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20. FORUM: TREĆI PAKET I OSTALE DIREKTIVE IZ

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HRVATSKO ENERGETSKO DRUŠTVO
CROATIAN ENERGY ASSOCIATION
20. FORUM: TREĆI PAKET I OSTALE DIREKTIVE IZ
ENERGETIKE
20th FORUM: THIRD PACKAGE AND OTHER
ENERGY DIRECTIVES
18. studenog 2011. / 18th November 2011
Mala dvorana ‘Vatroslav Lisinski’ / Small Hall ‘Vatroslav Lisinski'
Zagreb, Trg Stjepana Radića 4
Izdavač / Publisher:
Hrvatsko energetsko društvo
Zagreb, Savska cesta 163
Priredili / Edit by:
Dr. sc. Goran Granić i dr. sc. Branka Jelavić
Glavna i odgovorna urednica / Editor:
Dr. sc. Branka Jelavić
Pomoćnici glavne urednice / Assistants of the Editor:
Mr. sc. Sandra Antešević
Danko Vidović, mag.ing.
Ivana Milinković, mag.ing.
Viktorija Dudjak, mag.ing.
Dizajn i priprema za tisak / Design and prepress:
Martina Komerički Košarić
Lektura / Language editing:
Prof. Anita Filipović
Engleski prijevodi / English translation:
Ivana Milinković, mag.ing.
Viktorija Dudjak, mag.ing.
Tisak / Press:
AZP-Grafis
Samobor, Franjina 7
Autorska prava / Copyright:
Hrvatsko energetsko društvo
Zagreb, Savska cesta 163
Naklada / Edition:
250 primjeraka
Za sve navode u člancima odgovorni su
isključivo autori. / Authors are responsible
for all statements made in their articles.
Sadržaj / Contents
PREDGOVOR / FOREWORD ..................................................................................................... 5
ŽIVOTOPISI PREDAVAČA / PRESENTERS’ CURRICULA VITAE .......................................... 7
SAŽETCI REFERATA / PAPER ABSTRACTS..........................................................................19
1. Branko Terzić:
SUPROTNOSTI PRIVATNOG MONOPOLA I OTVORENOG TRŽIŠTA / CONTRARIETY
OF PRIVATE MONOPOLY AND OPEN MARKET............................................................ 21
2. Haydar Livatyali:
POTICAJNA TARIFA KAO SREDSTVO PROMOCIJE OBNOVLJIVIH IZVORA ENERGIJE
U SVIJETU I TURSKOJ / FEED-IN TARIFF AS A MECHANISM OF PROMOTING
RENEWABLE ENERGY IN THE WORLD AND IN TURKEY ........................................... 22
3. Dubravko Sabolić:
ORGANIZACIJA PRIJENOSA ELEKTRIČNE ENERGIJE U OKVIRU DUGOROČNIH
CILJEVA ENERGETSKE POLITIKE / ORGANIZATION OF ELECTRICITY
TRANSMISSION IN VIEW OF LONG TERM ENERGY POLICY GOALS ....................... 25
4. Dubravko Pevec, Vladimir Knapp, Nikola Čavlina:
PERSPEKTIVA NUKLEARNE ENERGETIKE NAKON NESREĆE U FUKUSHIMI /
ON THE PERSPECTIVE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY FOLLOWING THE FUKUSHIMA
ACCIDENT .......................................................................................................................... 26
5. Damjan Međimorec:
ULOGA ENTSO_E U PLANIRANJU RAZVOJA PRIJENOSNE MREŽE SLIJEDOM
ODREDBI TREĆEG PAKETA ENERGETSKIH PROPISA EU / ENTSO_E ROLE IN
TRANSMISSION NETWORK PLANNING FOLLOWING THE PROVISIONS OF THE
EU’S THIRD ENERGY PACKAGE .................................................................................... 28
6. Željko Tomšić, Ivan Gašić, Goran Čačić, Luka Lugarić:
DEFINIRANJE INTELIGENTNOG INFORMACIJSKOG SUSTAVA ZA PRAĆENJE I
VERIFIKACIJU GOSPODARENJA ENERGIJOM U GRADOVIMA / DEFINING AN
INTELLIGENT INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR MONITORING AND VERIFICATION OF
ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN CITIES ................................................................................ 30
7. Maja Božičević Vrhovčak, Zlatko Zmijarević, Daniel Rodik, Dražen Jakšić:
SUDJELOVANJE JAVNOSTI U DONOŠENJU JAVNIH POLITIKA S PODRUČJA
ENERGETIKE / PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN THE ENERGY RELATED PUBLIC POLICY
MAKING .............................................................................................................................. 33
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8. Tomislav Pukšec, Neven Duić:
ENERGETSKA POLITIKA I DUGOROČNA POTROŠNJA ENERGIJE U SEKTORU
KUĆANSTVA U HRVATSKOJ / ENERGY POLICY AND LONG TERM ENERGY
DEMAND IN CROATIAN HOUSEHOLDS SECTOR ........................................................ 34
9. Silvio Bratić, Goran Krajačić, Neven Duić, Andrej Čotar, Darko Jardas:
ENERGETSKI SAMODOSTATAN OTOK / ENERGY SELF-SUFFICIENT ISLAND ........ 36
10. Vladimir Potočnik:
RAZDVAJANJE PRIHODA OD PRODAJE ENERGIJE / DECOUPLING REVENUE FROM
ENERGY SALES ................................................................................................................ 38
11. Dr.sc. Goran Granić i suradnici, Energetski institut Hrvoje Požar:
VIZIJA MOGUĆNOSTI ENERGETSKOG RAZVOJA, MEĐUSOBNIH ODNOSA I
UTJECAJA U HRVATSKOJ ZA RAZDOBLJE DO 2050. GODINE / VISION OF ENERGY
DEVELOPMENT, RELATIONSHIPS AND INFLUENCES IN THE PERIOD UNTIL YEAR
2050 IN CROATIA .............................................................................................................. 39
SPONZORI 20. FORUMA / 20TH FORUM SPONSORSHIP ......................................................41
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20. Forum
PREDGOVOR
Ovogodišnji Forum je jubilarni dvadeseti po redu. U proteklom razdoblju na njemu
su obrađivane mnoge važne teme, prateći sve promjene u energetskom sektoru, od
nacionalnih monopolnih energetskih tvrtki pa do otvorenog tržišta, od prvih vizija
sagledavanja korištenja obnovljivih izvora do sadašnje realnosti izgradnje tih postrojenja,
od prepoznavanja problema klimatskih promjena, pa do današnjih postignuća u zaštiti
klime. Moglo bi se nabrajati što se sve u tom vremenu mijenjalo jer se radi o razdoblju u
kojem su se prepoznavale konture nove energetske politike i tehnološkog razvoja.
Sve ove godine bili smo otvorena tribina za iznošenje ideja i rasprave. Na Forumu su
gostovali mnogi priznati stručnjaci, koji su nas upoznavali s vizijama i očekivanjima na
globalnoj razini. Na određeni način bili smo prethodnica promjena, svojevrsna škola
razvoja ukupnih odnosa u energetici i oko nje.
Na Forumu se nikada nisu donosili zaključci. Za neke je to nedostatak, a za nas je to
temeljna platforma rada Foruma, koji je zamišljen kao mjesto susreta različitih ideja
i rješenja, ali ne i mjesto donošenja odluka. Donošenje odluka je predviđeno za neka
druga mjesta, a sa stanovišta očekivanja struke, bilo bi poželjno da se odluke donose na
temelju ozbiljnih i temeljitih istraživanja.
Prethodnih 20 godina potvrdilo je potrebu nastavljanja tradicije održavanja Foruma.
Nadamo se da će se s izborom tema i stručnjaka donositi nova znanja, iskustva i
promišljanja. Želimo i dalje biti otvorena tribina za sve ideje koje mogu doprinijeti
strateškom razvoju energetike
Dr.sc. Goran Granić
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FOREWORD
This year’s annual Forum is held twentieth year in a row. Numerous of important topics
have been discussed during previous years, tracking all the changes in energy sector,
from national monopoly utilities towards open markets, from first visions of consideration
of renewable sources of energy towards the present realisation of these facilities, from
first identification of climate changes issues towards today’s achievements in climate
control. One could enumerate all the things that changed during this timeframe since
it is a period when outlines of new energy policy and technological development were
recognized.
All these years this was an open space for presentation of ideas and discussions.
This Forum hosted many remarkable experts, which introduced us with global visions
and expectations. In a way, Forum has been leader of changes, a kind of school for
development of overall relations in energy sector, and around it.
Forum was never a place where conclusions were brought. For some, it is a
disadvantage, for us that are the basis of Forum’s work, foreseen as a place where
different ideas and solutions meet, but not a place for decision-making. Decision-making
is foreseen for some other places, and from the profession expectation’s point of view,
it would be advisable to make those decisions based on the serious and thorough
researches.
Last 20 years have confirmed a need to continue tradition of the Forum. We hope that
choice of new topics and experts will continue to bring new knowledge, experiences and
reflections. We would like to continue on being an open space for all ideas that are able to
contribute to strategic development of energy sector.
Goran Granić, PhD
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20. Forum
ŽIVOTOPISI PREDAVAČA / PRESENTERS’ CURRICULA VITAE
Branko Terzić
Executive Director of the Deloitte Center for Energy Solutions
and Regulatory Policy Leader in Energy & Resources for
Deloitte Services LP. Chairman of theUnited Nations Economic
Commission for EuropeAd Hoc Group of Expertson Cleaner
Electricity Production. Member, National Coal Council. Former
Chairman, CEO, and President of Yankee Energy System Inc.
Former commissioner Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
and Wisconsin Public Service Commission, faculty
Washington Campus MBA programs, BS Energy Engineering
and honorary Doctor of Sciences in Engineering, University of
Wisconsin- Milwaukee. Energy Efficiency Forum Hall of Fame
honoree, Professional Engineer and Fellow of the RSA.
Haydar Livatyali
Haydar Livatyali, Ph.D., born in 1967 in Turkey
Education:
The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
Doctor of Philosophy, Mechanical Engineering, December 1998
The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
Master of Science, Mechanical Engineering, December 1993
Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
Bachelor of Science, Mechanical Engineering, February 1989
Experience:
TUBITAK Marmara Reseach Center Energy Institute (Chief Senior Researcher, Oct. 09 –
Present)
Istanbul Technical University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey, Material
Science and Manufacturing Engineering Division (Associate Professor, Oct. 04 – Oct.09)
Istanbul Technical University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey, Material
Science and Manufacturing Engineering Division (Assistant Professor, Feb. 99 - Oct. 04)
NSF Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing, The Ohio State
University, Columbus, Ohio (Graduate Research Associate, 1992 - 1999)
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
(Teaching and Research Assistant, 1989 - 1991)
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Selected projects:
Performance measurement and evaluation of a 500 kWt parabolic trough DSG steam
generator experimental pilot plant
Design consulting and performance analysis of a 200 kWt medium temperature parabolic
trough solar H&C pilot plant
Solar resource assessment for photovoltaic power generation
Aeronautics Research, Development and Application Project (Design of a Light
Commercial Helicopter) (sponsored by State Planning Organization-DPT), Project
participant dealing with materials and prototype manufacturing issues, 2003-present.
Forming of Heat Treatable Sheet Steels at Elevated Temperature, Principal Investigator,
(sponsored by TUBITAK-Turkish Science Foundation, 105M178), May 2006-Apr 2009).
Computer aided design of drawbars in sheet metal stamping dies and prediction of spring
back, Ford Turkey, Kocaeli, Feb. 2006 – Jan. 2008, Technical Consultant, (sponsored by
TUBITAK-TEYDEB)
Finite element simulation of ball burnishing of thin plates, General Electric Marmara Tech.
Center, Technical Consultant, Feb.2006 - Dec 2007.
Improvement of manufacturing new generation diesel engine pistons in terms of
productivity, cost and quality, Yenmak Inc., Konya, July 2004 - Dec. 2005, Technical
Consultant, (sponsored by TUBITAK-TEYDEB)
Development of a Sheet Metal Forming Press with Moving Bolster, OPSAN Inc., Technical
Consultant, 2001-2003 (sponsored by TUBITAK-TEYDEB)
Development of a Rapid Heating Process for sheet Metal Forming at Elevated
Temperature, Ata Engr. Co., consultant, 2002-2004 (sponsored by both KOSGEB and
TUBITAK-TEYDEB)
Refereeing for various TUBITAK – TEYDEB (TUBITAK Industrial R&D Support Dept.),
TTGV and KOSGEB projects, scientific publications, conferences etc.
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Dubravko Sabolić
Dubravko Sabolić (born in 1969 in Zagreb, Croatia) obtained
his Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering and his M.S. degree
in economics from the University of Zagreb in 2004 and 2007,
respectively.
Since July 1994 he has been working for the Croatian
Electricity Utility (HEP). In April 2007 he was appointed
the Managing Director of the Croatian TSO (HEP-TSO,
Llc.). From December 2001 to September 2004 he served
as Commissioner at the Croatian regulatory authority for
telecoms (Telecommunications Council). Since 2006 he has
been a member of Working groups for preparation of negotiations on Croatia’s accession
to the EU in Chapters Information society and media, and Energy.
He is an assistant professor at the University of Zagreb, Croatia, where he teaches
Engineering Economics for undergraduate students of electrical engineering and
computing. He also teaches Electricity Markets at the University of Osijek, Croatia, for
graduate students of electrical engineering.
Dubravko Pevec
Dubravko Pevec is a full professor at Faculty of Electrical
Engineering, University of Zagreb. He teaches nuclear
physics, reactor physics and nuclear engineering at
undergraduate and graduate level.
Pevec attended the Faculty of Natural Sciences, University
of Zagreb, earning a bachelor’s degree in theoretical physics
and a master’s degree in nuclear physics. He earned
doctorate in electrical engineering at the Faculty of Electrical
Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb.
Pevec started his scientific career as research assistant
in nuclear physics and physics of elementary particles at
Rugjer Bošković Institute in Zagreb. In 1979, he joined Faculty of Electrical Engineering,
University of Zagreb, where he served as assistant, assistant professor, and associate
professor. Now he is holding a position of full professor. His scientific interest is in
reactor physics and nuclear engineering. He was head of Department of Applied Physics
from 1994 to 1998 and from 2000 to 2004.
Professor Pevec published numerous scientific writings in books, periodicals, conference
proceedings, and technical reports. He served as the principal investigator of numerous
technical and scientific projects.
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Since the foundation of the Croatian Nuclear Society in 1992 Pevec is a member of
the Governing Board. He served two terms as the Vice-president and two terms as the
President. He is a member of European Nuclear Society, American Nuclear Society, and
European Physical Society.
Damjan Međimorec
Damjan Međimorec has been working for HEPTransmission system operator LLC (HEP-OPS) as
Department Director for Development and Institutional
Affairs in since 2005. Previously he also worked for HEPOPS (as well as for its legal predecessors) on different
tasks regarding transmission system development and
international cooperation from 1998. After graduating at
Faculty of Electrical Engineering at Zagreb University in
1993 with major in Electrical Power Engineering, he started
his professional career with Croatian National Electricity
plc, afterwards continuing with Siemens LLC Zagreb.
From 2001 on he actively participates in different bodies of several European and
regional transmission system operators associations (UCTE, ETSO, SUDEL …) until
they all merged into ENTSO-E (European network of transmission system operators
for electricity) at the end of 2008. Then he was elected as a member of the Board of
ENTSO-E for first term and in 2011 for the second. From 2009 he is also deputy convenor
of Regional group of ENTSO-E for South-East European market.
As a member of working groups for chapters Energy and Trans-European Networks he
participated in negotiating process for accession of Republic of Croatia to the European
Union.
Željko Tomšić
Prof.dr.sc. Željko Tomšić works at the Faculty of Electrical
Engineering and Computing as professor and his teaching
subjects are: ‘Energy Consumption Measuring and Analysis’,
‘Environment and Sustainable Development ‘(undergraduate
programme), ‘Energy, Environment and Sustainable
Development’, ‘Energy-Economic Models for Construction
of Electricity System’, ‘Energy Management and Energy
Efficiency’ (graduate programme) and ‘Environmental Impact
of Electric Power System’, ‘Planning of Construction of
Generating Plants in Uncertain Conditions’ (postgraduate
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programme). He was Member of HEP d.d. Management Board for strategy, corporate
development, international relations and gas business development (2008-2009) and the
position of Assistant Minister for Energy and Mining in the Ministry of Economy, Labour
and Entrepreneurship (2004-2008).
He is Head of Government Working Group for preparation of Accession Negotiations with
EU on the chapter 15 – Energy. He has participated as a project partner and coordinator
in a number of EU funded projects. He is experienced in the use of various computer
models for the optimum design of energy systems and the analysis of energy policy
instruments. He was written more than 100 R&D papers and he is co-author of book
Power Plants and Environment.
Maja Božičević Vrhovčak
Maja Božičević Vrhovčak born in 1972 in Zagreb, Croatia.
Education:
2000-2005 Dr. Sc. in Power Engineering; thesis title:
“Multicriteria Analysis of Renewable Energy Sources”,
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University
of Zagreb
1996-2000 Mr. Sc. in Power Engineering, essey title:
“External Costs as Criteria in Thermal Power Plant
Location Selection”, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and
Computing, University of Zagreb
1990-1996 Dipl. Ing. in Electrical Engineering, essey title “Industrial Polution in the City of
Zagreb”, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb
Membership of professional bodies:
IEEE, CIGRE (International Council on Large Electric Systems) – Croatian branch,
Croatian Energy Society, Croatian Society for Air Protection, Croatian Solar Energy
Society
Professional experience:
Society for Sustainable Development Design (DOOR), Zagreb, President (10/2007present) – Management, project leading; (12/2008-now) – Awareness and Education in
Renewable Energy Sources
Society for Sustainable Development Design (DOOR), Zagreb, Renewable energy sources
and Energy efficiency expert (3/2008-12/2008) – Update/Upgrade of the Energy Strategy
and of the Implementation Programme of the Republic of Croatia; National expert
(2/2007-9/2007) – Energy Efficiency Master Plan for Croatia
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Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb, Task leader (1/2006-5/2008)
– EC Framework Programme 6 project „The Virtual Balkan Power Center for Advance of
Renewable Energy Sources in Western Balkans“
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb, Task leader (1/2002-11/2002)
– The role of green certificates at the EU electricity market, and HEP’s possibilities and
obligations for green certificates market involvement”, client: HEP (Croatian electric
company)
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb, Task leader (3/2001-11/2001)
– Legislation and economic measures for environment protection and power system
operation and development at the liberalised electricity market in Croatia”, client: HEP
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb, Task leader (6/1998-6/1999) –
Case study for Croatian electrical energy system on comparing sustainable energy mixes
for electricity generation, client: IAEA
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb, Task leader (11/1996-10/1997)
– ”Power system planning and enviromental protection”, client: HEP
Silvio Bratić
Born: 19.02.1987, Croatia
Education:
Title of qualification awarded: Bachelor of mechanical
engineering
Name and type of organisation providing education and
training: Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval
Architecture, Zagreb, Croatia
Level in national or international classification: ISCED 5
Work experience:
Dates: September 2009 onwards
Occupations or position held: Assistant to the establishment of a registry and technical
support
Main activities and responsibilities: Promoting energy efficiency in households
Name and address of employer: United Nations Development Programme-Croatia,
Bednjanska 14/a, Zagreb
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Type of business or sector : HIO-House in order, promoting energy efficiency in
households
Other:
Languages: English, German, Croatian (mother tongue)
Computer skills and competences: Operating systems: MS Windows 95, 98, 2000, XP,
Windows 7
Applications: Microsoft Office (Word,Excel, PowerPoint), AutoCad, SolidWorks, Gambit,
Fluent, Matlab(Simulink), EnergyPlan, Homer, H2RES
Neven Duić
Working as a Full professor at the Department of Energy,
Power Engineering and Environment at the Faculty of
Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University
of Zagreb. His current position is Head of Power Engineering
and Energy Management Chair at the Department of Energy,
Power Engineering and Environment.
Areas of special interest include sustainable development,
energy management, numerical modelling of heat and mass
transfer, energy planning, energy policy, energy markets,
energy economics and rational use of energy.
Professor Duić is a project coordinator for project “Smart energy storage for sustainable
energy development” funded by Ministry of Science, Education and Sports as well as
coordinator for Croatian participation at FSB Zagreb for several FP7, FP6 and Intelligent
Energy Europe projects.
He published more than 120 scientific papers of which 23 scientific papers indexed in
Current Contents.
http://powerlab.fsb.hr/neven/
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Vladimir Potočnik
Born in 1936 in Travnik B&H, graduated 1960 and 1975 on
the University of Zagreb, Croatia.
Languages: Croatian, English, German, French, Russian.
Since 1960 to 2001 he was employed in consulting company
Elektroprojekt Zagreb Croatia, participating and managing
more than 100 projects in Croatia (WTE plant Zagreb,
Cogeneration plants in Zagreb, TPP Jertovec, NPP Prevlaka
etc.) and abroad (DPP Lesvos Greece, HPP Martinsville USA,
TPP Kandla India, NPP Krsko Slovenia, etc.). He assisted
initiation of TPP repowering, cogeneration, WTE plants, renewable energy and some
other projects in Croatia.
Recently, he participated in preparation of the Croatian waste management strategy and
regulation, Croatian first national report on climate change and Ministry of environment’s
commission for EIA.
He published more than 60 papers in professional journals and on power and waste
congresses, as well as two books:
• Municipal solid waste treatment – World experiences, Zagreb 1997 (Croatian)
• Renewable energy sources and environment protection in Croatia, Zagreb 2002
(Croatian)
Goran Granić
Born: 18 April 1950 in Baska Voda, Republic of Croatia
Education:
B.Sc. (Eng.) in 1972, M.Sc. (Eng.) in 1976 and Ph.D. in
1979; Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing,
University of Zagreb.
Employment:
Energy Institute Hrvoje Požar, Director (1994 – 2000 and
2004 – present),
Government of the Republic of Croatia, Deputy Prime
Minister (2000 – 2003),
Croatian Electric Utility Company, General Manager (1990 – 1991),
Union of Croatian Electric Utilities, Member of the Management Board (1987 – 1990),
Institute for the Electric Industry (1973 – 1987 and 1991 – 1994).
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Other:
Member of Parliament of the Republic of Croatia since 1992, Vice-President of
Parliament (1995);
More than 160 publications in the field of energy sector planning;
President of the Croatian Energy Society and Member of the other expert organizations;
Associate member and Secretary-General of the HATZ (Croatian Technical Academy).
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SAŽETCI REFERATA / PAPER ABSTRACTS
Branko Terzić
Executive Director, Deloitte Center for Energy Solutions
SUPROTNOSTI PRIVATNOG MONOPOLA I OTVORENOG TRŽIŠTA
Sažetak
Razvijeno američko tržište električne energije može poslužiti kao značajan primjer
zemljama članicama Europske unije, kao i onima izvan nje, koje planiraju uvesti
konkurenciju u sektor električne energije. Potrebno je dakako razumjeti, da u okviru
SAD-a, to predstavlja jedinstvenu mješavinu imovinskog vlasništva te grananja regulacije
između državnih i federalnih agencija, kao i nacionalnih povijesnih značajki u kontekstu
zakonodavstva iz područja električne energije i energetike uopće. Mnogo se može naučiti
na primjeru iz razdoblja od 1999. do 2002. godine kad je propalo jedno od najvećih
energetskih tržišta u Kaliforniji, a s druge strane, uspjeh je doživio tržište slične veličine
u Pennyslvaniji, New Jerseyju i Marylandu (PJM). Slijedeći državne odluke o daljnjim
nastojanjima na području obnovljivih izvora energije, upravljanja na strani potrošnje i
„smart grid“ poboljšanjima, još su se više zakomplicirali državni i federalni odnosi te
federalna regulacija tržišta energije.
CONTRARIETY OF PRIVATE MONOPOLY AND OPEN MARKET
Abstract
America’s evolving electricity markets offer significant lessons for the European Union
and non-EU countries aspiring to introduce competition into the electricity sector of
their economies. These lessons must be understood, however, in the context of the
United States’ unique mix of asset ownership, regulatory bifurcation between state and
federal agencies and its national energy and electricity policy history. It is in this context
that lessons can be drawn from the period of 1999-2002 where the US saw the failure
of one large power market in California and the success of a similarly sized market in
Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland (the PJM). Subsequent state policy decisions
to move ahead with subsidized renewable energy production, demand-side management
and “smart grid” improvements have further complicated state and federal relations and
federal regulation of wholesale power markets.
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Haydar Livatyali
T-Dinamik Energy Company, Istanbul, Turkey
POTICAJNA TARIFA KAO SREDSTVO PROMOCIJE OBNOVLJIVIH IZVORA
ENERGIJE U SVIJETU I TURSKOJ
Sažetak
Poticajne tarife su zakonsko sredstvo čija je namjena poticanje obnovljivih izvora energije
i ubrzanje ostvarenja pariteta mreže, a prvi put su uvrštene u energetske propise SAD-a
1978. godine,. Poticajna tarifa sadrži tri ključne odredbe uključujući zajamčeni pristup
mreži, dugoročne ugovore za proizvedenu električnu energiju i prodajnu cijenu čija je
metodologija izračuna temeljena na troškovima proizvodnje obnovljivih izvora energija
i približava se mrežnom paritetu. Uz već poznate poticaje za korištenje obnovljivih
izvora energije, kao što su odbitak poreza na dohodak, oslobođenje od poreza na
imovinu, porezne olakšice, garancije za kredite ili zajmove, poticaji za investicijske
kredite i ubrzana amortizacija, dobro prilagođene ove tarife generalno se smatraju
najučinkovitijim poticajnim mjerama u promicanju obnovljivih izvora energije. Dosada je
skoro sedamdeset zemalja, uključujući razvijene i one u razvoju, uvelo zajamčene tarife, a
očekuje se da će ih u budućnosti biti i više.
Turska je prvi put uvela poticajne tarife, 2006. godine, koje su pokrivale proizvodnju
energije iz vjetra, vode i geotermalnih izvora. U tome zakonu je sunčeva energija
namjerno isključena pretpostavljajući brzi razvoj te tehnologije i potencijalno buduće
smanjenje troškova, te je iduća nadopuna zakona (za pokrivanje ostalih tehnologija)
predviđena za pet godina. Usporeni jednoipolgodišnji parlamentarni postupak dovršen
je krajem 2010. godine izmjenama i dopunama tog zakona te su konačno sunčeva
energija (PV i CSP) i energija biomase uključene u sustav zajamčenih tarifa, zajedno s
nekim izmjenama na području proizvodnje energije iz vjetra, vode i geotermalnih izvora.
Posljednje izmjene i dopune zakona pretpostavljaju proizvodnju energije iz fotonaponskih
sustava kao dominantnu te je bazna tarifa od 0.133 USD/kWh određena na temelju
najnižeg investicijskog troška na svjetskom tržištu fotonaponskih sustava. Radi poticanja
domaće tehnologije i proizvodnje, definirani su dodatni poticaji za domaće komponente
sustava, module, ćelije, pretvarače i kontrolore te mehaničku infrastrukturu.
Kako bi posljednje izmjene i dopune zakona stupile na snagu, potrebno je u sljedećih šest
mjeseci donijeti još dva podzakonska akta. Jedan od njih vezan je za standarde opreme
i određivanje domaćeg sadržaja opreme, a drugi je vezan uz povezivanje tih sustava na
mrežu, mjerenja i pravila provedbe ispitivanja. Za elektrane veličine manje od 500 kWe te
sustave instalirane na krovovima, propisi za neovlaštene proizvođače električne energije
na snazi su od kraja listopada 2010. godine te će uz novi zakon i propise to postati
značajno za sunčevu energiju.
Turska, kao jugoistočna mediteranska zemlja, ima mnogo veće potencijale u usporedbi s
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Njemačkom, vodećom silom na području sunčeve energije u Europi. Međutim, kao zemlja
s jakom konvencionalnom proizvodnjom, ne posjeduje velike tehnološki razvoj u području
sunčeve energije. Stoga, turski model poticajnih tarifa može biti dobar primjer zemljama
Bliskog Istoka i južne Afrike, koje planiraju velike investicije na području sunčeve energije
u nadolazećim godinama.
FEED-IN TARIFF AS A MECHANISM OF PROMOTING RENEWABLE ENERGY
IN THE WORLD AND TRUKEY
Abstract
First included into the energy regulations of the USA in 1978, a feed-in tariff (FiT) is a
policy mechanism designed to encourage the adoption of renewable energy sources and
to help accelerate the move toward grid parity .FiTs typically include three key provisions
including guaranteed grid access, long-term contracts for the electricity produced
and purchase prices that are methodologically based on the cost of renewable energy
generation and tend towards grid parity. Among other renewable energy subsidies, such
as income tax deductions, property tax exemptions, tax credits, loans or loan guaranties,
investment credit subsidies and depreciation allowances, well-adapted feed-in tariff
regimes are generally considered as the most efficient and effective support schemes
for promoting renewable electricity. Up to now, close to seventy countries including
developed and developing ones have adapted FiT policies and more are expected to come
in the near future.
Turkey adapted her initial FiT law in 2005 covering wind, hydro and geothermal
sectors. In that law, solar electric power was intentionally excluded claiming the rapid
development of the technology and potential cost reductions and a future update in the
law covering the missing technologies was foreseen in five years. Adoption of the recent
amendment at the end of year 2010 took a sluggish parliamentary process of one and
a half years and eventually solar (PV and CSP); biogas-bio-mass power technologies
were included in the FiT system along with some improvements on the wind, geothermal
and hydro-electric sectors. The recent amendment assumed solar power as dominantly
photovoltaic in nature and the base tariff of 0.133 USD/kW-h was determined based on
the lowest investment options available on the global photovoltaic market. To promote
domestic technology and manufacture, additional bonuses are defined for the domestic
content of modules, cells, inverters and controllers and mechanical infrastructure.
To enable the recently updated renewable energy law, issuing of two main regulations
(by-laws) are needed in the following six months. One of them is on equipment
standards and determination of the domestic content of the equipment and the other is
related to grid connection, metering and auditing rules. For power plants smaller than
500 kWe and roof-top applications to feed electricity to the grid, the unlicensed power
producer regulations are already in place since the end of October 2010, and along with
the new law and following regulations it will become meaningful in terms of solar energy.
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Turkey, as a south-eastern Mediterranean country has richer solar resources as
compared to Germany, the solar power leader of Europe. In contrast, as a country strong
on conventional manufacturing, is not considered as a technology developer in the solar
energy sector. Therefore, the Turkish FiT model may be a better example for the MENA
countries that will house a large amount of solar power investments in the upcoming
years.
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Dubravko Sabolić
HEP-Transmission System Operator, Llc., Zagreb, CROATIA
ORGANIZACIJA PRIJENOSA ELEKTRIČNE ENERGIJE U OKVIRU
DUGOROČNIH CILJEVA ENERGETSKE POLIITIKE
Sažetak
Europska industrija prijenosa električne energije suočena je s organizacijskom reformom
zbog primjene Trećeg paketa, ali i s drugim strukturalnim izazovima vezanim s povećanim
udjelom proizvodnje iz OIE i primjenom drugih mjera zaštite okoliša („grinifikacija“
elektroenergetskog sustava). Oslanjajući se na literaturu, ponajprije ću analizirati
repozicioniranje suvremenog OPS-a, pritom izbjegavajući dogmatske stavove koji su
bili na snazi u javnim raspravama posljednjih nekoliko godina, kako bi se zaključilo da:
(a) ne postoji način kojim bi se zapravo dokazalo da bilo koji od tri organizacijska oblika
iz Trećeg paketa ima jasne prednosti u odnosu na druge oblike, a time bi (b) rasprava u
političkoj areni završila pragmatično nakon odluke o tome što je zapravo cilj (ili, kakve
interese treba slijediti). Nakon analize organizacijskih pitanja, osvrnut ću se na ono
što smatram najvećim izazovom za OPS: postupna „grinifikacija“ industrije opskrbe
električnom energijom, te vezane tehničke i ekonomske poteškoće. Naglasit ću važnost
razumne i odgovorne izrade i provedbe energetske politike.
ORGANIZATION OF ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION IN VIEW OF LONG TERM
ENERGY POLICY GOALS
Abstract
European electricity transmission industry is facing both organizational reform due to
the 3rd Package implementation, and more structural challenges related to electricity
system greenification. Relying on literature, I will first analyze the contemporary TSO
repositioning, avoiding dogmatic attitudes which have been prevailing in public debates
over the last several years, to conclude that: (a) there is not a way to actually prove that
either of the three organizational forms from the 3rd Package has clear advantages over
any of the others, and thus (b) the debate should be ended pragmatically in a political
arena following a decision on what the goal really is (or, what kind of interests should
be pursued). After analyzing the organizational issues I will turn to what I believe is the
most important challenge in front of TSOs: gradual greenification of the electricity supply
industry, with technical and economic difficulties related to it. I will stress the importance
of sound and accountable policy making and enforcement.
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Nikola Čavlina, Vladimir Knapp, Dubravko Pevec
Fakultet elektrotehnike i računarstva Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Hrvatska
PERSPEKTIVA NUKLEARNE ENERGETIKE NAKON NESREĆE U FUKUSHIMI
Sažetak
Pitanje budućnosti nuklearne energije postavlja se nakon nesreće na elektrani Daichi u
Fukushimi. U svijetu su u pogonu 433 nuklearne elektrane koje proizvode oko 14 posto
električne energije. Najveći broj nuklearnih elektrana (134) u pogonu je u Europskoj
uniji (EU) proizvodeći oko trećine električne energije. Za ovu vodeću ulogu u korištenju
nuklearne energije postoje dobri geopolitički i strateški razlozi. Bez vlastitih izvora nafte i
plina i u ovisnosti od zemalja izvoznika EU teško može voditi neovisnu vanjsku politiku. EU
također želi igrati vodeću ulogu u naporima da se ostvare redukcije emisije i zadrži porast
globalne temperature ispod 2ºC. Nuklearna energija daje važan doprinos kompetitivnosti
europske industrije. Ocjene neovisnih stručnih komisija nakon nesreće u Fukushimi
ne dovode u pitanje osnovne koncepcije današnjih elektrana, iako se očekuje da će
određena poboljšanja biti preporučena. Što se nuklearne energetike u EU tiče, bez obzira
na kratkoročne političke i stranačke odluke, osnovni dugoročni geopolitički, ekonomski
i strateški razlozi, koji su poticali njen razvoj u prošlosti, ostaju nepromijenjeni. Treba
dakle očekivati da će se i nuklearni razvoj u EU nastaviti bez značajnijih zastoja. Pored
pregleda mjera koje se provode u svijetu nakon nesreće u Fukushimi dan je i kratak osvrt
na dostatnost nuklearnog goriva za dugoročne strategije sa znatnim učešćem nuklearne
energije.
ON THE PERSPECTIVE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY FOLLOWING THE
FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT
Abstract
Future of nuclear energy after accidents on the nuclear power station Daichi at
Fukushima has been questioned and discussed. At present 433 nuclear power plants are
contributing with about 14% to the world production of electricity. Looking at regional
distribution of nuclear power plants, the largest number of nuclear power plants (143) is
operating in European Union (EU) producing around one third of its electric energy. EU
leads the world in the use of nuclear energy, with very good geopolitical and strategic
reasons. Without its own oil and gas resources and with high dependence on external
supplier EU has a problem in conducting independent foreign policy. As industrially and
technologically developed region of the world EU intends to play a leading role in efforts
to reduce C02 emission and limit the global temperature increase to below 2°C. Also,
nuclear energy is important for international competitiveness of European industry.
After the Fukushima accident, and in the light of that event, many expert groups have
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revaluated the safety of operating nuclear power plants. Whilst they do not find faults with
basic conceptions, some safety related improvements will be recommended. As regards
to nuclear energy in EU, irrespectively of short or medium term political decisions, long
term geopolitical and strategic reasons that stimulated strong nuclear development in the
past, continue to exist. Thus, we may expect continuation of nuclear development in EU
without essential delays. As it appears, pending post-Fukushima nuclear safety analysis
and applying safety improvements where needed, Fukushima accident will not stop
nuclear development in industrially and technologically developed regions of the world.
In view of frequently expressed claims that nuclear fuel resources are insufficient for the
long term large scale production of nuclear energy we also give a short comment on the
sustainability of nuclear energy.
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Damjan Međimorec
HEP-Operator prijenosnog sustava d.o.o., Hrvatska
ULOGA ENTSO-E U PLANIRANJU RAZVOJA PRIJENOSNE MREŽE
SLIJEDOM ODREDBI TREĆEG PAKETA ENERGETSKIH PROPISA EUROPSKE
UNIJE
Sažetak
Već u početnom razdoblju svog djelovanja Europska mreža operatora prijenosnih
sustava za električnu energiju (ENTSO-E) pripremila je i objavila prvo izdanje svog
desetogodišnjeg plana razvoja mreže (TYNDP) i to za razdoblje 2010-2020, čime je
ispunjena i jedna od zadaća ENTSO-E prema novoj Uredbi 714/09/EZ o uvjetima pristupa
mreži za prekograničnu razmjenu električne energije.
U tom procesu ENTSO-E je proveo široke javne rasprave iz kojih su, kao i općenito
iz reakcija niza glavnih dionika europske elektroenergetike, formulirana očekivanja
prema novim izdanjima ovog neobvezujućeg uratka (TYNDP), a koje slijede svake dvije
godine. Slijedom tih iskustava, ali i iskustava pojedinih operatora prijenosnih sustava
kao sudionika izrade „pilot“ TYNDP-a kroz ENTSO-E, usvojen je plan i vremenski slijed
aktivnosti do objave sljedećeg TYNDP-a u proljeće 2012 godine.
Važan korak u tome predstavlja paralelna priprema i izrada šest regionalnih investicijskih
planova (RIP) kako bi se reducirao opseg aktivnosti na samoj paneuropskoj razini
TYNDP-a i osigurala njegova konzistentnost. Naime između tih šest regija usuglašenih
između operatora prijenosnih sustava, članova ENTSO-E, postoje određena preklapanja u
prostoru koji obuhvaćaju (a time i u obuhvaćenim projektima).
Jedan od tri glavna razloga za pokretanje investicijskih projekata, u nove ili rekonstruirane
prijenosne objekte, obuhvaćene s TYNDP odnosno RIP je integracija tržišta električne
energije.
Stoga je u sklopu unapređivanja metodologije izrade TYNDP-a, odnosno RIP-a, dodatno
proširen zahvat ulaznih podataka posebice u pogledu tržišno relevantnih podataka,
odnosno onih potrebnih za modeliranje tržišta električne energije i njegovog utjecaja na
investicije u prijenosni sustav.
Također su definirani i dodatni scenariji koji se koriste kod svih RIP-ova, pri čemu je
ključan tzv. scenarij 20-20-20 koji kao osnovne ulazne parametre uzima Nacionalne
akcijske planove čija je izrada obvezna po Direktivi 2009/28 o promicanju uporabe
električne energije proizvedene iz obnovljivih izvora energije. Tako stvoreni modeli koriste
se za analize na regionalnim razinama. Preliminarni rezultati daju određene regionalne
trendove, ali i zajedničke elemente na pan-europskoj razini. Pri tome se pojedini kritični
segmenti raspravljaju na posebnim radionicama ENTSO-E i s zainteresiranim dionicima,
prije svega tržišnim sudionicima.
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ENTSO_E ROLE IN TRANSMISSION NETWORK PLANNING FOLLOWING
THE PROVISIONS OF THE EU’S THIRD ENERGY PACKAGE
Abstract
In the initial period of its operation the European network of transmission system
operators for electricity (ENTSO-E) has prepared and published the first edition of its
ten-year network development plan (TYNDP) for period 2010-2020, by which has fulfilled
one of the ENTSO-E’s tasks according to the new Directive 714/09/EZ on grid accessing
conditions for cross-border electricity exchange.
In this process, ENTSO-E has carried out a broad public debates, which provided,
together with general reactions of a number of major European power industry
stakeholders, expectations regarding new editions of this non-binding paper (TYNDP),
which followed every two years. Following these experiences, and the experiences
of individual transmission system operators as participants of making TYNDP “pilot”
through ENTSO-E, a plan and a time schedule of activities were adopted until the
publication of the next TYNDP in the spring of 2012.
Important step in this represents parallel preparation and creation of six regional
investment plans (RIP) in order to reduce the scope of activities at the pan-European
TYNDP level and to ensure their consistency. Namely among this six regions agreed
between transmission system operators, which are members of ENTSO-E, there are
certain overlaps in the area which they include (and thus in included projects).
One of the three main reasons for launching investment projects in new or reconstructed
transmission facilities which are covered with TYNDP or RIP is the integration of
electricity market.
Therefore is, within the methodology improvement of making TYNDP or RIP, further
expanded treatment of input data, especially in terms of market-relevant data and data
needed for modeling electricity market and its impact on investment in the transmission
system.
Also, additional scenarios that are used by all RIP are defined, where the most important
scenario is so called 20-20-20 which as the basic input parameters takes National
investment plans whose preparation is required by Directive 2009/28 on promoting the
use of electricity produced from renewable energy sources. These models are used for
analysis at regional level. Preliminary results provide some regional trends, but also the
common elements at the pan-European level. In doing so, certain critical are discussed
at special ENTSO-E workshops and with interested stakeholders, first of all market
participants.
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Željko Tomšić, 1Ivan Gašić, 2Goran Čačić, 1Luka Lugarić
1
1
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb
2
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
DEFINIRANJE INTELIGENTNOG INFORMACIJSKOG SUSTAVA ZA PRAĆENJE
I VERIFIKACIJU GOSPODARENJA ENERGIJOM U GRADOVIMA
Sažetak
Centralna tema svake energetske politike je poboljšanje učinkovitosti potrošnje energije.
Povećanje energetske učinkovitosti doprinosi zadovoljavanju osnovnih ciljeva energetske
politike: sigurnosti opskrbe, konkurentnosti i zaštiti okoliša. Sustavno gospodarenje
energijom osnovna je domena znanja i vještina potrebnih za razvoj projekta, a temelji
se na organizacijskoj strukturi koja povezuje ljude s njima dodijeljenim odgovornostima,
postupcima učinkovitog nadzora te kontinuiranom mjerenju i povećanju energetske
učinkovitosti. Međutim, ono mora biti potpomognuto odgovarajućim informacijskim
i komunikacijskim tehnologijama koje omogućuju prikupljanje podataka o potrošnji
energije, njihovu obradu na temelju koje se postavljaju ciljevi energetske učinkovitosti te
širenje informacija. INFORMACIJSKI SUSTAV ZA GOSPODARENJE ENERGIJOM – ISGE je
web aplikacija za nadzor i analizu potrošnje energije i vode u zgradama javnog sektora te
predstavlja neizbježan alat za sustavno gospodarenje energijom. Ova aplikacija povezuje
procese prikupljanja podataka o zgradama i njihovoj potrošnji energije, prati indikatore
potrošnje, postavlja ciljeve energetske učinkovitosti i izvještava o postignutim uštedama
u potrošnji energije.
PROJEKTOM INTELIGENTNI INFORMACIJSKI SUSTAV ZA PRAĆENJE I VERIFIKACIJU
GOSPODARENJA ENERGIJOM U GRADOVIMA (ISEMIC) distribuirat će se softverski alat
ISGE u regiji (BiH, Slovenija i Srbija).
Ovaj projekt za cilj također ima i unaprijeđenje softverskog sustava za mjerenje
potrošnje energije dobivenih iz uređaja za daljinsko mjerenje te tradicionalnih mjernih
uređaja; naknadnu obradu podataka i njihovu analizu kako bi se olakšao, nadogradio
i eventualno zamijenio trenutni sustav gospodarenja energijom u javnim zgradama u
Republici Hrvatskoj. ISEMIC će omogućiti korištenje sustava za daljinsko mjerenje u
svrhu gospodarenja energijom po prvi puta u BiH, Sloveniji i Srbiji; uz analitički dio koji će
omogućiti inteligentnu procjenu potrošnje energije baziranoj na višestrukim kriterijima.
ISGE/ISEMIC će omogućiti:
• Kontinuirano ažuriranje i održavanje baze podataka s podacima o zgradama
• Kontinuiran unos i praćenje podataka o potrošnji za sve vrste energije te vodu
• Izračun indikatora potrošnje pomoću korisnički odabranih nezavisnih varijabli unesenih
u bazu podataka i preko unaprijed definiranih parametara
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• Praćenje i postavljanje ciljeva za troškove energije i energetske uštede za zgradu ili
grupu zgrada.
Izradu izvješća u skladu s korisničkim preferencijama ili predlošcima. Alat se može
primijeniti u svim zemljama iz kojih dolaze projektni partneri.
U radu će se dati kratak pregled početne faze projekta, planirani razvoj, metodologija i
kontekst primjene u gradovima i županijama u BiH, Sloveniji i Srbiji.
DEFINING AN INTELLIGENT INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR MONITORING
AND VERIFICATION OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN CITIES
Abstract
Improving the efficiency of energy consumption (EC) is a central theme of any energy
policy. Improved energy efficiency (EE) meets three energy policy goals: security
of supply, competitiveness and protection of the environment. Systematic energy
management is a body of knowledge and skills based on an organizational structure
that links people with assigned responsibilities, efficiency monitoring procedures and
continuous measurement and improvement of energy efficiency. This body of knowledge
must be supported by appropriate ICT for gathering, processing and disseminating data
on EC, EE targets and information. Energy Management Information System – EMIS
is a web application for monitoring and analysis of energy and water consumption in
public buildings and represents inevitable tool for systematic energy management.
EMIS software tool connects processes of gathering data on buildings and their energy
consumption, monitoring consumption indicators, setting energy efficiency targets and
reporting energy and water consumption savings.
Project Intelligent Information System for Monitoring and Verification of Energy
Management in Cities (ISEMIC) will distribute EMIS software tool in region (BiH, Slovenia
and Serbia).
This project also has a goal of improving a software system for utilizing EC
measurements, both from smart meters and traditional measurement devices and
subsequent data processing and analysis to facilitate, upgrade and eventually replace
the currently used energy management system for public buildings in Croatia. ISEMIC
will enable use of smart meters within an energy management for the first time in BiH,
Slovenia and Serbia, along with an analytical part which enables intelligent estimation of
energy consumption based on multiple criteria.
EMIS/ISEMIC will enable:
• Continuous updating and maintenance of a database of information on buildings;
• Continuous entry and monitoring of consumption data for all energents and water in
buildings;
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• Calculation of consumption indicators by user-selected independent variables entered
in the database data and via preset parameters;
• Monitoring and target setting for energy expenses and energy savings for building and
groups of buildings;
• Report creation according to user preferences or templates.
The tool can be applied in all countries where project partners come from.
The paper will outline the inception phase of the project, planned developments and
methodology and context of application in cities and counties in BiH, Slovenia and Serbia.
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Maja Božičević Vrhovčak1, Zlatko Zmijarević2, Daniel Rodik1, Dražen Jakšić3
1
Društvo za oblikovanje održivog razvoja, Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb
2
Hrvatska energetska regulatorna agencija, Ulica grada Vukovara 14, 10000 Zagreb
3
Energetski institut Hrvoje Požar, Savska cesta 163, 10000 Zagreb
SUDJELOVANJE JAVNOSTI U DONOŠENJU JAVNIH POLITIKA S PODRUČJA
ENERGETIKE
Sažetak
U radu je dan pregled mogućnosti sudjelovanja javnosti u donošenju zakonskih propisa
i drugih dokumenata relevantnih za polje energetike u Republici Hrvatskoj te procjenu
autora o stupnju uključenosti hrvatske javnosti u provedenim procesima. Analizirani su
načini kako je javnost sudjelovala u nekoliko službeno prihvaćenih dokumenata i navedene
su prednosti uključivanja šireg kruga zainteresiranih građana. Dana je usporedba stupnja
uključenosti javnosti u procese donošenja odluka u Republici Hrvatskoj i u Europskoj
uniji, s posebnim naglaskom na usvajanje Trećeg paketa energetskih zakona. Prikazani
su projekti financirani iz nacionalnih i europskih izvora koji za cilj imaju šire uključivanje
hrvatske javnosti u donošenje javnih politika na polju energetike te rezultati njihove
provedbe. Zaključno, predložene su mogućnosti poboljšanja sudjelovanja hrvatske javnosti
u donošenju javnih politika s područja energetike.
Ključne riječi: sudjelovanje javnosti, energetski zakoni, EU projekti
PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN THE ENERGY-RELATED PUBLIC POLICY MAKING
Abstract
This paper provides an overview of possibilities for public participation in proposing legal
acts and other energy related documents in the Republic of Croatia and gives author
assessment of the Croatian public participation level in the processes carried out. The
ways how public has participated in the making of a few officially accepted documents
have been analysed and potential benefits of
inclusion of a wider circle of interested public have been stated. A comparison of the
degree of public involvement in the decision making processes in Croatia and the
European Union has been made, with specific emphasis on the adoption of the Third
package of energy laws. Several national and EU funded projects aiming at enhancing the
Croatian public participation in public decision making processes have been presented
and their results given. Finally, possibilities for the improvement of the public participation
in the Croatian energy policy making processes are proposed.
Key words: public participation, energy legislation, EU projects
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T. Pukšec, N. Duić
Department of Energy, Power Engineering and Environment University of Zagreb, Faculty
of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb, Croatia
ENERGETSKA POLITIKA I DUGOROČNA POTROŠNJA ENERGIJE U SEKTORU
KUĆANSTVA U HRVATSKOJ
Sažetak
Sektor kućanstva u Hrvatskoj predstavlja jedan od najvećih potrošača energije s udjelom
od oko 75,75PJ, što je gotovo 29 % ukupne potrošnje energije u Hrvatskoj. S obzirom
na to, važna je primjena različitih mehanizama poboljšanja energetske učinkovitosti u
ovom sektoru. Da bi se planirali budući energetski sustavi, važno je znati koje su buduće
mogućnosti i potrebe u vezi potrošnje energije za različite sektore. Kroz ovaj rad će biti
prikazane dugoročne projekcije potrošnje energije za sektor kućanstva u Hrvatskoj s
posebnim naglaskom na različite mehanizme; financijske, pravne, ali i tehnološke koji
će utjecati na scenarije buduće potrošnje energije. Važno je vidjeti kako ovi mehanizmi
utječu, pozitivno ili negativno, na buduću potrošnju energije i koji bi mehanizam mogao biti
najutjecajniji. Predviđanja potrošnje energije u ovom se radu temelje na modelu bottom-up
pristupa koji objedinjuje i obrađuje velik broj ulaznih podataka. Model će biti uspoređen s
nacionalnom Energetskom strategijom Hrvatske i bit će predstavljene određene razlike.
Jedan od glavnih zaključaka prikazanih u ovom radu je postojanje velike mogućnosti
za poboljšanje energetske učinkovitosti i smanjenje potrošnje energije u budućnosti,
temeljeno na pažljivom i racionalnom energetskom planiranju. Različiti financijski, pravni i
tehnološki mehanizmi mogu dovesti do značajnih ušteda u sektoru kućanstva što također
vodi smanjenju emisija stakleničkih plinova i ovisnosti Hrvatske o uvoznim fosilnim
gorivima.
ENERGY POLICY AND LONG TERM ENERGY DEMAND IN CROATIAN
HOUSEHOLDS SECTOR
Abstract
Households sector in Croatia represents one of the largest consumers of energy today
with around 75,75PJ, which is almost 29% of Croatia’s final energy demand. Considering
this consumption, implementing different mechanisms that would lead to improvements
in energy efficiency in this sector seems relevant. In order to plan future energy systems
it is important to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand for
different sectors. Through this paper long term energy demand projections for Croatian
households sector will be shown with a special emphasis on different mechanisms, both
financial, legal but also technological that will influence future energy demand scenarios.
It is important to see how these mechanisms influence, positive or negative, on future
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energy demand and which mechanism would be most influential. Energy demand
predictions in this paper are based upon bottom-up approach model which combines
and process large number of input data. The Model will be compared to Croatian national
Energy Strategy and certain difference will be presented. One of the major conclusions
shown in this paper is significant possibilities for energy efficiency improvements and
lower energy demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning.
Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in
the households sector which also leads to lesser greenhouse gas emissions and lower
Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels.
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Silvio Bratić1, Goran Krajačić1, Neven Duić1, Andrej Čotar2, Darko Jardas2
1
2
Fakultet strojarstva i brodogradnje, Zagreb, Hrvatska
Regionalna energetska agencija Kvarner, Rijeka, Hrvatska
ENERGETSKI SAMODOSTATAN OTOK
Sažetak
Za potrebe analize energetski samodostatnog otoka uzet je primjer manjeg otoka koji je
priključen na elektroenergetski sustav većeg otoka jednim podmorskim kabelom. Na
otoku se nalazi jedna montažna 10/0,4 trafostanica koja trenutno omogućuje da se sve
potrebe za električnom energijom zadovolje iz srednjenaponskog voda. Pretpostavlja
se da je otok smješten u sjevernom dijelu Jadranskog mora. Najveći problem otoka je
pad broja stanovnika koji se događa već dugi niz godina pa je potrebno odmah djelovati
i: poboljšati životne uvjete na otoku te poticati razvitak samog otoka. Organi lokalne
samouprave pokušavaju potaknuti održivi razvoj otoka kroz razne projekte, koji bi
ponovno oživjeli otok te bi se na taj način otvorila nova radna mjesta i privukli i novi
stanovnici. Zbog planiranog razvoja i povećanja broja stanovnika u radu su opisani
energetski projekti, koji za cilj imaju podržati održivi razvoj otoka, a kasnije i ostvarenje
energetski neovisnog otoka. Tako je opisana primjena Renewislands metodologije na
otoku te tri scenarija energetskog razvoja. Svaki scenariji proračunat je do 2030. godine
i za svaki scenariji je razmatran slučaj 100% energetski „obnovljivog“ otoka u 2030.
godini.
Scenariji PTV,PV,EE - Scenariji uključuje instalaciju solarnih fotonaponskih panela i
solarnih toplinskih kolektora na krovove kuća, kao i provedbu energetske učinkovitosti na
otoku(zamjena žarulja javne rasvjete s LED rasvjetom, zamjena starih prozora i vrata na
kućama kao i postavljanje toplinske izolacije na kuće).
Scenarij PV otok - Scenariji kao i prethodni uključuje instalaciju solarnih fotonaponskih
panela i solarnih toplinskih kolektora na krovove kuća kao i fotonaponsku elektranu od
2 MW te „Zeleni hotel“ koji bi sve svoje potrebe za energijom u potpunosti zadovoljio s
obnovljivim izvorima energije.
Scenariji PV+vjetar - Scenariji također uključuje instalaciju solarnih fotonaponskih
panela i solarnih toplinskih kolektora na krovove kuća, a osim toga analizira se utjecaj
malih vjetroagregata snage 5 kW kao i nekoliko većih vjetroagregata snage 660 kW na
elektroenergetski sustav otoka.
Podaci za izvođenje potrebnih proračuna dobiveni su od strane Hrvatske elektroprivrede,
dok je u suradnji s Regionalnom energetskom agencijom Kvarner na otoku provedena
anketa koja je dala uvid u potrošnju energenata na otoku.
U radu su detaljno prikazani prethodno navedeni scenariji i rezultati dobiveni proračunom.
Svaki scenariji prikazuje koji instalirani kapaciteti su potrebni da bi se ostvario 100%
energetski „obnovljiv“ otok.
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20. Forum
ENERGY SELF-SUFFICIENT ISLAND
Abstract
In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected
to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting
substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough
electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the
north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is
the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard
needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately.
Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different
projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to
come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population,
energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement
of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland
methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of
energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into
the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030.
Scenario PTV, PP, EE – This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules
and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of
energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning,
replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of
the thermal insulation).
Scenario PV island – This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of
solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as
well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and „Green Hotel“, a building that satisfies all
of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources.
Scenario PV+wind – Beside installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal
collectors, analysis of the influence of 5 kW little wind turbines integrated to the energy
system of the island, as well as a few 600 kW bigger wind turbines, is included in this
scenario.
Data necessary for the calculation is provided from Hrvatska elektroprivreda (HEP
group). Also, survey on energy consumption on the island is done, in collaboration with
Energy Regional Agency Kvarner.
This papers shows in detail the scenarios above mentioned and presents the results
obtained by the calculations. Each scenario also demonstrates that, in order to achieve
100% energy „renewable“ island the installation of ancillary production capacity is
necessary.
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