342; Urodynamic Studies  342;
Management  343; Follow-up of Neurogenic Bladder Patients  344
xxiv
Principles and Practice of Urology
54. Nocturnal Enuresis
346
55.Rhabdomyosarcoma
348
Pranashish Saha
Definition 346; Diagnosis 346; Treatment 346
Shahadat Hossain
Presentation of Rhabdomyosarcoma  348; Pathology  348; Pathologic Classification  348;
Clinical Groups of Rhabdomyosarcoma  349; Management  349
56. Acute Scrotum in Children
57. Empty Scrotum or Undescended Testis
381
Emdadul Haque
Diagnosis 381; Treatment 381
65. Repair of Hypospadias: Current Trend
375
Shafiqul Haque
Mechanisms of Sexual Differentiation  375; Disorders of Sexual Differentiation  376;
Work-up of Ambiguous Genitalia  376; Gender Assignment  378;
Timing of Genital Reconstruction  378; Management  378
64.Micropenis
373
Ishteaq Ahmed Shameem
Presentation of Paraphimosis  373; Manual Reduction  373; Follow-up  374; Complications  374
63. Ambiguous Genitalia
368
MA Salam, Shahidul Islam Sugom
Diagnosis  368; Treatment  368; Methods of Circumcision  369
62.Paraphimosis
364
Paddy Dewan
Classification of Posterior Urethral Valves  364; Presentation of Posterior Urethral Valve or Membrane  364;
Work-up of Posterior Urethral Valves  365; Management of Posterior Urethral Valves  365;
Antenatal Treatment  365; Postnatal Treatment  366; Vesicostomy  366; Follow-up  366
61.Phimosis
361
K Sasidharan
Diagnosis  361; Treatment of Varicocele  362
60. Posterior Urethral Valves or Membrane
359
MA Salam, Md Saiful Islam
Diagnosis 359; Treatment 359
59. Varicocele in Children and Adolescents
355
Paddy Dewan
Significance 355; Classification 355; Diagnosis 356; Investigations 356;
Treatment  357; Advantages of Early Orchidopexy  357; Prognosis  358
58.Hydrocele
350
Shafiqul Haque
Diagnosis  350; Treatment of Testicular Torsion  352; Prognosis  352;
Perinatal Torsion  353; Epididymitis  353; Testicular Cancer  353
Paddy Dewan
History  382; Pathophysiology of Hypospadias  382; Classification System of Hypospadias  383;
Risk Factors for Hypospadias  383; Differential Diagnosis of Hypospadias  384;
Objectives of Repair of Hypospadias  384; Diagnosis  384; Treatment of Hypospadias  384;
Techniques for Posterior Hypospadias  387; Two-stage Hypospadias Repair  389;
Bladder/Buccal Mucosa Technique  390; Operative Technical Points  392; Complications of Hypospadias Repairs  393;
Hypospadias Patients with Multiple Failures  394; Long Term Follow-up  394
382
xxv
Contents
Section 8: Neurourology
66. Applied Anatomy of Bladder
399
67. Flaccid Type of Neuropathic Bladder
406
68.Incontinence
411
69.Myelomeningocele
418
70. An Overview of Neuropathic Bladder
421
71. Overactive Bladder
428
72. Spastic Type of Neuropathic Bladder
434
73. Spinal Cord Injury
440
Laila Anjuman Banu
Gross Anatomy  399; Histology  399; Bladder Innervation  400; Sphincteric Mechanisms  400;
Bladder Neck in Male  401; Bladder Neck in Female  401;
The Physiology of Vesicourethral Segment  402; Uropharmacology  403
MA Salam, ATM Aman Ullah
Etiology of Flaccid Type of Neuropathic Bladder  406; Pathophysiology  406; Clinical Presentation  407;
Laboratory Study  407; Management of Flaccid Neuropathic Bladder  407;
Supplies Required for Self-catheterization Technique  408
MA Salam
Pathophysiology of Incontinence  411; Mechanism of Incontinence  412; Classification of Incontinence  412;
History  414; Causes of Neuropathic Bladder/Urethral Dysfunction  415; General Management  416
Jahangir Kabir
Causes 418; Symptoms 418; Classification 419; Work-up 419; Management 419;
Prognosis  420; Possible Complications  420
AKM Anwarul Islam
Functional Features of Bladder  421; Pathophysiology of Neuropathic Bladder  421;
Classification of Neuropathic Bladder  422; Outline of Diagnosis of Neuropathic Bladder  422;
Complications of Neuropathic Bladder  425;
Principle of Treatment of Neuropathic Bladder  427; Prognosis  427
Farakh Khan
Definition 428; Pathophysiology 428; Management 429
Jahangir Kabir
Pathophysiology  434; Clinical Presentation  435; Investigations  436; Management  437
MA Salam
Pathophysiology  440; History  440; Complete Spinal Cord Transection Syndromes  441;
Physical Examination of Spinal Cord Injury Patients  442; Causes of Spinal Injury  442;
Goals in the Management of Neuropathic Bladder in Spinal Injury  443;
Urodynamic Classification of Spinal Injury  443;
Prehospital Care and Transportation of Spinal Injury Patients  444;
Emergency Department Care  444; The Therapeutic Goal for Neurogenic Shock  445;
Complications  446; Prognosis  447; Lifelong Surveillance  447
74. Urodynamic Studies
MA Salam
Components of Urodynamics  449; Simple Urodynamics  450;
Complex Urodynamics  455; Practical Points of Urodynamic Study  457
449
xxvi
Principles and Practice of Urology
Section 9: Female Urology
75. Stress Urinary Incontinence
471
76. Vesicovaginal Fistula
486
77. Ureteric Injury in Pelvic Surgery
493
78. Interstitial Cystitis
501
79. Urethral Caruncles
504
Ajit Vaje
Definition  471; History  471; Mechanism of Stress Incontinence in Female  471;
Mechanism of Stress Incontinence in Male  472; Classification  472;
Work-up of Stress Urinary Incontinence  472; Treatment Options  476; Postoperative Care  483;
Risks and Complications  483; Selection of Therapy for an Individual Patient  483
Ajit Vaje
History of the Procedure  486; Incidence  486; Etiology  486; Pathophysiology  487; Risk Factors  487;
Presentation 487; Work-up 487; Treatment 488; Complications 490
Khoorsheed Jahan Maula
History of the Procedure  493; Incidence  493; Etiology  493; Classification  494;
Pathophysiology 494; Diagnosis 495; Management 497
Afiquor Rahman
New Concepts  501; Interstitial Cystitis Symptoms  501; Diagnosis  501; Management  502
Ajit Vaje, MA Salam
Frequency 504; Pathophysiology 504; Presentation 504; Work-up 504; Treatment 504;
Follow-up  505; Complications  505; Outcome and Prognosis  506; Future and Controversies  506
Section 10:  Urinary Tract Obstruction
80. Urinary Tract Obstruction
509
81. Retroperitoneal Fibrosis
519
82.Ureterocele
528
83. Primary Obstructive Megaureter
533
84. Fetal Lower Urinary Tract Obstruction
537
Jahangir Kabir, MA Salam
History  509; Etiology  509; Pathophysiology of Obstructive Nephropathy  509; Presentation  510;
Work-up  511; Imaging Studies  512; Diagnostic Procedures  515; Treatment  515; Follow-up  517;
Complications  517; Outcome and Prognosis  517
MA Wahab, KM Monwarul Karim
Pathophysiology  519; Mortality/Morbidity  520; Presentation  520; Physical Examination  520;
Causes of Retroperitoneal Fibrosis  520; Differential Diagnosis  521;
Work-up  521; Histologic Findings  523; Treatment  523
Pranashish Saha
Classification  528; Incidence of Ureterocele  528; Etiology  528; Presentation  528; Laboratory Studies  529;
Imaging Studies  529; Principle of Treatment of the Ureterocele  531; Follow-up  532;
Complications of Surgical Intervention  532; Outcome and Prognosis  532
AKM Anwarul Islam
Prevalence 533; Pathophysiology 533; Presentation 533; Work-up 534;
Histologic Findings  535; Treatment  535; Follow-up  536; Complications  536
Paddy Dewan
Cause of Fetal Lower Urinary Tract Obstruction  537; Pathophysiology  537;
Diagnosis and Prognostic Criteria  537; Management Options and Outcomes  538;
Indications and Contraindications for Fetal Treatment  538; Follow-up  538
xxvii
Contents
Volume 2
Section 11:  Urolithiasis
85. Urinary Tract Stone Disease
Ravindra Bhalchandra Sabnis
The Incidence of Urinary Tract Stone Disease  543; Pathophysiology of Urolithiasis  543;
Causes of Urolithiasis  543; Types of Stones  545; Mortality/Morbidity Related to Urolithiasis  546;
Clinical Review  546; Physical Examination  547; Differential Diagnosis  547;
Work-up  547; Treatment  549; Follow-up  551; Complications of Stone Disease  551;
Medical Treatment for Stone Disease  552; Prognosis  552
543
86. Acute Renal Colic
554
87. Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy
560
Md Fakhrul Islam
Clinical Findings  554; Work-up  554; Management of Acute Renal or Ureteric Colic  557;
Surgery for Recurrent Renal Colic  559
Isteaq Ahmed Shameem
Technical Aspects  560; Evolution of Shockwave Lithotripters  561;
Indications of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy  562; Work-up  563;
Factors Affecting the Outcome of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy  563;
Preoperative and Intraoperative Stenting  564;
Techniques of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy and Patient Care  564;
Follow-Up  564; Complications  564; Future and Controversies  565
88. Intracorporeal Lithotripsy
566
89. Percutaneous Endourological Procedures
570
Agrawal Madhu Sudan
Different Energy Sources Used in Intracorporeal Lithotripsy  566; Postoperative Care  567; Complications  568;
Outcome and Prognosis  568; Intracorporeal Lithotripsy and its Future  568
Mahesh R Desai
History  570; Relevant Anatomy  570; Indications  570; Contraindications  575;
Work-up  575; Treatment  576; Postoperative Care  577; Complications  577
Section 12: Benign Prostatic Disease
90. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
KT Foo
Pathophysiology  583; Presentation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  584;
International Prostate Symptom Score Index  584;
Work-up  586; Imaging Studies  586; Histological Findings  587;
Staging of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  588; Open Prostatectomy  590;
Transurethral Resection of the Prostate  590; Transurethral Incision of Prostate  591;
Transurethral Needle Ablation of the Prostate  593; Follow-up  595; Complications  595
583
Section 13: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men and Women
91. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
KT Foo, MA Salam
Epidemiology  599; Presentation  599; International Prostate Symptom Score Index  599; Assessment  599;
Differential Diagnoses  601; Indications for Referral  601; Management of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms  601;
Risk Factors for Urinary Incontinence  602; Presentation  602; Differential Diagnoses  603;
Investigations 603; Management 603; Complications 603; Prevention 603
599
xxviii
Principles and Practice of Urology
Section 14:  Diseases of the Adrenal Gland
92. Adrenal Mass
605
93. Cushing’s Syndrome
615
94.Pheochromocytoma
619
Jagdeesh N Kulkarni
Anatomy of Adrenal Glands  607; Physiology of Adrenal Glands  607; Work-up of Adrenal Masses  608;
Adrenal Cysts  608; Aldosteronoma (Conn’s Syndrome)  609; Neuroblastoma  609;
Myelolipoma  609; Pheochromocytomas  609; Medical Therapy  610;
Postoperative Care  613; Follow-up  613; Complications  613; Prognosis of Adrenal Tumor  613
SAM Golam Kibria
Pathophysiology  615; Etiology  615; Pathology  616; Clinical Presentation  616; Laboratory Work-up  616;
Complications 617; Treatment 617; Prognosis 618
Hemant B Tongaonkar
Pathophysiology  619; Mortality/Morbidity  619; History  620; Physical Examination  620; Work-up  621;
Additional Tests after the Diagnosis of Pheochromocytoma  622; Histologic Findings  622;
Staging 622; Treatment 623; Follow-up 623
Section 15:  Practical Urology
95. Catheters for Urinary Tract
627
96. Male Urethral Catheterization
633
97. Female Urethral Catheterization
641
Fazal Naser, Md Waliul Islam Maruf
Urethral Catheters  627
Moudud Hossain Alamgir, Shohrab Hossain
History of Catheterization  633; Indications  634; Contraindications  634; Materials for Urethral Catheterization  634;
Applied Anatomy  634; Catheters and Basic Designs  634; Urethral Catheterization in the Male Patient  635;
Catheter Maintenance  636; Problems during Urethral Catheterization  636; Contraindications  637;
Technique  638; Complications  639; Long-term Indwelling Catheters  639
AKM Khurshidul Alam
Indications for Catheterization in Female Patients  641;
Contraindications for Catheterization in Female Patients  641;
Equipment  641; Practical Anatomy  642; Procedure  642; Complications  642;
Difficult Catheterizations  642
98. Common Practical Problem for the Residents
644
99. Image Reproduction for Teaching, Documentation and Research
648
100. Principles of Intravesical Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy
650
Ahsan Kabir
Practical Urological Problem  644; Tips for Post-transurethral Resection Bleeding  644;
Management of Intractable Hematuria  644; Practical Urological Problem: Treatments for Intractable Hematuria  645;
Practical Urological Problem: Transurethral Resection Syndrome  645;
Practical Urological Problem: Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolus  645; Pulmonary Embolus  646;
Practical Urological Problem: Elective Surgery on Anticoagulated Patients  646; Blocked Catheter  646;
Practical Urological Problem: Failure of Catheter Balloon to Deflate  647
ABM Golam Rabbani
Videoendoscopic Surgery  648; Protocol for the Trainee and Students  648
Promode Ranjan Singh
Contraindications  650; Dose and Duration of Therapy  651
xxix
Contents
101. Urological Equipment
652
102. Irrigating Solutions for Urological Endoscopic Surgery
664
103. Clean Intermittent Self-catheterization
666
Mir Ehteshamul Haque
Telescopic System  652; Urological Equipment for Lower Tract  653; Equipment for Upper Tract  657;
General Equipment in Urology Operation Theater  658; Sterilization and Care of Endoscopic Instruments  660;
Sterilization Methods for Urological Endoscopes  661
Nurul Hooda, Md Abdul Awal
Characteristics of Ideal Irrigating Solution for Transurethral Resection 664
Shailesh Raina, BK Dastur
History  666; Effects of Intermittent Catheterization  666;
Prerequisites of Clean Intermittent Self-catheterization  666;
Catheters and Catheter Care  667; Follow-up  668; Complications  668
Section 16: Operative Urology
104. Circumcision
673
105. Penile Zipper Injury
677
106. Suprapubic Urinary Bladder Catheterization
679
107. Cystoscopy
684
108. Ureteroscopy
689
109. Acute Hemodialysis Vascular Access
695
110. Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy
698
111. Urethral Dilatation
703
112. Vasectomy: No Scalpel Method
705
Mohsin Uddin
Ethical Issues  673; Indications  673; Routine Circumcision  673; Caution 674;
Circumcision for Patients with Phimosis 674
Shahidul Islam Sugom
Prelude 677; Management 677; Complications 677
SM Mahbub Alam, AKM Zamanul Islam Bhuiyan
Anesthesia 679; Equipment 679; Positioning 680; Technique 680; Complications 680;
Open Suprapubic Cystostomy  681
MA Salam, Shadrul Alam
Indications of Cystoscopy  684; Sterilization of Cystoscope  684; Chromocystoscopy 687;
Complications  687; Narrow Band Imaging  688
SA Khan, Jahangir Kabir, M Hasan Akther
History of Ureteroscope  689; Indication of the Procedure  690; Work-up  690; Diagnostic Ureteroscopy  690;
Therapeutic Ureteroscopy  691; Postoperative Care  692; Complications of Ureteroscopy  692
Muhammad Hossain
Prevention of Complications  697
MA Salam
Techniques of Transrectal Ultrasound-guided Prostate Biopsy  698; Complications  701; Future Guidelines  702
MA Salam, MA Wahab
Indications  703; Patient Preparation  703; Technique  703
Ahsan Kabir
Indications 705; Anesthesia 705; Equipment 705; Positioning 706; Technique 706;
Complications  707; Postvasectomy Success Rates  707
xxx
Principles and Practice of Urology
113. Transurethral Resection of the Prostate and Bladder Neck Incision
709
114. Bladder Tumor: Endoscopic Assessment and Treatment
725
115. Ureterolithotomy
734
116. Radical Nephrectomy
741
117. Radical Orchiectomy
748
118. Varicocelectomy
752
119. Radical Cystoprostatectomy
756
120. Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy
770
121. Pyeloplasty
777
Deen Sharma
History  709; Differential Diagnosis  709; Basic Applied Anatomy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  711;
Equipment, Irrigation, Diathermy, Surgeon’s Chair  711; Technique of Transurethral Resection of the Prostate 711;
Postoperative Care  715; Histology of Transurethral Resection Chips  716;
Immediate Complications of Transurethral Resection of the Prostate  716;
Late Complications of Transurethral Resection of the Prostate  718;
Transurethral Resection in Carcinoma of the Prostate  720;
Transurethral Resection of the Prostate in Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis  720;
Transurethral Resection of the Prostate in Prostatic Abscess  720;
Transurethral Resection of the Prostate in Hypertrophy of the Bladder Neck  720
Makarand V Khochikar
Bladder Tumor (Endoscopic Assessment)  725; Urethroscopy  726; Cystoscopy  726; Bimanual Examination  727;
Biopsy Technique  727; Cytology  729; Resection of Bladder Tumor  730; Special Points of Technique  731
Prem Nath Dogra
History of the Procedure  734; Etiology  734; Presentation  734; Indications  735; Relevant Anatomy  735;
Contraindications  735; Laboratory Studies  735; Imaging Studies  735; Other Tests  735; Treatment  735;
Open Ureterolithotomy  737; Follow-up  739; Complications of Ureterolithotomy  739
Ganesh Gopalakrishnan
Indications  741; History of the Procedure  742; Work-up  742; Technique of Radical Nephrectomy  743;
Techniques of Open Radical Nephrectomy  744; Postoperative Complications  745; Outcome and Prognosis  746
Prem Nath Dogra
Etiology of Testicular Cancer  748; Pathology of Testicular Cancer  748; Differential Diagnoses  748;
Presentation of Testicular Cancer  748; Indications for Radical Orchiectomy  748;
Work-up  749; Surgery  749; Complications  750; Outcome and Prognosis  750
Mir Ehteshamul Haque
Cause 752; Pathophysiology 752; Diagnosis 753; Treatment 753
MA Salam
Indications for Radical Cystectomy  756; Indications for Urethrectomy  756; Work-up  756;
Biopsy for Bladder Cancer (Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor)  757;
Radical Cystoprostatectomy  758; Radical Cystectomy in Women  761;
Laparoscopic or Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Cystectomy  762; Postoperative Care  766; Complications  767;
Outcome and Prognosis  767; Alternative Therapy  767
Hemant B Tongaonkar
History of Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy  770; Work-up  770; Preoperative Care  771;
Division of the Puboprostatic Ligaments and Control of the Dorsal Venous Complex  771; Complications  773;
Outcome and Prognosis  774; Follow-up  774; Future and Controversies  774
Rajeev Kumar
Pathophysiology  777; Work-up  777; Preoperative Preparation  778; Postoperative Details  780;
Outcome and Prognosis  781
xxxi
Contents
122. Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection
782
123. Endoscopic or Intracorporeal Lithotripsy
785
124. Laparoscopic Cystoprostatectomy with Urinary Diversion
790
125. Evolution of Laparoscopic Technique in Urology
794
126. Outline of Laparoscopic Urological Surgery
800
127. Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy
809
128. Laparoscopic Radical Nephrectomy
813
129. Laparoscopic Nephron Sparing Surgery
817
130. Laparoscopic Nephroureterectomy
821
131. Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty
827
132. Robotic Radical Prostatectomy
832
Muhammad Choudhury
Open Technique of Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection  782; Follow-up  783
Mahesh R Desai
Various Energy Sources Used in Urinary Stone Management  785;
Indications and Technique of Management of the Urinary Stones  786; Postoperative Care  788;
Complications 788
Muhammad Choudhury
History  790; Preoperative Preparation  790;
Technique for Laparoscopic Cystoprostatectomy  790
MA Salam
History of Laparoscopy  794; Preoperative Patient Management  795;
Instrumentation for Developing the Extraperitoneal Space  796; Laparoscopic Hand Instruments  797;
Port Removal and its Closure  798
Shailesh Puntambekar
History of Laparoscopy  800; Physiology  801; Preoperative Preparation  802;
Laparoscopic Video Instrumentation and Cart  806; Postoperative Care  807; Complications  807;
Future of Laparoscopy  807
Muhammad Choudhury
Techniques of Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy  809; Hand-assisted Laparoscopic Surgery  811
Ganesh Gopalakrishnan
Definition  813; History  813; Approaches for Laparoscopic Nephrectomy  813;
Retroperitoneoscopic Laparoscopic Nephrectomy  815; Complications  815; Outcomes  816
Shailesh Puntambekar
Indications  817; Technique of Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy  817
SA Khan, MA Salam
History  821; Technique of Laparoscopic Nephroureterectomy  821; Management of the Distal Ureter  821
NP Gupta
Diagnosis 827; Indications 827; Complications 829
NP Gupta
Techniques of Radical Prostatectomy  833; Robotic Radical Prostatectomy  834;
Robotic Transperitoneal Approach   834;
Lymph Node Dissection and Development of the Extraperitoneal Space  835;
Advantages and Disadvantages of Robotics Versus Laparoscopy  836
133. Laparoscopic Orchidopexy
Jahangir Kabir, NI Bhuiyan
838
xxxii
Principles and Practice of Urology
Section 17: Reconstructive Urology
134. Urethral Strictures and Management
843
135. Reconstruction of Urinary Bladder (Cystoplasty)
861
136. Urinary Diversion
868
137. Urinary Fistula
883
Sanjay Kulkarni
History  843; Definition  843; Applied Anatomy of Male Urethra and Distal Sphincter Mechanism  843;
Female Urethra and Distal Sphincter Mechanism  845; Patch Urethroplasty of the Fossa Navicularis  849;
Urethroplasty  851; Onlay Graft Orientation  855; Oral Complications after Buccal Mucosal Harvesting  856;
Complications  858; Outcome and Prognosis  858;
Postoperative Erectile Dysfunction  859; Future of Urethral Stricture Management  860
MA Salam
Types of Cystoplasty  861; Indications of Cystoplasty  861; Contracted Bladder  861; Overactive Bladder  861;
Augmentation Cystoplasty  862; Substitution Cystoplasty  864; Postoperative Management  865;
Complications of Cystoplasty  866; Quality of Life  867
MA Salam
Definition  868; History of the Procedure  869; Indications  869; Classification of Urinary Diversion  869;
Work-up  870; Principles of Noncontinent Urinary Diversion  870;
Principles of Continent Urinary Diversion  873; Selection of Types of Urinary Diversion  875;
Preoperative Preparation and Care of Patients for Urinary Diversion/Orthotopic Bladder  877;
Postoperative Care of Urinary Diversion/Orthotopic Bladder  878;
Early Complications of Urinary Diversion/Orthotopic Bladder  879;
Late Complications of Urinary Diversion/Orthotopic Bladder  879;
Outcome and Prognosis of Urinary Diversion/Orthotopic Bladder  881;
Future of Urinary Diversion/Orthotopic Bladder  881
K Sasidharan
Vesicovaginal Fistula  883; Cystoscopy and Vaginoscopy  884; Principle of Operative Management  885;
Urethrovaginal Fistula  886; Ureterovaginal Fistula  887; Prostatic Fistula  888; Transrectal Repair  888;
Vesicoenteric Fistulas  889; Renal and Upper Urinary Tract Fistulas  890; Fistula of Urinary Diversion  890
Section 18: Transplant
138. Renal Physiology
895
139. Acute Kidney Injury
898
140. Chronic Kidney Disease
913
141. Immunosuppression in Renal Transplantation
920
142. Retroperitoneoscopic Donor Nephrectomy
924
Nurjahan Begum
Matiur Rahman
Definition 898; Epidemiology 898; Causes 899; Pathophysiology 901; Diagnosis 903; History 903;
Management of Acute Kidney Injury  907; Renal Replacement Therapy  909
Harun-ur-Rashid
Pathophysiology 913; Work-up  914; Management of Chronic Kidney Disease and End-stage Renal Disease  915;
Management of the Coexisting Disease or Abnormalities in Chronic Kidney Disease  918;
Mortality/Morbidity 918; Prevention 918; Complications 918; Prognosis 918
Muhammad Rafiqul Alam
History  920; Drugs Used for Immunosuppression  920; Biologic Agents  921;
Primary Immunosuppressive Agents  922; Infection and Malignancy Issues  923
Pranjal R Modi
Technique  924; Hand-assisted Retroperitoneoscopic Donor Nephrectomy  926; Complications  926
xxxiii
Contents
143. Renal Transplantation Surgery
928
144. Transperitoneal Donor Laparoscopic Nephrectomy
941
145. Medical Complications of Renal Transplants
944
MA Salam
History of Kidney Transplant  928; Concept of Histocompatibility  928; Identification of Suitable Donor  930;
Nephrectomy for Live Donor  931; Antegrade Pyelography  937; Surgical Complications  937;
Skin Cancers  939; Outcome of Renal Transplantation  939
Mahesh R Desai
History of Lap Donor Nephrectomy  941; Complications  943
Harun-ur-Rashid
Post-transplantation Morbidity and Mortality  944;
Important History in Transplantation Complications  945;
Renal Transplantation Complications  945; Chronic Allograft Injury  946;
Management Strategies for Common Presentations  947
Section 19:  Uro-oncology
146. Renal Tumors
951
147. Renal Cell Carcinoma
956
148. Urothelial Cancer
974
149. Upper Tract Transitional Cell Tumors
979
150. Bladder Cancer
989
151. Prostate Cancer
1019
Jagdeesh N Kulkarni
Benign Tumors  951; Other Rare Benign Renal Tumors  953
Muhammad Choudhury
Pathophysiology  956; Work-up of Renal Cell Carcinoma  957;
Work-up  958; Classification  959; Types of Renal Tumors  959;
Multikinase Inhibitors  967; Biologic Therapies  969;
Summary of Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma  970
MA Salam
Normal Urothelium  974; Risk Factors and Pathogenesis  974; Histopathology  975;
Treatment Options for Urothelial Cancer  977; Prognosis of Urethelial Cancer  978
MA Salam, Golam Mowla Chowdhury
Prelude 979; Epidemiology 979; Etiology 979; Pathophysiology 979; Diagnostic Procedures  983;
Staging 984; Treatment 985; Complications 987; Follow-up 987
MA Salam
External Beam Radiation Therapy  990; Pathology  990; Transitional Cell Carcinoma  991;
Work-up of Patient with Bladder Cancer  994; Imaging for Bladder Cancer  995;
Radical Cystoprostatectomy (Men)  1006; Anterior Pelvic Exenteration (Women)  1006;
Urinary Diversions  1008; Neobladder  1009; First-line Chemotherapy for �Fit’ Patients  1013;
Adenocarcinoma of the Bladder  1013
Christopher Cheng, MA Salam
History of Prostate Cancer  1019; Etiology of Prostate Cancer  1020;
Pathophysiology of Prostate Cancer  1022; Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia  1023;
Work-up and Histologic Findings  1026; Management of Prostate Cancer  1028; Radical Prostatectomy  1029;
Follow-up of Prostate Cancer Patients  1035; Castrate-resistant Prostate Cancer  1036
xxxiv
Principles and Practice of Urology
152. Testicular Cancer
1041
153. Penile Cancer
1058
MA Salam, Sajid Hasan
Epidemiology  1041; WHO Classification of Testicular Tumors  1043;
Etiological Factors In Testicular Tumor  1044; Investigations  1045; Ct/Mri/Pet 1046;
Staging of Testicular Tumor  1047; Treatment  1048; Chemotherapy Regimens   1052;
Follow-up of Testicular Cancer  1054; Complications  1055; Prognosis  1055
MA Salam, Mohammad Shafiqur Rahman
Applied Anatomy of Penis  1059; Problem  1059;
Emotional and Physical Burden of Penile Cancer and its Treatment  1059;
Epidemiology  1059; Etiology  1060; Pathology  1060; Penile Malignant Tumor  1060;
Presentation  1061; Work-up  1061; Histological Diagnosis and Staging  1062;
Treatment  1063; Complications  1067; Prevention of Penile Cancer  1067
Section 20: Reproductive Urology
154. The Testis and Epididymis
1073
155. Peyronie’s Disease
1076
156. Male Infertility
1081
157. Assisted Reproduction Technology
1100
158. Erectile Dysfunction
1105
159. Penile Prosthesis Implantation
1120
160. Ejaculatory Disorders
1126
Laila Anjuman Banu
Macroscopic Anatomy  1073; Histology  1073; The Vas Deferens and Seminal Vesicle  1074
MA Salam, Kazi Rafiqul Abedin
Pathophysiology  1076; Causes of Peyronie’s Disease  1077; Work-up  1077; Treatment  1077;
Prognosis and Complications  1079
Rajeev Kumar
Work-up  1083; Respiratory Disease  1085; Physical Examination for Male Infertility  1085;
Causes of Male Infertility  1086; Other Tests  1092; Treatment  1094
Rupin Shah
Cause of Infertility  1100; Diagnostic Tests  1100; Treatment  1102; Assisted Reproductive Techniques  1103
Rupin Shah
Prevalence  1105; Risk Factors for Erectile Dysfunction  1105;
Physiology of Erection  1107; Etiology of Erectile Dysfunction  1108; Work-up of Erectile Dysfunction  1108;
Causes of Erectile Dysfunction  1109; Sexual Function Score  1110;
Evaluation of Erectile Dysfunction  1110; Management of Erectile Dysfunction  1112
Rupin Shah
History of the Procedure  1120; Selection of Prosthesis  1122
Rupin Shah
Mechanism of Ejaculation  1126; Classification and Etiology  1126
Index
1131
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