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ARTICLE ORIGINAL
Prevalence of Anoplocephalidae species
in sheep and cattle slaughtered in Kirikkale,
Turkey*
° M. AYDENIZOZ and ° K. YILDIZ
° Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Kirikkale University, Kirikkale, Turkey
* This project was supported by Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (Project no: VHAG-1574)
Address for correspondence : Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Kirikkale University, 71450, Kirikkale, Turkey
[email protected]
SUMMARY
RÉSUMÉ
This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of
Anoplocephalidae infections in sheep and cattle slaughtered in Kirikkale .
In this study, small intestines of 3133 sheep and 870 cattle were examined.
Infection was determined in 4.43 % and 0.34 % of sheep and cattle examined, respectively. The species of Anoplocephalidae found were Moniezia
expansa (3.98%), Avitellina centripunctata (0.86%) and Thysaniezia ovilla
(0.15%) in sheep and M. benedeni (0.22%) and M. expansa (0.11%) in
cattle.
The species determined were M. expansa 89.92 %, A. centripunctata
19.42 %, T. ovilla 3.59 % in infected sheep and M. benedeni 66.66%, M.
expansa 33.33% in infected cattle. The mixed infections observed were
87.76 % (with one species), 11.51 % (with two species) and 0.71 % (with
three species) in sheep, and cattle infected only with one species was
100 %.
The number of scolex observed was 1-33 and 1-3 in infected sheep and
cattle, respectively. The number of mean scolex was 4.72 and 2.33 in sheep
and cattle, respectively.
The infection observed was the highest in July (9.89%) and the lowest in
September (1.32 %) in sheep. However, in cattle the highest and lowest
infection observed was in October (1.51 %) and September (1.11 %), respectively.
Infection rate observed was higher in sheep (4.43 %) than that of cattle
(0.34 %). This observation was also statistically significant (p < 0.01).
Prévalence des Anoplocephalidae chez des moutons et des bovins abattus dans Kirikkale, Turquie. Par M. AYDENIZOZ et K. YILDIZ
KEY-WORDS : sheep - cattle - anoplocephalidae - prevalence - Kirikkale - Turkey.
MOTS-CLÉS : mouton - bovin - anoplocephalidae - prévalence - Kirikkale - Turquie.
Introduction
There are 25 Anoplocephalidae species known in domestic
animals. However, 20 of these are determined in domestic
ruminants. It is reported that some of these species were
synonyms. Moniezia expansa, M. benedeni, Avitellina centripunctata, A. chalmersi, A. goughi, Stilesia globipunctata, S.
hepatica, S. vittata, Thysaniezia ovilla (T. giardi) and
Thysanosoma actinioides are common species [2].
Although animal breeding is important for Turkish economy, the benefit supplied by per animal is low. Parasitic
infections represent an important cause of economic loss for
animal producers. Helminth infections often go unnoticed
because in most infections there are no clinical signs [2, 23,
25, 26]. Although, the light infections have not caused to clinical symptoms in the older animals, depressed tract systems,
diarrhoea, depression in growth, anemia, edema and wool
decreased are recorded symptoms in the younger animals [2,
3, 13, 21, 25].
Revue Méd. Vét., 2003, 154, 12, 767-771
Cette étude a été entreprise afin de déterminer la prévalence des infections d’Anoplocephalidae chez les moutons et les bovins abattus dans la
région de Kirikkale. Dans cette étude, les petits intestins de 3133 moutons
et de 870 bovins ont été examinés. L’infection a été observée chez respectivement 4.43 % et 0.34 % des moutons et des bovins examinés. Les espèces
d’Anoplocephalidae trouvées chez les moutons étaient Moniezia expansa
(3.98 %), Avitellina centripunctata (0.86 %) et Thysaniezia ovilla (0.15 %)
et chez les bovins M. benedeni (0.22 %), M. expansa (0.11 %).
Les fréquences relatives de ces espèces chez les animaux infectés étaient
les suivantes M. expansa (89.92 %), A. centripunctata (19.42 %), T. ovilla
(3.59 %) pour les moutons et M. benedeni (66.66 %), M. expansa (33.33 %)
pour les bovins. Les infections étaient principalement monospécifiques
(87.76 % chez les moutons, et 100 % chez les bovins).
Le nombre de scolex trouvé chez les moutons infectés étaient 1-33 et de
1-3 chez les bovins infectés. Le nombre moyen de scolex étant de 4.72 pour
les moutons et de 2.33 pour les bovins.
Chez les moutons, l’infection a été observée plus fréquemment en juillet
(9.89 %) et le plus rarement en septembre (1.32 %). Pour les bovins, les
varaition saisonnières sont beaucoup moins marquées avec un taux d’infection le plus élevée en octobre (1.51 %) et le plus bas en septembre (1.11 %).
Le taux d’infection observé est significativement plus important chez les
moutons (4.43 %) que chez les bovins (0.34 %) (p < 0.01).
There are many investigations about the prevalence of
Anoplocephalidae species carried out on the faecal examinations [8,17,19,22] and necropsy [12,16,20] in the sheep and
cattle in worldwide.
768
AYDENIZOZ (M.) AND YILDIZ (K.)
Anoplocephalidae infections determined in different
regions of Turkey were reported as 6.3-78.9%
[3,9,11,24,26,31,32] and 0.36-5.95% [1,5,7,24-26] in sheep
and in cattle, respectively. The species caused infections
were M. expansa, M. benedeni, A. centripunctata, S. globipunctata and T. giardi [5, 7, 11, 18, 24-26]. In addition to
these reports, T. actinioides was only reported in sheep in
Turkey [25].
The parasite number in animals infected by
Anoplocephalidae species, and the number of species caused
an infection are changed from region to region between animal species. The number of parasites and mean scolex in
infected sheep were 1-29 and 2.98 -5.19, respectively [3, 9,
25, 26]. The number of parasites in cattle was between 1 and
7 (mean scolex numbers 1.22-2.16) [25, 26].
It has not been determined Anoplocephalidae species and
their prevalences in sheep and cattle in Kirikkale province.
Therefore, present study was performed.
Material and Method
This study was carried out between 2000-2001 in 3133
sheep and 870 cattle slaughtered in Kirikkale Abattoir. All
sheep examined were Akkaraman breed. The breeds of cattle
examined were Yerlikara (n = 608), Holstein (n = 244),
Simental (n = 9), Dairy cow (n = 9). All sheep and cattle examined were older than one year and originated from
Kirikkale region.
The slaughterhouse was visited regularly for every week
and small intestines of sheep and cattle were examined for
tapeworms. Intestines of sheep and cattle examined were
washed and the content were filtered through a wire filter.
Parasites were collected and transported to the Parasitology
Laboratory. The parasites collected from the each animals
were washed in mild water to loose of them. Scolex numbers
were used as a basic paramater for parasite numbers.
n = number
Samples from strobila of each cestodes were taken, and
then fixed in 70 % boiling alcohol. Cestodes fixed were examined on slide with cover glasses on a light microscope. The
thick cestod proglottids were identified by transparenting or
dying by borax-carmine dye. Identification of the species
were performed according to morphological characteristic of
cestodes [13,18,21]. Statistic analyses were carried out using
Khi-square test.
Results
Anoplocephalidae infections determined were 4.43 % and
0.34 % in sheep and cattle examined, respectively (p < 0.01)
(Table I).
Results of this investigation are presented in Table II-V.
Discussion
There were some investigations in different regions of
Turkey to determine prevalence of Anoplocephalidae species
[3,9,11,26,28-30]. In these reports, prevalence of the infection in sheep and cattle were 6.3-78.9 % [3, 9, 10, 24-26, 32]
and 0.36-5.95 % [1, 5, 7, 24-26], respectively. In present
study, anoplocephalosis determined in sheep and cattle were
4.43 % and 0.34 %, respectively. In this study, however,
infections determined in the sheep were low from the results
reported by the previous researchers [3, 11, 18, 24-26, 32]. In
contrary, infection in the cattle was found similar to the
results reported by TINAR et al. [24].
In infected animals total and mean parasite numbers reported were varying for species to species [3, 9, 25, 26]. They
reported that cestode numbers in sheep and cattle were 1-29
and 1-7, respectively. However, mean numbers of scolex in
sheep and cattle were 2.98-5.19 [ 3, 9, 25, 26] and 1.22-2.16
[25, 26], respectively. In present study, scolex numbers counted were 1-33 (mean 4.72) and 1-3 (mean 2.33) in sheep and
cattle, respectively. Although, present results in sheep were
* (p < 0.01)
TABLE I. — Prevalence of Anoplocephalidae infections and the number of parasites in animals.
n = number
TABLE II. — Prevalence of Anoplocephalidae in examined animals.
Revue Méd. Vét., 2003, 154, 12, 767-771
PREVALENCE OF ANOPLOCEPHALIDAE SPECIES IN SHEEP AND CATTLE SLAUGHTERED IN KIRIKKALE TURKEY
higher than the previous reports [3, 9, 25, 26], the results in
cattle were entirely similar to the previous reports [25, 26]. In
previous studies in Turkey, species responsible for infection
were M. expansa, M. benedeni, A. centripunctata, S. globipunctata, T. giardi and T. actinioides in sheep [14, 15,18, 25,
29, 32] and M. expansa, M. benedeni, A. centripunctata, S.
globipunctata, T. giardi in cattle [5, 7, 11, 18, 24-26]. In present study, the parasited determined were M. expansa, A. centripunctata,T. ovilla in sheep and M. benedeni and M.
expansa in cattle.
The prevalence of M. expansa, M. benedeni, T. ovilla, A.
centripunctata and S. globipunctata in sheep varied in different region of Turkey [3, 9, 18, 24, 26]. We determined
3.98 % M. expansa, 0.86 % A. centripunctata and 0.15 % T.
ovilla in total sheep examined and 89.92 % M. expansa,
19.42 % A. centripunctata, 3.59 % T. ovilla in infected sheep
in present study. Stilesia globipunctata was not found in this
study. The results of present study are different from the previous reports [3, 9, 18, 24, 26]. It might be attributed to the
regional difference.
There have been some reports on prevalence of
Anoplocephalidae, and M. benedeni, M. expansa and T.
ovilla were common species in cattle in Turkey [1, 7, 24, 26].
In present study, M. benedeni and M. expansa were determined as 0.22 % and 0.11 %, respectively.
In mixed infections, it was reported that 56.9-93.71 %,
6.15-31.49 % and 0.13-11.04% of the sheep were infected by
one, two and three species, respectively [3, 9, 25, 26]. In
addition 0.55% of sheep were infected by four species [26].
In present study, infections caused by one, two and three species were 87.76 %, 11.51 %, 0.71 %, respectively. We determined 79.85 % M. expansa, 5.75 % A. centripunctata,
2.15 % T. ovilla infections caused by one species and 10.79 %
M. expansa and A. centripunctata, 0.71 % T. ovilla and A.
centripunctata infections caused by two species, and 0.71 %
M. expansa, A. centripunctata and T. ovilla infections caused
by three species.
In cattle infected by mixed infections, 77.41 % and
22.58 % of the cattle were infected by one and two species,
respectively, and M. benedeni was dominant species [26]. We
only determined M. benedeni (66.66 %) and M. expansa
(33.33 %) in cattle. In present study, dominant species determined was M. benedeni as reported by the other researchers
[24, 26].
Cestode infections were reported as 40-60 % in October in
yearling sheep from Trakya province. These rates were lower
in August than the other months of the year. Infection of
lambs in the same year was the lowest in June and started to
increase thereafter [4, 27]. CELEP [4] determined the highest
infections (Moniezia sp., T. giardi and A. centripunctata) in
n = number
TABLE III. — Prevalence of Anoplocephalidae species in infected animals.
n = number
TABLE IV. — Single or multi parasite infections in animals.
Revue Méd. Vét., 2003, 154, 12, 767-771
769
770
AYDENIZOZ (M.) AND YILDIZ (K.)
Infected
TABLE V. — Monthly prevalence of Anaplocephalidae species in animals.
February in lambs and yearling sheeps from Samsun province. However, in another study carried out in the same province, Cestoda sp. were reported through the study in sheep
and lambs [32]. Cestodes infections reported were highest in
May and November (26.6 %) and lowest in July (3.3 %) [6].
VURAL et al. [28] reported extensive M. expansa, M. benedeni species, and small number of A. centripunctata in lambs
in autumn. We found that the highest infection was in July
(9.89 %) and the lowest was in September (1.32 %) in sheep.
There have been no agreement with the similar to previous
studies [4, 6, 27, 28, 31]. This regardless might be attributed
to the regional and seasonal difference between present and
previous studies.
CELEP et al. [5] determined maximum number of
Anoplocephalidae eggs in cattle in January in Samsun province. In the present study, we, however, determined the
highest infection rate in October (1.51 %) and the lowest in
September (1.11 %) in cattle.
In conclusion, we determined Anoplocephalidae infections
in 4.43 % of sheep and 0.34 % of cattle slaughtered in
Kirikkale. Helminth species determined were M. expansa, A.
centripunctata, T. ovilla in sheep, and M. benedeni, M.
expansa in cattle.
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