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Chapter 9

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Chapter 9
Section 1 Drugs
Preview
• Bellringer
• Key Ideas
• What Are Drugs?
• Types of Medicines
Chapter 9
Section 1 Drugs
Bellringer
• Name four medicines that you have heard of. What is
each of these medicines used for?
Chapter 9
Section 1 Drugs
Key Ideas
• List three qualities that make a drug useful as a
medicine.
• Name the two sources of all drugs.
• Identify four different types of medicines and their
effects on the body.
• Identify five different ways that drugs can enter the
body.
• Describe why some drugs are considered drugs of
abuse.
Chapter 9
Section 1 Drugs
What Are Drugs?
• A drug is any substance that causes a change in a
person’s physical or psychological state.
• Medicines are drugs used to cure, prevent, or treat
illness or discomfort.
• Good medicines have the following qualities:
• Effectiveness
• Safety
• Minor side effects
Chapter 9
Section 1 Drugs
What Are Drugs?
• Drugs of abuse are drugs that people take for mindaltering effects that have no medical purpose.
• Drugs of abuse can change the way your brain works
in ways that are unhealthy and dangerous.
• Drugs that affect your brain can change your
behavior over time and lead to addiction and longterm health problems.
Chapter 9
Section 1 Drugs
What Are Drugs?
• All drugs are chemicals that come from one of two
sources:
• Naturals sources, such as plants, animals, or
fungi
• Laboratories
Chapter 9
Section 1 Drugs
Types of Medicines
• A prescription is a written order from a doctor for a
specific medicine.
• Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines can be bought
without a prescription.
Chapter 9
Section 1 Drugs
Chapter 9
Section 1 Drugs
Chapter 9
Section 1 Drugs
Types of Medicines
• Drugs can be taken into
the body in the following
ways:
• Implanted pumps
• Inhalation
• Injection
• Transdermal patches
• Ingestion
• Topical application
Chapter 9
Section 2 Drugs as Medicines
Preview
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Bellringer
Key Ideas
Approving Drugs for Medical Use
Prescription Medicines
Over-the-Counter (OTC) Medicines
How to Read an OTC Label
Possible Problems with Medicines
Using Medicines Wisely
Chapter 9
Section 2 Drugs as Medicines
Bellringer
• What are some reasons you think prescription and
OTC medications have instructions and precautions
written on their packaging?
Chapter 9
Section 2 Drugs as Medicines
Key Ideas
• Describe the process by which drugs are approved
for medical use.
• State two reasons why prescriptions are required for
some medicines.
• State two factors to consider when choosing overthe-counter (OTC) medicines.
• Describe three problems that can occur when taking
some medicines.
• List six things you should do to be able to use
medicines wisely.
Chapter 9
Section 2 Drugs as Medicines
Approving Drugs for Medical Use
• The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was
created in 1906 to control the safety of food, drugs,
and cosmetics in the United States.
• The FDA uses an approval process for proving a
drug is safe and effective. Some steps include:
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Chemical or cell-culture testing in laboratories
Testing on animals
Testing on human volunteers
Clinical trials to compare to existing drugs
Chapter 9
Section 2 Drugs as Medicines
Prescription Medicines
• Prescription medications should only be taken with a
doctor’s recommendation and supervision.
• Taking someone else’s medication or failing to follow
the prescription can be dangerous.
Chapter 9
Section 2 Drugs as Medicines
Prescription Medicines
• Prescriptions include the following information:
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Dosage (how much you should take)
When you should take the medicine
How often you should take the medicine
The length of time you should take the
medicine
Chapter 9
Section 2 Drugs as Medicines
Over-the-Counter (OTC) Medicines
• Most OTC medicines are used for common illnesses,
injuries, and disorders.
• When choosing an OTC:
• Decide what kind of OTC will work for you.
• Decide whether you want a generic or brandname medicine. They often have the same active
ingredients but different inactive ingredients.
• Read the labels.
Chapter 9
Section 2 Drugs as Medicines
How to Read an OTC Label
Chapter 9
Section 2 Drugs as Medicines
Over-the-Counter (OTC) Medicines
• Long-term use of OTC medicines can cover up more
serious problems.
• If symptoms persist, consult a doctor.
• Herbal remedies and dietary supplements are not
regulated by the FDA the same way that drugs are.
• Because they may have not been thoroughly tested,
herbal remedies and dietary supplements may not be
safe or effective.
Chapter 9
Section 2 Drugs as Medicines
Possible Problems with Medicines
• Allergic reactions are the most serious risks to
taking medicines.
• Symptoms of anaphylactic shock include:
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Itching all over the body
Swelling, especially in the mouth or throat
Wheezing or difficulty breathing
A pounding heart
Fainting and unconsciousness
Chapter 9
Section 2 Drugs as Medicines
Possible Problems with Medicines
• Side effects are more common problems than
medicine allergies.
• Drug interactions occur when a drug reacts with
another drug, food, or dietary supplement to increase
or decrease the effect of one of the substances.
• Labels on OTC packages or drug information sheets
describe possible drug interactions and may also list
potential side effects.
Chapter 9
Section 2 Drugs as Medicines
Using Medicines Wisely
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Make yourself part of your own healthcare team.
Be prepared to ask questions.
Learn the facts about any medicine you take.
Listen to your body.
It’s not always safe to suddenly stop taking a drug.
Speak up and enlist your parents’ help.
Chapter 9
Section 2 Drugs as Medicines
Using Medicines Wisely
Chapter 9
Section 3 Drugs and the Brain
Preview
• Bellringer
• Key Ideas
• How Drugs That Affect the Brain Work
• The Path to Addiction
• Addiction is a Treatable Disease
Chapter 9
Section 3 Drugs and the Brain
Bellringer
• Write a response to the following statement: “If I want
to use drugs, it’s my choice and it doesn’t affect
anybody else beside me.”
Chapter 9
Section 3 Drugs and the Brain
Key Ideas
• Describe how drugs that affect the brain work.
• State how drugs can affect a person’s emotions.
• Describe how addiction can develop from
experimentation.
• Summarize the role of withdrawal in maintaining a
drug addiction.
• Describe why addiction is considered a treatable
and avoidable disease.
Chapter 9
Section 3 Drugs and the Brain
How Drugs That Affect the Brain Work
• Information processing in the brain takes place at the
connections between neurons, called synapses.
• Signals are passed across synapses by chemicals
called neurotransmitters.
Chapter 9
Section 3 Drugs and the Brain
How Drugs That Affect the Brain Work
• Some drugs affect the way neurons communicate by
acting like neurotransmitters, blocking
neurotransmitters, or changing the amount of
neurotransmitters.
• These changes can affect our moods and emotions.
Chapter 9
Section 3 Drugs and the Brain
Neural Changes Caused by Drug Use
Click below to watch the Visual Concept.
Visual Concept
Chapter 9
Section 3 Drugs and the Brain
The Path to Addiction
• Addiction is a condition in which a person can no
longer control his or her drug use.
• Most drugs of abuse activate the brain reward
system, which releases chemicals that give pleasure.
• Pleasure alone does not cause addiction.
• People who become addicts usually start by
experimenting, then more regular use leads to a
series of changes on the path to addiction.
Chapter 9
Section 3 Drugs and the Brain
The Path to Addiction
Chapter 9
Section 3 Drugs and the Brain
Addiction is a Treatable Disease
• The symptoms that occur when a drug user stops
using a drug are collectively called withdrawal.
• Stopping drug use can be very difficult because the
withdrawal symptoms are often very unpleasant.
Chapter 9
Section 3 Drugs and the Brain
Addiction is a Treatable Disease
• Drug addiction is a brain disorder, and it is treatable.
• Most communities offer a variety of treatment
programs for addiction.
• The best way to avoid addiction is to avoid drugs of
abuse altogether.
Chapter 9
Brain Food Video Quiz
Click below to watch the Brain Food Video Quiz that
accompanies this chapter.
Brain Food Video Quiz
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