ARTICLE ORIGINAL Prevalence of Anoplocephalidae species in sheep and cattle slaughtered in Kirikkale, Turkey* ° M. AYDENIZOZ and ° K. YILDIZ ° Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Kirikkale University, Kirikkale, Turkey * This project was supported by Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (Project no: VHAG-1574) Address for correspondence : Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Kirikkale University, 71450, Kirikkale, Turkey [email protected] SUMMARY RÉSUMÉ This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Anoplocephalidae infections in sheep and cattle slaughtered in Kirikkale . In this study, small intestines of 3133 sheep and 870 cattle were examined. Infection was determined in 4.43 % and 0.34 % of sheep and cattle examined, respectively. The species of Anoplocephalidae found were Moniezia expansa (3.98%), Avitellina centripunctata (0.86%) and Thysaniezia ovilla (0.15%) in sheep and M. benedeni (0.22%) and M. expansa (0.11%) in cattle. The species determined were M. expansa 89.92 %, A. centripunctata 19.42 %, T. ovilla 3.59 % in infected sheep and M. benedeni 66.66%, M. expansa 33.33% in infected cattle. The mixed infections observed were 87.76 % (with one species), 11.51 % (with two species) and 0.71 % (with three species) in sheep, and cattle infected only with one species was 100 %. The number of scolex observed was 1-33 and 1-3 in infected sheep and cattle, respectively. The number of mean scolex was 4.72 and 2.33 in sheep and cattle, respectively. The infection observed was the highest in July (9.89%) and the lowest in September (1.32 %) in sheep. However, in cattle the highest and lowest infection observed was in October (1.51 %) and September (1.11 %), respectively. Infection rate observed was higher in sheep (4.43 %) than that of cattle (0.34 %). This observation was also statistically significant (p < 0.01). Prévalence des Anoplocephalidae chez des moutons et des bovins abattus dans Kirikkale, Turquie. Par M. AYDENIZOZ et K. YILDIZ KEY-WORDS : sheep - cattle - anoplocephalidae - prevalence - Kirikkale - Turkey. MOTS-CLÉS : mouton - bovin - anoplocephalidae - prévalence - Kirikkale - Turquie. Introduction There are 25 Anoplocephalidae species known in domestic animals. However, 20 of these are determined in domestic ruminants. It is reported that some of these species were synonyms. Moniezia expansa, M. benedeni, Avitellina centripunctata, A. chalmersi, A. goughi, Stilesia globipunctata, S. hepatica, S. vittata, Thysaniezia ovilla (T. giardi) and Thysanosoma actinioides are common species . Although animal breeding is important for Turkish economy, the benefit supplied by per animal is low. Parasitic infections represent an important cause of economic loss for animal producers. Helminth infections often go unnoticed because in most infections there are no clinical signs [2, 23, 25, 26]. Although, the light infections have not caused to clinical symptoms in the older animals, depressed tract systems, diarrhoea, depression in growth, anemia, edema and wool decreased are recorded symptoms in the younger animals [2, 3, 13, 21, 25]. Revue Méd. Vét., 2003, 154, 12, 767-771 Cette étude a été entreprise afin de déterminer la prévalence des infections d’Anoplocephalidae chez les moutons et les bovins abattus dans la région de Kirikkale. Dans cette étude, les petits intestins de 3133 moutons et de 870 bovins ont été examinés. L’infection a été observée chez respectivement 4.43 % et 0.34 % des moutons et des bovins examinés. Les espèces d’Anoplocephalidae trouvées chez les moutons étaient Moniezia expansa (3.98 %), Avitellina centripunctata (0.86 %) et Thysaniezia ovilla (0.15 %) et chez les bovins M. benedeni (0.22 %), M. expansa (0.11 %). Les fréquences relatives de ces espèces chez les animaux infectés étaient les suivantes M. expansa (89.92 %), A. centripunctata (19.42 %), T. ovilla (3.59 %) pour les moutons et M. benedeni (66.66 %), M. expansa (33.33 %) pour les bovins. Les infections étaient principalement monospécifiques (87.76 % chez les moutons, et 100 % chez les bovins). Le nombre de scolex trouvé chez les moutons infectés étaient 1-33 et de 1-3 chez les bovins infectés. Le nombre moyen de scolex étant de 4.72 pour les moutons et de 2.33 pour les bovins. Chez les moutons, l’infection a été observée plus fréquemment en juillet (9.89 %) et le plus rarement en septembre (1.32 %). Pour les bovins, les varaition saisonnières sont beaucoup moins marquées avec un taux d’infection le plus élevée en octobre (1.51 %) et le plus bas en septembre (1.11 %). Le taux d’infection observé est significativement plus important chez les moutons (4.43 %) que chez les bovins (0.34 %) (p < 0.01). There are many investigations about the prevalence of Anoplocephalidae species carried out on the faecal examinations [8,17,19,22] and necropsy [12,16,20] in the sheep and cattle in worldwide. 768 AYDENIZOZ (M.) AND YILDIZ (K.) Anoplocephalidae infections determined in different regions of Turkey were reported as 6.3-78.9% [3,9,11,24,26,31,32] and 0.36-5.95% [1,5,7,24-26] in sheep and in cattle, respectively. The species caused infections were M. expansa, M. benedeni, A. centripunctata, S. globipunctata and T. giardi [5, 7, 11, 18, 24-26]. In addition to these reports, T. actinioides was only reported in sheep in Turkey . The parasite number in animals infected by Anoplocephalidae species, and the number of species caused an infection are changed from region to region between animal species. The number of parasites and mean scolex in infected sheep were 1-29 and 2.98 -5.19, respectively [3, 9, 25, 26]. The number of parasites in cattle was between 1 and 7 (mean scolex numbers 1.22-2.16) [25, 26]. It has not been determined Anoplocephalidae species and their prevalences in sheep and cattle in Kirikkale province. Therefore, present study was performed. Material and Method This study was carried out between 2000-2001 in 3133 sheep and 870 cattle slaughtered in Kirikkale Abattoir. All sheep examined were Akkaraman breed. The breeds of cattle examined were Yerlikara (n = 608), Holstein (n = 244), Simental (n = 9), Dairy cow (n = 9). All sheep and cattle examined were older than one year and originated from Kirikkale region. The slaughterhouse was visited regularly for every week and small intestines of sheep and cattle were examined for tapeworms. Intestines of sheep and cattle examined were washed and the content were filtered through a wire filter. Parasites were collected and transported to the Parasitology Laboratory. The parasites collected from the each animals were washed in mild water to loose of them. Scolex numbers were used as a basic paramater for parasite numbers. n = number Samples from strobila of each cestodes were taken, and then fixed in 70 % boiling alcohol. Cestodes fixed were examined on slide with cover glasses on a light microscope. The thick cestod proglottids were identified by transparenting or dying by borax-carmine dye. Identification of the species were performed according to morphological characteristic of cestodes [13,18,21]. Statistic analyses were carried out using Khi-square test. Results Anoplocephalidae infections determined were 4.43 % and 0.34 % in sheep and cattle examined, respectively (p < 0.01) (Table I). Results of this investigation are presented in Table II-V. Discussion There were some investigations in different regions of Turkey to determine prevalence of Anoplocephalidae species [3,9,11,26,28-30]. In these reports, prevalence of the infection in sheep and cattle were 6.3-78.9 % [3, 9, 10, 24-26, 32] and 0.36-5.95 % [1, 5, 7, 24-26], respectively. In present study, anoplocephalosis determined in sheep and cattle were 4.43 % and 0.34 %, respectively. In this study, however, infections determined in the sheep were low from the results reported by the previous researchers [3, 11, 18, 24-26, 32]. In contrary, infection in the cattle was found similar to the results reported by TINAR et al. . In infected animals total and mean parasite numbers reported were varying for species to species [3, 9, 25, 26]. They reported that cestode numbers in sheep and cattle were 1-29 and 1-7, respectively. However, mean numbers of scolex in sheep and cattle were 2.98-5.19 [ 3, 9, 25, 26] and 1.22-2.16 [25, 26], respectively. In present study, scolex numbers counted were 1-33 (mean 4.72) and 1-3 (mean 2.33) in sheep and cattle, respectively. Although, present results in sheep were * (p < 0.01) TABLE I. — Prevalence of Anoplocephalidae infections and the number of parasites in animals. n = number TABLE II. — Prevalence of Anoplocephalidae in examined animals. Revue Méd. Vét., 2003, 154, 12, 767-771 PREVALENCE OF ANOPLOCEPHALIDAE SPECIES IN SHEEP AND CATTLE SLAUGHTERED IN KIRIKKALE TURKEY higher than the previous reports [3, 9, 25, 26], the results in cattle were entirely similar to the previous reports [25, 26]. In previous studies in Turkey, species responsible for infection were M. expansa, M. benedeni, A. centripunctata, S. globipunctata, T. giardi and T. actinioides in sheep [14, 15,18, 25, 29, 32] and M. expansa, M. benedeni, A. centripunctata, S. globipunctata, T. giardi in cattle [5, 7, 11, 18, 24-26]. In present study, the parasited determined were M. expansa, A. centripunctata,T. ovilla in sheep and M. benedeni and M. expansa in cattle. The prevalence of M. expansa, M. benedeni, T. ovilla, A. centripunctata and S. globipunctata in sheep varied in different region of Turkey [3, 9, 18, 24, 26]. We determined 3.98 % M. expansa, 0.86 % A. centripunctata and 0.15 % T. ovilla in total sheep examined and 89.92 % M. expansa, 19.42 % A. centripunctata, 3.59 % T. ovilla in infected sheep in present study. Stilesia globipunctata was not found in this study. The results of present study are different from the previous reports [3, 9, 18, 24, 26]. It might be attributed to the regional difference. There have been some reports on prevalence of Anoplocephalidae, and M. benedeni, M. expansa and T. ovilla were common species in cattle in Turkey [1, 7, 24, 26]. In present study, M. benedeni and M. expansa were determined as 0.22 % and 0.11 %, respectively. In mixed infections, it was reported that 56.9-93.71 %, 6.15-31.49 % and 0.13-11.04% of the sheep were infected by one, two and three species, respectively [3, 9, 25, 26]. In addition 0.55% of sheep were infected by four species . In present study, infections caused by one, two and three species were 87.76 %, 11.51 %, 0.71 %, respectively. We determined 79.85 % M. expansa, 5.75 % A. centripunctata, 2.15 % T. ovilla infections caused by one species and 10.79 % M. expansa and A. centripunctata, 0.71 % T. ovilla and A. centripunctata infections caused by two species, and 0.71 % M. expansa, A. centripunctata and T. ovilla infections caused by three species. In cattle infected by mixed infections, 77.41 % and 22.58 % of the cattle were infected by one and two species, respectively, and M. benedeni was dominant species . We only determined M. benedeni (66.66 %) and M. expansa (33.33 %) in cattle. In present study, dominant species determined was M. benedeni as reported by the other researchers [24, 26]. Cestode infections were reported as 40-60 % in October in yearling sheep from Trakya province. These rates were lower in August than the other months of the year. Infection of lambs in the same year was the lowest in June and started to increase thereafter [4, 27]. CELEP  determined the highest infections (Moniezia sp., T. giardi and A. centripunctata) in n = number TABLE III. — Prevalence of Anoplocephalidae species in infected animals. n = number TABLE IV. — Single or multi parasite infections in animals. Revue Méd. Vét., 2003, 154, 12, 767-771 769 770 AYDENIZOZ (M.) AND YILDIZ (K.) Infected TABLE V. — Monthly prevalence of Anaplocephalidae species in animals. February in lambs and yearling sheeps from Samsun province. However, in another study carried out in the same province, Cestoda sp. were reported through the study in sheep and lambs . Cestodes infections reported were highest in May and November (26.6 %) and lowest in July (3.3 %) . VURAL et al.  reported extensive M. expansa, M. benedeni species, and small number of A. centripunctata in lambs in autumn. We found that the highest infection was in July (9.89 %) and the lowest was in September (1.32 %) in sheep. There have been no agreement with the similar to previous studies [4, 6, 27, 28, 31]. This regardless might be attributed to the regional and seasonal difference between present and previous studies. CELEP et al.  determined maximum number of Anoplocephalidae eggs in cattle in January in Samsun province. 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