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06_Clicker_Questions (1) - Holy Trinity Diocesan High School

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CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS
Urry • Cain • Wasserman • Minorsky • Jackson • Reece
6
An Introduction
to Metabolism
Questions prepared by
Brad Stith, University of Colorado Denver
Jung Choi, Georgia Institute of Technology
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
How do living organisms create macromolecules,
organelles, cells, tissues, and complex higher-order
structures?
A. The laws of thermodynamics do not apply to
living organisms.
B. Living organisms create order by using energy
from the sun.
C. Living organisms create order locally, but the
energy transformations generate waste heat
that increases the entropy of the universe.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
How do living organisms create macromolecules,
organelles, cells, tissues, and complex higher-order
structures?
A. The laws of thermodynamics do not apply to
living organisms.
B. Living organisms create order by using energy
from the sun.
C. Living organisms create order locally, but the
energy transformations generate waste heat
that increases the entropy of the universe.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Entropy can drive a chemical reaction; for example,
A. A  B  C
B. B  C  A  D
C. A  B  C  D
D. A  B  C  D  E  F
E. A  B
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Entropy can drive a chemical reaction; for example,
A. A  B  C
B. B  C  A  D
C. A  B  C  D
D. A  B  C  D  E  F
E. A  B
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Are most chemical reactions at equilibrium in living
cells?
A. yes
B. no
C. only the exergonic reactions
D. all reactions except those powered by ATP
hydrolysis
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Are most chemical reactions at equilibrium in living
cells?
A. yes
B. no
C. only the exergonic reactions
D. all reactions except those powered by ATP
hydrolysis
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
A reaction has a G of 5.6 kcal/mol. Which of the
following would most likely be true?
A. The reaction could be coupled to power an
endergonic reaction with a G of 8.8 kcal/mol.
B. The reaction is nonspontaneous.
C. To take place, the reaction would need to couple
to ATP hydrolysis.
D. The reaction would result in products with a greater
free-energy content than in the initial reactants.
E. The reaction would proceed by itself but might
be very slow.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
A reaction has a G of 5.6 kcal/mol. Which of the
following would most likely be true?
A. The reaction could be coupled to power an
endergonic reaction with a G of 8.8 kcal/mol.
B. The reaction is nonspontaneous.
C. To take place, the reaction would need to couple
to ATP hydrolysis.
D. The reaction would result in products with a greater
free-energy content than in the initial reactants.
E. The reaction would proceed by itself but might
be very slow.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
True or false: The breakdown of food molecules in
the gut does not require coupling of ATP hydrolysis,
but enzymes are required to speed up the
spontaneous reaction.
A. true
B. false, because enzymes change the G to a
negative value
C. false, because enzymes are not required, as
breakdown is spontaneous and spontaneous
reactions always occur very rapidly
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
True or false: The breakdown of food molecules in
the gut does not require coupling of ATP hydrolysis,
but enzymes are required to speed up the
spontaneous reaction.
A. true
B. false, because enzymes change the G to a
negative value
C. false, because enzymes are not required, as
breakdown is spontaneous and spontaneous
reactions always occur very rapidly
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
The oxidation of glucose to CO2 and H2O is highly
exergonic: G  636 kcal/mole. This is spontaneous,
but why is it very slow?
A. Few glucose molecules have the activation
energy at room temperature.
B. There is too much CO2 in the air.
C. CO2 has higher energy than glucose.
D. The formation of six CO2 molecules from one
glucose molecule decreases entropy.
E. The water molecules quench the reaction.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
The oxidation of glucose to CO2 and H2O is highly
exergonic: G  636 kcal/mole. This is spontaneous,
but why is it very slow?
A. Few glucose molecules have the activation
energy at room temperature.
B. There is too much CO2 in the air.
C. CO2 has higher energy than glucose.
D. The formation of six CO2 molecules from one
glucose molecule decreases entropy.
E. The water molecules quench the reaction.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Firefly luciferase catalyzes the following reaction:
luciferin  ATP  adenyl-luciferin  pyrophosphate
Then the next reaction occurs spontaneously:
adenyl-luciferin  O2  oxyluciferin  H2O  CO2  AMP  light
What is the role of luciferase?
A. Luciferase makes the G of the reaction more negative.
B. Luciferase lowers the energy of the transition state
of the reaction.
C. Luciferase alters the equilibrium point of the reaction.
D. Luciferase makes the reaction irreversible.
E. all of the above
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Firefly luciferase catalyzes the following reaction:
luciferin  ATP  adenyl-luciferin  pyrophosphate
Then the next reaction occurs spontaneously:
adenyl-luciferin  O2  oxyluciferin  H2O  CO2  AMP  light
What is the role of luciferase?
A. Luciferase makes the G of the reaction more negative.
B. Luciferase lowers the energy of the transition state
of the reaction.
C. Luciferase alters the equilibrium point of the reaction.
D. Luciferase makes the reaction irreversible.
E. all of the above
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
In the energy diagram below, which of the energy
changes would be the same in both the enzymecatalyzed and uncatalyzed reactions?
A. a
B. b
C. c
D. d
E. e
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
In the energy diagram below, which of the energy
changes would be the same in both the enzymecatalyzed and uncatalyzed reactions?
A. a
B. b
C. c
D. d
E. e
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
If this is an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, how can the rate of
this reaction be increased beyond the maximum velocity in
this figure?
A. Increase the substrate
concentrations.
B. Increase the amount
of enzyme.
C. Increase the amount
of energy.
D. any of the above
E. There is no way to
increase the rate
of the reaction any further.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
If this is an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, how can the rate of
this reaction be increased beyond the maximum velocity in
this figure?
A. Increase the substrate
concentrations.
B. Increase the amount
of enzyme.
C. Increase the amount
of energy.
D. any of the above
E. There is no way to
increase the rate
of the reaction any further.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Vioxx and other prescription nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are potent inhibitors
of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme. High
substrate concentrations reduce the efficacy of
inhibition by these drugs. These drugs are
A. competitive inhibitors.
B. noncompetitive inhibitors.
C. allosteric regulators.
D. prosthetic groups.
E. feedback inhibitors.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Vioxx and other prescription nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are potent inhibitors
of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme. High
substrate concentrations reduce the efficacy of
inhibition by these drugs. These drugs are
A. competitive inhibitors.
B. noncompetitive inhibitors.
C. allosteric regulators.
D. prosthetic groups.
E. feedback inhibitors.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
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