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GODINA 2.
BROJ 3 (DECEMBAR 2014.)
www.oikosinstitut.org/economics.html
IZDAVAČ:
„OIKOS INSTITUT“ d.o.o. Bijeljina
ZA IZDAVAČA:
Doc. dr Zoran Mastilo
Direktor
GLAVNI I ODGOVORNI UREDNIK:
Prof. dr Petar Đukić, Univerzitet u Beogradu
UREDNIK:
Ivana Cacanović, dipl. ek.
UREDNIŠTVO:
Božidar dr Stavrić, emeritus; Šefkija dr Berberović, emeritus; Danica dr Berberović; Mira dr Šunjić, emeritus; Kadrija dr Hodžić; Branko dr Krsmanović;
Pajo dr Panić; Hamid dr Alibašić; Ljubomir dr Trifunović; Nenad dr Suzić; Aleksandar dr Stojanović; Marko dr Šarčević; Goran dr Popović; Miladin dr
Jovičić; Radmila dr Čičković; Zoran dr Mastilo; Vladan dr Nastić; Zijad mr Krnjić; Dražen mr Cvijanović; Mladen mr Fulurija; Jelena mr Vitomir; Biljana
mr Stanivuk
MEĐUNARODNO UREDNIŠTVO:
Dragoljub dr Stojanov; Đuro dr Medić; Marko dr Sekulović; Milivoje dr Radović; Gojko dr Rikalović; Nenad dr Vunjak; Petar dr Đukić; Gordana dr
Kokeza; Siniša dr Ostojić; Lorena dr Škuflić; Boban dr Melović
TEHNIČKI UREDNIK I GRAFIČKI DIZAJN:
Marko Mastilo
LEKTOR ZA SRPSKI JEZIK:
Prof. dr Cvijetin Ristanović
PREVOD NA ENGLESKI JEZIK:
Nemanja Jovanović, prevod i lektorisanje za engleski jezik od 1-8; 57-126 strane
Dejan Mastilo
RADOVE OBJAVLJENE U ČASOPISU ECONOMICS REFERIŠU BAZE:
EBSCO Publishing, Ipswivh, USA
DOI Srpska
ADRESA UREDNIŠTVA:
„OIKOS INSTITUT“ D.O.O.
Neznanih junaka 9-11
76300 Bijeljina
Republika Srpska
Bosna i Hercegovina
e-mail: [email protected]
Veb sajt: http://www.oikosinstitut.org/economics.html
Žiro račun: 5550000004916269, Nova banka, Filijala Bijeljina
JIB: 4403572460004
Časopis izlazi polugodišnje
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Tiraž: 300 primjeraka
KATALOGIZACIJA:
Štampano izdanje: ISSN 2303-5005
Online izdanje: ISSN 2303-5013
Rješenjem Ministarstva prosvjete i kulture Republike Srpske br: 07.061-053-52-12/13, od 10.12.2013. godine, časopis “Economics” upisan je u Registar javnih glasila pod rednim brojem 645
PUBLISHED BY:
„OIKOS INSTITUT“ d.o.o. Bijeljina
FOR THE PUBLISHER:
Doc. dr Zoran Mastilo, assisstant profesor
Manager
EDITOR-IN-CHIEF:
Petar Đukić Ph.D., University of Belgrade
EDITOR:
Ivana Cacanović, BEconSc
EDITORIAL BOARD:
Božidar Stavrić Ph.D., emeritus; Šefkija Berberović Ph.D., emeritus; Danica Berberović Ph.D.; Mira Šunjić, Ph.D., emeritus; Kadrija Hodžić Ph.D.;
Branko Krsmanović Ph.D.; Pajo Panić Ph.D.; Hamid Alibašić Ph.D.; Ljubomir Trifunović, Ph.D.; Nenad Suzić Ph.D.; Aleksandar Stojanović Ph.D.;
Marko Šarčević Ph.D.; Goran Popović Ph.D.; Miladin Jovičić Ph.D.; Radmila Čičković Ph.D.; Zoran Mastilo Ph.D.; Vladan Nastić Ph.D.; Zijad Krnjić
M.Sc.; Dražen Cvijanović M.Sc.; Mladen Fulurija M.Sc.; Jelena Vitomir M.Sc.; Biljana Stanivuk M.Sc.
INTERNATIONAL BOARD:
Dragoljub Stojanov Ph.D.; Đuro Medić Ph.D.; Marko Sekulović Ph.D.; Milivoje Radović Ph.D.; Gojko Rikalović Ph.D.; Nenad Vunjak Ph.D.; Petar Đukić
Ph.D.; Gordana Kokeza Ph.D.; Siniša Ostojić Ph.D.; Lorena Škuflić Ph.D.; Boban Melović Ph.D.
TECHNICAL EDITOR AND GRAPHIC DESIGN:
Marko Mastilo
LANGUAGE EDITOR FOR SERBIAN:
Cvijetin Ristanović Ph.D.
TRANSLATION TO ENGLISH:
Nemanja Jovanović, BA (English Language and Literature), English translation and review pages 1-8; 57-126
Dejan Mastilo
PAPERS BUBLISHED IN “ECONOMICS” JOURNAL ARE ABSTRACTED AND INDEXED BY:
EBSCO Publishing, Ipswivh, USA
DOI Srpska
ADRESS OF THE EDITORIAL BOARD:
„OIKOS INSTITUT“ D.O.O.
Neznanih junaka 9-11
76300 Bijeljina
Republic of Srpska
Bosna and Hercegovina
e-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.oikosinstitut.org/economics.html
Žiro račun: 5550000004916269, Nova Banka, Filijala Bijeljina
ID No.: 4403572460004
Issued semianually
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PRINTED BY:
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Number of copies: 300 copies
CATALOGIZATION:
Printed issue: ISSN 2303-5005
Online issue: ISSN 2303-5013
Decision of the Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Srpska No.: 07.061-053-52-12/13, from 10/12/2013 The Journal “Economics”
entered in the Register of Public Media as item No. 645
SADRŽAJ - CONTENT
UVODNIK - EDITORIAL
1-8
Petar Đukić
LOŠE KRATKOROČNE PROGNOZE ILI PRELOMNI TRENUCI ZA REFORME U REGIONU
POOR SHORT-TERM PROJECTION OR DECISIVE MOMENTS FOR REFORMS IN THE REGION
PRIRODNI I FINANSIJSKI RIZICI - NATURAL AND FINANCIAL RISKS
9 - 20
Dragana Zarić
UPRAVLJANJE RIZICIMA PLASMANA REZERVI OSIGURAVAČA U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI
RISK MANAGEMENT OF PLACEMENT OF INSURERS’ RESERVES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
21 - 34
Aleksandar Timotić
KATASTROFALNI RIZICI U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI I SRBIJI SA POSEBNIM OSVRTOM NA POPLAVE
CATASTROPHIC RISKS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA AND SERBIA WITH SPECIAL FOCUS ON THE FLOODS
MONETARNA POLITIKA, TRŽIŠTE I CIJENE - MONETARY POLICY, MARKET AND PRICES
35 - 42
Spasenija Mirković
INFLACIJA I DRŽAVNO UPRAVLJANJE NOVČANOM MASOM
INFLATION AND STATE MANAGEMENT OF MONEY STOCK
43 - 56
Marko Šarčević
ZNAČAJ KONTROLE CIJENA PRIRODNIH MONOPOLA ZA POTROŠAČE
IMPORTANCE OF PRICE CONTROL OF NATURAL MONOPOLY FOR CONSUMERS
INSTITUCIJE I EKONOMSKI RAZVOJ - INSTITUTIONS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
57 - 74
Igor Ferjan
ZNAČAJ INSTITUCIJA & STRATEGIJA EKONOMSKOG RAZVOJA BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
IMPORTANCE OF INSTITUTIONS & STRATEGY OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
ORGANIZACIONO UPRAVLJANJE I LIDERSTVO - ORGANIZATIONAL MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP
75 - 86
Branko Prodanović
MOGUĆNOSTI IMPLEMENTACIJE TQM SISTEMA U SERIJI STANDARDA ISO 9000
POSSIBILITY OF TQM SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION IN ISO 9000 SERIES
87 - 106
Zoran Lukić, Dragana Došenović, Slađenko Galić
ORGANIZACIONE STRUKTURE I HODOGRAM DOKUMENTACIJE I AKTIVNOSTI
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES AND FLOWCHART OF DOCUMENTS AND ACTIVITIES
Zoran Lukić, Dragana Došenović
107 - 126 EMOCIONALNA INTELIGENCIJA U LIDERSTVU
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN LEADERSHIP
127 - 130
UPUTSTVO ZA AUTORE
INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS
UVODNIK, ECONOMICS, Br. 3 - EDITORIAL, ECONOMICS, No.3
LOŠE KRATKOROČNE PROGNOZE ILI PRELOMNI TRENUCI
ZA REFORME U REGIONU
POOR SHORT-TERM PROJECTION OR DECISIVE MOMENTS
FOR REFORMS IN THE REGION
Kada se kaže da nas (u zemljama jugoistočne Evrope) očekuju bolni finansijski rezovi i
reforme, teška institucionalna i fiskalna prilagođavanja kriznim uslovima budžetiranja,
rekonstrukcija glomaznog i neefikasnog javnog sektora…, mnogi misle da se to samo
njima dešava. Bolje reći, samo njihovoj zemlji, ili njihovom socijalnim staležima, kao što
su: budući i sadašnji penzioneri, zaposleni u
prosveti ili zdravstvu, državna administracija, ili oni koji rade u javnim preduzećima,
odnosno firmama u restrukturiranju. A istina
je da se velike promene dešavaju gotovo u
čitavom svetu, prepunom nasleđenih strukturnih problema i novih privredno-političkih
neizvesnosti. Problemi u bankarskom sistemu, državna fiskalna politika, odnos prema
finansijskom sektoru, manjak kapitala, previsoki rizici na svim stranama. Sve su to svojevrsni „stres testovi“, i to ne samo kao deo
ekonomsko-finansijske svakodnevice već
i kao procesa opšteg preispitivanja. Niko,
zapravo, nije načisto šta sve treba preduzeti
radi obnavljanja kvalitetnog i održivog ekonomskog rasta.
Whenever it is said that we (the countries
of Southeastern Europe) are about to face financially painful cutbacks and reforms, severe
institutional and fiscal adjustments to crisis
budgeting, a reconstruction of bulky and inefficient public sector ... many believe that such
occurrence only affects them, or rather only
and exclusively their own country, or their social class, such as the current and future pensioners, people working in education or health
care, public administration, or those employed
in public enterprises or companies under restructuring. The truth is that vast changes occur almost throughout the world, filled with
inherited structural issues and new economic
and political uncertainties. Banking system
problems, state fiscal policy, attitude towards
the financial sector, lack of capital, ubiquitous
extremely high risks... they all represent some
sort of “stress tests”, not just as an integral part
of the economic and financial everyday life,
but also of the process of general reconsideration. Nobody fully understands what actions
are to be undertaken for the restoration of quality and sustainable economic growth.
Rizici u povećanju – iznenađujući
monetarni haos u Rusiji
Increase of risks - a surprising monetary
chaos in Russia
Dobitnik ovogodišnje Nobelove nagrade
za ekonomiju Francuz, Žan Tirol, to priznanje dobio je, između ostalog, za studije o
smanjivanju rizika finansijskog i industrijskog sektora, u kontekstu prevencije novih
finansijskih kriza. Međutim, Nobelov komitet posebno je istakao „njegov doprinos
regulisanju tržišta na kojima vlada monopol
(čitaj oligopol) nekoliko moćnih preduzeća“.
Upravo ova vest bi mogla da posluži kao šlagvort za analizu onoga šta se dešavalo u novim žarištima ekonomsko-finansijske krize
The winner of this year’s Nobel Prize in
Economics - Frenchman Jean Tirol, earned
the award for the sake of, among other things,
a study on reducing the risk of financial and
industrial sector, in the context of preventing new financial crises. However, the Nobel
Committee specifically noted “his contribution to the regulation of the markets characterized by a monopoly (or oligopoly) of a
few powerful companies”. This particular reference could serve as a cue for the analysis
of what has been happening at the new focal
1
koja hara svetom više od šest godina. Otpočela je u Sjedinjenim Američkim Državama
još kao hipotekarna kriza krajem 2007. godine. Prohujala gotovo širom sveta i vraćala se
u više talasa...
Ali evo, kada se to najmanje očekivalo,
krajem 2014. godine veoma neprijatno je
iznenadila Rusiju, zemlju koja je doskora vladala kao uzdanica globalnog rasta u
okviru grupacije BRIKS. U utorak 14. decembra ruska nacionalna valuta je za jedan
dan izgubila 20% svoje vrednosti, a od početka 2014. do 18. decembra čitavih 54%.
Nisu baš uverljivo delovale mere za kratkoročni oporavak rublje i normalizaciju tržišta koje se upravo preduzimaju. Međutim,
zvanično saopštenje glasi da nije reč o krizi
već o „privremenim teškoćama koje će proći za manje od dve godine“. Ta ista floskula, po kojoj će bolni rezovi obarati standard
ljudi „ne više od dve godine“, reciklira se
skoro podjednako u zemljama bivše SFRJ,
koje preduzimaju reforme.
Da li je to što se dešava u Rusiji tek samo
rezultat neočekivano niskih cena nafte i
gasa na svetskom tržištu, ili, možda, političkog delovanja američko-evropskih sankcija
usmerenih prema Rusiji usled konfrontacije
oko ukrajinske krize? Tek, vrednost finansijskog tržišta u Rusiji doživela je sunovrat
u kome su 20 najvećih tajkuna u zemlji izgubili za jedan dan deset milijardi dolara, a
od početka godine čak 64 milijarde dolara
(saošptenje iz same Rusije). Međutim, njihovo bogatstvo iznosilo je čak 174 milijarde,
što znači da je svaki od njih u proseku posedovao vrednost kapitala od blizu 9 milijardi
dolara. Sve to izgleda prilično čudno, čak i
za okolnosti današnjeg sveta u kome se ekonomsko-finansijski tokovi menjaju filmskom
brzinom. Prilično iznenađuje da se to dešava
tek za nešto više od dve decenije promena
u svojevremeno vodećoj zemlji realnog socijalizma. Da li je finansijski balon u Rusiji
tek tokom poslednje decenije bio zasnovan
na visokim cenama energenata, ili možda
ubrzano socijalno raslojavanje potiče od turbulentnih tranzicionih promena, a samo je
2
points of economic and financial crisis ravaging the world for more than six years. It started in the United States as a mortgage crisis in
late 2007, swept almost all over the world and
has kept returning in several waves...
Meanwhile, when it was least expected - at
the end of 2014, the crisis unpleasantly surprised Russia, a country that ruled as a mainstay
of global growth within the BRICS group until
recently. On Tuesday, 14 December the Russian
national currency lost 20% of its value in a single day, while it plunged by 54% from 2014 to
18 December. The short-term measures being
undertaken for Ruble recovery and market normalization have not been very convincing. However, the official statement reads as follows “it is
not a crisis, but temporary difficulties that should
pass within less than two years.” The same empty phrase, stating that the painful cutbacks shall
reduce the living standard of people “throughout
no more than two years”, is recycled in almost the
same manner in the countries of former Yugoslavia, which аlso undertake reforms.
Are the occurrences in Russia only the result of
unexpectedly low oil and gas prices at the world
market, or perhaps of a political action caused by
the US-European sanctions aimed towards Russia due to the confrontation over the Ukrainian
crisis? Namely, the value of the financial markets in Russia suffered a collapse in which the
20 greatest tycoons in the country lost ten billion
dollars in a single day, amounting even up to 64
billion dollars since the beginning of the year (as
reported by Russia itself). However, their wealth
amounted to $174 billion, meaning that each of
them possessed an average capital value of nearly $9 billion. It all seems rather strange, even for
the circumstances of today’s world in which the
economic and financial flows are rapidly changing. Quite surprising is that the above events
occurred only within a little more than two decades of changes in the once leading country of
real socialism. Was the financial bubble in Russia
throughout the last decade based on the high cost
of energy generating products, or perhaps such
accelerated social stratification comes from the
turbulent transitional changes, while being initiated by high foreign currency inflows and unbri-
inicirano visokim deviznim prilivom i neobuzdanom potrošnjom, eventualno i političkim uticajima - ostaje da se vidi. Ne treba
zaboraviti da je Džini koeficijent koji pokazuje ekonomske razlike u društvu, po osnovu
dohotka i imovine, u Rusiji izašao na 47, što
je u samom svetskom vrhu, uporedivo sa zemljama Latinske Amerike, a iznad većine razvijenih zemalja tradicionalnog kapitalizma.
Ostaje ipak upitno u kojoj meri su globalni geopolitički sukobi i nova interesna
sučeljavanja doprineli transferu finansijske
krize u Rusiju. Da li se jednog dana tako nešto može očekivati i u Kini i u drugim delovima brzorastućeg ekonomskog sveta? Sva
ta pitanja uznemiravaju posmatrače globalne svakodnevice i budućnosti. Jer svet
je međuzavistan više nego ikada ranije. U
njemu nema mesta za eksperimente, a kriza
sa jednog kraja sveta sve brže se prenosi na
čitavu planetu.
dled consumption, and possibly by political influence - remains to be seen. A fact that should not
be neglected is that the Gini coefficient, which
demonstrates economic disparities in a society
(based on income and assets) amounted to 47 in
Russia, which is one of the highest in the world,
and at the level of Latin American countries,
while being higher than most of those recorded
in the majority of developed capitalist countries.
The question that remains is to which extent
the global geopolitical conflicts and new interest confrontations contributed to the transfer
of the financial crisis into Russia. Is it possible
that one day something similar is to be expected in China and other fast-growing economies
of the world? All these questions disturb the
observers of everyday global life and future,
because the world is more interdependent than
ever before. There is no place for experiments,
since the crisis from one end of the world is
rapidly transferred onto the entire planet.
Prognoze MMF i Svetske banke –
takmičenje u pesimizmu
Projections by the IMF and the World Bank
- a competition in pessimism
U paradigmatičnom World Economic Outlook-u (7. oktobra 2014.) MMF u 2014. godini predviđa globalni rast od svega 3,3%,
i skromnih 3,8% za 2015. godinu. Krizno
nasleđe, niski potencijali za rast koji bi težio ka oporavku, uz kontinuitet rizika koji
obaraju izglede za globalni rast, uključujući
kako finansijske tako i geopolitičke - to su
osnovni nalazi koji se u svakom sledećem izdanju pogoršavaju. Naime, u najvećem broju
slučajeva oktobarske prognoze rasta najznačajnijih nosilaca globalne ekonomske aktivnosti redukovane su tako da ta redukcija za
globalni rast u ovoj godini iznosi -0,1%, dok
za 2015. - 0,2%.
U slučaju ostalih globalno relevantnih ekonomija smanjenje prognoziranog rasta je sledeće: u najrazvijenijim zemljama prognozira se skromni rast od 1,8% u 2014. i 2,3% u
2015; Evropa ostaje u zoni rasta nižeg od 1%;
Japan je i dalje u krizi; a Rusija je metafora
za nove probleme i visoke rizike po raznim
osnovama.
The IMF, in the issue of a paradigmatic World Economic Outlook (of 7 October
2014) predicts a global growth of only 3.3%
in 2014 and a modest 3.8% in 2015. Crisis
legacy, low potential for growth that would
aim towards recovery, alongside with continuity risks undermining both financial and
geopolitical prospects for global growth these are the main findings that tend to worsen in each subsequent edition. In fact, in most
cases, the October growth projections for the
major carriers of global economic activity are
reduced so that the reduction of global growth
this year amounts to -0.1%, while the projection states -0.2% for 2015.
As for other relevant global economies, the
projected growth reduction is as follows: in
most developed countries a modest growth of
1.8% in 2014 and 2.3% in 2015 is to be expected; Europe remains in the zone of growth
lower than 1%; Japan is still in crisis; while
Russia is a metaphor for new problems and
high risks on various grounds.
3
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
2012
3.4
1.2
-0.7
1.5
5.1
7.7
4.7
6.23
.4
2013
3.3
1.4
-0.4
1.5
4.7
7.7
5
5.21
.3
2014
2015
3.3
3.8
1.8
2.3
0.8
1.3
0.9
0.8
4.4
5
7.7
7.4
5.6
6.4
4.7
5.40
0.2
.5
Grafikon 1. Globalni rast sa prognozama
World Economic Outlooka, jul 2014
Graph 1. Global growth with projections
made by World Economic Outlook, July 2014.
Većina tih prognoza korigovana je negativno u oktobarskoj publikaciji za nekoliko desetih delova procenta. Ekonomska aktivnost
u svetu u celini, kako sada stoje stvari, ove
godine neće porasti za 3,3% već za 3,2%, a
za sledeću godinu prethodna optimistička
varijanta o rastu 3,8% redukuje se na 3,6%.
Međutim, nova procenjena stopa rasta je čak
za 0,4 procentnih poena niža u odnosu na prognozu MMF-a iz aprila, dok je procena rasta
za 2015. godinu manja za 0,2 procentna poena. U slučaju većine ostalih velikih ekonomija
sveta, prognoze su takođe negativno korigovane. Izuzetak su Kina, čije prognoze o rastu
od oko 7,4% ostaju na snazi, Indija za koju
se čak prognoza rasta za 2015. koriguje naviše, kao i SAD čija prognoza o skromnom ali
stabilnom rastu od 1,2% u ovoj godini ostaje,
a delimično se poboljšava prognoza rasta za
sledeću godinu, tako da taj rast iznosi blizu
2% (Grafikon 2).
Most of the above projections were corrected
adversely in the October issue by a few tenths
of a percent. Economic activity in the world as
a whole, based on the current situation, will not
rise this year by 3.3%, but by 3.2%, while the
previous optimistic projection for the following
year of 3.8% growth is reduced to 3.6%. However, the new projected growth rate decreased by as
much as 0.4 percentage points in comparison to
the IMF projection from April, while the growth
projections for 2015 decreased by 0.2 percentage points. The projections have been negatively adjusted with reference to most other major
economies of the world. The exceptions are
China, whose growth projections of about 7.4%
remain in force; India, whose growth projection
for 2015 is even adjusted upwards; and the US,
whose projection of a modest but steady growth
of 1.2% for the current year remains, with a partial improvement of the growth projection for the
following year amounting to 2% (Graph 2).
4
Grafikon 2. Preovlađujuće negativne korekcije globalnih stopa rasta od VII do X 2014,
prema MMF
Graph 2. The prevailing negative correction
of global growth rate from VII to X in 2014,
according to IMF
I Svetska banka snizila je prognozu rasta
svetske ekonomije za 2014. godinu na 2,6 odsto, sa 2,8 odsto, koliko je procenila u junu.
Prognoza za 2015. godinu je takođe korigovana naniže na 3,2, sa 3,4 odsto, dok je za
2016. prethodna prognoza rasta sa 3,5% odsto smanjena na 3,4%. Ono što je za nas najznačajnije, to je dalje snižavanje prognoza za
Evropu i region, koje se kreću u pravcu „stabilne stagnacije u zoni evra”, ali i u Japanu,
mnogim zemljama Latinske Amerike i evropskim zemljama u razvoju. Zemlje evro zone
ostvariće privredni rast od 0,9 odsto ove, 1,4
odsto 2015, i 1,8 odsto 2016. godine. Za nas
najbitnije stanje Evropske regije ne obećava
mnogo, s obzirom na činjenicu da se u njoj
nakon negativnih stopa rasta u 2012. i 2013,
sadašnje minimalno pozitivne stope rasta dalje se redukuju, tako da se u 2013. prethodno
prognozirana smanjuje za 0,3%, a za 2015. to
pogoršanje iznosi 0,3%.
Svaka sledeća prognoza bilo Svetske banke
ili MMF-a, koja će, verovatno, uslediti nepo-
The World Bank has lowered its growth projection of the world economy for 2014 to 2.6% from
2.8% estimated in June. The projection for 2015
has also been reduced from 3.4% to 3.2% while
the previous growth projection of 3.5% for 2016
has been reduced to 3.4%. The item which is of
greatest significance for us is a further reduction
of projections for Europe and the region, inclining towards “stable stagnation in the Eurozone”,
with the similar principle applied to Japan, and
many developing Latin American and European countries. The countries of the Eurozone will
achieve economic growth of 0.9 percent this year,
1.4 percent in 2015 and 1.8 percent in 2016. As
far as our region is concerned, the most important
item - the European region does not seem very
promising, considering the fact that, after the negative growth in 2012 and 2013, the current minimum positive growth rates have been additionally reduced, causing deterioration of 0.3% both in
2014 and 2015.
Each subsequent projection, whether made by
the World Bank or the IMF, which is to be made
5
sredno pred novu 2015. godinu, biće dočekana u znaku pesimizma koji se produbljuje, sa
jedne strane lošim stanjem globalne politike
i finansija, a sa druge samim tim sve lošijim
prognozama. Sve u svemu, izgledi za kvalitetan i održiv oporavak većeg dela globalne
ekonomije su sve slabiji.
immediately before 2015 will also be marked by
pessimism which is deepened, by the poor condition of global politics and finance on one hand,
and thus by worsening prognosis on the other
hand. All things considered; the prospects for a
quality and sustainable recovery of the greater
part of the global economy are weaker by day.
Regionalni privredni problemi i lokalne
ekonomske (ne)prilike
Regional economic problems and local
economic (in)conveniences
Prema oktobarskom izveštaju MMF-a, zemlje jugoistočne Evrope će ove godine imati
niži rast zbog katastrofalnih majskih poplava,
koje su posebno pogodile Bosnu i Hercegovinu i Srbiju, dok će se, prema MMF, iduće
godine u ovom regionu obnoviti rast, zahvaljujući obnovi poplavom uništenih područja i
povećanju zapošljavanja. MMF je za Hrvatsku prognozirao pad privredne aktivnosti od
0,8 odsto za ovu godinu, i rast od 0,5 odsto
u idućoj godini, za Bugarsku rast od 1,4 odsto u ovoj i od 2,0 odsto u 2015. godini, a za
Rumuniju rast od 2,4 odsto ove godine, i 2,5
odsto sledeće.
Što se tiče našeg najužeg regiona centralnih zemalja bivše SFRJ, ne treba biti mnogo
ekspertski iskusan i mudar da bi se zaključilo da on ponajviše deli sudbinu stagnacije evropske privrede u celini. Srbija će ove
godine zabeležiti pad privredne aktivnosti
od oko 2 odsto, a naredne godine prethodno prognozirani rast od jedan odsto, već je
doveden u pitanje od samih nosilaca ekonomske politike, prilikom kreiranja budžeta
i reformi za sledeću godinu. Dakle, i u sledećoj godini treba očekivati minimalni pad
ekonomske aktivnosti. Ništa bolje stanje ne
bi se moglo prognozirati za BiH, Crnu Goru
ili Makedoniju, pa i Hrvatsku.
Tekuća 2014. godina prohujala je u znaku
velikih prirodnih iskušenja, najpre poplava a
onda veoma kišnog leta sa povremenim bujičnim tokovima. BiH, Srbija i Hrvatska našle su
se u epicentru ovogodišnje vremenske balkanske katastrofe ali i u središtu problema lošeg
privrednog ambijenta, nedovršenih reformi,
preskupe i nedelotvorne države, povećanih
According to the October report of the IMF, the
countries of Southeast Europe are facing a lower
growth rate this year due to catastrophic flooding
in May, which particularly affected Bosnia and
Herzegovina and Serbia,. However, according
to the IMF, the growth in this region is to be renewed next year, thanks to the restoration of the
flood-damaged areas and employment rate that is
expected to be increased. IMF projected a decline
in economic activity of Croatia by 0.8% this year,
followed by a growth of 0.5% the following year.
Bulgaria’s projected growth for this year is 1.4%
and 2.0% for 2015, while Romania is facing a
growth rate of 2.4% this year and 2.5% in 2015.
As for our innermost region of the central
countries of the former Yugoslavia, one does not
need to be an expert to conclude that the region
shares the stagnation fate which struck most of
the European economies. Serbia has registered a
decline in economic activity of about 2 percent
this year, and the previously established projection growth of one percent for the following year
has already been questioned by the very economic policy makers by creating the budget and reforms scheduled for the next year. Therefore, the
following year should bring a minimal decline in
economic activity. Nothing better could be projected for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro
and Macedonia, and even for Croatia.
The year 2014 was marked by great natural
phenomena, floods above all, followed by a
very rainy summer with occasional torrential
water streams. Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia
and Croatia found themselves at the epicentre
of this year’s disaster on the Balkans, but also
at the heart of the problem of poor economic
environment, incomplete reforms, costly and
6
troškova administracije, manjka investicija,
i, iznad svega, širokog socijalnog nezadovoljstva. Reforme usred krize, neposredno nakon
vremenskog kovitlaca, i nakon jedne nerodne
godine, a sve to u lošem socijalnom ambijentu – da li je samo skup loših okolnosti i
pretpostavki? To ne obećava mnogo, ali je
izvesno da ovako dalje ne može, pa se zato
i očekuju promene, koje bi vodile ka kvalitativnim postepenim pomacima i garanciji održivog rasta.
Upravo u momentu dovršavanja ovog teksta, regionalni samit Kine i petnaest zemalja
Evrope u Beogradu, čini se, šalju još jednu
novu-staru poruku tim zemljama – da, ako
hoće investicije, nova radna mesta i tehnološki progres, moraju da nađu zajednički interesni imenitelj za ulaganja, koja se baziraju na
regionalnim projektima kao što su autoputevi, modernizacija železnica, ekologija, infrastruktura, poljoprivreda, energetika… Kina je
planirala da u ove zemlje investira deset milijardi dolara, ali će to zaista i učiniti samo ako
su u pitanju kapitalni i profitabilni infrastrukturni i energetski projekti, eventualno, i projekti proizvodnje hrane. A u takvim slučajevima ništa bitno da ne mogu da učine zemlje
Balkana i njegovog neposrednog okruženja
pojedinačno.
Ako je išta dobro ostalo od prolećne prirodne katastrofe u regionu, to je podsećanje za
zemlje bivše Jugoslavije da su njihova međusobna ekonomska saradnja i tesna tehnološka,
pa i kulturna kooperacija, imperativ razvoja i
opstanka.
ineffective state, increased administration costs,
lack of investment, and above all, vast social
discontent. Reforms in the midst of crisis, just
after natural disasters and an awkward year, and
all this in a bad social environment - is it simply
just a set of bad circumstances and assumptions?
The situation is not very promising, but it is certain that the current status cannot be continued,
hence the expected changes that could lead to
a qualitative gradual movement and towards a
guaranteed sustainable growth.
At the time of finalizing this editorial, a regional summit of China and the fifteen European countries in Belgrade seems to send
another new, and yet old message to these
countries - if they require investments, new
jobs and technological progress, they should
find a common interest denominator for investment, based on regional projects such
as highways, railways modernization, environment, infrastructure, agriculture, energy...
China has planned to invest ten billion dollars
in these countries, but will actually do so only
in terms of capital and profitable infrastructure and energy projects, and possibly food
production projects. With respect to such projects, the countries of the Balkans and their
adjacent countries cannot do anything significant by themselves.
If anything positive can be derived from the
spring natural disasters in the region, it is a reminder for the countries of former Yugoslavia
that their mutual economic cooperation and
close technological and cultural cooperation
are imperative for survival and development.
Poruka čitaocima
A Message to Readers
Imajući sve prethodno u vidu, Redakcija
Oikos Economics-a vam nudi ovaj, ne tako
obiman ali, smatramo, veoma aktuelan
broj časopisa. On sadrži nekoliko rubrika,
a tema broja „Prirodni i finansijski rizici“,
upravo je proistekla iz ovogodišnjih teških
iskustava našeg regiona. Odmah iza nje
dolazi blok radova u okviru teme „Monetarna politika, tržište i cijene“. Moramo
priznati da ruska monetarna drama nije
Considering all of the above, Editorial Staff of
Oikos Economics provides You with this, perhaps
not as extensive, but still, in our humble opinion,
very topical issue of the journal. It contains several sections, with the main topic of the current issue being “Natural and financial risks,” emerging
from this year’s severe experiences in the region.
Immediately thereafter there are several papers
on the topic of “Monetary policy, market and
prices.” We must admit that the Russian monetary
7
uticala na izbor radova i njihovu kompoziciju u okviru časopisa, ali je sigurno da ih
je učinila mnogo aktuelnijim. Monetarne
turbulencije, rizici i krize koje se iz novčane sfere prenose u banke i na celokupno
tržište, devizne i finansijske prilike u zemlji, dovoljno su uticale na pamćenje i loša
iskustva u regionu. Problematika inflacije, monetarne politike i krize finansijskog
sektora nikada se ne smeju zapostaviti
kako u sferi ekonomske politike tako i u
ekonomskoj nauci i struci.
Konačno, nešto optimističnije ostale rubrike koje se bave institucijama kao faktorom
razvoja, odnosno organizacionim upravljanjem i liderstvom, pružaju vam priliku da se
o njima nešto više obavestite, ali i da priredite
vaš prilog u ovom ili nekom drugom časopisu. Bićemo vam zahvalni na čitanju, (kritičkoj) analizi sadržaja ovog broja, kao i na primedbama i predlozima kako da ga zajednički
dalje unapređujemo.
U Beogradu [Belgrade],
21. decembra 2012. godine [21 December 2014]
8
drama did not affect the selection of papers and
their composition within the journal, but it most
certainly contributed for them to be better updated. Monetary turbulence, risks and crises transferred from the monetary sphere onto banks and
the overall market, foreign exchange and financial conditions in the country, have affected the
memory and bad experiences in the region to a
sufficient extent. The issue of inflation, monetary
policy, and financial sector crisis should never be
neglected, both in the area of economic policy
and the areas of economic science and profession.
Finally, other sections are somewhat optimistic, dealing with institutions as a development factor, and organizational management
and leadership, providing the reader an opportunity to obtain more information on the topic,
but also to prepare your own paper in this or
some other journal. We would appreciate Your
reading, (critical) analysis of this issue, as well
as any comments and suggestions on how to
collectively further improve the journal.
Gl. i odgovorni urednik [Editor in Chief]
PRIRODNI I FINANSIJSKI RIZICI - NATURAL AND FINANCIAL RISKS
UPRAVLJANJE RIZICIMA PLASMANA REZERVI OSIGURAVAČA
U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI
RISK MANAGEMENT OF PLACEMENT OF INSURERS
IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Dragana Zarić, dipl. ek.
Stručni članak
DOI 10.7251/OIK1403002Z, UDK 005.334:336.71(497.6)
Professional paper
REZIME
ABSTRACT
Osiguravači treba da uspostavljaju adekvatne i efikasne sisteme i metode za upravljanje rizicima plasmana prilikom kreiranja i
upravljanja portfolijom plasmana.
Kvalitetnim plasmanom se može doprinijeti
jačanju finansijskog tržišta, kao i podsticaju
privrednog razvoja. Ono što bi trebalo dovesti
do veće sigurnosti plasmana i boljih preformansi portfolija jeste uspostavljanje drugačijih pravila i zahtjeva prilikom plasmana rezervi osiguravača, ali sa usmjerenjem na rizike
pojedinačnih plasmana i portfolija u cjelini.
Razvijenost finansijskog tržišta i njegovo
uspješno funkcionisanje određuje uspješnost
ekonomskog razvoja jedne zemlje, jer, ukoliko
je finansijsko tržište zdravo i uređeno, tada je
i sistem spreman na svaki napor koji zahtijeva
razvoj.
Insurers should establish adequate and effective systems and methods for risk menagement investments in creating and managing a
portfolio od investments.
Quality placement may contribute to the
strengthening of financial markets and stimulate economic development. To greater security investments and better portfolio performance results establish other rules and
requirements in lending reserves of the insurer, but with a focus on the risks of individual
investments and the portfolio as a whole.
Development of the financial market and its
successful functioning is determined by the success of the economic development of a country
because if the financial market is healthy and
maintained, then the system is ready for any
effort that requires the development.
Ključne riječi: upravljanje rizicima plasmana,
upravljanje portfolijom plasmana, plasman
rezervi osiguravača, razvijenost finansijskog
tržišta.
Keywords: risk menagement reserves,
managing a portfolio of investments, placement
of reserves of the insurer, the development of
financial markets.
UVOD
INTRODUCTION
Rizik plasmana obuhvata stepen neizvjesnosti prinosa na investicije, jer, ukoliko je
veći stepen neizvjesnosti, veći je i rizik plasmana. Plasmani osiguravača se odnose na
investiranje rezervi ostalih izvora finansijskih
sredstava u različite vrijednosne papire, finansijske instrumente i ostale oblike imovine
koji su dostupni na tržištu. Da bi plasman bio
adekvatan, potrebno je obezbijediti dovoljan
Investment risk includes the degree of uncertainty of return on investment, because if
a higher degree of uncertainty the greater the
investment risk. Placements insurer relating
to the investment of reserves of other sources
of funds in various securities, financial instruments and other types of assets that are available in the market. To be adequate placement
is necessary to provide a sufficient amount
9
D. Zarić: UPRAVLJANJE RIZICIMA PLASMANA REZERVI OSIGURAVAČA U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI
iznos i adekvatnu strukturu rezervi osiguravača, jer je to sve potrebno da bi se uspješno izvršile preuzete obaveze i stvorilo jače tržište
osiguranja.
of the appropriate structure of the reserves of
the insurer, because that’s all you need to successfully complete its obligations and create
stronger insurance market.
RIZICI PLASMANA REZERVI
OSIGURAVAČA U BOSNI I
HERCEGOVINI
RESERVES
INSURERS IN BOSNIA AND
HERZEGOVINA
Kvalitetnim plasmanom u Bosni i Hercegovini se može doprinijeti jačanju finansijskog
tržišta, kao i podsticaju privrednog razvoja.
Međutim, problem koji se javlja kod plasmana
rezervi u Bosni i Hercegovini jeste nerazvijenost domaćeg tržišta kapitala i po širini i po
dubini. Velika zastupljenost plasmana rezervi,
prvenstveno u depozite i nekretnine, dovodi
do nedostatka većeg broja kvalitetnih hartija
od vrijednosti, kao i samo učešće hartija od
vrijednosti, vlasničkih i dužničkih, u ukupnim
plasmanima značajno zaostaje u odnosu na razvijene evropske zemlje. Ono što je rezultat
brojnih ograničavajućih faktora u Bosni i Hercegovini jeste mala diversifikacija plasmana
rezervi osiguravača. To potiče od nedovoljne
razvijenosti domaćih tržišta kapitala, ali i od
negativnih efekata svjetske finansijske i ekonomske krize. Takođe, nedovoljno razvijena
svijest o značaju plasmana za tržište kapitala,
kao i nedostatak znanja čine datu situaciju još
nepovoljnijom, kao i situacije koje se odnose
na prekoračenja plasmana u pojedine oblike
imovine u odnosu na iznose dozvoljene zakonskim propisima, kao i pomenuta nedovoljna
disperzija plasmana. Odluka o investiranju je
najznačajnija za osiguravajuće društvo, jer ona
podrazumijeva određivanje ukupnog iznosa
imovine koji je potreban za poslovanje osiguravajućeg društva (Andrijašević i Petranović,
1999, str. 32). Plasmani u hartije od vrijednosti
u Bosni i Hercegovini su jedva prisutni. Plasmani u zajmove mogu biti vrlo povoljni, ali
im se ne posvećuje dovoljno pažnje, iako se
smatra prilično sigurnim oblikom plasmana
i dobiti. Da bi se smanjila kompleksnost procesa plasmana rezervi i veća prisutnost rizika,
potrebno je održavanje kontinuiranog pristupa
reglatornoj kontroli plasmana rezervi.
Quality placement in Bosnia and Herzegovina can contribute to the strengthening of
financial markets and stimulate economic development. However, a problem arises in the
placement of reserves in Bosnia and Herzegovina is the underdevelopment of the domestic
capital market and the width and depth. Great
representation of placement of reserves primarily in deposits and properties leads to a lack of
a number of high-quality securities, as well as
a share of securities, equity and debt, the total
lending significantly lags behind the developed
European countries. Result of a number of limiting factors in Bosnia and Herzegovina is a
small diversification lending reserves of insurers. It comes from the insufficient development
of domestic capital markets, but the negative
effects of the global financial and economic crisis. Also, the lack of awareness on the importance of investments in the capital market, as
well as lack of knowledge make a given situation more unfavorable, and situations related to
overdraft loans in certain asset types relative to
the amount permitted by the legislation, as well
as the aforementioned lack of dispersion placement. Investment decisions is the most important for the insurance company, because it involves the determination of the total amount of
assets required for the operation of an insurance
company (Andrijašević & Petranović, 1999,
p. 32). Investments in securities in Bosnia and
Herzegovina are barely present, such as investments in loans may be very cheap, but they do
not pay enough attention, although it is considered a fairly safe form of lending and profit. To
reduce the complexity of the process of placement of reserves and increasing presence of
risk is necessary to maintain continuous access
reglatornoj control placement of reserves.
10
D. Zarić: RISK MANAGEMENT OF PLACEMENT OF INSURERS’ RESERVES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
SPECIFIČNOSTI TRŽIŠTA OSIGURANJA
U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI
SPECIFICS OF INSURANCE MARKET
IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Sektor privatnog osiguranja u Bosni i Hercegovini je na vrlo niskom nivou razvoja
(Kozarević, 2010, str. 78). Međutim, kao i
druge tranzicijske zemlje i Bosna i Hercegovina je opterećena nizom poteškoća koje prate proces integracije u Evropsku uniju.
Ono što je negativno uticalo na tržište osiguranja jeste podjela tržišta osiguranja u Bosni i Hercegovini, sporazumom potpisanim 1995. godine
u Dejtonu, i, samim tim, osiguravajuća djelatnost
je ostala u nadležnosti entiteta, što je rezultiralo sa
dva odvojena entitetska zakona. Tako su se osiguravajućim društvima iz jednog entiteta stvarale
prepreke za rad drugom entitetu i nije postojala
nikakva koordinacija entiteta kako bi se unaprijedila osiguravajuća praksa. Sve to je usporavalo
razvoj tržišta osiguranja, jer je bila narušena sama
jedinstvenost tržišta osiguranja.
Na državnom nivou formirana je Agencija za
osiguranje koja treba da ima koordinirajuću ulogu, s obzirom da je djelatnost osiguranja i dalje
u nadležnosti entiteta. Njeno sjedište je u Sarajevu. Na entitetskom nivou postoje dvije institucije
koje vrše nadzor i regulaciju tržišta osiguranja i
njenih učesnika, a u skladu sa ustavnom organizacijom Bosne i Hercegovine. To su Agencija
za nadzor osiguranja Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine i Agencija za osiguranje Republike Srpske. Agencija za osiguranje Republike Srpske
osnovana je Zakonom o društvima za osiguranje
2006. godine, kao samostalna i neprofitna institucija Republike Srpske sa svojstvom pravnog lica
i sjedištem u Banjoj Luci, koja za svoj rad odgovara Narodnoj Skupštini Republike Srpske.
Bez obzira na navedene prepreke u zakonskom
i institucionalnom okviru, tržište osiguranja u
Bosni i Hercegovini je napredovalo u posljednjih
nekoliko godina. Ukupna premija u BiH u 2012.
godini iznosila je 505.092.713 KM, što je za
3,48% više nego u 2011. godini. Učešće društava sa sjedištem u F BiH u ukupnoj premiji iznosi
72,35%, dok je učešće društava sa sjedištem u RS
27,65%. Od ukupno ostvarene premije osiguranja u 2012. godini, 418.931.748 KM (82,94%)
Private insurance sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina is at a very low level of development (Kozarević, 2010, p. 78). However, like other countries in transition, Bosnia and Herzegovina is
burdened with the difficulties that accompany the
process of integration into the European Union.
Negative impact on the insurance market have a
division of the insurance market in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the agreement signed in 1995 in Dayton,
and therefore insurance industry has remained under the jurisdiction of the entity resulting from two
separate entities laws. So the insurance companies
from one entity created obstacles for the work to
another entity, and there was no coordination entities to improve the insurance practice. All of this
is slowing down the development of the insurance
market because it would violate the very uniqueness of the insurance market.
At the state level was established insurance
agency, which should have a coordinating role,
given that the insurance industry is still under the
jurisdiction of the entity. It is based in Sarajevo.
At the entity level, there are two institutions that
oversee and regulate the insurance market and its
participants, in accordance with the constitutional
structure of Bosnia and Herzegovina. To the Insurance Supervisory Agency of Federation of Bosnia
and Herzegovina and Insurance Agency of the Republic of Serbian. Insurance Agency of the Republic of Serbian established by the Law on Insurance
in 2006 as an independent and non-profit institutions of the Republic of Serbian as a legal entity
and based in Banja Luka, which is accountable to
the National Assembly of the Republic of Serbian.
Regardless of these obstacles in the legal and
institutional framework, the insurance market
in Bosnia and Herzegovina’s progress in the
last few years. Total premiums in B&H in 2012
amounted to KM 505 092 713, which is 3.48%
higher than in 2011. The share of companies
with headquarters in the Federation the total
premium is 72.35%, while the share of companies with headquarters in the RS 27.65%. Out of
total insurance premiums in 2012, 418 931 748
11
D. Zarić: UPRAVLJANJE RIZICIMA PLASMANA REZERVI OSIGURAVAČA U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI
odnosi se na poslove neživotnog osiguranja, a
86.160.965 (17,06%) na poslove životnog osiguranja (Agencija za osiguranje BiH, 2012, str. 23).
KM (82.94%) is related to non-life insurance,
and 86,160,965 (17.06%) on life insurance
(Agencija za osiguranje BiH, 2012, p. 23).
RAZVIJENOST FINANSIJSKOG
TRŽIŠTA U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI
DEVELOPMENT OF FINANCIAL MARKETS
IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Jedna od osnovnih definicija finansijskog
tržišta jeste da je to prostor na kome se susreću ponuda i tražnja, ili prostor na kome se
obavlja promet hartijama od vrijednosti.
Finansijska tržišta se mogu podijeliti na tržište novca, tržište kapitala, OTC, primarna,
sekundarna, tercijarna, devizna, međunarodna i dr. Najznačajnija podjela jeste na tržište
novca i tržište kapitala, primarna i sekundarna tržišta. Razvoj finansijskog tržišta i pojava snažnih finansijskih posrednika uslovili
su nastanak i brz razvoj velikih korporacija
(Ivanišević, 2008, str. 262).
Razvijenost finansijskog tržišta, njegova
stabilnost, dinamika i dubina mjerodavni su
pokazatelji razvijenosti nacionalne privrede i njene uključenosti u savremene svjetske
ekonomske tokove (Rovčanin, Mataradžija i
Mataradžija, 2014). Finansijsko tržište je dio
finansijskog sistema. To podrazumijeva niz
finansijskih institucija i instrumenata koji posreduju između učesnika s finansijskim viškom i onih s finansijskim manjkom (tj. onih
kojima je potrebno finansiranje) (Centralna
banka Bosne i Hercegovine, 2014).
Promjene na finansijskom tržištu u većini slučajeva su uzrokovane promjenama u realnom
sektoru privrede, kao i trendovima u savremenim, političkim i ekonomskim odnosima, a takođe tu su i napredak u sferi tehnike, tehnologije, komuniciranja i nauke. Sve karakteristike
savremenih finansijskih tržišta se grupišu u pet
osnovnih kategorija: (1) internacionalizacija i
globalizacija finansijskih tržišta, (2) pojava i
razvoj finansijskih inovacija, (3) deregulacioni
tokovi, (4) tehničko-tehnološka usavršavanja u
radu i (5) sekjuritizacija (Erić, 2003, str. 105).
Osiguravajuće kompanije predstavljaju bitnu
grupu učesnika na finansijskim tržištima, jer
raspolažu ogromnim sredstvima i, da bi njima
One of the basic definition is that it is an
area where supply and demand meet, or that it
is an area where is done traffic securities.
Financial markets can be share on the money market, capital market, OTC, primary,
secondary, tertiary, foreign, international,
etc. The most important division is the money market and capital market, primary and
secondary markets. Development of financial markets and the emergence of stong financial intermediaries caused the emergence
and rapid development of large corporations
(Ivanišević, 2008, p. 262).
Development of the financial market, its
stability, dynamics and depth are relevant
indicators of the national economy and its
integration into the modern world economy
(Rovčanin, Mataradžija i Mataradžija, 2014).
The financial market is part of the financial
system. It includes a number of financial institutions and instruments that mediate between the parties with financial surplus and
those with financial shortages (ie. those who
need financing) (Centralna banka Bosne i
Hercegovine, 2014).
Changes on the financial markets in most of the
cases are caused by changes in the real sector of
the economy, as well as trends in the contemporary
political and economic relations, and also there are
advances in the field of art technology, communications and science. All the features of modern financial markets are grouped into five basic categories:
(1) Internationalization and globalization of financial markets, (2) The emergence and development
of financial innovation, (3) Deregulation trends, (4)
Technical and technological advancement in the
work of the (5) Securitization (Erić, 2003, p. 105).
Insurance companies are an important
group of participants in the financial markets,
because they have enormous resources and
12
D. Zarić: RISK MANAGEMENT OF PLACEMENT OF INSURERS’ RESERVES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
mogle da upravljaju, moraju se pridržavati nekih osnovnih principa. Prvi princip jeste profitabilnost, što znači da menadžeri kompanija
moraju da obezbijede da nivo prihoda bude
veći od nivoa rashoda, sljedeći princip jeste
leveridž, što znači mogućnost korišćenja pozitivnih efekata pozajmljenih izvora, odnosno
u prikupljanju sredstava osiguravajuće kompanije mogu privremeno da emituju svoje hartije
od vrijednosti instrumenata duga i likvidnost
kao treći princip gdje treba paziti da se veća
likvidnost zahtijeva za poslove osiguranja
imovine, pošto je veći rizik, a, samim tim, veća
mogućnost da nastane i šteta.
Manje razvijene zemlje, kao što je i BiH, suočavaju se sa nerazvijenim tržištem kapitala i
sa potrebom bržeg rasta, što zahtijeva veća i
znanja i bogatija iskustva. Finansijsko tržište
u Bosni i Hercegovini ima ogroman značaj
za razvoj proizvodnje, povećanje društvenog
bogatstva, ostvarivanje profitabilne akumulacije, ostvarenje kontinuiteta reprodukcije. Na
ovom području razvijeno je tržište kapitala,
ali ne i novca. Pri tome, takođe, instrumenti
finansijskog tržišta nisu u potpunosti razvijeni, na primjer, nemaju razvijene finansijske
derivate. Postoje različite vrste finansijskih
derivata: (1) finansijski forvardi ili finansijski fjučersi, (2) opcije, (3) svopovi (Lukić,
2007, str. 319). Tržište kapitala je organizovano i podijeljeno na dva tržišta kapitala, u
Federaciji BiH i Republici Srpskoj. Na ovom
finansisjkom tržištu hartijama od vijednosti se
trguje na dvije berze, a to su: SASE (Sarajevska berza) i BLSE (Banjalučka berza).
Najčešći pokazatelji razvijenosti su: razvijenost finansijske strukture, razvijenost bankarskog sistema, razvijenost tržišta kapitala,
odnos bankarskog sistema i tržišta kapitala,
razvijenost nebankarskih finansijskih posrednika. (Kumalić, 2013, str. 61.) Razvijenost na
finansijskom tržištu može se pokazati statističkim podacima koji pokazuju veličinu i odnose pojedinih pokazatelja, pa će u nastavku biti
prikazani pojedini pokazatelji koji se odnose
na finansijsko tržište Bosne i Hercegovine
kako bi se na osnovu toga uočile karakteristike samog tržišta i njegova razvijenost.
to make them able to manage must adhere to
some basic principles. The first principle is the
profitability, which means that company managers must ensure that the level of income is
higher than the level of expenditures for these
next principle is the leverage which means
the ability to use positive effects of borrowed
resources, and fundraising insurance company may temporarily emit its securities debt
instruments and liquidity as a third principle
which should be taken to higher liquidity requirements for insurance of property, since
the higher the risk, and therefore more likely
to occur and damage.
Less developed countries, such as B&H, faced
with underdeveloped capital markets and the
need for faster growth, which requires greater
knowledge and richer experiences that have. Financial market in Bosnia and Herzegovina have
a great importance for the development of production, increase social wealth, the exercise of
profitable accumulation, achieving continuity of
reproduction. On this area was developed capital
markets, but not the money. At the same time,
also, the instruments of financial markets are not
fully developed, for example, have not developed
financial derivatives.financial derivatives, for example. There are different types of financial derivatives: (1) financial forwards or the financial
futures, (2) options (3) swaps. (Lukić, 2007, p.
319). The capital market is organized and divided into two stock market, the the Federation and
the Serbian Republic. On this financially market
traded on the two stock market, namely: SASE
(Sarajevska berza) i BLSE (Banjalučka berza).
The most common indicators of development
are taken: development of financial structures,
the development of the banking system, the development of capital markets, the relationship
between the banking system and capital markets,
the development of non-bank financial intermediaries. (Kumalić, 2013, p. 61). The development
of the financial market may indicate to statistics
that show the size and relationships of individual indicators, and will now be shown some indicators related to the financial market of Bosnia
and Herzegovina to be noticed on the basis of the
characteristics of the market and its development.
13
D. Zarić: UPRAVLJANJE RIZICIMA PLASMANA REZERVI OSIGURAVAČA U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI
Tabela 1
Struktura sektora finansijskih usluga u BiH
u 2010, 2011. i 2012. godini (Agencija za
osiguranje BiH, 2012)
Table 1
Structure of the financial services sector in
B&H in 2010, 2011 and 2012 (Agencija za
osiguranje BiH, 2012)
2010
Dijelovi sektora finansijskih
usluga (finansijske institucije)
[Parts of the financial services
sector (financial institutions)]
Banke
[Banks]
Investicioni fondovi
[Investment Funds]
Društva za osiguranje i reosiguranje
[Insurance and reinsurance]
Mikrokreditne organizacije
[Microcredit organizations]
Lizing društva
[Leasing company]
Ukupno za sektor
[Total for the sector]
2011
Aktiva
Aktiva
Aktiva
(u mil.
(u mil.
(u mil.
Udio
Udio
Udio
KM)
KM)
KM)
[Share]
[Share]
[Share]
[Assets
[Assets
[Assets
(%)
(%)
(%)
(in mil.
(in mil.
(in mil.
BAM)]
BAM)]
BAM)]
11/10
12/10
20.452
84,34
20.953
84,71
21.226
86,31
102,45
101,30
898
3,70
799
3,23
795
3,23
88,98
99,50
936
3,86
1.080
4,37
1.174
4,77
115,38
108,70
856
3,53
753
3,04
681
2,77
87,97
90,44
1.111
4,57
767
4,65
716
2,91
69,04
93,35
24.250
100
24.734
100
24.592
100
102,00
99,43
Učešće aktive banaka u aktivi sektora se
kretalo od 84,34 do 86,31, pri čemu je najveće učešće bilo u 2012. godini koje se povećalo
u odnosu na 2011. godinu za 1,6. Investicioni
fondovi imaju najniže učešće u 2012. godini,
kao i u 2011. godini, što je pad u odnosu na
2010. godinu kada je učešće bilo 3,70. Društva za osiguranje i reosiguranje bilježe blagi porast učešća od 2010. godine koji iznosi
3,86, u 2011. 4,37, i najveće učešće u 2012.
godini 4,77. Što se tiče mikrokreditnih organizacija, one bilježe blagi pad učešća od 2010.
godine kada iznosi 3,53 ka 2012. godini kada
iznosi 2,77. Lizing društva su imala najveće
učešće u 2011. godini sa 4,65, a najmanje u
2012. godini sa 2,91 učešća u aktivi sektora.
Na osnovu navedenih podataka može se reći
da je učešće nebankarskih organizacija u ukupnoj aktivi sektora ispod potrebnog nivoa,
što pokazuje nedovoljnu razvijenost nebankarskih finansijskih institucija, jer, ukoliko
je odnos veći, to je tržište razvijenije i bolje.
Može se zaključiti da je finansijsko tržište po
svojoj strukturi nerazvijeno.
14
Indeks rasta aktive
[Index of assets]
2012
The participation of bank assets in the banking
sector assets ranged from 84.34 to 86.31, with
the highest participation was in 2012, which increased compared to 2011 by 1.6. Mutual funds
have the lowest share in 2012, as in 2011, a decrease compared to 2010 when the share was 3.70.
Insurance and reinsurance companies recorded a
slight increase in participation from 2010, which
amounts to 3.86 in 2011, 4.37, and the highest
share in 2012 4.77. As for the Microcredit organizations, they recorded a slight decline in participation since 2010 when it amounted to 3.53 to
the year 2012, which amounts to 2.77. Leasing
companies had the largest share in 2012, with
4.65, and the lowest in 2012 with a 2.91 share in
banking sector assets.
Based on these data it can be said that the
participation of non-banking organizations in
the total assets of the sector below the required
level, which shows insufficient development
of non-bank financial institutions, because if
the ratio is larger, the market is more developed
and better. It can be concluded that the financial market is underdeveloped in its structure.
D. Zarić: RISK MANAGEMENT OF PLACEMENT OF INSURERS’ RESERVES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Sljedeće što je bitno jeste razvoj u bankarskom sektoru, kao i u sektoru osiguranja i
reosiguranja kao pokazatelj razvoja finansijskog tržišta.
The next thing is important is the development of banking sector and the sector of
insurance and reinsurance as an indicator of
financial market.
Tabela 2
Aktiva i kapital u bankarskom 2010, 2011. i
2012. godini (u 000 KM) (Ibidem)
Table 2
Assets and Capital in the Banking, 2010, 2011
and 2012 (000 KM) (Ibidem)
2010
Osiguranje i
Banke
reosiguranje
[Bank]
[Insurance and
reinsurance]
Aktiva
[Assets]
Kapital
[Capital]
2011
Osiguranje i
Banke
reosiguranje
[Bank]
[Insurance and
reinsurance]
2012
Osiguranje i
Banke
reosiguranje
[Bank]
[Insurance and
reinsurance]
20.451.504
936.191
20.952.276
1.080.063
21.226.489
1.174.070
2.402.030
306.916
2.861.319
317.465
2.886.206
339.807
Što se tiče bankarskog sektora u BiH, on bilježi rast aktive u iznosu 1,30% i rast kapitala
u sektoru osiguranja i reosiguranja. Ostvaren
je rast aktive u iznosu od 94 miliona KM, odnosno 8,70% u odnosu na 2011. godinu, dok
se kapital u ovom sektoru u navedenom periodu povećao za 7,04%, odnosno za 22 miliona KM. Takođe, jedna od mjera koja ukazuje
na razvijenost finansijskog tržišta jeste odnos
aktive finansijskog sektora (Tabela 1) prema
BDP1. Iz priloženog će se donijeti određeni
zaključci.
As for the banking sector in B&H, increased
assets in the amount of 1.30% and capital
growth in the amount of 0.87% compared to
2011.In the insurance and compared to 2011.In
the insurance and reinsurance increased assets
in the amount of 94 million, or 8.70% compared
to 2011, while the capital in this sector in the
above mentioned period increased by 7.04%, or
22 million. Also, a measure which indicates the
development of the financial market is the ratio
of financial sector assets (Table 1) to GDP1. The
attached will be make some conclusions.
Tabela 3
Aktiva i kapital u bankarskom sektoru osiguranja i reosiguranja u BiH u 2010, 2011.
i 2012. godini (u 000 KM) (Centralna banka BIH, 2014)
Table 3
Assets and capital in the banking sector, insurance and reinsurance activities in Bosnia
and Herzegovina in 2010, 2011 and 2012
(000 BAM) (Centralna banka BIH, 2014)
Godina
[Year]
Nominalni BDP (u mil. KM)
[Nominal GDP (in mil. BAM)]
2010.
2011.
2012.
2013.
24.879
25.772
25.734
26.123
1 BDP - Bruto domaći proizvod (engl. gross domestic
product, GDP, njem. Bruttosozialprodukt, BSP) je vrijednost finalnih dobara i usluga proizvedenih unutar neke
zemlje, a uključuje i vrijednost dobara i usluga proizvedenih pomoću inostranih faktora proizvodnje u zemlji;
ne uključuje vrijednost proizvodnje u inostranstvu koje
potiče od domaćih proizvodnih faktora.
1 GDP - Gross Domestic Product (Eng. Gross domestic
product, GDP, German. Bruttosozialprodukt, BSP) is the
value of final goods and services produced within a country, and includes the value of goods and services produced
by foreign factors of production in the country; does not
include the value of production abroad, which comes from
domestic production factors.
15
D. Zarić: UPRAVLJANJE RIZICIMA PLASMANA REZERVI OSIGURAVAČA U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI
Sljedeća tabela se odnosi na prikaz preračunatih vrijednosti, odnosno odnos između sektora finansijske aktive i banaka prema BDP
(Tabela 4).
The following table refers to the display,
calculated values, and the relationship between the financial sector and the banks’ assets to GDP (Table 4).
Tabela 3
Odnos aktive finansijskog sektora i banaka BiH prema BDP u periodu 2010-2012
(Ibidem)
Table 3
Ratio of assets of the financial sector and
Banks to GDP in the period 2010-2012
(Ibidem)
Godina
[Year]
Udio aktive fin. sektora u BDP-u u %
[The ratio of assets fin. sector to GDP in %]
Odnos aktive banaka u BDP-u u %
[The ratio of bank assets to GDP in %]
2010.
2011.
2012.
2013.
98,0
96,0
95,6
-
82,2
81,3
82,5
-
Na osnovu navedenih podataka se može zaključiti da je finansijsko tržište Bosne i Hercegovine bankocentrično, odnosno koncentrisano na banke i, samim tim, bankarski sektor
je i najrazvijeniji na ovom tržištu. Aktiva bankarskog sektora kao što se vidi u 2012. godini
činila je preko 80% ukupne aktive finansijskog sektora. U 2012. godini u BiH poslovalo
je 28 banaka, što je jedna manje nego u 2011.
godini. Većina banaka je u privatnom stranom
vlasništvu banaka i finansijskih institucija iz
eurozone dok je samo jedna banka u vlasništvu države (Direkcija za ekonomsko planiranje BIH, 2013).
Based on these data can conclude that the
financial market of Bosnia and Herzegovina
centered in banks, in other words concentrated on the bank, and therefore the banking
sector is the most developed in this market.
Assets of the banking sector as seen in 2012
accounted for over 80% of the total assets
of the financial sector. In 2012, the BiH operated 28 banks, which is one less than in
2011. Most of the banks in private and foreign-owned banks and financial institutions
in the eurozone while is only one bank
owned by the state. (Direkcija za ekonomsko
planiranje BIH, 2013)
UPRAVLJANJE PORTFOLIJOM
OSIGURAVAJUĆIH KOMPANIJA BOSNE
I HERCEGOVINE
MANAGEMENT PORTFOLIO
INSURANCE COMPANY OF BOSNIA
AND HERZEGOVINA
Upravljanje portfolijom osiguravajućih kompanija u Bosni i Hercegovini predstavlja skup
finansijskih sredstava kao što su akcije, obveznice, gotovina kojima upravlja investitor ili
su u vlasništvu. Suština politike osiguravajućih
kompanija je dug period posjedovanja – kupiti
i držati (Šoškić i Živković, 2011, str. 534).
U Bosni i Hercegovini osiguravajuće kompanije, pored banaka, predstavljaju
najjači sektor sa godišnjim prihodom preko
300 miliona konvertibilnih maraka. Na tržištu
osiguranja BiH u 2012. godini poslovalo je
Manage a portfolio of insurance companies
in Bosnia and Herzegovina is a set of financial assets such as stocks, bonds, cash managed by the investor or property. The essence
of the policy of insurance companies is a long
period of holding - buy and hold. (Šoškić &
Živković, 2011, p. 534).
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, insurance
companies, in addition to banks, are the
strongest sector with an annual revenues of
over 300 million convertible marks. On the
insurance market of Bosnia and Herzegovi-
16
D. Zarić: RISK MANAGEMENT OF PLACEMENT OF INSURERS’ RESERVES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
25 društava za osiguranje i jedno društvo za
reosiguranje. Od toga 15 na teritoriji F BiH,
a 10 na teritoriji Republike Srpske. Društva
rade prema entitetskim zakonima o osiguranju imovine i lica i nalaze se u nadležnosti
ministarstva finansija, tj. vlada Federacije
i Republike Srpske. Osiguravajuće društvo
treba efikasno da upravlja imovinom u svom
portfelju i povećava njegovu vrijednost kako
bi se povećale i pogodnosti za njegove akcionare.
na in 2012 was 25 insurance companies and
one reinsurance company. Including 15 in the
FBiH and 10 in the Republic of Serbian Society working towards to the entity laws on
property and persons who are not within the
jurisdiction of the Ministry of Finance, ie.
Government of the Federation and the Serbian Republic. The insurance company needs to
effectively manage the assets in its portfolio
and increased its value, in order to increase
the benefits for its shareholders.
Tabela 4
Osnovni indikatori za zemlje EU27, zemlje
iz okruženja i BiH (Agencija za osiguranje
BiH, 2012)
Table 4
Main indicators for the countries of the EU27
countries in the region and BiH (Agencija za
osiguranje BiH, 2012)
Osnovni pokazatelji u 2012.
[Basic indicators of the 2012th]
Osnovni pokazatelji u 2012.
[Basic indicators of the 2012th]
Broj osiguranja
[Number of insurance]
Ukupno prenija (mil. eura)
[Premium total (mil. of euros)]
Životno (mil.)
[Of this life (million)]
Premija/stanovnika (Eura)
[Of premium/capita (EUR)]
Životno/stanovnika (Eura)
[Of this life/capita (EUR)]
Neživotna/stanovnika (Eura)
[Of which non-life/capita (EUR)]
EU 27
Hrvatska
[Croatia]
Srbija
[Serbia]
Crna Gora
[Montenegro]
BiH
[B&H]
5.086
27
27
11
25
1.063.713
1.197
539
67
258
622.890
326
98
9
44
1.922
279
73
108
67
1.142
76
13
15
11
779
203
60
93
56
7,70
2,69
1,86
2,04
1,95
Na osnovu podataka iz prethodne tabele
može se zaključiti da je u zemljama Evropske unije učešće premije životnog osiguranja
po stanovniku, u odnosu na učešće premije
neživotnog osiguranja po stanovniku, mnogo
veće nego u regiji.
Based on the data from the table above it can
be concluded that in the countries of the European Union share of life insurance premiums
per capita, compared to the share premium of
non-life insurance premiums per capita, much
higher than in the region.
ZAKLJUČAK
CONCLUSION
Na osnovu iznesenog, može se zaključiti da
finansijsko Bosne i Hercegovine predstavlja
prilično nerazvijeno tržište kako zbog strukture tržišnog materijala tako i zbog obima trgovanja koje se odvija na njemu. Takođe se
može zaključiti da najveću ulogu u okviru
Based on the foregoing, it can be concluded
that the financial Bosnia and Herzegovina is
a fairly immature market due to the market
structure of materials, and because of the volume of trading that takes place on it. Also, it
can be concluded that the most important role
17
D. Zarić: UPRAVLJANJE RIZICIMA PLASMANA REZERVI OSIGURAVAČA U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI
BiH čine bankarske institucije. S obzirom da
finansijskim sistemom BiH preovladava bankarski sektor, potrebno je uložiti trud i za njegovo očuvanje.
Za finansijski sistem u cjelini može se reći
da nije dovoljno razvijen i da predstavlja tradicionalan oblik finansijskog sistema, a veliki nedostatak predstavlja slaba povezanost
finansijskog sistema sa realnom ekonomijom
što posebno predstavlja problem u uslovima
nedavne finansijske krize. Prije svega potrebno je raditi na razvoju i unapređenju cjelokupne privrede Bosne i Hercegovine, jer, kao što
je već rečeno, tržište kapitala jedne zemlje je
upravo i slika razvoja njene ekonomije.
within B&H are banking institutions. Due to
the financial system prevails B&H banking
sector, it is necessary to make an effort for its
preservation.
For the financial system as a whole can be said
that has not been sufficiently developed and that
is the traditional form of the financial system, a
major drawback is the poor connectivity of the
financial system to the real economy, which is
especially a problem in terms of the recent financial crisis. First of all it is necessary to work on
developing and improving the overall economy
of Bosnia and Herzegovina, because, as noted
above, the capital market of the country is exactly the picture of the development of its economy.
LITERATURA
LITERATURE
Agencija za osiguranje BiH. (2012).
Statistika tržišta osiguranja u Bosni i
Hercegovini 2012. godine. Preuzeto 15.
avgusta 2014. sa sajta http://www.azobih.
gov.ba/cms/dokumenti/publikacija-bs-12.
pdf.
Andrijašević, S. i Petranović, V. (1999).
Ekonomika osiguranja. Zagreb: Alfa
Centralna banka BiH. (2014). Glavni ekonomski indikatori i BDP. Preuzeto 30.
jula 2014. sa sajta http://www.cbbh.ba/
index.php?id=32&lang=bs.
Direkcija za ekonomsko planiranje. (2013).
Izvještaj o razvoju BiH 2012. Preuzeto
1. avgusta 2014. sa sajta http://www.
google.ba/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.
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in 2012. Retrived August 15, 2014
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dokumenti/publikacija-bs-12.pdf.
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dep.gov.ba%2Frazvojni_dokumenti%2Fizvjestaji%2F%3Fid%3D1586&ei=E_-bVPv5EMXWOoGJgKgI&usg=AFQjCNGCf7jfsKALQd78CpMSzovVGJTfuA.
Erić, D. (2003). Financial markets and
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D. Zarić: RISK MANAGEMENT OF PLACEMENT OF INSURERS’ RESERVES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Kumalić, I. (2013). Razvijenost finansijskog
tržišta u Bosni i Hercegovini. Preuzeto
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nub.rs/index.php/economyandmarket/
article/view/693/638.
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Ekonomski fakultet Beograd.
Rovčanin, A., Matradžija, A., i Matradžija,
A. (n.d.). Razvoj finansijskih tržišta
kao faktor jačanja konkurentnosti
bosanskohercekovačkih preduzeća. Preuzeto
30. jula 2014. sa sajta http://www.finconsult.
ba/admin/dokumenti/612AdnanRovcanin.pdf .
Šoškić, D. i Živković, A. (2009). Finansijska
tržišta i institucije. Ekonomski fakultet
Beograd.
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markets in B&H. Retrived July 22, 2014
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economyandmarket/article/view/693/638
Lukić, R. (2007). Banking accounting.
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dokumenti/612AdnanRovcanin.pdf
Šoškić, D. & Živković, A. (2009). Financial
Markets and Institutions. Ekonomski
fakultet Beograd.
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D. Zarić: UPRAVLJANJE RIZICIMA PLASMANA REZERVI OSIGURAVAČA U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI
20
PRIRODNI I FINANSIJSKI RIZICI - NATURAL AND FINANCIAL RISKS
KATASTROFALNI RIZICI U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI
I SRBIJI SA POSEBNIM OSVRTOM NA POPLAVE
CATASTROPHIC RISKS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
AND SERBIA WITH SPECIAL FOCUS ON THE FLOODS
Aleksandar Timotić, dipl. ek.
Stručni članak DOI 10.7251/OIK1403007T, UDK 005.334:504.4]:614.4(497.6)+(497.11) Professional paper
REZIME
ABSTRACT
Svjedoci smo sve učestalijih pojаva prirodnih kаtаstrofа kаko u svijetu tаko i nа prostorimа bivših jugoslovenskih republika. Upravo
prirodne katastrofe postаju jedаn od nаjvаžnijih svjetskih problemа u ometanju daljeg
razvoja ljudske civilizacije.
Katastrofalni rizici javljaju se kao prirodne nepogode, ali i usljed djelovanja ljudskog
faktora, ostavljajući za sobom ogromne materijalne gubitke i ljudske žrtve.
Ovi rizici imaju rastući intenzitet i frekvencije u globalnim razmjerama, pa su zbog toga
jedni od ključnih prijetnji održivom razvoju u
savremenim uslovima.
We are witnessing increasingly frequent occurrence of natural disasters both in the world and
in the region of the former Yugoslav republics.
Precisely, natural disasters are becoming one of
the most significant problems in disrupting the
further development of human civilization.
Catastrophic risks, occur as natural disasters, as well as due to the effects of human
factors, leave behind huge material losses
and casualties.
These risks are growing in intensity and frequency on a global scale, and are therefore
one of the key threats to sustainable development in modern conditions.
Ključne reči: katastrofalni rizik, štetni
događaj, faze upravljanja katastrofalnim
rizicima, poplave, mjere zaštite.
Keywords: catastrophic risk, adverse event,
stage managing catastrophic risks, floods,
protection measures.
UVOD
INTRODUCTION
Svjedoci smo sve češćih pojava vremenskih nepogoda koje iz godine u godinu prouzrokuju sve veće štete, ali i ljudske žrtve.
Od ovih katastrofa nije pošteđen ni jedan dio
svijeta, pa su zbog toga klimatske promjene i
sigurnost građana u direktnoj vezi, a posljedice ovih katastrofa su različite u zavisnosti
od preventivnog djelovanja i organizovanosti
društva, ali i pravovremenog djelovanja državnog sistema, odnosno civilne zaštite, vodoprivrede, ekonomije, zdravstva itd.
Katastrofa je neočekivani događaj koji
može ozbiljno ugroziti život i zdravlje ljudi i
izazvati znatnu materijalnu štetu, a proglaša-
We are witnessing increasingly frequent occurrence of weather disasters that from year to
year, cause larger and more serious damage and
human casualties. No part of the world is spared
from these disasters, and that is why climatic
changes and safety of citizens are directly related. The consequences caused by these disasters
are different depending on the prevention and
organization of society, but also on timely action
of the state system, respectively civil protection,
water management, economics, health, etc.
A disaster is an unexpected event that could
seriously jeopardize lives and health of people
and cause considerable material damage, and
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A. Timotić: KATASTROFALNI RIZICI U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI I SRBIJI SA POSEBNIM OSVRTOM NA POPLAVE
va se kada bude jasno da raspoloživi resursi i
fondovi nisu dovoljni za urgentan oporavak.
Iako postoje različite vrste katastrofa, zajednički im je potencijal da prouzrokuju štetne
efekte koji su u korijenu svake nezgode, nesreće i katastrofe.
Katastrofalni rizik možemo definisati kao rizik
koji predstavlja pojedinačnu opasnost koja prijeti velikom broju ljudi i velikoj imovini, a čije
ispoljavanje ugrožava ne samo ekonomsku snagu osiguravača nego i društva u cjelini, odnosno
njegovog dijela pogođenog ovim rizikom.
U nastavku će se govoriti uopšteno o katastrofalnim rizicima u Bosni i Hercegovini i
Srbiji, njihovim vrstama, posljedicama, osiguranju, a posebna pažnja usmjeriće se na poplave kao prirodne katastrofe.
shall be proclaimed when it is clear that the
available resources and funds are not sufficient
to prompt relief. Although there are different
types of disasters, they share the potential to
cause serious adverse effects that are at the root
of every adversity, accidents and disasters.
Disaster Risk can be defined as the risk
which represents the danger that threatens a
large number of people and great assets, and
whose expression endangers not only the economic strength of insurers, but also society as
a whole, or its part affected by this risk.
Below we shall speak generally about the
catastrophic risks in Bosnia and Herzegovina
and in Serbia, their types, consequences, insurance, and special attention will be directed
to the floods as a natural disasters.
POJAM I VRSTE KATASTROFALNIH
RIZIKA
TERMS AND TYPES OF CATASTROPHIC
RISKS
Šta je katastrofalni rizik?
What is catastrophic risk?
Iz samog naziva katastrofalni rizik vidi se
da je riječ o nekoj vrsti katastrofe, odnosno
o riziku koji pogađa veliki broj ljudi i nanosi ogromne štete i posljedice. To je jedna od
osnovnih karakteristika njenog ispoljavanja,
što pogađa veliku geografsku površinu i, istovremeno, veliki broj objekata i ljudi. Zapravo, katastrofalni rizik predstavlja pojedinačnu
opasnost koja prijeti velikom broju ljudi i velikoj imovini, ugrožavajući ekonomsku snagu
osiguravača i društva u cjelini, odnosno njegovog dijela pogođenog ovim rizikom.
From the name itself, catastrophic risk, is
seen as some kind of disaster, or the risk that affects a large number of people and causes huge
amounts of damage and consequences. One of
the basic characteristics of its presentation, is
that it affects quite a large geographical area
and, at the same time, a large number of objects
and people. Indeed, catastrophic risk is the individual danger that threatens a large number
of people and a large property, endangering the
economic strength of insurers and society as a
whole, or its part affected by this risk.
Vrste katastrofalnih rizika
The types of catastrophic risks
Pod katastrofalnim rizicima podrazumijevaju se, prije svega, prirodne nepogode kao
što su: poplava, visoka voda, oluja, uragan,
zemljotres, klizanje tla itd., zatim požari, eksplozije ili ratni rizici, atomski rizici ili rizici
od terorističkih napada, ali, takođe, i rizik nuklearnog terorizma ili pandemije bolesti. Pored
toga što katastrofalni rizici mogu biti rezultat
prirode (prirodnih nepogoda), njih može iza-
Catastrophic risks include, first of all, natural disasters such as floods, high water, storm,
hurricane, earthquake, landslides and so on,
then the fires, explosions or war risks, nuclear risks or the risks of terrorist attacks, but
also the risk of nuclear terrorism or pandemic
disease. Catastrophic risks may be the result
of nature (natural disasters), but can also be
caused by the humans as well. For society as
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A. Timotić: CATASTROPHIC RISKS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA AND SERBIA ...
zvati i čovjek. Za društvo kao cjelinu ispoljavanje katastrofalnog rizika dovodi do poremećaja velikog broja funkcija karakterističnih za
svako društvo. Ukoliko se, npr., dogodi neki
rizik velikih razmjera, može doći i do socijalnog haosa, pa tako i do ugrožavanja zdravlja
velikog broja ljudi, ekonomskog i materijalnog
sloma za veliki broj porodica, gubitka života ili
oštećenja i gubitka velikog broja stanova i slično. Nadalje, postoji mogućnost da se ugrozi i
infrastuktura društvene zajednice, tj. da se unište komunalni objekti, objekti za snabdjevanje
toplotnom i električnom energijom, putne i željezničke mreže, kao i PTT saobraćaja.
a whole, expression of the catastrophic risks
leads to disruption of a large number of functions characteristic to any society. If, for example, a risk of large-scale develops, it can
lead to the social chaos, and thus to endangering the health of a large number of people,
economic and material breakdown for many
families, loss of life or damage and loss of a
large number of apartments etc. Furthermore,
there is a possibility of endangering the infrastructure of the community, i.e. to destroy
communal facilities, facilities for the supply
of heat and electricity, road and rail networks,
as well post service traffic.
Kada se štetni događaj klasifikuje
kao katastrofalan i koje su posljedice
katastrofalnih rizika?
When is an adverse event classified
as catastrophic and what are the
consequences of catastrophic risk?
Svaki događaj koji je nemoguće predvidjeti,
ili ako znamo da će se dogoditi a ne možemo
predvidjeti kada, je u stvari „štetni događaj“.
Štetni događaj postaje katastrofalan u sljedećim slučajevima:
1. ako je izazvao štetu u iznosu od najmanje
96 miliona američkih dolara;
2. ako za posljedicu svog ispoljavanja ima 50
povrijeđenih lica, 20 smrtnih slučajeva, ili
gubitak doma za najmanje 2.000 ljudi;
3. ukoliko ima za posljedicu ekonomske gubitke koji prevazilaze 1% bruto domaćeg
proizvoda (Kočović, 2014, str. 4).
Kako katastrofalni rizici imaju rastući intenzitet i frekvencije u globalnim razmjerama,
oni predstavljaju ključnu prijetnju održivom
razvoju u savremenim uslovima. Katastrofalni rizici imaju za posljedicu ogromne materijalne gubitke i ljudske žrtve.
Posljedice katastrofalnih rizika manifestuju
se u vidu:
1. humanitarnih efekata koji podrazumijevaju gubitak ljudskih života, povrede;
2. ekonomskih efekata, ispoljenih u oštećenju i uništenju infrastrukture, stambenih i komercijalnih objekata i drugih
materijalnih oblika aktive, izgubljenim
Each event that is impossible to predict, or
if it is known that it will happen but we can
not predict when, is in fact “adverse event”.
Adverse event becomes catastrophic in the
following cases:
1. if it caused damage amounting to at least
96 million US dollars;
2. if the result of its manifestation has 50 injured persons, 20 deaths, or the loss of a
home for at least 2,000 people;
3. if it has resulted in economic losses that
exceed 1% of gross domestic product
(Kočović, 2014, p. 4).
As catastrophic risks have a growing intensity and frequency in global terms, they
represent a critical threat to sustainable development in modern conditions. Catastrophic
risks have resulted in huge economic losses
and casualties.
The consequences of catastrophic risks are
manifested in:
1. humanitarian effects involving loss of
human lives, injuries;
2. economic effects, manifested in the
damage and destruction of infrastructure, residential and commercial buildings and other tangible forms of assets,
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A. Timotić: KATASTROFALNI RIZICI U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI I SRBIJI SA POSEBNIM OSVRTOM NA POPLAVE
zaradama usljed prekida rada poslovnih
subjekata;
3. ekoloških efekata tj. gubitka obradivog
zemljišta i degradacije ekosistema.
Ekonomski gubici po osnovu katastrofalnih događaja, od 1970. godine do početka 90-ih godina
XX vijeka, povećali su se po prosječnoj stopi od
22,3% što je iznosilo 22 milijarde američkih dolara prosječno godišnje. Za razliku od prosječne
stope rasta ekonomskih šteta, prosječna godišnja
stopa rasta materijalnih šteta od 90-ih godina XX
vijeka do 2013. godine iznosila је 31,2%, a njihov prosječni godišnji iznos dostigao je čak 147
milijarde američkih dolara (Ibidem, str. 7).
loss of earnings due to interruption of
business entities;
3. environmental effects, i.e. the loss of cultivable land and degradation of the ecosystems.
The economic losses based on catastrophic
events, from 1970 to the begining of the 90`s
of XX century, increased at an average rate
of 22.3%, which accounted to 22 billion US
dollars average per year. Unlike the average
growth rates of economic damages, the average annual growth rate of damage from the
90`s of XX century to 2013 was 31.2%, and
their average annual amount reached even
147 billion US dollars. (Ibidem, p. 7).
Dva osnovna svjetska modela borbe sa
posljedicama katastrofalnih rizika
Two basic models in the world in dealing
with the consequences of catastrophic risks
Kako su posljedice katastrofalnih rizika
izuzetno velike, a često i kobne za društvo, u
svjetskoj praksi uvedena su dva osnovna modela, sa više varijacija, po kojima se države
bore sa posljedicama katastrofalnog rizika.
Kod prvog modela država nema učešće u
pokriću šteta nastalih kao posljedica katastrofalnih događaja, već se štete pokrivaju putem
ugovornog osiguranja. Ova vrsta modela primjenjuje se u: (1) zemljama koje imaju visoko razvijenu infrastrukturu i tržišnu privredu
i (2) zemljama kod kojih nisu zabilježene
značajne prirodne katastrofe kao što su zemljotresi, tornada, a sve uz uslov da je industrija osiguranja veoma razvijena.
Primjer za ovaj model je Holandija.
Za razliku od prvog, kod drugog modela, pored postojanja ugovornog osiguranja,
i država direktno ili indirektno učestvuje u
rješavanju nastalih šteta. Ono što je karakteristično za ovaj model jeste da država nakon
ispoljavanja katastrofalnih događaja i utvrđivanja uzroka i obima štete, kao i potraživanja
subjekata koji su štetu pretrpjeli, iz budžeta
interveniše na otklanjanju posljedica koje su
nastale iz ispoljavanja ovih rizika. Varijacija
ovog modela podrazumijeva osnivanje posebnih osiguravajućih organizacija u vlasništvu
države koje putem direktnog osiguranja ili
Since the consequences of catastrophic risk
are very large, and can be fatal for the society, practice introduced two basic models, with
more variations, by which the state struggles
with the consequences of catastrophic risks.
In the first model the state does not participate in the coverage of damage incurred as a
result of catastrophic events, but the damages are covered by contractual insurance. This
type of model is applied to: (1) countries with
highly developed infrastructure and a market
economy and (2) countries without significant
natural disasters such as earthquakes, tornadoes, and all under the condition that the insurance industry is highly developed.
An example of this model is The Netherlands.
Unlike the first, in the second model the
states directly or indirectly participate in the
resolution of claims incurred, despite the existence of contractual insurance. Characteristic
of this model is that the state after the manifestation of catastrophic events and determining
the cause and extent of damage, and claims of
subjects who suffered damage intervenes from
its budget to reverse the consequences arising
from the manifestation of these risks. A variation on this model involves the establishment
of special insurance organizations that are
state-owned through direct insurance or rein-
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reosiguranja utiču na stvaranje posebnih fondova iz kojih se nadoknađuju štete, kao što je
recimo u Francuskoj, SAD i Japanu.
surance, affect the creation of special funds
from which they compensate the damage, as
for example in France, in the USA and Japan.
CILJEVI I CIKLUS UPRAVLJANJA
KATASTROFAMA
GOALS AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT
CYCLE
Pod ciklusom upravljanja katastrofalnim
rizicima podrazumijevaju se sve aktivnosti,
mjere i programi koji se preduzimaju prije, u
toku i nakon katastrofe kako bi se katastrofa
izbjegla, smanjio njen uticaj i oporavljanje od
pretrpljene štete. Znači, svaki ciklus upravljanja katastrofama ima sljedeća tri osnovna
cilja: (1) smanjiti ili izbjeći potencijalne gubitke od hazarda; (2) obezbijediti brzu i prikladnu pomoć žrtvama katastrofe; (3) postići
brz i efikasan oporavak.
Sljedeće tri faze su ključne u upravljanju
katastrofalnim rizicima.
1. Faza prije katastrofe
Sve aktivnosti koje se preduzimaju u ovoj
fazi imaju isti cilj - smanjiti potencijalne
i materijalne gubitke u slučaju katastrofe.
2. Faza tokom trajanja katastrofe
Ova faza obuhvata sve korake koji se preduzimaju kako bi se na što efikasniji i efektivniji način zbrinule žrtve i smanjile pretrpljene štete.
3. Faza nakon katastrofe
Ovdje se radi o preduzimanju inicijative da
se reaguje na udes u cilju brzog oporavka
pogođenog stanovništva neposredno nakon
što se akcident odigrao. Za ove aktivnosti
postoji jedan naziv - mjere brzog reagovanja i oporavka.
4. Oporavak (povratak u normalno stanje)
Oporavak podrazumijeva preduzimanje
svih aktivnosti i određivanje smjernica za
normalizaciju životnog standarda poslije
katastrofe, kao npr. izgradnja privremenog
smještaja.
5. Ponovna izgradnja, rekonstrukcija
Ovo je dugoročno reagovanje na efekte katastrofe. U ovoj fazi obnavlja se infrastruktura, ekosistemi i uslovi života uopšte.
Cycle management of catastrophic risks refers to all activities, programs and measures
to be taken before, during and after a disaster
in order to avoid disaster, reduce its impact
and recovery of the damage suffered. So, each
cycle of disaster management has the following three main objectives: (1) reduce or avoid
potential losses from hazards; (2) provide
rapid and appropriate assistance to victims of
disasters; (3) achieve a quick and efficient recovery.
The following three phases are crucial in
managing catastrophic risks.
1. Pre-disaster phase
All activities undertaken at this stage have
the same goal - to reduce the potential material losses in the event of a disaster.
2. Phase during the disaster
This phase includes all the steps that are
taken to be the most efficient and effective
way to help victims and reduce damage
suffered.
3. The phase after disaster
It is about taking the initiative to respond to
the accident to enable quick recovery of the
affected population immediately after the
accident occurred. For this activity, there is
one name - measure of rapid response and
recovery.
4. The recovery (return to normal state)
Recovery implies taking all activities and
definition of guidelines for the normalization of the standard of living after disasters such as establishment of an interim
accommodation.
5. Rebuilding, reconstruction
This is a long-term response to the effects of the
disaster. At this stage it is renewed infrastructure,
ecosystems and living conditions in general.
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A. Timotić: KATASTROFALNI RIZICI U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI I SRBIJI SA POSEBNIM OSVRTOM NA POPLAVE
PRIMJERI NAJVEĆIH I
NAJSMRTONOSNIJIH PRIRODNIH
KATASTROFA U LJUDSKOJ ISTORIJI
EXAMPLES OF THE LARGEST AND THE
MOST DEADLY NATURAL DISASTERS
IN THE HUMAN HISTORY
Znamo da su prirodne katastrofe posljedice
prirodnih opasnosti (npr. vulkanskih erupcija, zemljotresa, klizišta itd.) i da prouzrokuju velike štete, ugrožavaju društvo u cjelini,
ostavljajući za sobom vrlo često i veliki broj
ljudskih žrtava. U nekim slučajevima prirodne katastrofe su dovele do gubitka miliona
života. Navodimo neke od najsmrtonosnijih
prirodnih katastrofa u ljudskoj istoriji, po broju žrtava koje su odnijele.
1. Alepski zemljotres (1138, Sirija) - 230.000
mrtvih
Nakon prvog zemljotresa koji je pogodio
ovo mjesto, nastupila su sljedeća dva i to:
prvi od oktobra 1138. do juna 1139. i drugi, mnogo razorniji od septembra 1156.
do maja 1159.
2. Cunami u Indijskom okeanu (2004, Indijski okean) - 230.000 mrtvih
Prije 10 godina (26. decembra 2004. godine)
dogodio se cunami prouzrokovan podzemnim zemljotresom ispod Indijskog okeana
i tom prilikom odnio je veliki broj ljudskih
žrtava. Ovo je drugi najjači zemljotres ikada
zabilježen seizmografom, koji je bio toliko
jak da je u tom trenutku cijela planeta „zavibrirala” za oko 1 centimetar.
3. Zemljotres Tangsan (1976, Kina) 242.000 mrtvih
Kada je riječ o gubitku ljudskih života, u
modernoj istoriji, tangsanski zemljotres
je jedan od najsmrtonosnijih. Ovaj zemljotres pogodio je Tangsan u ranim jutarnjim satima, jačinom 7,8 stepeni po
Rihteru i trajao je oko 15 sekundi. To je
bio prvi zemljotres u novijoj istoriji koji
je direktno pogodio neki tako veliki grad.
Ovo su samo neki od primjera, a postoji još
niz sličnih kao što su Indijski ciklon 1839. godine, gdje je stradalo preko 300.000 ljudi ili
zemljotres u Šensi (provincija u centralnom dijelu Kine) 1556. godine sa oko 830.000 žrtava.
It is well know that natural disasters are
caused by natural hazards (ex. volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, landslides, etc.) leaving
behind a lot of damage. They endanger the
whole society, leaving very often a large
number of casualties. In some cases, natural
disasters have led to loss of millions of lives.
Below are listed some of the deadliest natural
disasters in the human history, by the number
of victims which those claimed.
1. Aleppo earthquake (1138, Syria) - 230,000
dead
After the first earthquake that hit this
place, another two followed: the first from
October 1138 to June 1139 and the second, much more devastating from September 1156 to May 1159.
2. The tsunami in the Indian Ocean (2004, Indian Ocean ) - 230,000 dead
10 years ago (26th of December 2004) there
was a tsunami caused by an underground
earthquake beneath the Indian Ocean and on
this occasion took a large number of casualties. That was the second strongest earthquake ever recorded by seismograph, which
was so strong that, at that moment the whole
planet “vibrated” for about 1 centimeter.
3. Tangshan Earthquake (1976, China) 242,000 dead
When it comes to the loss of human life,
in modern history, Tangshan earthquake
is one of the deadliest. This earthquake
struck Tangshan in the early morning
hours, the intensity of 7.8 degrees on the
Richter scale and lasted about 15 seconds.
It was the first earthquake in recent history that has directly affected a big city.
These are just some examples, and there are
many similar such as Indian cyclone in 1839, which
killed more than 300,000 people or an earthquake
in Shaanxi (province in the central part of China) in
1556 with approximately 830,000 victims.
26
A. Timotić: CATASTROPHIC RISKS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA AND SERBIA ...
KATASTROFALNI RIZICI U BOSNI I
HERCEGOVINI I SRBIJI
CATASTROPHIC RISKS IN BOSNIA AND
HERZEGOVINA AND IN SERBIA
Kao i u svijetu, i u Bosni i Hercegovini i
Srbiji katastrofalni rizici obuhvataju:
1. rizike od prirodnih katastrofa (zemljotresi,
olujni vjetrovi, poplava, vulkanske erupcije);
2. rizik kritične infrastrukture (transportni sistemi, vodosnabdjevanje, sistemi za
električnu energiju, kompleksni sistemi);
3. katastrofalne ekološke rizike (klimatske
promjene, genetski inženjering, nuklearne
centrale);
4. rizik ljudskog faktora - terorizam.
Za Bosnu i Hercegovinu i Srbiju karakteristično je to što su njihova područja najviše podložna riziku pojave različitih vrsta prirodnih
katastrofalnih rizika. Imajući u vidu učestalost
katastrofalnih nepogoda, u Bosni i Hercegovini i Srbiji se poplave i klizišta mogu smatrati
prioritetnim rizicima. Svjedoci smo nedavnih
poplava koje su u novembru i decembru 2010.
godine i maju 2014. godine pogodile Srbiju i
Bosnu i Hercegovinu i ostavile za sobom velike posljedice i određen broj žrtava. Ovoj aktuelnoj temi posvetićemo posebnu pažnju.
Poplava se može definisati kao prirodna nepogoda koja podrazumijeva privremeno, djelimično ili kompletno plavljenje suve površine zemlje
usljed: (1) preljevanja rijeka, potoka, kanala, jezera, itd.; (2) obilnih atmosferskih padavina; (3)
poplavnog olujnog talasa; (4) cunamija; (5) riječnih ili morskih talasa; (6) potoka blata ili lahar; (7)
probijanja objekata koji zaustavljaju vodu (brane
i ustavi); (8) nadolaženja podzemnih voda; (9)
vraćanja otpadnih voda u kanalizaciju.
As in the world, in Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Serbia as well, catastrophic risks include:
1. risks of natural disasters (earthquakes,
windstorms, floods, volcanic eruptions);
2. the risk of critical infrastructure (transport
systems, water supply systems, electricity, complex systems);
3. catastrophic environmental risks (climate change, genetic engineering, nuclear
power plants);
4. the risk of human factor - terrorism.
For Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia, it
is characteristic that their areas are most exposed to the risk of different types of natural
catastrophic risks. According to frequency of
disasters in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia, floods and landslides can be considered
as a priority risks. We are witnessing the recent floods that in November and December
2010 and May 2014, struck Serbia and Bosnia
and Herzegovina and left behind huge consequences and a certain number of victims. Special consideration will be given to this topic.
Flooding can be defined as a natural disaster, which means the temporary, partial or
complete inundation of dry ground surface
due to: (1) flooding of rivers, streams, canals,
lakes, etc.; (2) abundant atmospheric precipitation; (3) flood stormy waves; (4) tsunami;
(5) river or sea waves; (6) streams of mud; (7)
objects that stop water (dams and weirs); (8)
affluxion of groundwater; (9) drain the wastewater into the sewer.
Poplave u Bosni i Hercegovini
Floods in Bosnia and Hercegovina
Još od ranije je poznato da je područje Bosne i Hercegovine izloženo vrlo visokom
riziku od poplava. Posljednje poplave katastrofalnih razmjera koje su pogodile Bosnu i
Hercegovinu u maju 2014. godine, kao i one
iz 2010. godine, su poplave sa najvećom količinom padavina u poslednjih 120 godina.
Poplave su nanijele velike materijalne šte-
It is already well known that the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina is exposed to very high
risk of flooding. The last catastrophic flood that
hit Bosnia and Herzegovina in May 2014, as
well as those from 2010, are the floods caused
by the highest rainfall in the last 120 years. The
floods have caused major damage not only to
the economy, but also to infrastructure facili27
A. Timotić: KATASTROFALNI RIZICI U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI I SRBIJI SA POSEBNIM OSVRTOM NA POPLAVE
te ne samo privredi nego i infrastrukturnim
objektima, zdravlju stanovništva, uključujući
i gubitke ljudskih života. Ukupni finansijski
iznos ekonomskih efekata nepogoda (uništenje ili teško oštećenje imovine, infrastrukture
i robe, kao i posljedice razaranja privrednih
kapaciteta i proizvodnje) je dostigao 2,04 milijarde evra. Veći dio tog iznosa se odnosi na
privatni sektor, domaćinstva, mala, srednja i
velika preduzeća, te poljoprivredne proizvođače, uključujući i veliki broj osoba iz ugroženih društvenih kategorija. Za Federaciju
Bosne i Hercegovine ukupne posljedice (štete i gubici) su procijenjene na 1,04 milijarde
evra, za Republiku Srpsku ta cifra je 968,30
miliona evra, dok je za Brčko distrikt Bosne i
Hercegovine ukupan iznos 29,60 miliona evra
(European Commission, 2014, str. 4).
Takođe, ne treba zaboraviti ni poplave koje
su zadesile Republiku Srpsku i Bosnu i Hercegovinu u novembru i decembru 2010. godine.
Procjene su da je samo u Republici Srpskoj
šteta od tadašnjih poplava oko 130 miliona
KM, a ukupna šteta za cijelu BiH u novembru
i decembru 2010. godine dostiže pola milijarde KM (Reuters, 2010). Kao što se može
primijetiti, poplave su postale sve učestalije
na ovom području, rizik od njih je sve veći, a
preduzete mjere za zaštitu i odbranu od poplava su u zaostatku.
Činjenica je da se poplave nisu mogle u
potpunosti izbjeći, ali su mogle biti znatno
manje da je postojao funkcionalan i efikasan sistem zaštite od poplava. Kada je riječ
o sistemu upravljanja vodama u Republici
Srpskoj, ingerencije nad upravljanjem vodama su podjeljene između Vlade Republike
Srpske, posredstvom Ministarstva poljoprivrede, šumarstva i vodoprivrede, i lokalne
zajednice. Već u Federaciji BiH upravljačka
struktura je složenija. Odgovornost za upravljanje vodama u FBiH je podjeljeno između
Federalnog ministarstva poljoprivrede, vodoprivrede i šumarstva, ali i kantonalnih ministarstva u čijoj nadležnosti je resor voda,
uz, takođe, određene odgovornosti i vlasti na
lokalnom nivou.
28
ties, public health, including the loss of human
lives. The total amount of financial economic
effects of the natural disasters (destruction or
serious damage to property, infrastructure and
goods, as well as the consequences of the destruction of economic capacities and production) reached 2.04 billion of euros. Most of this
amount relates to the private sector, households,
small, medium and large enterprises, and agricultural producers, including a large number of
people from disadvantaged social categories.
For the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
total consequences (damage and losses) are estimated at 1.04 billion euros, for the Republic
of Srpska, the figure was 968.30 million while
the Brcko district of Bosnia and Herzegovina
had the total amount of 29.60 million euros
(European Commission, 2014, p. 4).
Also, it should not be forgotten of the floods
that occurred in the Republic of Srpska and Bosnia and Herzegovina in November and December 2010. Since the flood, estimated damages in
Republic of Srpska alone was about 130 million
BAM, and the total damage for whole Bosnia
and Herzegovina in November and December
2010, reached half a billion BAM (Reuters,
2010). As it can be seen, the floods have become
more frequent in this area, so the risk of flooding
is growing, and the measures of protection and
flood defense are lagging behind.
The floods could not be completely avoided,
but there could have been much less of them if
there was a functional and effective system of
flood protection. When it comes to water management system in the Republic of Srpska, jurisdiction of water management is divided between
the Government of the Republic of Srpska,
through the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry
and Water Management, and the local community. However in the Federation of Bosnia
and Herzegovina governance structure is more
complex. Responsibility for water management
in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided between the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Water Management and Forestry, as well
as cantonal ministries that are in charge of the
department of water, and still certain responsibilities and authorities are on the local level.
A. Timotić: CATASTROPHIC RISKS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA AND SERBIA ...
Krajnje je vrijeme ozbiljno se pozabaviti pitanjem Kako se zaštiti od poplava?
Jedan od sigurnih načina jeste izgradnja
efikasnog sistema zaštite od poplava, a, da bi
se to postiglo, potrebno je taj sistem postaviti
na način koji omogućava planiranje i implementaciju preventivnih mjera usaglašenih na
cijelom riječnom slivu sa jasno određenim
odgovornostima svakog nivoa odlučivanja.
Takođe, u BiH se rizici od poplava mogu smanjiti izgradnjom adekvatnih objekata, a to su
nasipi i akumulacije i onda će se rizici od poplava smanjiti. Neophodno je i hitno pokrenuti proces izgradnje nove dugoročne strategije
ulaganja za odbranu od poplava, procjeniti
buduće potrebe u slučaju poplava i odbrane
od poplava, te obezbijediti funkcionalnu i jedinstvenu bazu podataka sa WEB prikazom iz
svih krajeva naše države na osnovu koje će se
imati uvid u opremljenosti uprava i štabova
civilne zaštite (raspolaganje čamcima, motorima, mehanizacijom, spasilačkom opremom,
cisternama za vodu, itd).
Prema tome, u Bosni i Hercegovini je neophodno u kontinuitetu dalje razvijati sisteme
zaštite i spašavanja od prirodne nesreće kakva
je poplava, ulagati u izgradnju i održavanje
zaštitnih objekata i sistema, ali i pružiti kontinuiranu obuku pojedincima i organizacijama
da djeluju u slučaju vanrednih situacija.
It is about time to deal with issue of How to
protect against floods?
A safest way is to build an efficient system
of flood protection, and to achieve this, it is
necessary to set up the system in a way that
allows the planning and implementation of
preventive measures in the entire river basin,
with clearly defined responsibilities of each
level of decision-making. Also, the risks of
floods in Bosnia and Herzegovina can be reduced by building adequate facilities, such as
dams and reservoirs, which would reduce the
risks of flooding. It is necessary and urgent to
start the process of building a new long-term
investment strategy for prevention of floods,
assess future demands in case of flooding and
flood control and provide a functional and a
unique database with web presentation from
all parts of our country on the basis of which
everyone will have access to equipment management and civil defense (available boats,
engines, equipment, rescue equipment, water
tanks, etc.).
Therefore, in Bosnia and Herzegovina it is necessary to continuously further develop systems
of protection from natural disasters like floods,
to invest in the construction and maintenance of
flood control facilities and systems, but also to
provide continuous training to individuals and
organizations to act in case of emergencies.
Poplave u Srbiji
Floods in Serbia
Prema podacima iz Nacionalne strategije
zaštite i spasavanja u vanrednim situacijama,
u Srbiji se između 1900-1940. godine na svakih deset godina događalo po 100 prirodnih
katastrofa. Stopa rasta tih prirodnih katastrofa
se nastavila i od 1960. do 1970, kada ih je bilo
skoro sedam puta više, a od 1980. do 1990.
čak 2000 prirodnih katastrofa je zadesilo Srbiju. Od 1990. do 2000. broj prirodnih katastrofa u Srbiji porastao je na 2800. Ostale su
zapamćene katastrofalne poplave u Vojvodini
kada se na malu banatsku varoš Jaša Tomić izlilo vode koliko cijeli Beograd potroši
za godinu dana, zemljotres koji je samo prije
par godina uzdrmao Kraljevo ili ledena zima
According by the National Strategy for protection and rescue in emergency situations, in
Serbia between 1900 - 1940 years, 100 natural disasters occurred in a decade alone. The
growth rate of these natural disasters increased
from 1960 to 1970, when it was almost seven times higher, and from 1980 to 1990 up to
2000 natural disasters hit Serbia. From 1990
to 2000, the number of natural disasters in
Serbia has increased to 2800. The other devastating floods happened in Vojvodina, when
on the small town in Banat called Jasa Tomic
poured out as much water as a whole Belgrade
spends in a year, the earthquake that just a few
years ago struck Kraljevo or icy winter that
29
A. Timotić: KATASTROFALNI RIZICI U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI I SRBIJI SA POSEBNIM OSVRTOM NA POPLAVE
koja je tri nedelje paralisala život i poslovanje
privrede (Pavlović, 2012, str. 16).
Međutim, svijest građana o rizicima od
prirodnih nepogoda kojima je područje Srbije izloženo, je na vrlo niskom nivou. I dalje
se objekti grade u zabranjenim zonama, protivno standardima građevinske struke, zbog
čega je šteta veća nego što bi mogla da bude.
Pretjerano i neplansko sječenje šuma dovelo
je do toga da je 75% teritorije Srbije pokriveno erozivnim tlom, a istovremeno postoji
i 11.500 bujičnih vodotokova koji, u slučaju
kiše, nose veliku količinu i vode i mulja. Iz
Udruženja bujičara i Zavoda za zaštitu od
bujica i erozije navode da je ukupan godišnji
budžet za vode, uključujući sve nivoe vlasti, od 200 do 220 miliona evra, a potrebe su
četiri puta veće. Ove godine izdvojeno je 30
miliona evra za zaštitu voda, od kojih samo
300.000 evra za zaštitu od bujica. Kako je
samo 30% Srbije pošumljeno i, samim tim,
nema šta da zadržava vodu, već voda sa sobom odnosi zemlju i stvara erozivna područja, treba se usmjeriti na pošumljavanje erodiranih područja, podizanje šumskih zaštitnih
pojaseva na padinama, koji će zadržavati
vlagu i zemlju. Pokret gorana Srbije mnogo
je doprinio na smanjivanju erodivnih terena i
njihov rad je vrlo bitno podržati, ali i izgraditi pregrade za sprečavanje dubinske erozije i
regulisati bujične tokove. Poplave u Srbiji su
imale za posljedicu: (1) ukupnu štetu od oko
2 milijarde evra; (2) 25 smrtnih slučajeva; (3)
gubitak doma za preko 10.000 ljudi; (4) ekonomske gubitke preko 6,6% bruto domaćeg
proizvoda (Kočović, 2014, str. 5).
Jedan od načina zaštite od prirodnih katastrofa jeste osiguranje od njih. Međutim,
učešće osiguranja od elementarnih nepogoda
u portfelju neživotnog osiguranja je gotovo
zanemarljivo, iako bi masovnošću uvođenja
obaveznog osiguranja značajno pojeftinio
ovaj proizvod. Prema podacima Narodne
banke Srbije, tokom 2013. godine zaključeno
je samo 18.658 ugovora o osiguranju usjeva
i plodova sa ukupnom premijom osiguranja
od 1,5 milijardi dinara (što čini svega 2,34%
ukupnog tržišta osiguranja). Ovi podaci upu30
paralyzed life and business economy for three
weeks (Pavlović, 2012, p. 16).
However, society awareness about the risks of
natural disasters in the exposed area in Serbia,
is at a very low level. Facilities and buildings
are still constructed in prohibited areas, contrary
to the standards of the construction profession,
which is why the damage is larger than it should
be. Excessive and unplanned cutting of forests
has led to the fact that 75% of Serbia’s territory
is covered by soil erosion, while there are 11,500
torrential streams that, in case of rain, carry a
large amount of water and mud. Seasonal River
Association and the Institute for the Protection
of torrents and erosion stated that the total annual budget for water, including all levels of government, is from 200 to 220 million euros, and
the needs are four times bigger. This year € 30
million has been allocated for the protection of
flood waters, of which only 300,000 euros for
the protection of the torrents. Since only 30%
of Serbia is forested there is nothing to retain all
the water, and due to soil being washed away
erosive areas are created. Focusing on afforestation of eroded areas and raising the forest shelter
belts on the slopes will help retain the moisture
and the soil. Nature Conservation Movement of
Serbia contributed to the reduction of erosion of
the terrain and their work is very important, but
it is also important to build the barriers for preventing deep erosion and regulating torrential
flows. Floods in Serbia caused: (1) total loss of
about 2 billion euros; (2) 25 deaths, (3) loss
of home for over 10,000 people; (4) economic
losses of over 6.6% of gross domestic product
(Kočović, 2014, p. 5).
One of the ways for protecting from natural
disasters is insurance. However, the share of
insurance against natural disasters in the portfolio of non-life insurance is almost negligible, although the massiveness of introducing
compulsory insurance significantly made this
product cheaper. According to the National
Bank of Serbia, in 2013 only 18,658 contracts
for insurance of crops and fruits with the total
insurance premium of 1.5 billion RSD (representing just 2.34% of the total insurance market). This data suggests that the use of funds
A. Timotić: CATASTROPHIC RISKS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA AND SERBIA ...
ćuju na to da je korišćenje sredstava iz budžeta osnovni način finansiranja šteta i posljedica
elementarnih nepogoda u Srbiji.
Međutim, postavlja se pitanje da li je država pri visokom budžetskom deficitu u mogućnosti da sanira ove ogromne štete? Veoma je
bitno, zapravo neophodno, upravljati rizicima
pre njihove realizacije, odnosno preduzimati
preventivne mjere. Kao što je prethodno rečeno, jedna od najbitnijih preventivnih mjera
jeste osiguranje od katastrofalnih rizika, koje
je zapravo nacionalni interes, s obzirom da
oni narušavaju održivi razvoj.
Poslije posljednjih poplava sa ogromnim
materijalnim štetama, nadamo se da raste svijest države i građana o neophodnosti osiguranja, i da će se čelnici države ozbiljno pozabaviti pitanjem uvođenja obaveznog osiguranja
od katastrofalnih rizika, između ostalog, ali i
svim drugim preventivnim mjerama kako bi
se izbjegle, moguće, iste ili veće katastrofe.
from the budget is the main method of financing of the damage caused by natural disasters
in Serbia.
However, the issue is whether the state
with already high budget deficit will be able
to repair the immense damage? It is indeed
essential, to manage the risks before their
execution, or take preventive measures. As
previously mentioned, one of the most important preventive measures is insurance against
catastrophic risk, which is a national interest,
since they can distort sustainable development.
After the recent floods with huge material
damage, hopefully the state and citizens will
increase awareness for the necessity of insurance, and the leaders of the state shall seriously
address the issue of introducing compulsory
insurance against catastrophic risks, among
others, as well as all other preventive measures
to avoid possible same or bigger disasters.
ZAKLJUČAK
CONCLUSION
Katastrofalni rizik možemo definisati kao rizik koji predstavlja pojedinačnu opasnost koja
prijeti velikom broju ljudi i velikoj imovini, a
čije ispoljavanje ugrožava ne samo ekonomsku
snagu osiguravača nego i društva u cjelini, odnosno njegov dio pogođen ovim rizikom. Do
nastanka neke katastrofe može da dođe usljed
dejstva prirodnih sila kada čovjek nema nikakvog uticaja na ono što se u prirodi dešava, ali,
takođe, do nastanka katastrofe može da dođe
i usljed dejstva samog čovjeka. Bez obzira na
koji je način nastala katastrofa, ono što je krajnji efekat njenog nastanka jesu veliki gubici
koje pojedinci sami ne mogu da pokriju, pa čak
i veliki smrtni gubici, što se vidjelo u primjerima najvećih katastrofa kroz ljudsku istoriju.
Da bi se izbjegli katastrofalni rizici, preduzimaju se brojne aktivnosti, u toku i nakon katastrofe kako bi se katastrofa izbjegla, smanjio
njen uticaj i kako bi se države oporavile od pretrpljene štete. Znači, sve te mjere i aktivnosti
preduzimaju se u cilju smanjenja potencijalnih
gubitaka od hazarda, obezbjeđenja pomoći žrtvama katastrofe i brzog i efikasnog oporavka.
Catastrophic risk can be defined as a risk
posed by individual risks which threaten a
large number of people and great assets, and
whose expression endangers not only the economic strength of insurers, but also society as
a whole, or part thereof affected by this risk.
The occurrence of a disaster may occur due to
the effect of natural forces when a man has no
impact on what happens in nature, but also the
formation of disaster may also occur as a result of the human acts. No matter how is a disaster created, the ultimate effect of its occurrence is big loss that individuals alone can not
cover, even large mortal losses, which could
be seen in the examples of most devastating
disasters in human history. In order to avoid
catastrophic risks numerous steps should be
taken, during and after a disaster in order to
avoid damages, reduce its impact and for the
country to recover from the damage suffered.
So, all these measures and activities are undertaken in order to reduce potential losses
from hazards, providing assistance to victims
of disaster and for fast and efficient recovery.
31
A. Timotić: KATASTROFALNI RIZICI U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI I SRBIJI SA POSEBNIM OSVRTOM NA POPLAVE
Srbija i Bosna i Hercegovina su područja
izložena opasnostima od prirodnih katastrofa,
kao što su: poplave, klizišta, olujni vjetrovi,
zemljotresi i slično. Posljednje poplave koje
su zadesile ova područja, ostavile su iza sebe
veliku štetu, ekonomski i materijalni slom
brojnih porodica, a, nažalost, i smrtne gubitke. Zbog toga, krajnje je vreme pozabaviti se
ovim problemom koji se, očigledno, sve češće i ozbiljnije ponavlja.
Potrebno je izgraditi efikasan i funkcionalan sistem zaštite od poplava kako bi se izbjegle velike katastrofe, smanjili gubici i ubrzao
oporavak nakon katastrofe. Jedan od načina
zaštite od poplava jeste izgradnja novih i jačanje postojećih nasipa i akumulacija. Takođe, formiranje fondova solidarnosti za obnovu dobra je mjera za sanaciju poplava i brz
oporavak ljudi pogođenih ovom prirodnom
nepogodom. Hitno je potrebno pokrenuti i
proces izgradnje nove dugoročne strategije
ulaganja za odbranu od poplava, procjeniti
buduće potrebe u slučaju poplava i odbrane
od poplava, te obezbijediti funkcionalnu i jedinstvenu bazu podataka sa WEB prikazom iz
svih krajeva naše države na osnovu koje će se
imati uvid u opremljenosti uprava i štabova
civilne zaštite (raspolaganje čamcima, motorima, mehanizacijom, spasilačkom opremom,
cisternama za vodu, itd). Jedna od mjera zaštite od poplava jeste i ulaganje u izgradnju
i održavanje zaštitnih objekata i sistema, kao
i obuka pojedinaca i organizacija da djeluju
u slučaju vanrednih situacija. Neophodno je
obratiti pažnju i na protiverozivnu zaštitu i
spriječiti nekontrolisanu sječu šuma, odnosno
uložiti u pošumljavanje erodiranih područja,
podići šumske zaštitne pojaseve na padinama, koji će zadržavati vlagu i zemlju u slučaju obilnih padavina. Od velike važnosti za
zaštitu od poplava jeste i učešće osiguranja od
elementarnih nepogoda koje je u portfelju neživotnog osiguranja trenutno zanemareno, a
moglo bi biti jedno od najsigurnijih načina zaštite od poplava i drugih prirodnih nepogoda.
32
Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina are the
areas exposed to the dangers of natural disasters, such as floods, landslides, windstorms,
earthquakes and so on. The latest floods which
occurred in this area, left behind a lot of damage, economic and substantial breakdown of
many families and, unfortunately, death and
loss. Therefore it is a crucial time to address
this problem, which, obviously has become
more frequent and more serious.
It is necessary to build an efficient and functional system of flood protection in order to
avoid major disasters, reduce losses and to
speed up recovery after a disaster. One way of
flood protection is to build new and strengthen existing dikes and reservoirs. Also, the formation of a solidarity fund for reconstruction
is a good measure for flood rehabilitation and
rapid recovery of people affected by this natural disaster. There is an urgent need to start
the process of creating a new long-term investment strategy for floods, to assess future
needs in the event of floods and flood control
and provide a functional and a single database
with web presentation from all parts of our
country on the basis of which will have a look
at equipment management and civil defense
(available boats, engines, and machinery, rescue equipment, water tanks, etc.). One of the
measures of flood protection is also investing
in the construction and maintenance of flood
control facilities and systems, as well as the
training of individuals and organizations to act
in case of emergencies. It is necessary to pay
attention to the anti-erosion protection and
to prevent uncontrolled deforestation, or invest in afforestation of eroded areas, raise the
forest shelterbelts on the slopes, which will
retain moisture and land in case of of heavy
rainfall. Significant importance has flood insurance and of other natural disasters, which
share is currently disregarded in the portfolio
of non-life insurance, and it could be one of
the safest ways to protect against floods and
other natural disasters.
A. Timotić: CATASTROPHIC RISKS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA AND SERBIA ...
LITERATURA
LITERATURE
European Commission. (2014). Procjena
potreba za oporavkom i obnovom u Bosni
i Hercegovini. Preuzeto 20. novembra
2014. sa sajta http://ec.europa.eu/
enlargement/pdf/press_corner/floods/
procjena-potreba-za-oporavkom-iobnovom-sazetak-u-eur.pdf.
Fusek, G. (2005). Upravljanje rizikom u osiguranju.
Svijet osiguranja, br. 4/2005, str. 218.
Kočović, J. (2014). Upravljanje rizicima na
tržištu osiguranja Srbije. Preuzeto 15.
novembra 2014. sa sajta http://aktuar.rs/
XII/1.ppt.
Kočović, J., Šulejić, P. i Rakonjac Antić, T.
(2010). Osiguranje. Beograd: Centar
za izdavačku delatnost Ekonomskog
fakulteta u Beogradu.
Milanov, M. (2011). Analiza primenljivosti
ciklusa katastrofalnih događaja u Srbiji na
primeru poplava. Preuzeto 15. novembra
2014. sa sajta http://www.meteoplaneta.rs/
wp-content/uploads/2012/04/ANALIZAPRIMENLJIVOSTI-CIKLUSAKATASTROFALNIH-DOGADJAJA-USRBIJI-NA-PRIMERU-POPLAVA.pdf.
Pajčin, M. (2013). Uticaj katastrofalnih
rizika na poslovanje osiguravajućih
kompanija. Preuzeto 12. novembra
2014. sa sajta http://www.singipedia.
singidunum.ac.rs/attachment.php?attachmentid=3157&d=1368001390.
Pavlović, I. (2012). Osiguranje od elementarnih
nepogoda. Svet osiguranja, br. 3/2012, str. 16.
Reuters. (2010). Balkan floods kill three,
cause major damage. Preuzeto 20.
novembra 2014. sa sajta http://www.
reuters.com/article/2010/12/06/balkansfloods-idUSLDE6B51U120101206.
Thywissen, K. (2006). Components of
Risk: A Comparative Glossary. Bonn:
United Nations University Institute for
Environment and Human Security.
European Commission. (2014). Assessment
of the need for rehabilitation and
reconstruction of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Retrived November 15, 2014. from http://
ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/press_corner/
floods/procjena-potreba-za-oporavkom-iobnovom-sazetak-u-eur.pdf
Fusek, G. (2005). Risk management in
insurance. Svijet osiguranja, 4/2005, p. 218.
Kočović, J. (2014). Risk management in the
insurance market of Serbia. Retrived
November 15, 2014. from http://aktuar.
rs/XII/1.ppt.
Kočović, J., Šulejić, P. i Rakonjac Antić,
T. (2010). Insurance. Beograd: Centar
za izdavačku delatnost Ekonomskog
fakulteta u Beogradu.
Milanov, M. (2011). The analysis of the
applicability cycles of catastrophic events
in Serbia in the case of floods. Retrived
November 15, 2014. from http://www.
meteoplaneta.rs/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/
ANALIZA-PRIMENLJIVOSTI-CIKLUSAKATASTROFALNIH-DOGADJAJA-USRBIJI-NA-PRIMERU-POPLAVA.pdf.
Pajčin, M. (2013). The impact of catastrophic risks to the business of insurance companies. Retrived November 12, 2014.
from http://www.singipedia.singidunum.
ac.rs/attachment.php?attachmentid=3157&d=1368001390.
Pavlović, I. (2012). Insurance against natural
disasters. Svet osiguranja, br. 3/2012, str. 16.
Reuters. (2010). Balkan floods kill three,
cause major damage. Retrived
November 20, 2014. from http://www.
reuters.com/article/2010/12/06/balkansfloods-idUSLDE6B51U120101206.
Thywissen, K. (2006). Components of
Risk: A Comparative Glossary. Bonn:
United Nations University Institute for
Environment and Human Security.
33
A. Timotić: KATASTROFALNI RIZICI U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI I SRBIJI SA POSEBNIM OSVRTOM NA POPLAVE
Trako, E. (2014). Za poplave u BiH krivi
su svi nivoi izvršne vlasti. Preuzeto 10.
novembra 2014. sa sajta http://www.
avaz.ba/clanak/138401/za-poplave-u-bihkrivi-su-svi-nivoi-izvrsne-vlasti.
Vujović, R. (2009). Upravljanje rizicima i
osiguranje. Beograd: Čugura print.
34
Trako, E. (2014). All levels of executive authority
are blamed for the floods in Bosnia and
Herzegovina. Preuzeto 10. novembra 2014. sa
sajta http://www.avaz.ba/clanak/138401/zapoplave-u-bih-krivi-su-svi-nivoi-izvrsne-vlasti.
Vujović, R. (2009). Risk Management and
Insurance. Beograd: Čugura print.
MONETARNA POLITIKA, TRŽIŠTE I CIJENE - MONETARY POLICY, MARKET AND PRICES
INFLACIJA I DRŽAVNO UPRAVLJANJE NOVČANOM MASOM
INFLATION AND STATE MANAGEMENT OF MONEY STOCK
Mr Spasenija Mirković
Opština Ugljevik
Municipality Ugljevik
Stručni članak
DOI 10.7251/OIK1403005M, UDK 336.748.12
Professional paper
REZIME
ABSTRACT
U različitim ekonomsko-socijalnim uslovima na različit način se ispoljava i rješava
inflacija. Razvoj, uzroci nastanka i ekonomsko-socijalne posljedice inflacije neposredno su povezani i uslovljeni nivoom ekonomsko-tehnološke razvijenosti i stvarnom
prirodom društvenih odnosa. U uslovima i
odnosima kapitala stvarni teret inflacije se
prevaljuje na ekonomski slabije razvijene zemlje i na sopstvenu radničku klasu.
Visoka stopa inflacije sama po sebi govori o poremećenim robno-novčanim tokovima
i ekonomsko-socijalnoj ravnoteži u zemlji.
Ali, iza istih ili približno istih stopa inflacije obično stoji različita sadržina (strukturne,
tehnološke, razvojne i socijalne prirode). Stoga je potrebno obratiti posebnu pažnju, pored
kvantitativne težine inflacije, i na njen kvalitet. Međutim, to ne znači da se problemi inflacije mogu rješavati izvan opštih pravila koje
nudi savremena ekonomska nauka.
In different economic and social conditions
in different ways manifest and solves inflation.
Development, the causes of the economic and
social consequences of inflation are directly
related to and conditioned by the level of economic and technological development and the
real nature of social relations. In terms of the
relations of capital and the real burden of inflation is shifted to the economically less developed countries and in their own working class.
High inflation itself speaks of disturbed boundary-cash flow, and economic and social equilibrium in the country. But behind the same or
approximately the same rate of inflation usually
stands different contents (structural, technological, developmental, and social). Therefore, it is
necessary to pay special attention in addition to
the quantitative weight of inflation and its quality.
However, this does not mean that the problems of
inflation can be dealt with outside of the general
rules which the modern economic science.
Ključne riječi: Inflacija, novčana masa,
državno upravljanje, antiinflaciona politika.
Keywords: Inflation, money supply, national
governance, anti-inflation policy
UVOD
INTRODUCTION
Inflacija je obezvređivanje novca, tj. smanjenje njegove kupovne sposobnosti. Inflacija nastaje zbog različitih uzroka, ima različite oblike, različit nivo i različito ekonomsko-socijalno
dejstvo. Inflacija se pojavljuje ne samo putem
povećanja cijena, što je „otkrivena inflacija”
– cjenovna inflacija, već postoji i „prikrivena
inflacija”, prigušena, inflacija koja se pojavljuje prije svega u deficitu i pogoršanju kvaliteta
Inflation is the devaluation of money, ie. reducing its purchasing power. Inflation occurs due to
various reasons, have different shapes, different
levels and different economic and social effects.
Inflation occurs not only through price increases,
which „revealed inflation” - the price inflation,
but there is a „hidden inflation” subdued inflation
that occurs primarily in the deficit and the deterioration of the quality of the product. There are
35
S. Mirković: INFLACIJA I DRŽAVNO UPRAVLJANJE NOVČANOM MASOM
proizvoda. Različiti su uzroci nastanka inflacije.
Ona nastaje usljed poremećaja odnosa novčane
mase i robne mase, tj. kada tražnja za robom i
uslugama raste tako da proizvođači i prodavci podižu cijene nezavisno od nivoa troškova.
Poremećaji između ponude i tražnje mogu nastupiti usljed deficita državnog budžeta, prekomjernih investicija (iznad stvarnih mogućnosti
ekonomije date zemlje), bržeg rasta plata od
proizvodnje i produktivnosti rada, subjektivnog
utvrđivanja državnih cijena koje izazivaju poremećaje u obimu i strukturi tražnje itd. Inflacija
može biti i uvezena ili nametnuta od spoljnih
faktora. Tu se posebno ističu razni oblici sankcija, povećanje spoljnog duga, pogoršanje uslova
spoljnotrgovinske razmjene, spoljnotrgovinski i
platni deficiti itd. Po pravilu, inflaciju izazivaju istovremeno više faktora unutrašnje i spoljne
prirode, ali svi su oni povezani sa državnom regulacijom i deregulacijom.
various causes of inflation. It occurs due to disturbance ratio of money supply and commodity
supply, ie. when demand for goods and services
is growing so manufacturers and retailers raise
prices regardless of the level of costs. Disturbances between supply and demand may occur due
to the state budget deficit, excessive investments
(beyond the real possibilities of the economy of
the country concerned), faster wage growth of
production and productivity, subjective determination of state price caused by disturbances in
the volume and structure of demand and so on.
Inflation can be imported or imposed by external factors. These include the various forms of
sanctions, the increase in foreign debt, worsening terms of foreign trade, foreign trade and payments deficits, etc. As a rule, the inflation caused
simultaneously by several factors, both internal
and external in nature, but they are all linked to
state regulation and deregulation.
POJAM I ISTORIJA
INFLACIJE
THE CONCEPT AND HISTORY OF
INFLATION
Pod inflacijom se podrazumijeva neprekidan rast opšteg nivoa cijena, odnosno proces
ubrzanog ritma hose cijena (Vukmirica, 2012,
str. 174). Zavisno od nivoa i tempa povećanja
cijena u odnosu na nivo i tempo porasta realnih stopa rasta proizvodnje i dohotka odvija
se različit nivo inflacije. Otuda i različiti nazivi kojima se izražava stepen rasta ili opadanja
inflacije i proizvodnje, i to: puzajuća inflacija,
galopirajuća inflacija, hiperinflacija, dezinflacija, deflacija, stagflacija i sl.
Prema Samjuelsonu (1975, str. 155), inflacija
znači opšti porast nivoa cijena i može biti blaga
ili oštra . Međutim, mnogi ekonomisti ističu da
svako povećanje cijena ne mora da dovede do
inflacije, odnosno ne nosi inflatorni karakter.
Milton Fridman na osnovu empirijskih
istraživanja uzroka i posljedica izmjene količine novca u toku jednog vijeka (1867-1960.
godine) došao je do nedvosmislenog zaključka da je inflacija uvijek i svuda pojava novčane sfere. On je dokazao ono što je kvantitativna teorija novca ranije dokazivala, a to
je da je porast količine novca osnovni faktor
Under inflation implies a steady increase in
the general price level, that process accelerated
pace hose price (Vukmirica, 2012, p. 174). Depending on the level and pace of price increases
in relation to the level and pace of increase in
the real rate of growth of production and income
takes place varying levels of inflation. Hence the
different names that reflect the level of growth
or decline in inflation and production, including:
creeping inflation, runaway inflation, hyper-inflation, disinflation, deflation, stagflation, etc.
According to Samuelson (1975, p. 155), inflation means a general rise in price levels and can be
mild or severe . However, many economists point
out that any increase in price does not necessarily
lead to inflation, that is not inflationary character.
Milton Friedman on the basis of empirical
research on the causes and consequences of
changes to the amount of money in the course
of a century (from 1867 to 1960. Was) came to
the unequivocal conclusion that inflation is always and everywhere the emergence of monetary sphere. He proved what the quantity theory
of money previously argued, and that is to in-
36
S. Mirković: INFLATION AND STATE MANAGEMENT OF MONEY STOCK
pojave rasta inflacije (Vukmirica, 2012, str.
175). S obzirom na to da inflacija potkopava
kupovnu moć građana, a posebno gradskog
stanovništva i onih sa ustaljenim dohocima,
to ona poprima vid specifičnog i nelegalnog
poreskog tereta. To je, u stvari, posebno oporezivanje građana. U nedostatku drugih sredstava, država pokriva svoje budžetske deficite štampanjem novčanica koje se puštaju
u opticaj. To vodi obezvređivanju novca, jer
ne postoji dovoljna ponuda u robnom fondu.
Zbog toga rastu cijene, a, s tim u vezi, pada
kupovna moć građana. Time se snižava fond
potrošnje svih onih koji imaju ustaljene nadnice i plate.
Kejnz je preporučivao inflaciju kao sredstvo
za posredno oporezivanje građana za vrijeme
Drugog svjetskog rata u Engleskoj. On je preporučivao sniženje realne zarade putem inflacije,
smatrajući da to neće izazvati tako odlučan otpor
kakav bi izazvalo direktno smanjenje nominalne
zarade ili uvođenje novih poreza, odnosno povećanje postojećih. Kejnz je preporučivao da treba
tako podesiti sistem cijena i nadnica, koje reguliše država, da cijene uvijek bježe za 10% ispred
kretanja nadnica. Time se omogućava da se jedna desetina radnikovog fonda potrošnje prelije u
kase državne blagajne (Ibidem, str. 176).
crease the amount of money the main factor for
the emergence of inflation (Vukmirica, 2012, p.
175). Given that inflation undermines the purchasing power of the population, especially the
urban population and those with stable incomes,
that it takes type specific and illegal tax burden.
It is, in fact, especially taxation of citizens. In
the absence of other resources, the state cover
its budget deficits by printing banknotes into circulation. This leads to the devaluation of money, because there is no sufficient supply of the
commodity fund. Therefore, growth rates, and
consequently decrease the purchasing power
of citizens. This reduces the fund spending all
those who have stable wages and salaries.
Keynes recommended inflation as a means
of indirectly taxing citizens during World War
II in England. He recommended lowering real
wages through inflation, arguing that it would
cause such a resolute resistance, what would
cause a direct reduction in nominal wages and
the introduction of new taxes or increase existing ones. Keynes recommended that it should
be adjusted so the system of prices and wages, which regulates the country, the prices still
run in 10% ahead of wage trends. This enables
one-tenth of the employee’s fund spending
cash poured into state coffers (Ibidem, p. 176).
EKONOMSKA TEORIJA
NASTANKA I RAZVOJA
INFLACIJE
THE ECONOMIC THEORY OF THE
ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF
INFLATION
Savremena ekonomska teorija poklanja dosta pažnje fenomenima rasta cijena i inflacije. Prisutno je više teorijskih pravaca i škola.
Među zapadnim ekonomistima one se svrstavaju oko Kejnza i kejnzijanaca sa različitim
varijantama i oko Fridmana, monetarističke i
nemonetarističke škole.
Ekonomska teorija o inflaciji i mijenjanju nivoa cijena ističe trojnu klasifikaciju i to (Pugačov i Pitelin, 1994, str. 55): (1) teorija tražnje:
a) monetarne tražnje, b) tražnje sa realnim dohotkom; (1) troškovne teorije: a) spirala lični
dohoci – cijene, b) vanprivredna potrošnja,
c) uvozni troškovi, d) sektorska inflacija; (3)
Modern economic theory in the West paid
much attention to the phenomena of rising prices and inflation.There has been more theoretical
approaches and schools. Among Western economists, they are classified about Keynes and the
Keynesians of different variants and about Friedman, the monetarist and nemonetarist school.
Economic Theory of Inflation and changing
price levels emphasizes a tripartite classification, as follows (Pugačov & Pitelin, 1994, p. 55):
(1) The theory of demand: a) menetary demand,
b) demand from real income; (2) Cost theory:
a) spiral of wages - price, b) Non - economic
consumption, c) import costs, d) the sectoral in-
37
S. Mirković: INFLACIJA I DRŽAVNO UPRAVLJANJE NOVČANOM MASOM
strukturne teorije: a) uvozna suspstitucija, b)
nejednakost u ekonomskom položaju sektora,
c) odnosi razmjene u spoljnoj trgovini.
Inflacija tražnje nastaje kada agregatna tražnja raste brže od proizvodnog potencijala
ekonomije, pomjerajući cijene naviše da bi se
izjednačila ponuda i tražnja. Tražnja se takmiči sa ograničenom količinom robe i usluga,
licitirajući cijene. Tada nezaposlenost opada,
plate rastu, a inflatorni talas se ubrzava.
Sve do Velike ekonomske krize 1929-1933.
godine najprihvatljivije objašnjenje visine
cijena davala je kvantitativna teorija novca.
Po jednačini razmjene Fišera proizilazi da je
(Vukmirica, 2012, str. 186):
MV=PY,
gdje M predstavlja količinu novca, uključujući bankarske depozite i vremenske depozite, V brzinu opticaja gotovog novca, P visinu
cijena, Y visinu realnog dohotka. Iz jednačine
proizilazi da će se cijene mijenjati srazmjerno količini novca u opticaju ili brzini opticaja
novca, a obrnuto srazmjerno veličini dohotka.
Iz ove kvantitativne teorije proizilazi da se
kretanje opšte visine cijena može kontrolisati
manipulisanjem novčanom masom.
Teorija inflacije zasnovana na tražnji sa realnim dohotkom može se objasniti pojmovima
inflacionog (deflacionog) jaza, koji se zasniva
na radovima Kejnza i njegovih sljedbenika.
flation; (3) Sturctural theories: a) import suspstitute b) inequality in the economic situation of
the sector c) covers trade in the foreign trade.
Inflation demand occurs when aggregate demand is growing faster than the productive potential of the economy, moving up the prices to
balance supply and demand. Demand competes
with a limited amount of goods and services by
bidding prices. Then unemployment falling, wages rising and inflationary wave is accelerating.
Until the Great Depression from 1929 to
1933. The most acceptable explanation for
the amount of the price given the quantity
theory of money. The equation of exchange
Fisher follows that (Vukmirica, 2012, p. 186):
MV=PY
Where M is the amount of money, including
bank deposits and time deposits, V velocity
of circulation of currency, price levels P, Y
real income. From equation implies that prices will change in proportion to the amount of
money in circulation, or rate of circulation of
money, and inversely proportionate to the size
income. From the quantity theory implies that
the overall amount of price movement can be
controlled by manipulating the money supply.
Theory of inflation based on the demand of
real income may be explicable in terms of inflationary (deflationary) gap, which is based
on the works of Keynes and his followers.
Grafikon 1. Inflatorni jaz (Vukmirica, 2012, str. 187)
Graph 1. Inflatory gap (Vukmirica, 2012, p. 187)
38
S. Mirković: INFLATION AND STATE MANAGEMENT OF MONEY STOCK
Rezultirajuća funkcija izdataka je C+I+G, a
predstavlja vertikalnu sumu tri osnovne komponente, lične potrošnje C, privatnih domaćih
investicija I i izdataka za robu i usluge G. Visina ravnotežnog novčanog dohotka je Y, jer
samo i Y mogu se agregirati novčani dohodci
koji će biti jednaki novčanim izdacima u novčanim izrazima. Linija koja kreće od 0 pod
uglom od 45 stepeni, ukazuje na tu jednakost.
Kod visine dohotka ostvarenog pri punoj zaposlenosti Yn, postoji inflatorni jaz AnB0, gdje
ukupni izdaci prekoračuju ukupni kapacitet
privrede. Ovaj jaz prouzrokuje povećanje cijena. Ako početno povećanje cijena povećava
nominalni kapacitet na X1, puna zaposlenost
biće Y1, a inflatorni jaz smanjuje se na A1B1.
Proces se nastavlja sve dok nominalni kapacitet ne naraste na X2, dohodak pri punoj zaposlenosti povećava se na Y2 i inflatorni jaz je
eliminisan.
The resulting expenditure function is C+I+G,
and represents the vertical sum of three main
components, private consumption C, private domestic investment I, and expenditures for goods
and services G. Height steady cash income is Y,
because only Y can be aggregated cash Salaries
will be equal cash outflows in monetary terms.
The line, which ranges from 0 to an angle of 45
degrees, indicating that equality.
At the height of income received in full employment n, there is an inflationary gap AnB0,
where total expenditures exceed the total capacity of the economy. This gap causes an
increase in price. If the initial price increase
increases the nominal capacity of the X1, Y1
will be full employment and inflationary gap
is reduced to A1B1. The process continues until the nominal capacity does not grow on X2,
income at full employment increases to Y2
and inflationary gap is eliminated.
POSLJEDICE INFLACIJE
EFFECTS OF INFLATION
Povećana nesigurnost obeshrabruje investicije i štednju. Dolazi do preraspodjele prihoda
i bogatstva. Kao prvo, prihodi će biti preraspoređeni od učesnika u ekonomiji koji zavise od fiksnih prihoda (npr. korisnici penzija,
socijalnih davanja, dječijih dodataka itd.), ka
onima koji zavise od operativnih prihoda ili
plata, koji mogu držati korak sa inflacijom.
Drugo, na sličan način, ako povjerioci iz raznih razloga nisu u stanju da se prilagode inflaciji, bogatstvo će biti preraspoređeno od
povjerilaca fiksiranih obligacija ka dužnicima. Tipičan primjer, kada je vlada neto dužnik, kao što je obično slučaj, na ovaj način
se ovaj dug smanjuje preraspodjelom realnog
novca ka vladi. Ovo je poznato kao „inflatorni
porez“ i uzrok je mnogih palih ekonomija u
hiperinflacijama zbog neodgovornih vlada.
Dolazi do spoljnotrgovinskog rizika, tj. ako
je domaći nivo inflacije viši od spoljnog, ovo
će oslabiti spoljnotrgovinski balans, a time
zatim i valutni kurs.
„Troškovi izlizanih đonova“. Kako inflacija
obezvređuje gotov novac, učesnici u privredi
će generalno težiti tome da u svakom trenutku
Increased uncertainty discourages investment and saving. There is a redistribution of
income and wealth. First, the revenue will be
redeployed from the participants in the economy that depend on fixed income (eg. Users
pensions, social benefits, child benefits etc..),
To those who depend on operating income or
wages, which can not keep up with inflation.
Second, in a similar way, if the creditors for
various reasons are unable to adapt to inflation,
wealth will be reallocated from fixed obligations towards creditors to debtors. A typical example, when the government net debtor, as is
usually the case, in this way reducing the debt
reallocation of real money to the government.
This is known as the „inflation tax” and the
cause of many of the fallen economy hyperinflations due to irresponsible government.
Comes to foreign travel, ie. If domestic
inflation is higher than the outside, this will
weaken the trade balance, and then time and
currency exchange rates.
“Costs worn soles.” As inflation devalues
the currency, the participants in the economy
will generally strive at all times to keep it less
39
S. Mirković: INFLACIJA I DRŽAVNO UPRAVLJANJE NOVČANOM MASOM
drže što manje efektivnog novca, što će donijeti dodatne realne transakcione troškova.
„Troškovi menija“. Cijene koje se često
mjenjaju takođe imaju svoje realne troškove,
kao na primjer restorani koji često moraju da
mjenjaju menije. I, konačno, hiperinflacija,
koja se dešava kada se porast inflacije potpuno otrgne kontroli, i na veoma brutalan način
ometa normalno funkcionisanje ekonomije i
njene sposobnosti da proizvodi.
effective money, which will bring more realistic transaction costs.
“Menu costs” prices that often change also
have their real costs, such as restaurants
which often have changing menus. And, finally, hyperinflation, which happens when
the growth rate completely out of control,
and in a very brutal way interfere with the
normal functioning of the economy and its
ability to produce.
DRŽAVNA ANTIINFLACIONA POLITIKA I
PROGRAMI MJERA
STATE ANTIINFLATION POLICIES AND
PROGRAMS OF MEASURES
Prvo pitanje koje se postavlja u vezi sa inflacijom jeste da li je moguće pobijediti inflaciju, a da se ne izazove opadanje privrednog
rasta i nezaposlenosti. Klasični odgovor je bio
„ne”, a praksa niza razvijenih tržišnih zemalja
je to potvrdila. To je naročito potvrđeno tokom
80-tih godina kada su SAD i zemlje zapadne
Evrope u borbi sa inflacijom koristile koktel
oštrih monetarnih i poreskih mjera, smanjile
tražnju i proizvodnju, odnosno smanjile inflaciju, a povećale nezaposlenost. Uporedo sa
ovim pitanjem postavlja se i pitanje: da li se
mora upadati u recesiju da bi se oborila inflacija? Da li se uspješnim manevrisanjem instrumentima i mjerama ekonomske politike to
može izbjeći, a, ako ne u cjelini, a ono bar da
se ograniči dubina i vrijeme trajanja recesije.
Odgovor na ovo pitanje je pozitivan.
Interesantno je reći da se u savremenoj
ekonomskoj teoriji i praksi često ističe mišljenje Miltona Fridmana o inflaciji, njegova preporuka o napretku uz pad cijena,
odnosno ekonomskog razvoja uz očuvanje
vrijednosti novca. Fridman podvlači da ne
treba miješati fizičke veličine u privredi sa
novčanim veličinama. Fridman se zalaže
za primjenu politike novca prema pravilima „retrogradnog kuplunga”, tj. da se rast
novčane mase čvrsto vezuje za kretanje cjelokupne proizvodnje ili zaposlenosti. On je
izvukao zaključak, koji se naziva „Fridmanov recept”, da u svakom periodu novčanu masu treba povećati za određeni fiksni
iznos (Friedman, 1973, str. 192).
The first question that arises in connection
with inflation is that it is possible to beat inflation, and that it does not cause a decline in economic growth and unemployment. The classic
answer is “no,” and the practice of a number of
developed market countries confirmed it. This is
especially confirmed in the 80s when the United
States and Western Europe in the fight against
inflation using a cocktail of sharp monetary and
fiscal measures have reduced demand and production, and reduced inflation and increased unemployment. Along with this issue is the question: whether to be getting into a recession that
could be lowered inflation? Are you a successful maneuver instruments and economic policy
measures to be avoided, if not in whole, then at
least to limit the depth and duration of the recession. The answer to this question is positive.
It is interesting to think that in modern economic theory and practice often emphasizes
the opinion of Milton Friedman on inflation, its
recommendations on the progress with the fall
in prices and economic growth while preserving the value of money. Friedman emphasizes
that one should not mix the physical size of the
economy with cash sizes. Friedman advocates
for policy money according to the rules “retrograde clutch”, ie. that the growth of money
supply firmly linked to the movement of the
entire production and employment. He drew
the conclusion, which is called “Friedman’s
prescription,” that in every period the money
supply should be increased by a fixed amount
(Friedman, 1973, p. 192).
40
S. Mirković: INFLATION AND STATE MANAGEMENT OF MONEY STOCK
Fridmanov recept za liječenje od inflacije je
veoma jasan. Postoji samo jedan lijek protiv
inflacije i njega može primijeniti samo vlada.
Smanjenje sopstvenih izdataka i smanjenje
monetarnog rasta, tako da privatna potrošnja
bude ograničena.
Teoretičari inercije tvrde da preveliki
budžetski deficiti mogu da stvore ekscesnu
potražnju koja prouzrokuje ubrzanje inflacije.
Prema istom modelu, fiskalna stezanja mogu
da dovedu do usporavanja inflacije, mada će
sam proces biti teži što je početna tačka inflacije viša.
Većina teoretičara racionalnog očekivanja
odbacuje budžetske deficite bez obzira da li
su veliki ili mali. Deficiti se moraju finansirati, jer oni predstavljaju za vladu stalna iskušenja za doštampavanje novca.
Friedman’s prescription for the treatment of
inflation is very clear. There is only one cure
for inflation and it can only be used by the
government. Reduction of its own costs and
reducing monetary growth, so that private
consumption is limited.
Inertia theorists argue that excessive budget
deficits can create the excessive demand
which causes the acceleration of inflation. According to the same model, fiscal tightening
may lead to a slowdown in inflation, although
the process will be more difficult as the starting point of inflation is higher.
Most rational expectations theorists reject
the budget deficits regardless of whether they
are large or small. Deficits can be financed, because they represent the government’s constant
temptations for additional printing of money.
ZAKLJUČAK
CONCLUSION
Borba protiv inflacije u raznim zemljama
vodi se na različite načine, raznim instrumentima i mjerama, više ili manje konzistentnim
kratkoročnim i dugoročnim programima borbe protiv inflacije, sa više ili manje odlučnosti
i uspješnosti. Antiinflacioni programi obično ističu potrebu uspostavljanja adekvatnije,
skladnije i bolje ravnoteže između ponude i
tražnje, odnosno između ukupne potrošnje i
proizvodnih kapaciteta. Ovi programi su više
ili manje odlučne mjere i apeli da se troši manje, a proizvodi više. Pri tome, treba voditi
računa da se liječenjem inflacije ne izazove
pojava recesije i nezaposlenosti.
Mnogobrojne i snažne negativne ekonomsko-socijalne posljedice koje sa sobom nosi
savremena inflacija prisiljava državu i njene
organe da preduzimaju cijeli niz instrumenata i mjera koje imaju neposredno ili posredno dejstvo na suzbijanje inflacije, mjera
kako fiskalne i monetarne prirode tako i direktnih intervencija putem zamrzavanja cijena i nadnica.
Neki ekonomisti, kao na primjer Samjuelson smatraju da je problem inflacije nedostatak modernih sistema i da je svako potrošačko
The fight against inflation in various countries
leads in different ways, various instruments and
measures, more or less consistent short- and
long-term programs to combat inflation, with
more or less determination and success. Anti-inflation programs usually emphasize the need
to establish adequate, more harmonious and
better balance between supply and demand, or
between total consumption and production capacity. These programs are more or less decisive measures and appeals to consume less and
produce more. In doing so, care should be taken
that the treatment does not cause inflation phenomenon of recession and unemployment.
The numerous and strong negative economic and social consequences that brings
contemporary inflation forces the state and
its organs to undertake a range of tools and
measures which have a direct or indirect
effect on combating inflation, a measure
of how fiscal and monetary nature and direct intervention through price freezes and
wages.
Some economists, such as Samuelson argue that the problem of inflation lack modern
systems and that each consumer society and
41
S. Mirković: INFLACIJA I DRŽAVNO UPRAVLJANJE NOVČANOM MASOM
društvo istovremeno i društvo inflacije, jer neprestano umnožava svoje zahtjeve i potrebe.
Kejnz je proučavajući ekonomsku krizu
1929-1932. godine došao do zaključka da nacionalne privrede, posmatrano na duži rok,
neće automatski i same doći u stanje ravnoteže kako je to smatrala klasična ekonomska
doktrina. Po njegovom mišljenju neminovno
je prisustvo države, odnosno ona je jedina u
stanju da pokrene razvoj i obezbijedi punu zaposlenost.
society at the same time inflation, as we continually multiply their demands and needs.
Keynes is studying the economic crisis of
1929-1932. he came to the conclusion that the
national economy, as seen in the long term,
it will not automatically get themselves into
a state of equilibrium as it is considered the
classical economic doctrine. In his opinion, it
is inevitable that the presence of the state, ie it
is only able to initiate development and provide full employment.
LITERATURA
LITERATURE
Fridman, M. (1973). Teorija novca i
monetarna politika. Beograd: Rad.
Fridman, M. i Samuelson, P. (1975). Inflacija,
uzroci i posledice. Zagreb: Ekonomska
čitanka.
Marković, Lj. (1953). Državni kapitalizam.
Beograd: Narodna knjiga.
Samjuelson, P. (1975). Ekonomska čitanka.
Zagreb: NZMH.
Vukmirica, V. (2012). Ekonomiks i savremeni
ekonomski sistemi. Sarajevo: Zavod za
udžbenike i nastavna sredstva.
Fridman, M. (1973). The theory of money and
monetary policy. Beograd: Rad.
Fridman, M. i Samuelson, P. (1975). Inflation,
causes and consequences. Zagreb:
Ekonomska čitanka.
Marković, Lj. (1953). State capitalism.
Beograd: Narodna knjiga.
Samjuelson, P. (1975). Economic Reader.
Zagreb: NZMH.
Vukmirica, V. (2012). Economics and
Contemporary Economic Systems. Sarajevo:
Zavod za udžbenike i nastavna sredstva.
42
MONETARNA POLITIKA, TRŽIŠTE I CIJENE - MONETARY POLICY, MARKET AND PRICES
ZNAČAJ KONTROLE CIJENA PRIRODNIH MONOPOLA ZA POTROŠAČE
IMPORTANCE OF PRICE CONTROL OF NATURAL MONOPOLY FOR CONSUMERS
Prof. dr Marko Šarčevic
Univerzitet u Istočnom Sarajevu, Ekonomski fakultet Istočno Sarajevo-Pale
University of East Sarajevo, Faculty of Economy East Sarajevo-Pale
Pregledni članak
DOI 10.7251/OIK1403004S, UDK 339.13.012.434
Review paper
REZIME
ABSTRACT
Država svojom aktivnošću ima za cilj da
ograniči monopolske procese i podstakne
konkurenciju, ili da utiče na tržišnu strukturu, ili ponašanje privrednih subjekata. Aktivnost na polju antimonopolskog zakonodavstva koju provodi država je starijeg datuma,
a provodi se, uz otpore, sa promjenljivim
uspjehom. U fokusu naše pažnje su specifičnosti ove politike u kontroli cijena prirodnih
monopola, odnosno onaj njihov dio koji je u
interesu države i lokalnih zajednica. Ova aktivnost je prisutna i u najrazvijenijim tržišnim
ekonomijama, s tim da je u njima i dalje ostao
vrlo aktuelan aspekt stvaranja opštih uslova
za razvoj konkurencije i kontrolu prirodnih
monopola. U lokalnim zajednicama cijene
se utvrđuju na nivou koji je prilagođen platežnoj moći stanovništva i održivom razvoju
preduzeća. U radu će biti prezentovana i analiza formiranja cijena na slobodnom tržištu i
kod monopola, te će biti ukazano na štetnost
monopola koja se izražava smanjenjem proizvodnje i povećanjem cijena. To nameće nužnost državne intervencije koja ima za cilj da
zaštiti potrošače.
By utilizing its power, State aims to restrict
monopolistic processes and encourage competition, or to affect market structure or behavior
of economic entities. Activity in the field of antimonopoly legislation that state implements has
an old date, and is implemented, with resistance
of certain subject, with varying success. The focus of our attention is the specifics of policies to
control prices of natural monopolies, or its fraction, that are in the interest of the state and local communities. This activity is also present in
most developed market economies, but they still
have very actual aspect of creating general conditions for the development of competition and
control of natural monopolies. At the level of a
local community, prices have been formed at a
level that is adjusted to the purchasing power
of population, and to sustainable development
of enterprises. This paper will present and the
analysis of price forming in a free market, and
in a case of monopoly, and it will be pointed to
harmful effects of monopoly which express itself
by reducing production and increasing prices.
This imposes the necessity of state intervention,
which aims to protect consumers.
Ključne riječi: prirodni monopol, konkurencija,
regulacija, cijena, ponuda, tražnja.
Keywords: natural monopoly, competition,
regulation, price, supply, demand.
UVOD
INTRODUCTION
U radu se obrađuju različite strukture tržišta i položaj privrednih subjekata u njima,
a posebno slobodna konkurencija i monopoli, sa osvrtom na prirodne monopole. U
tim strukturama tržišta privredni subjekti
This article discusses the various market
structures and positions of the economic entities within them, especially free competition
and monopolies, with an emphasis on natural
monopolies. In these structures, market eco43
M. Šarčević: ZNAČAJ KONTROLE CIJENA PRIRODNIH MONOPOLA ZA POTROŠAČE
formiraju ponudu proizvoda i usluga, pri
čemu vode računa da cijena, kvalitet i način
isporuke budu u interesu njihovog održivog
razvoja. Kupci – potrošači žele da imaju
kvalitet proizvoda i usluga primjeren njihovoj platežnoj moći.
Prirodni monopol, ako radi punim kapacitetom, može svoje proizvode i usluge plasirati po cijenama na nivou graničnih troškova.
U slučaju da na lokalnom tržištu postoje dva
prirodna monopola, a potrebe lokalne tražnje
može zadovoljiti jedan ako koristi pun kapacitet, onda će ta dva ponuđača nuditi svoje
proizvode i usluge po višim cijenama, što je
za potrošače neprihvatljivo. Državna intervencija je u ovom slučaju potrebna, pošto je
ona u stanju da potrošačima obezbijedi proizvode i usluge po nižim cijenama, odnosno
po cijenama koje će u svojoj strukturi imati
samo prosječan profit. U teoriji i praksi se primjenjuju različita rješenja, ali su najčešća:
1. određivanje cijene na nivou prosječnih
troškova, čime se obezbeđuje i prosječan
profit;
2. određivanje svakom korisniku monopolskog proizvoda ili usluge paušala za
osnovnu uslugu i cijenu jednaku graničnom trošku za svaku potrošenu jedinicu,
3. određivanje cijene jednake graničnom
trošku, uz obezbjeđenje kompenzacije
proizvođačima iz eksternih izvora kako bi
potrošači imali prihvatljivu cijenu a proizvođači samoodrživ razvoj.
Država, naravno, može da zadrži prirodne
monopole u svom vlasništvu i, kontrolom
upravljačkih struktura, da nadgleda i usmjerava njihov rad, držeći se univerzalnih pravila
menadžmenta i specifičnih okolnosti poslovanja prirodnog monopola. Početkom osamdesetih godina otpočinje pojačan trend privatizacije, odnosno transfera ovih djelatnosti u
privatni sektor. Osnovno obrazloženje ovog
talasa privatizacije je u povećanju efikasnosti
rada ovih djelatnosti pod pritiskom privatnog
kapitala i interesa. Rasprostranjeno je mišljenje da je država u odnosu na privatni sektor
„loš domaćin“.
44
nomic entities form the price of products and
services, by take into account that the price,
quality and delivery are in the best interest of
their sustainable development. Buyers-consumers want to have product quality and services appropriate to their purchasing power.
Natural monopoly, if operating at full capacity, can put to market its products and services at prices that are at the level of marginal
costs. In the case when the local market has
two natural monopolies, and the local demands can be fulfilled by one if it uses the full
capacity, then the two bidders will offer their
products and services at higher prices, which
is unacceptable for consumers. In this case
Government intervention is necessary, hence
it is able to provide consumers with products
and services at lower prices, or at prices that
will in its structure have only average profit.
The theory and practice shows different solutions, but the most common are:
1. determining the price at the level of the
average cost, which provides the average
profit.
2. determine for each user, that uses monopolistic product or service, flat rate for
basic service and price equal to marginal
cost for each unit consumed,
3. determine the price equal to marginal cost,
and provide compensation to producers from
external sources to ensure that consumers
have an affordable price, while ensures sustainable development to producers.
The state, of course, can keep natural monopolies in its possession and control over the
management structure that oversees and directs their work, paying respect to the universal rules of management and specific circumstances in business of natural monopoly. At
the beginning of the eighties, increased trend
of privatization and transfer of these activities
to the private sector have commenced. Basic
explanation for this wave of privatization was
improving the efficiency of these activities
under the pressure of private capital and interest. It is widely believed that the state, compared to private sector, is “bad host”.
M. Šarčević: IMPORTANCE OF PRICE CONTROL OF NATURAL MONOPOLIES FOR CONSUMERS
U praksi pojedinih zemalja (državne željeznice Japana npr.) neke važne oblasti od interesa za privredu kao cjelinu nisu privatizovane, a poznato je da privatni i opšti interes
nije uvijek u saglasnosti, privatne kompanije ne rade uvijek u javnom interesu. Mnogi
smatraju da država ove poslove vodi sa više
brige, imajući u vidu da je socijalna funkcija
u nadležnosti države, pa ona kontrolom cijena prirodnih monopola, vodi i dio socijalne
politike.
In a practice of some countries (eg Japan
National Railways), some important areas for
the economy as a whole have not been privatized, and it is known that private and general
interest are not always in accordance, that is
to say, private companies do not always work
in the best public interest. Many believe that
the state leads those affairs more sensitive, social function is under the jurisdiction of the
state, so state over control of natural monopolies prices leads, partially, a of social policy.
DEFINISANJE TRŽIŠTA
DEFINITION OF MARKET
Tržište predstavlja prostor i vrijeme na kome
proizvođači roba i usluga nude po određenim
cijenama robu na prodaju, da potrošači po određenim, za njih prihvatljivim cijenama, kupe
određene proizvode. Tržište je prostor na kome
zakon vrijednosti ujednačava ponudu i tražnju,
cijena i količina, u datom vremenu i dinamici.
The market is the space and time where producers of goods and services offers to sale a
certain goods to consumers under certain, for
both of them, reasonable prices. The market
is an area in which the law of value equalizes
supply and demand, price and quantity, at a
given time and dynamics.
Čisti monopol
Pure monopoly
To je tržišno stanje gdje se jedan proizvođač javlja kao isključivi ponuđač na tom
tržištu, dok su brojni učesnici na strani tražnje. U rijetkim slučajevima može biti i na
strani ponude i na strani tražnje samo po
jedan učesnik. Takvo tržište je zatvoreno tržište. Osnovne karakteristike monopolskog
tržišta su:
1. prisutan je samo jedan proizvođač,
2. ne postoje bliski supstituti za robu koja se
proizvodi i prodaje i
3. zatvoreno tržište, odnosno postoje prepreke za ulazak na to tržište.
Monopol nastaje zahvaljujući posjedovanju
strateških sirovina, specifične tehnologije, patentnih prava, posjedovanju dozvole države
za obavljanje određene djelatnosti, zaštiti od
konkurencije iz inostranstva, veličini tržišta
na kome se plasira roba (prvenstveno se to
čini na malom tržištu) itd. Monopol može ozbiljno da dovede u pitanje efikasnost tržišne
alokacije resursa, te da određuje obim njihove
upotrebe.
A pure monopoly is market situation, where
one manufacturer appears as the sole supplier at
one certain market, while there are many of the
participants on the other, demand side. In rare
cases, it may happen that on the supply side, and
on the demand side, there is only one participant. This market is a closed market. The basic
characteristics of monopoly markets are:
1. There is only one manufacturer present,
2. There are no close substitutes for goods
being produced and sold, and
3. It is closed market, or there are barriers
for entrance to that market.
Monopoly arises because of possession of
the strategic raw materials, specific technology, patent rights, a state license for performing business activities, protection from the
competition from abroad, the size of market where goods have been sell (primarily it
seems to be a small market) and so on. Monopoly can seriously call into question the
efficiency of market allocation of resources,
and to determine the extent of their use.
45
M. Šarčević: ZNAČAJ KONTROLE CIJENA PRIRODNIH MONOPOLA ZA POTROŠAČE
Ravnoteža preduzeća u uslovima
monopola
The balance of the company in terms of
monopoly
Monopol nastoji da maksimizira profit kao
cilj poslovanja. Kao jedini ponuđač utiče na
agregatnu tražnju i tržišne cijene. Da bi povećao prodaju, monopolist mora sniziti cijenu i to
ne samo dodatne jedinice već ukupne ponude.
Kriva ukupnog prihoda kod monopoliste je parabola, a ne prava kao u potpunoj konkurenciji.
U nastojanju da maksimizira profit, monopolista bira onaj obim proizvodnje pri kome
je razlika između ukupnog prihoda i ukupnih
troškova najveća, što vidimo na grafikonu 1.
Monopoly seeks to maximize profit as a business goal. As the sole supplier, it affects aggregate
demand and market prices. To increase sales, the
monopolist must lower the price and it not only
more units but the total supply. The curve of total
revenue of the monopolist is a parabola shape, and
is no flat shape as in a case of full competition.
In an effort to maximize profit, the monopolist chooses the volume of production in which
the difference between total revenue and total
cost is the largest, as we see in the graph 1.
TC
TR
TT
q1
q
q2
Grafikon 1. Ravnoteža preduzeća u uslovima
monopola
Graph 1. The balance of the company in terms
of monopoly
Monopolista ostvaruje profit PR u rasponu
q1 i q2 a maksimum pri obimu q kada je iznos
profita najveći. Slijedeći svoj cilj maksimiranja profita, monopolista će širiti obim proizvodnje sve dok mu prodaja dodatne jedinice
proizvoda pokriva troškove izazvane njenom
proizvodnjom, dakle, dok ne izjednači granični
trošak sa graničnim prihodom. Pri ovom obimu proizvodnje profit je maksimalan, jer dalja
proizvodnja povećava troškove dodatne jedinice proizvoda koja ne bi mogla u potpunosti biti
nadoknađena prihodom od njene prodaje, te bi
profit bio manji. Pri ovom obimu monopolista
The monopolist makes a profit PR ranging
q1 and q2 at a maximum volume of q when the
amount of profit is the greatest. Following its
goal of maximizing profits, monopolist will
expand volume of the production selling more
units until sell of additional unit of production
covers the costs caused by its production, so
long as it equals marginal cost with marginal
revenue. In this volume of production, profit is
maximized, and further production will increase
the cost of an additional unit of product that
could not be fully made up to revenues from its
sales and profit would be smaller. In this scope
46
M. Šarčević: IMPORTANCE OF PRICE CONTROL OF NATURAL MONOPOLIES FOR CONSUMERS
ostvaruje i ekstra profit s obzirom da je tržišna
cijena veća od graničnog prihoda.
Monopolista će izabrati obim proizvodnje q
pri kome se postiže jednakost graničnog troška i graničnog prihoda i ako ostvaruje profit u
rasponu q1-q2.
monopolist achieves extra profit, because the
market price is greater than marginal revenue.
The monopolist will choose the volume of
production q which achieves equality of marginal cost and marginal revenue and making a
profit in the range q1-q2.
Posljedice monopola
The consequences of monopoly
Monopolista posluje tako da koristi kapacitet u tački u kojoj je cijena veća od graničnog
troška, za razliku od konkurentske firme gdje
su cijena i granični trošak izjednačeni. Kao
rezultat imamo veće cijene i manju količinu
robe u monopolističkom tržištu u odnosu na
konkurentsko. Posljedice snose potrošači koji
će sve kupovati manje ali po višim cijenama.
U slučaju smanjene tražnje, monopolista bi
bio uvijek spreman da proda dodatnu jedinicu po nižoj cijeni od trenutno važeće kad ne
bi morao da snizi cijenu svih drugih jedinica
koje trenutno prodaje. Recimo 1 m3 vode ili
1kW električne energije.
A monopolist operates in a manner that uses the
capacity, at the point where the price is greater than
marginal cost, unlike rival firms where the prices
and marginal costs are equal. As a result, we have
higher prices and a smaller quantity of goods in
a monopolistic market compared to competitive
one. Consumers bears the consequences of this
and they will buy less at higher prices.
In the case of reduced demand monopolist
would be always ready to sell an additional
unit at a lower cost than the currently valid, in a
case where is not forced to lower the price of all
remaining units that is selling in that moment.
Let’s say 1 m3 of water or 1 kW of electricity.
Definisanje prirodnog monopola
Defining a natural monopoly
Savremena teorija pod prirodnim monopolom podrazumijeva svaku djelatnost u kojoj
se najracionalnije može organizovati ekonomska aktivnost, u kojoj su fiksni troškovi
visoki i gdje je stepen korišćenja kapaciteta
u visokom procentu, uslov ekonomičnog poslovanja. To su obično veliki tehnički sistemi
gdje karakter tehnologije i obim traženja dovode do velike degresije troškova kao što su:
željeznica, prenos električne energije, gasa i
nafte, vodovodi, toplovodi itd.
Modern theories defining natural monopoly
like any activity that can, in the most rational
way, organize an economic activity where the
fixed costs are high and where the degree of
capacity utilization in a high percentage, is a
cost-effective business requirement. These are
usually large technical systems where the character of technology and the scope of activity
result in a large degressivity of costs such as
railways, power transmission, oil and gas ransmission, water supply, heating system, etc.
Karakteristike prirodnog monopola
The characteristics of a natural monopoly
Postojanje prirodnog monopola vezuje se za
tržište na kome je ekonomski najracionalnije
postojanje jedne firme, jednog proizvodnog
kapaciteta. Postojanje jedne firme čiji kapacitet
može zadovoljiti potrebe lokalnog tržišta omogućava najvišu efikasnost proizvoda ili usluga,
te i najnižu cijenu. Otpočinjanje proizvodnje u
The existence of a natural monopoly is
linked to the market where existence of a single company, or one production capacity, is
economically most rational. The existence
of a company whose capacity can meet the
needs of the local market allows the highest
efficiency product or service, and also the
47
M. Šarčević: ZNAČAJ KONTROLE CIJENA PRIRODNIH MONOPOLA ZA POTROŠAČE
prirodnom monopolu je povezano sa velikim
investicionim ulaganjima, a, posebno, sa angažovanjem sredstava za rad. Sredstva za rad
imaju vijek trajanja i uslovljavaju visoke fiksne
troškove koji se mogu pokriti samo visokim
stepenom korišćenja kapaciteta.
Veliki obima proizvodnje izaziva jaku degresiju fiksnih troškova, pa jedinični ukupni troškovi prirodnog monopola padaju i poslije presjeka
sa krivom tražnje. Određivanje cijene prirodnog
monopola je veoma važno iz dva razloga. Prvo,
da kapacitet proizvodnje bude veći od kapaciteta koji bi bio ostvaren u uslovima slobodnog
tržišta, i, drugo, da cijena proizvoda i usluga
bude prihvatljiva za platežnu moć potrošača i
da omogući proizvođaču samo prosječan profit
dovoljan za njegovu samoodrživost.
Obim proizvodnje, u prirodnom monopolu
je veći nego u slučaju potpune konkurencije.
Prednosti kao što su velik obim proizvodnje i
niske cijene opravdavaju postojanje prirodnih
monopola, ali ih država podvrgava kontroli
prije svega u pogledu kontrole cijena.
Cijena koja je jednaka jediničnim ukupnim
troškovima je upravo ona koja monopolisti
obezbjeđuje samoodrživost, visok stepen korišćenja kapaciteta i cijenu prihvatljivu za potrošače. Kada je u pitanju politika cijena, treba praviti
razliku između prirodnog monopola u djelatnostima sa rastućim i opadajućim troškovima. Ilustracija tih razlika su na graficima (1) i (2).
(1)
Grafikon 2. Karakteristike prirodnog
monopola. (1) Gubici u djelatnosti sa
opadajućim troškovima; (2) Dobici u
djelatnosti sa rastućim troškovima
48
lowest price. Starting production in a natural monopoly is associated with large investments, especially in the commitment of funds
for the work. Funds for the work have a life
span and high fixed costs that can be covered
only by the high level of capacity utilization.
Large-scale production causes severe degression of fixed costs, and total costs per unit
of natural monopolies fall even after cutting
the demand curve. Pricing for natural monopolies is very important for two reasons. First, to
let production capacity to be greater than the
capacity that would be achieved in a free market, and secondly, that the price of goods and
services be acceptable to the purchasing power
of consumers, and enable manufacturer only
average profit sufficient for its self-sufficiency.
The volume of production, in the natural monopoly is higher than in the full competition
case. These advantages, such as high volume
production at low cost, certainly justify the existence of natural monopolies, but state needs to
control them, firstly in a terms of price control.
Price equal to the total unit cost is exactly the
one that monopolist provides self-sufficiency,
a high degree of capacity utilization and price
acceptable to consumers. When it comes to pricing policy, there is a need to distinguish between
natural monopolies in industries where costs
are increasing or decreasing. The illustration of
these differences is in graphs (1) and (2).
(2)
Graph 2. The characteristics of a natural
monopoly. (1) Losses in dealing with the
declining cost; (2) Gains in dealings with the
rising costs
M. Šarčević: IMPORTANCE OF PRICE CONTROL OF NATURAL MONOPOLIES FOR CONSUMERS
Kontrola cijena prirodnog monopola
Control of natural monopolies prices
Državni prirodni monopoli su orijentisani
na maksimalno zadovoljavanje potreba stanovništva. Oni, za razliku od privatnih monopola, ne teže maksimizaciji profita, nego najpotpunijem zadovoljavanju socijalnih potreba
po cijenama koje su na nivou nešto višem od
stvarnih troškova (Grafikon 3).
State natural monopolies are oriented to
maximum satisfaction of the needs of population. They, unlike private monopolies,
do not tend to maximize profits, but the
highest satisfaction of social needs at prices that are at a level slightly higher than
the actual cost (Graph 3).
Grafikon 3. Kontrola cijena prirodnog monopola
Graph 3. Control of natural monopolies prices
Pri proizvodnji Qm društvu će se ponuditi
obim proizvodnje (Qm) po cijenama (Pm).
Država će odrediti cijenu Pr i količinu Qr
koja ima cijenu od Pr a manju od Pm. Ta cijena
omogućava preduzeću pokrivanje troškova i
ostvarenje prosječnog profita.
Ovakva politika je regulisana Zakonom o
kontroli cijena Republike Srpske a odnosi se,
uglavnom, na proizvode koji su od posebnog
značaja za građane kao što su: voda, struja,
komunalne usluge, željeznica, putna služba i
sl. To su javna preduzeća na nivou opštine,
regiona, Republike i države.
Razlozi efikasnosti zahtijevaju da se proizvodnja
koncentriše u jednom preduzeću. S obzirom da su
ova preduzeća vezana za određenu teritoriju i da su
im tržišta limitirana u odnosu na efikasan obim proizvodnje ili usluga, država, da bi spriječila preuzimanje potrošačkog viška od strane monopola, preduzima odlučujuću ulogu u određivanju visine cijena.
In a case of production Qm company will
offer production volume (Qm) at prices (Pm).
The state will determine the price Pr and
quantity Qr which has a price Pr and less than
Pm. This price allows the company to cover its
costs and achieve an average profit.
This policy is regulated by the price control
Law of the Republic of Srpska and applies
mostly to products that have a particular concern to citizens, like water, electricity, utilities, rail, road services, etc. These are public
companies either at the municipal, regional,
and Republic, or state level.
The efficiency reasons require that the production
is concentrated in one company. Given that these
companies are bind to a specific territory and that
their market is limited compared to the efficient
scale of production or services, the state, to prevent
takeover of consumer surplus by monopolies, takes
a decisive role in determining the level of prices.
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M. Šarčević: ZNAČAJ KONTROLE CIJENA PRIRODNIH MONOPOLA ZA POTROŠAČE
Zbog toga će država odrediti cijenu prirodnom monopolu ne na nivou graničnih,
nego prosječnih troškova, što podrazumijeva
mnogo niži stepen ekonomske efikasnosti od
okolnosti gdje se cijene određuju na nivou
graničnog troška. Preduzeće nije pod vlastitim ekonomskim pritiskom da smanjuje troškove da bi povećalo profit. Obrnuto, ovdje je
neprekidan pritisak na državu za iznuđivanje
što većih cijena za vlastiti proizvod ili uslugu.
Therefore, the state will determine the price
of natural monopoly, not at the border level but
rather the average cost level, which implies a
much lower level of economic efficiency compared to circumstances where prices are determined by the marginal cost. The Company is not
under their own economic pressure to reduce
costs in order to maximize profits. Conversely,
there is a constant pressure on the state to form
the highest possible price for product or service.
Dileme ekonomista oko kontrole monopola
i antimonopolska politika države
Economist dilemmas over the control of
monopoly and competition policy states
Ekonomisti ističu da male firme, u međusobnoj konkurenciji, mogu iznijeti na tržište robe
po višim cijenama od monopolskih. Ekonomija obima, zbog degresije fiksnih troškova proizvodnje, je u stanju da ponudi tržištu više roba
po nižim cijenama, nego što to mogu da urade
mala preduzeća u potpunoj konkurenciji.
Monopolista je u stanju da snizi cijenu proizvoda, ali da, zbog povećane proizvodnje i bržeg
pada troškova, ostvari povećan monopolski profit. To svakako nije protiv, nego u korist potrošača. U mnogim privrednim sektorima tehnologije
su takve da zahtijevaju velika preduzeća, odnosno
ekonomiju obima, da bi se na osnovu pada troškova mogle isplatiti velike investicije. Odreći se
ovih velikih preduzeća da bi se ostvarila slobodna
tržišna konkurencija značilo bi odreći se ekonomske efikasnosti u proizvodnji većine proizvoda.
Proizvodnja nekih proizvoda je neefikasna
u malim preduzećima.
Razvoj nauke i tehnologije podrazumijeva velika investiciona ulaganja. To mogu da
obezbijede samo krupna preduzeća, tako da
su ona nosioci razvoja nauke i tehnologije, što
dugoročno vodi smanjenju troškova i pojeftinjenju proizvoda,
Diferenciranje cijena proizvoda po raznim socijalnim grupama omogućava potpunije zadovoljenje potreba u monopolskom nego u tržištu
potpune konkurencije. Među ekonomistima ima
i drugih mišljenja kada su velika preduzeća u pitanju. Tako se, na primjer, osporava tvrdnja da su
krupna preduzeća središta degresije troškova pu-
Economists point out that small firms in
a competition with each other, can bring to
market goods at higher prices than monopoly.
Economies of scale due to production fixed
costs degression, is able to offer the market
more goods at a lower prices, than small businesses can do in complete competition.
The monopolist is able to lower the price, but
due to increased production and a faster costs
decline, he is able to achieve increased monopoly profits. Certainly, it is not against, but in favor of the consumer. In many business sectors,
technologies require large companies, or economy of scale, so on a cost decrease basis huge
initially investment could be paid off. Giving up
of those large companies in order to achieve a
free-market, would be a give up of the economic
efficiency in the production of most products.
The production of some products is inefficient in small enterprises.
Development of science and technology includes large investments. It can be provided
only by big companies, so that they are carriers of the development of science and technology, that, in the long run, leads to reduced
costs and lower product prices.
Differentiating the product price in order
to satisfy various social groups can be easier
reached in monopoly than in perfectly competitive markets. Among the economists, there are
different opinions when it comes to large enterprises. Thus, for example, disputes the claim that
big companies are the center of costs digression
50
M. Šarčević: IMPORTANCE OF PRICE CONTROL OF NATURAL MONOPOLIES FOR CONSUMERS
tem korištenja moderne tehnike i masovne proizvodnje. Navode se praktična istraživanja koja
ukazuju na odsustvo potpunije međuzavisnosti
između veličine preduzeća i degresije troškova.
Kod mnogih preduzeća srednje veličine dolazi do
prekoračenja progresije troškova, što znači da je
riječ o njihovoj ekonomskoj optimalnosti.
Osporavaju se i mišljenja da su velika preduzeća zbog svojih povećanih finansijskih mogućnosti nosioci tehničkog progresa. Navode
se statistički podaci koji govore da se osnovne
investicije u oblasti tehnike u najvećem broju
slučajeva odnose na pojedinačna otkrića ostvarena u malim preduzećima. Osporava se i da su
velika preduzeća stabilnija i da ne nose visok
rizik propasti na tržištu kao što se to odnosi na
mala preduzeća. Razlozi za to nalaze se u državnoj pomoći velikim preduzećima u kriznim
situacijama da bi se održala zaposlenost, što se
ne odnosi na mala preduzeća.
Naravno, rješenje nije u krajnostima niti da
se zabrane monopoli da bi se ojačala slobodna konkurencija, niti, obrnuto, da se dozvoli
nesmetano monopolsko strukturiranje tržišta i
prestanak uticaja slobodne konkurencije. Kao
i uvijek, problem ekonomije je u finom odlučivanju: sačuvati dobre strane monopola i ne
dozvoliti prevlast njegovih loših strana, odnosno sačuvati dobre strane slobodne konkurencije, ali i izbjeći zamke da se, podržavajući
potpunu konkurenciju, društvo liši ekonomske efikasnosti koju nude monopoli.
Država je preuzela odgovornost da spriječi
nastajanje monopola, a tamo gdje su neophodni, da reguliše njihov rad. Država u tom
slučaju neće ukidati monopol nego će ga regulisati, prije svega, određivanjem nivoa prodajnih cijena i drugim adekvatnim mjerama a,
prije svega, promjenom vlasništva.
through the use of modern technology and mass
production. Some cited practical studies that
indicate the absence of complete interdependence between the size of the company and costs
digression. In many medium-sized companies
overflows progression costs, which means that
it is up to their economic optimality.
The views that large companies due to
their increased financial potentials leads
technical progress, are also disputed. Statistics are cited that investments in technique
fields in most cases were related to individual discoveries achieved in small businesses.
Claims that bog companies are stable, and
risk of collapse is diminished in relation
to small companies were also diputed. The
reasons for this can be found in state aid to
large companies in crisis situations in order
to maintain employment, which does not apply to small businesses.
Of course, solution is not in extremes, neither
to prohibit monopolies in order to strengthen
free competition, nor vice versa, to allow undisturbed monopolistic market structuring and
termination of the impact of free competition.
As always, problem of the economy is in fine
tuning: to preserve the benefits of monopoly and
does not allow his bad side to prevail, while, in
the same time preserve the benefits of free competition, but also to avoid the traps that are in
support of full competition, deprive society of
economic efficiency offered by monopolies.
State has assumed responsibility to prevent
the formation of monopolies, and in cases
where they are necessary, to regulate their work.
In this case, state will not abolish the monopoly but will regulate it, primarily by determining
the level of selling prices and other appropriate
measures, like change of ownership.
Normativno regulisanje
Normative regulation
Država svojim propisima ograničava tržišnu moć preduzeća.
Antimonopolsko djelovanje se odnosi na:
(1) zabranu određenih postupaka i (2) zabranu određenih struktura.
State regulations restrict power of companies in the market.
Antimonopoly operations refers to: (1) prohibition of certain procedures and (2) prohibition of certain structures.
51
M. Šarčević: ZNAČAJ KONTROLE CIJENA PRIRODNIH MONOPOLA ZA POTROŠAČE
Kod zabrane određenih postupaka radi se zapravo o regulisanju rada monopola. Zabranjuju se
sve radnje koje narušavaju slobodnu konkurenciju, kao i fuzije koje su usmjerene na formiranje
monopola i narušavanje slobodne konkurencije.
Što se tiče zabrane određenih struktura,
one se, uglavnom, odnose na zabrane određenih fuzija ili, ako do njih dođe, nalaže
se razbijanje postojećih monopola na više
posebnih kompanija. Tako je Vrhovni sud
SAD (1911) naložio da se dva velika monopola razdvoje na više posebnih kompanija
(American Tobacco Company i Standard
Oil Company). Mnoge evropske zemlje i
Evropska unija imaju razvijeno antimonopolsko zakonodavstvo i tijela koja se bore
protiv monopola (u Njemačkoj je to Savezni ured za kvalitete, u Velikoj Britaniji
Ured za slobodnu trgovinu i sl.).
Antimonopolsko djelovanje nije jednoznačno. Nije svaka krupnija privredna struktura i
njeno stvaranje ono na šta bi trebalo djelovati
antimonopolski. Nekada je monopolska pozicija uslovljena tehničkim karakteristikama,
odnosno obimom investicija da bi se ostvarila
ekonomija obima.
Oprez pri donošenju odluke o visini cijene
je neophodan. Nužno je uvažiti činjenicu da
su krupna preduzeća mjesta ekonomije obima
i sniženja cijene koštanja, a na drugoj strani
su monopolske mogućnosti eksploatacije potrošača putem dizanja cijena i smanjenja obima proizvodnje.
Kriteriji, odnosno donja granica pokretanja
antimonopolske aktivnosti dosta je niska. U SR
Njemačkoj koncentracija preduzeća koja dostiže
najmanje 20% ili više tržišnog udjela predstavlja
osnovu za pokretanje antimonopolske aktivnosti.
U Engleskoj taj broj iznosi 25%. Antimonopolska aktivnost se odnosi na sprečavanje zloupotreba povećanja cijena, zatvaranja tržišta i sl.
U posljednje vrijeme se pokušava deregulacijom uticati na negativne strane monopola.
Misao o monopolima se izmijenila. Poslije
Drugog svjetskog rata skoro da i nije bilo značajnije antimonopolske aktivnosti i u zemlji
koja je i njen začetnik (SAD).
52
Prohibiting of certain procedures is about
actual regulation of monopolies. It Prohibit
all actions that disrupt free competition and
mergers that have focused on the formation of
monopolies and distort free competition.
Prohibition of certain structures, they are
mainly related to the prohibition of certain
mergers or, but if they do occur, they are
ordered to break up existing monopolies in
several separate companies. Supreme Court
of the United States (1911) ordered that the
two big monopolies split into several separate
companies (American Tobacco Company and
the Standard Oil Company). Many European
countries and European Union have developed antimonopoly legislation and the appropriate bodies able to counter monopolies (in
Germany it is the Federal Office for Quality,
in the UK Office for free trade, etc.).
Antitrust action is not unique. Not every
larger economic infrastructure and its creation
is something that is necessary to act antitrust.
Sometimes, monopoly position is created because of certain technical characteristics or
volume of investments, or to achieve economy of scale.
Caution is necessary when making decisions
about the price level. It is necessary to take
into account the fact that big companies are the
places of economies of scale, and lower cost,
and on the other side are the possibilities of
monopoly exploitation of consumers by raising prices and reducing production volume.
Criteria, or lower limit of launching antitrust
activity is quite low. In Germany, concentration of companies that achieved at least 20%
or more market share is basis for initiating antitrust activities. In England, that number is
25%. Antitrust action refers to the prevention
of abuse of price increases, the market closes
and alike.
Recently, attempts are made for deregulation that should affect the negative side of
monopolies. Idea of monopolies is altered.
After World War II, there were virtually no
any significant antitrust activities in the country which is its originator (USA).
M. Šarčević: IMPORTANCE OF PRICE CONTROL OF NATURAL MONOPOLIES FOR CONSUMERS
Od nekih sporova se odustalo jer su bez osnova kao što je bio slučaj sa IBM (1982. godine) iako je njegov tržišni udio iznosio 75%.
Iskustvo je, naime, pokazalo da su cijene u
visoko koncentrisanim industrijama često
mnogo brže padale od onih u manje koncentrisanim industrijama. Ako je veliko preduzeće efikasno, onda treba i da vlada. Misao o
monopolima se tako bitno promijenila.
Osnove konkurentske politike u Evropskoj
uniji potiču još iz Rimskog ugovora (1957.
godine). Ugovor Evropske zajednice obavezuje sve zemlje članice da se uzdrže od bilo
kojeg oblika ograničenja slobodne konkurencije u okviru jedinstvenog tržišta.
Da bi bila uspješna, regulacija zahtijeva veliki broj informacija i podataka. Izbor
troškova pri kalkulaciji cijena takođe izaziva dileme, a moguće su pogrešne procjene i
zaključci analize. Uz to, usvajanje odluka je
dugotrajno i komplikovano zbog javnog usaglašavanja, a nekad može i da se završi pred
sudom. Ova tendencija se obično ispoljava
kod prirodnih monopola, s obzirom da od
organa regulacije kroz utvrđenu stopu prinosa imaju odgovarajuće pokriće. Zato se ova
stopa mora vezati za ispunjenje određenih
performansi da bi se troškovi držali na minimumu. Regulisani monopoli, po pravilu, nemaju interesa za necjenovnu konkurenciju, jer
u potpunom monopolu konkurencije i nema.
Rješenje za ovakve slučajeve je deregulacija
koja najčešće obezbjeđuje proizvode i usluge
koje potrošači žele, i to po nižim troškovima,
odnosno cijenama.
Some cases are dropped because they are
not unfounded as was case with IBM (1982),
although its market share was 75%. Experience has, however, shown that the prices in
high concentrated industries were often fall
much faster than those in less concentrated
industries. Big company is effective, so it
should rule. The idea of monopolies was also
fundamentally changed.
Basis of competition policy of European
Union originate from the Treaty of Rome
(1957). Treaty on European Union binds all
member states to sustain from any form of restriction of free competition within the common market.
In order to be successful, regulation requires large amount of information and data.
Choice of cost price in calculation also raises dilemmas, and erroneous assessments and
conclusions of the analysis are possible. Also,
adoption of decisions is time-consuming and
complicated because of public adjustment,
and sometimes finalized in court. This tendency usually manifests in natural monopolies, since that through the regulation body,
through the established rate of return, they
have adequate coverage. So this rate has to be
attached to meet certain performance, in order
to keep costs to a minimum level. Regulated
monopolies, as a rule, have no interest in nonprice competition, because there is no competition in a complete monopoly. Deregulation
is solution for such cases, which usually provides products and services that consumers
want, at lower costs and prices.
ZAKLJUČAK
CONCLUSION
Potpuna konkurencija je teoretski ideal tržišne strukture, a realni svijet privrede je daleko od ovog idealizovanog stanja. Prirodni
monopol u osnovi dovodi u pitanje savršenost
funkcionisanja tržišta. On je realnost tržišne
strukture savremenih privreda, a, posebno,
u djelatnostima koje su od ključnog značaja za ukupni razvoj privrede i standard stanovništva. Zato mu i teorija, a posebno ekonomsko-politička praksa, u nastojanju da na
Perfect competition is theoretical ideal of
market structure, but real world of economy
is by far from idealized conditions. Natural
monopoly fundamentally calls into question
the perfection of market functioning. It is reality of the market structure of modern economies, especially in sectors that are crucial for
the overall development of the economy and
standard of living. That’s why theory, and in
particular the economic and political practic53
M. Šarčević: ZNAČAJ KONTROLE CIJENA PRIRODNIH MONOPOLA ZA POTROŠAČE
najbolji način iskoriste njegove tehničko-ekonomske prednosti i spriječe zloupotrebu njegove monopolske snage i moći, poklanjaju
posebnu pažnju. U radu je pored kriterijuma
formiranja cijena u konkurentskom tržištu
obrađeno i formiranje cijena u monopolskom
tržištu. Istaknute su posljedice monopolskog
formiranja cijena na tržišnu. Ravnoteža preduzeća, maksimum profita i određivanje tržišnih cijena su pokazali da monopoli, pored prosječnog profita, ostvaruju i dio ekstra
profita, što im omogućava njihov monopolski
položaj da sami formiraju cijene. Zadatak države je da onemogući monopolsko ponašanje
i da stvori ambijent za konkurenciju na tržištu
koja će omogućiti veću proizvodnju i niže cijene za potrošače. U savremenom svijetu su
poznate aktivnosti koje preduzimaju pojedine
države u sprečavanju monopolskog ponašanja
na tržištu.
Kontrola i određivanje cijena za prirodne
monopole: vodu, električnu energiju, grijanje,
komunalne usluge itd. koje su prilagođene
platežnoj moći stanovništva, kako je određeno Zakonom o kontroli cijena Republike
Srpske, su i ekonomski i društveno opravdani. Lokalna zajednica ili Republika, koja daje
saglasnost na cijene u skladu sa Zakonom o
kontroli cijena, s jedne strane, treba da omogući da prirodni monopolisti ostvare, pored
pokrića ukupnih troškova, prosječan profit,
te da proizvedena količina proizvoda i usluga
bude na nivou potreba, a, sa druge strane, da
cijene budu prilagođene platežnoj moći stanovništva.
es, in order that make the best use of its technical and economic advantages and prevent
the abuse of its monopoly power and might,
pay special attention. In this paper, in addition
to the criteria of pricing in a competitive market, were also processed price forming in a
monopoly market. Consequences of monopoly pricing on the market were highlighted.
Balance of the company, maximum profit and
determination of market prices showed that
monopolies in addition to the average profit, gain part of extra profits, allowed by their
monopoly position, so say to form their own
price. State have task is to prevent monopolistic behavior and to create an environment for
competition in the market which will enable
higher production and lower prices for consumers. In modern world, activities undertaken by individual states to prevent monopolistic behavior in the market are well known.
Control and pricing for natural monopolies:
water, electricity, heating, utilities and so on,
that are tailored in accordance to purchasing
power of population, as defined by the Law
on Control of the price in Republic of Srpska
is economically and socially justified. Local
Communities, or Republic, which gives consent to the prices in accordance with the law
on price control, on the one hand, should allow that natural monopolists, in addition to
cover the total cost, create average profit, and,
on the other hand, that production of products and services be on level needed, and that
price be adjusted to the purchasing power of
the population.
LITERATURA
LITERATURE
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Zagreb: Narodne novine.
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Bajt, A. (1979). Osnovi ekonomske analize i
politike. Zagreb: Informator.
Bajt, A. (1988). Samoupravni oblik društvene
svojine. Zagreb: Globus.
Babić, M. (1981). Microeconomic analysis.
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Babić, S. i Milovanović, M. (1991). Price
Theory. Ekonomski fakultet Beograd.
Bajt, A. (1979). Foundations of Economic
Analysis and Policy. Zagreb: Informator.
Bajt, A. (1988). Self-managed form of social
ownership. Zagreb: Globus.
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Chamberlin, E. H. (1933). The Theon of
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sredstva.
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mikroekonomiju. Ekonomski Fakultet
Istočno Sarajevo-Pale.
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Monopolistic Competition. Harvard Universitv Press.
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Informator.
Domar. D. E. (1966). The Soviet Collective
Farm as a Producer Cooperative.
American Economic Review, br. 56, str.
734-757.
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Microeconomics. Zagreb: Mate.
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system. Beograd: Savremena
administracija.
Maksimović, S. (2000). Microeconomics. I.
Sarajevo - Beograd: Konseko institut.
Milanović, R. (1978). Marketing. Sarajevo:
Svjetlost.
Perović, D. (1964). Theory of costs.
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Istočno Sarajevo-Pale.
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M. Šarčević: ZNAČAJ KONTROLE CIJENA PRIRODNIH MONOPOLA ZA POTROŠAČE
56
INSTITUCIJE I EKONOMSKI RAZVOJ - INSTITUTIONS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
ZNAČAJ INSTITUCIJA & STRATEGIJA EKONOMSKOG RAZVOJA
BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
IMPORTANCE OF INSTITUTIONS & STRATEGY OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Igor Ferjan
Fondacija za obnovu i razvoj, Generalni sekretar za BiH
The Reconstruction and Development Fund, General secretary for BIH
Pregledni članak
DOI 10.7251/OIK1403001F, UDK 338.246.025.88(497.6)
Review paper
REZIME
ABSTRACT
Velika je važnost ekonomskog razvoja za
svako društvo, a posebno za društva kao
što je BiH, društva koja se nalaze u procesu razvoja. U fazi razvoja značajnu ulogu
imaju institucije sa svojim mehanizmima za
poticaj razvoja, jer samo efikasne institucije potiču razvoj. Rezultatima istraživanja
predstavljenim u ovom članku ostvarivana
je primarna misija istraživanja: afirmirati
institucionalne mehanizme poticaja ekonomskog razvoja Bosne i Hercegovine. U
članku su elaborirane najvažnije odrednice
ekonomskog razvoja, povezanosti institucija sa ekonomskim razvojem, te strategije
ekonomskog razvoja Bosne i Hercegovine. Posebna pažnja je posvećena strategiji
ekonomskog razvoja BiH, te rezultatima i
predviđanju provođenja ekonomskog razvoja. U članku je elaborirano više tematskih jedinica o ekonomskom razvoju
i povezanosti institucija sa ekonomskim
razvojem. Predstavljen je reprezentativni
primjer i rezultati strategije ekonomskog
razvoja Bosne i Hercegovine. Navedena su
očekivanja od provedbe strategije ekonomskog rasta BiH.
Economic development is of a great significance
for any society, particularly for a society such as
Bosnia and Herzegovina - the one that is still in the
development process. At the development stage,
various institutions with their incentive mechanism
for development have an important role, because
only effective institutions may encourage development. The study results presented in the paper represent the accomplishment of the primary objective
of the research: to affirm the institutional incentive
mechanisms for economic development of Bosnia
and Herzegovina. The paper elaborated the most
important determinants of economic development,
of institution integration with economic development and of economic development strategy of
Bosnia and Herzegovina. Particular attention was
paid to the strategy of economic development of
BH, as well as to the results and forecasting of implementation of economic development. The paper
addressed several thematic units on economic development and interconnection of institutions with
economic development. A representative example
alongside with the results of the economic development strategy of BH have been provided. Finally, the expectations of implementing the economic
growth strategy in BH have been presented.
Ključne riječi: razvoj, strategija, institucije,
BiH.
Keywords: development, strategy, institutions,
Bosnia and Herzegovina.
UVOD
INTRODUCTION
Ekonomski razvoj će biti uspješan samo
ukoliko je cijeli narod spreman na ulaga-
Economic development will be successful
only if the entire nation is prepared to make
57
I. Ferjan: ZNAČAJ INSTITUCIJA & STRATEGIJA EKONOMSKOG RAZVOJA BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
nje maksimuma napora u pravcu realizacije ekonomskog razvoja, a posebne faktore
ekonomskog razvoja u svim demokratskim
društvima predstavljaju institucije i mehanizmi koje posjeduju. Ključ institucionalnog razvoja svake države, pa i BiH, predstavlja dokument kojim se planira strategija
razvoja, što je slučaj i u BiH. Prema tome,
zadatak ovog članka je da se istraže aktualni problemi i fenomeni odnosa institucija i
ekonomskog razvoja, te strategije ekonomskog razvoja na primjeru Bosne i Hercegovine. Sukladno problematici, postavljena je
temeljna hipoteza: Strategija razvoja BiH
predstavlja temelj planiranja, realizacije i
praćenja ekonomskog razvoja Bosne i Hercegovine.
Rezultati istraživanja u ovom članku imaju misiju da doprinesu stvaranju institucija
pogodnih poticanju ekonomskih odnosa, odnosno, da daju doprinos stvaranju efikasnijih
institucija u BiH.
maximum efforts towards the implementation
of economic development, while the institutions and mechanisms possessed by all democratic societies represent significant factors of
economic development. The key of institutional
development of any country, including BH, is
the document used for planning of development
strategy. Therefore, the objective of the paper is
to assess current issues and phenomena regarding the relations between its institutions and
economic development, as well as the strategies
of economic development of BH. In accordance
with the issues, a basic hypothesis has been
established: Development Strategy of Bosnia
and Herzegovina represents the foundation for
planning, implementation and monitoring of the
economic development of BH.
The results of the survey in the paper aim to
contribute to forming of institutions suitable
for incitement of economic relations, i.e., to
contribute to the creation of more efficient institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
TEMELJNE ODREDNICE
EKONOMSKOG RAZVOJA
BASIC DETERMINANTS OF ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT
Ekonomski razvoj se može definisati kao
razvoj ekonomskog bogatstva zemalja, regija
ili zajednice radi dobrobiti svojih stanovnika.
Iz perspektive politike, ekonomski razvoj se
može definisati kao napor koji treba uložiti radi
poboljšanja ekonomskog blagostanja i kvalitete života zajednice kreiranjem i/ili očuvanjem
radnih mjesta i podržavanjem rasta prihoda.
Da bi se bolje razumio ekonomski razvoj,
važno je znati razlike između ekonomskog
rasta i ekonomskog razvoja, koje su značajne. Izraz „ekonomski rast“ se odnosi na povećanje ili rast specifične mjere kao što je
realni BDP, bruto domaći proizvod, odnosno dohodak po glavi stanovnika. Nacionalni dohodak ili proizvod se obično izražava
kao mjera dodane vrijednosti izlaza domaće
privrede, a zove se bruto domaći proizvod
(BDP). Prema tome, ekonomski posmatrano, kada BDP raste, smatra se da postoji
ekonomski rast. S druge strane, pojam „ekonomski razvoj“ podrazumijeva mnogo više,
Economic development can be defined as a
development of economic wealth of countries,
regions or communities for the benefit of their
residents. From a politic perspective, economic
development can be defined as the effort required
in order to improve the economic well-being and
quality of life of a community by creating and/or
preserving jobs and supporting revenue growth.
To better understand economic development,
it is important to know the difference between
economic growth and economic development,
which differ significantly. The term “economic growth” refers to an increase or growth of a
specific rate such as real GDP, Gross Domestic Product, or GDP per capita National income or product is usually presented as a rate
of value-added output of the domestic economy,
which is called the Gross Domestic Product
(GDP). Accordingly, from economic point of
view, when GDP growth occurs, it is considered that there is an economic growth. On the
other hand, the term “economic development”
58
I. Ferjan: IMPORTANCE OF INSTITUTIONS & STRATEGY OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF BOSNIA ...
što se prvenstveno odnosi na poboljšanja različitih pokazatelja kao što su stope pismenosti, očekivano trajanje života, i stope siromaštva. BDP predstavlja specifičnu mjeru
ekonomskog blagostanja, kojem svi težimo.
Pored pomenute mjere, važno je sagledati:
slobodno vrijeme, kvalitet životne sredine,
slobode, ili socijalne pravde. Dakle, konkretno mjerenje ekonomskog rasta u bilo kojoj
mjeri nije dovoljno da bi se definisao ekonomski razvoj. Izraz „ekonomski razvoj“ se
veoma često koristi i posmatra regionalno,
pa se često kaže „treba promovisati ekonomski razvoj naše države i sl.“ Na ovakav način
posmatrano, ekonomski razvoj se fokusira
na zapošljavanje poslovanja u državi, pomoć
u širenju i/ili zadržavanju poslovnih procesa
u državi, ili jednostavno pružanje pomoći u
pokretanju novih biznisa. Kao dodatak ekonomskim modelima, potrebe države upućuju
na radnje koje ekonomske institucije za razvoj treba da poduzmu. Na primjer, institucije za ekonomski razvoj mogu djelovati u
pravcu smanjenja nezaposlenosti, privlačenju djelatnosti sa velikim potrebama radne
snage. Agencije za ekonomski razvoj sarađuju sa privrednim komorama, agencijama
za nekretnine i komunalne usluge koje će vrbovati proizvođače sa velikim kapitalnim investicijama. Dakle, u najširem smislu, ekonomski razvoj obuhvaća tri glavna područja
(LCEDA, 2014).
1. Politike koje vlada poduzima radi zadovoljenja velikog broja ekonomskih ciljeva, kao što su: stabilnost cijena, visoka
zaposlenost, proširenje porezne osnovice
i održivi rast. Ovi napori uključuju monetarnu i fiskalnu politiku, regulaciju financijskih institucija, trgovinu i poreske
politike.
2. Politike i programi obezbjeđenja infrastrukture i usluga, kao što su: autoceste,
parkovi, stanovanje, sprječavanje kriminala, obrazovne programe i projekte.
3. Politike i programe izričito usmjerene na
stvaranje novih i očuvanje starih radnih
mjesta konkretnim naporima u poslovnim
financijama, marketingu, razvoju lokal-
includes much more, primarily relating to the
improvement of various indicators such as literacy rates, life expectancy and poverty rates.
GDP represents a specific measure of economic well-being. Apart from GDP, some of other,
very important aspects such as leisure time, environmental quality, freedom, and social justice
should be taken into consideration. Therefore,
actual measurement of economic growth to any
extent is insufficient to define economic development. The term “economic development” is
very often used and perceived regionally, thus
causing the popular saying “we should promote
the economic development of our country, etc.”
From such perspective, economic development
focuses on the engagement of business in the
country, assistance in spreading and/or retention
of business processes in the country, or simply
on provision of assistance in starting new businesses. In addition to economic models, the
needs of a country point out the actions that
economic institutions for development should
undertake. For example, economic development institutions may act in order to decrease
unemployment by attracting businesses with
significant workforce requirements. Economic
development agencies cooperate with chambers
of commerce, real estate agencies and utility
companies that will muster manufacturing companies with large capital investments. Thus, in
the broadest sense, economic development encompasses three main areas (LCEDA, 2014).
1. The policies undertaken by the government for the purpose of fulfilling numerous economic objectives such as: price
stability, high employment rate, broadening the tax base and sustainable growth.
These efforts include monetary and fiscal
policy, regulation of financial institutions,
trade and tax policies.
2. Policies and programs providing infrastructure and services, such as: highways,
parks, housing, crime prevention, education programs and projects.
3. Policies and programs specifically aimed at
the creation and preservation of existing jobs
by making specific efforts in corporate finance, marketing, development of local com59
I. Ferjan: ZNAČAJ INSTITUCIJA & STRATEGIJA EKONOMSKOG RAZVOJA BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
nih zajednica, pokretanju i razvoju malih
biznisa, zadržavanju i širenju poslovnih
procesa, transferu tehnologije, obuci radne snage i razvoju nekretnina. Ova treća
kategorija je primarni fokus profesionalaca ekonomskog razvoja.
munities, initiation and development of small
business, retention and expansion of business
processes, technology transfer, workforce
training and real estate development. This
third category is the primary focus of economic development professionals.
INSTITUCIJE I POVEZANOST SA
EKONOMSKIM RAZVOJEM
INSTITUTIONS AND THEIR CORRELATION
TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Institucije su pravila igre u društvu, ili, više
formalno, su ljudski smišljena ograničenja
koja oblikuju ljudsku interakciju (North, 1990,
str. 3). Oblikuju poticaje u ljudskoj razmjeni,
bilo političke, društvene ili ekonomske. Obuhvataju na primjer, ugovore i izvršenja ugovora, zaštitu imovinskih prava, vladavinu prava,
birokratiju vlasti, financijska tržišta. Također
uključuju navike i vjerovanja, norme, društvene podjele i tradiciju u obrazovanju (neformalne institucije). Formalne institucije obično
imaju tendenciju da predstavljaju kristalizaciju neformalnih institucija (North, 1990), kao
društvene norme u oblasti spola, klase i kaste,
kod, na primjer, određivanja pravila političke
participacije i reprezentacije, metoda ekonomske razmjene, i uključivanja različitih grupa u
društvo (Pateman, 1988).
U studiji koja predstavlja orijentir nove institucionalne ekonomije, koju su proveli Rodrik,
Subramanian i Trebbi procijenjena je relativnu
važnost institucija, geografije i integracije (trgovina) u određivanju razlike u prihodima između
svijetu najrazvijenijih zemalja i onih najsiromašnijih, gdje su došli do saznanja da su institucije
odrednice „aduti“ svega ostalog (Rodrik, Subramanian & Trebbi, 2004, str. 131-165). Dakle,
institucije su važne za održavanje prosperitetnih
ekonomskih aktivnosti, a što je i Adam Smith u
Bogatstvu naroda već napomenuo u detalju koji
se odnosi na važnost pravosudnog sistema, prava
na privatnu imovinu, te vladavine prava.
Institutions are the rules of the game in a society or, more formally, are the humanly devised
constraints that shape human interaction (North,
1990, p.3). They structure incentives in human
exchange, whether political, social or economic. Institutions comprise for example contracts
and contract enforcement, protection of property
rights, the rule of law, government bureaucracies,
financial markets. They also, however, include
habits and beliefs, norms, social cleavages and
traditions in education (so-called informal institutions). Formal institutions typically tend to be
the crystallization of informal institutions (North,
1990), as social norms in the realms of gender,
class and caste, for example, determine rules of
political participation and representation, methods of economic exchange, and inclusion of different groups in society (Pateman, 1988).
In a landmark study of new institutional
economics, Rodrik, Subramanian and Trebbi
assess the relative importance of institutions,
geography and integration (trade) in determining the differences in incomes between
the world’s most developed countries and the
poorest ones, finding that institutional determinants “trump” all others (Rodrik, Subramanian & Trebbi, 2004, p. 131-165). Thus, institutions are crucial for maintaining prosperous
economic activities, as noted by Adam Smith
in The Wealth of Nations, referring to the importance of a justice system, private property
rights, and the rule of law.
VAŽNOST INSTITUCIJA ZA
EKONOMSKI RAZVOJ
IMPORTANCE OF INSTITUTIONS FOR
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Jednu od osnovnih važnosti institucija,
predstavlja smanjenje troškova ekonomske
One of the primary importance aspects of
institutions is the cost reduction of econom-
60
I. Ferjan: IMPORTANCE OF INSTITUTIONS & STRATEGY OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF BOSNIA ...
aktivnosti, čime se pogoduje ekonomskom
razvoju. Troškovi uključuju troškove transakcija, kao što su pretraživanje i informisanje o troškovima, pregovaranje i donošenje troškova, policije i troškova izvršenja
(Coase, 1992, str. 197). Smanjuju troškove transakcija pružajući zajednički pravni
okvir (npr. ugovori i izvršenja ugovora,
komercijalne norme i pravila), a one podstiču povjerenje pružajući policiji i sistemu
pravde da se pridržavaju zajedničkih zakona i propisa. Zajednice u nisko razvijenijim
zemljama se obično oslanjaju na srodstvo
ili etničke i vjerske veze u trgovini. Norme, zajednički jezik i religija mogu biti dovoljni za osiguranje poštivanja i izvršenja
sporazuma ili ugovora o ekonomskoj razmjeni, kolektivnom kažnjavanju i socijalnom ugledu, pa čak i u odsustvu treće strane. Tako je poznat slučaj trgovinske mreže
Magriba, gdje se trgovcima dozvoljava razmjena informacija o nepoštenim trgovcima
i njihovo kolektivno kažnjavanje (Greif,
1993, str. 525-548). Ipak, kako bi se iskoristile mogućnosti trgovine sa različitim
grupama i povećao broj ekonomskih transakcija, kulturne veze nisu dovoljne, jer
postoji potreba za više informacija o trgovinskim partnerima, kao i o institucijama
koje bi osigurale detalje sporazuma o razmjeni i usklađenost sa dogovorenim uslovima. To podrazumijeva oblik ugovora,
kodeks ponašanja, standardizirane težine
i mjere, otkrivanje sporazuma i izvršenja
putem sudova i policije. U uslovima malih
transakcija i troškova, privatno izvršenje
ugovora i dalje može imati prednost i biti
preferirano. Ali, kako se ekonomski odnosi
razvijaju i postaju sve bezličniji, uloga treće strane koja će pridržavati pravila je sve
potrebnija (Shirley, 2005, str. 2).
Drugi faktor važnosti institucija predstavljaju imovinska prava i povrat invensticija.
Institucije povećavaju sigurnosti da rizik
ulaska u ekonomske transakcije odgovara
eventualnoj ostvarenoj koristi, što uključuje prisustvo pojedinih prava na privatnu
imovinu. Ako je imovina zaštićena i poje-
ic activity, thus supporting economic development. The costs include transaction costs
such as search and information costs, bargaining and decision costs, policing and enforcement costs (Coase, 1992, p. 197). They
lower transaction costs by providing common
legal frameworks (e.g. contracts and contract
enforcement, commercial norms and rules),
and they encourage trust by providing policing and justice systems for the adherence to
common laws and regulations. Communities
in Low Developed Countries (LDCs) typically rely on kinship or ethnic and religious ties
for trade. Norms and networks of common
language and religion may be enough to ensure compliance with agreements on economic exchange; collective punishment and social
reputation may be enough to ensure the enforcement of (often informal) contracts even
in the absence of a third party. Greif describes
the trade networks of Maghribi traders which
permitted the sharing of information on dishonest traders and their collective punishment
(Greif, 1993, p. 525-548). However, in order
to take advantage of opportunities for trade
with different groups and increase the size
of economic transactions, however, cultural
ties are not enough. There is need for greater information about trading partners, and
about institutions which ensure agreements
on the details of exchange and compliance
to the agreed conditions. These take the form
of contracts, codes of conduct, standardized
weights and measures, disclosure agreements,
and enforcement through courts and policing.
Where transaction costs are low, private enforcement of contracts may still be preferred.
But as economic relations develop and become increasingly impersonal, the role of a
third party to enforce compliance to rules is
increasingly necessary (Shirley, 2005, p. 2)
The second importance factor of institutions
are Property Rights and Return on Investment.
Such institutions increase the security that the
risk of incurring in an economic transaction is
matched by the full appropriation of its eventual benefits, including the presence of individual
private property rights. If property is protected,
61
I. Ferjan: ZNAČAJ INSTITUCIJA & STRATEGIJA EKONOMSKOG RAZVOJA BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
dinci su spremni da ulažu i da snose nepovratne troškove. Poznat je slučaj zemljišnog vlasništva u Gani, gdje se pokazalo da
u mjestima gdje je individualna percepcija
sigurnosti zakupa zemljišta niska, ulaganje
u zemljište je znatno umanjeno (Pande &
Urdy, 2005). Naime, za razliku od tradicionalnog neformalnog sustava preraspodjele zemljišta, u slučajevima u kojima se
zemlja dobiva putem poslovne transakcije, prestaju razlike u nivoima ulaganja, a
zbog sigurnosti zakupa je osigurana. Ovo
povećava proizvodnju, što je pogodno za
ekonomski razvoj. Dakle, zaštita prava
vlasništva zahtijeva maksimalnu ulogu državne vlasti. Pojedinci i grupe žrtvuju dio
svoje slobode radi osiguranja zaštite države, pa prihvataju namete i poreze za pokrivanje troškova policije, i državni monopol
nad upotrebom sile za zajedničku sigurnost
(Bates, 2001, str. 65-66). Međutim, postoji opasnost da države koje imaju moć da
sprovode imovinska prava može koristiti
tu moć za eksproprijaciju imovine, čime
ne da se ne smanjuje rizik od ekonomskih
transakcija, nego se povećava. Tako, imovinska prava nisu dovoljna da podstaknu
privredni rast, jer mora postojati ravnoteža
institucija koje ograničavaju kapacitet državne vlasti. Demokratske institucije političkog djelovanja snažno doprinose ovom
procesu (Rodrik, 2000).
Snaga eksproprijacije predstavlja treći
faktor važnosti institucija ekonomskog razvoja. Tako institucije određuju nivo eksproprijacije resursa ekonomije u njihove
privatne posjede. Neravnopravne institucije snažno ograničavaju razvoj smanjenjem
kapaciteta pojedinaca na pristup resursima,
te proširuju proizvodnju i povećavaju svoje prihode. Komparativna analiza razvoja
država pokazuje da institucije koje koriste eliti, omogućavaju prisvajanje resursa
i proizvoda, a država i dalje ostaje nerazvijena. Na primjer, sistem vlasništva nad
zemljom u Latinskoj Americi predstavlja
temeljni uzrok nerazvijenosti, a postoje
i dokazi da to ograničava ruralni razvoj,
62
individuals are more willing to invest and to
incur sunk costs. Recounting the land-ownership system in Ghana is well known, showing
that in the places where individual perception
of security of land tenure is low, investment in
the land is significantly reduced, causing the
output to drop consequently (Pande & Udry,
2005). In fact, in the few cases in which land
is obtained through commercial transactions
(as opposed to the traditional informal system of land redistribution), there ceases to be
any difference in levels of investment because
security of tenure is assured. This increases
output and thus is conducive to economic development. The protection of property rights
requires an expanded role for state authority.
Individuals and groups sacrifice a degree of
freedom in order to ensure state protection;
they accept levies and taxes to cover policing
expenses, and state monopoly over the use of
force for common security (Bates, 2001, p. 6566). However, there is a risk that states which
have the power to enforce property rights may
use that power to expropriate property too.
Instead of reducing risk of economic transactions, such action increases it. Thus, property
rights are by no means sufficient to spur economic growth, and must be balanced by institutions which limit the extractive capacity of
state power. Democratic institutions of political representation strongly contribute to this
process (Rodrik, 2000).
The Power of Expropriation is the third factor
of importance of economic development institutions. Thus institutions determine the extent to
which those in power are able to expropriate the
economy’s resources to their private advantage.
Unequal institutions strongly limit development
by reducing the capacity of individuals to access
resources, expand production and increase their
incomes. A comparative analysis of development
trajectories of countries indicates that institutions
which benefit elites and allow their appropriation of resources and products have perpetuated
underdevelopment. The unequal landownership
system in Latin America (latifundios) has been
indicated a fundamental cause of its underdevelopment. There is evidence that it limits the devel-
I. Ferjan: IMPORTANCE OF INSTITUTIONS & STRATEGY OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF BOSNIA ...
zapošljavanje i povećanje ruralnih prihoda (World Bank, 2008, str. 6). Ekonomska
komisija za Latinsku Ameriku je više puta
označavala značaj zemljišne reforme u procesu smanjenja siromaštva poljoprivrede i
ruralnog razvoja (Ferrini, 2012).
Institucije koje preferiraju razvoj nastoje
da osiguraju veća samoizražavanje, slobodan protok informacija, te potiču formiranje
udruženja i klubova kako bi se formirali što
bolji i kvalitetniji društveni odnosi. U osnovi, društveni odnosi predstavljaju temelj
veće ekonomske interakcije, povećanja nivoa povjerenja i dostupnosti informacija
(Putman, 1993). Pored toga, društveni odnosi omogućavaju kvalitetniju podjelu resursa putem demokratskih institucija, ali i
korištenje države radi smanjenja rizika, što
ide u prilog ekonomskim procesima (Bardhan, 2006). Socijalna država je primjer
institucije koja koristi resurse kako bi ograničila negativne efekte na prihode i nezaposlenost. Institucije koje preferiraju razvoj
koriste resurse radi osiguranja ulaganja u
obrazovanje, zdravstvo i infrastrukturu, što
predstavlja temelj ekonomskih odnosa, a, u
isto vijeme, su neophodni i komplementarni
sa investicijama. Dakle, neformalne institucije predstavljaju osnov ekonomije, a uključuju javne agencije, sindikate i profesionalna udruženja. Ove organizacije učestvuju u
raspravama i daju prijedloge i prigovore na
zakone i vladine odluke, a vrlo često i same
oblikuju ishod (Ferrini, 2012).
opment of greater rural employment and higher
rural incomes (World Bank, 2008, p. 6). ECLA,
the Economic Commission for Latin America,
has repeatedly flagged the importance of land reform in the process of poverty-reducing agriculture and rural development (Ferrini, 2012).
Institutions which are conducive to development ensure greater self-expression, allow
the free flow of information and encourage
the formation of associations and clubs. These
form prosperous social relationships, which
are conducive to greater economic interaction
by increasing levels of trust and wider availability of information (Putnam, 1993). They
allow greater sharing of resources through
democratic institutions and the use of the
state to reduce the risk attached to economic activity (Bardhan, 2006). The welfare state
is an example of an institution which pools
resources to limit the negative effects of business cycles on incomes and unemployment.
Institutions conducive to development pool
resources to provide the investments in education, health and infrastructure which lie at
the basis of economic interaction and are, at
the same time, necessary and complementary
to private investment. Therefore, informal institutions lie at the basis of an economy. They
include public agencies, trade unions, community structures and professional associations. They make up the fabric which determines the response to laws and government
decisions, and most often they shape these
outcomes themselves (Ferrini, 2012).
INSTITUCIJE & STRATEGIJA
EKONOMSKOG RAZVOJA BOSNE I
HERCEGOVINE
INSTITUTIONS & STRATEGY OF
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF BOSNIA
AND HERZEGOVINA
Bosna i Hercegovina danas teži da bude
zemlja sa visokim dohotkom, koja u isto vrijeme želi da postigne veći društveni sklad.
Kako bi ostvarila svoje težnje, predana je
potpunom integriranju u Europsku uniju,
koja teži da postane najdinamičnija i najkonkurentnija svjetska ekonomija, zasnovana
na znanju. Danas se razvojna politika BiH
fokusira na što jaču ulogu znanja i inovaci-
Nowadays, Bosnia and Herzegovina tends
to become a high income country, while at the
same aspiring to achieve greater social harmony. To achieve its aspirations, it is committed
to the full integration into the European Union,
which aims to become the world’s most dynamic and competitive knowledge-based economy.
Today, the development policy of BH focuses
on more potent role of knowledge and innova63
I. Ferjan: ZNAČAJ INSTITUCIJA & STRATEGIJA EKONOMSKOG RAZVOJA BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
ja, uređenje unutarnjeg tržišta, rast, zaposlenost, a sve zbog većeg društvenog sklada.
Na ovaj način doprinosi svojoj konkurentnosti, ali i ispunjenju ekonomskih uslova
za pridruženje EU. BiH je trenutno partner
u Sporazumu o stabilizaciji i pridruživanju
EU, a dobivanjem statusa kandidata, počet će sa primanjem predpristupne podrške
EU za ravnomjeran socio-ekonomski razvoj, konkurentnost i optimalno korištenje ljudskih potencijala. Ključni dokument
ekonomskog razvoja, ali i razvoja uopće,
predstavlja Razvojna strategija BiH koju je
donijela Direkcije za ekonomsko planiranje
BiH 2010. godine, ali koja još uvijek nije
formalno-pravno usvojena. U izradi ovog
dokumenta su učestvovale mnoge vladine i
nevladine institucije, akademska zajednica,
te socijalni partneri. U dokumentu plan procesa razvoja karakteriziraju višedimenzionalni izazovi (DEP, 2010):
1. proces razvoja BiH se odvija u okolnostima povećane međunarodne ekonomske
turbulencije, prouzrokovane globalnom
ekonomskom krizom, koja zbog međunarodne ovisnosti nacionalnih ekonomija
utiče i na povećanu nepredvidivost srednjoročnih makroekonomskih projekcija;
2. BH ekonomija je u procesu jačanja integrativnih tokova roba, usluga, kapitala, informacija i mobilnosti radne snage
na internom i eksternom tržištu, s čime
jača izloženost uticaju i konkurenciji
okruženja;
3. političko okruženje je dinamično, posebno najavljene ustavne promjene
potiču dalje reformske procese, ali i
povećavaju rizike funkcionisanja ekonomije;
4. ekonomsko okruženje karakteriziraju turbulencije na svjetskim tržištima hrane,
energenata i potražnje za metalima;
5. statistički okvir u BiH je nedovoljno
razvijen i nedovoljno usaglašen s potrebama za pripremu planskih dokumenata razvoja kao i s potrebama EU
integracija.
64
tion, regulation of the internal market, growth,
employment, and all for achieving greater social harmony. By doing so, it contributes to its
competitiveness, but also to the fulfilment of
economic conditions for EU accession. BH is
currently a partner in the Stabilisation and Association Agreement, and by obtaining the candidate status, it should begin receiving the EU
pre-accession support for equitable socio-economic development, competitiveness and the
optimum use of human resources. The key document of economic development, and development in general, is the Development Strategy
adopted by the Directorate for Economic Planning in 2010, but which has not yet been formally and legally agreed. Many governmental
and non-governmental institutions, academia,
and social partners took part in the preparation
of this document. In the document, the plan of
development process is characterized by multidimensional challenges (DEP, 2010):
1. Development process of BH takes place in
the conditions of increased international
economic turbulence caused by the global
economic crisis, which due to international dependence of national economies affects increased unpredictability of medium-term macroeconomic projections;
2. The economy of BH is in the process of
strengthening integration flows of goods,
services, capital, information and mobility
of workforce both at the internal and external market, which increases the exposure to
effects and competition of the environment;
3. Political environment is dynamic, especially the announced constitutional
changes stimulate further reforms, but
also increase the risks regarding functioning of the economy;
4. Economic environment is characterized
by turbulence in world markets of food,
energy and demand for metals;
5. Statistical framework in BH is underdeveloped and insufficiently compliant with
the requirements for the preparation of
development documents as well as with
the requirements of EU integrations.
I. Ferjan: IMPORTANCE OF INSTITUTIONS & STRATEGY OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF BOSNIA ...
Tabela 1
SWOT analiza Bosne i Hercegovine (DEP, 2010)
PREDNOSTI [STRENGTHS]
1. relativno stabilan makroekonomski ambijent (stabilna unutrašnja i vanjska vrijednost valute)
[relatively stable macroeconomic environment
(stable internal and external currency value)];
2. stabilan bankarski sektor
[stable banking sector];
3. geo položaj (blizina EU i mediteranskih tržišta)
[geo position (close to the EU and to Mediterranean
markets)];
4. industrijska tradicija
[industrial tradition];
5. dobro postavljena osnovna transportna i energetska
mreža
[well-established basic transport and energy
networks];
Table 1
SWOT analysis of Bosnia and Herzegovina (DEP, 2010)
SLABOSTI [SLABOSTI]
1. nestabilan poslovni ambijent (uz visok nivo neformalne ekonomije i korupcije)
[unstable business environment (with a high level of
informal economy and corruption)];
2. relativno visok nivo javnih rashoda
[relatively high level of public expenditure];
3. slab pristup financijama, posebno za mikro i mala
preduzeća (zbog nedovoljnog i fragmentisanog okvira za razvoj nebankarskih institucija)
[poor access to finance, particularly for micro and small
enterprises (due to insufficient and fragmented framework for development of non-banking institutions)];
4. obrazovni sistem nedovoljno uključuje populaciju i
nedovoljno je prilagođen potrebama tržišta, uz prisustvo rodne diskriminacije i nepostojanja politika
usklađivanja porodičnog, privatnog i javnog života
[the educational system insufficiently includes pop6. diverzificiranost proizvodnje energije i sigurnost
ulation and is inadequately adapted to the needs of
opskrbljivanja
the market, with the presence of gender discrimina[diversification of energy production and safety of
tion and lack of harmonization policies of family,
supply];
private and public life];
7. izvrsni prirodni resursi (nezagađeno zemljište, klimat itd.)
[outstanding natural resources (unpolluted ground, 5. nedovoljno razvijeno jedinstveno tržišta unutar BiH
(uslovi za registraciju, porezi na dobit, doprinosi, itd.)
favourable climate, etc.)];
[underdeveloped unique market within BH (registration
8. zakoni iz oblasti rada i zapošljavanja usklađeni sa
requirements, income taxes, contributions, etc.)];
standardima za ravnopravnost spolova i drugim
6. nerazvijenost infrastrukture (fizičke, poslovne,
standardima MOR-a.
naučne) i nizak nivo njenih usluga
[the laws on labour and employment compliant with
[underdeveloped infrastructure (physical, business,
standards for gender equality and other standards of
scientific) and low level of its services];
the International Labour Organisation (ILO)].
7. tehnološki usmjerena inostrana preduzeća već na-
puštaju (umjesto da što više dolaze) BiH zbog nedostatka tehnološki visokokvalifikovane radne i istraživačke radne snage
[technologically oriented foreign companies already
leaving (instead of arriving to) BH due to lack of
technologically highly qualified workforce and research staff];
8. ogromno neracionalno korištenje energije, posebno
domaćinstava
[completely irrational use of energy, particularly by
households];
9. nedostatak institucija (organa, laboratorija itd.),
zakona i dokumenata (strategija pravilnika, investicionih programa) te sporo prihvatanje globalnih i
EU standarda
[lack of institutions (bodies, laboratories, etc.), laws and
documents (strategies, rulebooks, investment programs)
and slow acceptance of global and EU standards];
10. velike površine potencijalno obradivog zemljišta
pod minama
[large areas of arable land covered in land mines].
Napomena: Tabela 1 se nastavlja na sljedećoj
strani.
Note: Table 1 continues on the next page.
65
I. Ferjan: ZNAČAJ INSTITUCIJA & STRATEGIJA EKONOMSKOG RAZVOJA BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
PRILIKE [OPPORTUNITIES]
znatni neiskorišteni resursi (zemlja, radna snaga,
istraživački kadar dijaspore)
[considerable untapped resources (land, workforce, research staff from diaspora)];
razvoj energetskog sektora i uslužnih djelatnosti
(turizam, financijske usluge itd.)
[development of the energy sector and the service
sector (tourism, financial services, etc.)];
uspostava tržišta i institucija na nivou regiona
Jugoistočne Evrope (npr. regionalna investiciona
banka i središte, zajedničko djelovanje berzi)
[establishment of market and institutions at
the level of Southeast Europe (e.g., a regional
investment bank and its centre, common action of
Stock Exchanges)];
mogućnost vojne konverzije i regionalne specijalizacije
[possibility of military conversion and regional
specialization];
mogućnost uključenja u EU programe (FP7, COST
itd.) i korištenje predpristupnih fondova
[possibility of joining the EU programs (FP7,
COST, etc.) And the use of pre-accession funds];
intermodalni transport, razvoj luka na rijeci Savi i
bolja veza s Lukom Ploče
[intermodal transport, development of ports on the
Sava River and establishing a better connection
with the Port of Ploče];
mogućnost zadovoljenja vlastitih potreba hranom
i ostvarivanje izvoza
[possibility of food self-sufficiency and establishing food export];
energetski potencijal (hidropotencijal među
vodećima u Evropi)
[energy potential (hydropower potential being one
of the highest in Europe)];
razvoj ruralnog preduzetništva (organska poljoprivreda, ruralni turizam, prerada drveta i bio mase)
[Development of Rural Entrepreneurship (organic
farming, rural tourism, wood and biomass processing)];
strana ulaganja (nova radna mjesta i moderne tehnologije i stvaranje nove preduzetničke i radne
kulture)
[foreign Investment (new jobs and modern technologies and creating new entrepreneurial and working culture)].
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Napomena: Tabela 1 se nastavlja na sljedećoj
strani
66
PRIJETNJE [THREATS]
razvoj političke situacije u BiH i regionu te
globalne ekonomske situacije
[development of the political situation in BH and the
region as well as of the global economic situation];
pogoršanje platnobilansne situacije i veličine
deviznih rezervi
[worsening of payment balance situation and the
amount of foreign exchange reserves];
potencijalna financijska neodrživost penzionih i
drugih sistema
[prospective financial unsustainability of pension
and other systems];
slabo integrisanje u internacionalne sisteme financijskog nadzora
[weak integration into the international systems of
financial supervision];
nedovoljno razumijevanje modernih razvojnih procesa (neuvažavanje globalnih trendova među ključnim nosiocima odluka; nepoduzimanje mjera za
poboljšanje poslovnog okruženja; nepoduzimanje
treninga radne snage; nepovećanje sposobnosti
procjene krupnih investicionih programa);
[lack of understanding of modern development processes (disregarding global trends among key decision makers; failing to take measures to improve the
business environment; failure to train the workforce;
failure to increase the ability to assess large investment programs)];
brži razvoj okruženja u odnosu na BiH, posebno
suočavanje s konkurentnošću firmi zemalja članica EU uz neadekvatne mehanizme zaštite domaće
proizvodnje;
[faster development of surrounding countries in
comparison to BH, especially regarding the competitiveness of companies from EU countries with
inadequate mechanisms to protect domestic production];
odljev kadrova (odlazak inteligencije i mladih)
[outflow of people (intelligent and young people
leaving the country)];
prevelik socijalni pritisak na javni budžet
[completely irrational use of energy, particularly
by households];
neispunjavanje preuzetih međunarodnih npr.
WTO (TBT, SPS, TRIPS...) obaveza (mogućnost
tužbe)
[lack of institutions (bodies, laboratories, etc.), laws
and documents (strategies, rulebooks, investment programs) and slow acceptance of global and EU standards];
nedovoljna svijesti o očuvanju okoline i resursa
[large areas of arable land covered in land mines];
Note: Table 1 continues on the next page.
I. Ferjan: IMPORTANCE OF INSTITUTIONS & STRATEGY OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF BOSNIA ...
11. širenje zaraznih stočnih i biljnih bolesti
[large areas of arable land covered in land mines];
12. nezainteresovanost internacionalnih fondova za
deminiranje šuma i obradivih površina
[large areas of arable land covered in land mines];
13. genetski modifikovana hrana: nema kontrole i
regulative u uvozu i proizvodnji
[large areas of arable land covered in land mines].
Temeljni cilj razvojne strategija BiH predstavlja osiguranje konkurentnije, stabilnije i
održivije ekonomije, veće zaposlenosti i socijalne stabilnosti, te veće socijalne uključenost društva, kao i njegove veće uključenosti
u EU društvo. U strategiji su identificirani
prioriteti ostvarivanja ciljeva, ali su predložene i mjere i aktivnosti za ostvarenje predloženih mjera. Strategija postavlja šest strateških ciljeva razvoja Bosne i Hercegovine
(UNEP, 2012):
1. makroekonomska stabilnost (javne financije, vanjski sektor i razvoj financijskog
tržišta);
2. konkurentnost (klasteri, kompetentnost
ljudskih resursa, razvoj naučno–tehnološke i poslovne infrastrukture, te jedinstvenog ekonomskog prostora);
3. zapošljavanje (razvoj malih i srednjih preduzeća, unaprjeđenje tržišta rada i promocija poduzetničke klime);
4. održivi razvoj (poljoprivreda i ruralni razvoj, okoliš, okolišna i transportna infrastruktura, te obnovljivi izvori energije);
5. europske integracije i
6. socijalna
uključenost
(obrazovanje,
zdravstvena i socijalna zaštita).
The fundamental objective of development
strategy of BH is ensuring more competitive,
more stable and more sustainable economy,
higher employment rate and social stability, as
well as greater social inclusion of society and
its greater involvement in the EU society. The
strategy identified priorities for achieving the
objectives, but both measures and actions were
proposed to achieve the proposed measures.
The strategy defines six strategic objectives of
Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNEP, 2012):
1. Macroeconomic stability (public finance,
external sector and the development of financial markets);
2. Competitiveness (clusters, competence of
human resources, development of scientific, technological and business infrastructure, as well as of a single economic space);
3. Employment (development of small and medium-sized enterprises, improvement of labour
market and promotion of entrepreneurial climate);
4. Sustainable development (agriculture and rural development, environment, environmental and transport infrastructure, renewable energy sources);
5. European integration and
6. Social inclusion (education, healthcare
and social welfare).
STRATEGIJA & EKONOMSKI
RAZVOJ BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE:
REZULTATI
STRATEGY & ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT OF BOSNIA AND
HERZEGOVINA: RESULTS
Posmatranjem ekonomskih trendova u 2013.
Godini, primjećuje se blagi oporavak ekonomskih
aktivnosti, što predstavlja rezultat porasta izvoza i
industrijske proizvodnje, dok domaća tražnja bilježi neznatni rast. Dok je nominalni BDP za 2013.
godinu iznosio 26.123 miliona KM, realna stopa
By observing economic trends in 2013, a slight
recovery of economic activity is noted, which represents a result of increased export and industrial production, while domestic demand recorded a slight
increase. While the nominal GDP for 2013 amounted to BAM 26.123 million, the Real GDP annual
67
I. Ferjan: ZNAČAJ INSTITUCIJA & STRATEGIJA EKONOMSKOG RAZVOJA BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
rasta BDP-a na godišnjem nivou je bila pozitivna
i iznosila je 1,6% (CBBIH, 2013). U 2013. godini
je ostvaren pozitivan trend, bez obzira na nepovoljna kretanja u okruženju, i to najviše zahvaljujući
proizvodnji električne energije, rastu prerađivačke
industrije, turizma, maloprodaje, te javnim radovima koji su, uglavnom, financirani inostranim zaduženjima. Deficit tekućeg računa je iznosio 5,5%
BDP-a (1,4 milijarde KM), što je najniži ostvareni omjer. Deficit u trgovini robama je umanjen za
7,6% a procenat pokrivenosti uvoza izvozom roba
iznosio je rekordnih 60%, čemu je najviše doprinio
rast robnog izvoza od 8,7% zahvaljujući povoljnoj
hidrološkoj situaciji (koja je dovela do povećanja
proizvodnje u hidroelektranama i izvoza električne
energije). Uvoz roba je smanjen za 1,5%. Tržište
rada u BiH i dalje karakterizira visok udio neformalne zaposlenosti, te visoka neaktivnost radno
sposobnog stanovništva, a posebno zabrinjava činjenica da se uglavnom radi o dugoročnoj nezaposlenosti. Pored toga, broj zaposlenih se minimalno
smanjio u odnosu na prethodnu godinu. Nastavljeni su već započeti programi, a provođeni su i
novi programi aktivne politike zapošljavanja koji
se odnose na zapošljavanje ili samozapošljavanje
ciljnih grupa. Neznatan realni rast je zabilježen kod
privatne i javne potrošnje, a praćen je skromnim
povećanjem investicija prvenstveno u javnim radovima. Smanjenje privatnih investicija nije iznenađujuće s obzirom na smanjenje raspoloživog
dohotka građana, direktnih stranih investicija,
skroman rast stanja kredita nefinancijskih privatnih
preduzeća, slabu izvoznu i domaću tražnju, te relativno skromna očekivanja u oblasti ekonomskog
oporavka u skorijoj budućnosti, nije iznenađujući
ni pad privatnih investicija. Prema lakoći poslovanja u 2013. godini, Svjetska banka je rangirala BiH
na 131. mjesto, što predstavlja jedno od najlošijih
mjesta za poslovanje u Evropi. Dakle, najveći socio-ekonomski izazovi za BiH su (DEP, 2014):
1. niska stopa aktivnosti na tržištu rada (44%),
2. visoka stopa nezaposlenosti (27,5%),
3. visoka stopa nezaposlenosti mladih (59%),
4. najniži rang u regiji prema izvještaju
Svjetske banke o lakoći poslovanja,
5. nisko rangiranje prema EBRD Indeksu
tranzicijskih reformi,
68
growth rate was positive and amounted to 1.6% (CB
BIH, 2013). A positive trend was registered in 2013,
regardless of the unfavourable developments in the
region, mainly due to the production of electricity,
growth of manufacturing, tourism, retail, and public works, which were mainly financed by foreign
loans. The current account deficit amounted to 5.5%
of GDP (BAM 1.4 billion), which represents the
lowest achieved ratio. The deficit in trade in goods
decreased by 7.6% and the percentage of coverage
of imports by exports of goods amounted to a record
breaking 60%, mostly due to rise in exports of 8.7%
thanks to a favourable hydrological situation (which
has led to an increase in hydropower production and
electricity export). Import of goods decreased by
1.5%. The labour market in BH is still characterized
by a high rate of informal employment and high
inactivity of the population of working age, with a
particularly worrying fact that it mainly refers to a
long-term unemployment. In addition, the number
of employees decreased minimally when compared
to the year before. The already initiated programs
have been continued and a new active employment
policy programs relating to employment or self-employment of the target groups were implemented. A
minor real growth was recorded in private and public consumption, accompanied by a modest increase
in investments, primarily in public works. The decrease in private investments is not surprising, given
the reduction in disposable income of citizens, Foreign Direct Investment, a modest increase in loan
balances of non-financial private enterprises, weak
export and domestic demand, and relatively modest
expectations in the areas of economic recovery in
the near future. According to Ease of Doing Business in 2013, the World Bank ranked Bosnia and
Herzegovina at the 131st place, which represents
one of the least favourable locations to do business
in Europe. Therefore, the greatest socio-economic
challenges for BH are (DEP, 2014):
1. Low activity rate at the labour market (44%),
2. High unemployment rate (27.5%),
3. High youth unemployment rate (59%),
4. The lowest ranking in the region according
to the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business
5. Low ranking according to the EBRD index of transition reforms,
I. Ferjan: IMPORTANCE OF INSTITUTIONS & STRATEGY OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF BOSNIA ...
6. loša pozicija prema indeksu percepcije
korupcije (72. mjesto),
7. nizak nivo FDI po glavi stanovnika,
8. nizak nivo na ljestvici UNDP indeksa
ljudskog razvoja (81.),
9. najviši nivo potrošnje na socijalnu pomoć
u regionu,
10.najlošije usmjerena potrošnja na socijalnu
pomoć (koja dopire do siromašnih).
6. Unfavourable position according to the
Corruption Perceptions Index (72nd place),
7. Low level of FDI per capita,
8. Low position on the scale of UNDP Human Development Index (81st place),
9. The highest level of social welfare spending in the region,
10.The worst-focused spending on social
welfare (that reaches out to the poor).
Tabela 2
Indikatori ekonomije BiH 2006-2013.(DEP, 2014)
Table 2
Indicators of BH economy 2006-2013.(DEP, 2014)
Cilj makrostabilnost
[Objective: macro-stability]
BDP percapita (u odnosu na
prosjek EU4=100) [GDP per capita
(compared to average EU4 = 100)]
BDP u tek. cijenama (u odnosu na prosjek EU4=100) [GDP at market prices
(compared to average EU4 = 100)]
Indeks potrošačkih cijena CPI
[Consumer Price Index - CPI]
Zaštita investitora (u odnosu na
prosjek EU4) [Protecting investors (compared to average EU4)]
Makroekonomska stabilnost (u odnosu na prosjek EU4) [Macroeconomic
stability (compared to average EU4)]
Sofisticiranost fin. tržišta (u
odnosu na prosjek EU4)** [Sophistication of financial market
(compared to average EU4)**]
Stopa agregatne štednje (u odnosu
na prosjek EU4) [Aggregate savings
rate (compared to average EU4)]
Ukupna porezna stopa (u odnosu
na prosjek EU4) [Total tax rate
(compared to average EU4)]
Bruto dug/ BDP (%) (nominalni
indikator) [Gross debt/ GDP (%)
(nominal indicator)]
Budžetski saldo (% BDP) (nominalni indikator) [The Budget balance (% GDP) (nominal indicator)]
Bazna vrijednost indikatora je benchmark, odnosno prosjek EU4=100
[Base value of the indicators is the benchmark, i.e. average value of EU4=100]
Nivo Izvor
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
[Level] [Source]
BiH
1
41
39
29
31
30
30
29
29
BiH
1
15
14
15
16
16
15
15
15
BiH
4
6,1
1,5
7,4
-0,4
2,1
3,7
2,1
-0,1
BiH
2
-
-
82
84
83
85
86
-
BiH
3
111
96
100
96
93
95
85
84
BiH
3
-
95
89
85
83
80
83
86
BiH
3
-
41
53
50
66
66
47
29
BiH
2
-
98
107
106
168
191
177
-
BiH
1
21,2
18,6
31
35,9
39,3
40,4
44,3
-
BiH
1
2,85
1,18
-2,18
-4,45
-2,49
-1.27
2,3
-
*dvogodišnji indikator r**od 2010: Razvoj financijskih tržišta 1-Eurostat 2-Svjetska banka, DoingBusiness (online baza podataka) 3-Svjetski ekonomski
forum 4-BHAS
* biannual indicator r**from 2010: Development of
financial markets 1 - Eurostat, 2 - World Bank, Doing
Business (online database), 3 - World Economic Forum, 4 - BHAS (BH Agency for Statistics)
69
I. Ferjan: ZNAČAJ INSTITUCIJA & STRATEGIJA EKONOMSKOG RAZVOJA BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
Za razliku od zemalja komparatora, indikatori pokazuju prisutnost trenda relativnog zaostajanja BiH ekonomije, što se najbolje vidi
u odnosu na prosjek EU4, gdje je u posljednje
dvije godine zabilježeno kretanje BDP percapita BiH na 29% prosjeka EU4. Veći problem
predstavlja činjenica da se prema nekim pokazateljima stanje BH ekonomije pogoršava, a trebalo bi da se poboljšava. To posebno
dolazi do izražaja kada se posmatraju pokazatelji makroekonomske stabilnosti, razvoja
financijskih tržišta, stope agregatne štednje,
a posebno je značajno povećanje bruto duga
BiH u odnosu na BDP.
As opposed to the comparable countries, the
indicators show the presence of a trend of relative backwardness of the BH economy, which
is best demonstrated when compared to the
EU4 average, where the GDP per capita in BH
decreased to 29% of the EU4 average. A more
serious problem is the fact that some indicators
show deterioration of BH economy, instead of
showing its improvement. This is particularly
evident when analysing indicators of macroeconomic stability, development of financial
markets, aggregate savings rate, with particular significance given to a significant increase
in Gross Debt to GDP ratio of BH.
STRATEGIJA & EKONOMSKI RAZVOJ
BIH: OČEKIVANJA
STRATEGY & ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT OF BH: EXPECTATIONS
Nakon zabilježenog realnog pada BiH ekonomije od 0,9% u 2012. godini, zabilježen je
1,5% realnog rasta u 2013. Zabilježeni rast
se primarno temelji na rastu izvoza od 6,9%i
rastu industrijske proizvodnje od 6,7%, dok
domaća potražnja bilježi blagi porast, uz
skroman rast uvoza od 1,4%. Proizvodnja
električne energije nakon rješavanja problema u prethodnoj godini predstavlja glavni
pokretač rasta robnog uvoza, što je zajedno
sa povećanjem izvoza prerađivačke industrije, najviše doprinijelo nominalnom godišnjem smanjenju spoljnotrgovinskog deficita
od 11,4%. Istovremeno, u privatnoj i javnoj
potrošnji je zabilježen blagi realni rast kojeg
je pratilo skromno povećanje ulaganja, prvenstveno u oblasti javnih građevinskih radova.
Blagi pad raspoloživog dohotka domaćinstava, koji je u 2013. godini bio ograničen blagom štednjom javnih prihoda, je predstavljao
osnov za stagnaciju privatne potrošnje. Stagniranje broja radnih mjesta, prosječnih plaća
i socijalnih davanja, te prikupljanje novčanih
doznaka iz inozemstva za 2,2% su blokirali
rast privatne potrošnje. Javni radovi su predstavljali glavni izvor blagog uzlaznog trenda
ulaganja u 2013. godini. Aktiviranjem prethodno odobrenih sredstava, te stand-by aranžman sa MMF-om je osigurana izgradnja putne infrastrukture, prvenstveno u F BiH, čime
After the real drop of BH economy of 0.9%
in 2012, a 1.5% of real growth was registered
in 2013, primarily based on export growth
of 6.9% and industrial production growth of
6.7%, alongside with a slight increase in the
domestic demand and with modest growth in
import of 1.4%.. After resolving the problems
from the previous year, electricity production
represented the main driver of growth in goods
imports, which alongside with the increase in
exports of manufacturing industry contributed
to the nominal annual reduction in the foreign
trade deficit of 11.4%. At the same time, the private and public consumption recorded a slight
real growth accompanied by a modest increase
in investments, primarily in the area of public
civil works. A slight drop in disposable income
of households, which was limited by mild savings of public revenues in 2013, provided a basis for the stagnation of private consumption.
Stagnation in the amount of jobs, average wages and social benefits and collection of remittances from abroad of 2.2% have blocked the
growth of private consumption. Public works
were the main source of a slight upward trend
in investments in 2013. Activation of previously approved funds as well as of a stand-by arrangement with the IMF ensured construction
of road infrastructure, primarily in the BH Federation, partially mitigating the drop in private
70
I. Ferjan: IMPORTANCE OF INSTITUTIONS & STRATEGY OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF BOSNIA ...
je ublažen pad privatnih investicija. Ipak, u
narednom periodu bi situacija trebalo da se
postupno poboljšava. Naime, očekivanje ekonomskog rasta najvažnijih trgovinskih partnera, kao i rast eurozone, treba doprinijeti
oživljenju ekonomskog rasta u BiH u 2014.
i 2015. godini, što bi trebalo nadoknaditi
manjak rasta proizvodnje i izvoza električne
energije u 2013.
Nakon blage recesije eurozone u 2013, Generalna direkcija za ekonomska i financijska pitanja je procijenila realni rast od 1,1%
u 2014, te nešto jaču stopu rasta od 1,8% u
2015. Predviđen je i rast ekonomije Njemačke i Austrije koji bi trebalo da dostigne 1,51,8% u 2014, što je znatno više nego u 2013.
(DG ECFN, 2014).
Dalji blagi rast se očekuje i u 2015. Paralelno s tim, nakon pada od 1,9% u 2013, Italija
treba zabilježiti skroman rast od 0,6% u 2014,
koji bi trebalo da bude udvostručen već u 2015.
Takođe, realno skupljanje Hrvatske ekonomije od 0,7% u 2013. bi se moglo pretvoriti u
blagi rast od 0,5% u narednoj godini. Jedna od
najvažnijih regionalnih zemalja je Slovenija
za koju se predviđa da će bilježiti negativni
ekonomski rast od 0,1% u 2014, nakon čega
se očekuje porast za 1,3% u narednoj godini.
Sve bi to trebalo dovesti do jačanja izvoza i
industrijske proizvodnje BiH, što bi u konačnici trebalo da zaustavi višegodišnji negativni
trend zapošljavanja. Pored toga, ekonomski
rast u susjednim zemaljama bi mogao dovesti
do poboljšanja trendova tekućih i kapitalnih
priliva gotovine iz inostranstva. Od navedenih faktora se očekuje postepeno jačanje ekonomskog rasta koji bi mogao dostići 2,7% u
2014, a 3,4% u 2015. godini. Temelj ovog
rasta je prvenstveno vođen izvozom i postepenim povećanjem privatne potrošnje i investicija. S druge strane, jačanje domaće potražnje bi trebalo da dovede do rasta izvoza, kao
i skromnog realnog rasta vanjskotrgovinskog
deficita od 2% u 2014. Očekivano postepeno
jačanje ekonomskog rasta eurozone i zemalja
iz neposredne blizine bi trebalo da dovede do
postupnog jačanja ekonomskog rasta u BiH,
koji bi trebalo da dostigne 4,3% u 2016, odno-
investment. However, in a subsequent period,
the situation should be gradually improved.
Namely, the expectation of economic growth
of the most important trading partners, as well
as the growth of the eurozone, should contribute to the revival of economic growth in BH in
2014 and 2015, which should compensate for
the lack of growth in production and of electricity export in 2013.
Following a mild recession of the eurozone
in 2013, the Directorate General for Economic
and Financial Affairs has made an estimation
of real growth of 1.1% in 2014, and somewhat
higher growth rate of 1.8% in 2015. Likewise,
the growth of German and Austrian economies
should reach 1.5-1.8% in 2014, which is significantly higher than in 2013 (DG ECFN, 2014).
A slight increase is expected in 2015 as well. In
parallel, after a drop of 1.9% in 2013, Italy should
record a modest growth of 0.6% in 2014, which
should be doubled in 2015. Likewise, a realistic
shrinkage of Croatian economy of 0.7% in 2013,
could be converted to a slight increase of 0.5%
in the coming year. One of the most important
regional countries is Slovenia which is projected
to record a negative economic growth of 0.1%
in 2014, after which an increase of 1.3% in the
coming year is expected. The above should lead
to increase of export and industrial production in
BH, which should ultimately stop the perennial
negative trend of employment. In addition, economic growth in neighbouring countries could
lead to an improvement trends of current and
capital inflows of cash from abroad. The factors
specified are expected to gradually strengthen
economic growth that could reach 2.7% in 2014
and 3.4% in 2015. The basis of such growth
is primarily driven by export and a gradual increase in private consumption and investment.
On the other hand, the strengthening of domestic
demand should lead to an increase in export and
a modest real growth of foreign trade deficit of
2% in 2014. The expected gradual strengthening
of economic growth of eurozone and neighbouring countries should lead to a gradual strengthening of economic growth in BH , which should
reach 4.3% in 2016 and 4.6% in 2017. In fact,
further improvement of the situation in neigh71
I. Ferjan: ZNAČAJ INSTITUCIJA & STRATEGIJA EKONOMSKOG RAZVOJA BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE
sno 4,6% u 2017. Naime, daljnje poboljšanje
stanja susjednih zemalja bi se trebalo odraziti na povećanje potražnje za izvozom i jačim
prilivom stranog novca, što bi trebalo dovesti
do postupnog jačanja ekonomskog rasta BiH,
prvenstveno daljnim jačanjem izvoza, kao i
privatne potrošnje i investicija. S obzirom da
glavne pretpostavke projekcije ekonomskog
rasta dolaze iz vanjskog sektora, to je i mjesto
gdje se nalaze glavni rizici njihove realizacije. Naime, umanjeni ekonomski rast susjednih zemalja ili moguća recesija u budućnosti
bi mogla značajno ugroziti i ekonomski rast
BiH (DEP, 2014).
bouring countries should be reflected in an increase in demand for exports and a more potent
inflow of foreign money, which should lead
to a gradual strengthening of BH’s economic
growth, primarily by further strengthening of
export, as well as of private consumption and
investment. Given that the main assumptions of
economic growth projection originate from the
external sector, it is also a field where the main
risks to their realization are located. The reduced
economic growth of neighbouring countries or
a possible recession in the future could significantly jeopardize economic growth of Bosnia
and Herzegovina (DEP, 2014).
ZAKLJUČAK
CONCLUSION
Polazeći od potrebe za ekonomskim razvojem svakog društva, veoma je važno spoznati činjenicu o velikoj povezanosti razvoja i
institucija, koje oblikuju političke, društvene ili ekonomske poticaje ljudske razmjene.
Teorija, ali i praksa su pokazale da samo
efikasne institucije promovišu ekonomski
rast. Pružanjem odgovarajućih poticaja i uspostavljanje stabilne strukture ljudskih odnosa, one potiču pojedince da se uključe u
poslovne aktivnosti. Ovo se posebno odnosi
na zemlje u razvoju, među kojima je i Bosna
i Hercegovina. Ipak, teško je definisati koje
su institucije važne za ekonomski razvoj i
koliko, što je posebno slučaj sa Bosnom i
Hercegovinom.
U svojoj težnji za visokih dohotkom i društvenim skladom, Bosna i Hercegovina je
predana pridruženju Europskoj uniji, koja u
svojoj biti želi da postane najdinamičnija i
najkonkurentnija svjetska ekonomija koja je
zasnovana na znanju. Na tom putu učestvuju
mnoge institucije, a ključni akt ekonomskog
razvoja BiH predstavlja Razvojna strategija
BiH koju je donijela Direkcije za ekonomsko
planiranje BiH, a koja makroekonomsku stabilnost, konkurentnost, zapošljavanje, održivi
razvoj, europske integracije i socijalnu uključenost, postavlja kao šest osnovnih ciljeva
razvoja Bosne i Hercegovine. U provođenje
ove strategije su uključene različite institucije
Starting from the need for economic development of any society, it is crucial to identify the
fact of considerable interconnection between
development and institutions that shape the political, social or economic incentives of human
exchange. Both theory and practice have shown
that only effective institutions promote economic
growth. By providing appropriate incentives and
by establishing stable structures of human relationships, they encourage individuals to engage
in business activities. This particularly applies to
developing countries, including Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, it is difficult to define which
institutions are important for economic development and to what extent, which is particularly the
case with Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In its effort to achieve high income and social
harmony, Bosnia and Herzegovina is committed to joining the European Union, which essentially aspires to become the most dynamic
and competitive knowledge-based economy in
the world. Such road to success involves many
institutions, with the key act of economic development of BH being a Development Strategy adopted by the Directorate for Economic
Planning of BH which defines macroeconomic
stability, competitiveness, employment, sustainable development, European integration
and social inclusion, as a set of six development goals of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The
implementation of this strategy involves dif-
72
I. Ferjan: IMPORTANCE OF INSTITUTIONS & STRATEGY OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF BOSNIA ...
na državnom, entitetskom i nižim nivoima, a
potiču se različiti institucionalni mehanizmi
za provođenje strategije.
Može se zaključiti da je razvojna strategija BiH značajno doprinijela blagom rastu BiH ekonomije, kao i institucionalni
mehanizmi zaduženi za provođenje strategije u djelo. Ipak, ostaje žal za propuštenim mogućnostima, posebno u oblasti
približavanja EU, jer se ekonomija Bosne
i Hercegovine značajno oslanja na ekonomije zemalja iz okruženja, ali i zemalja
članica EU.
ferent institutions at the state, entity and lower
levels, while encouraging various institutional
mechanisms to implement the strategy.
It can be concluded that the Development Strategy
of Bosnia and Herzegovina significantly contributed to a mild increase in BH economy, as well as the
institutional mechanisms responsible for the implementation of the strategy into action. However, one
can only regret having missed various opportunities,
particularly those regarding the convergence with the
EU, because the economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina significantly relies on the economies of neighbouring countries, but also on EU member states.
LITERATURA
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Ferrini, L. (2012). TheImportanceofInstitutions to Economic Development. Preuzeto
14. septembra 2014 sa sajta http://www.eir.info/2012/09/19/the-importance-of-institutions-to-economic-development/.
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Civic Traditionsin Modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
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acquirethem. Working Paper, br. 7540.
Rodrik, D., Subramanian, A. & Trebbi, F.
(2004). Institutions Rule: The Primacyof
Institutions over Geography and Integrationin Economic Development. Journalof
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Shirley, M. M. (2005). Institutions and Development, Handbook of New Institutional
Economics. New York: Springer.
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2014. sa sajta http://www.un.ba/upload/
documents/Izvjestaj%20BiH%20za%20
UN%20konferenciju%20o%20odrzivom%20razvoju.pdf,
World Bank. (2008). World Development Report
2008. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Ferrini, L. (2012). TheImportanceofInstitutions to Economic Development. Retrived
September 14, 2014 from http://www.eir.info/2012/09/19/the-importance-of-institutions-to-economic-development/
Greif, A. (1993). Contract Enforceabilityand
Economic Institutionsin Early Trade:
The Maghribi Traders’ Coalition. American EconomicReview, No. 83.
LCEDA. (2014). What is Economic Development?. Retrived September 13, 2014
from http://www.svbic.com/node/24
North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance.
New York: CambridgeUniversityPress.
Pande, R. & Udry, C. (2005). Institutions
and Development. A View from Below,
Yale University Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper, No. 928.
Pateman, C. (1988). TheSexualContract.
Cambridge: PolityPress.
Putnam, R. (1993). Making Democracy Work:
Civic Traditionsin Modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Rodrik, D. (2000). Institutions for High-QualityGrowth: Whatthey are and how to
acquirethem. Working Paper, No. 7540.
Rodrik, D., Subramanian, A. & Trebbi, F.
(2004). Institutions Rule: The Primacyof
Institutions over Geography and Integrationin Economic Development. Journalof Economic Growth, No. 9.
Shirley, M. M. (2005). Institutions and Development, Handbook of New Institutional Economics. New York: Springer.
UNEP. (2012). Bosna i Hercegovina u procesu RIO +20. Retrived September 14,
2014 from http://www.un.ba/upload/
documents/Izvjestaj%20BiH%20za%20
UN%20konferenciju%20o%20odrzivom%20razvoju.pdf,
World Bank. (2008). World Development Report
2008. New York: Oxford University Press.
ORGANIZACIONO UPRAVLJANJE I LIDERSTVO - ORGANIZATIONAL MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP
MOGUĆNOSTI IMPLEMENTACIJE TQM SISTEMA
U SERIJI STANDARDA ISO 9000
POSSIBILITY OF TQM SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
IN ISO 9000 SERIES
Mr Branko Prodanović
“Kosvig” Zubin Potok
Stručni članak
DOI 10.7251/OIK1403003P, UDK 005.6:006.83(100)ISO 9000
Professional paper
REZIME
ABSTRACT
Uslovi poslovanja neumitno uslovljavaju
primenu standarda u poslovanju. Sam proces
standardizacije je sveobuhvatan i veže svе
segmente poslovanja. Uslovljenost primene
standarda diktirana je sve različitijim potrebama okruženja, s jedne strane, kao i težnjom
za efikasnijim i efektivnijim poslovanjem koje
se stavlja kao imperativ u savremenom poslovanju, s druge strane. U radu će biti predstavljena komparativna analiza osnovnih principa poslovanja i pojedinih standarda.
Business conditions inevitably impose the application of standards in the business. The standardization process itself is comprehensive and
binds all business segments. Conditioning on
the application of standards is dictated by the increasingly differing needs of the environment, on
one hand, and by the requirement for more efficient and effective business which is set as an imperative in modern business, on the other hand.
The paper shall present a comparative analysis of
basic business principles and specific standards.
Ključne reči: kvalitet, menadžment, proces,
organizacija, lider.
Keywords: quality, management, process,
organisation, leader.
UVOD
INTRODUCTION
Prethodne verzije serije ISO 9000 uglavnom su se zasnivale na iskustvu, idejama i
konceptima proverenim u praksi. One su potom, od strane eksperata iz svih delova sveta
okupljenih u Tehničkom komitetu (Technical
Comitee, TC 176), bivale pretočene u elemente koji su se činili neizostavnim u strukturi sistema kvaliteta. Ovaj pragmatični pristup se
pokazao ispravnim, tako da su ovi standardi
postali najšire prihvaćeni i korišćeni u istoriji
Međunarodne organizacije za standardizaciju
(International Standards Organization, ISO).
Sa ovim pragmatizmom nastavilo se i pri
reviziji standarda i kreiranju nove verzije,
ISO 9000:2000. Međutim, dovoljno vremena
je proteklo da bi se, na bazi iskustava, profilisali i formulisali osnovni principi na kojima
Previous versions of the ISO 9000 series
were primarily based on experience, ideas
and concepts proven in practice. The experts
from around the world gathered in the Technical Committee (TC 176), and transformed
such aspects into elements that appeared to be
indispensable in the structure of the quality
system. Such pragmatic approach has proven to be appropriate, therefore causing these
standards to become the most widely accepted and used in the history of the International
Standards Organization (ISO).
Such pragmatism continued with the revision of standards and creating a new version, ISO 9000:2000. Therefore, profiling
and formulating of the quality management
basic principles were based on the experience
75
B. Prodanović: MOGUĆNOSTI IMPLEMENTACIJE TQM SISTEMA U SERIJI STANDARDA ISO 9000
počiva menadžment kvalitetom. Umesto formulisanja teorije, a potom njenog korišćenja
u praktične svrhe, principi menadžmenta kvalitetom profilisali su se kroz praksu.
Poslovni sistem koji ima za cilj da ostvari
profit, opstane i obezbedi razvoj na domaćem i svetskom tržištu kao imperativ mora
uzeti kvalitet. Sistem kvaliteta je proces
koji karakteriše kraj prošlog i početak ovog
veka donoseći novi odnos prema kupcima,
okolini, a, pre svega, u procesu rada u organizacijama, stavljajući jasno do znanja
čime je i čime će uspešno poslovanje u budućnosti biti determinisano. Kvalitet je daleko najvažniji uslov uspešnosti i dugovečnosti svakog tržišnog subjekta, te zbog toga
i ne može imati alternativu. Serija standarda
ISO 9000:2000, koja se zvanično pojavila
15. decembra 2000. godine, a u maju 2001.
godine izašla je zvanična verzija ove serije
standarda na srpskom jeziku, obuhvata sledeća 3 standarda: ISO 9000:2000, sistem
menadžmenta kvalitetom - osnove i rečnik:
sadrži rečnik i koncept na kome se zasniva
ova serija standarda. Opisnog je karaktera i
sadrži 8 principa menadžmenta kvalitetom;
ISO 9001:2000, sistemi menadžmenta kvalitetom - zahtevi: standard u odnosu na koji
će biti proveravana i sertifikovana; i ISO
9004:2000, sistemi menadžmenta kvalitetom - uputstva za poboljšanje performansi:
nije namenjen za potrebe sertifikovanja ili
ugovaranja, već je u vidu uputstva u cilju
stalnog poboljšavanja u organizaciji i sadrži i program samoocenjivanja. Za postizanje svetske klase proizvodnje najefikasnija
rešenja nudi koncept totalnog upravljanja
kvalitetom kao sistemski i sistematski pristup stalnom unapređenju i poboljšanju
proizvoda i usluga. Nastao je u Japanu kao
posledica primene 14 Demingovih principa:
kreirati konzistentnost ciljeva i unapređenja, usvajanje nove filozofije, smanjiti uticaj inspekcija, prekinuti sa kupovinom na
bazi cene kao osnove za odlučivanje, stalno unapređivanje, obezbediti stalnost obučavanja, obezbediti “liderstvo”, raditi bez
straha/opasnosti, rušiti barijere između sek76
gained through such period of time. Instead
of formulating a theory, followed by its use
for practical purposes, the principles of quality management are profiled through practice.
Business systems that aim to make a profit, survive and ensure the development at the domestic
and international market are necessitated to focus
on quality as an imperative. The quality system is
a process that characterized the end of the previous
century and the beginning of the current one, bringing a new relationship with the customers, the environment, and, above all, in the working process in
organizations, clearly specifying what is and what
will be the determinants for a successful business in
the future. Quality is by far the most important requirement for success and longevity of any business
entity, which is why it has no other alternative. The
series of standards ISO 9000: 2000, which officially appeared on 15 December 2000, followed by an
official version of this series of standards in Serbian language in May 2001, comprises the following
three standards: ISO 9000:2000 Quality Management Systems-Fundamentals and Vocabulary: contains vocabulary and concept which the series of
standards is based on. It is of a descriptive character
and contains eight quality management principles;
ISO 9001:2000 Quality Management System - Requirements: which specifies the criteria for certification; and ISO 9004: 2000 Quality Management
System - Guidelines for Performance Improvement: it is not intended for the purposes of certification or contracting, but can be used as a springboard
for constant improvement of the efficiency and effectiveness of a quality management system and
also contains a self-assessment program. In order
to achieve world-class manufacturing, the most efficient solutions are offered by the concept of Total
Quality Management as a systemic and systematic
approach to continuous improvement of products
and services. It originated in Japan as a result of the
application of Deming’s 14 points of management:
create constancy of purpose for improving products
and services, adopt the new philosophy, cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality, end the
practice of awarding business on price alone, improve constantly, institute training on the job, adopt
and institute leadership, drive out fear, break down
barriers between staff areas, eliminate slogans, ex-
B. Prodanović: POSSIBILITY OF TQM SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION IN ISO 9000 SERIES
tora, eliminisati slogane, natpise i ciljeve
radnika, eliminisati radne standarde (radne
kvote, eliminisati upravljanje prema kvotnim ciljevima), rušiti barijere među radnicima (rušiti barijere između “plavih” i ”belih”
mantila), uspostaviti obavezujuće programe
obuke i samoproveru za menadžment, uključiti sve da rade na procesima transformacije. Za TQM možemo reći da je menadžerski
koncept prema kome preduzeće vrši stalno
poboljšanje svog funkcionisanja i tako utiče
na poboljšanje proizvoda, vodeći računa o
potrebama i očekivanjima kupaca.
hortations and targets for the workforce, eliminate
working standards (eliminate numerical quotas and
management based on numerical goals), remove
barriers among the staff (eliminate the barriers between blue-collar and white-collar staff), institute a
vigorous program of education and self-testing for
the management, engage everybody in the company in the transformation processes. TQM can
be defined as the managerial concept according to
which the company performs continuous improvement of its operation thus contributing to the product improvement, taking into account the needs and
expectations of customers.
ANALIZA KOMPATIBILNOSTI
STANDARDA KVALITETA U ODNOSU NA
PRINCIPE TQM-a
COMPATIBILITY ANALYSIS OF QUALITY
STANDARDS IN RELATION TO THE TQM
PRINCIPLES
Verovatno, ključni koncept koji sadrže opisani principi je integracija. Ukupni sistem
menadžmenta (lideri, procesi, zaposleni, snabdevači) funkcioniše najbolje u uslovima potpune integrisanosti.
Osam principa menadžmenta kvalitetom,
integrativno i konzistentno primenjeni, uslov
su optimalnog funkcionisanja organizacije,
koji vodi izvrsnosti, inače nedostižnoj kroz
optimizaciju pojedinačnih aktivnosti. U tom
smislu, u narednom tekstu je dat pregled reagovanja pojedinih ISO standarda (u smislu
njihove kompatibilnosti) sa osnovnim principima TQM-a, jer je zapravo njihova kompatibilnost i mogućnost implementacije osnova
uspeha preduzeća u turbulentnom okruženju.
Probably, the key concept contained by the
principles described is - integration. Total
Management System (leaders, processes, employees, suppliers) works best in conditions
of complete integration.
The eight principles of Quality Management,
integratively and consistently applied, are the
condition of organization’s optimal functioning,
which leads to excellence, otherwise unattainable
through optimization of individual actions. In this
regard, the following text contains an overview of
reactions to certain ISO standards (in terms of their
compatibility) in comparison to the basic principles of TQM, for it is actually their compatibility
and the implementation capability a basis for a
company’s success in a turbulent environment.
77
B. Prodanović: MOGUĆNOSTI IMPLEMENTACIJE TQM SISTEMA U SERIJI STANDARDA ISO 9000
Tabela 1
Reagovanje pojedinih ISO standarda sa osnovnim principima TQM-a
Table 1
Reaction of some ISO standards with the basic principles of TQM
Principi
Odnos sa ISO 9001:2000
Odnos sa ISO 9004:2000
Princip 1:
ORGANIZACIJE USREDSREĐENE
NA KORISNIKA
- Organizacije zavise od svojih korisnika i stoga moraju da razumeju
njihove trenutne i buduće potrebe,
moraju da zadovolje njihove zahteve
i nastoje da prevaziđu njihova
očekivanja.
[Principle 1:
CUSTOMER FOCUS
- The organizations depend on their
customers, and should therefore
understand their current and future
customer needs, meet customer requirements and try to exceed the expectations of customers]
Na operativnom nivou upravljanja kvalitetom organizacije moraju
učiniti napore ne samo da upravljaju zacrtanim parametrima već i
da spoznaju ukupne zahteve kupca.
Čak i oni sistemi za menadžment
kvalitetom koji zadovoljavaju minimum zahteva (kao, na primer, QMS
usaglašen sa ISO 9001), moraju u
svim svojim procesima biti usredsređeni na zahteve korisnika.
Primeri uključuju procese preispitivanja ugovora, projektovanja
novih proizvoda i preduzimanja
korektivnih mera. Zapravo, striktna
usredsređenost na utvrđivanje zahteva korisnika je, verovatno, i najveća
korist od usvajanja ISO 9001 kao
modela QMS modela date organizacije.
Stoga ovaj princip može da posluži
kao platforma za razumevanje široke
palete potreba, zahteva i očekivanja
korisnika, bilo da se radi o karakteristikama samog proizvoda (usluge),
kvalitetu isporuke, ceni ili pogodnosti za upotrebu.
Imajući na umu definiciju kvaliteta (ISO 9000:2000), koja uz kupca
stavlja naglasak i na ostale interesne
grupe, ovaj princip ističe neophodnost usklađivanja potreba svih interesnih grupa.
QMS, po pravilu, uspostavlja vezu
između žalbi i reklamacija korisnika
sa analizom podataka.
Ovi procesi predstavljaju početak
sistematskog tumačenja povratnih
informacija od korisnika i njihove
uloge u sprečavanju budućih problema.
[When referring to the operational
level of quality management, organizations have to commit themselves
not only to manage the set parameters, but also to understand the total
needs of the customer. Even those
U vezi sa ISO 9004:2000, možemo
zamisliti organizacije koje u potpunosti poznaju svoje korisnike njihove sadašnje i buduće potrebe i
percepcije.
Mnoge organizacije, sa potpuno
neuređenim sistemom kvaliteta,
tvrde da u potpunosti poznaju svoje
korisnike. Često, one se pozivaju na
svoj sektor istraživanja i razvoja, kao
nekoga ko ima apsolutni uvid u korisničku populaciju, neretko sa njom
nemajući nikakvog kontakta (tzv.
sindrom snova).
Međutim, u TQM okruženju sticanje uvida u korisničku populaciju se
ne zasniva na pojedinačnim slučajevima, niti je stvar pojedinih sektora.
Umesto toga, informacije se moraju
prikupljati iz mnoštva izvora, sistematski, u svim delovima organizacije, a potom integrisati u proces koji
omogućava sticanje koherentne i
uravnotežene slike o zahtevima korisnika i tržišta.
U TQM okruženju je neophodno
uspostaviti mehanizme uzajamnog
pružanja uvida u važne informacije
i podatke. Postoje procesi kojima se
utvrđuje korisnička percepcija rezultata organizacije i utiče na kretanje
na tržištu.
Kao posledica toga organizacije
ovladavaju (ili, pak, ne ovladavaju)
tržištem stvarajući određenu dozu
korisničke lojalnosti, koja je rezultat
ponude preferiranih proizvoda (roba
i usluga) po povoljnim cenama, uz
neophodno poštovanje zahteva i potreba unutrašljih korisnika.
[In relation to ISO 9004:2000, we
can observe the organisations which
are fully familiar with their customers - their current and future needs
and perceptions.
Numerous organizations with a completely disordered quality system
Napomena: Tabela 1 se nastavlja na sljedećoj
strani.
78
Note: Table 1 continues on the next page.
B. Prodanović: POSSIBILITY OF TQM SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION IN ISO 9000 SERIES
Princip 2:
LIDERSTVO
- Lideri uspostavljaju jedinstvo
svrhe postojanja i pravaca delovanja
organizacije. Oni treba da uspostave
i održavaju takvu unutrašnju klimu
u kojoj ljudstvo postaje uključeno u
sve aktivnosti koje vode postizanju
ciljeva organizacije.
[Principle 2:
LEADERSHIP
- Leaders establish unity of purpose
and direction of the organisation.
They should create and maintain
the internal environment in which
people can become fully involved in
achieving the organisations quality
objectives]
quality management systems that
meet the minimum requirements
(such as, for example, QMS compliant with ISO 9001), shall be focused
on meeting customer requirements
in any of their processes.
Examples include contract review
processes, new product design and
undertaking corrective actions. In
fact, a strict focus on identifying user
requirements is probably the greatest
benefit gained from the adoption of
ISO 9001 as a QMS model of the
given organisation.
Therefore, this principle can be
used as a platform for better understanding of a wide range of needs,
requirements and expectations of
customers, whether they refer to the
characteristics of a product (or service), quality of supply, price or suitability for use.
With reference to the definition of
quality (ISO 9000: 2000), which
along with the customer emphasises
other interest groups, this Principle
stresses the necessity of harmonizing
the needs of all interest groups.
As a rule, QMS establishes a connection between the complaints of
customers with data analysis.
These processes represent the beginning of a systematic interpretation of
feedback from customers and their
role in preventing future problems.]
claim that they are fully familiar with
their customers. They often refer to
their research and development sector, as a department which has an absolute access to the customers, often
without having any actual contact
(so called “dream syndrome”).
However, an insight into customer
population in TQM environment is
not based on individual situations,
nor is it a matter of individual sectors. Instead, the information have
to be systematically gathered from a
variety of sources in all segments of
the organization, followed by their
integrated into a process that allows
the acquisition of a coherent and balanced picture of the customers’ and
market demands.
It is necessary to establish mechanisms for mutual access to important
information and data in such TQM
environment. There are processes
that determine customer perceptions
of the organization’s results and its
influence to market trends.
As a result, the organizations master
(or fail to do so) the market, by creating a certain amount of customer
loyalty, which is a result of the portfolio of preferred products (goods
and services) at affordable prices,
accompanied by the compulsory respect for the demands and needs of
internal customers/users.]
U svakoj organizaciji postoje rukovodioci na svim nivoima rukovođenja. Neosporno je da je najviše rukovodstvo odgovorno za
uspostavljanje vizije i strateških
pravaca u svim aspektima poslovanja, uključujući menadžment
kvalitetom i sistem menadžmenta
kvalitetom.
U svakoj dimenziji QMS-a neophodno je ispoljiti liderstvo kao garant ispravnog uspostavljanja i sprovođenja unutrašnjih i spoljašnjih procesa
koji rezultuju povećanjem produktivnosti i zadovoljstva korisnika.
[Each organization has leaders at
each management level. It is undisputed that the highest level of man-
U organizacijama koje u svojim
stremljenjima ka izvrsnosti koriste
ISO 9004, liderstvo poprima dimenzije ličnog; menadžeri moraju
neprekidno sopstvenim primerom
uticati na stvaranje klime koja rezultuje visokim nivoom zadovoljstva
korisnika.
U ovom slučaju lideri kvalitet tretiraju kao stratešku stvar. Analiza ciljeva
i preispitivanje od strane rukovodstva
neizostavan su deo prakse, uz potpunu
integraciju kvaliteta i planova za ljudske resurse u strateške biznis planove.
[In the organizations which strive
towards excellence using ISO 9004,
the leadership assumes a personal dimension; managers must constantly
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B. Prodanović: MOGUĆNOSTI IMPLEMENTACIJE TQM SISTEMA U SERIJI STANDARDA ISO 9000
agement is responsible for establishing the vision and setting a strategic
direction in all aspects of business,
including quality management and
Quality Management System.
Leadership within each dimension of
QMS is necessary to act as a guarantee of proper establishment and implementation of internal and external
processes, resulting in increased productivity and customer satisfaction.]
lead by example and creating an environment resulting in high level of
customer satisfaction.
In this case, leaders treat quality as
a strategic matter. Analysis of objectives and review by the management
are an indispensable part of the practice, with full integration of quality
and plans for human resources in
strategic business plans.]
Princip 3:
UKLJUČIVANJE SVIH
ZAPOSLENIH
- Najvažniji resurs svake organizacije predstavlja ljudstvo, a njegovo uključivanje u poslovanje predstavlja priliku da se postojeći korpus
znanja, veština i sposobnosti iskoristi na dobrobit cele organizacije.
[Principle 3:
INVOLVEMENT OF PEOPLE
- People at all levels of an organization are the essence of it. Their
complete involvement in the business operations enables their abilities, knowledge and experience to be
used for the benefit of the organization.]
Osnovni
sistem
menadžmenta kvalitetom treba da obezbedi
okruženje u kome su svi pojedinci
kvalifikovani i sposobni da izvode
procese koji su im povereni. Obuka
i sticanje kvalifikacije za obavljanje
određenih procesa integralni su deo
QMS-a. Organizacije moraju visoko vrednovati sposobnost svojih
zaposlenih kojom oni doprinose unapređenju. Primeri njihovog doprinosa obuhvataju učešće zaposlenih
u procesima za preduzimanje korektivnih mera, timovima za uvođenje
novih proizvoda ili procesa, poboljšanje mera bezbednosti i sl.
[Basic Quality Management System should provide an environment
where all individuals are qualified
and able to perform the processes
entrusted. Training and qualification
to perform certain processes are an
integral part of the QMS. Organizations should highly value the abilities
of their employees used to contribute to its improvement. Examples of
their contribution include employee
participation in the processes for taking corrective measures, their participation in the teams in charge for
the introduction of new products or
processes, improvement of security
measures and the like.]
Većina organizacija je ovladala znanjima neophodnim za uključivanje
zaposlenih u procese unapređenja
poslovne prakse. Postojanje procesa
kojim se uspostavlja komunikacija
između lidera i zaposlenih. Lideri
su ti koji moraju obezbediti potpunu
usaglašenost ciljeva organizacije i
ličnih ciljeva zaposlenih. Na sadašnjem stupnju razvoja u organizacijama postoji svest o neophodnosti
zajedničkog raspolaganja podacima
i informacijama, tj. obezbeđivanju
njihove dostupnosti svim zaposlenima. Na ovaj način postiže se visok
nivo shvatanja ciljeva organizacije.
[Most organizations have fully mastered the skills and knowhow required for introduction of employees
processes of improving business
practices. There are processes which
establish communication between
leaders and employees. The leaders
are to ensure full compliance of the
organization’s goals and personal
goals of employees. Current stage
of development in organizations
brings awareness of the necessity of
joint management of information,
i.e. ensuring their availability to all
employees. This way ensures a high
level of understanding of the organization’s objectives.]
Princip 4:
PROCESNI PRISTUP
- Željeni rezultati postižu se mnogo efikasnije ukoliko se menadžment resursima i aktivnostima vrši kroz procese.
[Principle 4:
PROCESS APPROACH
- A desired result is achieved more efficiently when related resources and activities are
managed in an organisation as a process.]
Osnovna postavka ISO 9001:2000 je
procesni pristup svim aktivnostima u
okviru jedne organizacije. Novi, procesni model je mnogo lakši za primenu nego stari hijerarhijski model
zbog toga što on u stvari odražava
način na koji vešina organizacija i
posluje - kao lanac ulaza i izlaza.
Bazična postavka sistema menadžmenta kvalitetom podrazumeva jas-
Po ISO 9004:2000 organizacije su
usredsređene na optimizaciju resursa
u okviru svakog procesa, procese je
uvek moguće unaprediti, a u organizaciji moraju postojati aktivnosti
namenjene ostvarenju planiranih unapređenja.
Uz neophodno razumevanje procesa, sveprisutne su aktivnosti merenja
parametara procesa. Radi utvrđivanja
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B. Prodanović: POSSIBILITY OF TQM SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION IN ISO 9000 SERIES
Princip 5:
SISTEMSKI PRISTUP
MENADŽMENTU
- Utvrđivanje, shvatanje i menadžment sistemom međusobno povezanih procesa, usmerenih na postizanje
datog cilja, poboljšavaju se efektivnost i efikasnost organizacije.
Principle 5:
SYSTEM APPROACH TO
MANAGEMENT
- Identifying, understanding and
managing as a system all interrelated
processes, focused onto achieving
given quality objectives contributes
to an organization’s effectiveness
and efficiency.
no definisane procese projektovanja,
proizvodnje i isporuke proizvoda
(roba i usluga), kao i procese koji
obezbeđuju zadovoljenje zahteva
korisnika. U ovakvom okruženju
težište upravljanja se premešta sa
kvaliteta proizvoda na upravljanje
procesima.
Procesi kao što su preduzimanje preventivnih i korektivnih mera, obavljanje odita i preispitivanje od strane
rukovodstva neizostavni su deo svakog QMS-a.
[The basis of ISO 9001: 2000 is a
process approach to all activities
within an organization. A new process model is much easier to apply
than the old hierarchical model, due
to the fact that it actually reflects the
method used by the majority of organizations - as a chain of inputs and
outputs.
The basic setting of Quality Management System with implies clearly
defined processes of design, production and delivery of products (goods
and services), as well as the processes that ensure the satisfaction of
user needs. In such environment, the
focus of management is transferred
from the quality of the product onto
process management.
Processes such as taking preventive
and corrective measures, conducting audits and review by the management are integral part of every
QMS.]
aktivnosti neophodnih za realizaciju
unapređenja, rezultati merenja izlaza
procesa moraju se neprekidno korelirati sa rezultatima merenja u ključnim
tačkama procesa.
[According to ISO 9004: 2000 organizations are focused on resources
optimization within each process. It
is always possible to improve a process, while certain activities must be
aimed at achieving the planned improvements within an organization.
Alongside with the necessary understanding of the process, activities of
measuring process parameters are
ubiquitous. In order to determine activities necessary for the implementation of improvement, the results of
output measurement of the process
must be continuously correlated with
the results of measurements at key
points of the process.]
Razvojem bazičnog QMS-a, organizacije počinju sa integrisanjem procesa za proizvodnju roba i usluga sa
procesima namenjenih verifikaciji
zadovoljenja potreba korisnika.
Na ovom nivou naglasak je na razvoju
QMS -a primerenog trenutnom stanju
organizacije, koji je svrsishodan za
zadovoljenje zahteva korisnika.
Na ovom nivou izazov predstavlja
stvaranje svrsishodnog sistema sa
potpuno integrisanim procesima,
uz istovremeno izbegavanje nepotrebne papirologije i birokratije.
Na ovom nivou svrha QMS-a je
postizanje zadovoljstva korisnika.
Primenjujući
smernice
ISO
9004:2000, organizacija u potpunosti ovladava interakcijom različitih
procesa u svome poslovanju. Procesi
su usaglašeni međusobno, a, takođe,
i sa ciljevima organizacije.
Na ovom nivou organizacije su usresređene na postizanje rezultate
neprekidnim unapređivanjem sistema menadžmenta. Iako postizanje
zadovoljstva korisnika i dalje ostaje
osnovni pokretač poslovnog uspeha,
organizacije mogu sada da koriste
podatke o svojim procesima, zajedno sa povratnim informacijama, za
strateško odlučivanje i opšte poslovno planiranje.
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B. Prodanović: MOGUĆNOSTI IMPLEMENTACIJE TQM SISTEMA U SERIJI STANDARDA ISO 9000
Princip 6:
NEPREKIDNO POBOLJŠAVANJE
- Neprekidno poboljšavanje mora
biti stalni cilj organizacija.
Principle 6:
CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT
- Continual improvement should be
a permanent quality objective of an
organisation.
Apsolutno svrsishodni sistemi koriste rezultate merenja zadovoljstva
korisnika, kao i druge relevantne
podatke, za svakodnevne menadžerske aktivnosti i odlučivanje. Proces
preispitivanja od strane rukovodstva
je usavršen do te mere da se rezultati
ovog procesa, zajedno sa rezultatima odita, mogu koristiti za proveru
efektivnosti sistema.
[By developing basic QMS, organizations start with the integration process of the production of goods and
services with the process of verification intended for satisfying the needs
of the customer.
At this level, the emphasis is on the
development of QMS suitable to
the current state of the organization,
which is adequate and required for
the purpose of meeting user requirements.
At this level, the challenge is to create a functional system with fully
integrated processes, while avoiding
unnecessary paperwork and bureaucracy.
At the same level, the purpose of
QMS is to achieve customer satisfaction. Absolutely functional and
meaningful systems use the results
of measurements of user satisfaction,
as well as other relevant data for the
daily management activities and decision-making. The Review process
by the management was perfected to
such an extent that the results of such
process, together with the results of
the audit, may be used to verify the
effectiveness of the system.]
[By applying the guidelines of ISO
9004: 2000, the organization fully
mastered the interaction of different
processes in its business.
The processes have been aligned
both mutually and with the organization’s objectives.
At this level, the organizations are
focused on achieving results by continuous improvement of management systems. Although achieving
customer satisfaction remains to be
the primary driver of business success, organizations can now use data
on their own processes, alongside
with feedback information, for the
purpose of strategic decision-making and general business planning.]
U ovom stadijumu postoje ustanovljeni zreli i robusni korektivni, kao i
preventivni procesi.
Organizacije su usredsređene na unapređivanje efektivnosti sistema menadžmenta kvalitetom, zasnovanom
na činjenicama (Princip 7) dobijenim svrsishodnim merenjima (uz korišćenje statističkih metoda).
[This stage is characterised by mature and robust corrective as well as
preventive processes.
Organizations are focused on im-
U ovom stadijumu lideri postavljaju
ciljeve na bazi merenja zadovoljstva
korisnika i unutrašnjih performansi.
Postoji podsticaj da se postignu motivišuće postavljeni ciljevi. Lideri su i
sami uključeni u proces unapređivanja, kao i u obezbeđivanje resursa
neophodnih za postizanje ciljeva.
Organizacije su usredsređene na efikasno zadovoljavanje budućih zahteva korisnika i postizanje poslovnih
rezultata kroz sistem menadžmenta
kvalitetom.
[At this stage, leaders set goals based
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Princip 7:
ODLUČIVANJE NA OSNOVU
ČINJENICA
- Svrsishodne odluke zasnivaju se na
analizama podataka i informacija.
[Principle 7:
FACTUAL APPROACH TO DECISION MAKING
- Effective decisions are always
based on the data analysis and information.]
proving the effectiveness of the
Quality Management System, based
on facts (Principle 7) obtained by
adequate and meaningful measurements (with the use of statistical
methods).
on the measurement of customer satisfaction and internal performance.
There is an incentive to achieve the
motivating preset objectives.
The leaders themselves are involved
in the process of improvement, as
well as in providing the resources
necessary to achieve the objectives.
Organizations are focused onto efficient fulfilment of future demands
and achievement of business results
through Quality Management System.]
Činjenice i podaci koriste se u
sistemu menadžmenta kvalitetom za
donošenje odluka koje se odnose na
rad sistema. Do informacija se dolazi
analizom rezultata odita, korektivnih
aktivnosti, performansi procesa, žalbi korisnika, kao i drugih izvora. Analize se fokusiraju na podatke koji
se mogu upotrebiti za unapređivanje
zadovoljstva korisnika i efikasnosti
i efektivnosti sistema menadžmenta
kvalitetom.
[Facts, figures and data are used in
Quality Management System for
decision-making related to system
operation. The information are obtained by analyzing the results of
audits, corrective actions, process
performance, customer complaints,
as well as by other sources. The
analyses are focused on the data that
can be used for the improvement of
customer satisfaction as well as of
the Quality Management System efficiency and effectiveness.]
Odluke i aktivnosti zasnivaju se na
analizi širokog spektra podataka. Podaci u vezi sa korisnicima dobijaju se
iz svih raspoloživih izvora da bi se što
više saznalo o tome šta je presudno
za poboljšanje tržišne pozicije organizacije. Tehnike kao što su fokusne
grupe, ankete i praćenje trendova rutinski se koriste da bi se zasigurno razumele potrebe i očekivanja korisnika. Informacije se dobijaju analizom
podataka i kroz inovativne ideje svih
iz organizacije. Usresređenost je na
poboljšanju produktivnosti, uz eliminaciju otpada i dorade, kao i povećanje tržišne vrednosti.
[Decisions and activities are based on
the analysis of a wide range of data.
Customer-related data are obtained
from all available sources in order to
gather as many information as possible for the purpose of gathering more
information on what is crucial for the
improvement of the organization’s
current market position. Techniques
such as focus groups, surveys and
monitoring trends are routinely used
to fully understand the needs and
expectations of customers/users. Information are obtained through data
analysis and innovative ideas coming
from everybody within an organization. The focus is on the productivity
improvement, with the elimination
of waste and processing at the same
time, as well as with a simultaneous
increase in market value.]
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Princip 8:
UZAJAMNO KORISNI ODNOSI
SA ISPORUČIOCIMA
- Organizacije i njihovi snabdevači
su međusobno zavisni, tako da uzajamno korisni odnosi povećavaju
sposobnost i jednih i drugih da stvaraju vrednost.
[Principle 8:
MUTUALLY BENEFICIAL SUPPLIER RELATIONSHIPS
- Organisations and their suppliers are interdependent. Therefore a
mutually beneficial relationship between them increases the ability of
both to add value.]
Razvojem sistema menadžmenta
kvalitetom organizacije ovladavaju
sopstvenim procesima, dokumentujući zahteve koje snabdevači moraju
da zadovolje. Među postojećim procesima moraju se naći i oni za preispitivanje i ocenu sposobnosti snabdevača da zadovolje te zahteve, kao i
oni za procenu usaglašenosti ciljeva
organizacije i njenih snabdevača.
[Development of the Quality Management System enables the organizations to master their own processes by registering the demands that
suppliers are to meet. The existing
processes should include those for
reviewing and evaluating the ability
of suppliers to fulfil such demands,
as well as those used for assessment
of objective compliance of the organization and its suppliers.]
Uvođenje integrisanih sistema menadžmenta zahteva mnogobrojne promene u preduzeću, od promena u procesima i procedurama
do promena u čitavoj filozofiji poslovanja i
celokupnoj kulturi preduzeća. Integracija menadžment sistema je racionalan i prirodan put
koji zadovoljava različite standarde, a, istovremeno, podiže nivo sposobnosti preduzeća
i njegovo približavanje ciljevima izvrsnosti.
Standardizacija menadžment sistema postaje ključni zadatak menadžera i pitanje opstanka preduzeća u dvadeset prvom veku. Pored
vlasnika preduzeća, čiji je prioritet profit i
što brže uvećanje uloženog kapitala, različite zainteresovane strane: kupci, društvena zajednica, zaposleni, isporučioci i vlada,
na organizovan način vrše sve veći pritisak
i postavljaju zahteve da preduzeća adaptiraju svoj menadžment sistem prema različitim
84
Uspostavljanjem strateških alijansi i
partnerstva postojeća orijentacija se
menja. U mnogim slučajevima organizacije uključuju snabdevače u rane
faze definisanja zahteva zajedničkog
razvoja i simultanog inženjeringa.
Organizacije sarađuju sa snabdevačima, razvijajući uzajamno poverenje,
poštovanje i posvećenost zadovoljstvu korisnika. Zajednički napori na
neprekidnom unapređivanju postali su standard ponašanja za obadve
strane.
Briga za sistem za menadžment
kvalitetom snabdevača postaje stalno
prisutna.
[The existing orientation is changed
by establishing strategic alliances and
partnerships. In many cases, organizations include suppliers in the early
stages of defining requirements of
common development and simultaneous engineering.
Organizations cooperate with suppliers, developing mutual trust, respect
and commitment to customer satisfaction. Joint efforts on the continuous improvement have become standard behaviour for both sides.
Care for a Quality Management System of suppliers is becoming continuously present.]
Introduction of integrated management systems requires numerous changes in the company.
Starting from the changes in processes and procedures to changes in the entire business philosophy and culture of the company. Integration of a
management system is a rational and natural path
that fulfils various standards and simultaneously
increases the ability of a company and its convergence towards the objectives of excellence.
Standardization of management systems is becoming a key task of managers, as well as the survival issue of enterprises in the twenty-first century. In addition to the company’s owner, whose
priority is profit and the fastest possible increase of
the funds invested, the various interested parties:
customers, community, employees, suppliers and
the government, manage to increase the pressure
in an organized manner and set requirements for
the companies to adapt their management system
B. Prodanović: POSSIBILITY OF TQM SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION IN ISO 9000 SERIES
standardima kako bi unapred bili sigurni da će
ispuniti njihova očekivanja. Menadžeri koji
se bore sa porastom složenosti tehnoloških,
organizacionih i socijalnih problema, teško
mogu da shvate moderne trendove u razvoju
menadžment sistema zasnovane na konceptu
totalnog kvaliteta. Pojava standarda ISO 9000
i modela izvrsnosti dovela je do primene ovog
koncepta: sa jedne strane, postavljenog kao
tržišne barijere, a, sa druge strane, kao metoda za unapređenje konkurentnosti i efikasnosti, smanjenje troškova i dugoročan održiv razvoj preduzeća. Sertifikacija različitih
menadžment sistema: kvaliteta, životne sredine, zdravlja i bezbednosti, socijalne odgovornosti, bezbednosti hrane i drugih, postaje
prioritet preduzeća. Integracija svih navedenih sistema sa postojećim sistemima u preduzeću u jedan operativan menadžment sistem
predstavlja prvorazredno pitanje za njihove
menadžere. Primena koncepta totalnog menadžmenta i težnja ka izvrsnosti omogućuje
stvaranje jedinstvene osnove za ovu integraciju kako za kreatore standarda tako i za menadžment preduzeća.
according to different standards in order to make
sure in advance their expectations are met. The
managers who are struggling with the increasing
complexity of technological, organizational and
social problems, find it difficult to understand the
modern trends in the development of management systems based on total quality concept. The
emergence of ISO 9000 standard and models of
excellence has led to the application of such concept: positioned as market barrier - on one hand,
and, on the other hand, positioned as a method
for improving the competitiveness and efficiency,
reduction of costs and long-term sustainable development of an enterprise. Certification of various management systems: quality, environment,
health and safety, social responsibility, food safety and others, is becoming a priority of companies. Integration of all the above systems with
the systems already existing in the company in a
unique operational management system is an important issue for their managers. The application
of the total management concept and the pursuit
of excellence enables unique basis for such integration both for creators of such standards and for
the management of a company.
ZAKLЈUČAK
CONCLUSION
Pojava eksternog pritiska sa strane države,
koji se ispoljava putem donošenja velikog
broja zakona i propisa i izuzetno oštre kazne
za i najmanju omašku u njihovoj primeni, te
jačanja pritiska javnosti koja zahteva zdravu
životnu i bezbednu radnu sredinu, nagoni preduzeća da preispitaju svoju praksu u oblasti
primene sistema menadžmenta. Kada se tu
dodaju i drugi razlozi kao što su troškovi usluga konsaltinga i ocenjivanja, vreme potrebno
za pripremu za sertifikaciju i ograničeni ljudski resursi, postaje očigledno da firme moraju
da pronađu optimalan put za istovremeno i što
jeftinije zadovoljenje svih eksternih i internih
zahteva.
Kada se planirani rezultati (projektovane
vrednosti kvaliteta procesa) ne postignu, moraju se preduzeti korekcije i korektivne mere,
gde je moguće, da bi se osigurala usaglašenost
predmeta rada sa planiranim rezultatima. Pri-
Having external pressure imposed by the state,
which is manifested in the enactment of numerous
laws and regulations and extremely harsh penalties
and fines even for the slightest omission in their
implementation, as well as strengthening of pressure imposed by the public requiring a healthy and
safe working environment, urges companies to reconsider their practice in the field of management
system application. Adding other factors to the
equation, such as the cost of consulting and cost of
assessment, the time required to prepare for certification as well as limited human resources, it becomes evident that companies are required to find
the optimal path to simultaneously fulfil all external
and internal requirements as cheaply as possible.
In case the planned results (projected value of
the process quality) are not achieved, certain corrections and corrective measures are to be taken
where possible, in order to ensure compliance
of the objectives with the planned results. In the
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likom sprovođenja korektivnih mera potrebno
je utvrditi uzrok nastajanja neusaglašenosti i
definisati i primeniti neophodne mere koje će
osigurati da se neusaglašenosti ne ponove. Sa
stanovišta efikasnog i efektivnog upravljanja
procesima bitno je potencijalni problem uočiti što je ranije moguće, pre nastanka neusaglašenosti. Ukoliko se praćenjem karakteristika
kvaliteta procesa uoči, na osnovu trenda karakteristika, da proces neće biti u mogućnosti
da ostvari planirane rezultate, tada se moraju
preduzeti preventivne mere kako bi se sprečile potencijalne neusaglašenosti.
Zbog konkurencije i napretka tehnike, organizacije su primorane da stalno poboljšavaju
svoje proizvode i procese. Pored inkrementalnih unapređenja „korak po korak“ potrebno
je i radikalno unapređenje kvaliteta procesa,
pošto se potrebe i očekivanja korisnika stalno
menjaju. Praćenjem bitnih karakteristika kvaliteta, pratimo stepen ispunjenja zahteva svih
korisnika, što, u stvari, predstavlja sintetizovan
pokazatelj indeksa zadovoljstva korisnika.
implementation of such corrective measures it is
necessary to determine the cause of nonconformities and define and implement the necessary measures to prevent repetition of the nonconformities.
From the standpoint of efficient and effective process management, it is essential to notice potential
problems as early as possible, prior to the nonconformities occur. If the monitoring of process quality characteristics demonstrates, on the basis of the
trend of characteristics, that the process will not be
able to accomplish the planned results, it is then
necessary to engage preventive measures to prevent potential nonconformities.
Due to the competition and technical advances,
organizations are forced to constantly improve their
products and processes. In addition to incremental
“step by step” improvements it is necessary to radically improve the process quality, since the needs
and expectations of users are constantly changing.
By tracking the essential characteristics of quality,
we are able to monitor the level of fulfilling the requirements of all users, which, in fact, represents
a synthesized indicator of user satisfaction index.
LITERATURA
LITERATURE
Culbertson, A., Houston, A., Faast, D.,
White, M., Aguirre, M. & Behr, C. (1997).
Total Quality Leadership Office: The Process Improvement Notebook. Department of the
Navy.
ISO. (2001). ISO 9000 Introduction and
Support Package: Guidance on the Process
Approach to quality management systems.
Autor
Luning, P.A., Devlieghere, F., & Verhé, R.
(2006). Safety in the agri-food chain. Wageningen Academic Publishers.
SZS. (n.d.). Sistemi menadžmenta kvalitetom - Uputstva za poboljšavanje performansi.
Preuzeto 29. septembra 2014. sa sajta http://
rpkns.com/~rpknsco/images/stories/ekologija/
Uputstva_za_poboljsanje_performanci.pdf.
U.S. Department of Energy. (1995). How to
Measure Performance A Handbook of Techniques and Tools. Autor.
Culbertson, A., Houston, A., Faast, D.,
White, M., Aguirre, M. & Behr, C. (1997).
Total Quality Leadership Office: The Process Improvement Notebook. Department of the
Navy.
ISO. (2001). ISO 9000 Introduction and
Support Package: Guidance on the Process
Approach to quality management systems.
Autor
Luning, P.A., Devlieghere, F., & Verhé, R.
(2006). Safety in the agri-food chain. Wageningen Academic Publishers.
SZS. (n.d.). Quality management system Guidelines for performance improvements .
Retrived September 29, 2014. from http://rpkns.com/~rpknsco/images/stories/ekologija/
Uputstva_za_poboljsanje_performanci.pdf.
U.S. Department of Energy. (1995). How to
Measure Performance A Handbook of Techniques and Tools. Autor.
86
ORGANIZACIONO UPRAVLJANJE I LIDERSTVO - ORGANIZATIONAL MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP
ORGANIZACIONE STRUKTURE I HODOGRAM DOKUMENTACIJE
I AKTIVNOSTI
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES AND FLOWCHART OF DOCUMENTS
AND ACTIVITIES
Prof. dr Zoran Lukić
Univerzitet u Banjoj Luci, Ekonomski fakultet u Banjoj Luci
University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Economics Banja Luka
Mr Dragana Došenović
Univerzitet u Banjoj Luci, Ekonomski fakultet u Banjoj Luci
University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Economics Banja Luka
Mr Slađenko Galić
Verano Motors d.o.o.
Pregledni članak
DOI 10.7251/OIK1403006L, UDK 005.336.1:658.1
Review paper
REZIME
ABSTRACT
Tema ovog rada jeste proces organizovanja poslovnih sistema, sa posebnim osvrtom
na organizacionu strukturu koja nastaje kao
rezultat posmatranog procesa. Može se reći
da organizovanje, kao jedna od funkcija menadžmenta, predstavlja ključ uspjeha za efikasno poslovanje i ostvarivanje postavljenih
ciljeva svake organizacije. Upravo iz tog razloga osnovna svrha ovog rada jeste da se
opiše ova menadžerska aktivnost, као i da se
ukaže na značaj koji organizacione strukture
imaju za postizanje pozitivnih rezultata poslovanja. S obzirom da je hodogram dokumentacije i aktivnosti neophodan dokument koji se
izrađuje u skladu sa dizajniranom organizacionom strukturom, u ovom radu predstavljen
je i značaj ovog dokumenta za poslovanje organizacija.
Na osnovu analize i istraživanja koje je provedeno u svrhu izrade ovog rada, došlo se do
brojnih zaključaka na osnovu kojih je dokazano da adekvatno dizajnirana organizaciona
struktura pozitivno utiče na poslovanje preduzeća, čime se apostrofira značaj procesa
organizovanja, aktivnosti organizacionog dizajna, kao i procesa izrade hodograma dokumentacije i aktivnosti.
The main subject of the paper is the process of
organizing business systems, particularly emphasizing the organizational structure resulting from the process observed. A statement can
be made that organization, as one of the management functions, is the key to success for efficient business performance and accomplishment of the objectives of any organization. For
that particular reason, the main purpose of the
paper is to illustrate this management activity
as well as to emphasize the significance of organizational structures for the achievement of
positive business results. Since the Flowchart
of documentation and activities represents an
essential document drafted in accordance with
the designed organizational structure, the paper describes the importance of such document
for business operations of organizations.
Based on the assessment and research performed for the purpose of this paper, numerous results have been obtained on the basis of
which it has been proven that an adequately
designed organizational structure positively
affects business operations of a company, thus
emphasizing the importance of the organization process, organizational design activities,
as well as the process of drafting flowchart of
documentation and activities.
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Z. Lukić, D. Došenović i S. Galić: ORGANIZACIONE STRUKTURE I HODOGRAM DOKUMENTACIJE I AKTIVNOST
Ključne riječi: menadžment, organizovanje,
organizaciona struktura, poslovni sistem,
poslovni rezultata, hodogram dokumentacije
i aktivnosti.
Keywords: management, organization,
organizational structure, business system,
business results, Flowchart of documentation
and activities.
UVOD
INTRODUCTION
Osnovna karakteristika preduzeća ispoljava se u njegovoj primjerenosti kriterijumima
tržišnog načina privređivanja. Iz toga proističe i neophodnost odgovarajućeg uređenja
svakog organizacionog sistema, čije se funkcionisanje i razvoj zasnivaju na kapitalu kao
izrazu vrijednosti svih resursa koji se ulažu u
poslovanje i u kojima se iskazuju postignuti
rezultati. Da bi poslovni sistemi uspješno poslovali i ostvarivali postavljene ciljeve, jedan
od osnovnih uslova je i postojanje adekvatnog
sistema rukovođenja. Tako je menadžment
neophodan u svim sistemima u kojima se teži
efikasnom poslovanju, a posebno u oblasti
usluga gdje je izuzetno veliko učešće kreativnosti u rješavanju pojedinačnih situacija. S
obzirom da su usluge manje ili više zastupljene u svim procesima, može se reći da su svi
na neki način uključeni u proces pružanja
usluga. Pristup organizovanju i primjeni procesa pružanja visoko vrednovanih usluga se
konstantno mijenja, od vremena kada je proizvodnja bila posmatrana bez obzira na ulogu
potrošača i mišljenja da je proizvođačka osobina proizvoda bila dovoljna, pa sve do novog
odnosa kojim se klijent posmatra kao ključni
faktor u definisanju standarda zadovoljenja
uslugom koja mu se pruža. Riječ je o pomaku
prema interesu klijenata i posmatranju načina
na koji potrošač shvata i doživljava nivo usluge koju konzumira.
Savremeni uslovi privređivanja od preduzeća zahtijevaju kontinuirano uvođenje promjena, inovacija, prilagođavanje i fleksibilnost
preduzeća u odnosu na promjene u okruženju.
Stavljanje klijenta u centar pažnje i organizovanje poslovnih sistema na način kako bi što
bolje i potpunije zadovoljili potrebe klijenata
u potpunosti aktuelizuje temu organizovanja,
upravljanja i primjene procesa kontrole pruženih usluga. Često se postavlja pitanje da li i
The main company feature is expressed in its
adequacy to the criteria of market economy. This
results in the necessity of appropriate regulation
of each organizational system whose operation
and development are based on equity as an expression of the value of all resources invested in
business and in which the results achieved are
presented. In order for business systems to operate successfully and accomplish the set goals, one
of the basic prerequisites is the existence of an
adequate management system. Therefore, management is considered as critical for any system
aimed at reaching efficient business operations,
particularly in the area of services with the exceptionally high percentage of creativity in resolving individual situations. Given that the services
are more or less involved in all processes, it can
be said that every process is in a way included
in the service delivery process. The approach
to organization and implementation of providing highly valued services is constantly altered.
Starting from the period when the production
was observed regardless of the consumer role
and from the opinion that the product’s attributes
themselves would be sufficient, to the latest new
relationship which perceives the client as a key
factor in defining standards of satisfaction with
the service being provided. It is a shift towards
the interest of clients and perceiving the way the
consumer understands and experiences the level
of service being provided.
Modern economic conditions require enterprises to continuously introduce change, innovation, adaptation and flexibility of enterprises
in relation to changes occurring in the environment. By placing the customer at the centre of
attention and by organizing business systems
in such way to better and fully meet the needs
of clients, the subject of organization, management and application of process control of the
services provided is fully actualized. Often the
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na koji način organizaciona struktura u postprodajnim uslugama utiče na poslovni uspjeh,
što ujedno predstavlja i problem istraživanja
u ovom radu. Osnovni cilj rada jeste da opiše
i objasni značaj organizacione strukture i njenog restrukturiranja za poslovanje preduzeća,
a osnovna hipoteza od koje se polazi u ovom
radu definisana je na sljedeći način: adekvatna organizaciona struktura i hodogram dokumentacije i aktivnosti pozitivno utiču na
uspješnost poslovanja.
question is whether and how the organizational structure in the post-sale services affects the
business success, which also represents one of
research problems in the paper. The main objective of the paper is to describe and illustrate
the importance of organizational structure and
its restructuring for the company’s operations.
The basic hypothesis of the paper is defined as
follows: adequate organizational structure and
flowchart of documents and activities have a
positive effect onto business performance.
ORGANIZACIJA I ORGANIZACIONE
STRUKTURE
ORGANIZATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL
STRUCTURES
Riječ organizacija potiče od grčke riječi
ergon (rad, djelo, čin) i iz nje izvedene riječi organon (naprava, oruđe, alatka, sprava). Kao porijeklo riječi takođe se može
uzeti i latinska riječ organizatio (spajanje
pojedinih dijelova u cjelinu, ustrojstvo ili
organizovanje). Fenomen organizovanja
identifikovan je u prvim periodima razvoja
ljudskog društva. Iako su od tada doživjele
veliki napredak i pretrpjele radikalne promjene, prvobitne / najprimitivnije organizacije imaju skoro iste ciljeve i namjene
kao i savremene organizacije. Organizacija kao naučna disciplina dala je poseban
doprinos, omogućavajući da se ljudske aktivnosti obave na efikasan i racionalan način. Rad ili posao bez organizacije ne znači
ništa, pa, sa razvojem ljudske civilizacije,
organizacija dobija sve veći značaj. Zadovoljavanje sve većeg broja ljudskih potreba sa ograničenim resursima, u izrazito
dinamičnom okruženju, otvara nove izazove za organizaciju, a evolutivne promjene
koje sve više zahvataju privredu i društvo
zahtijevaju nova organizaciona rješenja.
Organizacija predstavlja jednu od najstarijih i najvažnijih tvorevina čovjeka. Ona
postoji koliko i svrsishodan ljudski rad.
Može se reći da potreba za organizacijom
postoji gdje god dva ili više lica obavljaju
neki posao.
Kao rezultat složenosti fenomena organizacije i različitih pristupa njenom prou-
The word organization is derived from the
Greek word ergon (work, act) and from the previously derived word Organon (gadget, tool, device) of the same origin. In terms of the origin of
the word, the Latin word organizatio (connecting
individual parts into a whole; structure or organization) can also be used. The phenomenon of the
organization had been identified in the early stages of development of human society. Although
experiencing great progress and undergoing
through radical changes since their establishment, original/primitive organizations have retained almost the same goals and purposes which
characterize today’s modern organizations. As a
scientific discipline, organization has provided
a particular contribution by enabling to perform
human activities in an efficient and rational manner. Mere work or an activity is worthless without
organization, causing the increasing importance
of organization alongside with the development
of human civilization. Meeting the increasing
human requirements for limited resources in a
highly dynamic environment creates new organizational challenges, while the evolutionary
changes that increasingly affect the economy and
the society require new organizational options.
Organization is one of the oldest and most important creations of man, since it is as old as human
meaningful work. It can be said that the need for
organization exists wherever two or more people
perform a type of work.
As a result of the complexity of the organization phenomenon and different approaches to
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čavanju, pojam organizacija još uvijek nije
precizno određen pa tako postoje brojne definicije organizacije. Organizacija je šema
(mreža) veza i odnosa putem koje ljudi
prema uputstvima menadžera ostvaruju zajedničke ciljeve (Stoner, Freman & Gilbert,
2001, str. 290). Na formiranje i razvoj shvatanja organizacije najviše je uticao američki
inženjer Taylor koji smatra da je organizacija unaprijed osmišljena forma odnosa gdje
rukovodstvo misli, a radnici samo izvršavaju
naređenja (Babić i Lukić, 2008). Mnogi autori organizaciju smatraju kao trajno djelovanje, trajan rad određene vrste sa određenim ciljem, a, nasuprot njima, drugi autori
organizaciju definišu kao svjesno koordinisani socijalni entitet sa relativno definisanim granicama koji funkcioniše na relativno
kontinuiranoj osnovi, da bi se postigao cilj
ili grupa cilja. Organizaciju možemo posmatrati kao menadžersku funkciju strateškog
karaktera posredstvom koje organizacijski
top menadžment stvara pretpostavke za realizaciju oblikovane poslovne strategije. Ona
je i svako ljudsko udruživanje u svrhu postizanja zajedničkog cilja, takođe organizacija, kao opšta kategorija, predstavlja svjesno
udruživanje ljudi kojima je cilj da odgovarajućim sredstvima ispune određene zadatke sa
najmanjim mogućim naporom na bilo kojem
području društvenog života.
Jedna od bitnih odrednica funkcionisanja
i razvoja preduzeća jeste njihova organizaciona struktura jer uslovljava njegovu efikasnost u korištenju raspoloživih ljudskih i
materijalnih resursa, kao i efikasnost zadovoljavanja zahtjeva potrošača, izraženih u
vidu tržišne tražnje. Jednom uspostavljena
organizaciona struktura preduzeća ne može
biti zadovoljavajuća na duže vrijeme, a posebno ne trajno. Stalne promjene u tržišnom
i ukupnom okruženju nameću menadžmentu
da stalno usavršava organizacionu strukturu
kompanije kako bi stekao, očuvao i unapređivao njenu poziciju na tržištu i time doprinosio očuvanju i unapređenju tržišne pozicije. Struktura (lat.: structura = kombinacija
po pravilima, odn. lat.: struere = uslojavanje
90
its assessment, the concept of organization has
not yet been precisely defined, thus generating
numerous definitions of the organization. Organization is a pattern of relationships through
which people under the direction of managers
pursue their common goals (Stoner, Freeman &
Gilbert, 2001, p. 290). The establishment and
development of perceiving the term “organization” was mainly influenced by an American engineer Taylor. He believed that the organization
was a predefined form of a relationship where
the management does the thinking, and the
employees only carry out the orders (Babić &
Lukić, 2008). Many authors observe organization as a permanent action, lasting operation of
a certain type and of a specific purpose.In contrast, other authors define organization as a consciously coordinated social entity with relatively
defined boundaries functioning on a relatively
continuous basis for the purpose of achieving an
objective or a target group. Organizations can
be regarded as a managerial function of strategic character through which organizational top
management creates the preconditions for implementing a premade business strategy. Organization also represents each human collaboration
for the purpose of achieving a common goal, i.e.
as a general category, it represents a conscious
collaboration of people whose goal is to utilise
the funds available to meet certain tasks with the
least effort in any area of social life.
One of the major determinants of functioning
and development of a company is its organizational structure as it conditions its efficiency in
the use of available human and material resources, as well as the efficiency of satisfying consumer
demands, expressed in terms of market demand.
Once established, a company’s organizational
structure may not be satisfactory in a long-term,
and particularly not in permanent terms. Constant
changes on the market and in the overall environment impose a task onto the management to constantly improve and upgrade the organizational
structure of the company in order to acquire,
preserve, and promote its position in the market, thereby contributing to the preservation and
improvement of its market position. Structure
(lat.: structura = a combination according to the
Z. Lukić, D. Došenović i S. Galić: ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES AND FLOWCHART OF DOCUMENTS...
= spajanje) je temeljni pojam koji obuhvata
sistem elemenata i njihovog aktivnog međusobnog odnosa te prepoznavanje, posmatranje i stabilnost uzoraka. Svaka organizacija
ima svoju strukturu, koja se ogleda u sistemu unutrašnjih odnosa i veza. Da bi organizacija ostvarila svoje ciljeve, zahtijeva se
koordinisano djelovanje u pravcu ostvarenja
cilja, tj. da se svi činioci usklade i povežu u
kompaktnu cjelinu. Struktura, prema tome,
predstavlja sastavni i, u isto vrijeme, najvažniji dio svake organizacije (Ibidem, str.
117). Njena važnost je tolika da je mnogi
autori poistovjećuju sa organizacijom, te ona
ne predstavlja samo srž organizacije nego i
svu problematiku, aspekte ispoljavanja i djelovanja organizacije. Autori, kad govore o
strukturi, to najčešće čine tako da govore i
o organizaciji i, obrnuto, te ih najčešće miješaju i tretiraju kao sinonime. Organizacijska
struktura je sveukupnost veza i odnosa svih
činilaca proizvodnje, kao i sveukupnost veza
i odnosa unutar svakog pojedinog činioca
proizvodnje, odnosno poslovanja.
Utvrđivanje organizacione strukture koja
je najprikladnija za strategiju, ljude, tehnologiju i zadatke organizacije naziva se dizajniranje organizacije. Važnost organizacione strukture toliko je velika za preduzeće da
se ona često poistovjećuje sa oranizacijom.
Organizacija je širi pojam od organizacione strukture, ona je samo jedan, najvažniji,
element organizacije. Struktura predstavlja
sastavni dio svakog organizma, svake organizacije. Ona je ujedno i najvažniji dio
svake organizacije. Svaka organizacija, pa
tako i preduzeće ima svoju određenu strukturu, odnosno neki svoj sistem unutrašnjih
veza i odnosa. Važnost strukture za preduzeće jednaka je važnosti anatomije za ljudski ili neki drugi živi organizam, pa se ona
često naziva anatomijom preduzeća. Bez
prave organizacione strukture i najbolji
učinak u svim područjima rukovođenja će
ostati neefikasan (Babić i Stavrić, 2003, str.
113). Organizacijska struktura predstavlja
dinamičan element organizacije – mijenja
se u zavisnosti od uticajnih faktora organi-
rules, i.e. Lat.: struere = layering = connection)
is a fundamental concept comprising a system
of elements and their active mutual relationship
and recognition, observation and sample stability.
Each organization has its own structure, which is
reflected in the system of internal relations and
communications. In order for an organization to
fulfill its goals, a coordinated action is required
towards achieving the goal, i.e. to align all factors
and connect them into a compact whole. Therefore, the structure is integral and the most important part of any organization (Ibidem, p. 117). It
is so significant that many authors identify structure with the organization. Thus, it represents not
only the core, but also all the problems, aspects of
manifestation and activities of the organization.
The authors, when referring to the structure, usually do so by discussing the organization as well,
and vice versa, usually mixing both terms and
treating them as synonyms. Organizational structure is the sum of relations and relationships of all
production factors, as well as the totality of relations and relationships within each production or
business operation factor.
Establishing an organizational structure that is
best suited for strategy, people, technology and
tasks of the organization is called Organization
design. The importance of organizational structure is so great for the company that it is often
equalised with organization itself. Organization
is a broader term than the organizational structure, which is the only and the most important
element of an organization. The structure is an
integral part of any Organism or organization.
It is also the most important part of any organization. Each organization, including companies,
has its own particular structure or a system of
internal relations and connections. The importance of the structure of the company is equal
to the importance of the anatomy to humans or
other living Organisms, which is also the reason it is often called the anatomy of a company.
Without proper organizational structure, even
the best performance in all areas of management
will remain inefficient (Babić & Stavrić, 2003,
p. 113). Organizational structure is a dynamic
element of an organization - it changes based on
the influencing factors of the organization that
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zacije, koji izazivaju potrebu za promjenama u organizacijskoj strukuri preduzeća. O
statičnosti strukture se može govoriti samo
uslovno, tj. samo kada se ona posmatra u
jednom momentu. Ali, ako se ona posmatra
i analizira u dužem vremenskom periodu,
ona gubi karakter statičnosti i pretvara se
u dinamičnu kategoriju. Ono što je statično
nije struktura, već šema ili grafički prikaz
organizacije. U preduzeću se kao živom organizmu stalno dešavaju promjene pa se i
organizaciona struktura preduzeća mijenja
u zavisnosti od uticaja faktora organizacije,
koji izazivaju potrebu za promjenama organizacione strukture. Organizaciona struktura preduzeća slijedi ciljeve preduzeća, a oni
proizilaze iz strategije razvoja preduzeća.
Organizaciona struktura je rezultat procesa
organizovanja, a to je proces koji neprekidno traje. Organizacionom strukturom se
uređuju odnosi između dijelova organizacije i odgovarajućih nadležnosti.
Kada je riječ o podjeli organizacionih struktura, može se reći da postoji formalna i neformalna struktura. Formalna organizacijska
struktura uspostavlja se u procesu organizacijske izgradnje (rezultat procesa organizacijske izgradnje). Formalna organizacijska
struktura predstavlja kičmu, odnosno kostur
svake organizacije. To je ona struktura koja
je propisana i službeno utvrđena (prikazuje se
grafikonima kompanije s pozicije opisa poslova i ciljeva). Za razliku od formalne organizacione strukture u svakom preduzeću djeluje i
stvarna (objektivno postojeća) organizaciona
struktura. Stvarna struktura nastaje u procesu
funkcionisanja formalne organizacione strukture preduzeća. U trenutku uspostavljanja
(izgradnje) organizacione strukture preduzeća stvarna organizaciona struktura odgovara
formalnoj, ali vremenom dolazi do raskoraka.
Raskorak između formalne i stvarne organizacione strukture se dešava usljed promjena
svakog elementa organizacione strutkture.
Neformalna organizacija (informal organization) se vezuje za ljude i njihovo djelovanje
u organizaciji (teško je prepoznati u svim
njenim aspektima). Neformalna organizacij92
cause the need for changes in the organizational
structure of a company. The static nature of the
structure can be discussed only on a conditional
basis, i.e. only when it is perceived in a single
moment. However, if it is viewed and analyzed over a longer period, it loses the character
of inactivity and is transformed into a dynamic
category. Static aspects are not a structure, but a
chart or a graphic representation of the organization. The company is similar to a living Organism, where changes occur constantly, causing
the organizational structure of the company to
change depending on the influence of organizational factors which initiate the need for changes in the organizational structure. The organizational structure of the company follows the
corporate objectives which arise from the development strategy of the company. The organizational structure is the result of the organization
process, which is a continuous mechanism. The
structure defines the relationships between parts
of the organization and the relevant jurisdiction.
When it comes to dividing organizational
structures, it can be said that there are formal
and informal structures. A formal organizational structure is established in the process of
organizational building (result of a process of
organizational building). A formal organizational structure is the backbone or skeleton of
any organization. It is this structure that is prescribed and officially established (demonstrated
by the company’s graphs from the perspective
of job descriptions and objectives). In contrast
to the formal organizational structure, the actual
organizational structure acts in each company
(existing objectively). The actual structure is
formed in the functioning process of a formal
organizational structure. At the time of establishing (building) organizational structure of a
company, the structure corresponds to the actual
formal one, but the discrepancy occurs eventually. The gap between formal and actual organizational structure occurs due to the changes
of each element of organizational structure. Informal Organization is connected to the people
and their activities in the organization (such organization is difficult to recognize in all of its
aspects). The informal organizational structure
Z. Lukić, D. Došenović i S. Galić: ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES AND FLOWCHART OF DOCUMENTS...
ska struktura je skup relativno trajnih odnosa
među ljudima u organizaciji koji su se razvili
tokom njihovog zajedničkog rada, a djeluju
na formalne ciljeve organizacije.
Svako preduzeće koje je formalizovalo
svoj sistem organizacije, bez obzira na veličinu, ima svoj prikaz koji definiše i prezentuje uspostavljenu organizacionu strukturu.
Najčešće su organizaciona struktura i njeni
elementi opisani u priručniku za organizaciju
koji se kasnije koristi u svakodnevnoj praksi.
Priručnici služe kao dopuna ili dodatak organizacionim šemama i čine sa njima komplemantarna organizaciona pomagala. Organizacione karte predstavljaju šematske prikaze
organizacionih struktura. One prikazuju organizacione jedinice, horizontalni i vertikalni raspored jedinica, nivoe u organizaciji,
segmente i slično. Tako šeme predstavljaju
mrežu linija kojima su raspoređeni poslovi
i rukovodna mjesta u organizaciji. Organizacione šeme se u praksi koriste za davanje
sažetog prikaza organizacione strukture i
njenih dijelova, za označavanje formalnog
sistema vlasti u organizaciji, odnosno dužnosti, nadležnosti i odgovornosti u njoj, kanala komunikacije, itd., kao i za pokazivanje
suštine organizacije, odnosno organizacione
strukture u smislu njenog klasifikovanja kao
funkcionalne, predmetne ili neke druge poznate forme modelovanja organizacije. One
se takođe koriste za popis, opis, analizu i
procjenu poslova u organizaciji, itd. (Babić
i Lukić, 2008, str. 196).
Najčešće korištene organizacione šeme su
piramidalne, horizontalne i kružne. Najznačijnija i za praktično rješavanje problema je
podjela organizacionih šema na: (1) upravno-rukovodnu i (2) šemu unutrašnje organizacije.
Upravno rukovodna šema je ona na kojoj
prikazujemo model upravljanja jednim poslovnim sistemom sa svim hijerarhijskim odnosima, skalarnim lancem rukovođenja i međusobnim odnosima.
Na sljedećoj šemi je predstavljen sistem
upravljanja i rukovođenja.
is a set of relatively permanent relationships between people in the organization that developed
during their work together, and they act onto the
formal goals of the organization.
Any company that has formalized its organizational system, regardless of its size, has its
own display that defines and presents the established organizational structure. Organizational structure and its elements are usually
described in the organizational manual which
is later used in everyday practice. Manuals
serve as a complement or a supplement to
organizational schemes thus making complement organizational aids. Organizational
maps are schematic representations of organizational structures. They depict organizational units, their horizontal and vertical distribution, organization levels, segments and the
like. Therefore, schemes represent grid lines
by which jobs and managerial positions in the
organization are distributed. Organizational charts are used in practice for providing a
summary of the organizational structure and
its parts, to mark the formal system of authority or duties in the organization, powers
and responsibilities therein, communication
channels, etc. as well as to demonstrate the
essence of the organization or organizational structure in terms of its classification as a
functional, subject or some other known form
of organization modelling. They are also used
to list, describe, analyze and evaluate activities in the organization, etc. (Babić & Lukić,
2008, p. 196).
The most commonly used organizational charts
are pyramidal, horizontal and circular. The most
important from the practical problem solving
perspective is a division of organizational charts
onto the following: (1) administrative and managerial chart, and (2) chart of internal organization.
Administrative and managerial chart is the
one containing a model of managing a business system with all hierarchical relationships, scalar chain management and interpersonal relationships.
The following diagram contains a system of
management and leadership.
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Shema 1. Sistem upravljanja i rukovođenja
korporacije organizovane po divizionalnom
(teritorijalnom) principu (Ilustracija autora)
94
Scheme 1. System of governance and management of a corporation organized under the divisional (territorial) principle (Illustration of autor)
Z. Lukić, D. Došenović i S. Galić: ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES AND FLOWCHART OF DOCUMENTS...
Shema unutrašnje organizacije predstavljana je pomoću sljedeće slike.
Diagram of internal organization is presented in the following figure.
Shema 2. Unutrašnja organizacija korporacije
organizovane po divizionalnom (teritorijalnom) principu (Ilustracija autora)
Scheme 2. Internal organization of a corporation
organized on the basis of divisional (territorial)
principle (Illustration of autor)
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ORGANIZACIONE STRUKTURE I
HODOGRAM DOKUMENTACIJE U
POSTPRODAJNIM USLUGAMA
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES AND
FLOWCHART OF DOCUMENTATION IN
AFTER-SALES SERVICES
Kada su u pitanju usluge, postoji veliki broj
definicija i one se razlikuju u mjeri u kojoj
na različite načine autori posmatraju značaj i
ulogu usluga u ekonomiji uopšte, ali i posmatrano sa aspekta učesnika u tržišnoj utakmici. Ukoliko se pođe od definicije proizvoda u
smislu rezultata poslovne aktivnosti kompanije orijentisane ka tržištu, može se reći da
proizvod predstavlja način na koji preduzeće
usklađuje svoje mogućnosti sa potrebama i
zahtjevima kupaca. U tom smislu je Kotler i
definisao proizvod kao „...sve ono što može
biti ponuđeno tržištu da zadovolji potrebe i želje kupaca“ (Kotler & Keller, 2006, str. 372).
Ova definicija nije netačna ni za usluge kao
proizvod poslovne aktivnosti, ali ipak ne ukazuje na specifičnu prirodu usluga u dovoljnoj
mjeri. Šta su onda usluge i kako ih možemo
definisati? Najjednostavnije rečeno, usluge
predstavljaju djela, procese i performanse.
Usluga, dakle, uključuje i sve ekonomske aktivnosti čiji je rezultat, generalno posmatrano,
neopipljiva forma koja se uglavnom troši na
mjestu gdje se i proizvodi i pruža korist za
osobu koja tu uslugu kupuje. Usluga je svaka
aktivnost ili korist koju jedna strana nudi drugoj i koja je suštinski neopipljiva i ne rezultira
u vlasništvu nad bilo čim. Njena proizvodnja
može, ali ne mora biti povezana sa fizički opipljivim dobrom.
Šematski plan uslužnog procesa predstavlja
sliku ili mapu koja prikazuje sistem isporuke usluge na način da različiti ljudi (zaposleni) uključeni u proces isporuke usluge (u frontstejdžu ili
bekstejdžu) mogu da ga shvate i djeluju na odgovarajući način u skladu sa ulogom koju imaju
u procesu usluživanja ili u skladu sa ličnim pogledima na stvari. Na osnovu dobro razrađenog
šematskog plana procesa usluživanja u postprodaji mora se dizajnirati i organizaciona struktura
u postprodaji koja će na adekvatan način obezbijediti da se proces pružanja usluga obavi na
zadovoljavajući način sa ciljem zadovoljenja
klijenata pruženom postprodajnom uslugom, a,
When referring to services, there are a number of definitions which differ in the extent to
which the various ways the authors perceive the
importance and role of services in the economy
in general, but also from the aspect of market
players. If we start from the definition of the
product in terms of the business activity results
of a market-oriented company, it can be said that
the product is the way in which the company
harmonizes its capabilities with the needs and
requirements of customers. In that sense, Kotler defined the product as “...anything that can
be offered to a market to satisfy a desire or a
need of a customer” (Kotler & Keller, 2006,
p. 372). This definition could be even partially applied for services as a product of business
activities, but still does not sufficiently indicate
the specific nature of services. What are the services then and how could they be defined? Simply put, the services are actions, processes, and
performance. The service, therefore, includes all
economic activities that result, in general, in an
intangible form, which is mainly spent at the site
where it is produced and provides a benefit to
the person buying the service. A service is any
activity or a benefit that one party provides to
the other and that is essentially intangible and
does not result in the ownership of anything. Its
production may or may not be associated with
physically tangible goods.
A schematic plan of the service process represents an image or a map showing a service delivery system in such a way that different people
(employees) involved in the delivery of services
(front- or backstage) can understand it and act
appropriately in accordance with the role they
play in the service delivery process or in accordance with personal perception of things. Based
on a well developed schematic plan of an after
sales service process, an organizational structure
is to be designed in the aftermarket that would
adequately ensure that the process of providing
services is performed in a satisfactory manner
with the aim of satisfying the customer by the af-
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takođe, i da obezbijedi postizanje ciljeva koji su
postavljeni za poslovni sistem. Organizaciona
struktura u postprodaji može da bude neka od
navedenih organizacionih struktura, ali najčešće se primjenjuje funkcionalna organizaciona
struktura sa sistemom rukovođenja koji je kombinacija linijskog i funkcionalnog rukovođenja.
Pored dizajnirane organizacione strukture poželjno je da u svakoj organizaciji postoji i hodogram dokumentacije i aktivnosti. Međutim, da
bi se izradio adekvatan hodogram, prvo je potrebno snimiti postojeće stanje organizacije. Pod
snimanjem postojećeg stanja podrazumijeva se
precizan opis (korak po korak) svih postupaka
koji se obavljaju u jednom procesu rada, bez obzira koliko izvršilaca učestvuje u njemu. Početni
korak u snimanju stanja je praćenje organizacione šeme, jer je već iz nje jasno koliko će biti
različitih procesa, odnosno postupaka u jednoj
organizaciji. Takođe, na osnovu organizacione
šeme moguće je odrediti prioritete u standardizaciji (koji će se poslovi prvi standardizovati),
ali i veze među procesima (odnosno, koje poslove potom treba standardizovati). Kada se na
osnovu organizacione šeme utvrdi koji će se
poslovi standardizovati, rukovodiocu organizacione jedinice daje se zadatak da organizuje
snimanje stanja u svom dijelu posla. Snimanje
stanja otpočinje kada rukovodilac da zadatak
svim zaposlenima u tom dijelu posla, a koji treba tačno da opišu, korak po korak, kako obavljaju svoj posao. Postojeće stanje u određenom
procesu rada opisuje se tako što se odgovara na
sljedećih 10 pitanja.
1. Koja ulazna dokumenta i informacije se
koriste, odnosno u kom momentu otpočinje određeni proces rada? (Ulazni dokument ili informacija je sve ono što inicira
novi proces rada, odnosno postupak).
2. Od koga, kada i na koji način se dobijaju
ulazne informacije i dokumenta?
3. Šta se potom konkretno radi sa informacijama i dokumentima i kako se obrađuju?
4. Gdje se evidentiraju i koji se podaci bilježe?
5. Šta se potom radi sa informacijama i dokumentima?
ter-sales service provided, but also to ensure the
accomplishment of the objectives set for the business system. The organizational structure of the
post sales can be any of the above organizational
structures, but the most commonly used is a functional organizational structure with the management system which is a combination of line and
functional management. In addition to a designed
organizational structure, it is desirable that each
organization contains a flowchart of documentation and activities. However, in order to prepare
a proper flowchart, it is necessary to first register
the current state of the organization. It implies a
precise description (step by step) of all operations
performed in a single operation process, regardless of how many perpetrators are involved. The
initial step in recording the situation is monitoring of the organizational chart, because it solely
indicates how many different processes or procedures in an organization there would be. Also,
based on the organizational chart, it is possible to
determine standardization priorities (which tasks
would be standardized first), but also the links
between processes (i.e., what jobs should standardized thereafter). Once it is determined which
jobs should be standardized on the basis of organizational chart, Head of the organizational unit
(business sector) is given the task to organize the
recording of a situation in their operational segment. Recording begins when the head requests
of all the employees to describe accurately, step
by step, the method of performing their job. Current situation in a particular work process is described by answering the following ten questions.
1. What are the input documents and information used, i.e. when does a certain work
process work commence? (Input document
or information is anything that initiates a
new work, process or a procedure).
2. From whom, when and how are the input
information and documents received?
3. What are the documents and information specifically used for, and how are they handled?
4. Which data are recorded and where?
5. What is done to the information and documents subsequently?
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6. Da li ima grananja u procesu rada? (Pod
grananjem se podrazumijeva donošenje odluka, komunikacija sa drugim učesnikom u
procesu, na primjer, radnim kolegom, pretpostavljenim, korisnikom i slično).
7. Šta se dešava u slučaju grananja?
8. Kako se postupak završava?
9. Kome, kada i kako se predaju izlazna dokumenta?
10.Gdje i kako se evidentira predavanje dokumenata?
Prilikom opisivanja od zaposlenog se može
tražiti da navede prosječno vrijeme potrebno
za pojedinu operaciju. Ovaj podatak bi se mogao koristiti prilikom normiranja rada i nije
vezan za samu standardizaciju. Međutim, on
bi mogao biti od koristi u kasnijem planiranju posla, naročito, u pružanju usluga u takozvanim „špicevima”. Ovako opisan postupak
prikazuje se grafički u obliku hodograma sa
ustaljenim simbolima. Primjer hodograma
pružanja usluga prikazan je na sljedećoj slici.
98
6. Is there branching in a work process?
(branching implies decision-making,
communication with other participants
in the process, for example, work colleagues, superiors, users, etc.).
7. What occurs in the case of such branching?
8. How does the process end?
9. To whom, when and how are the output
documents handed over?
10.Where and how is the document handover
registered?
In the description, the employee may be requested to indicate the average time required
for each operation. This information could be
used in standardizing work and is not related
to standardization itself. However, it could be
useful in later work planning, especially in the
provision of services in the so-called “rushhours”. Such procedure is shown graphically
in the form of a flowchart with the usual symbols. An example service provision flowchart
is shown in the following figure.
Z. Lukić, D. Došenović i S. Galić: ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES AND FLOWCHART OF DOCUMENTS...
Shema 3. Hodogram pružanja usluge
Scheme 3. Service provision Flowchart
Preporučljivo je da se prvo izradi hodogram, a tek
onda da se krene u opis pojedinačnog posla, jer se tako
postiže veća preglednost u snimanju. Svaki izvršilac
treba da nacrta hodogram za svoj posao, a potom da
opisuje sve potprocese, tj. simbole, jer svaki taj simbol
predstavlja jedan segment posla koji se obavlja.
It is recommended to make a flowchart first, followed
by a description of individual work because it ensures a
greater transparency in the registration/recording. Each
operator should draft a flowchart for their job, and then
to describe all sub-processes or symbols, since each
symbol represents a segment of the work performed.
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ORGANIZACIONA STRUKTURA
POSMATRANOG POSLOVNOG
SISTEMA
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF
THE OBSERVED
BUSINESS SYSTEM
Posmatrani poslovni sistem je preduzeće koje je oficijelni koncesionar renomiranog proizvođača automobila, a koje posluje
u prodajno servisnoj mreži koncesionara na
teritoriji Bosne i Hercegovine. Preduzeće je
organizovano i registrovano kao društvo sa
organičenom odgovornošću i po osnivačkoj
dokumentaciji ovlašteno lice za zastupanje i
upravljanje je direktor preduzeća, koji odgovara i radi po instrukcijama skupštine preduzeća. Skupštinu preduzeća čine osnivači i to
predstavnici pravnog lica i fizičko lice. Organizacija posmatranog poslovnog sistema sa
upravno-rukovodnog aspekta se može predstaviti sljedećom organizacionom šemom.
The observed business system is a company that is
the official concessionaire of a renowned car manufacturer, operating in the sales and service network
of concessionaires in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The
company is organized and registered as a limited
liability company. On the basis of its Act of Constitution, an authorized person for representation
and management is the company’s manager, who
is responsible to and operates under the instructions
of the company’s assembly. The Assembly consists
of the founders of the company - representatives of
legal entities and natural persons. Organization of
the observed business system can be represented
from the administrative managerial aspect by the
following organizational chart.
Shema 4. Organizacija preduzeća sa upravnorukovodnog aspekta (Ilustracija autora)
Scheme 4. Company organization from administrative and managerial aspects (Illustration of autor)
U preduzeću je uspostavljena funkcionalna organizaciona struktura. Organizacionu
strukturu, odnosno unutrašnju organizaciju
preduzeća možemo predstaviti piramidalnom
organizacionom šemom.
The company has established a functional organizational structure. Organizational
structure, or internal organization of the company can be represented by a pyramidal organizational chart.
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Shema 5. Unutrašnja organizacija posmatranog poslovnog sistema (Ilustracija autora)
Scheme 5. Internal organization of the observed business system (Illustration of autor)
Sistem rukovođenja preduzećem je kombinacija linijskog i funkcionalnog rukovođenja. Podjela poslova je adekvatno urađena i
striktno definisana. Hijerarhijski lanac i lanac
delegiranja je takođe određen nedvosmisleno.
Direktor preduzeća odgovara Skupštini preduzeća. Direktor svoje rukovođenje sprovodi
putem svojih najbližih saradnika: rukovodioca finansijsko-računovodstvenog sektora,
rukovodioca sektora marketinga, rukovodioca prodaje i rukovodioca postprodaje koji je
ujedno i zamjenik direktora. Svaki od rukovodilaca sektora je odgovoran direktoru za svoje
poslovanje, a svoje rukovođenje sprovodi na
niže hijerarhijske nivoe unutar svog sektora.
Lanac hijerahije sa rukovodioca prodaje u
sektoru prodaje se spušta na prodavce novih
vozila, prodavce polovnih vozila, logističare,
prodavce motocikala, a u računovodstveno–
finansijskom sektoru se granaju ovlasti naniže
ka administrativnim radnicima i pomoćnim
radnicima. Sektor marketinga je kohezioni
Company management system is a combination of line and functional management. Division of tasks is performed properly and is strictly defined. The hierarchical chain and chain of
delegation is also unambiguously determined.
Director of the company submits reports to the
Assembly of the company. His closest associates
conduct the Director’s management: Head of
Financial and Accounting Department, Head of
Marketing Department, Head of Sales and Head
of After-sales who is also the Assistant Director. Each of the Department Managers (Heads)
submits reports to the Director for their business
performance with their management being conducted towards lower hierarchical levels within
their department. Hierarchy chain descends from
the Head of Sales in the Sales Department onto
Dealers of new cars, Dealers of used cars, Logistic staff, Motorcycle Dealers, with the division
in the Accounting and Financial sector branching towards the administrative and support staff.
Marketing Department is a cohesive factor in the
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faktor u posmatranom poslovnom sistemu i
usko saradjuje sa svim sektorima, a odgovara
direktoru. Pošto se posmatra sektor postprodaje, taj hijerarhijski lanac se sa rukovodioca
sektora postprodaje prenosi na šefa servisa,
rukovodioca limarsko-lakirerskog odjeljenja i
službe rezervnih dijelova. Dalje se taj hijerarhijski lanac spušta sa šefa servisa na prijemno
odjeljenje, brzi servis i tehničku službu pa sve
do izvršioca, u ovom slučaju su to: automehaničari, autoelektričari, perači vozila, pomoćni
radnici, dijagnostičari, a u limarsko-lakireskom odjeljenju se hijerarhijski lanac spušta
na: šefa smjene, limare, lakirere, pripremače i
pomoćne radnike. U sektoru rezervnih dijelova hijerarhijski lanac se grana na veleprodaju, maloprodaju i magacionera.
U skladu sa dizajniranom organizacionom
strukturom u preduzeću je izrađen i adekvatan hodogram dokumentacije i aktivnosti.
observed business system and works closely with
all departments while submitting reports to the
Director. Since the Post sales Department is observed, the hierarchical chain starts from the Post
Sales Department Manager transferring further to
the Head of Repair Service, Head Paint & Body
Shop, and Spare Part Service. Further down, the
hierarchical chain is linked to the Head of Repair
Service, Rapid Repairs and Technical Service to
the perpetrator. Here, the perpetrators are: mechanics, electricians, car washers, support staff,
diagnosticians; while the Paint & Body Department is hierarchically comprised as follows: shift
supervisor, car body specialists, spray painters,
car body preparers and support staff. Hierarchical
chain of Spare Parts Department includes wholesale, retail and warehouse staff.
In accordance with the designed organizational structure, an adequate Flowchart of
documentation and activities has been made.
PRIJEDLOG NOVOG MODELA
ORGANIZACIONE STRUKTURE I
NOVOG HODOGRAMA
PROPOSAL FOR A NEW MODEL OF
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND A
NEW FLOWCHART
Osnovni razlog nepostizanja potrebnog
zadovoljstva klijenata pruženom postprodajnom uslugom je neadekvatna organizaciona
struktura i podjela poslova. Postojeća organizaciona struktura i obučenost kadrova nije
adekvatna za unapređenje poslovanja, pa je
neophodno restrukturirati posmatrani poslovni sistem, odnosno redizajnirati njegove strukture. Uz napomenu da je upravno-rukovodna
organizaciona struktura ostala nepromijenjena, prijedlog nove organizacine strukture je
prikazan pomoću sljedeće slike.
The main reason for being unable to satisfy
the customers with the provision of post-sales
service is an inadequate organizational structure and division of labour. The existing organizational structure and training of personnel is
inadequate for business improvement, meaning that it is, therefore, necessary to restructure
the given operating system, i.e. to redesign its
structure. The new proposal of organizational
structure is shown in the following figure, with
the note that the administrative and managerial
organizational structure remained unchanged.
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Shema 6. Prijedlog nove
strukture (Ilustracija autora)
organizacine
Scheme 6. Proposal for a new organizational
structure (Illustration of autor)
Na osnovu prethodne slike može se vidjeti
da je novo dizajniranje organizacione strukture urađeno grupisanjem poslova na način
kojim će se na najlakše povećati zadovoljstvo
klijenata postprodajnom uslugom. Naravno
da je to nužno dovelo do povećanja broja radnika i njihove stručnosti. Uveden je novi dio
koji se bavi jednostavnim popravkama vozila
i to je „brzi servis“. Takođe su uvedena još tri
nova odjeljenja: (1) autopraonica, (2) limarsko-lakirersko odjeljenje i (3) šlep služba.
Služba marketinga je odvojena od sektora
prodaje vozila i hijerarhijski je postavljena
kao funkcinalna cjelina koja se bavi marke-
Based on the previous figure, it can be seen
that the new design of organization structure
was performed by grouping tasks in a manner
that will easily increase customer satisfaction
with Post Sales service. Of course, it leads to an
increase in the number of employees and their
expertise. A new section has been introduced,
dealing with simple vehicle repairs, called Rapid Repairs. Additional three new departments
have also been introduced: (1) Car Wash, (2)
Paint & Body Shop and (3) Towing Service.
Marketing department has been separated
from Car Sales Department and has been hierarchically set as a functional unit dealing
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tinškim aktivnostima prodaje i postprodaje
uključujući i korporativni marketing. Novom
organizacionom strukturom je definisan i
novi lanac delegiranja i hijerarhijskih pozicija. Sistem rukovođenja preduzećem je zadržan, tj. kombinacija linijskog i funkcionalnog
rukovođenja. Nova organizaciona struktura
zahtijeva i izradu novih hodograma procesa
pružanja postprodajne usluge.
with marketing activities including sales, post
sales, and corporate marketing. The new organizational structure defined a new chain of
delegation and hierarchical positioning. The
company management system remained, i.e.
a combination of line and functional management. The new organizational structure
requires the creation of new flowcharts of after-sales services provision process.
ZAKLJUČAK
CONCLUSION
Menadžment i organizovanje procesa pružanja usluga i njegove kontrole poznati su kao
važan faktor u teoriji i praksi menadžmenta
tokom posljednjih nekoliko decenija, a zasniva se na brojnim idejama u čijim je osnovama
orijentacija na nivo pružene usluge, koji nastaje u poslovnom sistemu kao razultat procesa poslovanja.
Na osnovu istraživanja koje je provedeno u svrhu izrade ovog rada, može se izvesti
nekoliko zaključaka. Svaki poslovni sistem
mora neprekidno inovirati svoju organizaciju i način pružanja usluga ili prodaje svojih
proizvoda. Postojeća organizaciona struktura
i način rada je pod uticajem mnoštva internih
i eksternih faktora. Specifičnost poslovanja
posmatranog preduzeća je u tome što se u
neposrednoj komunikaciji sa kupcima proizvoda i korisnicima usluga dobijaju direktne
informacije o njihovom zadovoljstvu . Postojeći model pružanja usluga imao je odgovarajuće nedostatke kao što su: dužina trajanja
procesa, loša komunikacija sa klijentima, neadekvatni hodogrami procesa pružanja usluga, loša ponuda usluga iako je postojala vidna
potreba klijenata, nedovoljna obučenost kadrova i slično, što je uzrokovalo angažovanje
više sredstava i smanjenje poslovnih rezultata. Poboljšavanjem organizacije rada uvođenjem novog modela eliminisana je većina
uočenih nedostataka i unaprijeđen je proces
pružanja postprodajnih usluga, a uvođenjem
novih usluga direktno se uticalo na povećanje konkurentnosti i zadovoljstva klijenata. U
procesu pružanja usluga neizostavan dio je i
uspostavljanje i primjena hodograma aktivno-
The management and organization of service
delivery processes and its control are known as
an important factor in the theory and practice
of management during the past few decades. It
is based on a number of ideas whose grounds
contain an orientation to the level of service
provided, occurring in the business system as
a result of a business process.
On the basis of the research conducted for the
purposes of the paper, several conclusions may
be derived. Each operating system should continuously innovate its organization and provision of
services or the sale of their products. The existing
organizational structure and mode of operation
is influenced by numerous internal and external
factors. The business operation specificity of the
observed enterprise is in direct communication
with buyers and customers which provides direct feedback on their satisfaction. The current
service delivery model had certain shortcomings
such as the length of the process, poor communication with customers, inadequate flowcharts of
service delivery processes, poor service portfolio,
etc. Even with notable requirements and needs
of the clients, insufficient training of personnel
and the like, caused the involvement of additional resources and reduction in operating results.
Improvement of the work organization by introducing a new model has eliminated most of the
deficiencies found and managed to promote the
process of providing post sales services. The increase of competitiveness and customer satisfaction were directly influenced by the introduction
of the new services. In the process of providing
services, an essential part is the establishment and
application of flowchart of activities and docu-
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sti i dokumentacije. Inovirani hodogram dokumentacije i aktivnosti stvorio je mogućnost
da se utiče na poboljšavanje poslovanja.
mentation. The updated flowchart of documentation and activities made it possible to affect the
improvement of business performance.
LITERATURA
LITERATURE
Babić, M. i Lukić, Z. (2008). Organizacija
– teorije, strukture, dizajn i ponašanje.
Ekonomski fakultet Banja Luka.
Babić, M. i Stavrić, B. (2003). Organizacija
preduzeća – upravljanje organizacionom
strukturom. Beograd: KIZ „Centar“.
Kotler, P. & Keller, K. L. (2006). Marketing
menadžment. Beograd: Data Status.
Stoner Dž., Freman E. & Gilbert D. (2001).
Menadžment. Beograd: Želind.
Babić, M. i Lukić, Z. (2008). Organization
- Theories, Structures, Design and Behaviour. Ekonomski fakultet Banja Luka.
Babić, M. i Stavrić, B. (2003). Company Organization - Organizational Structure
Management. Beograd: KIZ „Centar“.
Kotler, P. & Keller, K. L. (2006). Marketing
Management. Beograd: Data Status.
Stoner Dž., Freman E. & Gilbert D. (2001).
Management. Beograd: Želind.
105
Z. Lukić, D. Došenović i S. Galić: ORGANIZACIONE STRUKTURE I HODOGRAM DOKUMENTACIJE I AKTIVNOST
106
ORGANIZACIONO UPRAVLJANJE I LIDERSTVO - ORGANIZATIONAL MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP
EMOCIONALNA INTELIGENCIJA U LIDERSTVU
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN LEADERSHIP
Prof. dr Zoran lukić
Univerzitet u Banjoj Luci, Ekonomski fakultet u Banjoj Luci
University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Economics Banja Luka
Mr Dragana Došenović
Univerzitet u Banjoj Luci, Ekonomski fakultet u Banjoj Luci
University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Economics Banja Luka
Stručni članak
DOI 10.7251/OIK1403008L, UDK 005.322:316.46
Professional paper
REZIME
ABSTRACT
Kako bi poslovni sistemi u današnje vrijeme
bili spretni i uspješni u rješavanju problema i prilagođavanju brojnim promjenama koje svakodnevno nastaju, potrebno je da imaju sposobne
lidere koji će u takvim uslovima biti u mogućnosti
da upravljaju sopstvenim emocijama. Upravo iz
tog razloga osnovna tema ovog rada jeste liderstvo, sa posebnim fokusom na emocionalnu inteligenciju u liderstvu. S obzirom na značaj i ulogu
koju lideri imaju za efikasno funkcionisanje svakog poslovnog sistema, svrha ovog rada jeste da
opiše različite karakteristike koje uspješni lideri
treba da posjeduju kako bi omogućili postizanje
pozitivnih rezultata poslovanja.
Na osnovu analize i provedenog istraživanja, u radu se došlo do određenih zaključaka kojima se dokazuje da emocionalna inteligencija pozitivno utiče na uspjeh lidera, a,
samim tim, i na poslovni uspjeh cjelokupnog
preduzeća. Ovim se ističe značaj emocionalne inteligencije i emocionalno inteligentnih
lidera za poslovanje različitih organizacionih
sistema.
In order to prepare and assist today’s systems in problem solving and in adapting to
many changes that occur daily, it is necessary
to have capable leaders who would be able to
manage their own emotions in such circumstances. For that very reason, the basic issue
of this paper is leadership, with a particular
focus on emotional intelligence in leadership.
With regards to the importance of the role the
leaders have for the efficient functioning of
any business system, the purpose of the paper is to describe various characteristics that
successful leaders require to possess in order
to accomplish positive business results.
On the basis of the analysis and research
conducted, the authors came to certain conclusions proving that the emotional intelligence
positively affects the success of leaders, and,
consequently, the business success of the entire company. Such occurrence emphasizes the
importance of emotional intelligence and emotionally intelligent leaders for operational performance of various organizational systems.
Ključne riječi: emocionalna inteligencija,
liderstvo, menadžment, poslovni sistem,
poslovni rezultat.
Keywords: emotional intelligence, leadership,
management, business system, business
performance indicators.
UVOD
INTRODUCTION
U današnje vrijeme veliki lideri su oni koji
podstiču i bude ono najbolje u drugima. Kada
Nowadays, great leaders are those who encourage and bring out the best in others. When
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Z. Lukic i D. Došenović: EMOCIONALNA INTELIGENCIJA U LIDERSTVU
se pokušava objasniti uspjeh jednog lidera,
uvijek se govori o strategiji, viziji ili o snažnim
i velikim idejama. Međutim, suština njihovog
uspjeha jeste u nečem drugom, a to je u činjenici da veliki lideri pokreću emocije. Kada lideri
nešto odluče, njihov uspjeh zavisi od načina na
koji to čine. Čak i ako sve ostalo urade kako
treba, ništa neće funkcionisati onako dobro kao
što bi moglo ili kako treba da funkcioniše ako
oni ne ostvare primarni zadatak a to je usmjeravanje emocija u odgovarajućem pravcu.
U savremenim, promjenljivim i turbulentnim uslovima poslovanja, preduzeća se suočavaju sa velikim, naglim i neočekivanim
promjenama. Da bi se uspješno adaptirala novonastalim situacijama i izbjegla moguće probleme i krize, preduzeća moraju biti vođena
od strane uspješnih lidera. Postavlja se pitanja
kakvi su to lideri i koji su to načini razvoja
onih lidera koji će biti sposobni da uspješno
vode poslovanje preduzeća, što predstavlja i
problem istraživanja u ovom radu. Pojmom i
istraživanjem lidera, emocionalne inteligencije, kao i njihovim uzajamnim vezama i djelovanjima bavili su se različiti naučnici, a među
njima i psiholozi, sociolozi, ekonomisti ali i
ljekari. Osnovni cilj ovog rada jeste pružanje
slike o različitim vrstama lidera i upoznavanje sa emocionalnom inteligencijom i njenim
značajem, kao i ulogom koju ima u uspjehu
lidera u savremenom turbulentnom okruženju
u kojem posluju današnja preduzeća.
U ovom radu se polazi od osnovne hipoteze
da emocionalna inteligencija diretno utiče na
uspjeh lidera. Rad sastoji se iz dva dijela. U
prvom su opisani pojam, uloga i značaj emocionalne inteligencije. Takođe je predstavljena i njena struktura, a prikazane su njene
osnovne komponente. Drugi dio rada odnosi
se na samo liderstvo. U ovom dijelu objašnjen
je pojam lidera, nakon čega su predstavljeni i
različiti stilovi liderstva.
trying to explain the success of a leader, the
main topics are always the strategy, vision or
strong and great ideas. However, the essence
of the leaders’ success lies in something else
- the fact that great leaders instigate emotions.
When the leaders decide on an action, their
success depends on the method they perform.
Even if they manage to do everything else right,
nothing will work as well as it could or should
function if they fail to achieve the primary task
- guiding emotions in the right direction.
In modern, unstable and turbulent business environment, companies are faced with large, sudden and unexpected changes. In order to successfully adapt to new situations and avoid potential
problems and crises, companies are to be led by
successful leaders. The question is what are such
leaders like and what are the development methods of those leaders who would be able to successfully lead the company’s operations, which
is the research objective of the paper. Numerous
scientists, including psychologists, sociologists,
economists and doctors conducted research on
the leader concept, emotional intelligence, as
well as on the mutual relationships and interactions of the latter items. The main objective of the
paper is to provide a review of different types of
leaders and to familiarize readers with emotional intelligence and its importance, as well as to
note the role it plays in the success of leaders in
contemporary turbulent environment in which
today’s enterprises operate.
The paper starts from the basic hypothesis
that the emotional intelligence directly affects
the success of leaders. The paper consists of
two parts. The first describes the concept, role
and importance of emotional intelligence. Its
structure and its basic components have also
been demonstrated. The second part of the paper concerns leadership. This section explains
the concept of a leader, followed by a presentation of various leadership styles.
LIDERSTVO ZASNOVANO NA
EMOCIONALNOJ INTELIGENCIJI
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE - BASED
LEADERSHIP
U današnje vrijeme evidentno je postojanje
mnogobrojnih veoma brzih i radikalnih promje-
Nowadays, the existence of numerous rapid
and radical changes, both in all spheres of life
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Z. Lukic i D. Došenović: EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN LEADERSHIP
na kako u svim sferama života tako i u poslovnim procesima. U poslovnom svijetu dešavaju
se mnogobrojne promjene koje uslovljavaju
potrebu iznalaženja novih načina rukovođenja
a i veliku potrebu za sposobnim i elastičnim liderima (Hes, 1995). Da bi današnje kompanije
bile spretne i uspješne u preživljavanju iznenađenja koja se svakodnevno pojavljuju, potrebno je da njeni lideri budu sposobni da u takvim
uslovima upravljaju sopstvenim emocijama.
Ova zavisnost, posebno najvišeg rukovodstva,
predstavljena je i u određenim knjigama čiji autori upozoravaju na njen značaj za poslovanje
svakog preduzeća. Potreba koja se javila za novim, podsticajnim liderima, koji imaju sve veći
značaj u vremenu brze tranzicije i dubokih promjena, dovela je do naglog razvoja proučavanja
lidera i lederstva. Tako mnogi autori tvrde da su
u današnje vrijeme potrebni emocionalno inteligentni lideri. Takvi lideri treba da znaju kako
da uspješno upravljaju emocijama, što im može
pomoći da sačuvaju prisebnost i da razmišljaju
racionalno u teškim i kritičnim situacijama. Oni
ne čekaju da dođe do krize pa da nakon toga
reaguju, već se bave i predviđanjem promjena
koje dolaze i pomoću svoje vizije anticipiraju budućnost i na taj način spremno dočekuju
nove promjene, prilagođavajući im se na najlakši mogući način.
U svakom čovjeku pojavljuju se određene
emocije, među kojima i bijes, strah, ljubav,
stid, tuga i dr. One su od velikog značaja za
opstanak, jer podstiču i usmjeravaju energiju,
dajući smisao životu. Moglo bi se reći da one
ukazuju na pitanja od suštinskog značaja (Goleman, Bojacis & Maki, 2006). Sa druge strane,
mnogi pojedinci iskazuju nepovjerenje prema
emocijama iako je poznato da su upravo emocije povezane sa najvišim ljudskim vrijednostima i da one daju dimenziju ne samo ličnom
već i društvenom životu. Ako se pođe od psihologije, može se zaključiti da je ona još uvijek
privržena tradicionalnom pojmu inteligencije,
te da zanemaruje značaj afektivne dimenzije
ličnosti, a time i emocionalne inteligencije.
Danijel Goleman, jedan od poznatih psihologa, koji se bavio izučavanjem emocionalne
inteligencije, smatra da je problem u tome što
and in business processes, is evident. Many
changes occur in the business world that affect the need to find new management and
leadership ways, as well as a great need for
capable and resilient leaders (Hes, 1995). In
order for today’s companies to be more versatile and successful in overcoming surprises
appearing each day, it is necessary that their
leaders are able to manage their own emotions in such conditions. This dependence,
particularly of the top-level management,
was also presented in several books whose
authors warn of its importance for the business performance of any company. The need
that emerged for new, supportive leaders, who
are of increasing importance in times of fast
transition and profound changes, has led to
rapid development of leader and leadership
research. Therefore, many authors argue that
emotionally intelligent leaders are required
nowadays. These leaders need to know how
to successfully manage emotions, which can
help them remain calm and to think rationally
in difficult and critical situations. They do not
wait for the crisis to occur and to react subsequently, but they anticipate incoming changes
with the help of their own visions, thus being
ready for any changes and readily adapting in
the easiest manner possible.
Each man has certain emotions, including
anger, fear, love, shame, sadness, and the like.
They are of great importance for survival
since they encourage and direct the energy,
thus giving life its meaning. It could be said
that they point to issues of crucial importance
(Goleman, Bojacis & Maki, 2006). On the
other hand, many individuals expressed distrust towards emotions, although it is known
that the emotions are associated with the
highest human values and that they provide
a unique dimension not only to personal but
also to social life. If we start from psychology,
it can be concluded that it is still committed to
the traditional notion of intelligence, ignoring
the importance of the affective dimension of
personality, i.e. emotional intelligence. Daniel Goleman, a famous psychologist who researched emotional intelligence, believes the
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Z. Lukic i D. Došenović: EMOCIONALNA INTELIGENCIJA U LIDERSTVU
akademska psihologija suštinski ne priprema
za probleme ili mogućnosti koje se nalaze u
životnim promjenama. Iako visoki koeficijenti
inteligencije nisu garancija uspjeha u životu,
on smatra da se škole i kulture oslanjaju na
akademske sposobnosti, dok pri tome zanemaruju emocionalnu inteligenciju ili niz osobina,
koje neki nazivaju karakterom, a koje, takođe,
u velikoj mjeri utiču na sudbinu svakog čovjeka. Isti autor smatra da je emocionalni život
predmet koji se poput matematike može savladati sa manje ili više uspjeha, a uključuje lični
niz sposobnosti. U kojoj će mjeri neko ovladati
tim sposobnostima od suštinske je važnosti za
razumijevanje zbog čega jedna osoba u životu
napreduje, dok druga sa istim intelektom završava na lošijim mjestima. Emocionalni talenat
bi se mogao definisati kao metasposobnost kojom se određuje sa koliko uspjeha se koriste
vještine koje neko posjeduje, uključujući tu i
tzv. hladni intelekt. Prethodno pomenuti autor
snažno je skrenuo pažnju današnje psihologije na učešće emocionalnih vještina u uspjehu
i pri tome pokazao da se precjenjuju logička
i kompjuterska inteligencija. Njegova osnovna ideja jeste da za čovjekov uspjeh u životu
inteligencija nije dovoljna. Pored inteligencije,
veoma je važna, a najčešće i presudna, upravo
emocionalna inteligencija.
Pojam emocionalne inteligencije u današnje
vrijeme veoma je poznat, ali se on najčešće tumači na pogrešan način. Tako postoje i brojne
zablude u vezi sa ovom sposobnošću. Emocionalna inteligencija ne ogleda se u pukoj ljubaznosti i povlađivanju sagovornicima. Emocionalno inteligentan čovjek upravo i može da
se suprotstavi pogrešnom mišljenju i štetnim
predrasudama. Ona ne predstavlja ni nekontrolisano ispoljavanje svih emocija, naprotiv, ona
se odnosi na uspješnu kontrolu emocija, pogotovo štetnih. Može se reći da emocionalna sposobnost nije fatalno genetski determinisana,
niti se njen razvoj završava u djetinjstvu, već
se ona razvija i jača tokom cijelog života. Postavlja se pitanja šta zapravo emocionalna inteligencija obuhvata. Moglo bi se reći da se ona
odnosi na čitav niz specifičnih sposobnosti kao
što su: sposobnost razumijevanja sebe samog,
110
problem is that academic psychology is essentially not being prepared for problems or
opportunities arising from the changes of life.
Although a high IQ does not guarantee success
in life, he believes that schools and cultures
rely on academic skills, while simultaneously
neglecting emotional intelligence or a number of features (called “character” by some)
which also largely affect the fate of every
man. The same author believes that the emotional life is a subject, which, like math, can
be more or less acquired, and which includes
a range of personal skills. The extent to which
a person will master these skills is essential
to understanding why a person progresses in
life, while others with the same intellect, find
themselves not as successful. Emotional talent
could be defined as a meta-ability that determines the success rate of use of the skills that
someone owns, including the so-called cold
intellect. The aforementioned author strongly
diverted attention of today’s psychology onto
participation of emotional skills in one’s success, thereby proving that logic and computer
intelligence are overestimated. The basic idea
is that the intelligence itself is not sufficient
for one’s success in life. In addition to intelligence, another very important and usually
decisive factor is emotional intelligence.
The concept of emotional intelligence is well
known nowadays, but it is often interpreted
incorrectly. Therefore, there are many misconceptions regarding this particular ability.
Emotional intelligence is not reflected in sheer
kindness and indulgence towards interlocutors.
An emotionally intelligent man can oppose to
the wrong opinion and harmful prejudices. It
does not represent an uncontrolled expression
of emotions. On the contrary, it refers to successful control of emotions, particularly harmful ones. It can be argued that emotional competence is not genetically determined, nor its
development ends in childhood, but that it develops and strengthens throughout one’s life. It
brings the issue of what emotional intelligence
actually involves. It could be said that it refers
to a range of specific skills such as the ability
to understand oneself, the ability of emotion-
Z. Lukic i D. Došenović: EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN LEADERSHIP
sposobnost emocionalne samokontrole, samouvjerenost, osjetljivost na probleme i potrebe
drugih, sposobnost razumijevanja osjećanja
drugih ljudi, vještina rješavanja međuličnih sukoba, sposobnost uspostavljanja skladnih prijateljskih odnosa, kao i sposobnost rukovođenja grupom (Ibidem). Ideja Danijela Golemana
zasniva se na postavci da emocionalna inteligencija nije suprotna racionalnoj inteligenciji,
već da se ona odnosi na zasebnu sposobnost.
On smatra da su emocionalni i racionalni um
komplementarne sposobnosti, te da od njihove
saradnje zavisi uspjeh u životu. Da bi čovjek
uspješno obavljao različite aktivnosti, potrebno je da su logika uma i srca u ravnoteži.
Tako bi se svi ljudi mogli podijeliti na dvije grupe. Prvu grupu čine emocionalno inteligentni ljudi, to jest oni kod kojih su srećno
spojeni glava i srce, razum i strast. Oni se
odlikuju time što dobro poznaju sami sebe
i svoje emocije, što imaju razumijevanje za
druge i saosjećaju se sa njima, dobro se snalaze i uživaju u svakom društvu i poslu, imaju skladan porodični život, omiljeni su kod
prijatelja, uspješni su u poslu, kao i u politici. Drugu grupu čine ljudi koji su lišeni emocionalne inteligencije, oni koji su nesrećni,
neurotični, nepopularni u društvu, usamljeni
i neuspješni kako u braku tako i na poslu.
Oni često imaju velike stresove i probleme
koje ne mogu riješiti, pa tako previše energije troše na različite konflikte, nezadovoljene potrebe i destruktivne izlive bijesa, a
teško kontrolišu svoju ljutnju i bijes. Pored
ove dvije grupe već formiranih ljudi, postoji
i grupa djece koja u današnje vrijeme veliki dio svog vremena provode sama ispred
računara. Na taj način postiže se povećanje
koeficijenta inteligencije, koji je obično veći
od koeficijenta inteligencije njihovih roditelja. Sa druge strane, kod njih je nerazvijena
emocionalna inteligencija, pa su oni impulsivni, anksiozni, neurotični, asocijalni, teško
kontrolišu agresiju, itd.
Kada su u pitanju nauka i biznis, na osjećanja se još uvijek gleda kao na teško uhvatljive, iracionalne, subjektivne i nemjerljive
pojave. O tim pojavama skoro da je i nemo-
al self-control, self-confidence, sensitivity to
the problems and needs of others, the ability
to understand other people’s feelings, interpersonal conflict solving skills, ability to establish
harmonious friendship relations, as well as the
ability to manage a group (Ibidem). Daniel Goleman’s idea is based on the assumption that
emotional intelligence is not contrary to rational intelligence, but that it refers to a separate
ability. He believes that the emotional and the
rational mind are complementary skills and
that their co-operation determines the success
in one’s life. For a man to successfully perform
various activities, it is necessary that the logic
of the mind and heart be in balance.
Therefore, all people could be divided into two
groups. The first group consists of emotionally intelligent people, i.e. those with an adequate
connection of the head and heart, intellect and
passion. They are characterized by good understanding of themselves and their emotions, by
understanding others and sympathizing with
them. They are very competent and enjoy company and business, have a harmonious family
life, are popular with friends, are successful in
business, as well as in politics. The second group
consists of people who are deprived of emotional intelligence, those who are unhappy, neurotic,
unpopular in society, lonely and unsuccessful
both in marriage and at work. They often bear
a lot stress and problems that cannot be solved,
causing wasting too much energy onto various
conflicts, unmet requirements, and destructive
outbursts. Likewise, they find it difficult to control their anger and rage. In addition to these two
groups of people already formed, there is a group
of children nowadays, who spend a large portion
of their time alone in front of the computer. That
way an increase in IQ is registered, which is usually higher than the IQ of their parents. On the
other hand, they are characterized by underdeveloped emotional intelligence, causing them to be
impulsive, anxious, neurotic, antisocial, unable to
control aggression, etc.
When it comes to science and business, the
feelings are still perceived as an elusive, irrational, subjective and non-quantifiable phenomena. It is nearly impossible to discuss these
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Z. Lukic i D. Došenović: EMOCIONALNA INTELIGENCIJA U LIDERSTVU
guće racionalno govoriti, a da se ne dovodi u
pitanje i njihovo objektivno mjerenje i mijenjanje. Na taj način može se izvući zaključak
da se njima i ne vrijedi ozbiljnije baviti, jer se
na njih ne može nikako uticati, s obzirom da
one nemaju ni praktičan značaj za obavljanje
određenog posla. Međutim, sa druge strane,
istraživanja pokazuju da upravo najbolji poslovni lideri pronalaze uspješne načine pomoću kojih mogu shvatiti i unaprijediti upravljanje sopstvenim i tuđim emocijama. Tako oni,
razumijevajući emocije, postižu dobro raspoloženje, spremnost za saradnju, visoku motivaciju i posvećenost poslu kod članova svojih
grupa. Isto tako, oni omogućavaju postizanje
izvrsnih poslovnih rezultata i minimalnu fluktuaciju zaposlenih u preduzećima. Iako postoje brojne predrasude o značaju mentalnih
fenomena, posebno osjećanja, teorija o emocionalnoj inteligenciji koju je postavio Goleman, pored teorijskog, ima veliki i praktični
značaj. On smatra da emocije treba pametno
iskoristiti a ne odstranjivati. Uspješan, emocionalno inteligentan lider predstavlja dobar
spoj srca i uma. To dokazuju i rezultati istraživanja u kojima je izvršeno poređenje između
ljudi na visokim liderskim položajima koji su
izezutno uspješni i onih koji se nalaze na niskim položajima čiji su rezultati bili prosječni. Istraživanja su pokazala da se oko 85%
razlika između ove dvije grupe ljudi može
pripisati faktorima emocionalne inteligencije, dok se samo 15% pripisuje kognitivnim
sposobnostima i stručnom znanju. Određena
grupa naučnika smatra da su emocije izuzetno
važne za rukovođenje, odnosno da je emocionalno inteligentno liderstvo najvažnija dimenzija. Da li će ostali napori jednog rukovodioca uroditi plodom ili čak propasti, uveliko
zavisi od pomenute dimenzije.
Lideri bi se mogli podijeliti na dvije grupe, prvu čine rezonantni, a drugu disonantni
lideri. Rezonantni lider postoji ukoliko vođa
svojom vizijom uspije da na članove grupe
prenese svoje oduševljenje i optimizam, ako
u njima probudi najbolje sposobnosti i podstakne pozitivne emocije. Rezonantni lider
tako uspjeva da usaglasi svoje emocionalne
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occurrences rationally, without prejudice to
their objective measure and modification. That
way, a conclusion can be drawn that they are
not worth of serious consideration, since they
cannot be affected. The main reason being that
they have no practical significance for a particular job. However, on the other hand, research
shows that the most successful business leaders
are finding ways in which they can understand
and improve the management of their own
and others’ emotions. Thus, by understanding emotions, they manage to achieve a good
mood, readiness for cooperation, high motivation and commitment to work with members
of their groups. Likewise, they allow achieving outstanding business results and minimal
staff turnover in enterprises. Although there are
many prejudices about the importance of mental phenomena, particularly of feelings, the theory of emotional intelligence, set by Goleman,
in addition to theoretical has a great practical
significance. He believes that emotions should
be wisely utilized and not removed. A successful, emotionally intelligent leader is a good
blend of heart and mind. It has been proven
by the results of research comparing people in
senior leadership positions who are extremely
successful with those who are on low positions
and whose results were average. Studies have
shown that about 85% of the difference between these two groups of people can be attributed to factors of emotional intelligence, while
only 15% can be attributed to cognitive abilities
and professional knowledge. A certain group of
scientists believes that emotions are extremely
important for management, i.e. that emotionally intelligent leadership is the most important
dimension. Whether other efforts of a manager
will bear fruit or even fail completely, largely
depends on the aforementioned dimensions.
The leaders could be divided into two
groups, the first one consisting of resonant and
the second comprised of dissonant leaders. A
resonant leader transfers his enthusiasm and
optimism onto other members of the group
through with his vision, if he manages to evoke
the best skills and encourage positive emotions
in them. A resonant Leader also manages to
Z. Lukic i D. Došenović: EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN LEADERSHIP
vibracije sa drugima i na taj način svoju grupu čini skladnom i uspješnom u poslu. Disonantni lider jeste lider koji nije na istoj talasnoj dužini sa grupom, ili ako u njoj pobuđuje
samo destruktivne emocije kao što su: strah,
briga, apatija, mržnja ili osjećaj krivice. Tako
grupa disonantnog lidera djeluje neusklađeno
i neefikasno. Rezonantno liderstvo predstavlja novo, podsticajno liderstvo. Ono stavlja
naglasak na emocionalni, ljudski aspekt, za
razliku od ostalih liderstva koji se isključivo
baziraju na uspjeh i profit. Rezonantni lideri jesu, u stvari, emocionalno inteligentni lideri, a njihovo oduševljenje, energija i strast
veoma lako nalaze svoj emocionalni odjek u
čitavoj grupi. Tako rezonantni lider ima blagotvorno emocionalno dejstvo na svoju grupu, a članovi njegove grupe osjećaju se dobro jer su samopouzdani, međusobno čvrsto
emotivno povezani i zajednički odlučuju. Na
taj način članovi osjećaju prihvaćenost, sigurnost, razumijevanje i podršku, što im pomaže
da sačuvaju optimizam i samouvjerenost i u
situacijama naglih promjena i kriza.
Golemanovo razmatranje osobina uspješnih
lidera oslanja se u velikom mjeri na klasično empirijsko istraživanje Maklilanda koje je
izazvalo revoluciju u procjenjivanju karakteristika zaposlenih koje predstavljaju najbolje
predikatore uspjeha na poslu (Ibidem). Profesor Dejvid Makliland ruši mit o presudnom
značaju inteligencije za obavljanje posla u
svom tekstu koji nosi naziv „Testirati kompetenciju, a ne inteligenciju“. Umjesto da pođe
od tvrdnje da je čista inteligencija najvažnija
za uspjeh u svakoj djelatnosti, on razvija svoj
empirijski model polazeći od brižljivog i sistematskog proučavanja najuspješnijih ljudi i
vrhunskih stručnjaka u nekom poslu. Na osnovu rezultata ove empirijske analize poređenja
vrhunskih i prosječnih radnika, Maklilanda
je utvrdio da najbolji stručnjaci posjeduju
neke specifične kompetencije koje prosječni nemaju. Najuspješniji lideri imaju, osim
osnovnih sposobnosti, niz posebnih emocionalnih kompetencija kao što su: ambicije, inicijativa, sposobnost timskog rada, sposobnost
rukovođenja, a koje prosječni lideri nemaju.
harmonize his emotional vibrations with those
of others, thus making his group a harmonious
and successful in business. A dissonant leader
is the one who is not “on the same wavelength”
with the group or if he evokes only destructive
emotions such as fear, worry, apathy, hatred
or guilt. Therefore, a group led by a dissonant
leader acts uncoordinated and inefficient. Resonant leadership is a new, supportive leadership. It puts emphasis on the emotional, human
aspect, unlike other leaderships exclusively
based on the success and profit. Resonant leaders are, in fact, emotionally intelligent leaders,
and their enthusiasm, energy, and passion easily find their emotional resonance with the entire group. Therefore, a resonant leader has a
beneficial emotional effect onto his group, and
the members of his group feel great because
they are self-confident, are strongly emotionally connected and jointly reach decisions.
That way, members feel accepted, secure, understood and supported, which helps them to
maintain optimism and confidence, even in situations of rapid changes and crises.
Goleman’s consideration of successful leaders’ traits primarily relies on the classic empirical research conducted by McClelland that
sparked a revolution in assessing the characteristics of employees that represent the best prediction aspects of the job success (Ibidem). In
his article titled “Test competence rather than
intelligence”, professor David McClelland
tears down the myth of the crucial importance
of intelligence for the job performance. Rather
than starting from the assertion that pure intelligence is a key to success in any field, he
developed his empirical model starting from a
careful and systematic study of the most successful people and top professionals in any
business. Based on the results of the empirical analysis comparing the top and the average
worker, McClelland found that the best experts
possess specific competencies that the average
ones lack. In addition to basic skills, the most
successful leaders possess a number of specific emotional competencies such as ambition,
initiative, teamwork, leadership, etc. which is
not the characteristic of the average leaders.
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Z. Lukic i D. Došenović: EMOCIONALNA INTELIGENCIJA U LIDERSTVU
Tako briljantni lideri treba da imaju ove kompetencije ili da ih razvijaju. Abraham Maslov
na osnovu svojih posmatranja tvrdi da su kvaliteti superiornih rukovodilaca u tome što su
oni demokratičniji, saosjećajniji, uljudniji,
spremniji da pomognu i lojalniji u odnosu na
manje uspješne. Savršeni lideri su roditeljski
nastrojeni, a to znači da imaju sposobnost da
uživaju u razvoju i samoostvarenju drugih
ljudi. Superioran lider takođe mora da bude
sposoban da podnese da bude nevoljen, nepopularan, da mu se smiju, da ga napadaju,
da bude sposoban da vidi objektivne zahtjeve
situacije i da na njih odgovori. Osnovni zadatak lidera jeste da upotrijebi svoje emocionalne kompetencije kako bi pobudio pozitivne
emocije zaposlenih i da stvori povoljnu emocionalnu klimu u grupi.
Kada je u pitanju struktura emocionalne
inteligencije, može se reći da nju sačinjavaju
četiri domena, odnosno oblasti u koje spadaju
samosvijest, društvena svijest, upravljanje sobom i upravljanje drugima.
Prvi domen jeste domen samosvijesti, odnosno dubokog razumijevanja sopstvenih
osjećanja, potreba, namjera, vrijednosti i slabosti. Samosvijest predstavlja temelj cjelokupne emocionalne inteligencije i obuhvata tri
karakteristike: emocionalnu samosvijest, tačno procjenjivanje samog sebe i samopouzdanje. Osobe kod kojih je razvijena samosvijest
u stanju su da realno sagledaju sebe, sklone
su introspekciji, intuitivnom odlučivanju i u
stanju su da se podsmijehnu i sopstvenim nedostacima. Smatra se da lider koji ne poznaje
samog sebe i svoje mogućnosti i ograničenja,
veoma teško može da razumije, kontroliše i
usmjeri druge. Na osnovu sprovedenih istraživanja pokazuje se da kod neuspješnih lidera
postoji razlika između samoprocjene i procjene liderskih sposobnosti od strane njihovih
podređenih, tako da što je lider neuspješniji,
on više precjenjuje vlastite liderske kompetencije. Rezultati drugih istraživanja pokazuju da što je viši položaj rukovodioca, to je
drastičnija samoobmana. Tako direktori na
samom vrhu imaju najljepše mišljenje o sebi i
svojim emocionalnim i socijalnim sposobno114
Therefore, brilliant leaders should possess or
to develop the above competencies. Based on
his observations, Abraham Maslow argues that
the qualities of superior managers are in being
democratic, compassionate, polite, ready to
help, and more loyal when compared to less
successful managers. The perfect leaders are
parentally inclined, meaning that they have the
ability to enjoy in development and self-realization of others. Superior leader must also be
able to withstand being unloved, unpopular,
laughed at, to expect being attacked, to be able
to perceive the objective requirements of the
situation and to respond adequately. The main
task of a leader is to use his emotional competence in order to arouse positive emotions of
employees and to create a supportive climate
in the group.
When it comes to the structure of emotional intelligence, it can be said that it consists of four domains, i.e. areas that include
self-awareness, social awareness, self-management and control/management of others.
The first domain is the domain of self-awareness, or a deep understanding of others’ feelings,
needs, intentions, strengths, and weaknesses.
Self-awareness is the foundation of the entire
emotional intelligence and includes three characteristics: emotional self-awareness, accurate
self-assessment, and self-confidence. Persons
who possess developed self-awareness can realistically perceive themselves, are prone to introspection, intuitive decision-making and are able
to laugh at their own shortcomings. It is believed
that a leader who is not familiar with himself and
his own possibilities and limitations, is very difficult to understand, control and is hardly able to
direct others. Based on the conducted research,
it has been demonstrated that faulty leaders
are characterized by a difference between their
own self-assessment and assessment of leadership skills made by their subordinates. In other words, the worse the leader is, the more he
overestimates his own leadership competencies.
Results of other studies show that the higher the
position of a leader/manager, the more drastic is
his self-deception. Therefore, the managers and
directors at the very top level have only the nic-
Z. Lukic i D. Došenović: EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN LEADERSHIP
stima, a što je u neskladu sa mišljenjem njihovih podređenih. Upravljanje samim sobom
predstavlja sposobnost koja je često od presudne važnosti. Ova sposobnost liderima ne
dozvoljava da ih različite štetne emocije izbace iz kolosjeka. Upravljanje samim sobom liderima omogućava da jasno razmišljaju i valjano odlučuju. Lideri koji uspješno vladaju
sobom i svojim emocijama imaju sposobnost
da u najtežim situacijama sačuvaju prisustvo
duha, dobro raspoloženje i entuzijazam, koje
mogu da prenesu i na čitavu grupu. U slučaju
kada lider nije sposoban da efikasno upravlja svojim vlastitim emocijama, on nije ni u
stanju da upravlja emocijama ostalih članova svog tima. Sposobnost upravljanja samim
sobom sastoji se od četiri osnovne karakteristike, od kojih je prva transparentnost koja
predstavlja liderovu iskrenost i otvorenost
prema drugima. Odnosi se na življenje u saglasnosti sa vlastitim principima, a to omogućava članovima tima da imaju povjerenje u
lidera. Ovakvi lideri koji žive i rade u skladu
sa svojim vrijednostima, djeluju iskreno i uživaju povjerenje drugih jer se ne pretvaraju da
su nešto što nisu. Prilagodljivost se odnosi na
sposobnost elastične adaptacije na nove i nepredviđene situacije, kao i na uspješnost da se
prevaziđu različite teškoće koje se pojave. Težnja za uspjehom, koja se ogleda u potrebi da
se ličnim naporom dostignu samopostavljeni
standardi izvrsnosti, kao i inicijativa i optimizam jesu karakteristike inteligentinih lidera
Društvena svijest takođe predstavlja sastavni dio emocionalno inteligentnog liderstva.
Komponenta društvene svijesti jeste empatija za koju bi se moglo reći da predstavlja
„društveni radar“. Ona podrazumijeva važnu
sposobnost svakog lidera da saosjeća sa drugim ljudima i usklađuje sopstvenih emocija
sa emocijama drugih. Empatija je sposobnost
da se identifikuju i razumiju osjećanja, ideje
i situacija neke druge osobe (Borg, 2009).
Smatra se da se osobe koje su „emocionalno
slijepe“ jako slabo snalaze u društvenim odnosima. Druga komponenta jeste pokretanje
drugih na akciju, a odnosi se na sposobnost
vođe da svoju poruku formuliše ubjedljivo i
est opinion of themselves and their emotional
and social skills, which is inconsistent with the
opinion of their subordinates. Self-management
is the ability that is often proven to be crucial.
This ability does not allow leaders to be derailed
by a variety of negative emotions. Self-management enables leaders to think clearly and make
valid decisions. Leaders who successfully govern themselves and their emotions can, in the
most difficult situations, preserve the presence
of mind, good humor and enthusiasm, which
could spread to the entire group. In cases where
the leaders are unable to manage their own emotions effectively, they are unable to manage the
emotions of the other members of their team.
The ability to manage itself consists of four basic characteristics, the first being - transparency,
which represents the leader’s honesty and openness towards others. It refers to life in accordance with their own principles, thus allowing
team members to have confidence in the leader.
These leaders, who live and work in accordance
with their values, act honestly and enjoy the
trust of others because they do not pretend to be
someone or something they are not. Flexibility
refers to the ability of the elastic adaptation to
new and unforeseen situations, as well as to the
success of overcoming various difficulties that
may arise. Striving for success, which is reflected in the need to achieve self-appointed standards of excellence by engaging personal effort,
as well as the initiative and optimism are some
of the characteristics of intelligent leaders.
Social awareness is also an integral part of
emotionally intelligent leadership. Empathy a component of social awareness that could
be said to represent a “social radar”. It implies
an important ability for any leader to sympathize with other people and harmonize their
own emotions with other people’s emotions.
Empathy is the ability to identify and understand the feelings, ideas and situations of
other people (Borg, 2009). It is believed that
persons who are “emotionally dead” are very
poor in social relations. The second component is to initiate action with the others, and
refers to the ability of leaders to convincingly
formulate their message and to transfer it in a
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Z. Lukic i D. Došenović: EMOCIONALNA INTELIGENCIJA U LIDERSTVU
da je prenese sugestivno, tako da je ona u stanju da motiviše druge čak i za napornu djelatnost. Da bi lider to mogao postići, potrebno je
da on vjeruje u ono što govori i radi i da, na
taj način, svojim osjećanjima postiže sklad sa
osjećanjima članova grupe. Lider je u stanju
da smanji napetost, ublaži anksioznost i da
prebaci destruktivni bijes grupe u svrsishodnu
i konstruktivnu akciju onda kada se postigne
neophodna emocionalna rezonanca.
Upravljanje drugima, odnosno upravljanje
odnosima jeste četvrta oblast emocionalne
inteligencije, a u njoj se sustižu prethodne
tri. Ova oblast obuhvata najkarakterističnije
osobine liderstva: sposobnost artikulisanja
zajedničke vizije, sposobnost ubjeđivanja,
sposobnost efikasnog rješavanja konflikata,
stvaranje i održavanje emocionalnih veza,
sposobnost timskog rada i saradnje. Moglo bi
se reći da je jedna od najvažnijih sposobnosti
vođe da svojom privlačnom, neodoljivom vizijom podstakne svoje članove na zajedničku
misiju i na taj način da ih pokrene u pozitivnom smjeru. Tako inspirativni lideri svojom
sugestivnom i iskrenom vizijom bude zaposlenima osjećanje da je njihova djelatnost svrsishodna, važna i da je povezana sa zajedničkim vrijednostima.
suggestive manner, so that it is able to motivate others, even for a strenuous activity. In
order for a leader to do so, it is necessary that
he believes what he says and does and, thus,
harmonizes his own feelings with the feelings
of the group. Such leader is able to reduce
tension, relieve anxiety and to transfer the
destructive fury of a group into a meaningful
and constructive action when a required emotional resonance is achieved.
Management of others and relationship management is a fourth level of emotional intelligence and is an area where the previous three
are caught up. This area includes the most
characteristic traits of leadership: the ability
of articulating a shared vision, the ability of
persuasion, the ability to efficiently resolve
conflicts, creating and maintaining emotional
bonds, the ability to establish teamwork and
cooperation. It could be argued that one of the
most important leaders’ skills are to instigate
his team members to a common mission using
his attractive and irresistible vision, thus moving them in a positive direction. Such inspirational leaders with their suggestive and sincere
vision evoke the employees’ feelings that their
activity is meaningful, important, and that is
associated with common and shared values.
USPJEŠAN – REZONANTAN LIDER
SUCCESSFUL - RESONANT LEADER
Emocionalna inteligencija jednim dijelom
je naslijeđena, dok se bilo koja vještina, pa
tako i vještina liderstva, uči, razvija i vježbanjem jača. Određena grupa autora smatra da
se rezonantno, podsticajno liderstvo, koje je
zasnovano na sposobnostima emocionalne inteligencije, može naučiti i usavršiti. Međutim,
to i nije tako lako jer sticanje vještine rukovođenja, zahtijeva, prije svega, veliko strpljenje, znanje, vrijeme, napor ali i veoma snažnu
motivaciju i emotivnu posvećenost. Proces
samousmjerenog učenja nalazi se u osnovi
sticanja i usavršavanja liderskih sposobnosti,
a on se odnosi na sistematsko i plansko razvijanje određenih sposobnosti ili vještina, a sve
to sa ciljem da čovjek postane onakva ličnost
kakva želi da bude. Autor ovog modela samo-
Emotional intelligence is partly inherited,
while any other skills, including leadership
skills, are learned, developed and strengthened
by practice. A certain group of authors believed
that a resonant, supportive leadership, based
on the skills of emotional intelligence can be
learned and perfected. However, it is not as
easy, since acquiring leadership skills requires,
above all, much patience, knowledge, time,
effort and also a very strong motivation and
emotional commitment. The process of self-directed learning is in the basis of acquisition and
development of leadership skills, and it refers
to the systematic and planned development
of certain abilities or skills, all with the aim
of a man to become the kind of a person that
it wants to be. The author of this self-direct-
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usmjerenog učenja jeste Ričard Bojacis, koji
je dugo radio kao istraživač na proučavanju
i razvoju liderskih sposobnosti. Ovaj model
samousmjerenog učenja, pomoću kojeg se
postaje emocionalno inteligentan lider, uključuje otkriće sopstvenog idealnog ja, otkriće
sopstvenog nenašminkanog, stvarnog ja, izradu vlastitog plana učenja, radikalnu promjenu
u stilu liderstva i načinu života, kao i razvijanje socijalno-emocionalnih odnosa koji će
pružiti povjerenje i omogućiti promjenu (Goleman, Bojacis & Maki, 2006).
Prvo otkriće, odnosno otkriće sopstvenog
idealnog ja odgovara na pitanje: ko želim da
budem? Ukoliko osoba ima viziju idealne slike o sebi, ona je sposobna da promijeni nadu i
ima snažnu strast za promjenom. Ta promjena
nije ni laka ni izvjesna. Povezivanje lidera sa
sopstvenim neostvarenim snom, najdubljim
ličnim vrijednostima i uvjerenjima, kao i sa
zajedničkom vizijom zaposlenih u pogledu
budućnosti organizacije, u mogućnosti je da
pokrene i najveće uzbuđenje, smjelost i konstruktivnu energiju svakog lidera. Drugo otkriće modela samousmjerenog učenja jeste
otkriće sopstvenog, nenašminkanog, stvarnog
ja. Ovo otkriće daje odgovore na pitanja: ko
sam ja i šta su moje jake i slabe strane? Ovo
otkriće može da omogući lideru koji želi da se
mijenja da upozna svoje stvarne dobre i loše
osobine, prednosti i nedostatke, ali i da shvati
kako ga drugi vide. Ovo nije ni malo lak posao
jer lidera u otkrivanju samog sebe, pogotovo
svojih mana i „slijepih mrlja“, sprečavaju
osjećanje omnipotencije i mehanizmi odbrane
u koje spadaju racionalizacija, potiskivanje,
projekcija i slično. Svakom čovjeku je mnogo
lakše da vjeruje sopstvenim samoobmanama,
vitalnim lažima i utješnim neistinama, nego
da se direktno i bez ikakvih odbrana suoči sa
bolnom istinom o sebi samom. Pored ove, postoji još jedna smetnja na putu samospoznaje
lidera, a to je „šefovska bolest“. Ona se odnosi na pojavu da rukovodiocima njihovi podređeni vrlo rijetko ukazuju na mane iz različitih
razloga među koje spadaju: kurtoazija, saosjećanja, strah, ili udvorištvo. Na taj način su
osobe na višim rukovodećim funkcijama liše-
ed learning model is Richard Boyatzis, who
worked as a researcher on the study and development of leadership skills. This model of
self-directed learning, by which one becomes
an emotionally intelligent leader, includes the
discovery of a person’s “ideal me”, the discovery of his own pure “real me”, making of his
own learning plan, a radical change in the style
of leadership and way of life, as well as developing social and emotional relationships that
will provide confidence and instigate change
(Goleman, Bojacis & Maki, 2006).
The first discovery, i.e. the discovery of his
own “ideal me” provides an answer to the question: “who do I want to be?” If a person has a
vision of the ideal image of himself, it means
he is capable of changing his hopes and that he
has a strong passion for change. Such change
is neither easy nor certain. Connecting leaders
with their own unfulfilled dreams, the deepest
personal values and beliefs, as well as with a
common vision of employees about the future
of the organization, provides ability to initiate
the greatest excitement, courage and constructive energy of any leader. Another discovery
of a self-directed learning model is the discovery of his own, pure “real me”. This discovery
provides answers to questions such as: who am
I and what are my strengths and weaknesses?
This discovery may allow the change-aspiring
leader to meet his actual good and bad qualities,
strengths and weaknesses, but also to understand
how others perceive him. This is not an easy job
at all, as the leader is obstructed in discovering
himself, especially in discovering his flaws and
“blind spots” by the feeling of omnipotence and
defence mechanisms that include rationalization, repression, projection and the like. Men are
more likely to believe their own self-deception,
vital lies and comforting falsehoods, than to directly and defenselessly handle the painful truth
about himself. In addition, there is another obstacle on the path of leaders’ self-knowledge - a
“boss disease”. It refers to the phenomenon that
the subordinates rarely point out to the manager’s disadvantages for various reasons including
courtesy, compassion, fear, or sycophancy. That
way, people in senior management positions
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ne povratne informacije o tome gdje i kako
griješe u rukovođenju.
Treće otkriće modela samousmjerenog učenja jeste izrada plana učenja. Ovo otkriće daje
odgovor na pitanje: kako mogu da razvijem
svoje prednosti i istovremeno da umanjim
svoje nedostatke? Smatra se da osnovu za
promjenu u ličnosti i načinu rukovođenja
predstavlja razrađen, detaljan i izvodljiv praktičan plan pomoću kojeg se postupno jačaju
dobre osobine i stiču nove, neophodne liderske vještine. Ovim planom se lider istovremeno oslobađa loših mentalnih navika, kao
i destruktivnih, štetnih osobina koje je imao
do tada. Četvrto otkriće modela samousmjerenog učenja odnosi se na radikalne promjene
u stilu liderstva i načina života. To je moguće
postići samo upornim i dugotrajnim upražnjavanjem novih obrazaca ponašanja, razmišljanja i osjećanja. Mentalna promjena u načinu
sagledavanja vlastite grupe, kao i sama promjena stila vođenja, predstavlja samo dio šireg preispitivanja sebe, vlastite ličnosti i svog
dotadašnjeg načina života. Podsticanje bitnih
liderskih vještina kao što su empatija, samopouzdanje, upravljanje konfliktima ili saradnja, odnosno promjene u liderskom stilu nisu
samo površne promjene ponašanja. One zahtijevaju korjenit preobražaj ličnosti kako njene
intelektualne tako i dubinske, emocionalne
sfere. Tako sticanje i jačanje liderskih kompetencija podrazumijeva implicitno, spontano
i, dobrim dijelom, automatsko, emocionalno
učenje. Ovakvo učenje takođe podrazumijeva
i dugotrajnu praksu jer se stare, štetne misaone i emocionalne navike mijenjaju veoma
sporo i teško, a to je moguće jedino upornim
i stalnim vježbanjem novih. Peto otkriće modela samousmjerenog učenja odnosi se na razvijanje socijalno-emocionalnih odnosa koji
će pružiti povjerenje i omogućiti promjenu.
Za sve prethodne faze preobražaja za koje su
vezana prethodna otkrića, neophodni su drugi,
odnosno, potrebna je nerizična grupa. Nerizična grupa sastavljena je od osoba u koje imamo
povjerenje, pa ona može biti porodična, prijateljska ili strukovna. Samo pozitivna i sigurna
društvena sredina može dopustiti pojedincu
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are deprived of feedback on where and how the
mistakes are made in management.
The third discovery of self-directed learning
model is the development of a learning plan. This
discovery provides an answer to the question:
How can one develop its strengths while minimizing its weaknesses? It is believed that the basis for change in personality and management is
an elaborate, detailed practical and viable plan by
which the good qualities are gradually improved
and with the acquisition of new, necessary leadership skills. This plan eliminates leader’s of bad
mental habits, as well as of destructive, harmful
traits owned until that time. The fourth discovery
of a self-directed learning model refers to radical
changes in the style of leadership and the way of
life. This can be achieved only through persistent and prolonged exercise of new patterns of
behaviour, thoughts, and feelings. Mental changes in the perception of his own group, as well as
the change in leadership style, represent only a
part of a wider reassessment of himself, his personality and his former lifestyle. Encouragement
of important leadership skills such as empathy,
self-confidence, conflict management or collaboration, or changes in leadership style are not only
superficial changes in behaviour. They require
a radical transformation of the personality as
well as of his intellectual and emotional sphere.
Thus, acquiring and strengthening of leadership
competencies implies implicitly, spontaneously
and, largely, automatic, emotional learning. This
study also includes the long-standing practice
because the old, negative thinking and emotional habits are changing at a very slow pace, if at
all, which is possible only through persistent
and continuous training of new habits. The fifth
discovery of a self-directed learning model refers to the development of social and emotional
relationships that are to provide confidence and
enable change.
For all the above stages of transformation
related to previous findings, other risk-free
groups are required. A risk-free group is composed of people we trust, meaning that it can
be a family, friend or a professional group.
Only a positive and safe social environment
may allow an individual to safely try new
Z. Lukic i D. Došenović: EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN LEADERSHIP
bezbjedno isprobavanje novih emocionalnih
vještina, kao i sticanje novih mentalnih navika.
U današnje vrijeme postoje mnogobrojne,
različite socijalne grupe. Moglo bi se reći da
u svakoj od njih postoji osoba koja je na neki
način vođa grupe i oni koji su sljedbenici,
pa se tako lideri javljaju u svim oblastima
društvenog života. Pojmovi kao što su lider,
rukovodilac i menadžer veoma se često miješaju u literaturi i koriste kao sinonimi. Po
mišenju mnogih stručnjaka, lider se razlikuje
od menadžera. Dok lider kreira podsticajnu
viziju budućnosti u koju sljedbenici vjeruju
i ima misiju kojom budi u ljudima emocije
i motive, menadžer više riješava probleme,
orijentisan je na organizovanje posla i sprovođenje konkretnog poslovnog plana koji se
uklapa u datu viziju. Još jedna od razlika jeste u tome što je lider usmjeren na ljude koje
vrijednostima i idejama inspiriše, motiviše
i ubjeđuje, dok je menadžer više usmjeren
na analizu situacije i na racionalno kontrolisanje obavljanja posla, koristeći pri tome
nagrade i kazne. Tako je lideru neophodna
strast i vještina emocionalnog uticaja na ljude i njihovu djelatnost. Smatra se da onaj
od koga se očekuje da bude lider, može da
upravlja, ali ne i da vodi, ukoliko u pravoj
mjeri ne posjeduje „srce“.
Vođa, odnosno lider je ona osoba koja obavlja čitav niz različitih funkcija: (1) kreiranje vizije, (2) postavljanje ciljeva i određivanje politike grupe, (3) utvrđivanje grupnih vrijednosti
i normi, (4) koordinicija rada, (5) kontrolisanje
unutrašnjih odnosa među članovima grupe, (6)
planiranje načina ostvarenja zadataka, (7) arbitraža u unutrašnjim sukobima i upravljanje
konfliktima, (8) pohvaljivanje, podsticanje i
kuđenje zaposlenih, (9) predstavljanje svoje
grupe pred drugima, (10) služi kao uzor i model za identifikaciju.
Skrivena moć koju lideri imaju jeste u tome
što su oni sposobni da vladaju i svojim i tuđim
emocijama. Veliki lideru su oni koji su u stanju
da svojim idejama i vizijom pokrenu ostale u
pravom smjeru. Oni su u stanju da usmjere cjelokupnu energiju grupe ka zajedničkom cilju.
Liderstvo bi se moglo definisati na više načina.
emotional skills, as well as to acquire new
mental habits.
Nowadays there are numerous, different
social groups. It could be said that each of
them contains a person who is, in a way, the
group leader and those who are his followers,
therefore having leaders emerge in all areas
of social life. Terms such as leader, head and
manager are very often mixed in the literature
and are used interchangeably. On the basis of
opinion of numerous experts, a leader is different from a manager. A leader creates a stimulating vision of the future that his followers
believe in, and has a mission that evokes people’s emotions and motivations. A manager is
more of a problem solver, focused on the organization of work and the implementation of
a specific business plan that fits into a given
vision. Another difference is that the leader focuses on people who are inspired, motivated
and convinced by his values and ideas, while
the manager is more focused on the analysis of
the situation and rational control of the performance, using rewards and punishments in the
process. Therefore, passion and skills of emotional impact on people and their activities are
essential for leaders. It is believed that the one
who is supposed to be a leader can manage but
not lead if he lacks the “heart”.
A leader is someone who performs a variety of functions: (1) creates a vision, (2) sets
goals and determining groups policies, (3)
establishes group values and norms, (4) coordinates work, (5) controls internal relations
among group members, (6) plans task accomplishment methods, (7) acts as an arbitrator
in internal conflicts and conflict management,
(8) praises, encourages and reproaches employees, (9) presents his group in front of
others, (10) serves as a role model for identification.
Leaders are characterised by a hidden power
- being able to govern both their own and others’ emotions. Great leaders are those who can
use their ideas and visions to direct others in the
right direction. They are able to focus the entire energy of a group toward a common goal.
Leadership could be defined in many ways. One
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Jedan od njih je i taj da liderstvo predstavlja
izrazit društveni uticaj koji ima istaknuti član
grupe (lider) na uvjerenja, mišljenja, emocije
i ponašanje članova grupe, koje on motiviše i
usmjerava ka ostvarivanju zajedničkih ciljeva.
Smatra se da su osnovni, odnosno primarni
zadaci lidera: da se postaraju da zaposleni ne
samo shvate misiju već i da se usklade sa njom,
da unapređuju svoj tim, da obučavaju i izgrađuju samopouzdanje kod članova tima, da pomoću iskrenosti, otvorenosti i pohvala stvaraju
povjerenje u svojoj organizaciji, da odišu pozitivnom energijom i optimizmom, da budu hrabri da donose nepopularne odluke, čine smjele
poteze, itd (Velč, 2005).
of them is that the leadership represents a distinct social influence of a distinguished member
of the group (the leader) onto beliefs, opinions,
emotions and behaviour of the group members,
motivated and directed by the leader towards
achieving common goals. It is believed that the
basic or primary tasks of a leader are: to ensure
that employees understand not only the mission but also to comply with it, to improve their
team, to train and build the confidence of other
team members, to utilise honesty, openness and
praise in order to build trust in their organization, to reflect positive energy and optimism,
to be brave to make unpopular decisions, make
bold moves, and so on (Velč, 2005).
Liderski stilovi
Leadership Styles
Liderski stil obuhvata čitav niz usklađenih
djelatnosti i postupaka koji čine određeni, karakterističan način vođenja grupe. Tako različiti lideri primjenjuju različite stilove vođstva
u skladu sa svojom ličnošću, obrazovanjem i
prirodnim zadacima grupe koju vode. Svaki
lider ima svoj lični, dominantan način rukovođenja. Međutim, pored jednog dominantnog
stila, najbolji lideri, u skladu sa okolnostima,
koriste i druge liderske stilove. Postoje mnogobrojne različite klasifikacije liderskih stilova. Po jednoj od njih stilovi liderstva mogu
se podijeliti u dvije grupe (Goleman, Bojacis,
& Maki, 2006): (1) rezonantni liderski stilovi:
vizionarski stil, trenerski stil, aflijativni stil i
demokratski stil, (2) disonantni liderski stilovi: diktiranje tempa i zapovjednički stil.
Vizonarski stil jedan je od rezonantnih
stilova liderstva. Ovaj stil ima inspirativni
lider koji svojom vizijom poželjne budućnosti određuje zajednički cilj grupe. Međutim,
svojim članovima on daje slobodu da izaberu
put do postavljenog cilja. Na taj način lider
stvara posvećenost poslu, osjećanje zajedništva, budi osjećanje ponosa i daje značaj
čak i u rutinskim poslovima. Vođa koji odgovara ovom stilu liderstva jeste onaj koji od
emocionalnih kompetencija, osim sposobnosti inspirativnog liderstva, ima i razvijenu empatiju, kao i osobinu transparentnosti,
Leadership style involves a whole series of coordinated activities and procedures that make a
certain, characteristic method of leading a group.
Thus, different leaders apply different leadership
styles according to their personality, education,
and natural tasks of the group they lead. Every
leader has his own, personal, dominant method
of leadership. However, in addition to one dominant style, the best leaders, based on the circumstances, apply other leadership styles. There
are many different classifications of leadership
styles. According to one of those, leadership
styles can be divided into two groups (Goleman,
Bojacis, & Maki, 2006): (1) resonant leadership
styles: visionary style, coaching style, affiliative
style, and democratic style, (2) dissonant leadership styles: pace-setting and commanding style.
Visionary style is one of the resonant leadership styles. The style is possessed by an inspirational leader who determines a the common
goal of the group by his vision of a desirable
future. However, he provides members with the
freedom to choose their own path to the destination. That way, the leader creates a dedication to work, a feeling of togetherness, evokes
a feeling of pride and gives importance even to
the routine jobs. The leader that suits this style
of leadership is the one who, when it comes to
emotional competencies, in addition to his inspirational leadership, has developed empathy
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odnosno iskrenosti. Smatra se da je ovaj stil
najefikasniji, pogotovo u situacijama koje
zahtijevaju radikalne promjene i nove ideje.
Ovaj stil takođe pruža i najviše zadovoljstva
članovima tima. Trenerski stil takođe spada
u grupu rezonantnih stilova liderstva. Ovaj
stil, prije svega, podrazumijeva usredsređenost lidera na pojedinca kao ličnost. Lider je
usmjeren na razvoj pojedinca, a ne na njegov
zadatak. Ovaj stil ima određene prednosti,
njime se postiže dobra emocionalna klima,
zadobija se povjerenje i izgrađuje se samopoudanje zaposlenih, a, takođe se, postižu i
dobri poslovni rezultati u organizaciji. Ovaj
stil liderstva zasniva se na empatiji i sposobnosti lidera da razvijaju druge. Trenerski
stil je najefikasniji kod profesionalno veoma
ambicioznih, samostalnih i aktivnih članova tima. Prednost ovog stila jeste u tome što
vezuje za organizaciju i zadržava najbolje i
najsposobnije stručnjake. Aflijativni stil jedan je od rezonantnih stilova liderstva. Lideri ovog stila ne skrivaju svoje emocije, imaju
razvijenu sposobnost empatije, najiskrenije su zainteresovani za emocionalne potrebe zaposlenih, kao i za emocionalnu klimu
grupe u cjelini. Na taj način oni ostvaruju
duboke emocionalne veze među članovima,
kao i lojalnost pojedinca firmi, ali i grupnu
koheziju. Ovi lideri više su zainteresovani za
zadovoljstvo zaposlenih i skladnu atmosferu
u grupi, nego za ostvarivanje ciljeva i profita
firme. Aflijativni lideri posmatraju zaposlene
prevashodno kao ljudska bića kojima je potrebna pomoć i podrška. Oni omogućavaju
uspostavljanje čvrstih veza među ljudima i
lojalnost članova svojoj grupi. Ovaj stil liderstva posebno je produktivan u slučajevima kada je potrebno konfliktne odnose
pretvoriti u kooperativne, ali i onda kada je
potrebno podići posrnuli moral i samopouzdanje grupe. Takođe je veoma potreban i
kada je važno postići pozitivno raspoloženje, slogu, sklad i saradnju u timu. Međutim,
ovaj stil liderstva ima i svojih nedostataka.
Tako lideri koji se previše ili isključivo služe
aflijativnim stilom, mogu doći u opasnost da
zanemare poslovne zadatke i produktivnost
and transparency or honesty. It is believed that
this style is most effective, particularly in situations requiring radical changes and new ideas.
This style also provides the most satisfaction to
the team members. Coaching style also belongs
to the group of resonant leadership styles. The
style primarily involves the leader’s focus on an
individual as a person. The leader is focused on
the development of an individual and not on his
task. This style has certain advantages; it creates
good emotional climate, manages to gain trust
and builds self-confidence of employees, while
also creating good business results in the organization. The style is based on empathy and the
ability to develop other leaders. Coaching style
is the most effective at very professional, ambitious, independent and active members of the
team. The advantage of this style is that it links
and retains the best and brightest professionals
to the organization. Affiliative style is also one
of the resonant leadership styles. The leaders
characterised by this style do not hide their emotions, have developed an ability to empathize,
are sincerely interested in the emotional needs of
employees, as well as for the emotional climate
of the group as a whole. That way, they create
a deep emotional connection between members,
as well as the loyalty of the individual to the
company, but also a group cohesion. These leaders are more interested in employee satisfaction
and harmonious atmosphere in the group, than
for the achievement of goals and profits of the
company. Affiliative leaders perceive employees
primarily as human beings who require help and
support. They allow the establishment of strong
relationships among people and the loyalty of
the members to their group. This style of leadership is especially productive in cases when it
is necessary to turn the conflict into cooperative
relations, but also when it is necessary to raise
battered morale and confidence of the group. It
is also relevant in situations when it is important
to establish positive mood, style, harmony and
team collaboration. However, this style of leadership has its drawbacks. Therefore, leaders who
are too dedicated, exclusively devoted to the
affiliative style, may find themselves in danger
of neglecting business tasks and productivity of
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organizacije. Zbog tih razloga, smatra se da
je dobitna kombinacija kada se aflijativni i
vizionarski stil liderstva koriste zajedno.
Demokratski stil liderstva takođe spada u
grupu rezonantnih stilova. Ovaj stil karakteriše traženje i uvažavanje mišljenja članova
grupe, kao i delegiranje ovlašćenja vođe na
niže nivoe u strukturi organizacije. Takođe
je karakteristično i grupno odlučivanje. Demokratski lideri su više ravnopravni članovi
tima, pouzdani savjetnici i dobri saradnici,
za razliku od naredbodavaca koji se uzdižu
iznad grupe i koriste svoju moć za postizanje poslušnosti zaposlenih. Ovaj stil liderstva veoma je koristan u slučajevima kada
je potreban konsenzus u pogledu cilja i sredstava, onda kada lider nema jasnu ideju, ili
kada ima ideju ali ne zna da je sprovede u
praksi. Ovaj stil takođe ima i svojih nedostataka. Njegove negativne strane jesu predugi
sastanci, varljiv konsenzus, neadekvatnost u
vrijeme krize kada je hitno potrebno donositi
prave odluke.
Diktiranje tempa spada u disonantne stilove liderstva. Ovaj stil se odlikuje time što
vođa postavlja visoke standarde u pogledu
brzine i kvaliteta obavljanja posla. Ovaj stil
se temelji na liderovoj izrazito razvijenoj potrebi za postignućem. Primjenjuje se rijetko
i oprezno, s obzirom na tempo koji vodi ka
brzom poslovnom uspjehu, a koji vrlo lako
može da iscrpi zaposlene. On takođe može
da ih potpuno destimuliše, uništi im moral i
učini ih nezadovoljnim. Ovo je rezultat pojave da se zaposleni osjećaju kao sredstva u
rukama bezdušnih lidera. Diktiranje tempa
može biti uspješan način vođenja u slučajevima kada je tim snažno motivisan, visoko
kvalifikovan, sposoban, samostalan i onda
kada je najvažniji sam rast kompanije. Najbolji rezultati postižu se korišćenjem ovog
stila zajedno sa vizionarskim ili aflijativnim
stilom liderstva. Zapovjednički stil liderstva
takođe spada u grupu disonantnih stilova.
Karakteriše ga rukovođenje koje se uglavnom svodi na izdavanje naredbi koje se pri
tome ne obrazlažu. Ove naredbe moraju se
bespogovorno izvršiti od strane podređenih.
122
the organization. For these reasons, it is considered a winning combination when the affiliate
and visionary leadership styles are used together. Democratic leadership style also belongs to
the group of resonant styles. It is characterized
by seeking and respecting opinions of the group
members, as well as empowering the leader to
implement his authority to lower levels in the organizational structure. It is also characteristic by
group decision making. Democratic leaders are
equal members of the team, trusted advisors and
good associates, unlike the commanders who
tend to rise above the group and use their power
to accomplish employee obedience. This style
of leadership is very useful in situations where
a consensus is needed in terms of objectives and
means, when the leader does lacks a clear idea, or
in the situations when the leader has an idea but
does not know how to implement it in practice.
This style also has its drawbacks. Its negative
sides are lengthy meetings, deceptive consensus,
inadequacy in times of crisis when adequate and
rapid decision-making is crucial.
Pace-setting falls into dissonant leadership
styles. It is portrayed by the fact that the leader sets high standards in terms of speed and
quality of work. The style is based on a highly
developed leader’s need for achievement. It is
applied rarely and cautiously, given the pace
that leads to rapid business success, which
can very easily result in exhausted employees. It can also completely discourage them,
destroying their morale and making them
dissatisfied. This is a result of the occurrence
that employees feel as tools in the hands of
a heartless leader. Pace-setting can be a successful way of leadership in cases when the
team is strongly motivated, highly qualified,
capable, independent, and when the growth of
the company is the most important aspect. The
best results are achieved by utilizing this style
along with visionary or affiliate leadership
style. Commanding leadership style also belongs to the group of dissonant styles. It symbolises management that is mainly reduced
to commanding without further explanations.
The subordinates must unconditionally execute These commands. The leader represents
Z. Lukic i D. Došenović: EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN LEADERSHIP
Lider predstavlja tiranina koji svoju moć temelji na strahu, a svojim zapovijestima i bespogovornim naredbama ponižava i demotiviše svoje zaposlene. Na taj način on stvara
nezadovoljstvo, otpor i lošu klimu u kolektivu. Ovakav lider je zastarjeli tip autoritarnog
vođe koji je danas nepoželjan jer dugoročno
može da uništi poslovanje ali i kompaniju.
Ovaj stil liderstva je najmanje stimulativan i
najmanje efikasan. Naziva se još i komandujući stil, a preporučuje se samo u slučajevima kada se razumno i humano primjenjuje u
nekim kriznim situacijama kao što mogu biti
npr. teroristički napad, zemljotres, itd. To su
slučajevi u kojima je potrebno hitno reagovati i umiriti članove grupe.
Smatra se da specifična situacija može da
zahtijeva odgovarajući stil liderstva. Tako
je u slučaju kada se vrše korjenite promjene u organizaciji kojoj prijeti propast najpoželjniji vizionarski liderski stil. Ukoliko
posao zahtijeva posvećenost, svježe ideje
i konsenzus svih članova, preporučuje se
demokratski stil. Situacija u kojoj je riječ
o podsticanju visokokvalifikovanog i samomotivisanog tima, efikasan je onaj lider
koji je sklon diktiranju tempa. Pomenuti autor Goleman smatra da su lideri, prije
svega, odgovorni za stvaranje emocionalno
inteligentne organizacije, ali da to nije ni
malo lagan posao. Organizacije su po svojoj
prirodi inherente i počinju se mijenjati tek
kada njeni članovi konačno shvate da rade
u neskladnoj, disonantnoj grupnoj atmosferi i da im posao ne donosi zadovoljstvo
već neprijatnosti, dosadu, kao i napetost i
konstantan stres. Za izgrađivanje efikasne
i skladne organizacije u kojoj vladaju konstruktivne grupne norme, a čiji članovi dobro međusobno sarađuju, imaju povjerenje
jedni u druge, samosvjesni su, empatični i
posvećeni svom poslu, najvažnija je grupna
empocionalna inteligencija. A u razvoju kolektivne emocionalne inteligencije i u uspostavljanju skladne, demokratske, otvorene
i kooperativne kulture organizacije, važnu
ulogu ima rezonantni lider.
a tyrant who bases his power on fear, and
who uses his explicit orders to humiliate and
de-motivate his employees. Such actions create frustration, resistance and negative environment in the working community. This type
of leader represents an outdated authoritarian
leader who is undesirable nowadays because
such attitude can destroy both the long-term
business operations and the company. Such
style of leadership is the least stimulating and
least efficient. It is only recommended in cases where it is applied reasonably and humanely in crisis situations such as terrorist attacks,
earthquakes, etc. These are the situations
where it is necessary to respond promptly and
reassure members of the group.
It is believed that a specific situation may
require appropriate leadership style. Thus, in
a situation when radical changes are made in
an organization that is faced with the threat of
being shut down, a visionary leadership style
is preferred. If a job requires commitment,
fresh ideas and consensus of all members, it
is recommended to utilise a democratic style.
The situation that involves stimulating a highly qualified and self-motivated team, the most
effective leaders are those who are fond of
setting the pace. Goleman believes that leaders are primarily responsible for creating an
emotionally intelligent organization, which is
not an easy job by any means. Organizations
are inherent by nature and begin to change
only when their members finally realize that
they operate in a dysfunctional, dissonant
group atmosphere and that their work brings
no pleasure but discomfort, boredom, tension
and constant stress. In order to form an effective and coherent organization ruled by constructive group norms and whose members
cooperate well with one another, trust one another, are self-confident, empathetic and dedicated to their work, the most important aspect
is group emotional intelligence. In the development of collective emotional intelligence
and in establishing a consistent, democratic,
open and cooperative culture of the organization, a resonant leader has an important role.
123
Z. Lukic i D. Došenović: EMOCIONALNA INTELIGENCIJA U LIDERSTVU
ZAKLJUČAK
CONCLUSION
Lideri su oduvijek igrali jednu emocionalnu ulogu. Nema nikakve sumnje da su prvi
lideri koje je čovječanstvo imalo svoj položaj stekli najviše zahvaljujući emocionalnoj
privlačnosti svog liderstva. Tokom čitave
istorije i u svim kulturama, u svakoj grupi
ljudi lider je onaj od koga ostali očekuju pomoć i objašnjenje kako da se suoče sa neizvjesnošću ili opasnošću, odnosno kada i
kako neki posao treba da se uradi. Tako lider
djeluje kao emocionalni vođa grupe. U svakoj grupi lider posjeduje maksimalnu moć da
usmjerava emocije svakog pojedinca. Ako se
emocije ljudi podstaknu tako da prerastu u
entuzijazam, učinak može izuzetno da se poveća. Međutim, ukoliko se u ljudima izazovu
zlovolja i anksioznost, oni će zaostajati. To
ukazuje na još jedan značajan aspekt emocionalnog liderstva, a to je da ono obezbjeđuje nešto više od samo dobro obavljenog
posla. Sljedbenici od lidera, između ostalog,
očekuju emocionalnu vezu zasnovanu na saosjećanju, odnosno empatiji. Liderstvo uvijek uključuje ovu primarnu dimenziju. Kada
pokrenu emocije u pozitivnom pravcu, lideri
iz svakoga izvlače ono što je najbolje. Ovaj
efekat naziva se rezonancom. Međutim, kada
se emocije pokrenu u negativnom pravcu, lideri izazivaju disonancu.
Da li će neka organizacija propadati ili napredovati, velikim dijelom zavisi od toga koliko efikasno će lideri ispoljavati ovu primarnu
emocionalnu dimenziju. Da bi emocionalno
inteligentno liderstvo funkcionisalo na opštu
korist, najvažnije je posjedovanje kompetencija emocionalne inteligencije. One se odnose
na to kako lider upravlja sobom i svojim odnosima sa drugim ljudima. Lideri koji maksimiziraju pozitivne efekte emocionalno inteligentnog liderstva, emocije svojih sljedbenika
usmjeravaju u pozitivnom pravcu. Postavlja
se pitanje na koji način sve to funkcioniše.
Nedavna istraživanja mozga otkrivaju neurološke mehanizme emocionalno inteligentnog
liderstva i objašnjavaju zašto je emocionalna
inteligencija toliko važna osobina.
Leaders have always played an emotional
role. There is no doubt that the first leaders
of humanity gained their position mainly due
to the emotional appeal of their leadership.
In every culture, in every group of people
throughout history, leader is the one from
whom others expect help and explanation on
how to deal with uncertainty and danger, or
when and how a job should be done. Thus,
the leader acts as an emotional leader of the
group. In each group, leader has maximum
authority to direct the emotions of each individual. If the emotions of people are encouraged to transform into enthusiasm, the
effect can be extremely increased. However,
if the people are provoked to develop ill will
and anxiety, they will fall behind. This indicates another important aspect of emotional
leadership - it provides more than just a job
well done. The followers of a leader expect,
among other things, an emotional bond based
on compassion or empathy. Leadership always involves this primary dimension. Once
they manage to instigate emotions towards a
positive direction, the leaders extract only the
best from each member of the team. This effect is called resonance. However, when emotions are instigated in a negative direction, the
leaders cause dissonance.
Whether an organization is to improve or
deteriorate, largely depends on how effectively the leaders will express this primary emotional dimension. In order for an emotionally
intelligent leadership to be utilised for general
benefit, the most important is to possess the
competencies of emotional intelligence. They
refer to the method the leader manages himself and his relationship with other people.
The leaders who maximize the positive effects
of emotionally intelligent leadership manage
to direct the emotions of their followers in a
positive direction. This raises the question of
how it all works. Recent brain research reveals
neural mechanisms of emotionally intelligent
leadership and explain why emotional intelligence is such an important trait.
124
Z. Lukic i D. Došenović: EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN LEADERSHIP
Na osnovu svega navedenog, može se zaključiti da emocionalna inteligencija utiče na
uspjeh lidera, čime se potvrđuje i postavljena
hipoteza ovog rada.
Based on the above, it can be concluded that
emotional intelligence affects the success of
leaders, thus confirming the hypothesis of the
paper.
LITERATURA
LITERATURE
Goleman, D., Bojacis, R. & Maki, E. (2006).
Emocionalna inteligencija u liderstvu.
Novi Sad: Adizes
Liri - Džojs, DŽ. (2007). Inspirativni menadžer. Beograd: IPS Media
Borg, DŽ. (2009). Ubeđivanje. Beograd: IPS
Media
Maslov, A.
(2004).
Psihologija
u
menadžmentu. Novi Sad: Adizes
Hes, H. (1995). Lider u svakom od nas. Beograd: Poslovni sistem „Grmeč“
Velč, DŽ. (2005). Veština pobeđivanja. Novi
Sad: Adizes
Goleman, D., Bojacis, R. i Maki, E. (2006).
Emotional intelligence in leadership.
Novi Sad: Adizes
Liri - Džojs, DŽ. (2007). Inspirational Manager. Beograd: IPS Media
Borg, DŽ. (2009). Persuasion. Beograd: IPS
Media
Maslov, A. (2004). Maslow on Management.
Novi Sad: Adizes
Hes, H. (1995). The Leader Within. Beograd:
Poslovni sistem „Grmeč“
Velč, DŽ. (2005). Skill of winning. Novi Sad:
Adizes
125
Z. Lukic i D. Došenović: EMOCIONALNA INTELIGENCIJA U LIDERSTVU
126
UPUTSTVO ZA AUTORE
(TIMES NEW ROMAN, VELIKA SLOVA, BOLD, CENTRALNO PORAVNANЈE)
INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS
Prof. dr Suzana Simić
Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Ekonomski fakultet u Subotici
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Economics
REZIME
Rezime se nalazi na početku rada i treba
da bude napisan fontom Times New Roman,
Italic, 12 pt. Navod „Rezime“ piše se dva
propreda ispod naslova, fontom Times New
Roma, Bold, 11 pt. Dužina rezimea je od 50
do 150 riječi. Jedan prored nakon rezimea
navode se ključne riječi (do 10 ključnih riječi).
Ključne riječi: rezime, dužina rezimea,
klasifikaciona šifra, font
SUMMARY
Summary should be written at the beginning
of work and should be typed in Times New
Roman, Italic, 12 pt. Alleged “Summary”
should be written two spaces below the title, in
Times New Roma, Bold, 11 pt. Summary length
is 50 to 150 words. One line after the summary
you shoul give key words (up to 10 keywords).
Keywords: summary, the length of the
summary, classification code, font
UVOD
Uvod se piše dva proreda nakon ključnih
riječi (TNR, bold, 12).
INTRODUCTION
Introduction should be written two spaces
after keywords (TNR, bold, 12).
GLAVNI NASLOVI
Glavni naslovi u radu treba da budu napisani
velikim slovima, centrirano, font TNR, bold,
12. Prije i poslije glavnog naslova se nalaze
po jedan prazan red.
HEADING 1
Main titles should be written in capital
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Podnaslovi, drugi nivo
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slovima, centrirano, font TNR, bold, 12. Prije
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Second level headings should be written
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Podnaslovi, treći nivo
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slovima, poravnato prema lijevoj margini,
font TNR, 12, italic. Prije i poslije naslova se
nalazi jedan prazan red.
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TNR 12, italic. Before and after the title is an
empty line.
127
FORMAT STRANICE
Stranica je veličine A4. Margine su: vrh
2,54 cm, donja 2,54 cm, lijeva 2,54 cm,
desna 2,54 cm, odnosno, svaka po 1 inč. Rad
treba da ima dužinu do 20.000 znakova, 10
strana (uključujući apstrakt, jednačine, tabele,
reference literature i dodatke). Rad se piše
u dvije kolone (lijeva kolona na srpskom, a
desna na engleskom jeziku). Širina kolona
je 7,91 cm, a razmak između kolona je 0,1
cm. Razdvajanje pasusa se vrši uvlačenjem
početnog reda za 0,5 cm.
JEZIK RADA I PISMO
Tekstovi se pišu u Microsoft Word Windows
programu. Jezik rada je srpski i engleski. Dio
na srpskom jeziku dostavljati na latiničnom
pismu. Economics, časopis za ekonomsku
teoriju i analizu koristi APA standarde pisanja
naučnog rada.
TABELE
Tabele treba da budu numerisane u
kontinuitetu arapskim brojevima, i to naslov
i redni broj tabele se postavljaju iznad tabele,
poravnato uz lijevu marginu. Legenda se
ispisuje ispod tabele. Kada citiramo podatke,
ime tabele ispisujemo početnim velikim
slovom i navodimo njen redni broj. APA slijedi
pravilo da se u tabelama uklone vertikalne
linije, a od horizontalnih zadrže samo
najnužnije. Veličina fonta u tabelama je 10pt.
Tabele se postavljaju centrirano, dovoljno je
samo na engleskom jeziku, a legenda se po
potrebi ispisuje i na srpskom jeziku.
GRAFIKONI, SLIKE I
JEDNAČINE
Grafikoni i slike se numerišu u kontinuitetu
arapskim brojevima. Naslov i redni broj
figure se unose ispod figure, poravnato
uz lijevu marginu. Sve figure citiramo
početnim velikim slovom. Veličina fonta u
figurama je 10 pt.
128
PAGE FORMAT
Page size is A4. Margins are: top 2.54 cm,
bottom 2.54 cm, 2.54 cm left, right 2.54 cm,
respectively, each 1 inch. The paper should have
a length of up to 20,000 characters, 10 pages
(including abstract, equations, tables, references
and appendices). The paper should be written
in two columns (left column is in Serbian and
the right one in English). Column width is 7.91
cm, and the distance between the columns is 0.1
cm. The separation of paragraphs is done by
inserting a paragraph initial order of 0.5 cm.
WRITING
Papers are written in Microsoft Word for
Windows program. Language is Serbian and
English. Part of the Serbian language to the
Latin script. Economics, Journal of Economic
Theory and Analysis using APA writing
standards of scientific research.
TABLES
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with writing Capitalized and mention her
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retain only the most necessary. Font size is
10pt in the tables. Tables are centered and
only in English language, and the legend, if
necessary, should be written in the Serbian
language too.
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EQUATIONS
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numerals continuity. The title and number
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figures is 10 pt.
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Equation Editor i pozicionira se na centar,
dok je numeracija arapskim brojevima uz
desnu marginu.
CITIRANJE REFERENCI
U TEKSTU
Osnovni APA princip citiranja u otvorenom
tekstu jeste „jedan autor, jedna riječ“. Uz ime
autora potrebno je navesti samo godište, ali
ne i broj stranice.
Na primjer:
Voker (Walker, 2000). poredio je vrijeme reakcije...
Citiranje imena tri, četiri ili pet autora:
Prvo navođenje: Ilić, Branković, Milijević,
Suzić i Gutović (1999) objasnili su...
Drugo navođenje: Ilić i saradnici (1999)
objasnili su...
Za izvor sa Interneta koji nema označene
stranice, koristite znak para ¶ i broj paragrafa
na stranici na kojoj je objavljen.
Na primjer:
(Srpski jezik) Majers (Myers, 2000, ¶ 5)
POPIS LITERATURE
Svi citirani izvori u tekstu rada treba da
se nalaze u popisu literature. Radovi koji su
korišćeni u literaturi se navode alfabetskim
redom. APA standardi slijede princip „autor –
godište izdanja“. APA stil podrazumijeva da
se lista referenci daje u popisu na kraju rada, a
nikako navođenjem izvora u fusnotama.
Naredni primjeri imaju za cilj da autorima
pruže pregled navođenja u bibliografiji
odgovarajućih modela.
Knjige
Suzić, N. (2006). Poslovna kultura (drugo
izdanje). Banja Luka: XBS
Radovi iz časopisa
Suzić, N. (2008). Kako adolescenti
vrednuju svoje roditelje a kako roditelji
The equation to be written in Equation
Editor, and is positioned at the center, and
the numbering is with Arabic numerals on the
right margin.
CITING REFERENCES
IN THE TEXT
The basic principle of APA citation in
plaintext is “one author, one word.” With the
author’s name should be stated only age, but
not the number.
For example:
Walker (2000). compared reaction times...
Citing the names of three, four or five authors:
First time: Wasserstein, Zappulla, Rosen,
Gertsmann, and Rock (1994) found...
Second time: Wasserstein et al. (1994)
found ...(ibid,p.208)
For an Internet source that does not have a
bookmark, use the ¶ sign pairs and the number
of paragraphs on the page where it published.
For example:
(English) (Myers, 2000, ¶ 5)
REFERENCES
All sources cited in the text should be included
in the reference list. Papers that have been used
in the literature are presented in alphabetical
order. APA standards follow the principle of
“author–year release.” APA style that includes
a list of references given in the list at the end of
the article, not quoting sources in footnotes.
The following examples are intended to
authors provide an overview of citation in the
bibliography of the corresponding models.
Books
Hirsch, Jr.., E. D. (1996). The schools we need and
why we do not have them. New York: Doubleday.
Papers from the magazine
Dennis T. A. Cole, P. M., Wiggins, C. N.,
Cohen, L. H. & Zalewsky, M. (2009). The
129
sami sebe? Naša škola, časopis za teoriju
i praksu odgoja i obrazovanja br. 46/216,
str. 25–34
Rad objavljen u zborniku
functional organization of preschool-age
children’s emotion expressions and actions in
challenging situations. Emotion, 9, 520–530.
Suzić, N. (2009). Kako učenici vrednuju
školu i kako uče. U zborniku Monografija
međunarodnog znanstvenog skupa „Škola po
mjeri“ (str. 221–236). Pula: Sveučilište Jurja
Dobrile.
Rad poznatog autora
preuzet elektronski
Barrett, cp, & Campos, J. J. (1987).
Perspectives on emotional development: II.
A functionalist approach to emotions. In J. D.
Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development
(2nd ed., Pp. 555–578). Oxford, England: Wiley.
Schwarzer, R. (1989). Statistički softver
za meta analizu [Kompjuterski softverski
vodič]. Preuzeto 23. marta 2001. sa http://
www.yorku.ca/faculty/academic/schwarze/
meta_e.htm
Schwarzer, R. (1989). Statistics software
for meta-analysis [Computer software and
manual]. Retrived March 23, 2001,from http://
www.yorku.ca/faculty/academic/schwarze/
meta_e.htm
Članak koji je objavljen jedino na
Internetu
Fredserickson, B. L. (07.03.2000).
Cultivating positive emotions to optimize
health and wel-being. Prevention & Treatment,
3, Article 0001a. Preuzeto 20.11.2000, sa sajta
http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/
pre0030001a.html
Podaci preuzeti sa sajta vladine ili druge
zvanične organizacije
Department of Health and Human Services,
National Center for Health Statistics. (1991).
National Health Provider Inventory: Home
health agencies and hospices, 1991 [Zvanični
podaci]. Dostupno na veb sajtu Nacionalnog
tehničkog informacionog servisa: http://
www.ntis.gov
130
Paper published in the journal
The work of renowned author
downloaded electronically
An article that was published only on
the Internet
Fredserickson, B. L. (2000, March
7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize
health and wel-being. Prevention & Treatment,
3, Article 0001A. Retrieved November 20,
2000 from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/
volume3/pre0030001a.html
Data downloaded from the government
or other official organization
Department of Health and Human
Services, National Center for Health
Statistics. (1991). National Health Provider
Inventory: Home health agencies and
hospices, 1991 [Data file]. Available from
National Technical Information Service
Web site, http://ntis.gov
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