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COMCEC AGRICULTURE OUTLOOK 2014

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Standing Committee
for Economic and Commercial Cooperation
of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (COMCEC)
COMCEC AGRICULTURE OUTLOOK 2014
COMCEC COORDINATION OFFICE
March 2014
Standing Committee
for Economic and Commercial Cooperation
of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (COMCEC)
AGRICULTURE OUTLOOK 2014
COMCEC COORDINATION OFFICE
March 2014
For further information please contact:
COMCEC Coordination Office
Necatibey Caddesi No:110/A
06100 Yücetepe
Ankara/TURKEY
Phone : 90 312 294 57 10
Fax
: 90 312 294 57 77
Web : www.comcec.org
e-mail:[email protected]
Preface
COMCEC Strategy adopted during the 4th Extraordinary Islamic Summit held in Makah
on 14-15 August 2012, envisages Working Group Meetings as one of the instruments for its
implementation. Through the Working Groups, experts from the member countries get the
chance of elaborating the issues thoroughly in the respective cooperation areas and sharing
their good practices and experiences. The Working Groups are established for each
cooperation area defined by the Strategy, namely Trade, Transport and Communication,
Tourism, Agriculture, Poverty Alleviation, and Finance.
The COMCEC Outlooks are prepared in each cooperation area of the Strategy with a view
to exploring the global trends and current situation in the COMCEC Region in the respective
area and enrich discussions during the Working Groups Meetings by providing up-to-date data
and analysis.
This COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014 is a revised and updated version of the
Agriculture Outlook 2013. It was prepared by Mr. Hakan GUNLU, Expert at the COMCEC
Coordination Office with the objective of providing general information on the status of
agricultural sector in the Member States. It dwells on the major issues with regard to
agricultural sector development and makes comparisons with the different country groupings
to demonstrate the situation in the Member States and thus cooperation potential.
The views expressed in the COMCEC Outlooks do not necessarily reflect the official views of
the COMCEC or the governments of its member countries.
Table of Contents
Preface .............................................................................................................................................................................................. i
List of Annexes .............................................................................................................................................................................. v
Acronyms and Abbreviations .................................................................................................................................................. v
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1
1. Agriculture in the OIC Member Countries ................................................................................................................... 2
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.
The Role of Agriculture in the OIC Economy ........................................................................................................................ 2
1.1.1. Agricultural Value Added in the OIC Region ..................................................................................................... 2
1.1.2. Trade in Agricultural Commodities....................................................................................................................... 4
Agricultural Population .................................................................................................................................................................. 9
Agricultural Labor Productivity ...............................................................................................................................................10
Land Use ...............................................................................................................................................................................................11
Input Use ..............................................................................................................................................................................................14
1.5.1. Irrigation .............................................................................................................................................................................14
1.5.2. Fertilizers Use ...................................................................................................................................................................18
1.5.3. Agricultural Mechanization ........................................................................................................................................19
Agricultural Production and Productivity ...........................................................................................................................20
2. Food Security and Malnutrition in the OIC Member Countries .........................................................................23
3. Agricultural Cooperation under the COMCEC ..........................................................................................................33
4. Conclusion .............................................................................................................................................................................36
REFERENCES.................................................................................................................................................................................37
ANNEXES ........................................................................................................................................................................................39
List of Tables
Table 1. Share of Agricultural Population in the OIC and the World (%) .................................................................................. 9
Table 2. Land Use in OIC Countries in 2011 (Thousands Hectares) .......................................................................................... 13
Table 3. Number of Undernourished by Region (million) .............................................................................................................. 24
Table 4. Food Price Index in Some Countries and the World........................................................................................................ 29
List of Pictures
Picture 1. Global Hunger Map .................................................................................................................................... 24
List of Figures
Figure 1. Share of Agriculture in GDP of the OIC and the World .................................................................................................... 3
Figure 2. Yearly Development in GDP in the OIC and the World (1990=100 Index) ........................................................... 3
Figure 3. Agricultural GDP in the OIC by Sub-Region .......................................................................................................................... 4
Figure 4. Development in Global Agricultural Trade (1990-2011) .............................................................................................. 5
Figure 5. OIC Agricultural Commodities Trade and Share in World Total (1990-2011).................................................... 6
Figure 6. Share of Sub-Regions in the OIC’s Agricultural Commodity Trade, (1990-2011, Percent) ........................... 7
Figure 7. Agricultural Commodity Trade Balance in the OIC and Examined Sub-Regions, (2011,
Billion US Dollars) ............................................................................................................................................................................. 8
Figure 8. Agricultural Labor Productivity in the OIC and the World (US Dollar Per Economically
Active Worker in Agriculture) .................................................................................................................................................. 11
Figure 9. Changes in the Total and Per Person Agricultural Area (1990-2011) .................................................................. 14
Figure 10. Share of Agriculture in Total Water Consumption (%) ............................................................................................. 15
Figure 11. Renewable Water Potential in the World (2011) ........................................................................................................ 16
Figure 12. Renewable Water Potential in the OIC by Sub-Region .............................................................................................. 16
Figure 13. Renewable Water-Rich OIC Member Countries, (2011, over 200 km3/year) ............................................... 17
Figure 14. Renewable Water-Poor OIC Member Countries, (2011, below 10 km3/year).............................................. 17
Figure 15. Fertilizer Use in the OIC and World (2011, kg/ha) ..................................................................................................... 19
Figure 16. Agricultural Production in the OIC ...................................................................................................................................... 20
Figure 17. Gross Agricultural Production Value in the OIC and the World ............................................................................ 21
Figure 18. Wheat Yield in the OIC and the World, (1990-2012, tons/hectare) ................................................................... 22
Figure 19. Changes in Prevalence and Number Undernourished People in the World, 1990-2012 ......................... 23
Figure 20. Trend of the Number of the Undernourished People In the OIC and by Sub-Regions ............................... 26
Figure 21. Share of the Undernourished People in Total in the OIC and by Region .......................................................... 26
Figure 22. Some Economic Indicators of the OIC (1991-2011) ................................................................................................... 27
Figure 23. Per capita GDP in the OIC by Sub-Regions and the World at Current Prices. ................................................. 28
Figure 24. World Food Price Index (1990-2013) ............................................................................................................................... 28
Figure 25. FAO Population Projections (2012-2050) ....................................................................................................................... 30
Figure 26. Top Five OIC Member Countries According to the Global Food Security Index ............................................ 32
Figure 27. Last Five OIC Member Countries According to the Global Food Security Index .......................................... 32
List of Annexes
Annex 1. Classification of the OIC Member Countries by Sub-Region ...................................................................................... 39
Annex 2. Agricultural GDP in the OIC by Country and Sub-Region (1990-2012, %) ......................................................... 40
Annex 3. Agricultural GDP in the OIC by Country and Sub-Region (1990-2012, Billion US Dollars) ........................ 41
Annex 4. Agricultural Commodity Import (Thousand US Dollars) ............................................................................................ 42
Annex 5. Agricultural Commodity Export (Thousand US Dollars) ............................................................................................. 43
Annex 6. Agricultural Commodity Trade Balance in the OIC Member Countries ............................................................... 44
Annex 7. Agricultural Labor Productivity in the OIC Member Countries (US Dollar Per Economically
Active Worker in Agriculture) .................................................................................................................................................. 45
Annex 8. Land Use in OIC the Member Countries ............................................................................................................................... 46
Annex 9. Total Renewable Water in the OIC Member Countries (2011, km3) ..................................................................... 47
Annex 10. Long Term Precipitation in the OIC Member Countries ............................................................................................ 48
Annex 11. Fertilizer Consumption in the OIC (kg/ha)...................................................................................................................... 49
Annex 12. Average Dietary Energy Supply Adequacy in OIC and Some Region of the World (%) ............................. 50
Annex 13. Average Protein Supply in OIC and Some Region of the World (gr/caput/day) ........................................... 51
Annex 14. Depth of the Food Deficit in OIC and Some Region of the World (gr/caput/day) ........................................ 52
Annex 15. Food Price Index for the OIC Member Countries (2000=100) ............................................................................... 53
Acronyms and Abbreviations
COMCEC
EIU
FAO
GDP
GHI
km3
m3
OECD
OIC
UN
WTO
The Standing Committee for Economic and Commercial Cooperation of the Organization of
Islamic Cooperation
Economist Intelligent Unit
Food and Agriculture Organization
Gross Domestic Product
Global Hunger Index
Cubic Kilometer
Cubic Meter
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
Organization of Islamic Cooperation
United Nations
World Trade Organization
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Introduction
Agriculture is an essential element of human life and provides the fundamental needs
for human survival. Agricultural is also an important sector for economic and social
development due to its contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and employment. In
addition, it is accepted as a key sector for reducing poverty and sustainable rural development
especially in developing countries. It is the only source of income for the majority of the rural
poor in some countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Recent food crises, biofuel production and global climate change have grown the
concerns about food security and placed agriculture at top of the world agenda. The food crisis
in 2008 resulted in rising food prices adversely affecting the lives of people, especially in the
low income groups1. This forced most of the governments to take additional measures for
ensuring sustainable agriculture and food security.
Today, almost 870 million people are undernourished worldwide, particularly in SubSaharan Africa and Asia. In developing countries, even if agricultural production doubles by
2050, 5 percent of the people (one person in twenty) will be under the risk of being
undernourished. This is equivalent to 370 million hungry people, most of whom will be in
Africa and Asia. In this respect, agriculture will continue to be an engine of economic growth
and to play a central role in rural poverty reduction.2
Development of a modern agricultural sector has a particular importance for ensuring
food security, reducing poverty, providing employment, and promoting agriculture related
sectors.
This report highlights the recent state of agricultural sector in the OIC Member
Countries. It analyses major issues such as agricultural population and land use in agriculture,
water resources and their use in agriculture, agriculture production and productivity, and
trade in agricultural commodities. The report also dwells on the cooperation efforts under the
Standing Committee for Economic and Commercial Cooperation of the Organization of Islamic
Cooperation (COMCEC).
For examining the current agricultural situation, OIC Member Countries are analyzed in
three groups. These are African Group, Arab Group and Asian Group. (The list of the member
countries in accordance with the regional classification of the OIC is attached as Annex 1).
Furthermore, for more detailed analysis, agriculture sector trends in the OIC member
Countries are compared with the World trends.
1
2
IDB, 2009.
FAO, 2012a.
1
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
1. Agriculture in the OIC Member Countries
1.1.
The Role of Agriculture in the OIC Economy
1.1.1. Agricultural Value Added in the OIC Region
Suitability of ecological conditions, availability of natural resources and human capacity
to carry out agricultural activities, i.e. agricultural potential, are the most important
determinants of role of agriculture in the economy.
However, the agricultural potential is not the sole factor determining the role of
agriculture in general economy. The relative importance of the agriculture sector in a country
declines as the GDP of the country increases, and its economy experiences an upward trend in
terms of development.
Due to the particular points mentioned above, the significance of agriculture in national
economies varies extensively. While in many least developed countries, agriculture accounts
for more than 50 percent of GDP, in many high income economies such as the members of
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), agriculture constitutes less
than 1,5 percent of overall economic output. Thus, the role of agriculture in overall economic
growth will vary from country to country, and in general agriculture is more important in
poorer countries. This is largely due to higher income elasticity of demand for non-agricultural
goods and services. As their incomes grow, consumers increase their consumption of
manufactured goods and services faster than their consumption of agricultural goods.3 This
characteristic of the agriculture can be clearly observed in the OIC Region as a whole as well as
in Europe as shown in Figure 1.
On the average, the OIC Member Countries have a relatively lower performance in
agriculture as compared to the developed countries.4 Although they have 28 percent of total
world agricultural area, according to the UN data, the share of the OIC Member Countries in the
world agricultural GDP is 21,3 percent with almost 648 billion agricultural value added in
2012.
3
4
Cervantes-Godoy and Dewbre
SESRIC, 2009.
2
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Figure 1. Share of Agriculture in GDP of the OIC and the World
Trillion US Dollars
%
25
OIC Total GDP
120
100
20
Europe Total GDP
80
15
World Total
60
10
Share of Agriculture
in the OIC's GDP
(Left Axis)
40
5
Share of Agriculture
in the Europe's GDP
(Left Axis)
20
Share of OIC in the
Agricultural World
GDP (Left Axis)
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
0
1990
0
Source: Calculated by using the FAO online database (FAOSTAT), 2013.
Figure 2. Yearly Development in GDP in the OIC and the World (1990=100 Index)
600
400
553
200
100
261
0
Agricultural GDP in the OIC
Agricultural GDP in the World
Total GDP in the OIC
322
347
262
Total GDP in the World
Source: Calculated by using the UN online database (UNSTAT), 2014.
As seen in Figure 3, at the sub-regional level, Asian Group had the highest amount of the
agricultural GDP with 380 billion US Dollars in 2012. This Figure shows that Asian Group had
more than half of the agricultural GDP of the OIC Region between 1990 and 2012. It was
3
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
followed by Arab Group and African Group with almost 138 billion and 129 billion US Dollars,
respectively.
According to the UN’s data, at the individual country level, Indonesia had the highest
share in total OIC agricultural GDP with 19,6 percent as of 2012. The five member countries,
namely Indonesia, Nigeria, Turkey, Iran and Pakistan accounted for half of the OIC agricultural
GDP (Calculated by using Annex 2).
Figure 3. Agricultural GDP in the OIC by Sub-Region
Billion US Dollars
%
700
70
600
60
500
50
400
40
300
30
200
20
100
10
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
0
1990
0
Agricultural GDP
Asian Group (Right
Axis)
Agricultural GDP
Arab Group (Right
Axis)
Agricultural GDP in
African Group (Right
Axis)
Share of African
Group (Left Axis)
Share of Arab Group
(Left Axis)
Share of Asian
Group (Left Axis)
Source: Calculated by using the UN online database (UNSTAT), 2014.
1.1.2. Trade in Agricultural Commodities
In recent years, protection on agricultural trade and its impact on developing countries
have been attracting growing attention. While protective policies in manufactured goods have
declined worldwide and especially in developing countries, several industrial and developing
countries still protect their agricultural sector at high levels. High protection in industrial
countries being the main cause of the stalemate in the World Trade Organization (WTO)
negotiations by early 1990s5 and protection on agricultural trade continues to be among the
most controversial issues in global trade negotiations.
5
Worldbank, 2005.
4
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Figure 4. Development in Global Agricultural Trade (1990-2011)
3.000
25
2.500
20
9,0
2.000
7,8
6,6
6,4
1.500
6,4 1.1166,8
6,1
913
9,3
1.000
500
0
352
8,7
461
6,4
6,3
433
326
443
411
1990
1995
2000
653
721
2005
2006
7,1
6,6
6,2
873
7,3 15
10
7,6
6,0
1.351
987
754
680
7,2
1.104
1.064
950
1.080
2008
2009
2010
Percent
Billion US Dollars
9,8
7,2
1.314
5
0
2007
2011
Global Agricultural Commodity Import (left Axis)
Global Agricultural Commodity Export (left Axis)
Share of Agriculture in Global Total Import (Right Axis)
Source: Calculated by using the FAO online database (FAOSTAT), 2014.
In this context, while a rapid export growth has been observed in manufacturing sector,
export growth has been slower in agriculture sector because of this protectionist approach.
Hence, although global agricultural commodities trade has increased from 678 billion US
Dollars in 1990 to 2,7 trillion US Dollars in 2011, its share in total trade declined by 2,3 percent
(Figure 4).
Agricultural commodity trade of the 57 OIC Member Countries increased considerably
from 1990 to 2011. In last two decades, total agricultural commodity import of the OIC Region
reached to 205 billion US Dollars in 2011 from 35 billion US Dollars in 1990 by increasing 488
percent. Correspondingly, total agricultural commodity export of this Region rose by 603
percent and reached 143 billion US Dollars in 2011. As a result, total agricultural trade in the
OIC Region grew by almost 530 percent from 1990 to 2011 and reached 348 billion US Dollars
(Figure 5).
5
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Figure 5. OIC Agricultural Commodities Trade and Share in World Total (1990-2011)
Billion US Dollars
Percent
400
14,6
350
13,5
300
11,3
250
11,3
12
10,9
10
134
6
115
100
77
52
35
88
51
20
34
28
1990
1995
2000
4
54
61
75
2005
2006
2007
101
88
2008
2009
113
OIC Agricultural
Commodities
Export (Left Axis)
Share of OIC
Export in the
World Total
(Right Axis)
143
2
0
2010
OIC Agricultural
Commodities
Import (Left Axis)
8
161
151
6,9
10,4
205
9,2
8,6
8,4
8,2
6,3
150
0
12,6
9,5
7,7
14
13,6
11,7
9,9
200
50
11,9
16
15,2
2011
Share of OIC
Import in the
World Total
(Right Axis)
Source: Calculated by using the FAO online database (FAOSTAT), 2014.
In addition to the growth of OIC’s agricultural commodity trade, its share in the global
agricultural commodity trade has also increased between 1990 and 2011, despite the decline
experienced in some years. As understood from Figure 5, the share of agricultural commodity
import of the OIC Region reached 15,2 percent in 2011 from 9,9 percent in 1990. Similarly, the
share of the agricultural commodity import of the Region increased from 6,3 percent to 10,9
percent in the same period.
At the sub-regional level, Asian Group had the highest level of share in the OIC’s
agricultural commodity export with 71 percent in 2011. As of 2011, Asian Group was followed
by Arab Group and African Group with 19 percent and 10 percent agricultural commodity
export respectively (Figure 6).
In terms of agricultural commodity import, Arab Group accounted for more than half of
the OIC’s total in the same period. It was followed by Asian Group and African Group
respectively.
6
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Figure 6. Share of Sub-Regions in the OIC’s Agricultural Commodity Trade, (1990-2011,
Percent)
80
70
67
70
71
70
69
60
60
Export of Arab
Group
59
54
50
52
43
40
39
50
42
40
38
33
18
14
10
19
19
16
8
14
8
12
11
10
7
19
19
1995
2000
2005
Import of Arab
Group
10
8
8
0
1990
Export of Asian
Group
Import of
African Group
22
20
52
50
30
Export of
African Group
2010
2011
Import of Asian
Group
Source: Calculated by using the FAO online database (FAOSTAT), 2014.
According to the Figure 7 and Annex 6, the OIC agricultural trade balance recorded 62,1
billion US Dollars deficit as of 2011. Asian Group had 21,3 billion US Dollars agricultural trade
balance surplus in 2011.
Except Asian Group, the other sub-regions had trade deficit. Especially, Arab Group
draws attention with the high amount of agricultural trade deficit which was 80.9 billion US
Dollars in 2011. African Group had only 2,5 billion US Dollars agricultural trade deficits.
7
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Figure 7. Agricultural Commodity Trade Balance in the OIC and Examined Sub-Regions,
(2011, Billion US Dollars)
250,0
205,2
200,0
143,1
150,0
107,7
102,2
86,4
100,0
50,0
16,6
14,1
Import
Export
0,0
-50,0
-100,0
21,3
-2,5
Trade Import
Balance
African Group
Export
21,2
Trade Import
Balance
Arab Group
Export
Trade Import
Balance
Asian Group
Export
OIC
Trade
Balance
-62,1
-80,9
Source: Calculated by using the FAO online database (FAOSTAT), 2014.
At the individual country level, the most of the total exports of agricultural products in
the OIC Region were realized by a few member countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey,
Cote d'Ivoire and Iran. These countries constituted 70,9 percent of the OIC’s total agricultural
commodity exports (Calculated by using Annex 5).
As in the case of export, the total imports of agricultural products in the OIC Member
Countries concentrated in a few member countries, namely Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Indonesia,
United Arab Emirates, Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Algeria, Nigeria and Bangladesh. These
countries accounted for 68,7 percent of the OIC’s total agricultural commodity imports
(Calculated by using Annex 4).
When the Annex 6 is examined, it is seen that the OIC Region and most of its Member
Countries recorded agricultural trade deficit ascending in the period from 1990 to 2011. While
the trade deficit of the OIC Member Countries was 14,6 billion US Dollars in 1990, it increased
by 326,7 percent and reached 62,1 billion US Dollars in 2011.
At the country level, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cote d'Ivoire, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Cameroon,
Uganda, Benin, Guyana, Burkina Faso and Togo were countries recording agricultural trade
balance surplus in 2011.
8
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
1.2. Agricultural Population
According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)’s data, the total population of the
OIC is about 1,6 billion in 2012. Although its share in total population decreased from year to
year, 52,8 percent of the OIC population is still living in rural areas. According to the statistics
for the same year, 66,3 percent of the people living in rural areas are engaged in agricultural
activities.
In 2012, the agricultural population of the OIC Member Countries, 568 million,
constituted 35 percent of the total OIC population. In general terms, the share of agricultural
population in total population is decreasing in the OIC as well as in all sub-regions examined.
In the OIC sub-region, although agricultural population accounted for almost half of the total in
1990 with 49,8 percent, its share decreased to 42,3 percent in 2000, 40,1 percent in 2005 and
35 percent in 2012. Within the examined sub-regions, the share remained higher in the
African Group with 47 percent and the lowest level was Arab Group in with 24,2 percent in
2012 (Table 1).
The main reason of decreasing the agricultural population share was that the increase in
agricultural population was lower than the increase in total population throughout the years.
This reflects that worldwide trend of urbanization is also observable for the OIC Member
Countries, in total.
Table 1. Share of Agricultural Population in the OIC and the World (%)
Country
Agricultural Population
1990
1995
2000
2005
2012
African Group
61,7
58,3
54,8
51,5
47,0
Arab Group
38,3
34,8
31,6
28,5
24,2
Asian Group
49,9
45,0
41,7
38,6
34,4
OIC
49,8
45,5
42,3
39,2
35,0
World
46,3
44,3
42,2
40,1
37,2
Source: Calculated by using the FAO online database (FAOSTAT), 2014.
On the other hand, at the individual country level, agricultural population represented
more than 50 percent of the total population in 16 OIC Member Countries. The share of people
dealing with agriculture is over 75 percent in some OIC Countries such as Burkina Faso, Niger,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia and Mozambique. As the majority of their population
depending on agriculture for their livelihood, agriculture sector has a vital importance for the
OIC Member Countries in African Group.6
6
SESRIC, 2009.
9
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
1.3. Agricultural Labor Productivity
To ensure sustainable economic development in every sector, efficient use of production
factors is crucial. As a decisive production factor, it is possible to consider labor which makes
other production factors active. In such cases, labor mobilizes sources for reproduction and
7
improvement of other production factors.
The term “labor productivity” is quantitatively determined by comparing labor cost with
the total efficiency of labor, which is usually depicted by the amount of produced output. In
literature, the term is sometimes used to express the productivity of labor and in some cases it
denotes the total profitability of the coefficients and production factors. Furthermore,
according to another broader definition, productivity refers to production processes and is
quantitatively expressed as the quantity of produced goods divided by the units of the
8
production coefficients used.
In this study, in order to calculate labor productivity, agricultural value added (at
current price-US Dollar) is divided by economically active people in agricultural sector.
When the figures that have been calculated according to this method are analyzed, it is
understood that the labor productivity is higher than the world average in the OIC in all
examined years (Figure 8).
On the other hand, Figure 8 reveals that Arab Group has the highest labor productivity
among the three regions. Arab Group owes this to high level labor productivity of Lebanon,
Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. Although the levels of labor productivity are
high in the OIC, it must be recognized that the region is unsuitable for agriculture development
due to its limited water resources and climatic conditions. In this context, the higher levels of
labor productivity are probably due to a host of factors including high levels of mechanization
and use of fertilizer and pesticides. It may be noted that the levels of labor productivity in the
9
UAE and Lebanon are comparable to those in high income countries.
The level of labor productivity in the African Group is the lowest one in the OIC. Some
African Group Member Countries such as Uganda, Mozambique, Guinea and Burkina Faso have
the lowest levels of labor productivity of the OIC. The low levels of mechanization and fertilizer
use, water scarcity and using labor intensive methods are the main reasons of the low
agricultural labor productivity in this sub-region.
Bervidova, 2002
Polyzos 2003; Polyzos and Arabatzis, 2005
9 IDB, 2009
7
8
10
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Figure 8. Agricultural Labor Productivity in the OIC and the World (US Dollar Per
Economically Active Worker in Agriculture)
5.000
4.500
4.000
3.500
3.000
1990
2.500
2000
2.000
2012
1.500
1.000
500
0
African Group
Arab Group
Asian Group
OIC
World
Source: Calculated by Using the FAO Online Database (FAOSTAT), 2014.
1.4. Land Use
The world’s cultivated area has grown by 12 percent over the last 50 years. The global
irrigated area has doubled over the same period, accounting for most of the net increase in
cultivated land. Meanwhile, agricultural production has grown between 2,5 and 3 times,
thanks to significant increase in the yield of major crops. However, global achievements in
production in some regions have been associated with the degradation of land resources, and
the deterioration of related ecosystem goods and services, such as decreasing of biomass and
carbon storage as well as damaging soil health and biodiversity.
According to FAO’s 2011 data, agriculture uses 4,9 billion hectares area, representing 38
percent of the world’s land surface. Agriculture is a major user of land. Hence, in order to make
agriculture sustainable it is important to maintain the quantity and quality of soil resources.
Agriculture must be at the center of any discussion of natural resource management and global
environmental objectives. The responsible management of natural resources requires
ensuring adequate food and water for all while at the same time achieving sustainable rural
development and livelihoods for the current and future generations10.
Land resources and the way they are used are central to the challenge of improving food
security across the world. Demographic pressures, climate change, and the increased
competition for a land are likely to increase vulnerability to food insecurity, particularly in
10
FAO, 2012b.
11
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Africa and Asia. The challenge of providing sufficient food for everyone worldwide has never
been greater.11
For improving nutrition and alleviating food insecurity and undernourishment, future
agricultural production will have to rise faster than population growth. This will have to occur
largely on existing agricultural land. Improvements will thus have to come from sustainable
intensification that makes effective use of land without harming and spoiling this precious
resource. As estimated by FAO, almost 5 to 7 million hectares of agricultural land are lost each
year due to land degradation and urbanization12.
Taking into account the issues mentioned above, for the OIC Member Countries
sustainable land management is vital as most of them are facing with food insecurity and have
more population growth than world average. Thus, it is important to find out the situation of
these countries to determine the problems and to propose recommendations.
Table 2 provides some data on amounts of total land, agricultural land, permanent crops
land and permanent meadows, and pastures in the OIC Member Countries as well as in the
world. As seen at this Table, the OIC Member Countries’ total land area of 3,2 billion hectares,
equal to 29 percent of the world. Almost 1,42 billion hectares, representing 44,5 percent of this
total land is used as agricultural land. The OIC’s agricultural area share in the land area is
higher than the world average (37,8 percent).
Out of this 1,42 billion hectares agricultural area, 293 million hectares are arable land,
almost 55 million hectares are reserved for permanent crops, and 1,04 billion hectares are
used as permanent meadows and pastures. As understood from these figures, most of the OIC
Member Countries’ agricultural area with 73,5 percent consists of permanent meadows and
pastures. This is almost parallel with the general distribution in the world. However, as
compared to EU where 60 percent of the agricultural land was used for arable crops, 33
percent for permanent pasture and 6 percent for permanent crops, the OIC Region has very
high level of permanent meadows and pastures but arable land is very low as a percentage.
On the other hand, Table 2 reveals that at the sub-regional level, Arab Group has 37,4
percent of the total agricultural area of the OIC and it is followed by Asian Group and African
Group with 37,3 and 25,3 percent, respectively. Arab Group has also the highest levels in terms
of permanent meadows and pastures with 43,6 percent. In terms of both arable land and
permanent crops, Asian Group has the highest level with 46 and 61 percent, respectively.
Additionally, looking at the individual country level Kazakhstan, Saudi Arabia and Sudan
have significant amount of OIC’s agricultural land with 14,7 percent, 12,2 percent and 7,7
percent, respectively. But most of their agricultural area mainly consists of permanent
meadows and pastures (Annex 8).
11
12
FAO, 2011.
Haktanır, 2003.
12
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Table 2. Land Use in OIC Countries in 2011 (Thousands Hectares)
Land Area13
Agricultural
Area
Arable Land14
Permanent
Crops15
Permanent
Meadows and
Pastures16
As % of World Total
African Group
9,1
11,3
8,7
8,9
12,4
Arab Group
8,6
7,9
3,9
6,3
9,2
Asian Group
6,8
9,8
8,4
20,6
9,4
OIC
24,5
28,9
21,0
35,9
31,1
World
100
100
100
100
100
African Group
24,1
25,3
35,3
24,4
23,2
Arab Group
43,1
37,4
18,7
14,6
43,6
Asian Group
32,9
37,3
46,0
61,0
33,2
OIC
100
100
100
100
100
As % of OIC Total
As % of Agricultural Area
African Group
-
100
34,1
3,8
116,3
Arab Group
-
100
10,1
1,8
58,2
Asian Group
-
100
22,1
6,6
65,9
OIC
-
100
20,7
3,9
73,5
World
-
100
28,4
3,1
68,4
Source: FAOSTAT.
In addition to this, examining the share of agricultural land in total area for each country,
it is found out that this share is higher than 70 percent in Comoros, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia and
Kazakhstan. Contrary to this, the share is below 10 percent in 9 member countries which are
Brunei, Egypt, Guyana, Kuwait, Libya, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Qatar and Suriname.
Furthermore, analyzing the historical changes in amount of agricultural land, and
agricultural area per person in the OIC would be beneficial to identify the trends and make
prediction for future. The Figure 9 demonstrates that total agricultural area in the OIC Region
had increased by only 7,6 percent to reach almost 1,42 billion hectares in 2011 from 1,32
billion hectares in 1990. However, due to higher population growth rate agricultural area per
person decreased from 1,3 hectares to 0,9 hectares.
Land area refers to total area excluding area under inland water bodies such as lakes and rivers.
This refers to all land generally under rotation whether for temporary crops or meadows, or left fallow.
15 This signifies land used for crops occupying it for a long period of time and which do not ha ve to be planted for several
years after each harvest. Land under trees and shrubs producing flowers, such as roses and jasmine, is so classified, as are
nurseries.
16 This means land used permanently (i. e., for five years and more) for herbaceous forage crops.
13
14
13
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Figure 9. Changes in the Total and Per Person Agricultural Area (1990-2011)
1,3
1.420
1,4
1,2
1,2
1,1
Million Hectares
1.400
1,0
0,9
1.380
1,0
0,8
1.360
1.340
1.392
1.320
1.410
1.395
1.420
0,6
Hektares/Person
1.440
0,4
1.300
1.320
0,2
1.280
1.260
0,0
1990
1995
2000
2005
Total Agricultural Area
2011
Agricultural Area Per Person
Source: FAOSTAT.
Considering the fact that expanding the agricultural land is very limited and the
population of the OIC Region continues to increase, agricultural land per person is expected to
decrease gradually in the future.
1.5.
Input Use
1.5.1. Irrigation
Agricultural production has been increased considerably since 1960s in the world. The
increase in crop yield has a crucial role in this increase. Progresses in the quantity and quality
of agricultural inputs, such as fertilizer, water, mechanization, fuel, seed, land and labor, have
been the main reason of crop yield increase. It is estimated that growing fertilizer application
and more water usage by irrigation have been responsible for over 70 percent of the crop yield
increase throughout the world.17
Water is the most crucial input for agricultural production. One of the remarkable
characteristics of water is that in addition to the fact of its being an indispensable input it
works as an augmenting input in agriculture when it is combined with other inputs of
production such as improved seeds and fertilizer.18 Thus it has a tremendous role to play in
agriculture in increasing both production and productivity.
The total volume of water on earth is about 1,4 billion km3 of which only 2,5 percent, or
about 35 million km3, is freshwater. Freshwater is a highly valuable resource as there are large
17
http://www.grida.no/publications/rr/food-crisis/page/3562.aspx
and Bhattacharjee, 2005.
18 Nayak
14
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
number of competing demands, including drinking water, irrigation, hydroelectricity, waste
disposal, industrial processes, transport and recreation, as well as ecosystem functions and
services. As mentioned above, agricultural sector is the most important user with 70 percent in
terms of amount of all freshwater used by humans within these competing sectors at the global
level.19 However in developing regions like Africa and Asia, agriculture uses 86 and 81 percent
of their total water, respectively (Figure 10).20
Figure 10 also discloses that share of agriculture in water consumption is lower in
continents having high level precipitation than arid and semi-arid ones.
Figure 10. Share of Agriculture in Total Water Consumption (%)
100
90
90
86
81
80
72
70
70
64
60
50
39
40
29
30
20
10
0
OIC
Africa
Asia
Oceania
World
Carrabian
Europe
Source: Calculated by Using FAO, AQUASTAT online database, 2014.
As to OIC Member Countries, they have 6.893 km3 of renewable water resources that
accounts for 12 percent of the world’s total. Although the OIC Region has 28 percent of world’s
total agricultural area, it has only 12 percent of total freshwater indicating that the majority of
the OIC Member Countries are under the water scarcity. From Figure 11, this situation can be
understood clearly. This Figure reveals that Africa and Asia, covering most of the OIC Member
Countries, have very low level renewable fresh water for per hectares compared to America,
Europe and the average of the world. The world average is three times higher than that of the
OIC.
On the other hand, Europe, having 19,8 percent of the world’s total agricultural area,
has 24.270 m3/year renewable water for per hectare agricultural land. In addition, America
that possesses one fourth of the world’s total agricultural area has high level renewable water
per hectare due to its rich water potential.
19
20
UNEP, http://www.unep.org/geo/GEO3/english/pdfs/chapter2-5_Freshwater.pdf
SESRIC, 2010a.
15
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Figure 11. Renewable Water Potential in the World (2011)
m3/hectare
30.000
Percent
120
% 100
25.000
100
20.000
80
15.000
60
% 42,4
10.000
5.000
0
% 26,5
% 12,0
% 9,7
3.418
4.752
OIC
Africa
24.270
40
20.049
% 19,8
9.330
11.698
20
% 1,6
2.107
Asia
America
Europe
Renewable Fresh Water Per Hectare (m3/hectare)
0
Ocania
World
Renewable Fresh Water (Percent)
Source: Calculated by Using FAO, AQUASTAT online database, 2014.
As OIC Member Countries are dispersed over a large geographical region, on four
continents and have wide range of climate conditions, water resources also disperse unequally
among its sub-regions. While Asian Group has 73,3 percent of the OIC’s total renewable water
resource with 5.053 km3/year, Arab Group has only 4,6 percent share. It is followed by African
Group with 22,1 percent (1.526 km3). Likewise, African Group has 23,5 percent of total
renewable water, despite its wide surface area (Figure 12).
Figure 12. Renewable Water Potential in the OIC by Sub-Region
8000
120
6.893
% 100
6000
5053
80
km3
5000
% 73,3
4000
60
3000
2000
1000
100
40
1526
% 22,1
0
African Group
20
315
% 4,6
0
Arab Group
Asian Group
Renewable Water (km3)
OIC
Renewable Water (%)
Source: Calculated by Using FAO, AQUASTAT and SESRIC, BASEDIN online databases, 2014.
16
Percent
7000
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
At country level, big differences are seen among the Member Countries regarding
amount of renewable water. In terms of their renewable water resources, some OIC Member
Countries are very rich while most of them are under water-scarcity. Figure 13 and Figure 14
indicate Member Countries which have more than 200 km3 and less than 10 km3, respectively.
Analyzing figures, it is seen that Indonesia, Bangladesh and Malaysia are very rich countries in
this respect. In addition, Cameroon, Pakistan, Guyana, Guinea, Mozambique, and Turkey have
relatively high level of water resource. On the other hand, 17 countries have less than 10 km3
and even most of them have so low level renewable water resource that their potential is
below 1 km3.
Figure 13. Renewable Water-Rich OIC Member Countries, (2011, over 200 km3/year)
2.500
2.000
1.500
1.000
500
0
Source: Calculated by Using FAO, AQUASTAT online databases, 2014.
Figure 14. Renewable Water-Poor OIC Member Countries, (2011, below 10 km3/year)
9,00
8,00
7,00
6,00
5,00
4,00
3,00
2,00
1,00
0,00
Source: Calculated by Using FAO, AQUASTAT online databases, 2014.
17
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
In addition to these countries’ current water potential, the other important water
resource is precipitation. Precipitation provides soil with moisture that is a crucial factor for
productivity in agriculture.
Looking at precipitation in OIC Member Countries, it is understood that most of them
have average precipitation less than 500 mm per year which shows high prevalence of aridity
in these countries. Especially, all countries located on Arab Group which covers 20 countries
have 500 mm precipitation except for Comoros and Lebanon.
On the other hand, as at long-term average precipitation in depth 16 countries possess
more than 1.000 mm annually. Of these countries, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Bangladesh,
Sierra Leone, Guyana and Suriname receive over 2.000 mm.
When discussing the irrigation in the OIC Member Countries, it is not adequate to know
their water potential. Additionally, we need to determine the situation regarding irrigation
systems which ensure the utilization of this potential in agriculture.
As mentioned above, the large part of the OIC Member Countries located in arid and
semi-arid regions geographically. Hence, widespread and modern irrigation systems, including
water storage facilities are required.
In the OIC Member Countries as a whole traditional ways of irrigation are widely used.
Therefore, the efficient use of water in agriculture is not adequately addressed by the countries
of the region where sustainability of the existing irrigation systems is at stake. While surface
irrigation is by far the most widely used system in irrigation, practiced on 87,6 percent of the
total full and partial control irrigation area, the most water-saving system through microirrigation techniques is only practiced on a mere 1,4 percent of the total irrigation area. For
these reasons, unfortunately, irrigation water efficiency is below 45 percent in most of the OIC
Member Countries.21
1.5.2. Fertilizers Use
The average use of fertilizer per hectare in OIC countries increased from 46,9 kilograms
in 2002 to 67,6 kilograms in 2011. However, as shown in Figure 15, the use of fertilizer in OIC
Region is far behind of the world average. As of 2011, the world average fertilizer use reached
98,8 kilograms.
21
http://www.sesric.org/files/oic-water-vision/overview-of-water-issues.pdf.
18
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Figure 15. Fertilizer Use in the OIC and World (2011, kg/ha)
120
100
80
OIC
60
World
40
20
0
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Source: Calculated by Using FAO, AQUASTAT online databases, 2014.
At the sub-regional level, the use of fertilizer in African Group Countries are very low
with 5,4 kg/h. On the other hand, the use of fertilizer in Arab Group Countries and Asian Group
Countries is 107,3 kg/ha and 98,1 kg/ha, respectively (See Annex 11) .
1.5.3. Agricultural Mechanization
The ratio of number of tractor per 1000 hectares of arable land in the OIC countries
declined to 6,9 in 2008 from 9,8 in 2002. Even though the number of tractors used increased in
the OIC countries between 2002 and 2008, increase in the arable land area was higher.
Therefore, this ratio has decreased. Developed countries and other developing countries also
experienced a similar reduction in this ratio. As of 2008, the world average was 4,8 and the
average of other developing countries was 1,72. In other words, compared with other
developing countries and the world average, the OIC Countries are in a better position
collectively in terms of tractor use. Nevertheless, the OIC Countries still have insufficient
agricultural mechanization relative to developed countries group in which the ratio is
calculated as 10. Therefore, considering that the same area of arable land is harvested by 6,9
tractors in the OIC countries compared to 10 in developed countries22. Thus, the use of
agricultural machinery in the OIC Countries needs to be improved.
22
SESRIC, 2013.
19
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
1.6.
Agricultural Production and Productivity
The OIC Member Countries pursue a wide range of crop and livestock production system
because of the fact that they have different agro-ecological zone, agricultural infrastructure,
and producing and consuming habit. Hence, a large variety of agricultural products are grown
in the OIC as a whole. And its Member States have different yield level depending on their level
of using agricultural mechanization and other agricultural inputs as well as climatic conditions.
In terms of the volume of agriculture production, as of 2011, OIC Member Countries
constituted 15 percent of the world total cereals production, with a very slight increase
compared to their level of 13.5 percent in 2000. In the same year, its share in the world fruit
production accounted for 18,9 percent, decreasing from 19,3 percent in 2000. The share of the
OIC Member Countries in the world total production of vegetables increased from 14,6 percent
in 2000 to 15 percent in 2011. Meanwhile, their shares in the total meat production of the
world and the developing countries decreased from 15,3 percent and 11,9 percent (Figure 16).
Figure 16. Agricultural Production in the OIC
Million Tons
3.000
%
25
2.587
2.500
19,3%
2.061
20
18,9%
2.000
15,0%
13,5%
1.500
15,3%
15,0%
14,6%
15
11,9%
1.088
1.000
500
279
638
475
387
5
121
92
163
114
0
2000
2011
Cereals
OIC (left axis)
10
777
2000
2011
2000
Fruit
2011
Vegetable
World (left axis)
11 73
9 76
2000
2011
0
Meat
OIC Share in the World Total (rigth axis)
Source: Calculated by Using FAO, AQUASTAT online databases, 2013.
At the country level, total OIC agricultural production concentrated within a few
member countries such as Indonesia, Turkey, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Pakistan, Iran, and Egypt.23
The agricultural production has increased from 236 to 644 billion US Dollars in the
period of 2000-2011. Hence, although OIC share in the world total gross agricultural value
didn’t pursue steady trends, it increased from 16,2 percent in 2000 to 16,5 percent in 2011.
23
SESRIC, 2010.
20
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Figure 17. Gross Agricultural Production Value in the OIC and the World
Billion US Dollars
%
4500
18
17,3
4000
17
16,9
3500
16,4
3000
16,6
16,4
16,6
16,517
16,2
2500
2000
16
16,0
15,9
16
15,5
15,2
1500
15
1000
15
500
0
14
2000
2001
2002
OIC (Left Axis)
2003
2004
2005
2006
World (Left Axis)
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
OIC Share in the World Total (Right Axis)
Source: Calculated by Using FAO, AQUASTAT online databases, 2013.
Another important issue for analyzing agricultural production in the OIC is agricultural
productivity (yield). To do this, using yield of wheat which is one of the most common
cultivated product in the OIC determine the changes agricultural productivity in the period of
1990-2011. In this framework, the average wheat yield in the OIC and the world are given in
Figure 18.
As can be seen from this Figure, wheat yield has increased in general both in the OIC and
in the world for last two decades. But, increase in the world wheat yield has been steadier.
Moreover, the world average wheat yield has surpassed the OIC figures. As of 2012, world
average wheat yield was 47,8 percent higher than OIC’s.
21
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Figure 18. Wheat Yield in the OIC and the World, (1990-2012, tons/hectare)
3,5
3,0
2,5
2,0
OIC
1,5
World
1,0
0,5
0,0
Source: Calculated by Using FAO, AQUASTAT online databases, 2014.
22
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
2.
Food Security and Malnutrition in the OIC Member Countries
According to the FAO, food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical,
social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary
needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Household food security is the
application of this concept to the family level, with individuals within households as the focus
of concern.24
According to the FAO report, The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2012, it is
estimated that 868 million people representing 12,5 percent of the global population
chronically suffer from undernourishment. Despite the economic crises in 2007-2008 there
has been a significant decline in this figure since 1990 (Figure 19).
Figure 19. Changes in Prevalence and Number Undernourished People in the World, 1990-2012
Million
1050
%
20%
18,60%
1000
1000
18%
16%
15%
13,80%
12,90%
950
14%
12,50% 12%
10%
919
900
8%
898
867
868
850
6%
4%
2%
800
0%
1990-1992
1999-2001
2004-2006
Number (Millions)
2007-2009
2010-2012
Prevalance (%)
Source: FAO, The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2012.
On the other hand, while the number of undernourished people has been decreasing at
global level in the period of 1990-2012, both Sub-Saharan Africa and Western Asia-Northern
Africa in which many OIC Member Countries are located have been the regions that
undernourishment has increased (Table 3).
Picture 1 shows the classification of the countries according to the Global Hunger Index
It clearly reveals that most of the OIC Member Countries are located in the area facing
severe hunger especially in Asian and Sub-Saharan African group countries. Moreover, hunger
(GHI)25.
FAO, 2010.
The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger globally and by country and
region. It is calculated each year by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). To reflect the multidimensional
nature of hunger, the GHI combines three equally weighted indicators in one index number. These are the proportion of
undernourished population, children younger than the age of five and child mortality.
24
25
23
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
ratio is lower in countries located on Mediterranean Basin. Hence, it is important to display the
food security situation in the OIC in this outlook for better defining the OIC agriculture sector.
Table 3. Number of Undernourished by Region (million)
Region
1990-1992
Developed Regions
20
Southern Asia
327
Sub-Saharan Africa
170
Eastern Asia
261
South-Eastern Asia
134
Latin America and the Caribbean
65
Western Asia and Northern Africa
13
Caucasus and Central Asia
9
Oceania
1
Source: FAO, The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2012.
2010-2012
16
304
234
167
65
49
25
6
1
Rate of Increase
-20,0
-7,0
37,6
-36,0
-51,5
-24,6
92,3
-33,3
0
Picture 1. Global Hunger Map
Source: World Food Programme.
The FAO statistics on food consumption cover mainly two basic categories of food
ingredients. 26 These have been dietary energy supply adequacy and the average protein
26
Haktanır, 2003.
24
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
supply. In terms of dietary energy supply adequacy, there is not a serious problem in the OIC
as a whole (see Annex 12).
But, average protein supply has been less than needed level in general. There has been
sufficient protein supply in very limited countries such as Lebanon, United Arab Emirates,
Kazakhstan, Maldives, and Turkey. Nonetheless, in most of the African Group countries only
half of required amount of protein has been supplied (see Annex 13).
On the other hand, food deficit of the OIC was 83 kcal/caput/day, which was higher than
the world average (94 kcal/caput/day) in 2007-09. However, it was quite below than
developed countries’ average (94 kcal/caput/day). For detailed information on this issue,
please refer to the Annex 14.
After examining food supply in the OIC, a crucial question is that what percentage of
total population of the OIC is nourished and what percentage is undernourished.
Figure 20 displays the number of undernourished people in the OIC and examined
regions of the OIC in the period 1990-92 to 2010-2012. It discloses that the number of
undernourished people in the OIC decreased from 194 million in 1990-1992 to 179 million in
2000-2012 in parallel with the global trend. After that, this figure increased to 185 million in
2010-2012. Thereby, the share of undernourished people in total decreased from 18,3 percent
to 11,4 percent.
At the regional level, despite the higher proportion of undernourishment in African
Group, Asia Group has almost half of the total undernourished people due to its high
population. However, its number of undernourished people has been decreasing since 1990.
Meanwhile, number of undernourished people in the African Group has increased by 52
percent ascending from 24,2 million to 36,9 million.
It is understood from the aforementioned topics that undernourishment is one of the
major problems of the OIC Region.
In order to ascertain the reasons of hunger and expectation regarding to the future of
hunger in the OIC, economic situation needs to be analyzed in terms of access to food, food
price volatility, population growth and nutrition.
Countries’ economic power directly affects their affordability. Affordability is resulted in
better nutritional outcomes and improving access to adequate food in terms of both quantity
and quality.
25
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Figure 20. Trend of the Number of the Undernourished People in the OIC and by Sub-Regions
Millions
250
200
194
187
189
185
179
150
African Group
Arab Group
Asian Group
100
50
115
59
115
55
24
24
OIC
109
58
102
64 37
54 29
25
92
0
1990-92
1995-97
2000-02
2005-07
2010-12
Source: Calculated by Using FAO, AQUASTAT online databases, 2013; FAO, 2012 and IFPRI, 2012.
Figure 21. Share of the Undernourished People in Total in the OIC and by Region
30
26,0
25
21,2
20
15
10
19,7
18,3
17,7
16,9
14,5
15,5
10,1
African Group
16,3
16,6
8,8
12,6
13,9
12,1
8,8
8,5
11,4
10,6
9,9
Arab Group
Asian Group
OIC
5
0
1990-92
1995-97
2000-02
2005-07
2010-12
Source: Calculated by using FAOSTAT Online Database, FAO, 2012 and IFPRI, 2012.
Affordability is also important for alleviating hunger in respect of improving access to
health services; better consumer awareness regarding adequate nutrition and child care
26
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
practices; and targeted distribution of supplements in situations of acute micronutrient
deficiencies. Good nutrition, in turn, is key to sustainable economic growth.27
Figure 22 exhibits some economic indicators in the OIC in the last two decades. It reveals
that there was no decline for any indicators in the period of 1990-2011 in the OIC as a whole.
Moreover, the OIC’s economic growth ratio has been over the world average since 2001. In this
framework, its share in global GDP has been increased in the period of 2001-2011.
Figure 22. Some Economic Indicators of the OIC (1991-2011)
%
Billion US Dollars
20
7.000
6.000
15
5.000
10
4.000
3.000
5
2.000
0
1.000
-5
GDP in OIC (current price)
Share of the OIC in global GDP
Economic Growth of the OIC
Economic Growth of the World
0
Source: Calculated by UNSTAT Online database.
Despite the growth in GDP, the share of the OIC in global GDP, which is 8,3 percent in
2011, is still very low, considering the OIC population constitutes almost 23 percent of the
world population. Hence, its per capita GDP is dramatically below the world average, especially
in African Group countries. Figure 23 displays the per capita GDP in the OIC by region and the
world. As observed from the figure OIC’s per capita GDP is approximately one third of the
world’s GDP. In addition, African Group’s per capita GDP is one tenth of the world’s per capita
GDP. It is understood from this figure that due to low income, prevalence of hunger would be
high in some parts of the OIC, particularly in Africa.
On the other hand, economic power is not enough to evaluate the reasons of the hunger.
The other important issue that should be considered is changes in the food prices. Because,
increasing food prices limits access to food especially by low income people.
27
FAO, 2012.
27
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Figure 23. Per capita GDP in the OIC by Sub-Regions and the World at Current Prices.
US Dollar /Per
Person
12.000
Number
1,20
10.000
1,00
8.000
0,80
6.000
0,60
4.000
0,40
2.000
0,20
0
0,00
1990
1995
2000
2005
2011
OIC (left axis)
World (letf
axis)
African
Group
GDP/World
GDP (right
axis)
Arab Group
GDP/World
GDP (right
axis)
Asian Group
GDP/World
GDP (right
axis)
Source: Calculated by using UNSTAT and FAOSTAT Online Databases.
Food Price Index (FPI) is used to measure the changes in food prices. Figure 24 shows
the world food price index in the period of 1990-2013, while taking years 2002-2004 as the
base year. As it is seen from this Figure, there were two important increases in food price
levels in this period. The first occurred in 2007-2008 due to global food crisis. The reasons of
this crisis were increasing petroleum prices, global drought, and growing demand for food in
developing economies like China and India.
Figure 24. World Food Price Index (1990-2013)
Source: FAOSTAT Online Database, available at, http://www.fao.org/worldfoodsituation/wfshome/foodpricesindex/en/
28
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Table 4 shows the top ten countries with the highest FPI in the period of 2000-11, using
2000 as the base year. As observed in the Table, most of the OIC Member Countries were
considerably more affected than the other countries from different continents.
On the other hand, the most important reason of the 2011 food prices increase is
considered to be the instability in the Middle East and North Africa, and the climate change.
The OIC Member Countries seem to be more affected from the 2011 food price increase.
Table 4. Food Price Index in Some Countries and the World
Country
Guinea
Yemen
Mozambique
Iraq
Pakistan
Sierra Leone
Uganda
Indonesia
Egypt
Gambia
Mauritania
Bangladesh
Iran
France
Germany
Greece
Italy
Japan
Brazil
Australia
World (*)
2000
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
90,4
2001 2002 2003
124,6
115,7 121,2 141,4
110,7 132,3 148,8
2004
151,0
168,3
165,0
2005
206,9
199,9
173,9
101,8 105,9 108,6
100,0
96,6 92,5 106,7
108,5 120,2 121,2
101,1 105,3 112,3
99,3 117,2 141,2
106,5 111,3 117,9
100,8 103,4 110,1
106,6 124,0 145,9
105,1 107,8 110,2
104,6 105,3 105,2
105,0 110,5 116,1
104,1 107,9 111,3
99,4 98,6 98,4
106,7 117,0 140,8
106,6 110,4 114,4
93,4 89,9 97,7
120,2
120,1
111,4
128,3
100,0
164,0
131,2
118,3
164,8
110,9
104,8
116,7
113,7
99,3
146,5
117,1
112,4
132,1
137,6
126,1
140,3
105,1
169,2
149,3
127,8
186,3
111,0
105,3
117,4
113,7
97,8
151,0
120,0
117,3
2006
294,9
269,5
203,6
237,5
143,3
141,0
139,3
161,9
115,7
172,2
157,3
137,5
205,5
112,7
107,3
121,8
115,6
98,3
151,0
129,2
126,7
2007
378,9
317,9
224,6
270,4
158,8
159,3
142,8
180,4
130,6
185,8
173,9
151,9
100,0
114,3
110,5
125,7
119,0
98,6
161,3
132,3
158,7
2008
456,9
323,2
266,9
300,0
202,6
186,4
171,1
210,9
162,0
197,1
190,6
168,7
131,0
119,9
118,3
132,5
125,4
101,1
182,3
138,5
199,8
2009
489,4
331,4
285,6
323,0
229,6
203,2
213,9
225,7
188,1
207,4
195,5
177,9
146,5
120,4
116,8
135,0
127,7
101,3
192,9
143,6
156,9
2010
589,0
381,3
329,4
330,1
268,0
243,1
218,4
247,0
225,3
221,1
210,5
195,9
164,8
121,4
118,5
135,1
127,9
101,0
204,6
145,8
185,3
2011
750,2
372,8
340,1
306,7
295,7
289,0
268,1
260,2
235,3
223,9
221,0
207,8
123,7
121,8
139,3
131,1
100,6
222,7
152,9
227,6
Source: FAO, FAOSTAT and ILO, LABORSTA online databases
(*) 2002-2004= 100 index
In order to analyze food security aspect, the current situation of hunger and food supply
in the OIC is stated in previous paragraphs. Another important issue in this regard is to
monitor the future of food security in the OIC. To do this, it will be beneficial to examine the
projections related to growth in population and food production.
According to FAO’s estimates, the world population will reach to 9,3 billion by 2050 with
a 32 percent increase between 2012-2050. However, the OIC population is being projected to
29
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
reach almost 2,7 billion with 66 percent increase which is approximately two fold of the
projected world population growth rate.
Figure 25 reveals the population projections growth index of the OIC, World, Americas,
and Europe, by using 2012 as the base year. According to this Figure, while population growth
of Americas is expected to be lower than the world average, Europe’s population is estimated
to decline. Meanwhile the population of the OIC Member Countries is projected to have a high
level growth.
Figure 25. FAO Population Projections (2012-2050)
Index (2012=100)
200
190
180
166
170
160
150
OIC
150
140
World
132
132
130
126
114
120
109
110
100
118
122
126
Americas
Europe
116
108
100
90
101
100
99
97
2020
2030
2040
2050
80
2012
Source: FAO, FAOSTAT online database.
Considering the figure of expected population growth, to adequately feed a global
population at 2050, global food production should increase by seventy percent.28
In this context, production in the developing countries is required to be almost doubled.
This implies significant increases in the production of several key commodities. Annual cereal
production, for instance, would have to grow by almost one billion tones, meat production by
over 200 million tones to a total of 470 million tons in 2050, 72 percent of which in the
developing countries, up from the 58 percent today.29
On the other hand, it is seen from the projection that total cereals production which was
2.068 million tons/year in the period of 2005-2007 is estimated to reach 3 million tones by an
increase of 46 percent in 2050. Similarly, meat production is projected to increase by 76,4
percent from 258 million tons to 453 million tons in 2050.30
FAO, 2012.
FAO, 2009.
30 FAO, 2012.
28
29
30
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Additionally, it is estimated that although growth in production would slowdown in the
world, agricultural production could be more than double in South Asia and nearly triple in
sub-Saharan Africa by 2050.31
These projections mentioned briefly above reveals that despite the estimated high level
population growth, the OIC Member Countries have a chance to ensure food security by
enhancing productivity in agriculture.
The Global Food Security Index, developed by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), is
an important study to understand the food security situation for a lot of country. It considers
the core issues of food affordability, availability, and quality across a set of 107 countries, 31 of
which are the OIC Member Countries. The index is a dynamic quantitative and qualitative
scoring model and is constructed from over 25 indicators that measure the drivers of food
security across both developed and developing countries. While food security research is the
focus of many organizations worldwide, this effort is distinct for two main reasons. First, the
study looks beyond hunger to the underlying factors affecting food insecurity. Second, the
study features a unique adjustment that measures the impact of recent shifts in food prices and
income growth on a country’s ability to afford food. The adjustment factor is a top-level way of
accounting for price shocks that might compromise or further degrade a country’s food
security. This adjustment factor was incorporated into the model in October 2013.32
For the purpose of this index, food security is defined as the state in which people at all
times have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient and nutritious food that meets
their dietary needs for a healthy and active life. The overall goal of the study is to understand
which countries are most and least vulnerable to food insecurity through an examination of
the three internationally recognized areas of assessment: Affordability, Availability, and
Utilization.33
According to the index’s overall score, Saudi Arabia is the country that have the highest
score with 66,4 among the OIC Member Countries. It is followed by Turkey, Malaysia and
Tunisia with the scores of 63,8, 63,7 and 58,3 respectively.
FAO, 2012.
EIU, 2013. http://foodsecurityindex.eiu.com
33 EIU, 2013. http://foodsecurityindex.eiu.com/
31
32
31
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Figure 26. Top Five OIC Member Countries According to the Global Food Security Index
Jordan
Tunisia
Malaysia
Turkey
Saudi Arabia
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Source: EIU, 2014.
On the other hand, Sudan, Togo and Chad are included in the last ranks of the list with
total scores of 25,6, 22,9 and 22,2 respectively.
Figure 27. Last Five OIC Member Countries According to the Global Food Security Index
Chad
Togo
Sudan
Sierra Leone
Yemen
0
5
10
15
20
Source: EIU, 2014.
32
25
30
35
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
3.
Agricultural Cooperation under the COMCEC
Agriculture is one of the most important cooperation areas of the COMCEC. It has been
prioritized by the COMCEC Economic Summit held in November 2009 in İstanbul. The COMCEC
Strategy, adopted by the 4th Extraordinary Islamic Summit held on 14-15 August 2012 in
Makkah, has also determined agriculture as one of the six cooperation areas of the COMCEC.
The COMCEC Strategy sets the “Increasing the productivity of agricultural sector and
sustaining food security in the COMCEC region” as its strategic objective. The COMCEC Strategy
also highlights the common challenges of the agriculture sector in the COMCEC Region, among
others, as the following:







Low level of agricultural productivity,
Lack of appropriate legal and regulatory framework,
Low agro-industry investments,
Poor basic infrastructure and related services
Low level of agricultural mechanization,
Low level of research and development activities,
Lack of reliable and up-to-date data
In order to address these challenges, the COMCEC Strategy, in its Agriculture Section,
identifies four Output Areas (Increasing Productivity, Regulatory Framework and Institutional
Capacity, Reliable and Up-to-date Data and Market Performance) as well as specific expected
outcomes under them.
In addition, this Outlook prepared by the COMCEC Coordination Office elaborately sets
out some problems of the OIC agriculture with a view to display the situation in the OIC
Member Countries. The Outlook highlights that the challenges facing the OIC need to be
determined accurately and extensively. In this respect, in order to contribute to development
of the OIC Agriculture sector, it is crucial to initiate projects and programmes to reach the
expected outcomes determined in accordance with the aforementioned challenges.
With the purpose of realizing the objectives and the expected outcomes of the
cooperation areas, a Working Group (WG) has been formed under each cooperation area. The
COMCEC Agriculture Working Group has been established to achieve the objectives of the
COMCEC Strategy in this context. Within the framework of the Strategy, the COMCEC
Agriculture Working Group provides a regular platform for the member country experts to
discuss their common issues, concerns and problems as well as to share experiences and good
practices. Moreover, the Agriculture Working Group serves in developing a common
understanding and approximating policies among the member countries in this crucial sector.
In this respect, the first meeting of the Agriculture WG was held on 6th June 2013 with the
theme of “Increasing Agricultural Productivity in the COMCEC Region: Improving Irrigation
Capacity.”. The second meeting was also held on 19th December 2013 with the theme of
"Encouraging Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs) in the COMCEC Region for Increasing
Agricultural Productivity." Furthermore, the third meeting Agriculture WG will be held on April
3rd, 2014 in Ankara with the theme of “Improving the Statistical Capacity of the Agriculture
Sector in the COMCEC Region.”
33
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
The members of the Agriculture Working Group also have the chance to propose
multilateral cooperation projects within the framework of the new COMCEC Project Cycle
Management which is another important instrument introduced by the Strategy. The projects
to be financed under the COMCEC PCM would aim multilateral cooperation and be designed in
accordance with the objectives and the expected outcomes defined by the Strategy in its
Agriculture section.
There are also ongoing activities in the field of Agriculture under the auspices of the
COMCEC. Till now, six Ministerial Meetings on Agriculture have been held. The 6th Ministerial
Meeting on Agriculture was held on 3-5 October 2011 in Istanbul, Turkey, with the theme of
“Food Security: Agricultural Development and Access to Food and Nutrition in OIC Countries”.
The Meeting highlighted the importance of exchanging knowledge and experience and
developing technical cooperation, capacity building and training programs among the member
countries.
Furthermore, the other activities which have been held in recent years in the field of
Agriculture under the COMCEC are as the following:





Experts Group Meeting on Achieving Food Security in OIC Member Countries in
Post Crisis World (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 2-3 May 2010),
IDB Symposium on Achieving Food Security in Member Countries (Baku,
Azerbaijan 23 June 2010),
Workshop on Agriculture and Rural Development (Antalya, Turkey 16-18
September 2010),
Meeting of High Level Officials/Experts of the OIC Member States on Food
Security (İzmir, Turkey 28-29 September 2010),
Exchange of Views Session of the 26th meeting of the COMCEC on Agriculture
and Rural Development (İstanbul, Turkey 5-8 October 2010)
Another important activity in this field was the organization of the Workshop on
“Enhancing the Capacity of the Member States in Wheat Production” by the Ministry of Food,
Agriculture and Livestock of the Republic of Turkey and the COMCEC Coordination Office on
15-16 January 2013 in İzmir, Turkey.
The workshop, among others, has highlighted the following34:




Enhancing institutional and human capacity in the member states for increasing
wheat production in the COMCEC Region.
Improving the cooperation and communication among the agricultural research
centers of the member countries.
Conducting joint research programs and projects in wheat production.
Improving data collection, compilation, and processing capacity of the member
states.
The Report of the Workshop on “Enhancing Wheat Production in the Member Countries”. (Available in the COMCEC Web
Site (www.comcec.org)
34
34
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014


Encouraging investments and developing joint investment programs and
projects.
Introducing new varieties in wheat production for increasing productivity.
Furthermore, the COMCEC has prepared a Framework Document for Cooperation in
Agriculture, Rural Development and Food Security in the OIC Member States and submitted it
to the 28th Session of the COMCEC held in October, 2012.
The Framework Document identifies low productivity, inefficient use of water resources
and agricultural machinery and technologies, low levels of agricultural investments, poor
market performance, deregulation policies and inadequate agricultural planning and strategy
making, lack of reliable and up-to-date data, lack of effective governance and poor risk
management of natural disasters as the major constraints and challenges of agricultural sector
in the COMCEC Region. In order to address these challenges, the Framework Document
envisages enhancing agricultural productivity, increasing efficiency of agricultural commodity
markets, ensuring food security and information sharing and networking as the themes for
intra COMCEC cooperation.
35
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
4.
Conclusion
Due to high level of agricultural population constituting 35 percent of total OIC
population and the importance of agriculture for most of the economies of its Members, the
OIC Region as a whole can be considered as agricultural based economy with some exceptions
at sub-regional levels.
The OIC agriculture production is below the world average in general. The main reasons
for this are the ongoing challenges such as the scarcity of water resources, inadequate
agricultural investments and infrastructure, the lack of agricultural machinery and utilization
of modern technologies, climate change and the fluctuations in the world economy.
Agricultural labor productivity and yield are also quite low in the OIC Member
Countries. Moreover, millions of people in the Member Countries are facing
undernourishment.
The situation of agriculture sector in the OIC region substantially differs in its subregions and at country levels. On the one hand, there are countries having a well performing
agriculture sector, on the other hand, there are many countries which have considerable
structural challenges and problems in their agriculture sector mainly arising from the agroecological conditions, different land and water resources in terms of quantity and quality, lack
of a modern agricultural infrastructure and inefficient input utilization.
Notwithstanding the structural issues mentioned above, the OIC Member countries have
also a great potential in agriculture sector especially for cross country investments. On the
other hand, as the global demand for quality food is increasing, along with efforts for
increasing quantity, quality related issues also need to be addressed adequately. Among
others, organic farming, Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), prevention of post-harvest losses,
wastage and extravagance, ensuring mid-long term sustainability and introducing agriculture
production systems commensurate with agro ecological conditions of the country should be
given special emphasis in agricultural planning. Especially, the percentage of post-harvest
losses is quite high in most of the OIC countries. Nonetheless, with simple measures, basic
infrastructure and training, these losses will be decreased substantially which will, in turn,
increase the availability of food to a great extent. Furthermore, while water scarcity is a major
problem in various parts of the OIC, even in arid or semi-arid areas some specialty crops and
medicinal plants can be grown.
With careful planning based on detailed studies and required allocations at national
level and enhancing regional cooperation, experience sharing and mobilizing resources at
international level, the challenges mentioned throughout the Outlook can be addressed to a
great extent. In this framework, the COMCEC Project Cycle Management which offers grants for
capacity building and experience sharing projects should be used efficiently.
36
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
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ALPAY, S., ATLAMAZ, M. and BAKIMLI E., Trade among OIC Countries: Limits of Islamic Solidarity,
Insight Turkey Vol. 13 / No. 2 / 2011 pp. 145-170.
BERVIDOVA, L., Labor Productivity as a factor of sustainable development of the CR agriculture,
AGRIC. ECON., 48, Bervidova, L. (2002). Labour Productivity as a Factor of Sustainable
Economic Development of the Czech Republic Agriculture. In Agric. Econ. 48, (2): 55-59,
2002.
CERVANTES-GODOY, D. and DEWBRE, J., Economic Importance of Agriculture for Poverty Reduction,
OECD Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Working Papers, No. 23, OECD Publishing. doi:
10.1787/5kmmv9s20944-e
FAO, Global agriculture towards 2050, High-Level Expert Forum, Rome, 2009.
FAO, The State of the World’s Land and Water Resources for Food and Agriculture: Managing systems
at risk, Rome, 2011.
FAO, The State of Food Insecurity in the World, Economic growth is necessary but not sufficient to
accelerate reduction of hunger and malnutrition, 2012a.
FAO, FAO Statistical Year Book: World Food and Agriculture, 2012b.
FAO, World Agriculture Towards 2030/2050- The 2012 Revision, Nikos Alexandratos and Jelle
Bruinsma Global Perspective Studies Team, ESA Working Paper No. 12-03, 2012c.
HAKTANIR, H., State of Food and Agriculture in the OIC Countries, Journal of Economic Cooperation,
pp. 33-80, 2003.
IDB, Fostering Intra-OIC FDI in the Agriculture Sector, Areef Suleman Isma’eel Ibrahim Na’iya,
OCCASIONAL PAPER No. 14, May 2009.
IFPRI, Global Hunger Index The Challenge of Hunger: Ensuring Sustainable Food Security Under Land,
Water, and energy Stresses, 2012.
NAYAK, P. and BHATTACHARJEE, P.R., Agricultural Growth and Price Fluctuation Luctuations: A Case
Study of Production and Prices of Potato in Tripura, General Economics and Teaching
0509010, EconWPA, 2005.
POLYZOS, S., The productivity of labor and the spatial economic inequalities, Review of Working
Relations. 25, 29-49, Greek, 2003.
POLYZOS, S. and ARABATZIS, G., Labor Productivity of the Agricultural Sector in Greece: Determinant
Factors and Interregional Differences Analysis, Discussion Paper Series, 11(12): 209-226,
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COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
SESRIC, Agricultural Productivity in OIC Member Countries, 2009.
SESRIC, Global Food Crisis: Impact on Food Security & Malnutrition in the OIC Member States, 2010a.
SESRIC, Annual Economic Report on the OIC Countries 2010, 2010b.
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WORLDBAK, Global Agricultural Trades and Developing Countries, ed. AKSOY M. A., and BEGHIN, J.
C., 2005.
38
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
ANNEXES
Annex 1. Classification of the OIC Member Countries by Sub-Region
African Group
Arab Group
Asian Group
Benin
Algeria
Afghanistan
Burkina Faso
Bahreyn
Albania
Cameroon
Comoros
Azerbaijan
Chad
Djibouti
Bangladesh
Cote d'Ivoire
Egypt
Brunei
Gabon
Iraq
Indonesia
Gambia
Jordan
Iran
Guinea
Kuwait
Kazakhstan
Guinea-Bissau
Lebanon
Kyrgyz Republic
Mali
Libya
Malaysia
Mozambique
Mauritania
Maldives
Niger
Morocco
Pakistan
Nigeria
Oman
Tajikistan
Senegal
Palestine
Turkey
Sierra Leone
Qatar
Turkmenistan
Togo
Saudi Arabia
Uzbekistan
Uganda
Somalia
Guyana
Sudan
Suriname
Syria
Tunisia
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
39
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Annex 2. Agricultural GDP in the OIC by Country and Sub-Region (1990-2012, %)
Country
African Group
Benin
Burkina Faso
Cameroon
Chad
Cote d'Ivoire
Gabon
Gambia
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Mali
Mozambique
Niger
Nigeria
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Togo
Uganda
Arab Group
Algeria
Bahreyn
Comoros
Djibouti
Egypt
Iraq
Jordan
Kuwait
Lebanon
Libya
Mauritania
Morocco
Oman
Palastine
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Somalia
Sudan
Syria
Tunisia
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Asian Group
Afghanistan
Albania
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Brunei
Indonesia
Iran
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyz Republic
Malaysia
Maldives
Pakistan
Tajikistan
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uzbekistan
Guyana
Suriname
OIC
1990
14,00
0,34
0,46
1,30
0,29
1,86
0,16
0,07
0,32
0,14
0,61
0,54
0,47
5,56
0,57
0,21
0,29
0,80
25,21
3,71
0,02
0,05
0,01
3,44
2,75
0,15
0,09
0,13
1,25
0,39
2,82
0,17
0,13
0,03
3,55
0,37
2,77
1,67
0,96
0,28
0,45
60,80
0,69
0,47
0,94
4,90
0,02
11,72
8,42
5,39
0,46
3,69
0,01
6,96
0,42
13,41
0,52
2,60
0,10
0,07
1995
11,68
0,35
0,36
0,96
0,24
1,31
0,13
0,08
0,51
0,20
0,44
0,37
0,30
4,50
0,41
0,26
0,24
1,04
23,33
1,99
0,02
0,05
0,01
5,08
0,37
0,12
0,05
0,66
1,02
0,34
2,70
0,19
0,19
0,04
4,06
0,34
2,30
1,84
0,92
0,57
0,49
64,99
1,02
0,65
0,38
5,00
0,03
16,60
9,64
1,23
0,29
5,75
0,02
9,60
0,20
12,30
0,17
1,82
0,16
0,12
2000
12,74
0,41
0,41
0,95
0,28
1,28
0,11
0,10
0,34
0,10
0,45
0,45
0,34
5,89
0,40
0,20
0,23
0,81
27,32
2,31
0,03
0,05
0,01
6,24
0,49
0,09
0,07
0,54
1,34
0,22
2,47
0,20
0,21
0,03
4,68
0,56
2,43
2,44
1,08
1,18
0,66
59,94
1,01
0,43
0,43
6,08
0,03
12,92
6,85
0,75
0,24
4,14
0,02
10,52
0,11
13,50
0,57
2,08
0,14
0,12
2005
19,73
0,47
0,64
1,05
0,40
1,28
0,11
0,06
0,22
0,09
0,63
0,53
0,47
12,04
0,42
0,27
0,27
0,80
24,23
2,60
0,02
0,07
0,01
4,27
1,14
0,11
0,08
0,38
0,37
0,20
2,60
0,16
0,08
0,02
3,38
0,40
4,02
1,91
0,98
0,83
0,60
56,04
0,75
0,50
0,40
3,99
0,03
12,42
6,22
1,21
0,23
3,93
0,03
8,90
0,16
14,96
0,86
1,25
0,10
0,08
2010
19,08
0,38
0,53
0,92
0,33
1,09
0,08
0,05
0,23
0,07
0,62
0,47
0,42
12,37
0,36
0,25
0,23
0,67
21,88
2,44
0,01
0,05
0,01
5,16
1,29
0,14
0,04
0,32
0,36
0,13
2,27
0,13
0,08
0,03
2,02
0,10
3,45
2,15
0,60
0,44
0,67
59,04
0,80
0,39
0,53
3,51
0,02
19,54
7,61
1,20
0,15
4,62
0,01
7,33
0,20
11,13
0,57
1,28
0,06
0,07
2012
19,97
0,38
0,52
0,87
0,27
1,04
0,09
0,03
0,22
0,06
0,61
0,63
0,40
13,21
0,32
0,30
0,25
0,76
21,35
2,75
0,02
0,05
0,01
5,56
1,03
0,13
0,08
0,33
0,34
0,13
1,98
0,13
0,08
0,03
2,05
0,11
3,27
1,51
0,59
0,44
0,73
58,68
0,90
0,35
0,55
3,21
0,02
19,58
7,88
1,31
0,17
4,73
0,01
7,84
0,24
9,60
0,70
1,44
0,07
0,06
100
100
100
100
100
100
Source: Calculated Using FAO online database (FAOSTAT), 2014.
40
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Annex 3. Agricultural GDP in the OIC by Country and Sub-Region (1990-2012, Billion US
Dollars)
Source: Calculated Using FAO online database (FAOSTAT), 2014.
41
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Annex 4. Agricultural Commodity Import (Thousand US Dollars)
Country
African Group
Benin
Burkina Faso
Cameroon
Chad
Cote d'Ivoire
Gabon
Gambia
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Mali
Mozambique
Niger
Nigeria
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Togo
Uganda
Arab Group
Algeria
Bahreyn
Comoros
Djibouti
Egypt
Iraq
Jordan
Kuwait
Lebanon
Libya
Mauritania
Morocco
Oman
Palastine
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Somalia
Sudan (1)
Syria
Tunisia
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Asian Group
Afghanistan
Albania
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Brunei
Indonesia
Iran
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyz Republic
Malaysia
Maldives
Pakistan
Tajikistan
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uzbekistan
Guyana
Suriname
OIC
World
1990
2.950.333
114.187
97.511
257.017
31.880
423.254
106.334
64.937
119.784
23.410
115.464
211.628
127.828
561.041
446.690
105.202
116.087
28.079
20.501.484
2.452.982
283.093
17.191
81.000
3.075.563
1.851.593
723.061
571.234
717.855
1.301.831
135.515
799.263
488.038
22.900
295.379
3.541.915
82.238
236.546
768.193
653.087
1.693.334
709.673
11.462.567
213.889
115.420
37.187
52.100
1995
3.969.612
160.040
182.418
163.846
52.940
444.086
159.531
82.901
246.979
31.747
113.406
276.780
107.440
1.130.896
447.985
135.344
70.296
162.977
26.012.714
3.212.314
326.257
29.829
98.076
3.369.597
1.063.208
807.430
1.208.855
1.178.805
1.270.652
120.449
1.825.388
842.249
310.460
329.315
4.482.126
84.316
258.585
780.338
1.074.821
2.459.462
880.182
22.250.505
191.382
179.625
279.192
1.078.641
214.799
4.883.872
3.626.094
498.466
107.854
3.877.057
60.639
2.425.587
181.646
3.605.277
176.809
747.952
58.495
57.118
2000
3.710.667
176.031
173.448
241.297
42.021
360.473
172.309
71.691
150.919
43.084
110.132
226.417
115.325
1.129.299
403.649
114.780
46.635
133.157
27.898.884
2.592.360
421.739
15.635
139.919
3.532.321
1.921.113
840.294
1.249.482
1.088.435
1.205.802
167.720
1.668.368
1.056.522
528.801
396.417
5.389.235
136.819
442.240
863.195
755.719
2.693.229
793.519
19.818.234
288.951
236.630
213.205
1.684.434
191.245
4.054.469
2.918.207
445.136
81.708
3.792.049
77.264
1.794.753
125.830
3.231.090
105.323
387.282
81.745
108.913
2005
7.575.427
257.658
248.870
458.560
85.526
714.546
276.540
155.809
268.606
56.711
255.915
454.080
264.746
2.625.155
882.445
113.537
90.416
366.307
39.611.229
3.922.377
641.934
41.310
208.848
4.009.324
3.047.406
1.402.495
1.475.685
1.370.373
1.267.786
174.065
2.303.027
1.053.043
537.002
696.172
8.605.383
263.704
851.384
1.605.451
1.171.283
3.648.288
1.314.889
29.313.990
816.045
446.863
453.929
2.567.171
294.972
5.191.610
3.245.070
1.278.493
190.866
5.982.090
113.809
2.893.697
257.569
4.842.319
112.910
381.834
118.777
125.966
2010
13.511.238
459.882
306.937
743.723
163.802
1.283.958
457.314
178.951
422.906
90.744
395.184
800.683
350.829
5.638.214
1.219.835
184.641
230.010
583.625
83.285.194
6.222.806
1.221.196
74.479
477.406
11.736.953
6.080.974
2.425.400
2.248.721
2.732.143
2.230.580
341.656
4.180.047
2.347.905
534.551
1.924.077
16.452.323
376.354
1.723.751
3.714.219
2.137.682
11.487.095
2.614.876
64.276.192
1.137.742
807.655
1.222.996
5.715.076
348.066
12.474.853
9.137.309
2.166.208
548.825
14.080.149
235.617
4.518.598
475.986
9.871.917
274.413
838.579
214.323
207.880
2011
16.630.797
878.451
397.220
981.450
162.043
1.438.855
597.576
135.110
502.064
104.737
483.567
941.093
304.154
6.899.254
1.601.387
263.329
172.998
767.509
102.185.125
10.789.342
1.479.519
68.117
787.294
14.686.163
7.061.240
2.898.119
2.868.125
3.042.981
2.534.057
355.495
5.286.521
2.566.247
496.451
1.303.759
19.492.724
650.068
2.282.508
3.814.962
2.771.952
13.780.101
3.169.380
86.414.492
1.669.632
876.491
1.372.260
7.373.491
384.555
18.338.684
10.171.414
3.920.497
701.078
18.579.490
281.534
6.355.761
531.186
13.748.485
340.297
1.293.162
243.603
232.872
34.914.384
351.543.296
52.232.831
461.064.814
51.427.785
433.182.050
76.500.646
679.634.194
161.072.624
1.103.957.517
205.230.414
1.350.733.385
767.334
179.456
1.591.058
2.676.062
2.136.604
32.230
1.399.080
2.262.147
Source: FAO online database (FAOSTAT), 2014.
42
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Annex 5. Agricultural Commodity Export (Thousand US Dollars)
Country
African Group
Benin
Burkina Faso
Cameroon
Chad
Cote d'Ivoire
Gabon
Gambia
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Mali
Mozambique
Niger
Nigeria
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Togo
Uganda
Arab Group
Algeria
Bahreyn
Comoros
Djibouti
Egypt
Iraq
Jordan
Kuwait
Lebanon
Libya
Mauritania
Morocco
Oman
Palastine
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Somalia
Sudan (1)
Syria
Tunisia
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Asian Group
Afghanistan
Albania
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Brunei
Indonesia
Iran
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyz Republic
Malaysia
Maldives
Pakistan
Tajikistan
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uzbekistan
Guyana
Suriname
OIC
World
1990
3.671.004
84.365
116.356
553.614
134.435
1.613.415
3.350
14.357
26.561
13.313
250.635
41.439
61.773
228.226
218.656
18.101
119.544
172.864
4.395.246
50.179
4.667
10.763
8.700
427.026
59.841
111.009
42.858
123.040
62.598
43.716
646.682
50.036
0
4.170
362.172
73.992
549.756
740.415
282.451
667.373
73.802
12.287.712
149.420
98.315
160.130
9.313
2.802.390
456.585
4.359.970
2
986.746
3.119.982
107.045
37.814
1995
4.795.172
204.197
37.147
560.211
167.883
2.178.684
9.349
15.529
71.363
21.470
270.326
55.768
62.555
408.361
115.280
14.505
127.064
475.480
5.379.884
107.806
105.064
6.846
4.559
536.117
6.995
226.985
33.345
101.547
58.429
48.102
780.448
239.510
44.425
16.857
457.228
114.032
498.199
750.577
467.698
699.231
75.884
24.066.578
54.646
14.595
37.112
130.200
8.888
5.492.688
1.078.093
660.601
135.410
8.227.642
0
1.017.725
202.940
4.300.912
474.564
1.985.844
199.746
44.972
2000
4.046.161
176.955
113.078
364.336
128.259
1.911.178
10.648
13.203
30.338
51.425
253.940
61.993
86.659
339.387
162.290
4.856
77.516
260.100
5.243.458
32.703
33.082
6.379
3.492
518.138
6.245
294.321
53.650
138.259
55.389
13.113
694.680
335.207
79.921
8.853
476.013
109.542
407.542
657.937
428.944
822.045
68.003
18.969.823
49.345
22.693
50.582
99.359
592
4.946.439
1.032.270
703.745
93.848
5.820.951
75
1.069.340
122.636
3.620.535
168.942
933.447
180.137
54.887
2005
6.341.947
261.649
275.704
603.642
100.537
3.020.844
43.187
17.299
72.507
86.167
321.530
140.097
69.159
654.226
149.143
15.057
95.234
415.965
10.478.404
95.039
46.580
12.837
15.908
1.168.984
30.155
652.381
56.973
291.877
7.004
15.824
1.353.134
418.256
53.448
30.970
1.252.763
111.705
513.783
848.368
962.792
2.396.113
143.510
36.937.626
82.145
40.639
362.355
203.630
1.280
10.938.369
2.096.042
801.390
130.096
10.778.968
10
1.697.803
197.243
7.705.943
180.442
1.516.633
176.574
28.064
2010
11.497.946
601.166
364.015
1.120.389
68.955
5.638.346
48.955
27.943
101.242
57.865
210.490
449.682
168.345
1.143.994
345.690
31.374
279.817
839.678
18.443.259
124.586
292.875
12.387
80.006
2.713.895
40.659
1.112.810
126.917
518.056
7.161
43.002
1.962.373
804.160
54.266
20.767
2.992.282
164.202
459.722
2.562.377
1.160.021
3.046.877
143.858
82.862.987
271.661
60.953
602.188
364.948
1.135
30.722.359
5.402.291
1.876.268
220.615
25.912.684
3
3.446.851
228.557
11.799.731
218.897
1.293.242
353.157
87.447
2011
14.131.325
710.513
477.874
1.105.986
80.891
6.613.446
84.436
24.506
180.244
209.103
323.358
575.867
123.120
1.551.308
503.901
35.236
351.208
1.180.328
21.314.567
352.654
417.624
22.053
63.601
5.194.233
57.974
1.256.688
153.223
580.930
5.262
26.825
2.182.062
921.107
53.206
28.480
3.482.995
266.176
521.698
948.111
1.620.193
2.862.721
296.751
107.660.745
242.962
84.355
727.070
474.461
3.119
41.867.553
4.847.022
1.840.852
261.696
35.709.575
0
5.181.303
170.642
14.228.577
165.578
1.378.395
379.851
97.734
20.353.962 34.241.634 28.259.442 53.757.977
112.804.192
143.106.637
325.565.249 442.901.899 410.984.483 653.297.989 1.080.036.546 1.313.940.192
Source: FAO online database (FAOSTAT), 2014.
43
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Annex 6. Agricultural Commodity Trade Balance in the OIC Member Countries
Country
African Group
Benin
Burkina Faso
Cameroon
Chad
Cote d'Ivoire
Gabon
Gambia
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Mali
Mozambique
Niger
Nigeria
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Togo
Uganda
Arab Group
Algeria
Bahreyn
Comoros
Djibouti
Egypt
Iraq
Jordan
Kuwait
Lebanon
Libya
Mauritania
Morocco
Oman
Palastine
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Somalia
Sudan (1)
Syria
Tunisia
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Asian Group
Afghanistan
Albania
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Brunei
Indonesia
Iran
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyz Republic
Malaysia
Maldives
Pakistan
Tajikistan
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uzbekistan
Guyana
Suriname
OIC
Worl d
1990
720.671
-29.822
18.845
296.597
102.555
1.190.161
-102.984
-50.580
-93.223
-10.097
135.171
-170.189
-66.055
-332.815
-228.034
-87.101
3.457
144.785
-16.106.238
-2.402.803
-278.426
-6.428
-72.300
-2.648.537
-1.791.752
-612.052
-528.376
-594.815
-1.239.233
-91.799
-152.581
-438.002
-22.900
-291.209
-3.179.743
-8.246
313.210
-27.778
-370.636
-1.025.961
-635.871
825.145
-64.469
-17.105
0
-607.204
-170.143
1.211.332
-2.219.477
0
0
2.223.366
-32.228
-412.334
0
857.835
0
0
69.858
-14.286
1995
825.560
44.157
-145.271
396.365
114.943
1.734.598
-150.182
-67.372
-175.616
-10.277
156.920
-221.012
-44.885
-722.535
-332.705
-120.839
56.768
312.503
-20.632.830
-3.104.508
-221.193
-22.983
-93.517
-2.833.480
-1.056.213
-580.445
-1.175.510
-1.077.258
-1.212.223
-72.347
-1.044.940
-602.739
-266.035
-312.458
-4.024.898
29.716
239.614
-29.761
-607.123
-1.760.231
-804.298
1.816.073
-136.736
-165.030
-242.080
-948.441
-205.911
608.816
-2.548.001
162.135
27.556
4.350.585
-60.639
-1.407.862
21.294
695.635
297.755
1.237.892
141.251
-12.146
2000
335.494
924
-60.370
123.039
86.238
1.550.705
-161.661
-58.488
-120.581
8.341
143.808
-164.424
-28.666
-789.912
-241.359
-109.924
30.881
126.943
-22.655.426
-2.559.657
-388.657
-9.256
-136.427
-3.014.183
-1.914.868
-545.973
-1.195.832
-950.176
-1.150.413
-154.607
-973.688
-721.315
-448.880
-387.564
-4.913.222
-27.277
-34.698
-205.258
-326.775
-1.871.184
-725.516
-848.411
-239.606
-213.937
-162.623
-1.585.075
-190.653
891.970
-1.885.937
258.609
12.140
2.028.902
-77.189
-725.413
-3.194
389.445
63.619
546.165
98.392
-54.026
2005
-1.233.480
3.991
26.834
145.082
15.011
2.306.298
-233.353
-138.510
-196.099
29.456
65.615
-313.983
-195.587
-1.970.929
-733.302
-98.480
4.818
49.658
-29.132.825
-3.827.338
-595.354
-28.473
-192.940
-2.840.340
-3.017.251
-750.114
-1.418.712
-1.078.496
-1.260.782
-158.241
-949.893
-634.787
-483.554
-665.202
-7.352.620
-151.999
-337.601
-757.083
-208.491
-1.252.175
-1.171.379
7.623.636
-733.900
-406.224
-91.574
-2.363.541
-293.692
5.746.759
-1.149.028
-477.103
-60.770
4.796.878
-113.799
-1.195.894
-60.326
2.863.624
67.532
1.134.799
57.797
-97.902
2010
-2.013.292
141.284
57.078
376.666
-94.847
4.354.388
-408.359
-151.008
-321.664
-32.879
-184.694
-351.001
-182.484
-4.494.220
-874.145
-153.267
49.807
256.053
-64.841.935
-6.098.220
-928.321
-62.092
-397.400
-9.023.058
-6.040.315
-1.312.590
-2.121.804
-2.214.087
-2.223.419
-298.654
-2.217.674
-1.543.745
-480.285
-1.903.310
-13.460.041
-212.152
-1.264.029
-1.151.842
-977.661
-8.440.218
-2.471.018
18.586.795
-866.081
-746.702
-620.808
-5.350.128
-346.931
18.247.506
-3.735.018
-289.940
-328.210
11.832.535
-235.614
-1.071.747
-247.429
1.927.814
-55.516
454.663
138.834
-120.433
2011
-2.499.472
-167.938
80.654
124.536
-81.152
5.174.591
-513.140
-110.604
-321.820
104.366
-160.209
-365.226
-181.034
-5.347.946
-1.097.486
-228.093
178.210
412.819
-80.870.558
-10.436.688
-1.061.895
-46.064
-723.693
-9.491.930
-7.003.266
-1.641.431
-2.714.902
-2.462.051
-2.528.795
-328.670
-3.104.459
-1.645.140
-443.245
-1.275.279
-16.009.729
-383.892
-1.760.810
-2.866.851
-1.151.759
-10.917.380
-2.872.629
21.246.253
-1.426.670
-792.136
-645.190
-6.899.030
-381.436
23.528.869
-5.324.392
-2.079.645
-439.382
17.130.085
-281.534
-1.174.458
-360.544
480.092
-174.719
85.233
136.248
-135.138
-14.560.422 -17.991.197 -23.168.343 -22.742.669
-48.268.432
-62.123.777
325.565.249 442.901.899 410.984.483 653.297.989 1.080.036.546 1.313.940.192
Source: Calculated using FAO online database (FAOSTAT), 2014.
44
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Annex 7. Agricultural Labor Productivity in the OIC Member Countries (US Dollar Per
Economically Active Worker in Agriculture)
Country
African Group
Benin
Burkina Faso
Cameroon
Chad
Cote d'Ivoire
Gabon
Gambia
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Mali
Mozambique
Niger
Nigeria
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Togo
Uganda
Arab Group
Algeria
Bahreyn
Comoros
Djibouti
Egypt
Iraq
Jordan
Kuwait
Lebanon
Libya
Mauritania
Morocco
Oman
Palastine
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Somalia
Sudan
Syria
Tunisia
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Asian Group
Afghanistan
Albania
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Brunei
Indonesia
Iran
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyz Republic
Malaysia
Maldives
Pakistan
Tajikistan
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uzbekistan
Guyana
Suriname
1990
541
584
234
795
291
1.307
1.423
402
256
802
589
194
390
827
465
371
604
226
1.920
3.672
8.979
748
66
999
8.298
2.781
18.104
3.600
18.544
1.712
1.630
1.220
1.907
8.242
6.941
374
1.015
3.306
2.773
7.352
633
866
462
970
3.273
4.545
2000
437
595
163
546
233
864
1.029
417
203
530
375
127
217
943
269
380
411
193
1.985
1.692
19.253
573
73
1.961
1.817
1.445
12.151
22.305
25.839
780
1.458
1.378
3.341
16.552
14.152
548
779
4.359
2.842
27.134
693
937
449
1.379
873
382
61.478
532
2.371
1.133
863
4.467
2.032
1.121
354
2.946
1.805
1.576
5.242
7.975
2012
1.818
1.505
458
1.584
574
2.406
3.302
313
348
812
1.231
451
571
6.959
513
1.429
1.235
425
4.592
5.585
24.373
1.401
155
5.485
15.699
7.740
34.627
85.254
34.635
1.095
4.366
2.693
4.612
21.998
28.264
271
2.887
7.268
4.732
19.596
1.999
2.777
907
3.699
3.247
653
#SAYI/0!
2.565
7.783
7.273
2.245
19.677
4.085
1.991
2.014
7.917
6.306
3.469
9.543
12.571
OIC
Worl d
922
1.012
935
888
2.720
2.307
301
17.006
515
3.151
3.599
1.035
873
2.444
Source: Calculated using FAO online database (FAOSTAT), 2014.
45
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Annex 8. Land Use in OIC the Member Countries
Country
African Group
Benin
Burkina Faso
Cameroon
Chad
Cote d'Ivoire
Gabon
Gambia
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Mali
Mozambique
Niger
Nigeria
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Togo
Uganda
Arab Group
Algeria
Bahreyn
Comoros
Djibouti
Egypt
Iraq
Jordan
Kuwait
Lebanon
Libya
Mauritania
Morocco
Oman
Palastine
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Somalia
Sudan
Syria
Tunisia
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Asian Group
Afghanistan
Albania
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Brunei
Indonesia
Iran
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyz Republic
Malaysia
Maldives
Pakistan
Tajikistan
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uzbekistan
Guyana
Suriname
TOTAL
Land area
Agricultural
Area
Arable Land
Permanent
Crops
Permanent
Meadows and
Pastures
768.029
11.276
27.360
47.271
125.920
31.800
25.767
1.012
24.572
2.812
122.019
78.638
126.670
91.077
19.253
7.162
5.439
19.981
1.375.383
238.174
76
186
2.318
99.545
43.432
8.878
1.782
1.023
175.954
103.070
44.630
30.950
1.045
1.161
214.969
62.734
250.400
18.363
15.536
8.360
52.797
1.048.685
65.223
2.740
8.266
13.017
527
181.157
162.855
269.970
19.180
32.855
30
77.088
13.996
76.963
46.993
42.540
19.685
15.600
358.597
3.430
11.765
9.600
49.932
20.500
5.160
615
14.240
1.630
41.621
49.400
43.782
76.200
9.505
3.435
3.720
14.062
531.822
41.383
13.363
155
1.702
3.665
8.210
1.003
152
638
15.585
39.711
30.104
1.771
367
66
173.355
44.129
108.679
13.864
10.072
397
23.452
529.712
37.910
1.201
4.769
9.128
14.916
54.500
48.957
209.115
10.609
7.870
7
26.550
4.855
38.247
32.660
26.660
1.677
82
103.416
2.580
5.700
6.200
4.900
2.900
325
450
2.850
300
6.861
5.200
14.940
36.000
3.850
1.100
2.510
6.750
54.984
7.510
4
82
2
2.870
4.000
176
11
112
1.750
450
7.944
32
100
14
3.110
1.100
17.056
4.611
2.839
51
1.161
134.867
7.791
622
1.886
7.628
3
23.500
17.541
24.035
1.276
1.800
3
20.714
850
20.539
1.900
4.300
420
59
13.492
300
65
1.400
32
4.400
170
5
690
250
120
200
60
3.200
55
135
210
2.200
8.079
910
3
58
795
210
85
5
126
335
11
1.160
39
117
2
245
29
169
1.054
2.394
42
291
33.670
119
74
227
900
5
20.000
1.892
80
75
5.785
3
836
130
3.091
60
360
27
6
4.000
742
136
400
13.500
39.250
21.000
1.700
150
50
170.000
43.000
91.454
8.199
4.839
305
22.000
346.271
30.000
505
2.656
600
3
11.000
29.524
185.000
9.258
285
1
5.000
3.875
14.617
30.700
22.000
1.230
17
3.192.097
1.420.131
293.266
55.241
1.043.367
Source: FAO online database (FAOSTAT), 2014.
46
241.689
550
6.000
2.000
45.000
13.200
4.665
160
10.700
1.080
34.640
44.000
28.782
37.000
5.600
2.200
1.000
5.112
455.407
32.963
4
15
1.700
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Annex 9. Total Renewable Water in the OIC Member Countries (2011, km3)
African Group
Benin
Burkina Faso
Cameroon
Chad
Cote d'Ivoire
Gabon
Gambia
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Mali
Mozambique
Niger
Nigeria
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Somalia
Uganda
1.526 Arab Group
315 Asian Group
26 Algeria
13 Bahrain
12 Afghanistan
0 Albania
65
286 Comoros
43 Djibouti
1 Azerbaijan
0 Bangladesh
35
81 Egypt
164 Iraq
57 Brunei
90 Indonesia
8 Jordan
226 Kuwait
1 Iran
0 Kazakhstan
31 Lebanon
100 Libya
5 Kyrgyz Republic
1 Malaysia
217 Mauritania
18 Morocco
5.053
42
1.227
9
1.911
137
108
24
580
11 Maldives
29 Pakistan
34 Oman
39 Qatar
0
247
1 Tajikistan
0 Turkey
160 Palestine
15 Saudi Arabia
22
212
1 Turkmenistan
2 Uzbekistan
66 Sudan
25
49
65 Guyana
241
Togo
15 Suriname
122
Syria
17 OIC
6.893
Tunisia
5 Africa
5.559
UAE
0 Asia
15.241
Yemen
2 America
24.362
Europe
Oceania
11.404
892
WORLD
57.458
Source: FAO, online databases AQUASTAT, 2014.
47
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Annex 10. Long Term Precipitation in the OIC Member Countries
African Group
19.131 Arab Group
5.008 Asian Group
Benin
Burkina Faso
Cameroon
Chad
1.039 Algeria
748 Bahrain
900 Azerbaijan
322 Djibouti
220 Bangladesh
1.348 Egypt
Gabon
1.831 Iraq
Gambia
836 Jordan
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Mozambique
Niger
83 Albania
1.604 Comoros
Cote d'Ivoire
Mali
89 Afghanistan
51 Brunei
216 Indonesia
23.070
327
1.485
447
2.666
2.722
2.702
111 Iran
228
1.651 Kuwait
121 Kazakhstan
250
1.577 Lebanon
661 Kyrgyz Republic
533
282 Libya
1.032 Mauritania
151 Morocco
Nigeria
1.150 Oman
Senegal
686 Qatar
Sierra Leone
2.526 Palestine
Togo
1.168 Saudi Arabia
Uganda
1.180 Somalia
56 Malaysia
2.875
92 Maldives
1.972
346 Pakistan
494
125 Tajikistan
691
74 Turkey
402 Turkmenistan
59 Uzbekistan
593
161
206
282 Guyana
2.387
Sudan
416 Suriname
2.331
Syria
252 OIC
47.209
Tunisia
207 WORLD
205.699
UAE
78
Yemen
167
Source: FAO, online databases AQUASTAT, 2014.
48
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Annex 11. Fertilizer Consumption in the OIC (kg/ha)
Country
2002
African Group
4,5
Benin
14,8
Burkina Faso
0,4
Cameroon
8,1
Chad
Cote d'Ivoire
13,2
Gabon
5,6
Gambia
0,0
Guinea
0,8
Guinea-Bissau
Mali
0,0
Mozambique
5,7
Niger
0,6
Nigeria
4,4
Senegal
11,6
Sierra Leone
Togo
4,9
Uganda
1,0
Arab Group
51,1
Algeria
8,9
Bahreyn
3.447,9
Comoros
Djibouti
Egypt
370,9
Iraq
0,0
Jordan
1.095,9
Kuwait
1.410,7
Lebanon
171,7
Libya
56,0
Mauritania
Morocco
59,3
Oman
161,7
Palastine
Qatar
35,2
Saudi Arabia
53,6
Somalia
Sudan
Syria
57,9
Tunisia
14,2
United Arab Emirates 189,5
Yemen
7,0
Asian Group
71,1
Afghanistan
3,4
Albania
80,4
Azerbaijan
9,3
Bangladesh
177,9
Brunei
96,0
Indonesia
69,6
Iran
72,4
Kazakhstan
1,0
Kyrgyz Republic
6,6
Malaysia
143,1
Maldives
1,6
Pakistan
136,6
Tajikistan
0,0
Turkey
65,7
Turkmenistan
Uzbekistan
0,0
Guyana
31,2
Suriname
79,8
OIC
Worl d
46,9
79,3
2003
4,8
0,7
10,3
6,8
2004
7,0
0,0
12,4
9,2
2005
5,8
0,4
15,1
6,7
2006
6,8
0,0
13,2
7,5
12,6
3,6
5,7
0,6
11,4
5,1
5,1
0,8
7,1
8,3
6,4
0,7
9,0
8,5
6,4
0,7
9,5
9,1
5,5
1,0
0,0
0,7
0,3
6,2
10,8
51,0
2,1
0,2
4,4
12,5
15,4
1,5
0,4
6,8
9,7
17,2
4,5
0,5
9,2
2,2
30,4
2,7
0,4
3,8
2,0
7,1
1,2
57,5
5,5
35,9
3,2
1,1
57,2
22,7
0,0
9,0
5,0
0,7
0,9
60,9
52,5
6,7
11,8
927,7 3.007,3
2007
2008
5,3
5,4
0,2
0,3
10,0
9,3
7,2
5,4
2009
4,0
5,8
9,3
5,4
2010
5,6
0,4
9,3
4,0
2011
5,4
4,4
10,6
9,1
7,2
10,5
3,2
1,0
6,1
12,0
5,5
0,5
12,8
3,2
6,6
0,9
7,8
3,1
9,3
0,9
22,0
12,3
0,2
5,3
2,3
6,0
4,1
0,4
4,5
4,9
19,2
8,6
0,5
5,2
7,6
20,9
7,7
0,5
3,9
6,8
5,8
0,2
0,9
2,2
54,2 57,0
13,3
7,6
254,1 569,5
0,8
1,6
50,4
7,0
295,6
0,4
1,3
53,0
11,3
609,4
0,5
1,3
107,3
15,1
432,3
535,1
0,0
616,6
0,0
65,0
27,9
475,3
489,5
362,9
23,4
40,1
44,5
337,6
535,2
477,4
0,0 3.417,1 1.642,9
69,7
157,1
145,2
43,4
56,3
35,5
378,1
36,2
638,9
0,0
155,0
51,2
519,6
54,4
218,9
950,7
102,7
22,9
393,1
68,7
253,8
40,0
109,6
33,8
473,5
32,6
87,8
552,5
141,0
38,0
460,1
39,9
775,0
560,4
214,9
44,5
50,7
166,4
44,5
190,3
57,6
588,4
53,0 48,3
156,7 324,2
36,7
316,2
34,0
55,5
63,4
342,1
0,0 3.380,3
113,0
99,1
540,4
88,4
64,0
20,6
236,7
3,8
74,5
3,2
81,8
6,8
151,1
29,1
76,5
73,6
1,5
22,3
156,8
2,2
141,7
0,0
75,7
61,9
20,4
122,9
11,6
81,7
4,5
83,2
10,7
159,3
43,3
79,4
94,9
1,9
19,4
197,0
3,1
152,4
30,1
76,9
71,4
35,7
57,8
3,2
85,5
4,2
91,1
11,9
179,6
88,1
86,4
86,8
1,8
21,8
184,0
11,1
168,9
32,8
77,7
70,7
19,3
193,3
7,1
93,7
6,2
70,5
11,9
175,4
18,9
86,7
103,8
1,8
19,8
203,1
50,4
171,0
62,1
81,6
67,2
15,0
211,9
18,0
93,6
3,6
72,2
9,5
166,3
141,4
99,8
81,9
2,6
19,3
226,5
43,7
163,3
63,3
79,8
73,0
19,3
91,2
12,0
93,7
2,9
66,4
18,7
180,4
42,3
102,2
82,7
1,4
16,7
246,1
11,2
165,0
59,9
63,3
53,9
23,9
752,1
9,7
98,4
4,5
78,2
12,0
145,1
51,4
100,6
63,1
2,4
18,4
182,8
3,7
232,5
55,1
84,8
27,2
22,0
370,0
15,9
96,7
4,2
74,9
8,9
165,2
215,8
98,3
47,1
1,6
19,0
260,2
1,8
208,5
46,9
79,6
42,0
167,6
306,5
9,9
98,1
6,2
85,2
13,9
226,7
366,1
106,9
23,7
1,7
16,7
281,9
5,0
193,8
51,5
78,2
0,0
21,7
98,3
0,0
42,2
126,7
0,0
20,7
94,8
150,8
30,8
163,3
154,6 161,1
30,8 53,6
132,2 486,5
178,8
19,1
143,5
190,2
36,9
191,1
183,7
26,2
184,1
49,9
82,3
54,3
83,9
55,8
85,0
58,4
88,9
59,3
98,5
59,1
100,2
67,6
98,8
54,2
439,0
0,0 4.398,8 225,0 2.393,8 5.342,5 9.016,3
92,8
111,4 72,5
40,8
87,2
139,7
57,7
92,1
Source: Calculated using FAO online database (FAOSTAT), 2014.
49
58,1
93,3
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Annex 12. Average Dietary Energy Supply Adequacy in OIC and Some Region of the World
(%)
Country
African Group (*)
Benin
Burkina Faso
Cameroon
Chad
Cote d'Ivoire
Gabon
Gambia
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Mali
Mozambique
Niger
Nigeria
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Togo
Uganda
Arab Group (*)
Algeria
Bahreyn
Comoros
Djibouti
Egypt
Iraq
Jordan
Kuwait
Lebanon
Libya
Mauritania
Morocco
Oman
Palastine
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Somalia
Sudan (**)
Syria
Tunisia
UAE
Yemen
Asian Group (*)
Afghanistan
Albania
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Brunei
Indonesia
Iran
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyz Republic
Malaysia
Maldives
Pakistan
Tajikistan
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uzbekistan
Guyana
Suriname
OIC (*)
Devel opi ng Countri es
Devel oped Countri es
Worl d
Worl d
1990-92
1995-97
2000-02
2005-07
2010-12
104
107
108
93
80
119
115
109
118
107
105
83
97
107
104
93
97
108
101
133
109
111
111
94
84
120
118
105
112
106
103
91
96
118
100
98
103
104
101
129
112
113
111
98
92
121
119
107
114
108
108
93
105
120
101
94
104
111
102
130
118
118
119
106
96
127
119
107
119
110
116
99
111
128
109
99
108
110
101
133
118
127
119
111
103
124
118
115
119
124
130
100
124
125
105
104
112
105
100
139
92
119
142
87
120
146
77
121
146
82
127
143
76
124
145
126
91
133
144
119
135
120
132
131
140
123
134
125
144
132
135
124
134
135
151
131
137
126
138
131
142
132
135
125
137
103
105
96
129
130
137
131
128
134
140
137
103
113
138
141
135
100
114
136
139
133
100
111
140
139
125
99
113
139
138
121
99
116
109
103
105
121
94
97
129
112
140
134
111
131
117
114
92
158
112
122
115
106
120
108
107
127
108
133
113
106
124
118
109
88
154
115
103
122
104
118
126
109
131
112
127
139
116
124
116
108
97
154
120
110
119
106
121
129
107
143
123
131
144
120
125
124
110
100
155
127
115
129
110
108
108
131
114
114
110
112
130
116
116
109
112
134
117
117
111
114
136
119
119
113
117
134
121
121
101
124
105
142
121
117
109
164
Source: FAO, Food Security Statistics, Available at, http://www.fao.org/economic/ess/ess-fs/en/
(*) Calculated by using FAO, Food Security Statistics and FAOSTAT Online Database.
(**) Numbers are owned to Former Sudan
50
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Annex 13. Average Protein Supply in OIC and Some Region of the World (gr/caput/day)
Country
African Group (*)
Benin
Burkina Faso
Cameroon
Chad
Cote d'Ivoire
Gabon
Gambia
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Mali
Mozambique
Niger
Nigeria
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Togo
Uganda
Arab Group (*)
Algeria
Bahreyn
Comoros
Djibouti
Egypt
Iraq
Jordan
Kuwait
Lebanon
Libya
Mauritania
Morocco
Oman
Palastine
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Somalia
Sudan (**)
Syria
Tunisia
UAE
Yemen
Asian Group (*)
Afghanistan
Albania
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Brunei
Indonesia
Iran
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyz Republic
Malaysia
Maldives
Pakistan
Tajikistan
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uzbekistan
Guyana
Suriname
OIC (*)
Devel opi ng Countri es
Devel oped Countri es
Worl d
1990-92
1995-97
2000-02
2005-07
2010-12
51
54
71
49
51
53
72
52
57
46
62
31
56
50
66
42
48
51
59
77
54
55
73
50
54
51
75
50
52
45
61
38
56
56
61
45
54
45
61
77
56
59
74
57
63
50
74
55
54
46
62
36
64
58
58
46
52
50
63
81
61
61
78
60
64
54
81
56
55
45
66
38
72
65
61
51
55
52
65
86
62
63
80
62
63
54
81
60
56
45
70
39
78
65
62
50
55
50
65
87
54
41
84
54
42
91
48
48
93
50
57
96
49
59
98
73
0
60
77
79
84
70
0
99
81
78
81
72
0
100
84
82
84
80
0
113
83
86
90
81
0
115
84
86
89
44
57
60
63
60
79
81
84
85
85
73
85
105
55
53
74
87
109
54
62
75
91
108
57
62
84
92
102
55
65
84
95
105
56
66
80
62
61
94
61
45
91
54
84
97
83
77
88
62
49
105
73
77
74
57
96
73
51
88
52
85
81
84
75
105
60
50
103
82
67
79
54
98
87
54
86
56
87
102
84
79
97
60
54
104
90
76
75
55
97
88
55
83
58
89
103
84
78
100
62
55
105
92
77
75
56
54
61
99
69
60
66
100
73
61
68
103
75
64
71
105
77
65
72
104
78
46
79
48
82
67
79
58
109
Source: FAO, Food Security Statistics, Available at, http://www.fao.org/economic/ess/ess-fs/en/
(*) Calculated by using FAO, Food Security Statistics and FAOSTAT Online Database.
(**) Numbers are owned to Former Sudan
51
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Annex 14. Depth of the Food Deficit in OIC and Some Region of the World (gr/caput/day)
Country
African Group (*)
Benin
Burkina Faso
Cameroon
Chad
Cote d'Ivoire
Gabon
Gambia
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Mali
Mozambique
Niger
Nigeria
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Togo
Uganda
Arab Group (*)
Algeria
Bahreyn
Comoros
Djibouti
Egypt
Iraq
Jordan
Kuwait
Lebanon
Libya
Mauritania
Morocco
Oman
Palastine
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Somalia
Sudan (**)
Syria
Tunisia
UAE
Yemen
Asian Group (*)
Afghanistan
Albania
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Brunei
Indonesia
Iran
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyz Republic
Malaysia
Maldives
Pakistan
Tajikistan
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uzbekistan
Guyana
Suriname
OIC (*)
Devel opi ng Countri es
Devel oped Countri es
Worl d
1990-92
1995-97
2000-02
2005-07
2007-09
174
138
143
266
502
78
59
121
112
139
156
446
248
120
137
328
222
163
61
30
140
110
118
246
375
80
39
144
148
162
158
352
222
64
171
271
171
199
52
39
130
91
188
182
295
138
40
129
127
135
125
348
152
60
154
315
158
160
51
35
106
74
179
118
283
120
36
113
99
114
73
296
107
39
100
255
133
184
56
28
111
46
185
101
252
139
41
90
106
52
42
292
68
50
134
206
106
230
69
22
15
12
13
14
13
9
12
14
8
15
18
11
14
18
9
38
215
23
5
33
40
51
19
24
7
31
36
29
9
20
9
35
35
20
6
23
9
37
31
24
11
21
10
36
34
104
88
115
125
204
21
13
10
13
18
296
27
5
6
168
126
218
18
4
8
190
108
203
23
5
9
196
100
247
17
5
17
203
91
334
19
6
29
215
78
54
139
120
21
192
236
11
101
20
22
81
12
57
140
243
5
62
35
67
107
36
69
120
9
116
30
26
98
22
61
163
284
7
47
99
51
124
67
15
108
9
99
39
4
63
18
60
167
278
6
34
60
60
103
52
11
122
2
60
32
3
43
17
36
152
262
6
19
41
33
78
121
162
12
130
102
138
13
112
95
129
10
106
87
121
8
100
83
113
9
94
235
14
129
17
23
59
165
3
Source: FAO, Food Security Statistics, Available at, http://www.fao.org/economic/ess/ess-fs/en/
(*) Calculated by using FAO, Food Security Statistics and FAOSTAT Online Database.
(**) Numbers are owned to Former Sudan
52
COMCEC Agriculture Outlook 2014
Annex 15. Food Price Index for the OIC Member Countries (2000=100)
Country
African Group
Benin
Burkina Faso
Cameroon
Chad
Cote d'Ivoire
Gabon
Gambia
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Mali
Mozambique
Niger
Nigeria
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Togo
Uganda
Arab Group
Algeria
Bahreyn
Comoros (*)
Djibouti (*)
Egypt
Iraq
Jordan
Kuwait
Lebanon
Libya
Mauritania
Morocco
Oman
Palastine (*)
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Somalia (*)
Sudan (*)
Syria
Tunisia
UAE
Yemen
Asian Group
Afghanistan (*)
Albania
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Brunei
Indonesia
Iran
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyz Republic
Malaysia
Maldives
Pakistan
Tajikistan (*)
Turkey
Turkmenistan (*)
Uzbekistan (*)
Guyana
Suriname
World (**)
France
Germany
Greece
Italy
Japan
Brazil
Australia
2000
2001
2002
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
102,3
108,8
107,0
119,3
105,7
105,0
99,3
108,0
112,2
112,1
125,8
111,6
105,2
117,2
108,1
110,7
107,2
128,0
100,0
100,0
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
104,7
104,9
109,2
123,6
111,7
105,1
164,0
151,0
101,1
103,3
165,0
105,1
175,8
114,4
120,2
110,4
137,7
114,3
105,5
169,2
206,9
104,8
115,1
173,9
120,7
216,3
113,6
119,7
117,9
153,4
117,5
112,2
172,2
294,9
105,2
114,6
203,6
100,0
228,4
112,6
117,9
119,1
138,4
123,8
100,0
185,8
378,9
111,3
117,3
224,6
99,4
232,6
132,9
145,4
130,0
161,1
137,8
107,8
197,1
456,9
129,1
132,6
266,9
119,8
270,0
140,3
149,1
141,6
152,7
149,6
162,1
115,8
132,3
112,0
144,8
105,5
110,3
111,4
124,2
116,1
107,1
141,2
124,6
100,0
111,1
148,8
106,7
153,5
175,4
142,3
111,8
207,4
489,4
128,3
136,6
285,6
132,1
309,6
105,3
96,6
109,3
92,5
100,0
104,1
106,7
120,1
102,8
111,4
137,6
114,0
126,1
141,0
112,7
139,3
159,3
115,9
142,8
186,4
139,5
171,1
203,2
142,9
213,9
168,7
109,1
116,8
221,1
589,0
99,4
107,3
329,4
132,6
355,8
99,5
243,1
152,0
218,4
120,5
121,4
235,3
750,2
106,7
112,8
372,8
137,0
392,4
103,6
295,7
153,8
289,0
100,0
100,0
104,4
98,6
106,2
97,6
111,0
96,2
116,4
98,3
116,7
101,3
119,3
103,3
126,7
134,6
119,8
150,7
130,6
157,1
137,0
166,5
139,7
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
101,1
105,3
112,3
100,0
105,1
100,3
100,0
100,5
101,3
102,3
106,6
107,8
110,0
113,4
119,4
115,7
237,5
121,8
124,0
130,6
270,4
133,2
129,9
162,0
300,0
158,2
145,0
100,0
188,1
323,0
159,7
149,6
103,8
225,3
330,1
167,7
162,1
107,0
260,2
340,1
174,6
177,7
114,1
100,0
147,3
106,5
145,8
111,3
152,0
117,9
154,1
100,4
131,2
156,5
101,6
149,3
156,9
105,7
157,3
163,1
111,8
173,9
168,3
123,9
190,6
179,8
150,6
195,5
151,3
210,5
114,7
154,4
223,9
116,3
161,4
100,0
100,6
100,0
100,0
99,6
96,9
103,2
99,4
106,5
102,4
113,9
107,9
122,3
115,5
146,6
131,7
148,4
134,3
151,5
142,7
158,2
150,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
101,7
101,0
115,7
99,4
106,1
102,4
121,2
107,2
109,7
104,7
141,4
112,8
115,1
112,0
168,3
122,5
115,2
117,0
199,9
138,0
121,4
123,5
269,5
150,5
124,8
130,4
317,9
181,7
132,6
116,3
323,2
182,2
138,3
190,7
147,2
152,6
331,4
381,3
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
103,7
102,7
100,8
100,5
108,5
106,6
111,5
105,7
100,7
102,1
101,8
110,3
106,5
103,4
100,9
120,2
124,0
119,0
105,9
101,4
105,7
105,9
115,0
109,9
110,1
100,0
121,2
145,9
127,3
108,9
102,7
99,3
108,6
115,3
120,9
118,3
101,7
128,3
164,8
137,1
112,4
105,0
115,2
120,2
114,3
134,1
127,8
102,2
140,3
186,3
148,2
118,4
108,8
100,0
132,1
115,6
150,2
137,5
102,5
161,9
205,5
161,0
128,7
112,5
104,0
143,3
119,0
174,6
151,9
104,7
180,4
100,0
223,1
124,3
224,4
168,7
109,9
210,9
131,0
223,1
130,4
221,0
177,9
143,2
225,7
146,5
136,7
236,0
195,9
111,6
247,0
164,8
115,9
120,9
158,8
126,1
143,9
202,6
144,6
229,6
134,5
155,4
268,0
141,0
186,4
306,7
100,0
150,3
225,3
290,0
316,1
112,1
123,0
138,2
155,9
168,4
186,2
197,8
100,0
80,5
90,4
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,6
100,0
93,4
105,1
104,6
105,0
104,1
99,4
106,7
106,6
104,5
118,1
89,9
107,8
105,3
110,5
107,9
98,6
117,0
110,4
108,5
113,3
157,8
112,4
110,9
104,8
116,7
113,7
99,3
146,5
117,1
121,7
174,2
117,3
111,0
105,3
117,4
113,7
97,8
151,0
120,0
130,0
182,7
126,7
112,7
107,3
121,8
115,6
98,3
151,0
129,2
150,3
198,0
158,7
114,3
110,5
125,7
119,0
98,6
161,3
132,3
172,3
246,8
199,8
119,9
118,3
132,5
125,4
101,1
182,3
138,5
171,6
247,8
156,9
120,4
116,8
135,0
127,7
101,3
192,9
143,6
178,7
273,2
185,3
121,4
118,5
135,1
127,9
101,0
204,6
145,8
191,6
97,7
110,2
105,2
116,1
111,3
98,4
140,8
114,4
Source: FAO, FAOSTAT and ILO, LABORSTA online databases
(*) Data doesn’t available
(**) 2002-2004= 100 index
53
221,0
116,6
268,1
207,8
227,6
123,7
121,8
139,3
131,1
100,6
222,7
152,9
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