close

Enter

Log in using OpenID

5-B0006 - Journal of Advanced Agricultural Technologies

embedDownload
Journal of Advanced Agricultural Technologies Vol. 1, No. 1, June 2014
Some Characteristics of Milk Yield in Awassi
Ewes Maintained at Village Conditions
Gönül Gürsu and Turgut Aygün
Yüzüncü Yıl University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Animal Science, 65080, Van, Turkey
Email: [email protected]
Akkaraman breed because of their high milk yield, and
the growth and development properties of lambs.
In developed countries, the need of milk is generally
provided from cows but ewe milk is used for the feeding
of lambs. However, in some countries the dairy sheep
farming is an important field of endeavor. Ewe milk is
preferred due to some specific features. Turkey's current
climate, soil and market conditions have provided to be
done the type of dairy sheep farming [4].
In this study, it was investigated the some milk traits of
Awassi ewes such as the lactation length, lactation milk
yield, some nutrient contents and, physical properties of
milk raised in rural conditions of Bakırcan village of
Gaziantep province in pasture season.
Abstract—In this study, it is aimed to be determined the
some milk traits in Awassi ewes maintained at village
conditions. Totally, 63 Awassi ewes with ages of 2-3 years
were used as animal material. Milking in Awassi ewes
started at thirty days after parturition. Controls of the
milking were made at 14 days intervals. Lactation period
and lactation milk production for each ewe were determined
from data of controls based on test-day records and Sweden
method. The means of lactation period and lactation milk
yield for Awassi ewes were 165.46 days and 110.05 l,
respectively. Lactation period and lactation milk yield were
not statistically affected by age and born lamb's gender. The
levels in middle of lactation period of Awassi ewes were
defined as following: milk fat, dry matter, density, point of
freezing, and protein were 9.40%, 11.61%, 1.0364 g/cm3, 0.59 °C and 6.09%, respectively. As a result, the findings
suggest that the lactation period and the lactation milk yield
of Awassi ewes were sufficient level for rural conditions. 
II.
A. Animals
A total of 63 fat-tailed Awassi ewes 2 and 3 years old
were used in the study. They were raised in Bakırcan
mountain village of Yavuzeli district the province of
Gaziantep province, Turkey. Yavuzeli district is located
on the Southeastern Anatolia region of Turkey. It's sea
level height (altitude) is 650 meters.
The ewes were fed in pasture, and were not given
addition feed at diet season. Some breeders leave the
sheep in the pasture day and night. Generally, the mating
of sheep in this province is started in June and lasted at
the end of July. In addition, the number of ewes per ram
is approximately 30 head. In general, ewes and their
lambs were kept with about 2 months after lambing. Then
the ewes and their lambs are distinguished and collected
with together for 2 to 3 hours in each morning and
evening for suckling for 2 months approximately.
Index Terms—milk yield, lactation, village conditions, ewe,
awassi
I.
INTRODUCTION
The origin of Awassi sheep is Mesopotamia Area in
which sheep was firstly domesticated in the motherland
of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers [1]. Sheep breeding has
a special place in animal husbandry. The total of the milk
produced in Turkey consists of 8.8% ewe milk.
Expanding Awassi breeding of Turkey, it has the highest
milk yield between domestic sheep races [2]. Therefore,
Turkey is one of the most important countries with
diverse sheep races characterised by their adaptation to
harsh environmental and feeding conditions.
Awassi sheep in Iraq, Syria, Israel, and Libya exported
to countries such as research centers as well as they do in
some European countries Awassi sheep have used in
cross-breeding. Some researchers, Turkish Awassi line in
Syria, Iraq and Jordan line is growing more rapidly in
milk yield was higher than that of the left [3].
The most prominent feature of Awassi sheep, lots of
sheep farming in the form of hot and dry desert
conditions can be grown. Lactation milk yields of Awassi
sheep in the rural areas and in the amend flocks are from
100 to 150 kg and from 250 to 300 kg, respectively.
Awassi sheep have daily 4-5 kg of milk yield in lactation
season. The elite drove in some sheep is from 600 to 700
kg of milk [1]. Awassi sheep are used for improvement of
B. Determination of Milk Yield Traits
Milking of ewes was done by hand. Including morning
and evening, milking was performed twice a day. Milk
samples were taken three times in the beginning, middle,
and end of pasture period. In the milk samples collected,
the dry matter, fat, protein and water rates were
determined in the Milkana device by using ultrasonic
methods. Lactation milk yield and lactation period were
calculated according to the method of Sweden [5].
Lactation milk yield (l);
n
X=a
Lactation period (day);
Manuscript received February 14, 2014; revised May 20, 2014.
©2014 Engineering and Technology Publishing
doi: 10.12720/joaat.1.1.19-23
MATERIALS AND METHODS
19
k
i 1
i
- (a/2 - A) k1
(1)
Journal of Advanced Agricultural Technologies Vol. 1, No. 1, June 2014
L = n a - (a/2 - A)
(2)
As seen in Table I, for the milk yield and the lactation
period Awassi ewes aged 2 and 3 are understood to have
similar average. The average daily milk yield during the
period from April 7 to July 15 is every two years to an
expected decline is also seen.
Sex of lamb
Descriptive statistics and standard errors for lactation
milk yield and lactation period in Awassi ewes during 8
separate periods by sex of lamb are summarized in Table
II.
where is;
n
k
i 1
i
= the total of milk yields determined in control
days (l),
ki: milk yield determined in any control day of milk (l),
A: the time between birth and first control (day),
k1: milk yield determined in first control (l)
X: milking yield,
L: lactation period (day),
a: milk yield control range (day),
n: the number of control,
TABLE II. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND STANDARD ERRORS FOR
LACTATION MILK YIELD (LMY) AND LACTATION PERIOD (LP) IN
AWASSI EWES BY SEX OF LAMB
C. Statistical Analysis
Descriptive statistics for the properties; the average,
the standard error, the minimum and maximum value
were expressed as a factor determining factors. Variance
analysis of repeated measurement was used for
characteristics of milk yield calculations by SPSS
statistical package program as 5% statistical significance
level.
III.
Male
X ±S X
LMY (l)
LP (day)
April 7-AM
April 7-PM
April 7-TOT
April 21-AM
April 21-PM
April 21-TOT
May 5-AM
May 5-PM
May 5-TOT
May 5-AM
May 5-PM
May 5-TOT
June 2-AM
June 2-PM
June 2-TOT
June 16-AM
June 16-PM
June 16-TOT
June 30-AM
June 30-PM
June 30-TOT
July 15-AM
July 15-PM
July 15-TOT
RESULTS
A. Changing of Lactation Milk Yield and Lactation
Period According to Age and Sex of Lamb in Awassi
Ewes
Age
Descriptive statistics and standard errors for lactation
milk yield and lactation period in Awassi ewes during 8
separate periods by age are summarized in Table I.
TABLE I. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND STANDARD ERRORS FOR
LACTATION MILK YIELD (LMY) AND LACTATION PERIOD (LP) IN
AWASSI EWES BY AGE
2 years old
Interval
107.6±8.0
627-245
165.4±3.6
130-200
341.2±21.0
150-720
365.3±19.3
180-730
706.5±39.3 330-1450
270.9±19.3
150-700
280.0±27.3
100-800
550.9±38.2 280-1400
358.8±26.4
140-800
322.7±25.1
100-800
681.5±51.2 240-1600
351.5±26.7
120-700
266.2±23.9
100-650
617.7±49.8 220-1350
331.2±22.0
150-620
273.2±18.4
100-500
604.4±39.0 250-1120
300.3±17.3
150-550
245.6±18.3
100-550
545.9±33.3 250-1000
179.7±14.3
50-350
157.7±14.0
50-350
337.4±24.5
150-650
52.9±9.6
0-150
20.6±5.7
0-120
73.5±12.5
0-270
X ±S X
LMY (l)
LP (day)
April 7-AM
April 7-PM
April 7-TOT
April 21-AM
April 21-PM
April 21-TOT
May 5-AM
May 5-PM
May 5-TOT
May 5-AM
May 5-PM
May 5-TOT
June 2-AM
June 2-PM
June 2-TOT
June 16-AM
June 16-PM
June 16-TOT
June 30-AM
June 30-PM
June 30-TOT
July 15-AM
July 15-PM
July 15-TOT
3 years old
Interval
113.0±8.5
68-237
165.6±3.6
131-200
377.6±31.5 200-820
386.2±25.8 200-750
763.8±56.2 420-1570
292.8±28.5 130-900
297.4±23.9 130-600
590.2±45.0 280-1500
350.0±27.3 100-800
296.6±25.0 100-700
646.6±51.9 200-1500
369.7±29.9 150-800
281.4±26.9 120-710
651.0±55.0 270-1510
343.5±22.0 180-700
272.4±22.8 140-650
615.9±43.1 330-1350
304.1±18.1 180-600
243.1±19.1 150-550
547.2±35.1 350-1150
202.1±14.6 100-400
139.3±14.1
50-350
341.4±26.5 150-750
51.7±9.4
0-200
31.0±8.4
0-150
82.8±15.4
0-350
©2014 Engineering and Technology Publishing
X ±S X
114.4±7.4
168.3±3.0
368.7±24.2
386.9±20.0
755.6±43.2
264.9±14.6
293.9±23.1
558.8±31.0
347.6±24.5
298.0±22.6
645.6±46.8
364.4±23.8
273.1±22.0
637.6±44.4
342.9±18.5
275.3±17.6
618.2±34.7
307.3±14.8
246.0±16.1
553.3±29.2
190.9±12.0
148.7±11.5
339.6±20.6
53.3±8.3
27.8±5.9
142.3±11.7
Female
Interval
62-245
131-200
150-820
180-750
330-1570
130-700
100-800
280-1400
100-800
100-800
200-1600
120-800
100-710
220-1510
150-700
100-650
250-1350
150-600
100-550
250-1150
50-400
50-350
150-750
0-200
0-150
50-250
X ±S X
99.0±7.8
158.4±4.6
331.1±21.7
345.0±22.6
676.1±42.9
321.1±45.1
273.3±28.1
594.4±67.3
372.8±24.9
342.2±24.9
715.0±49.3
348.3±36.5
273.3±30.3
621.7±66.4
321.7±29.1
266.7±24.7
588.3±51.7
288.9±23.6
240.6±22.4
529.4±42.2
187.8±20.4
150.6±20.2
338.3±36.4
50.0±11.4
19.4±9.2
113.6±18.0
Interval
62-180
130-200
200-550
210-600
420-1150
150-900
130-600
280-1500
230-650
200-600
450-1250
150-750
110-600
260-1350
200-650
150-500
350-1150
150-500
130-450
330-950
50-400
50-350
150-700
0-150
0-150
50-250
As seen in Table II, for the milk yield and the lactation
period, it has been understood that Awassi ewes with
male lamb have higher averages than ewes with female
lamb. However, the average daily milk yield during
periods of April 21 and May 5 female sheep give rise
higher than the average of the men were found to give
rise to the sheep.
TABLE III. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND STANDARD ERRORS FOR
SOME NUTRIENT CONTENTS AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MILK IN
AWASSI EWES BY AGE
2 years old
Fat (%)
Fat-free dry matter (%)
Density (g/cm3)
Freezing point (ºC)
Protein (%)
X ±S X
9.6±0.5
11.3±0.3
1.04±0.00
-0.57±1.85
6.0±0.1
Interval
3.2-11.2
4.8-14.9
1.01-1.06
-0.13-(-0.88)
4.0-7.3
3 years old
X ±S X
9.2±0.6
12.0±0.3
1.04±0.00
-0.61±1.43
6.2±0.2
Interval
2.6-11.2
9.2-15.2
1.02-1.05
-0.52-(-0.88)
4.6-8.0
B. Changing of Some Nutrient Contents and Physical
Properties of Milk According to Age and Sex of Lamb
in Awassi Ewes
Age
20
Journal of Advanced Agricultural Technologies Vol. 1, No. 1, June 2014
Descriptive statistics and standard errors for some
nutrient contents and physical properties of milk in
Awassi ewes by age are summarized in Table III.
If Table III is analyzed, it has been understood for milk
fat that two old ewes have a higher average than three old
ewes. The opposite there is a case for protein content.
Sex of lamb
Descriptive statistics and standard errors for some
nutrient contents and physical properties of milk in
Awassi ewes by sex of lamb are summarized in Table IV.
ewes with male lamb for the milk fat content. Conversely,
for the milk protein content Awassi ewes with male lamb
have higher averages.
C. General means of Lactation Milk Yield, Lactation
Period and, Some Nutrient Contents and Physical
Properties of Milk in Awassi Ewes
General descriptive statistics and standard errors for
lactation milk yield, lactation period and, some nutrient
contents and physical properties of milk in Awassi ewes
are given in Table V.
As seen in Table V, percentage of fat and protein in
milk samples taken during the last period was found as
9.40% and 6.09%, respectively. The fat ratio of 9.40%
detected in the last period is relatively very high.
TABLE IV. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND STANDARD ERRORS FOR
SOME NUTRIENT CONTENTS AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MILK IN
AWASSI EWES BY SEX OF LAMB
Male
Fat (%)
Fat-free dry matter (%)
Density (g/cm3)
Freezing point (ºC)
Protein (%)
Female
X ±S X
Interval
X ±S X
Interval
9.1±0.5
11.7±0.3
1.04±0.00
-0.59±1.66
6.0±0.1
2.6-11.2
4.8-15.2
1.01-1.06
-0.13-(-0.88)
4.6-8.0
10.1±0.3
11.3±0.3
1.04±0.00
-0.58±0.79
6.2±0.2
8.7-11.2
8.9-13.6
1.02-1.05
-0.50-(-0.65)
4.0-7.5
IV.
Lactation milk yield of Awassi sheep of the native
breeds is known to be high. However, when grown in the
village of Awassi sheep milk yield due to a small
decrease in the environmental impact can be seen.
Especially in the border area of Southeastern Anatolia
region of Turkey, a number of scientific researches on
Awassi sheep breeding have commonly been performed.
Obtained in the study of the lactation milk yield and
lactation length on the effect of age was not significant.
Lactation milk yield and lactation length in terms of the
distinction between the ages of three old sheep were in
favor. It can be said that ewes with male lambs have
higher than ewes with female lambs for lactation milk
yield and lactation period. However, this difference was
not statistically significant.
This study identified in Awassi sheep discussed
lactation milk yield and the average of the duration of
lactation, but in sheep obtained from other studies were in
agreement with the results. In this study, lactation period
and lactation milk yield were found as 165.46 days and
110.05 l, respectively. These average values, in Awassi
sheep are similar to the reported average for rural
conditions [1]. In particular, the variation between the
introductory values considerably seems to be broad level.
By using of these variations, it will be possible that the
milk yield of Awassi ewes under rural conditions
increases satisfactory level.
Other findings from the literature when considered
together with the results of this research; it can be said
that there is a significant relationship between age and,
lactation milk yield and duration of lactation period.
Indeed, as seen in studies on the subject, from the two old
ewes milk yield increases up to 4-6 years and, then tends
to decrease [6]-[11].
The averages of fat, non-fat dry matter, density,
freezing point, and protein in milk samples taken in the
middle of the lactation period in Awassi ewes were
determined as 9.40%, 11.6098%, 1.0364 g/cm3, -0.59 °C
and 6.09%, respectively. It can be said that these values
are higher than the findings of a study by [12].
In Turkey, the identification information regarding the
traditional animal breeding techniques according to the
regions and districts is limited. In addition, the overall
TABLE V. GENERAL DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND STANDARD
ERRORS (SE) FOR LACTATION MILK YIELD (LMY), LACTATION PERIOD
(LP) AND, SOME NUTRIENT CONTENTS AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF
MILK IN AWASSI EWES
LMY (l)
LP (day)
April 7-AM
April 7-PM
April 7-TOT
April 21-AM
April 21-PM
April 21-TOT
May 5-AM
May 5-PM
May 5-TOT
May 5-AM
May 5-PM
May 5-TOT
June 2-AM
June 2-PM
June 2-TOT
June 16-AM
June 16-PM
June 16-TOT
June 30-AM
June 30-PM
June 30-TOT
July 15-AM
July 15-PM
July 15-TOT
Fat (%)
Fat-free dry matter
(%)
Density (g/cm3)
Freezing point (ºC)
Protein (%)
X ±S X
SE
Minimum
Maximum
110.05
165.46
357.94
374.92
732.86
280.95
288.02
568.97
354.76
310.63
665.40
359.84
273.17
633.02
336.83
272.86
609.68
302.06
244.44
546.51
190.00
149.21
339.21
52.38
25.40
133.78
9.4018
5.80
2.53
18.402
15.742
33.351
16.655
18.293
29.071
18.859
17.706
36.302
19.806
17.811
36.693
15.516
14.317
28.677
12.454
13.091
23.965
10.250
9.931
17.862
6.712
4.936
9.889
0.3611
61.74
130
150
180
330
130
100
280
100
100
200
120
100
220
150
100
250
150
100
250
50
50
150
0
0
50
2.56
244.78
200
820
750
1570
900
800
1500
800
800
1600
800
710
1510
700
650
1350
600
550
1150
400
350
750
200
150
250
11.15
11.6098
0.2170
4.79
15.20
1.0364
-0.59
6.0900
0.0012
1.2058
0.1142
1.01
-0.13
4.04
1.06
-0.88
8.01
If Table IV is examined, it has been understood that
Awassi ewes with female lamb have higher averages than
©2014 Engineering and Technology Publishing
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
21
Journal of Advanced Agricultural Technologies Vol. 1, No. 1, June 2014
performances of Turkey's breeds of domestic sheep kept
in native conditions of information regarding detailed
descriptions are also insufficient [13]. However, the
development of more efficient livestock programs is due
to conducting research on direct growers overall yield
performance under the conditions of the populations of
native breeds, morphological and physiological
characteristics and aquaculture infrastructure examination.
Obtained with the more synthesis of this information
sensitive animal breeding programs and policies can be
developed [11], [14], [15]. Awassi breed is very
important for Turkey because their milk yield and lamb
growth and development properties are higher Reference
[3].
The findings of this study and the results of other
studies in literature have suggested that the lactation milk
yield and the lactation period were not only depends on
the race of sheep but also depends on the management
and the environmental conditions in which races of sheep
maintained.
As a result, it can be said that Awassi ewes bred in
under the village conditions in Bakırcan mountain village
of Yavuzeli district in Gaziantep province have showed
the findings in accordance with averages for lactation
period and lactation milk yield in terms of their
circumstances as the literature. In the region, these
research findings could form the basis for scientific
studies taking into account problems of the milk, the meat,
the wool production, and the growth traits.
It seems that milk yield of Awassi ewes is rather better
than many of native sheep breeds and some synthetic
sheep types in Turkey. However, in order to reach a more
definite conclusion is required to work in larger
populations.
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
[15]
We thank to that Presidency of Scientific Research
Projects of Yüzüncü Yıl University provided financial
support to the project. Project number: 2007-FBE-YL086.
The authors highly appreciate the statistical assistance
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sıddık Keskin.
Turgut Aygün was born in February 04 1969
in Elazığ city of Turkey. He have been living
in Van city of Turkey and, working as a
Professor at Yuzuncu Yıl University,
Agriculture Faculty, Department of Animal
Science, Van, Turkey. His research areas are
generally association with animal breeding
and improvement in small ruminants,
hormones,
reproduction
and
fertility,
veterinary biochemistry, horse breeding and
rearing, organic animal production.
He finished Bachelor of Science in Department of Animal Science,
Agriculture Engineering Yuzuncu Yıl University, Turkey in June of
1991 year. He made Master Thesis of named “Some Testis
Characteristics and Possibilities Using Indirect Selection in Karakaş
Male Lambs” in Department of Animal Science, Yuzuncu Yıl
University, Turkey in January of 1993 year. He have double PhD. He
made first PhD of named “Reproductive Characteristics and Some
Parameter Estimates For Serum FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
Concentrations in Karakaş Ewes” in Department of Animal Science,
Yuzuncu Yıl University, Turkey in November of 1996 year. And, he
also made second PhD of named “Relationships between the
polymorphism of blood proteins and some milk yield traits in Norduz
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
Anonymous,
TİGEM.
[Online].
Available:
http://www.tigem.gov.tr/images/editor_dosyalar/brosur/ivesi.pdf.
GTHB Tarım İşletmeleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Ankara, Turkey.
A. Yıldız and N. Yıldız, “Milk yield and lactation duration of
Awassi ewes raised in ceylanpinar state farm (Ceylanpınar Tarım
İşletmesi’nde yetiştirilen İvesi koyunlarının süt verimi ve
laktasyon süresi),” YYÜ Vet. Fak. Derg., vol. 13, pp. 117-121,
2002.
G. Gürsu, “Characteristics of milk yield and blood serum levels of
Ca, K, P and Co of Awassi sheep maintained at village conditions
in Gaziantep city (Gaziantep ilinde köy koşullarında yetiştirilen
İvesi koyunlarının süt verim özellikleri ile kan serum Ca, K, P ve
Co düzeyleri),” M.S. thesis, Dept. Animal Science, Yüzüncü Yıl
Univ., Van, Turkey, 2011.
İ. Şeker, S. Kul, and M. Bayraktar, “Linear udder traits and
relationships between these and milk yield in Awassi and EastFriesian x Awassi crossbreed (F1) ewes (İvesi ve Ost-Friz x İvesi
melezi (F1) koyunlarında linear meme özellikleri ve bunlar ile süt
©2014 Engineering and Technology Publishing
verimi arasındaki ilişkiler),” Lalahan Hay. Araşt. Enst. Derg., vol.
40, no. 2, pp. 45-55, 2000.
M. Kaymakçı, “Advanced Sheep Husbandry (İleri Koyun
Yetiştiriciliği),” Ege Univ. Press, Third Edition, Bornova, İzmir,
Turkey, 2010.
S. Koncagül, A. Karataş, N. Akça, M. E. Vural, and M. Bingöl,
“Factors affecting lactation milk yield and some lactation
characteristics of Zom sheep in farmer conditions,” Iğdır Univ. J.
Inst. Sci. & Tech., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 87-93, 2012.
O. Karaca, N. Akyüz, S. Andiç, and T. Altın, “Milk yield
characteristics of Karakaş sheep (Karakaş koyunlarının süt verim
özellikleri),” Turk J. Vet. Anim. Sci., vol. 27, pp. 589-594, 2003.
O. Yılmaz, H. Denk, and H. Nursoy, “Milk yield characteristics of
Norduz sheep,” Yüzüncü Yıl Univ. Vet. Fak. Derg., vol. 15, no. 1-2,
pp. 27-31, 2004.
A. Akmaz, “The milk yield and some factors affecting on the milk
yield in Konya Merino ewes (Konya Merinosu koyunlarında süt
verimi ve süt verimine etki eden bazı faktörler),” Hayvancılık
Araştırma Derg., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 5-8, 1994.
T. Altın and H. Çelikyürek, “The effect of grown with residual
milk on growth traits of lambs (Kalıntı sütle kuzu büyütmenin
koyunların süt verimine etkisi),” YYÜ Zir. Fak. Derg., vol. 6, no. 1,
pp. 173-184, 1996.
Ö. Gökdal, “The milk yield, reproductive performance, some body
measurements and growth characteristics of Karakaş sheep
(Karakaş koyunlarının süt ve döl verimleri ile dışyapı ve büyümegelişme özellikleri),” (Doktora tezi). Ph.D. thesis, Dept. Animal
Science, Yüzüncü Yıl Univ., Van, Turkey, 1998.
N. Özyurtlu, S. Gürgöze, S. Bademkıran, A. Şimşek, and R. Çelik,
“Investigation of the some biochemical parameters and the levels
of minerals during pre and post natal period in Awassi sheep (İvesi
koyunlarda doğum öncesi ve sonrası dönemdeki bazı
biyokimyasal parametreler ve mineral madde düzeylerinin
araştırılması),” Fırat Üniv. Sağlık Bil. Derg., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 3336, 2007.
O. Karaca, Y. Aşkın, and A. Çivi, “The traditional animal
breeding systems and the improvement possibilities of its in
Turkey (Türkiye göreneksel hayvan yetiştirme sistemleri ve
çağdaşlaştırabilme olanakları),” Hayvancılıkta Örgütlenme
Sorunları Sempozyumu, İzmir, Turkey 27-28 November 1997, pp.
199-207.
T. Aygün, “Relationships between the polymorphism of blood
proteins and some milk yield traits in Norduz goats (Norduz
keçilerinde kan proteinleri polimorfizmi ile bazı süt verim
özellikleri arasındaki ilişkiler),” (Doktora tezi). Ph.D. thesis, Dept.
Biochemistry, Yüzüncü Yıl Univ., Health Sciences Institute, Van,
Turkey, 2006.
G. Gürsu and T. Aygün, “Serum Calcium, Potassium, Phosphorus
and Cobalt levels of Awassi ewes maintained at village conditions
during lactation period,” presented at the 3rd International
Conference on Asia Agriculture and Animal, Moscow, Russia,
July 27-28, 2013.
22
Journal of Advanced Agricultural Technologies Vol. 1, No. 1, June 2014
goats” in Department of Veterinary Biochemistry, Yuzuncu Yıl
University, Turkey in January of 2006 year. He have numerous
publications related to small ruminant husbandry. The subject of his
publications is more related to breeding and management in small
©2014 Engineering and Technology Publishing
ruminants. Also, he have interested the horse breeding and the
occupational healthy and the security in the agriculture.
Dr. Aygün is a member of the Van Zootechnic Associations in Turkey.
23
Author
Document
Category
Uncategorized
Views
1
File Size
1 697 KB
Tags
1/--pages
Report inappropriate content