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CHAPTER 6 - LEARNING - EXAM

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CHAPTER 6 - LEARNING - EXAM
Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
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1. Which of the following is not included in the definition of learning?
a. learning involves a change in behavior or knowledge
b. learning is due to experience
c. learning is an automatic process
d. learning is relatively durable
2. Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which
a. an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called
models
b. a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another
stimulus
c. voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences
d. an event following a response increases an organism's tendency to make that response
3. In classical conditioning, a UCS is
a. an unlearned reaction to a stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning
b. a learned reaction to a stimulus that occurs as a result of previous conditioning
c. a stimulus that evokes a response without previous conditioning
d. a previously neutral stimulus that has acquired the capacity to evoke a learned response
4. In Pavlov's principle experiment, the unconditioned stimulus was the
a. salivation
b. light
c. tone
d. meat powder
5. A previously neutral stimulus, that through conditioning acquires the capacity to evoke a response, is
a. a conditioned stimulus
b. an unconditioned stimulus
c. an unconditioned response
d. a conditioned response
6. Assuming you have eaten sour pickles before, imagine eating a large, juicy sour pickle. If just thinking about
the pickles causes your mouth to water, your salivation would be
a. a conditioned stimulus
b. a conditioned response
c. an unconditioned stimulus
d. an unconditioned response
7. Becky has an intense fear of dogs. Her fear dates back to when as a young child she was attacked and bitten
by a stray dog. Her dog phobia developed as a result of
a. operant conditioning
b. classical conditioning
c. observational learning
d. negative reinforcement
8. Every Sunday morning when Benjamin was a young child, his family would have a special breakfast
complete with freshly baked cinnamon rolls. To this day he finds himself smiling whenever he smells
cinnamon rolls baking. The smell of the cinnamon rolls is ____ for his positive feelings.
a. a conditioned stimulus
b. an unconditioned stimulus
____
9.
____ 10.
____ 11.
____ 12.
____ 13.
____ 14.
____ 15.
____ 16.
c. a discriminative stimulus
d. a cue
Extinction of a conditioned response in classical conditioning occurs when the
a. CS is occasionally presented without the UCS
b. CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS
c. UCS is repeatedly presented without the UCR
d. UCS is occasionally presented without the UCR
Spontaneous recovery describes
a. the initial stages of learning a conditioned response
b. the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response
c. the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the
conditioned stimulus
d. a situation in which a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned
stimulus
If a dog that has been classically conditioned to salivate when shown a square also salivates when shown a
rectangle, the dog's behavior illustrates
a. stimulus discrimination
b. response discrimination
c. stimulus generalization
d. response generalization
In Watson's famous "Little Albert" experiment, Albert was classically conditioned to
a. press a button to receive a cookie
b. show a positive response to a white rat
c. show a fear response to a loud noise
d. show a fear response to a white rat
Watson's famous "Little Albert" experiment demonstrated both classical conditioning and
a. stimulus generalization
b. extinction
c. stimulus discrimination
d. spontaneous recovery
Pavlov conditioned a dog to salivate to the sound of a tone. He then paired a light with the tone until the dog
salivated to the light alone. This is an example of
a. stimulus generalization
b. stimulus discrimination
c. spontaneous recovery
d. higher-order conditioning
While ____ is most closely associated with classical conditioning, ____ is most closely associated with
operant conditioning.
a. Skinner; Pavlov
b. Pavlov; Skinner
c. Pavlov; Bandura
d. Bandura; Skinner
Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which
a. an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called
models
b. a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another
stimulus
c. voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences
d. an organism's tendency to give a response reappears after a period of time
____ 17. The law of effect was developed by
a. Bandura
b. Pavlov
c. Thorndike
d. Skinner
____ 18. While out trick-or-treating for Halloween, at first Billy's neighbors had to remind him to say "trick or treat"
before they dropped their treats into his bag. As he continued to visit houses in the neighborhood, soon Billy
would say "trick or treat" as soon as the neighbors answered the door. The treats he received were the ____
for his saying "trick or treat".
a. conditioned stimulus
b. reinforcement
c. reward
d. discriminative stimulus
____ 19. Operant responses are typically established through a gradual process in which closer and closer
approximations of the desired response are reinforced. This process is called
a. modeling
b. shaping
c. discrimination
d. learning
____ 20. Extinction of an operantly conditioned response occurs when the response
a. is followed by continuous reinforcement
b. is followed by intermittent reinforcement
c. is no longer associated with the CS
d. is no longer followed by reinforcement
____ 21. An operantly conditioned response that is very durable and relatively hard to extinguish is said to show
a. high resistance to extinction
b. low resistance to extinction
c. high association with reinforcement
d. low association with reinforcement
____ 22. Reinforcers that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs are called
a. classical reinforcers
b. operant reinforcers
c. primary reinforcers
d. secondary reinforcers
____ 23. Secondary reinforcers
a. satisfy biological needs
b. acquire reinforcing qualities through association with primary reinforcers
c. are reinforced on intermittent schedules of reinforcement
d. are less important than primary reinforcers
____ 24. A schedule of reinforcement is
a. the reinforcement of closer and closer approximation of a desired response
b. a specific pattern of presentation of reinforcers over time
c. a pattern of resistance to extinction
d. a description of whether positive or negative reinforcement is in use
____ 25. When a researcher only reinforces a designated response some of the time, it is referred to as
a. primary reinforcement
b. secondary reinforcement
c. continuous reinforcement
d. intermittent reinforcement
____ 26. If an employee of a company that conducts telephone surveys receives $1.00 for every three completed
surveys he conducts, he is being paid on a ____ schedule.
a. fixed ratio
b. fixed interval
c. variable ratio
d. variable interval
____ 27. When describing schedules of reinforcement, the key factor in interval schedules is
a. elapsed time
b. number of responses given
c. number of reinforcements given
d. length of the training period
____ 28. A reinforcement is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed in a ____ schedule.
a. FR
b. FI
c. VR
d. VI
____ 29. When a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus, it is
called
a. punishment
b. negative reinforcement
c. positive reinforcement
d. primary reinforcement
____ 30. When a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus it is called
a. punishment
b. positive reinforcement
c. negative reinforcement
d. secondary reinforcement
____ 31. Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?
a. grounding a teenager for missing curfew
b. making a child sit in the corner until they say "I'm sorry"
c. giving a student extra credit for class participation
d. allowing a student to take a make-up exam
____ 32. Car manufacturers try to encourage drivers to buckle their seat belts through the use of reinforcement. As you
know, if you start your car without buckling-up you will hear a somewhat annoying sound. If you learn to
buckle-up after hearing the sound, you show ____. If you acquire the response of buckling-up before you turn
on the ignition, you show ____.
a. avoidance learning; escape learning
b. escape learning; avoidance learning
c. punishment; escape learning
d. punishment; avoidance learning
____ 33. As a teenager it seemed that your mom was always nagging you to clean your room. Eventually you learned
that if you cleaned your room every Saturday morning you would not have to listen to her nagging. Your
mother was successful in getting you to clean your room through the use of ____ to establish ____.
a. negative reinforcement; avoidance learning
b. negative reinforcement; escape learning
c. punishment; avoidance learning
d. punishment; escape learning
____ 34. When an event following a response weakens an organism's tendency to make that response it is termed
a. punishment
____ 35.
____ 36.
____ 37.
____ 38.
____ 39.
____ 40.
____ 41.
____ 42.
b. extinction
c. negative reinforcement
d. positive reinforcement
Albert Bandura’s Bobo doll experiments demonstrated that
a. Children are more likely to copy what
c. Children are likely to imitate the behavior
adults say than what they do
of adults
b. The may be a correlation between
d. Observational learning can explain the
televised violence and aggressive
development of fears in children
bahvior, but it is probably not a
cause-effect relationship
You have familiarized yourself with the streets of your town with out any reinforcement; then one day you are
asked to go to the post office. You are able to do so with ease by following a route that you have never taken.
This is an example of
a. insight learning
b. latent learning
c. classical conditioning
d. operant conditioning
The studies of Garcia and his colleagues demonstrate that rats very easily learn to associate a taste CS with
a. a shock UCS
b. a visual UCS
c. an auditory UCS
d. a nausea-inducing UCS
The raccoons used by the Brelands could learn to deposit single coins into a slot for food but they could not
learn to deposit two coins into the slot. This behavior of the raccoons suggests that
a. it is impossible to operantly condition raccoons
b. it is impossible to classically condition raccoons
c. instinctive patterns of behavior, at times, interfere with the ability to control behavior
through conditioning
d. some behaviors are easily learned by animals
At preschool, Jessi has learned that she must wash her hands before snack-time in order to get a snack. At
home, she has started to wash her hands before eating. Jessi's behavior illustrates the process of
a. stimulus discrimination
b. stimulus generalization
c. response generalization
d. response discrimination
Which of the following is not an example of punishment?
a. laughing at a classmate when he asks a "dumb question" in class
b. nagging a child until she pick up her toys
c. taking away a child's TV privileges for one week for a bad report card
d. making a child sit in the corner for 10 minutes for back-talk
Conditioned taste aversions represent an unusual or atypical example of
a. observational learning
b. punishment
c. operant conditioning
d. classical conditioning
Latent learning is a type of learning that
a. occurs without any experience
b. occurs when an event following a response increases an organism’s tendency to make that
response
____ 43.
____ 44.
____ 45.
____ 46.
____ 47.
____ 48.
____ 49.
____ 50.
c. is not apparent from the organism’s behavior when the learning first occurs
d. occurs when an organism’s responding is influenced by the observation of others
Which of the following is the best example of the overjustification effect?
a. Bill dislikes doing homework even more c. Phoebe loses her former interest in playing
after his father eliminates his allowance
the violin after her mother promises to pay
because he received an 'F' in geometry
her 50 cents for each hour of
practice.Then stops paying her.
b. Zeke loses interest in playing baseball
d. Phyllis enjoys babysitting more after her
after the coach suspended him for a
hourly wage tripled.
throwing error
Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by
a. studying observable behavior
b. analyzing conscious experience into its basic elements
c. focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior
d. studying the function or purpose of consciousness
The fact that behaviors can be observed and thoughts and feelings cannot is the basis of
a. psychoanalysis
b. functionalism
c. structuralism
d. behaviorism
As a young psychologist, your major goal is to help people reach their potential. Most likely you follow the
principles of
a. behaviorism
b. structuralism
c. psychoanalysis
d. humanism
The cognitive perspective contends that to fully understand human behavior, psychologists need to focus
attention on
a. the role of the unconscious
b. internal mental events
c. the interrelations among the mind, body and behavior
d. the adaptive value of a behavior
As the result of a breakdown in communication, morale is low among employees in a local factory. A(n) ____
would be most likely to be helpful in restoring communication and improving morale.
a. social psychologist
b. educational psychologist
c. industrial/organizational psychologist
d. clinical psychologist
The experimental method is a research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under
carefully controlled conditions and then
a. observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result
b. correlates the resulting behavior
c. observes behavior in its natural environment
d. surveys participants to learn their assessment of the variable
In experimental research, the researcher manipulates the ____ variable in order to measures its effect on the
____ variable.
a. dependent; independent
b. dependent; extraneous
c. independent; dependent
____ 51.
____ 52.
____ 53.
____ 54.
____ 55.
____ 56.
____ 57.
____ 58.
____ 59.
d. independent; extraneous
A researcher tries to make sure that subjects in the experimental and control groups are very similar to each
other in order to reduce the effects of
a. extraneous variables
b. random variables
c. dependent variables
d. independent variables
If there is a relationship between amount of coffee consumed daily and number of hours slept, such that
people who drink a lot of coffee tend to sleep very little (and people who drink little coffee tend to sleep a
lot), coffee consumption and hours slept would show a(n)
a. increasing correlation
b. decreasing correlation
c. positive correlation
d. negative correlation
The main function of the axon is to
a. support and insulate the neuron
b. release neurotransmitters
c. transmit information
d. receive information
The insulation that covers some axons and increases the speed of transmission of the neural impulse is the
a. neurotransmitter sheath
b. myelin sheath
c. glia wrap
d. terminal cover
Which procedure results in a high-quality three-dimensional picture of the brain?
a. MRI scan
b. ESB scan
c. PET scan
d. TMS scan
A massive stroke that damages which of the following brain structures is most likely to be fatal since the
structure regulates breathing and circulation?
a. medulla
b. reticular formation
c. cerebellum
d. pons
When an object is placed unseen in the left hand of a person who has had split-brain surgery, the person will
a. not be able to describe it
b. be able to describe it
c. drop it
d. be able to identify the object with his right hand
If your roommate slowly and carefully turns up the volume on the stereo until you can determine “now it’s
louder than it was before,” it would be most accurate to say the volume increased by a
a. perceivable difference
b. just noticeable difference
c. fractional difference
d. proportional difference
The structure of the eye that focuses light rays on the retina is the
a. pupil
b. cornea
____ 60.
____ 61.
____ 62.
____ 63.
____ 64.
____ 65.
____ 66.
____ 67.
c. optic disk
d. lens
The correct order that auditory information travels as sounds enter the ear is from the auditory canal to
a. cochlea - oval window - ossicles - eardrum
b. cochlea - ossicles - oval window - eardrum
c. eardrum - ossicles - oval window - cochlea
d. eardrum - oval window - ossicles - cochlea
Place theory suggests that receptor cells
a. along the entire basilar membrane vary their rate of responding to correspond to the
frequency of a sound
b. at different locations on the basilar membrane respond to sounds of different frequencies
c. along the entire basilar membrane vary their rate of responding to correspond to the
loudness of a sound
d. at different locations on the basilar membrane respond to sounds of different loudness
Martin wakes up hundreds of times each night gasping for air. He suffers from
a. sleep apnea
b. respiratory deficiency
c. insomnia
d. narcolepsy
Nightmares usually occur during ____ sleep and night terrors usually occur during ____ sleep.
a. NREM; REM
b. REM; NREM
c. REM; REM
d. NREM; NREM
Which theory of dreaming suggests that the cortex constructs dreams in order to make sense out of neural
impulses from subcortical areas of the brain?
a. construction
b. activation-synthesis
c. conservation of energy
d. problem solving
Hallucinogens are drugs that
a. are derived from opium and are capable of relieving pain
b. are derived from the hemp plant
c. cause distortions in sensory and perceptual experience
d. tend to increase central nervous system activation and behavioral activity
A progressive decrease in a person's responsiveness to a drug as a result of continued use is called
a. physical dependence
b. psychological dependence
c. resistance
d. tolerance
Laura commands her new puppy to "Shake!" lifts his paw, and then reinforces him. After several repetitions,
she merely touches the dogs paw and says "Shake!" and then reinforces the dog. Later on, she merely extends
her hand near the dog's paw and says "Shake!" The dog now raises his paw to shake. In training her dog Laura
has used the technique called
a. shaping
b. stimulus generalization
c. extinction
d. stimulus discrimination
____ 68. When you approach a traffic light and see a red light, you stop. On the other hand, when you approach that
same light and see a green light, you continue driving. This examples illustrates
a. stimulus generalization
b. extinction
c. stimulus discrimination
d. spontaneous recovery
____ 69. Estavan received a questionnaire in the mail asking about his general buying habits. He was asked to identify
the specific products that he typically buys, and the amount of each product that he typically uses. If Estavan
completes the questionnaire and returns it, he will have taken part in research that incorporates
a. the survey method
b. naturalistic observation
c. a case study approach
d. archival research
____ 70. Reabsorption of neurotransmitters into the presynaptic neuron is referred to as
a. cyclomyosis
b. regrading
c. uploading
d. reuptake
CHAPTER 6 - LEARNING - EXAM
Answer Section
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