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Airborne Hyperspectral Surveillance of the Ship

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GEOD. LIST
GOD. 66 (89) 2
S. 77–148
ZAGREB, LIPANJ 2012.
SADRAJ
Izvorni znanstveni èlanak
Bajiæ: Zrakoplovni hiperspektralni nadzor uljnog oneèišæenja s brodova
u hrvatskom dijelu Jadranskog mora ....................................................................77
Struèni èlanci
Ninkov, Govedarica, Trifkoviæ: Jedna metoda obnove stereografske izmjere
na podruèju opæine Èoka .......................................................................................101
Gopi, Ramakrishnan: Digitalna katastarska izmjera za identifikaciju
prisvajanja zemljišta primjenom prostornih tehnologija ....................................113
Vijesti ................................................................................................................................125
Pregled struènog tiska i softvera ........................................................................................139
In memoriam ....................................................................................................................................143
Predstojeæi dogaðaji ...........................................................................................................148
CONTENTS
Original scientific paper
Bajiæ: Airborne Hyperspectral Surveillance of the Ship-based Oil Pollution
in Croatian Part of the Adriatic Sea .....................................................................77
Professional papers
Ninkov, Govedarica, Trifkoviæ: One Method of Renewal of Stereographic
Survey Data in Èoka Municipality.......................................................................101
Gopi, Ramakrishnan: Digital Cadastral Surveying for Land Encroachment
Identification using Spatial Technologies ............................................................113
News .................................................................................................................................125
Publications and Software review.......................................................................................139
In memoriam ....................................................................................................................................143
Forthcoming events ...........................................................................................................148
Naslovna stranica: Prometne brodske linije u Jadranskome moru,
(izvor: http://www.mppi.hr/UserDocsImages/Adria%20VTS,%20prezentacija.pdf).
II
INHALT
Originalbeiträge
Bajiæ: Hyperspektrale Fernerkundung der Ölverunreinigung von den Schiffen
in der kroatischen Adria .........................................................................................77
Fachartikel
Ninkov, Govedarica, Trifkoviæ: Eine Methode zum Wiederaufbau
der stereographischen Vermessung auf dem Gebiet der Gemeinde Èoka .......101
Gopi, Ramakrishnan: Digitale Katastervermessung zur Identifizierung
der Aneignung von Grundstücken durch Anwendung der Raumtechnologien....113
Nachrichten .......................................................................................................................125
Bücher und Softwareschau ................................................................................................139
In memoriam ....................................................................................................................................143
Termine .............................................................................................................................148
SOMMAIRE
Contribution scientifique authéntique
Bajiæ: La surveillance aérienne hyperspectrale de la pollution pétrolière
par les navires dans la partie croate de la Mer Adriatique................................77
Contributions professionnelles
Ninkov, Govedarica, Trifkoviæ: Une méthode de renouvellement de l’arpentage
stéréographique dans la région de la municipalité de Èoka .............................101
Gopi, Ramakrishnan: L’arpentage cadastrale digital dans l’identification
d’usurpation de terrains en appliquant les technologies spatiales ...................113
Actualités ...........................................................................................................................125
Revue de la littérature professionnelle et du software ........................................................139
In memoriam ....................................................................................................................................143
Evénements precedents ......................................................................................................148
[email protected]
Po¶linnajnau~najstatxj
Bai~: Ayro-giperspektralxnw nadzor za zagrjzneniem morj s sudov v HorvatskoÂ
~asti Adriati~eskogo morj......................................................................................77
Specialxnwestatxi
Ninkov, Govedarica, Trifkovi~: Metod vozobnovlenij stereografi~eskogo
izmerenij v raÂone ob|inw ^oka .........................................................................101
Gopi, Ramakri{nan: Kadastrovoe cifrovoe izmerenie dlj identifikacii
prisvoenij zemelx primeneniem prostranstvennwh tehnologi .........................113
Novosti..............................................................................................................................125
Obzor specialxno pe~ati i programmnogo obespe~enij ......................................................139
In memoriam/V pamjtx ....................................................................................................................143
Predstoj|ie sobwtij .........................................................................................................148
Bajiæ, M.: Airborne Hyperspectral Surveillance of the Ship-based …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 77–100
77
UDK 504.064.3:629.735:504.054:621.892:629.5(262.3)(497.5)
Izvorni znanstveni èlanak
Airborne Hyperspectral Surveillance
of the Ship-based Oil Pollution
in Croatian Part of the Adriatic Sea
Milan BAJIÆ – Zagreb1
ABSTRACT. The airborne hyperspectral and multisensor surveillance of the ship so
urced oil pollution of the sea was researched by the airborne system developed in the
frame of the project “System for the multisensor airborne reconnaissance and surve
illance in crisis situations and the protection of the environment” (MZOS 2007).
While different methodologies, methods, technologies and techniques were used, the
multilevel fusion was applied for linking the data, the processes and the outcomes.
Fusion includes the aerial hyperspectral and the colour imagery, the visually detec
ted oil spills, the formalised knowledge for the estimation of the oil spill area and
oil’s quantity based on Bonn Agreement Oil Appearance Code BAOAC, the data
about the spectral response of the clean sea and polluted sea, the results of hyperspec
tral classification. Besides the information acquired by the airborne multisensor
system, the information provided by space based system CleanSeaNet of the Europe
an Maritime Safety Agency EMSA was included in the fusion process (in the frame
of the large trial operational exercise in 2008). The advantages of the airborne re
mote sensing of the oil spills are reliable detection of the oil spills, accurate mapping
of its position and the shape in geographic coordinates, classification of the contents
of the spill, measurements of the oil spill’s features, estimation of the oil quantity.
Keywords: oil spill, pollution, Adriatic Sea, hyperspectral, SAM, airborne remote
sensing.
1. Introduction
The airborne hyperspectral and multisensor surveillance of the ship sourced oil
pollution of the sea was researched by the airborne system developed in the frame
of the project “System for the multisensor airborne reconnaissance and surveillance in crisis situations and the protection of the environment”, supported by
1
PhD Milan Bajiæ, HCR Centre for testing, development and training Ltd., Zagreb, Croatia, former Prof. at Faculty
of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kaèiæeva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia, e-mail: [email protected]
78
Bajiæ, M.: Airborne Hyperspectral Surveillance of the Ship-based …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 77–100
Croatian ministry of sea, transportation and infrastructure, Croatian Air Forces
of Croatian Ministry of defence, Faculty of Geodesy University of Zagreb (MZOS
2007). While different methodologies, methods, technologies and techniques were
used, the multilevel fusion was applied for linking the data, the processes and the
outcomes. The multilevel fusion of the aerial multisensor images, data and knowledge of ship sourced pollution of the sea by illegal discharges of oil, was researched, solutions were developed, tested and evaluated and achievements are
presented. The goal of the fusion is to produce the reliable and confident near real
time2 (NRT) evidences of the pollution, while the data and information provided
by particular sources can not provide satisfying level of the detection probability,
the confidence and the spatial mapping accuracy. This research was motivated by
the needs to protect the sea of the anthropogenic pollution. Our research was focused on the Adriatic Sea, which has all characteristics of the Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (Vidas 2007, p. 121–127, 136–139) although the formalization of its
status was not accomplished yet. Protection of the sea requires harmonized efforts of all coastal countries. The scale of the ship-based oil pollution of the Adriatic Sea can be seen in (Ferraro et al. 2007), (REMPEC 2007), (Vidas 2007, 2008).
The recent data, based on interpretation of the satellite images acquired by synthetic aperture radar (SAR), are available due to the service of the CleanSeaNet
(CSN) of the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), (URL 2), and have been
used in our research.
The state of art of the available and the operational remote sensing technologies
is presented in (URL 2), (Trieschmann 2008), (Tarchi et al. 2006), (Bajiæ and
Tomaiæ 2008), (Bonn Agreement 2007a), (Bonn Agreement 2007b), (Salem and
Kafatos 2004), (Lennon et al. 2006), (URL 3), although other references exist.
There are two complementary direction of the application of the remote sensing
technology for the surveillance of the sea oil pollution: a) satellite based synthetic
aperture radar (SAR) images of sea surface, while data about sea currents, wind
could be available too, b) the images and data collected by the airborne electro-optical and by side looking antenna radar (SLAR) multisensor systems. The main
advantages of the space based technology used by EMSA CSN are the wide coverage (300 x 300 km, spatial resolution 25 m, or 400 x 400 km, spatial resolution
50 m), day or night missions, short time of the interpretation of the imagery, delivery of alert reports at least in 30 minutes after the flight above the considered
area. The main disadvantages are a low repetition frequency of the flights (e.g.
over the Adriatic Sea – three to seven times per month), a very short duration of
the imagery acquisition, a low confidence of the detection of the oil spills at the
sea, possible false alarms due to many factors, lack of the estimation of the oil
quantity, (Ferraro et al. 2010).
The airborne remote sensing of the ship based oil pollution can provide the data
and information of the detected oil spill, by reconnaissance and surveillance missions in accordance to national needs and plans (Bajiæ and Tomaiæ 2008; URL 1;
Bajiæ et al. 2008; MZOS 2007). In the same time the airborne data can serve to
verify the information obtained from CleanSeaNet. The advantages of the air2
In the considered case the term near real time pertains to the delay introduced, by whole activity between the
time of the detection of the possible oil slick and the verification of this real oil slick by airborne multisensor
mission and sending report to the decision makers.
Bajiæ, M.: Airborne Hyperspectral Surveillance of the Ship-based …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 77–100
79
borne remote sensing of the oil spills are reliable detection of the oil spills, accurate mapping of their position and the shape in geographic coordinates, classification of the contents of the spill, measurements of the oil spill’s features, estimation of the oil quantity; all depends on the used sensors and the fusion. If only
electro-optical sensors are used, the main disadvantages are the narrow coverage
(typical width of the imaged strip-like area is from 30% to 80% of the height above
the sea) and the optical visibility is needed. The oil spills can be visually monitored up to 3 km, in a good visibility conditions3.
Our efforts were focused on the research of the fusion, aimed to fuse the temporally sensitive spatial data, provided by satellite based EMSA CSN service
with images, data and knowledge provided by aerial electro-optical multisensor
surveillance. The frame for this purpose was the operational research project
(MMPI RH 2008), a large trial aimed to the fusion of the information acquired
by the airborne electro-optical multisensor system and the information provided
by space based system EMSA CSN. The rationale for this approach was the
need to collect a basic experience about the real potentials and limitations of the
space borne and the airborne technologies, about the processes, procedures
and the conditions of the providing the evidence of the illegal oil discharges from
the ships.
Our objective was to derive and approve the efficient and sustainable solution of
the oil spill assessment based on the data acquired by the a) alone airborne
multisensor system (MZOS 2007) and b) combined airborne service with the service of the EMSA CleanSeaNet (URL 2). The solution should provide needed evidences, that are valuable and strong enough at the court. Our case study was spatially constrained on the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea. In the considered
multisensor airborne system are in use the digital electro-optical sensors (URL 1),
among them is the most important the hyperspectral imaging sensor. The data
were provided by the hyperspectral imagery, by the measurements of the reflection coefficients of the oil spill and the clean sea, the experts’ knowledge of Bonn
Agreement Oil Appearance Code – BAOAC (Bonn Agreement 2007b; p. 55–64),
(Lewis 2007), the colour photography and results of the visual observations. The
fusion of the mentioned data was done at various combinations, from the pixel
level, the features level and the decisions level. The development and implementation of the fusion in the considered environment is based on (Hall and Llinas
1997), (Hall and Llinas 2001), (Wald 2002), the basic and classic references which
provide the wide methodological frame and enable to consider very different inputs to fusion.
A number of possible oil spills4 in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea in year
2008 was 42, in accordance to EMSA CSN data. Table 1 contain the basic statistical parameters of the considered possible oil spills. Note that 35.71% of possible
oil spills appear as a single in 15 days, while 64.28% appears as multiple in 11
days.
3
If in addition a side looking radar (SLAR) is used, the oil spills can be detected up to 30 km from the aircraft and
the probability of the finding the oil spills will increase.
4
Data provided c.o. I. Tomaiæ, cover the first time period (from 2008-02-21 to 2008-12-09) when the EMSA CSN
data were available in Croatia.
80
Bajiæ, M.: Airborne Hyperspectral Surveillance of the Ship-based …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 77–100
Table 1. Basic statistical parameters of the possible oil spills in Croatian part of the
Adriatic Sea, from 2008 02 21 to 2008 12 09.
Oil spill
Length
Width
Area
Value
km
km
km2
Median
5.385
0.475
1.640
Average
6.548
1.816
3.232
Standard deviation
5.437
3.400
3.642
Minimum
0.780
0.100
0.140
Maximum
23.810
20.550
13
The use of the multisensor aerial system for surveillance of the sea pollution by
ship sourced oil is presented in section two. There are defined used methods and
tools. In section three is presented classification of the hyperspectral images, in
section four are considered particular aspects of the fusion, the new contributions, achievements, limitations of their application and future research. Follow
conclusions, acknowledgments and references.
2. Use of the multisensor airborne system for the surveillance
of the ship based oil pollution of the Adriatic Sea
In this section we consider the aerial electro-optical multisensor system used for
the surveillance of the ship sourced oil pollution of the Adriatic Sea, its operational
parameters, types of the aerial missions (surveillance if the a priori information is
available about possible oil spill, reconnaissance if no a priori information exist),
measurements of the coefficient of reflection of a spill and the clean sea water. In
this section are introduced and applied the methods and tools of the fusion.
2.1. Airborne hyperspectral multisensor system for the surveillance
of the ship based pollution of the Adriatic Sea by oil
The considered airborne electro-optical multisensor system was developed, tested
in 2007. and 2008. in the project supported by Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sports (MZOS 2007), onboard of helicopter Mi-8. It contains the following digital sensors:
• The hyperspectral imaging scanner (based on Imspector V9 line scanner). Wavelengths range from 430 nm to 900 nm, 95 channels. Ground resolving distance in
analysed examples was 1 m. Width of the mapped strip is 33% of the height above
the sea surface. Optimum height ranges from 400 m to 1000 m.
• Multispectral frame camera (MS-4100, Geospatial Systems). Used in configuration of three bands. Central wavelength/channel width: green 550/~40 nm; red
670/40 nm; near infrared 800/160 nm. Each channel has own chip (charge
coupled device – CCD).
Bajiæ, M.: Airborne Hyperspectral Surveillance of the Ship-based …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 77–100
81
• Digital photo camera (Nikon D90). Channels blue, green and red. Used for imaging at the nadir.
• Longwave infra red thermovision camera (Photon 320, FLIR). Wavelengths’ range from 8 to 14 mm.
• Digital video colour camera (Sony FCB IX1). Channels blue, green and red.
• Inertial Measuring Unit (iVRU-RSSC, iMAR GmbH).
Note that one additional colour photo camera (Sony H2) was used for manual acquisition of the oblique photographys by visual observer.
More about the considered airborne multisensor system and the particular technical solution see (Bajic et al. 2004), (Bajiæ and Tomaiæ 2008), (URL 1), (Bajiæ et
al. 2008), (Šemanjski and Gajski 2008). In October 2008. was realized the operational exercise of the integration of a data provided by satellite SAR service of
CSN EMSA and the information and data obtained with the considered airborne
multisensor system (MMPI RH 2008).
2.2. Basic operational parameters of the used airborne hyperspectral
multisensor system
Main operational parameters of the considered airborne multisensor system
onboard of the helicopter Mi-8, for the surveillance of the ship sourced sea pollution by oil were:
• The imagery acquisition speed 120 km/h, visual observation speed 100 km/h.
• Altitudes for the airborne visual surveillance from 150 m to 750 m, (Bonn Agreement 2007a; p. 59).
• Electro-optical surveillance at altitudes from 300 m to 1000 m, (MMPI RH 2008).
• The minimum coverage of the imaged area in one flight hour is shown in Table 2.
It is limited by the field of view of hyperspectral imaging scanner, although other
sensors have larger coverage.
• Endurance of the helicopter Mi-8 flight with additional fuel tank is 4:15 h.
• Pre-flight calibration on the ground of the sensors and the inertial measuring
unit lasts up to 30 min.
• Post-flight calibration on the ground lasts up to 15 min.
• Electric power is autonomous or provided from helicopter.
• Crew: pilot, co-pilot and technician. If educated and trained, can be visual observer, who manually sketches and/or collects oblique photography of the perceived
oil spill.
• Surveillance team: mission leader – interpreter, operator of sensors, visual observer (technician can do this).
• Navigation system for surveillance and reconnaissance mission, independent although compatible with the navigation system of the helicopter.
• Wide band communication system from air to land via Internet with Maritime
Rescue Coordination Centre Rijeka (MRCC).
• Delivered evidences on the oil slicks: a) first report to MRCC, b) second report to
MRCC, c) full report to MRCC, d) reporting to the court (if required).
82
Bajiæ, M.: Airborne Hyperspectral Surveillance of the Ship-based …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 77–100
Table 2. Coverage of the imaged area (km2/h, width of the imaged strip, the spatial re
solution in the direction of flight, in the direction perpendicular to the direc
tion of flight in dependence of altitude H above sea surface.
H
Strip width
Coverage
Resolution
in flight direction
Resolution perpendicular
to flight direction
m
m
km2/h
m
m
300
99.9
11.99
0.171
0.208
400
133.2
15.98
0.228
0.277
500
166.5
19.98
0.285
0.346
600
199.8
23.98
0.342
0.416
700
233.1
27.97
0.398
0.485
800
266.4
31.97
0.455
0.554
900
299.7
35.96
0.512
0.623
1000
333
39.96
0.569
0.693
2.3. Types of the airborne missions
The airborne surveillance shall be functionally integrated with the service of
EMSA CleanSeaNet (if their warnings are available), with Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre (MRCC), (MMPI RH 2008), (URL 1). While the date and time of
the expected EMSA messages is determined and known in advance, it is possible to
optimize the whole response and achieve minimum response time of the airborne
missions. The airborne surveillance of the ship based oil pollution of the Adriatic
Sea shall collect and provide the objective, reliable evidences having high confidence, which are acceptable and efficient in the legal prosecution of the polluters. For
this purpose the surveillance system shall provide: a) near real time airborne evidences and reporting to MRCC, b) evidences obtained by later analysis and reporting to MRCC, c) evidences upon court requirements, with qualified explanation
and interpretation of the applied methods, procedures and data (testimony of witnesses). The airborne surveillance of the oil pollution can be realized as:
A. Airborne surveillance/search mission initiated by the information about one
possible oil spill, obtained from EMSA via MRCC.
B. Airborne surveillance/search mission initiated by the information about multiple (two or more) possible oil spills, obtained from EMSA via MRCC.
C. Airborne reconnaissance missions that cover the perceived high risk areas of
the Adriatic Sea in a random manner (in space and in time) and produce effect
of the quasi permanent surveillance, when are not available the information of
EMSA CSN.
D. Combined mission of a type A. or B. with C., whereas mission starts at the day
of planed information of EMSA CSN but before its arrival time.
E. Training missions, exercises, trials for the operational testing and development
of the system.
Bajiæ, M.: Airborne Hyperspectral Surveillance of the Ship-based …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 77–100
83
F. Cooperation missions with other coastal countries of the Adriatic Sea, the first
one should be with Italian Coast Guard regarding their Side Looking Antenna
Radar5.
The processes and the fusion that we consider depend in several aspects on the
type of the airborne mission. Two types of missions were used to carry out the
analysis of the fusion, and two examples are considered:
• Surveillance/search mission of the B type. EMSA CSN produced alarm for two
possible oil spills, one was detected, and is named Oil spill 2008-10-14, Fig. 1.
• Reconnaissance mission of C type, without a priori information about the possible
oil spill, although one was detected from air, and named Oil spill 2008-10-15, Fig. 2.
a)
b)
Fig. 1. The Oil spill 2008 10 14. The geographic coordinates of the approximate centre
of the spill detected from air were 44° 01’ 41” N, 14° 07’ 27” E. The data of this
oil spill in space borne image reported 3:15 h before by EMSA CSN are shown in
Table 3. The observer estimated the area 10550 m2 of the oil spill from this raw,
unprocessed image.
Fig. 2. Oil spill 2008 10 15 detected without ear
lier EMSA CSN information. It is shown
on the raw oblique colour photography that
the observer made by handheld Sony H2
photo camera, through the open door of the
helicopter. On the right hand side is visible
a part of the helicopter’s winch. The geo
graphic coordinates of the approximate
centre of the spill were 44° 54’ 16” N,
13° 28’ 14” E.
5
Aulicino, D., Cau, D. (2010): Operational use of spaceborne SAR by the Italian Coast Guard, SeaSAR Symposium. Presentation at SEASAR 2010, the 3rd International Workshop on Advances in SAR Oceanography from
Envisat, ERS and third party missions, 25–29 January 2010, ESA ESRIN, Frascati (Rome), Italy.
84
Bajiæ, M.: Airborne Hyperspectral Surveillance of the Ship-based …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 77–100
2.4. Airborne surveillance/search of the possible oil spill based on a priori alarm
The data about two possible oil spills No1 and No2 were received from EMSA
CSN service via the MRCC Rijeka and the airborne mission was activated, Fig. 3.
Only the oil spill No1 was detected (Oil spill 2008-10-14), Fig. 1, and despite an
intensive search the possible spill No2 could not be detected. In EMSA report the
confidence of the possible oil spill No1 was declared as medium in accordance to
following criteria: medium contrast, sharp edges, smooth linear shaped slick, ho-
Fig. 3. a) The EMSA CSN reports about two possible oil spills, initiated b) the airborne
surveillance mission 2008 10 14. Legend: blue line flight route, red dot oil
spills.
Bajiæ, M.: Airborne Hyperspectral Surveillance of the Ship-based …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 77–100
85
mogenous surrounding. Its orientation was claimed SE – NW. The locations and
dimensions of the spill No1 measured by EMSA CSN at 5:16 UTC and 3:14 h later by the airborne hyperspectral system differ, Table 3. The displacement could
be a consequence of the sea currents and a wind. Airborne hyperspectral system
used spatial resolution of 1 m, the spatial resolution of the SAR data was ~50 m,
this could partially explain mentioned differences too. One more reason is also
possible, the physical and chemical processes decrease area and oil quantity of the
oil slick in time (evaporation and other).
The lack of the operational model of the spill shift due to wind and current speed and
direction is critical for backward reconstruction of the oil spill positions and linking
it to the positions of suspected polluter. The EMSA expectation of the availability of
the mentioned models (shift, linking to the polluter) is rather sceptical (URL 4).
The airborne multisensor surveillance proved by several means, that possible oil
spill No1 from EMSA CSN report is indeed a real oil spill. The processing, fusion
and interpretation gave its size, shape, provided its map, measure of reflection coefficient, thematic map obtained by the classification of the hyperspectral images.
Comparison of the EMSA CSN and the airborne assessment of this oil spill is given in Table 3.
By visual detection of the oil spill and by the application of Bonn Agreement Oil
Appearance Code BAOAC (Bonn Agreement 2007b; p. 55–64), (Lewis 2007), to the
geocoded photography Fig. 4, the oil spill assessment was approved. The main source of the data, information, were the hyperspectral images, of the oil spill and its
surroundings, Fig. 5. The hyperspectral images are acquired at nadir and they are
parametrically geocoded6. The observer’s estimation was used in the fusion too.
Fig. 4. The best photography that visual
observer made by hand held pho
to camera (Sony H2). Aimed for
interpretation in accordance to
BAOAC, thus it was registered to
the hyperspectral images (and
geocoded).
6
Fig. 5. Three channels (0.755, 0.645 and
0.465 mm) of the hyperspectral ima
ges are visualised as red, green, blue
image. Note that hyperspectral ima
ges are indeed a geographic map,
showing the oil spill and the surro
unding sea surface in the geograp
hic coordinate system.
The parametric geocoding was done by PARGE software, Version 2.3, ReSe Applications Schlaepfer.
86
Bajiæ, M.: Airborne Hyperspectral Surveillance of the Ship-based …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 77–100
Table 3. Data about the airborne verification of the information for the spill No1 provi
ded by EMSA CSN service.
EMSA CSN, space borne SAR Airborne, hyperspectral and visual (BAOAC)
Date
2008 10 14, 07:16 h
2008 10 14, 10:30 h
44° 01’ 41” N, 14° 08’ 28” E
44° 01’ 41” N, 14° 07’ 27” E
Area
0.15 km2
0.015003 km2
Width
0.20 km
0.075 km
Length
0.78 km
0.341 km
Coordinates
2.5. Application of Bonn Agreement Oil Appearance Code
The important step of the airborne detection, measurement and the mapping of
the oil spill is the application of the Bonn agreement oil appearance code
(BAOAC), Table 4, Fig. 6. The BAOAC can be applied on the oil spill a) which was
perceived visually and sketched by the observer, b) or/and on the oblique aerial
colour photography made by the observer.
Table 4. Estimation of the oil quantity by the The Bonn Agreement Oil Appearance Code,
(Lewis 2007).
Code
Description
of appearance
Layer thickness
Interval (mm)
Litres per km2
1
Sheen (silvery/grey)
0.04 to 0.30
40
300
2
Rainbow
0.30 to 5.0
300
5000
3
Metallic
5.0 to 50
5000
4
Discontinuous True
Oil Colour
50 to 200
50,000
5
Continuous True
Oil Colour
200 to More than 200
200,000
50,000
200,000
More than 200,000
The reason is following: international maritime law and international and national courts accept the information provided by visual application of BAOAC, being
the very valuable and strong evidence at the court. Note that BAOAC enables
classification in up to five classes, Table 4. After the application of BAOAC, the
observer concludes (or not) that the unknown object is the oil spill and thus provides (or not) the first evidence about the sea pollution by oil. When this has happen, the mission can continue by airborne hyperspectral and multisensor imaging
at nadir. The acquisition of the hyperspectral and multisensor images should be
done in optimum manner, regarding the Sun position, the location of the oil spill,
Bajiæ, M.: Airborne Hyperspectral Surveillance of the Ship-based …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 77–100
87
Fig. 6. Example of the oil spill: metallic, rainbow and sheen appearance7.
flight direction, altitude and flight speed. The most important are the hyperspectral images, although images are acquired with other sensors too. The processing
of the acquired hyperspectral data and the production of the hyperspectral images
is quite complex (Šemanjski et al. 2008) and will not be considered here. The
hyperspectral images are geocoded by means of the parametric geocoding and therefore they introduce high geographical and spatial accuracy (Schlaepfer et al.
1998), (Šemanjski and Gajski 2008).
As the next step, the observer acquires the best photography which will serve in
further processing. This (the best) photography ought to be registered onto the
hyperspectral images, after this processing it becames spatially and geographically accurate source of data for the application of spatially very accurate BAOAC
estimation of the oil spill. Once the hyperspectral images and geocoded photography are available, it is possible to apply the knowledge of BAOAC on geocoded
photography Fig. 4, Fig. 9 and achieve the very accurate spatial estimation of the
oil spill features, Fig. 7, Table 5.
7
Bjorn Vadt Christensen (2004): Appearance Code Sea surface Phenomena User Guide, Royal Danish Air Force,
SQN 721 Air Base Aalborg, Thisted Landevej 53, DK-9430 Vadum, Denmark, June 2004. Access: June 2005.
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Table 5. Estimated quantities of oil by application of BAOAC on the best geocoded
photographies Fig. 4, Fig. 9 of the oil spills from Fig. 1.a and Fig. 2.
Minimum/maximum litres
Oil spill date, area
2
14.10.2008., 15003 m
15.10.2008., 220517 m2
Sheen
Rainbow
Metallic
Sum
0/0
2.40/40.07
34.94/349.45
37.35/389.52
3.444/25.83
28.57/476.11
195.97/1959.65
227.98/2461.59
Fig. 7. Estimation of oil spill features. Photography (acquired by Sony H2 photo came
ra) of the oil spill was registered and geocoded onto the hyperspectral images. By
application of BAOAC on the geocoded photography the observer estimates area,
shape, types and expected quantity of oil.
2.6. Measurements of the oil spill reflectivity
Once, when the existence of the oil spill was positively confirmed by application of
BAOAC, it is possible to add new evidences using the hyperspectral images. For
this purpose the geocoded photography should be analysed, the polluted area, the
clean water area outside of the spill should be identified and the coefficients of
the reflection should be measured on the hyperspectral images. Measurement
should be done at statistically significant number of points to provide reliable
estimate of the measured reflectivity for both types of the surfaces, Fig. 8. The be-
Bajiæ, M.: Airborne Hyperspectral Surveillance of the Ship-based …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 77–100
89
Fig. 8. Dependence of the coefficient of reflection on the wavelength in m, measured for
the samples inside of the oil spill area (red) and measured in the areas of clean
sea water, outside of spill area (blue) on the hyperspectral images. a) Oil spill
2008 10 14, shown on Fig. 1, b) Oil spill 2008 10 15, shown on Fig. 2.
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Bajiæ, M.: Airborne Hyperspectral Surveillance of the Ship-based …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 77–100
haviour of the coefficient of reflection is new and very valuable feature of the oil
spill, data obtained by the measurements of the reflectivity are new set of the evidences about the sea pollution by oil. The colour photography provides information in three wide wavelength bands (0.4 to 0.5 mm – blue, 0.5–0.6 mm green and
0.6 to 0.7 mm – red) and the visual estimation of the spectral features of the oil
spill is coarse, while it is based on the radiometric resolution of colour of the spill.
The hyperspectral images provide specific information about the oil spill in each
of ninety five wavelength channels between 0.43 mm and 0.9 mm. Therefore the
hyperspectral images provide thirty times finer spectral information then the colour photography.
2.7. Airborne reconnaissance of oil spill without a priori information
The airborne reconnaissance of the oil spill can be done if there is no a priori information about possible oil spill. Results of the example from Fig. 2 are shown in Fig.
9. Of course there are several important consequences in this case regarding the
Fig. 9. Oil spill 2008 10 15. The best photography that visual observer made by hand
held (Sony H2) camera was geocoded on the hyperspectral images. Grid 100 x
100 m. The initial (raw and unprocessed) photography was shown on Fig. 2.
Bajiæ, M.: Airborne Hyperspectral Surveillance of the Ship-based …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 77–100
91
whole process. The most important consequence is the increase of the time between
the start of the airborne mission and the time when the oil spill will be perceived in
comparison to the time needed when the initial information are given in EMSA CSN
alarm. Once the oil spill was perceived and identified by visual observer or by pilots
it is possible to detect it with all available means. After this event the procedure is similar to the procedure that was described above in sections 2.4., 2.5. and 2.6.
3. Detection of the oil spill by classification of hyperspectral images
The hyperspectral images enable very efficient classification and the detection of
the oil spill and assessment of its area, its shape and estimation of the features of
the spill, see example at Fig. 10. If combined with the subjective estimate in accordance with BAOAC of the oil quantity made by visual observer on the best geocoded photography, the thematic map obtained by the hyperspectral classification
provides improvement of the oil’s quantity estimate. This novel contribution
overcomes the inability of the hyperspectral images to provide alone the measure
of a thickness of the oil layer on the sea surface. Among several classification methods, the best results were obtained by SAM (Spectral Angle Mapping8) classifica-
Fig. 10. a) Classification map obtained by Spectral Angle Mapping method, for spectral
angle threshold 2.3 degrees, b) spectral angle map, c) colour scale for the classi
fication map. Made from hyperspectral image of the Oil spill 2008 10 14.
8
SAM is an automated method for directly comparing image spectra to a known spectra of end members as vectors and calculates the spectral angle between them. It is insensitive to illumination since the SAM algorithm
uses only the vector direction and not the vector length. Date of access 2011-02-23, available from:
http://www.csr.utexas.edu/projects/rs/hrs/analysis.html.
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tion.9 This classification method needs pure spectral samples – end members. The
spectral samples should be taken on the hyperspectral images in the areas of the
oil spill and in the areas of the clean sea water surface outside of oil spill. For the
considered examples of the oil spills the best results were achieved with 2.3 degrees of the threshold spectral angle.
The dependence of the coefficient of reflection on the wavelength, Fig. 8, of the
samples of the oil spill and the clean sea water provides additional information
about their behaviour. Although the difference of the coefficients of reflection is
visible, the ratio of the reflection coefficients is more informative Fig. 11, while
it defines the region of wavelengths where discrimination could be expected. For
the classification can be useful sub range from la to lb, defined by ratio > 1. In
example of the hyperspectral images Oil spill 2008-10-14, was la = 0.475 mm and
lb = 0.758 mm.
The hyperspectral classification by spectral angle mapping method (footnote 7),
provides accurate assessment of the oil spill’s area, its shape, distribution in different classes, its orientation in much more than five classes. In our analysis were
Fig. 11. Ratio (black) and the absolute difference (green) of the reflection coefficients in
the areas of the oil spill (red) and the clean sea water (blue), of the hyperspectral
images of the Oil spill 2008 10 14. Absorption wavelengths are excluded from
the calculations of ratio (black curve).
9
Used software: TNTmips 2008:74 (Windows 32-bit), Issue date: 4 Mar 2009; MultiSpec,
URL: https://engineering.purdue.edu/~biehl/MultiSpec/download_win.html.
Bajiæ, M.: Airborne Hyperspectral Surveillance of the Ship-based …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 77–100
93
obtained eleven and twenty eight classes. Using the information of the coefficient
of the reflection, of the spatial distribution of the oil spill obtained by BAOAC, of
the interclass distance measure (e.g. Euclidean, Bhattacharrya) similar classess
can be merged. The outcome of this process is new accurate and reliable map of
the oil spill and the clean sea water, which uses information contained in all ninety five channels from visible and from near infrared wavelengths.
By means of the hyperspectral spectral angle mapping, the oil spill’s area can be
determined automatically (not manually, subjectively), using the spectral angle
map. An example of the Oil spill 2008-10-14 is shown on Fig. 10b. This is new potential for the assessment of the oil spill area, with advantages if compared with
BAOAC assessment on the sketch of the oil spill, or on the raw unprocessed or
even on the best geocoded photography, see comparison on Fig. 12.
a) 10550 m2
b) 15003 m2
c) 15720 m2
Fig. 12. Comparison of the methods for assessment of the oil spill area. Subjective ma
nual estimation of the spill area by BAOAC methodology a) on the sketch or on
the raw, unprocessed image from Fig. 1a, b) on the best geocoded photography.
c) The automatic measurement of the oil spill area on the hyperspectral images.
4. Fusion of aerial images, data and knowledge
of the ship-based oil pollution of the sea
There are two main pillars of considered airborne system for the surveillance of
the sea pollution by oil: use of the hyperspectral airborne remote sensing (imaging,
mapping, measurement and interpretation) and the use of the fusion. Here we
consider main aspects of the fusion, which can be compiled in simplified form
from (Hall and Llinas 1997), (Hall and Llinas 2001), (Wald 2002):
“Fusion is the use of techniques that combine data, information, knowledge from
multiple sources and gather, process, interpret that data, information, knowledge
in order to achieve inferences and/or decision which will be more efficient, more
accurate, more reliable and confident, than if they were achieved by means of a
single source”.
Fusion can be accomplished on data and information (lowest level), at the level of
the features and signatures derived from data or from information (middle level)
and on the level of inferences or decisions (highest level) provided by sources,
with inclusion of the knowledge. All levels of fusion are applied in the considered
airborne system for the surveillance of the oil slicks at the sea.
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Bajiæ, M.: Airborne Hyperspectral Surveillance of the Ship-based …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 77–100
Processes and fusion levels
The processes of the considered oil spill detection start a) either with satellite
SAR alarm (provided by EMSA CSN to MRCC) which contains information and
data about the possible oil spill, its location, shape, features, b) or/and with the
airborne multisensor detection. The EMSA CSN set of data and information is delivered at least 30 minutes after the detection of the possible oil spill and serves to
initiate the aerial multisensor search and the reconnaissance. The location, dimensions and orientation of the possible oil spill are included into expected region
of interest (ROI0). The wider region is defined for search too (ROIs). The airborne
search starts at the position defined in EMSA CSN report, taking into account
possible shift of the oil spill. In the case that the a priori information is not available, the mission starts with assumed wider region (ROIrs) for reconnaissance and
search, taking into account intensity of the vessel traffic in the Adriatic Sea, Fig. 13.
The visual search of the possible oil spill (made by pilots and visual observer) serves for decision whether to continue or to stop the mission. If the visual observer/or pilots perceive the possible oil spill and establish the truth by evidence and
Fig. 13. The basic vessel traffic lines in the Adriatic Sea (URL 5).
Bajiæ, M.: Airborne Hyperspectral Surveillance of the Ship-based …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 77–100
95
arguments of BAOAC methodology (manual sketch, subjective estimation of the
spill appearance, area and oil quantity) that this is a real oil spill, the mission can
continue. The knowledge formalised in BAOAC and the data derived by the visual
observer are the first inclusions into a fusion. Here the fusion was applied at the
level of the inferences. The next process is the hyperspectral imaging of the oil
spill at nadir and the production of the hyperspectral images, follow registering
and geocoding of the manually acquired oblique photography onto hyperspectral
images. The registering (and geocoding) of the best oblique photography onto the
hyperspectral images is the second application of the fusion, which was done at
the pixel level. Once the photography was registered and geocoded, starts higher
level of the processing and the interpretation, which was described in the sections
2.4, 2.5, 2.6. The methodology of BAOAC can be applied once again but on the
best geocoded photography. Due to high spatial accuracy and precision of the geocoded photography, obtained by the fusion, the area of the oil spill, although determined manually, has increased accuracy in comparison to the area determined
in the first step. Besides the oil spill area, the clean sea surface is also defined by
this step. Here the features (areas, borders) are fused. Due to the hyperspectral
images, the oil spill area can be assessed automatically, with high spatial accuracy
by means of the Spectral Angle Mapping classification and the spectral response
can be measured. The measured coefficients of the reflection of the oil and the
clean sea surface, the features of both kinds of surface, are the new evidences included in the fusion. Thematic map obtained by the classification provides much
more than five classes (note that maximum limit of BAOAC is five classes). The
similar classes can be merged gradually, checking their spatial distribution, the
interclass distance measure (e.g. Euclidean, Bhattacharrya), coefficient of reflection. The outcome of this process is a map of the oil spill and the clean sea water,
which contains information of all ninety five channels from visible and from near
infrared wavelengths. At this level in fusion are included all derived features and
the evidences about the oil spill provided by the aerial multisensor system.
5. Limitations and future research
The main limitations and disadvantages of the developed and considered aerial
hyperspectral multisensor surveillance of the pollution of the sea by the ship sourced oil is its dependence on the optical visibility and the time duration of the
whole process if the EMSA CSN message initiates the airborne surveillance. In
this time between EMSA CSN message and the perceiving the oil spill from air,
the polluter changes its position, the same happens with the spill, this decreases
possibility and probability of the assessment of the right polluter, (Ferraro et al.
2010). Thus, the total time duration of the surveillance shall be minimized, particularly are critical several processes, marked in Table 6.
The applied hyperspectral mapping and interpretation, being strengthened by the
fusion, is limited to the detection of the oil spill, without a priori available spectral library for oil spills. The statistically significant amount of the spectral samples was collected of the clean sea surface and of several oil spills during the first
airborne mission (MMPI RH 2008). Collecting the spectral samples should continue. Moreover to the considered principal limitations, there are several technical
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Table 6. The list of the activities and corresponding execution times determined in the
exercise (MMPI RH 2008). The most critical are the actions 4, 5, 6, less critical
are 9, 10 and their times should be minimized.
Nr.
Activity
Symbol
Feasibility of shortening
1
EMSA message arrival in MRCC Rijeka
TEMSA
Nominally 30 min, often is shorter.
2
take off at t0, t0 temsa < 5 min
3
flight to expected region of interest
Tflight1
Depends on the distance from airport.
4
search of oil slick, perceiving, BAOAC
Tsearch1
Optimize search: pilots, two observers.
5
mapping oil slick, 1st reporting to MRCC
Treport1
Can be as short as 5 15 minutes,
onboard.
6
pre processing, 2nd reporting
Treport2
Optimise, make parallel, onboard.
7
landing; fuel tanking, repeating steps 4,
5, 6, 7, for next slicks flight to airport
Ttanking
8
post flight calibration
Tpostcal
9
processing, delivery imagery and data
Tprocessing After landing.
10
post flight interpretation, full reporting
Tfullreport After landing and processing.
T0
By training.
Treturn
limitations in the existing system. The most important are a) the duration of the
transforming of the acquired raw hyperspectral data into hyperspectral channels
and b) the parametrical geocoding. In the time of the exercise (MMPI RH 2008)
the processing of the raw data into channels lasted several hours for several kilometres of the mapped strip, later it was reduced to less than twenty minutes. The
parametric geocoding lasted hours, now it can be done in the range of ten to
thirty minutes. This proves that the lasting of the processes shown in Table 6 can
be reduced, the research in this direction is under way. The future research could
and should a) continue advancement of the aerial hyperspectral multisensor surveillance of the pollution of the sea by the ship sourced oil, b) start development
and the implementation of the fusion at the level of evidences or decisions, between the aerial hyperspectral multisensor surveillance and Croatian vessel traffic
monitoring and information system (CVTMIS), Automatic Identification System
(AIS, 17 base stations) and the Adriatic sea radar network system (10 stations),
(URL 6), c) start scientific cooperation with Coastal Guard of Italy regarding the
common surveillance of the sea oil spills with their Side Looking Antenna Radar
(SLAR) and our airborne hyperspectral multisensor surveillance.
6. Conclusion
The aerial hyperspectral and multisensor surveillance of the pollution of the sea
by ship sourced oil spills was researched. The fusion decreased errors in area and
oil spill quantity estimation from 4.5% to 32.8%, increased confidence of the oil
Bajiæ, M.: Airborne Hyperspectral Surveillance of the Ship-based …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 77–100
97
spill detection from low (observers BAOAC estimation) to high (hyperspectral),
and enables its implementation into operationally feasible system. Based on previous facts we uphold the further development of surveillance system of the ship
sourced oil pollution of the Adriatic Sea, with key pillars already available: EMSA
CSN and multisensor airborne surveillance system. The fusion of the aerial and
the space borne remote sensing technologies with the Croatian vessel traffic monitoring and information system (CVTMIS), Automatic Identification System
(AIS) and the Adriatic Sea radar network system should be a next goal.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT. Croatian Ministry of science, education and sports supported development of the aerial hyperspectral multisensor system for the surveillance
of the Adriatic Sea pollution by ship sourced oil, in frame of the technological project TP-06/0007-01, acknowledgements to Prof. PhD S. Risoviæ. Croatian Ministry
of sea, transportation and infrastructure, Croatian Air Forces of Croatian Ministry
of defence, Faculty of Geodesy University of Zagreb, supported exercise on the operational integration of the EMSA CSN service and the airborne multisensor surveillance of the oil slicks in Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea in 2008. Cooperation of
Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre Rijeka, Dezinsekcija Ltd. Rijeka and the
crew of the helicopter is especially appreciated. Special acknowledgment to the researchers, the team members of the exercise I. Tomaiæ, A. Krtaliæ, H. Gold, T. Kièinbaèi, D. Gajski, B. Preseèki.
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Zrakoplovni hiperspektralni nadzor
uljnog oneèišæenja s brodova
u hrvatskom dijelu Jadranskog mora
SAETAK. Istraen je hiperspektralni i multisenzorski nadzor uljnog oneèišæenja
mora s brodova pomoæu zrakoplovnog sustava razvijenog u okviru projekta “Sustav
za multisenzorsko zrakoplovno izviðanje i nadzor u kriznim situacijama i zaštiti
okoliša” (MZOS 2007). Buduæi da su korištene razlièite metodologije, metode, tehno
logije i tehnike, primijenjena je višerazinska fuzija za povezivanje podataka, procesa
i njihovih izlaza. Fuzija ukljuèuje zrakoplovne hiperspektralne i kolor snimke, vi
zualno detektiranu uljnu mrlju, formalizirano znanje za procjenu površine uljne
mrlje i kolièine ulja, na temelju koda iz sporazuma iz Bonna o pojavnosti ulja
(BAOAC), podatke o spektralnom odzivu èiste i uljem oneèišæene morske površine, re
zultate hiperspektralne klasifikacije. Osim informacija prikupljenih zrakoplovnim
multisenzorskim sustavom, u proces fuzije bile su ukljuèene informacije dobivene od
svemirskog sustava CleanSeaNet Europske agencije za pomorsku sigurnost EMSA
(u okviru velike pokusne aktivnosti operativne vjebe u 2008.). Prednosti zrakoplov
nih daljinskih istraivanja uljnih mrlja su pouzdana detekcija uljnih mrlja, preciz
no definiranje njezinog poloaja i oblika u geografskim koordinatama, klasifikacija
sadraja uljne mrlje, mjerenje njezinih obiljeja, procjenu kolièine ulja.
Kljuène rijeèi: uljna mrlja, oneèišæenje, Jadransko more, hiperspektralno, SAM,
zrakoplovna daljinska istraivanja.
Primljeno: 2011 11 13
Prihvaæeno: 2012 06 01
Ninkov, T. i dr.: One Method of Renewal of Stereographic …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 101–112
101
UDK 528.44.067:336.211.1:347.214.2:528.722.4(497.113)
Struèni èlanak
One Method of Renewal of Stereographic
Survey Data in Èoka Municipality
Toša NINKOV, Miro GOVEDARICA – Novi Sad1,
Milan TRIFKOVIÆ – Subotica2
ABSTRACT. This research presents an approach to solving the problem of establi
shing the real estate cadastre in real estate cadastre services in Serbia, where stereo
graphic survey still exists. These problems are analyzed, set the goal and solutions
are proposed. Old, damaged and not updated plans, the impossibility of detecting
changes in the missing parts of the plan or map are characteristics of the cadastre
based on stereographic method for over 25% of the province of Vojvodina. Without up
to date and current topographic data, there is not, nor is possible to simply, fast and
accurately reach necessary data to establish and maintain the real estate cadastre.
The main goal of this research is to propose the procedure for achievement of real
estate cadastre throughout the territory covered by the stereographic projection. Pro
posed procedure is based on the implementation of new technologies for collecting
and processing of graphic and alphanumeric data, using geographic information
systems technology, digital technology and photogrammetry. Photogrammetric sur
vey of the whole country (made in 2007), provides digital orthophoto plans to become
the main source of data acquisition, especially in damaged cadastral maps. The new
methodology used and tested on nearly 60% of the Èoka municipality area provides
easy, fast and accurate data acquisition.
Keywords: survey, stereographic projection, digital orthophoto.
1. Introduction
In the real estate cadastre in Èoka old stereographic projection is in use. The state of cadastral register, especially the state of the working originals of cadastral
plans, the equivalence of the terrain data and data in the cadastre register, require an updating of documents on the land and acquisition of new spatial data and
1
Prof. dr. Toša Ninkov, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradoviæa 6,
RS-21000 Novi Sad, Serbia, e-mail: [email protected],
Prof. dr. Miro Govedarica, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradoviæa 6,
RS-21000 Novi Sad, Serbia, e-mail: [email protected],
2
Prof. dr. Milan Trifkoviæ, Faculty of Civil Engineering Subotica, University of Novi Sad, Kozaraèka 2a,
RS-24000 Subotica, Serbia, e-mail: [email protected]
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their presentation in an appropriate form (photographic, graphic, 3D etc.). Working original of cadastral plan mean a copy of the archived original in analogue
and digital form certified by the Administration authority and shall serve for
maintaining survey. Photogrammetric survey of the entire country (done in 2007)
provides that digital orthophoto plans can be used as the main source of data acquisition, especially in damaged cadastral plans.
2. One Renewal Method of the Stereographic Survey in Area
of Èoka Municipality
2.1. Actual (Current) State
Èoka municipality is placed in the northern part of the Republic of Serbia, in northern Banat. The plans for cadastral municipalities of Jazovo, Ostojiæevo, Sanad,
Crna Bara and Èoka are produced in scale of 1:2880 using graphic method in stereographic projection, based on the survey from 1876-1903 in Budapest coordinate system. Cadastral plans in stereographic projection, which cover about 70% of
the municipal territory, are almost (90%) unusable for qualitative implementation of spatial changes in real estate or for activity and maintenance of real estate
cadastre. Besides the plan sheets from that time period, which are in daily use,
the land registers with parcel’s areas are saved in hvat measurement system
(analogous to fathom). It can be concluded that the lack of updated and digital cadastral records prevents any further development of information systems which
would use geodetic data and prevents the effective usage of modern computer technologies in the process of real estate databases.
Fig. 1. The actual state of scanned cadastral plan, part of Èoka municipality.
Ninkov, T. i dr.: One Method of Renewal of Stereographic …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 101–112
103
The main reason for choosing cadastral municipality of Èoka as a pilot area for
the application of this method was poor condition of the original plans, in which
the maintaining and updating has been impossible for many years.
The actual state of scanned cadastral plan which presents the construction area
of Èoka municipality is shown in Fig. 1. The state of graphic survey in stereographic projection suggests the need for emergency reaction on making appropriate
decisions regarding its further usage. Any delay would just further deepen existing problems. Data about new changes-updates are placed on the sketches of
surveying maintenance, or are recorded on tracing paper in scale of copied plans
of individual parcels. This all mean that mapping errors in the maintenance of
surveying are evident. Another problem is the fact that there are graphical and
numerical data missing for some parcels which are placed in database of real estate cadastre (the basic parcel is divided in parts, parcelling data do not exist). There are also reverse situations in which the trace of change exists but the change is
not implemented in the land register. All these problems affect the work of the
service for real estate cadastre (administration authorities), as maintenance was
reduced to the assessment and management of the individuals. The survey conducted in the end of 19th and in the beginning of 20th century could satisfy users
in that time period. Today, such register not only fails to meet the user’s needs,
but presents a major problem with its total unreliability (Ninkov and Bulatoviæ
2011), both in the field of geodesy and in all areas which base their work on survey data (planner and design organizations, citizens, tax administration, banks,
etc). One of the tasks which the state institutions have to fulfil in this area is to
create and establish the real estate cadastre throughout all the state territory by
the end of 2011. Since up-to-date and current topographic material do not exist
and it is difficult to create it easily, quickly and accurately, in order to establish
real estate cadastre there is a need to find solution that solves the existing problems (Trifkoviæ 2003).
2.2. Photogrammetric Survey of Serbia
In time period 2007-2010 aerial photogrammetric survey of the territory of the
Republic of Serbia was carried out with the aim of producing a digital orthophoto
of the Republic of Serbia. Digital orthophoto (DOP) of Èoka municipality was produced in resolution of 10 cm, in Gauss-Kruger projection; for the urban area of
Èoka the recording period was September 2007. Single DOP’s in resolution of
10 cm are produced in tiff format with associated tfw files. Dimensions of a single
DOP for the urban area of Èoka are 900 m x 600 m, a total number of produced
DOP sheets is 16.
2.3. The Integration of Graphic Data from Stereographic
and Photogrammetric Survey
The integration of graphic data from stereographic survey (plans in scale of
1:2880) and photogrammetric survey in Gauss-Kruger projection (in scale of
1:2500) is necessary for obtaining qualitative base material for the digitizing of
missing data.
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2.3.1. Existing Data
Plans in stereographic surveying have scale of 1:2880. Urban construction area of
Èoka covers four map sheets numbered 14, 15, 22 and 23 in the sheets numeration for the whole cadastral municipality of Èoka. The plans are scanned in the
Republic Geodetic Authority (RGA), Department of Geodetic Information System,
according to the official procedure applicable in plan sheets of tiff extension.
Scanned plans are geocorrected (georeferenced).
Fig. 2. Geocorrected map sheets and plans of maintaining the construction area of Èoka.
As shown in Fig. 2, there is missing part of 30% of city territory which has none
of original data, due to damaged maps. Working originals of this area exists, derived from old original data at some time point by combination of copying and
using old laminating sketches. Those working originals are in use today, updating
is applied on them. The quality of the data used in the maintenance of the cadastre does not need further comment.
When overlapping working originals with the original plans from stereographic
projection, deviations occur in various directions which mean that both linear and
nonlinear deformations are presented and in such a way the data can hardly be
useful.
Proposed methodology emphasize digital orthophoto, produced in 2007 in resolution of 10 cm in Gauss-Kruger projection as the most important source of
collecting the missing data. Produced othophoto plans are parts of orthophoto
mosaic generated from very large blocks of images where aerial triangulation
was performed using a minimum number of control points (Pajiæ and Govedarica 2010). Although first comparison seemed good, the control measurement
of same (identical) details in the plans in stereographic projection and orthophoto
plans showed inconsistency of Datum in these two graphic data. In order to
improve the scale of orthophotos and stereographic plans and to determine
the translation and rotation, both images are placed in Gauss-Kruger projection,
control measurements were carried out in the area of interest and the coordinates of points identified in both images were and determined. In order
to determine the coordinates of identical points identified in both graphic
data and control points for improved geocorrection of orthophotos, GPS fast
static method was used with the calculated transformation parameters for deter-
Ninkov, T. i dr.: One Method of Renewal of Stereographic …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 101–112
105
mining the local Datum for the area of interest (territory of the project). The
measurements of control profiles were carried out by the method of continuous
kinematics using corrections from AGROS permanent station network from
Republic Geodetic Authority RGA. Measured control profiles along horizontal
signal lines (visible in orthophoto), had the spatial coordinates calculated in
every ten meters, approximately. Measurements were carried out by using
GPS device fixed to the vehicle, with fixed GPS height and the vehicle was moving in a way that the vertical axis of GPS was above the street centre line with
an accuracy of 3-5 cm, vehicles are shown in Fig. 3 (Ninkov et al. 2010). The vehicle was moving at the speed up to 30 km/h, registering points every second, providing coordinates of points on centre line with a distance of less than 10 m. Achieved accuracy of locations in the horizontal signal lines, after numerical processing
and setting the regression line, was within 3-5 cm provided by AGROS network of
Republic Geodetic Authority and navigated driving along the lines of horizontal
traffic signalization.
Fig. 3. Vehicles with fixed GPS.
Computer image processing was done based on information on determined control points and the data of recorded centre street lines, using Erdas Imagine software tool. Photogrammetric blocks, bordered by recorded centre street lines, were scaled in fixed frame in accuracy of 3-5 cm. This significantly increased positional accuracy of every pixel in orthophoto and eliminated residual distortions from
the classical photogrammetric processing of large blocks.
Fig. 4 shows all streets with measured centre lines and the identical control points identified in the stereographic and orthophoto plans.
The same procedure was applied to the processing of old plans in stereographic
projection in scale of 1:2880, but all recorded control profiles were used for positioning the middle between the constructing lines identified in these plans (Popov
2011).
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Fig. 4. Scale improvement of orthophoto using control points and profiles recorded by
GPS (
control points).
A large number of identified points (a church, a castle, different objects,
some roads, crossroads) from the period of measurement in stereographic
projection in scale of 1:2880, was transformed using ERDAS software based
on a set of coordinates in both coordinate systems (Budapest and
Gauss-Kruger) to scale of 1:2500 and Gauss-Kruger projection. In this way
the stereographic plans were transformed into the same coordinate system
and the same scale as orthophoto plans of the territory of the project (area of
interest).
Integrating geocorrected orthophotos, stereographic plans transformed to
Gauss-Kruger projection and scaled copies of working original (further on
will be used only for digitization of parcel’s numbers which correspond to
numbers in land cadastre) provided the material for digitization and updating of existing cadastral data (with the information on data which were
missing) and produce of new digital cadastral maps (Ninkov 2004) as illustrated
in Fig. 5.
Ninkov, T. i dr.: One Method of Renewal of Stereographic …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 101–112
107
Fig. 5. Orthophoto, cadastral plans and copies working original of identical Datum.
2.3.2. Digitization
Digitization of the missing data from valid cadastral plan and the produce of new
digital cartographic plan (DCP) are done using software for digital topography
MS Cad (Ver. 2010) and GIS software ArcGIS (Ver. 9.3.). New DCP is produced in
accordance with valid Regulation for design of DCP and adjusted to the methodology of real estate cadastre establishment.
Primary digitization is performed on undamaged parts of the cadastral plan, considering the control of parcel’s topology and objects in copy of the working original. If
the differences in the geometry of parcels and/or objects are identified, then the factual state of the geometry is adopted from the orthophoto plans. Such combinations
of active graphical levels for digitization are possible owing to the possibilities of
used software tools that one or more graphics layers can be transparent.
Digitization of parcels and objects in damaged parts of cadastral plan is implemented from orthophoto plans, with the topology control on copies of working original.
Since the final processing of digitized parcels and objects was performed by using
GIS technology, all parcels and objects in new digital cadastral plan have defined
dimensions and polygons. The numeration of parcels was carried out in new DCP,
in accordance with the numbers in the copy of the current working original. Comparing the parcel’s areas in new DCP and areas of the same parcels in land registry databases, it is asserted that the difference between the areas, on the territory defined in the project, in app. 85% of cases is within the accuracy of area determination by calculation methods used in primary mapping. In cases where the
major differences were noticed, the field survey was done so that the number of
conforming areas had risen to app. 92%.
The numeration of objects within the parcel, in accordance with the Regulation of
the RGA (Fig. 6), provided the conditions for the use of object’s areas in the process of design of the real estate cadastre.
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Fig. 6. Digitization of missing parcels and objects.
Fig. 7. New digital topographic plan with the numeration of objects within parcels.
The table below shows the differences in areas obtained from new updated digital
plan and parcel areas from land cadastre. It is concluded that 90% of these differences are within the boundaries of permissible deviations.
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Table 1. The area differences; areas from DCM vs. areas from land cadastre.
Area
Parcel Area
(cada
No (DCM)
stre)
D(m2)
2167/5
375
352
23
Area
Parcel Area
(cada
No (DCM)
stre)
D(m2)
Area
Parcel Area
(cada
No (DCM)
stre)
D(m2)
893
933
893
40
952
427
443
16
21
977
501
518
17
894
1645
873
772
951
584
605
976/1
212
229
17
895/2
478
527
49
950
384
378
6
975/1
234
256
22
897
1040
1045
5
949
199
209
10
972
374
421
47
898/2
311
316
5
948
291
274
17
973
430
410
20
899/1
337
320
17
947
375
400
25
974
427
396
31
903/3
378
398
20
946
443
450
7
978/1
335
324
11
904/1
469
427
42
945
403
414
11
979/2
182
144
38
905
1136
712
424
944
419
428
9
971/1
448
399
49
907
439
417
22
943
532
547
15
860
763
766
3
906
739
744
5
941
585
585
0
861/1
475
478
3
908
413
417
4
942
458
469
11
864
1223
1219
4
909
777
817
40
939
571
576
5
868
1416
1435
19
913
615
626
11
940
432
461
29
869
1807
1668
139
911
426
417
9
936
297
342
45
862/1
700
719
19
915
425
417
8
937
292
295
3
863
749
748
1
914
697
712
15
938/1
215
227
12
867
557
511
46
916
1567
1650
83
938/2
262
267
5
871
1957
1949
8
917
1532
1539
7
925
1094
787
307
923
419
421
2
921/2
488
468
20
873
942
942
0
910
863
978
115
872
1133
1021
112
912
419
417
2
876/1
354
334
20
969/1
268
220
48
702
738
723
15
875
1695
730
965
967
384
349
35
704
694
939
245
878
1156
1140
16
968
257
263
6
703
1140
935
205
879
532
539
7
965
486
410
76
705
1180
1194
14
880
920
945
25
966
354
407
53
706
640
644
4
881
755
759
4
964/1
375
371
4
709
381
874
493
882
1016
985
31
963
327
345
18
710
1057
1007
50
883
761
737
24
962
372
349
23
711
346
399
53
885
1024
1029
5
961
439
446
7
711
480
399
81
884
719
730
11
960
257
259
2
681
1502
1529
27
887
1012
981
31
959
425
450
25
716/1
651
565
86
886
762
773
11
958
336
320
16
719/1
549
579
30
889
1069
1054
15
957
399
385
14
718
899
870
29
888
702
730
28
956
426
421
5
721/1
584
554
30
890/1
515
353
162
955
414
414
0
722
480
475
5
891/1
355
349
6
954
366
360
6
723
2032
2032
0
892
1808
1039
769
953
344
353
9
725/1
742
719
23
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Analysis of data on parcels with uneven surface areas leads to conclusion that
those are mostly rough errors occurred as a consequence of the fact that needed
changes have not been applied (parcel division, parcel merger, etc.), but there are
probably some undetected technical errors occurred during primary survey and/or
mapping. Non-permissible deviations which are detected will be corrected in the
maintenance of cadastral data. The existence of non-compliant positions of objects in relation to the parcel’s borders is also noted and recognized as a consequence of the inhomogeneity of the network, in which the primary recording was
done, or as a consequence of errors made due to damaged plans. Such problems
will have to be resolved through the process of maintaining the land cadastre or
real estate cadastre. Final and good solution will be obtained through the renewal
process of terrain survey during the process of land consolidation.
Permissible differences in digitized and cadastral areas are calculated using following formula, which is fundamental and which is often referenced in professional
literature that deals with this issue:
Dp = 0.7 M p
(1)
where:
• Dp – permissible difference
• 0.7 – empirically adopted coefficient
• M – scale denominator/1000
• p – parcel’s area.
According to some studies and research, higher value can be adopted as a coefficient and those experiments are considered in many research papers (Boc 2009,
Ivkoviæ and Vlašiæ 2006) and in the latest draft Regulation on maintenance and
renewal of the.. This project researched whether there is a correlation between
the deviation and parcel’s area and how permissible deviations affect the number
of parcels with an acceptable difference of nominal areas and areas obtained in
the process of digitization.
From presented tables and diagrams, the following can be noted:
• the deviation value comparing cadastral and digitized area does not depend on
the size of parcel’s area
• if the coefficient increases by 20% and 35% respectively, it increases the quantity
(the number of parcels) within the permissible deviations for 5% (77%, 82% and
85%) whereas further coefficient increase by 50% does not increase the number
of parcels within the permissible deviation.
When analyzing the values, better indicator is the relative deviation of areas comparing to total parcel’s area with ranges of (-9%, +10%), (-11%, +10%) and (-13%,
+12%) for the coefficients 0.7, 0.85 and 0.95 in the formula (1) respectively. It is
concluded that the relative area deviations are proportional to the increase of coefficients in the formula (1) which means that special caution is needed when
using coefficients in dealing with expensive land, and every deviation should be
analyzed with great care.
Ninkov, T. i dr.: One Method of Renewal of Stereographic …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 101–112
111
3. Methodological Scheme of Proposed Method
The above explained method of transforming the cadastral plans of stereographic
projection to Gauss-Kruger projection with the establishment and development of
new DCM can be generalized and applied to all areas where the stereographic
survey is still in use.
Fig. 8. Scheme of proposed method.
4. Conclusion
This research presents an approach to solving the problem of establishing the real
estate cadastre in real estate cadastre authorities in Serbia, where stereographic
survey still exists. In practical part of this research, the main aim was to propose a
procedure for the establishment of the real estate cadastre in the territory of stereographic projection and it was achieved and verified on a sample which contains
60% of the area of Èoka municipality. Proposed methodology provides easy, fast
and within the limits of the accuracy, acquisition of geometric and other necessary
data. Depending on the specific terms and conditions in which some sheets in stereographic projection are, in some territories other technical requirements which are
not discussed in this paper may occur, but they can certainly be solved using one of
modern methods and technologies of graphic and alphanumeric data processing. In
order to find the optimum solution for every particular case, detail analysis of the
quality and state of the base material have to be done carefully, which would provide the geodetic profession with the qualitative tool to define an appropriate methodology. A new survey would be the best solution for providing a graphical bases
(graphical data) for real estate cadastre registry but this solution requires substantial financial resources which are very difficult to provide in the state budget in time of world crisis. In Serbia, the problem of updated survey is solved by the projects of consolidation which are mostly important in the last few years.
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References
Boc, K. (2009): Creating Digital Cadastre Maps and their Comparison with the Written
Part of the Land Operator, Geodetski list, 1, 39 53.
Ivkoviæ, M., Vlašiæ, I. (2006): Comparison of Cadastral Parcel Areas in the Old and New
Surveys, Geodetski list, 4, 285 294.
Ninkov, T. (2004): Integrating Geophysical and GPS Survey Techniques in Serbia,
GEOInformatics, 6, Vol. 7, 22 25.
Ninkov, T., Bulatoviæ, V. (2011): Communal information systems, lecture’s materials,
study program Geodesy and geomatics, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad.
Ninkov, T., Bulatoviæ, V., Sušiæ, Z., Vasiæ, D. (2010): Application of laser scanning technology for civil engineering projects in Serbia, FIG Congress 2010, Facing the
Challenges Building the Capacity, Sydney, April 11 16, Australia.
Pajiæ, V., Govedarica, M. (2010): Practical Experiences in Production of DTM and
Orthophoto Maps, 1st Project Workshop International experience, Dubrovnik.
Popov, K. S. (2011): Jedna metoda obnove stereografskog premera na teritoriji opstine
Coka, Master rad, Fakultet tehnickih nauka Univerziteta Novi Sad, Novi Sad.
Trifkoviæ, M. (2003): Geodetski planovi, Viša graðevinsko-geodetska škola, Beograd.
Jedna metoda obnove stereografske izmjere
na podruèju opæine Èoka
SAETAK. U radu je prikazan jedan pristup u rješavanju problema uspostave kata
stra nekretnina u Slubama za katastar nekretnina na podruèju Srbije gdje još uvi
jek postoji stereografska izmjera. Analizirani su problemi koji se pojavljuju u ovom
postupku i predloena su rješenja. Stari i ošteæeni planovi, neaurnost, nemoguænost
evidentiranja promjena na nedostajuæim dijelovima planova ili karata karakterizi
raju katastar zasnovan na stereografskoj izmjeri za preko 25% podruèja pokrajine
Vojvodine, a bez aurne i aktualne topografske podloge nema, niti se jednostavno,
brzo i dovoljno toèno moe doæi do potrebnih i dovoljnih podataka za izradu i
odravanje katastra nekretnina. Ovim radom eli se predloiti postupak za izradu
katastra nekretnina na cijelom podruèju koje je pokriveno stereografskom projekci
jom. Predloeni postupak je zasnovan na primjeni nekih od suvremenih tehnologija
za prikupljanje i obradu grafièkih i alfanumerièkih podataka, korištenje tehnologije
prostornih informacijskih sustava, upotrebi tehnologija digitalne fotogrametrije i to
pografije. Fotogrametrijska izmjera cijele drave (izvedena 2007. godine), daje mo
guænost da digitalni ortofoto planovi budu osnovni izvor prikupljanja podataka, po
gotovo na ošteæenim katastarskim planovima. Nova metodologija, koja je korištena i
testirana na skoro 60% podruèja naselja Èoka, omoguæava jednostavno, brzo i do
voljno toèno prikupljanje tih podataka.
Kljuène rijeèi: izmjera, stereografska projekcija, digitalni ortofoto.
Primljeno: 2011 09 01
Prihvaæeno: 2012 05 28
Gopi, K. T. i Ramakrishnan, S. S.: Digital Cadastral Surveying for …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 113–124
113
UDK 528.44:528.3:528.7:349.412.2:347.235:004.4
Struèni èlanak
Digital Cadastral Surveying for Land Encroachment
Identification using Spatial Technologies
Krishnan T. GOPI, S. S. RAMAKRISHNAN – Chennai1
ABSTRACT. Digital Cadastral Surveying is the need of present and future genera
tions. The invention of Computer has revamped the face of the world dynamically.
Every day in our life is digitalised and with out computers the world could not per
form efficiently. The Computers, Satellite images, Aerial digital images could be effi
caciously used in the creation of new experimental methodologies for Cadastral Sur
veying. Land records are obtained by Cadastral Surveying, which in turn provides
the cornerstone for Land Use Planning. Land Use planning is influenced by many
factors directly and indirectly. Land encroachment is found to be one of the direct
factors affecting Land Use Planning. The Land Encroachments are identified by di
gitisation and overlaying analysis using standard GIS software, GPS Equipments
for obtaining Ground Control Points, with Satellite images and Aerial images com
bined with conventional land records available with the Government Authority. Di
squisition of Land encroachment is undertaken in this paper, to find the encroac
hment and its types. The problems involved in the encroachments, their detrimental
effects on country’s growth are considered while formation of methodology to the ser
ve the purpose of its creation. Pros and Cons of the technology is known from the
work and explained. This is a Research application requiring hybridization of tec
hnologies to obtain high quality spatial surveying products.
Keywords: digital cadastral survey, land encroachment, identification, GIS, GPS.
1. Introduction
The concept of Digital Cadastral Survey evolved from the concept of digital photogrammetry (Agrawal and Kumar 2008). The Digital Photogrammetry deals with
three dimensional mapping of terrain features, the digital cadastral surveying deals with two dimensional mapping of terrain features. Today’s trend is 2 Dimen1
Assist. Prof. Krishnan T. Gopi, Department of Civil Engineering, Aalim Muhammed Salegh College of Engineering, IAF Avadi, Muthapudupet, Chennai-600 055, Tamil Nadu, India, e-mail: [email protected],
Prof. S. S. Ramakrishnan, PhD, Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Remote Sensing, Anna University, Chennai-600 025, Tamil Nadu, India, e-mail: [email protected]
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sional Cadastral Surveying to 3 Dimensional Cadastral Surveying, but the 2 Dimensional Cadastral Survey’s efficiency in finding the Land Encroachment is experimented in this paper. Image for digital cadastral surveying could be obtained
from high resolution satellite image and by aerial image for the study area. Land
is the important aspect of human life by which human wealth and riches are measured. The need for land escalated desperately for all kinds of human activities like settlement, cultivation, farming, rearing, and of infrastructural needs like roads, buildings, airports, ports, water storage structures in the past decades. The
encroachment in land is not a recent issue for developing country like India. The
land survey and land records were prepared by the British in India during their
rule to collect taxes from people through Zamindars, and Thagirdhars. All the
lands classified as government, forest, private lands, temple lands, grazing lands,
water bodies and lands lacked proper ownerships are encroached by peoples living
around the places. The Indian constituency permits them to claim ownership if
they habituated the land for certain period and paid taxes for the land, they could
be declared as owners if the land lacks ownership records of the past.
India is an enormous country with geographical area of 3,287,240 square kilometres approximately and 1,210,193,422 persons approximately by 2011 population
survey, 28 states and 7 union territories form this enormous country which is the
worlds second populous. Managing and surveying the land is a consequential task
(URL 1). Poor management of land already led to the court cases and mafia interferences in the land transactions. The fluent possible surveying and management
of land are by spatial technology, which conceals larger area in shorter span of
time.
The encroachment in land is a perpetual problem which is found its existence
even now in many places of the country. Encroachment seems to be a powerful instrument for some real estate owners and mafia to abduct land from government
and even from private land owners some times. Due to encroachment in the land,
which is needed for the public infrastructural projects, the delay is observed in
completion of the project till the encroachments are removed completely. This situation in turn increases the project cost indirectly due to floating market rates of
raw materials needed to complete the project (Blagoniæ and Prosen 2007).
Satellite image and aerial image are two benevolent sources of data from different
platforms, which provide spatial data for analysing digital cadastral surveying to
experiment its suitability in land surveying digitally. This will be a fruitful method in finding the government land and also in monitoring the land related activities. The activities of illegal manner, like non-permit constructions, encroachments in private and government lands, and violation of master plan of the city
could also be monitored.
Any non-permit mining, deforestation, construction along coastal line could be
managed and monitored. The satellite image of high resolution renders its part in
finding the features easily in the satellite image as it would be carried out in the
field. For fields which are very large it is difficult to identify the boundaries in site, even those issues could be easily solved by use of the satellite images. The aerial image comprises the same properties of satellite images in feature identification in the images. The availability of satellite images cannot be ensured, due to
the climatic conditions like rain, fog, snow, cyclones. The aerial images are costly
Gopi, K. T. i Ramakrishnan, S. S.: Digital Cadastral Surveying for …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 113–124
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when compared to satellite images in terms of image area coverage, can be availed
on requirement by flying the aircraft on pre-planned image acquiring techniques.
2. Existing Land Surveying Method
The method of surveying adapted in India varies from state to state, because of
the difference in the terrain of the country. India is bordered by Himalayan Mountains in the north-east, Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats along the east and
west side of the country and Deccan platue in the south. Similar method of survey
could not be followed throughout the country. Chain and tape method is followed
in the state of Tamil Nadu located south of India. Plane table method is followed
in the hilly and mountainous regions to prepare the cadastral maps of the other
parts of the country region.
The error allowance for chain and tape method is one link (+ or – 20 cm) for one
chain measurement of 20 meters. Error allowance for area is + or – 5% for the total area calculated per field. The method followed, while using chain and tape is
Diagonal and Offset method. Village is the smallest unit for maintaining land records. Each parcel of land will be in village administration boundary. The value of
dimensions and area which are obtained by chain and tape may have additive or
subtractive errors as per the error allowances.
3. Spatial Technologies
The Spatial Technologies such as GPS, GIS, Satellite Image, and Aerial Digital
Image are employed in the research methodologies to find out the economical and
suitable land encroachment identification method. The satellite image of Quick
Bird having spatial resolution of 0.61 meters is used and the Aerial Digital Image
of 0.15 meters of Ground Sample Distance is used in the research application
methodologies. The Global Positioning System equipment used in this methodology is Trimble 4000SSE, and 5700 models. The GIS software used in this research is ARC GIS 9.1 product from ESRI Company.
4. Method of Digital Cadastral Surveying
The spatial data used for carrying out the digital cadastral surveying are satellite
imagery of quick bird with image resolution of 0.61 meters and aerial image of
the study area with 0.15 meters Ground Sample Distance (GSD). The software required is ARC GIS or any other GIS (Geographical Information System) software
suitable for digital cadastral survey could be used. The equipments used are Global Positioning System in static mode and respective software provided from the
brand of purchase for processing the data obtained. The study area chosen is
Ambattur taluk, Thiruvallur district which is under administrative boundary of
Chennai. The Chennai metropolitan city is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu,
which is located in the south India. The study area and its administrative boundaries are shown clearly in Fig. 1. The study area consists of 46 villages, out of
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which 8 villages are under the administrative boundary of corporation of Chennai
metropolitan city. The study area is in fast developing pace with variety of terrain
features in the relatively flat surface having water bodies, residential settlements,
industries and area of commercial and economical importance. The availability of
various features in the study area enhances the testing ability of digital cadastral
survey in a relatively flat terrain.
Fig. 1. Ambattur Taluk Map Showing 46 Village Administrative Boundaries.
The satellite image is obtained from the digital globe company by placing order
for purchase to the specific study area by row and path numbers. Suitable locations for making GPS (Global Positioning System) observations are selected with
satellite images and by field visits. The locations where GPS observations are carried out, it will be used as GCPs (Ground Control Points). Building edges with out
canopy cover, road junctions, farming field edges with out vegetation cover, bridges are more suitable locations for Ground Control Points. The GPS observations
are carried out in the suitable selected areas where vegetation and high rise buildings are less (Seeber 1993). The GPS unit is made to observe latitude and longitude in static mode as precise values are required for carrying out Digital Cadastral Survey. The observation made in static mode lasts for minimum of 20 to 30
minutes in static differential global positioning system mode of operation. Accuracy and precision achieved by this mode will be + or – 10 mm. This is the recommended level of accuracy for Ground Control Points in the cadastral surveying.
The images are uploaded in the arc catalogue and the projection is set to UTM zone for India, State Tamil Nadu, which is 44N in the projected coordinate system
Gopi, K. T. i Ramakrishnan, S. S.: Digital Cadastral Surveying for …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 113–124
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option in ARC GIS 9.1. The spatial data are registered using the ground control
points obtained by GPS surveying. The Land Survey Record maps collected from
the Land Survey and Land Records Department of Tamil Nadu State Government are scanned and uploaded in the Arc catalogue of Arc GIS and registered
with the coordinates of latitude and longitude obtained from GPS in static mode
of survey (Boc 2009). The spatial data of aerial and satellite image is uploaded in
layers of Arc Map and the map layers of Land records are overlaid. The land records identical to the field boundaries in satellite image and aerial image are distinguished. The government lands are identified by land record register, which
states the details of land by parcel numbers, subdivision of the parcels in the land
record and in the image at the same time.
The parcels belonging to government are identified and digitised in a separate
layer. The encroachments in the land will be visible in the spatial data of
the aerial and satellite image. The encroachments in the land parcels could
be easily identified by this method. Then the encroachments are digitised separately in the same layer with different coloured hatchings. The Fig. 2 show
Fig. 2. Work Flow Diagram for Identification of Encroachments using Spatial Data.
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the simplified flow diagram of the complete methodology to obtain result through
this research application. The encroachment in any country is not a simple
issue to be considered with ease. Spatial Technological development incites
in managing and maintaining land and land records precise and updated
(Enemark 2008).
5. Encroachments Specified
The encroachments such as roads, pipelines, buildings in government and non-governmental lands are identified and digitised in a separate layer colour. Then the
encroachments are verified with the data provided from the government for allocations and permissions for new constructions. The encroachments recorded in
the separate layer are created as a separate record for land management. These
encroachments will not be recorded as encroachments but will be recorded as allocated land for specific projects by Government and in the case of non-governmental lands it will be considered as permitted construction activities. If the activities on the lands are found to be non-authorised by government, then it will be
considered as encroachments. In the case of private non-permit construction or
infrastructural activities it will be considered as encroachments in need of immediate action from government. Then hatching will be applied to the delineated
polygons of the parcel boundaries of encroached land.
Confining the encroachment to two classes such as Private and Government, incites us in reducing the work. As the Government encroachments will be termed as
allocated land after verification with the government allocation land records, only
the private encroachments needs to be identified. Private encroachments are encroachments in private property. These private encroachments are identified by
Survey Land Records and from permit for construction and infrastructural activities from the town or village land management authorities. The lands which were
allotted ownership by Government have to be identified and separately digitised,
which once were termed as encroachments. The details of ownership allotted
lands could be obtained from the Survey and Land Records department of Tamil
Nadu Government and Slum clearance board of Tamil Nadu Government. These
land details are recorded in a separate layer and verified with the land records
maintained by the Tamil Nadu Survey and Land Records Department, Town development and planning authority.
6. Encroachments Identified
Certainly encroachments are defined as advancing beyond the limits or unauthorised gradual taking of another’s possession. The types of encroachments are important to be discussed. There are various forms of encroachments that could be
found while surveying. There are Road encroachment, public land encroachment,
private land encroachment, forest land encroachment, water body encroachment,
river bed encroachment, boundary encroachment, memorial and sacred places encroachments and non-permit activities on land like construction, industries, wa-
Gopi, K. T. i Ramakrishnan, S. S.: Digital Cadastral Surveying for …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 113–124
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rehousing. These are encroachments which cause great loss to the nation and its
revenue.
These encroachments are not just losses to the land value and owning authority
but will lead to court cases and settlement problems. There are many encroachment issues left unsolved which causes infrastructure problems, due to that future needs cannot be met by the society. Any kind of infrastructure requires land,
when the common land for infrastructure is scarce, providing basic needs like water, sanitation, fire safety, and electricity would be difficult and creates infrastructure management problem, which eventually results in accidents and trauma. Fig. 3 clearly shows the institutional encroachments. Fig. 4, 5 urban sprawl
encroachments in shallow water bodies. Fig. 6, 7 shows the industrial encroachments in remote village water bodies. From the identification it’s certain that,
land lacking proper protection like fencing, and compound wall are vulnerable to
land encroachment. The effect of urbanization plays an important in land encroachment. The land lacking proper protection measures like fencing, compound
wall and nearer to infrastructure, urban developments are susceptible to land encroachment problems. The locations like village and areas where no infrastructure facilities like roads, drinking water, and power are far, those locations showed
less encroachment when compared to the previous case, some places showed zero
encroachments. From this method the encroachments are able to be identified easily, the high resolution satellite and aerial imagery incites in finding the encroachments effectively.
Fig. 3. Institutional Encroachment in Government Land Shown in Hatching.
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Fig. 4. Village Parcel Showing Shallow Water body Encroachment in Hatching.
Fig. 5. Urban Sprawl Showing Encroachment in Water Body and Government Land.
Gopi, K. T. i Ramakrishnan, S. S.: Digital Cadastral Surveying for …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 113–124
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Fig. 6. Village showing Industrial Encroachment near Water Bodies.
Fig. 7. Parcels Shared by Water Bodies Showing Encroachments in Hatchings.
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7. Causes of Land Encroachments
The peoples those who reside in the encroached land are not real encroachers.
The persons who are responsible for encroachments are mafia and illegal abductors of land. These peoples sell land lacking proper records for cheap costs to the
peoples who are poor and needy, promising them about the land law for claiming
ownership in the future.
This is how the land are encroached by the people, which belong to the government and some times even private land. A main cause for land encroachments
are not alone illegal land abductors and mafia, but also by poor management and
maintenance of land incites the local discriminates to take advantage of the existing condition. Need for land has escalated by the past decade, for various land
related activities. Global rise in real estate value resulted in the demand for land
in low cost. The poor peoples have to go for low cost land which will be termed as
encroached land technically.
8. Result and Discussion
The land encroachment in the private and government is being identified effectively utilising modern technology such as aerial and satellite image aided digital
spatial technology. Concept of Digital Cadastral Survey is being developed and
applied in the identification of encroachment of land by using two dimensional
Aerial and Satellite images. GPS is used in obtaining Ground Control Points
through Static Mode. The land records matched apparently with many locations
of satellite and aerial images. The purpose of encroachment identification, overlaying analysis of chain and tape created records over aerial and satellite images
are attained. But the conventional records created by chain and tape surveying
remain unmatched in some parts of the study area over the satellite image.
Further research contributions are required in the unmatched areas.
9. Pros
Man power, costs involved, times required are saved through this method. Larger
area is covered in short span of time. Instant results are possible for study area if
software and computer facilities are available on site. Present condition of the
study area is easily verified with very few field visits for vegetation covered areas,
which are poorly or non-visible in Satellite and Aerial images. This method proved to be economical when compared to the conventional method of land management for enormous country like India.
10. Cons
Image availability by satellite acquisition cannot be ensured due to cloud cover
and other natural factors like fog, snow. Aerial images have restrictions like
climate and defence permissions for image acquisition and use. Satellite image
Gopi, K. T. i Ramakrishnan, S. S.: Digital Cadastral Surveying for …, Geod. list 2012, 2, 113–124
123
acquisition depends on optical remote sensing so climate and atmosphere has greater effects on image and its quality.
11. Conclusion
The demonstrated technology is found suitable for land surveying in digital mode.
Launch of high resolution satellites and high resolution aerial images contribute
to research of land surveying in optically remote sensed image. This field requires
research contributions and hybridising the existing technology with the help of
other methods of remote sensing like Microwave, and ALTM with high resolution
and reaching to earth surface with vegetation cover and poor visible areas are
possible.
References
Agrawal, K., Kumar, G. S. (2008): Digital Photogrammetry Reaches Grass Root Levels
in India, The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and
Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XXXVII, Part B7.
Blagoniæ, B., Prosen, A. (2007): The Importance of Modern Cadastre in Environmental
Protection, Geodetski list, 4, 259 272.
Boc, K. (2009): Creating Digital Cadastre Maps and their Comparison with the Written
Part of the Land Operator, Geodetski list, 1, 39 53.
Enemark, S. (2008): Underpinning Land Management A major challenge for the global surveying profession, Geodetski list, 2, 83 97.
Seeber, G. (1993): Satellite Geodesy, Walter de Gruyter & Co, Berlin.
URL 1: India, http//:www.cadastraltemplate.org, (20.04.2012).
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Digitalna katastarska izmjera za identifikaciju
prisvajanja zemljišta primjenom prostornih
tehnologija
SAETAK. Digitalna katastarska izmjera potreba je sadašnjih i buduæih generacija.
Pojava raèunala promijenila je u dinamièkom smislu cijeli svijet. Bez digitalnih
ureðaja i bez raèunala svijet ne moe uèinkovito funkcionirati. Raèunala, satelitske i
zraène digitalne snimke mogu se uèinkovito upotrebljavati u kreiranju novih ekspe
rimentalnih metoda katastarske izmjere. Podaci u zemljišnim knjigama dobiveni su
katastarskom izmjerom, što nam osigurava temeljne podatke za planiranje i upotre
bu zemljišta. Planiranje upotrebe zemljišta pod utjecajem je brojnih èimbenika, iz
ravno i neizravno. Prisvajanje zemljišta moguæe je identificirati digitalizacijom i
razlikovnom analizom pomoæu standardnih GIS softvera, uz upotrebu GPS ureðaja,
satelitskih i aerofotogrametrijskih snimki u kombinaciji s uobièajenim podacima iz
zemljišnih knjiga. Rasprava u ovom radu provodi se u svrhu otkrivanja vrsta i tipo
va prisvajanja zemljišta. Razmatraju se problemi koji nastaju zbog prisvajanja te
njihovi štetni utjecaji na dravu koja ima tendenciju rasta i širenja, kao i definira
nje metodologije koja slui njezinom stvaranju. Prednosti i nedostaci takve tehnolo
gije objašnjeni su u radu. Primjena istraivanja zahtijeva hibridnu tehnologiju za
dobivanje visoko kvalitetnih rezultata.
Kljuène rijeèi: digitalna katastarska izmjera, prisvajanje zemljišta, identifikacija,
GIS, GPS.
Primljeno: 2012 04 21
Prihvaæeno: 2012 05 31
Geod. list 2012, 2
VIJESTI
125
17. DRAVNO NATJECANJE UÈENIKA GRADITELJSKIH I GEODETSKIH ŠKOLA
REPUBLIKE HRVATSKE
U Geodetskoj tehnièkoj školi Zagreb, Graditeljskoj tehnièkoj školi Zagreb te Obrtnièkoj i in
dustrijskoj graditeljskoj školi Zagreb odrano je, od 26. do 28. travnja 2012. godine, 17.
Dravno natjecanje uèenika i uèenica graditeljskih i geodetskih škola Republike Hrvatske u
znanjima i vještinama graðenja. Na tom natjecanju sudjelovali su uèenici i mentori iz ukup
no 31 škole.
Natjecanje je odrano u 9 strukovnih disciplina:
• geodetski tehnièar
• arhitektonske konstrukcije
• nosive konstrukcije graðevna mehanika
• crtanje
• zidar
• tesar
• monter suhe gradnje
• soboslikar lièilac
• keramièar oblagaè.
Èlanovi Dravnog povjerenstva za provedbu natjecanja bili su:
• Biserka Maurer, dipl. ing. geod., Geodetska tehnièka škola Zagreb, predsjednica
• Gordana Paškvan Budiseliæ, dipl. ing. arh., Agencija za strukovno obrazovanje i obrazo
vanje odraslih, tajnica
• Jasna Fabijaniæ, dipl. ing. arh., Graditeljska tehnièka škola Zagreb
• Anto Vidoviæ, dipl. teolog, Obrtnièka i industrijska graditeljska škola Zagreb
• dr. sc. Mladen Zrinjski, dipl. ing. geod., Geodetski fakultet Sveuèilišta u Zagrebu
• Marina Æupurdija, dipl. ing. grað., Graðevinska tehnièka škola Rijeka
• Nada Stipanièev, dipl. ing. arh., Graditeljsko geodetska tehnièka škola Split
• red. prof. Renata Waldgoni, dipl. ing. arh., Arhitektonski fakultet Sveuèilišta u Zagrebu
• Damir Bešeniæ, dipl. ing. grað., Srednja škola Bedekovèina
• Dubravko Èoriæ, dipl. ing. arh., Obrtnièka i industrijska graditeljska škola Zagreb
• Danijela Ðuriæ, dipl. ing. arh., Graditeljska, prirodoslovna i rudarska škola Varadin
• Goran Mrðen, ing. grað., Obrtnièka škola Koprivnica
• Vlatko Vincek, akad. slikar, Obrtnièka i industrijska graditeljska škola Zagreb.
Èlanovi Prosudbenog povjerenstva za ocjenjivanje za zanimanje geodetski tehnièar bili su:
• dr. sc. Mladen Zrinjski, dipl. ing. geod., predsjednik, autor zadataka za natjecanje
• Snjeana Vouèko, dipl. ing. geod., èlanica
• Saša Tièiæ, dipl. ing. geod., èlanica
• Angelina Dinarina Poljak, dipl. ing. geod., prièuva.
Natjecanju za zanimanje geodetski tehnièar pristupilo je sedam uèenika, a provjera znanja
sastojala se od:
• zadataka iz podruèja geodetskog raèunanja i
• testa znanja.
U tablici 1 dan je konaèni poredak uèenika za zanimanje geodetski tehnièar prema ukup
nom broju ostvarenih bodova.
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Vijesti, Geod. list 2012, 2
Tablica 1. Konaèni poredak uèenika za zanimanje geodetski tehnièar.
Poredak
Ime i prezime
natjecatelja
Ime i prezime
Naziv škole
mentora
1.
Franco Matulja
Graðevinska tehnièka škola
Rijeka
Saša Tièiæ,
dipl. ing. geod.
2.
Marijo Pejak
Geodetska tehnièka škola Zagreb
Snjeana Vouèko,
dipl. ing. geod.
3.
Dorijan Radoèaj
Graditeljsko geodetska škola
Osijek
Alen Junaševiæ,
dipl. ing. geod.
4.
Tanja Erik
Tehnièka škola Pula
Jadranka Vreš Rebernjak,
dipl. ing. geod.
5.
Matej Safundiæ
Srednja škola Matije Antuna
Reljkoviæa Slavonski Brod
Bariša ivkoviæ,
dipl. ing. geod.
6.
Petar Jurèeviæ
Graditeljsko geodetska tehnièka
škola Split
Angelina Dinarina Poljak,
dipl. ing. geod.
7.
Luka Galekoviæ
Geodetska tehnièka škola Zagreb
Snjeana Vouèko,
dipl. ing. geod.
Èestitamo svim uèenicima i mentorima.
Troje prvoplasiranih uèenika: Franco Matulja, Marijo Pejak i Dorijan Radoèaj svojim su re
zultatom ostvarili direktan upis na Geodetski fakultet Sveuèilišta u Zagrebu ili na Fakultet
graðevinarstva, arhitekture i geodezije Sveuèilišta u Splitu (na sveuèilišni preddiplomski
studij geodezije i geoinformatike).
Zahvaljujemo domaæinima Geodetskoj tehnièkoj školi Zagreb, Graditeljskoj tehnièkoj školi Za
greb te Obrtnièkoj i industrijskoj graditeljskoj školi Zagreb na lijepom gostoprimstvu i druenju.
Mladen Zrinjski
MAGISTRI INENJERI GEODEZIJE I GEOIFORMATIKE
Na Geodetskom fakultetu Sveuèilišta u Zagrebu, dana 27. travnja 2012. godine, na sveuèi
lišnome diplomskom studiju geodezije i geoinformatike diplomiralo je ukupno 4 pristupnika
i time stekli akademski naziv magistar inenjer geodezije i geoinformatike, odnosno magi
stra inenjerka geodezije i geoinformatike.
Pregled magistara inenjera geodezije i geoinformatike:
Pristupnik
Naslov diplomskog rada
Irena Èale
“Satelitska misija GOCE rezultati i primjena”
Ivana Glibušiæ
“Upotreba programskog paketa Pointools u obradi i
modeliranju skeniranih objekata”
Klement Ivandiæ
“Primjena GIS-a u analizi trišta nekretnina”
Zvonimir Pušiæ
“Prostorna analiza katastarske èestice u odnosu
na zone namjene u k. o. Centar”
Datum obrane, mentor
27. 04. 2012., prof. dr. sc. Tomislav Bašiæ
27. 04. 2012., doc. dr. sc. Almin Ðapo
27. 04. 2012., prof. dr. sc. Siniša Masteliæ Iviæ
27. 04. 2012., prof. dr. sc. Siniša Masteliæ Iviæ
Kratica za ovaj akademski naziv je: mag. ing. geod. et geoinf.
Èestitamo novim magistrima inenjerima geodezije i geoinformatike.
Mladen Zrinjski
127
Vijesti, Geod. list 2012, 2
DIPLOMIRALI NA GEODETSKOM FAKULTETU
Na Geodetskom fakultetu Sveuèilišta u Zagrebu, od 25 veljaèe do 27. travnja 2012. godine,
na sveuèilišnome dodiplomskom studiju geodezije diplomirao je jedan pristupnik.
Pregled podataka o diplomiranom inenjeru geodezije:
Pristupnik
Naslov diplomskog rada
Hrvoje Èikotiæ
“Morsko-tehnièke konstrukcije”
Datum obrane, mentor
27. 04. 2012., prof. dr. sc. Siniša Masteliæ Iviæ
Èestitamo novom diplomiranom inenjeru geodezije.
Mladen Zrinjski
128
Vijesti, Geod. list 2012, 2
ME\UNARODNI SIMPOZIJ O INENJERSKOJ GEODEZIJI,
SLAVONSKI BROD, HRVATSKA, 29–30. SVIBNJA 2012.
U organizaciji Hrvatskoga geodetskog društva je, u Slavonskom Brodu, od 29. do 30. svib
nja 2012. odran Meðunarodni simpozij o inenjerskoj geodeziji International Symposium
on Engineering Geodesy. Simpozij je odran u kazališno koncertnoj dvorani “Ivana
Brliæ Mauraniæ”. Simpozij je odran pod pokroviteljstvom Akademije tehnièkih znanosti
Hrvatske.
Teme simpozija bile su sljedeæe:
1. Suvremeni trendovi u geodetskoj znanosti
2. Geodezija u legalizaciji bespravne gradnje
3. Uloga geodeta u društvu
• Dravna uprava
• Gospodarstvo
• Obrazovanje
• Poslovna komunikacija.
Èlanovi Organizacijskog odbora bili su:
• Joef Delak, dipl. ing. geod., predsjednik
• Marija Tomiæ, dipl. ing. geod.
• mr. sc. Franjo Ambroš
• mr. sc. Blaenka Mièeviæ
• Vladimir Krupa, dipl. ing. geod.
• Davorin Špoljariæ, dipl. ing. geod.
• Dejan Posavac, dipl. ing. geod.
Èlanovi Znanstveno struènog odbora bili su:
• prof. dr. sc. Damir Medak, predsjednik
• Damir Pahiæ, dipl. ing. geod.
• prof. dr. sc. Marko Dapo
• prof. dr. sc. Zdravko Kapoviæ
• prof. dr. sc. Gorana Novakoviæ
• prof. dr. sc. Ðuro Barkoviæ
• doc. dr. sc. Mladen Zrinjski
• prof. dr. sc. Asim Bilajbegoviæ (Njemaèka)
• prof. dr. sc. Béla Márkus (Maðarska)
• doc. dr. sc. Gerhard Navratil (Austrija)
• prof. dr. sc. Dušan Kogoj (Slovenija)
• prof. dr. sc. Zagorka Gospaviæ (Srbija).
Sveèano otvaranje zapoèelo je dravnom himnom, koju su izvele èlanice vokalnog sastava
“Ad Astra”. Sudionike i goste su uz prigodne govore pozdravili: upan Brodsko posavske
upanije Davor Vlaoviæ, izaslanik predsjednika Hrvatske komore ovlaštenih inenjera geo
dezije Vladimir Krupa, predsjednik Hrvatske udruge poslodavaca Udruga geodetsko geo
Vijesti, Geod. list 2012, 2
129
Slika 1. Predsjednik Organizacijskog odbora Joef Dedak.
informatièke struke Robert Paj, predsjednik Hrvatskoga kartografskog društva i èlan Pred
sjedništva Akademije tehnièkih znanosti Hrvatske prof. dr. sc. Miljenko Lapaine, izaslanik
dekana Geodetskog fakulteta Sveuèilišta u Zagrebu prodekan za znanstveni rad i meðuna
rodnu suradnju prof. dr. sc. Tomislav Bašiæ te izaslanica ravnatelja Dravne geodetske
uprave zamjenica ravnatelja mr. sc. Blaenka Mièeviæ.
Aktivni sudionici simpozija s Geodetskog fakulteta Sveuèilišta u Zagrebu bili su:
prof. dr. sc. Damir Medak, prof. dr. sc. Tomislav Bašiæ, prof. dr. sc. Miljenko Lapaine,
prof. dr. sc. Ðuro Barkoviæ, prof. dr. sc. Marko Dapo, dr. sc. Ivan Medved i doc. dr. sc.
Mladen Zrinjski. Neki od njih bili su voditelji sesija, a ostali su prezentirali radove koje
su izradili samostalno ili u koautorstvu. Prezentirano je ukupno 15 radova u 5 razlièitih
sesija na hrvatskom i engleskom jeziku. Autori su prezentirali (podcrtana imena) sljedeæe
radove:
• Landek, I., Vilus, I.: Izrada DOF5 za potrebe legalizacije nelegalno izgraðenih objekata
• Salopek, D., Ambro, F.: Iskustvo Hrvatskog telekoma d. d. u imovinsko pravnom ureðe
nju svoje elektronièke komunikacijske infrastrukture
• Konèiæ, A. M.: Upis ceste u zemljišne knjige temeljem novog Zakona o cestama
• Pahiæ, D.: Land Administration and the United Nations Economic Commission for Euro
pe Working Party on Land Administration Activities
• Roll, G., Milligan, M.: Activities of the UNECE Committee on Housing and Land Mana
gement
• Bambagioni, G.: Economic Trends and UNECE Real Estate Market Advisory Group Acti
vities
• Tomiæ, M.: Izrada standarda zanimanja i standarda kvalifikacije u zvanju geodetski tehni
èar/tehnièarka i geoinformatièar/geoinformatièarka
• Grubiæ, I.: Standardizirani digitalni oblik kartografskih znakova i prikaza
• Barkoviæ, Ð., Zrinjski, M., Zovko, M.: Vanost primjene nacionalnih norma za geodetska
mjerila
130
Vijesti, Geod. list 2012, 2
• Kapoviæ, Z.: Osvrt na posebitosti inenjerske geodezije
• Medved, I., Medak, D.: Primjena geostatistièkih analiza u detekciji klizišta
• Glagoliæ, M.: FME transformacije visoke toènosti izmeðu HDKS i HTRS96, kao i Trst i
HVRS71
• Lapaine, M.: Hrvatski jezik u geodeziji i geoinformatici
• Bašiæ, T.: Neki suvremeni trendovi u geodetskoj znanosti
• Dabiæ, M.: Pregovaraèke strategije.
Prvog dana simpozija odran je okrugli stol na temu Geodetski aspekti ozakonjenja i regi
stracije graðevina (slika 2).
Slika 2. Okrugli stol: Geodetski aspekti ozakonjenja i registracije graðevina.
Tijekom odravanja simpozija odrana je izloba geodetske i geoinformatièke opreme (slika
3) uz sudjelovanje sljedeæih tvrtki: DIT d.o.o., Multisoft, Geocentar, Geoplan d.o.o., Geosoft,
Geosustavi, GeoWILD i Geomatika Smolèak d.o.o. Organizator posebno zahvaljuje tvrtka
ma Multisoft i DIT d.o.o. na sponzorskoj potpori.
Tijekom pauza simpozija, u utorak 29. svibnja organiziran je obilazak tvrðave Brod (slika 4),
a u srijedu 30. svibnja, u dogovoru s Hrvatskim vodama, brodom je organiziran obilazak
dravne granice s Bosnom i Hercegovinom. Zahvaljujemo Udruzi geodeta Brodsko posavske
upanije koja je doprinijela uspjehu ovoga skupa te organizaciji spomenutih izleta.
Na kraju prvog dana organizirana je sveèana veèera (slika 5) za sve sudionike simpozija, na
kojoj su dodijeljena priznanja izlagaèima i sponzorima, kao i dopredsjednici FIG a Chryssy
A. Potsiou (slika 6).
Prije sveèanog zatvaranja kao nagrada za sudjelovanje i praæenje simpozija do samoga kraja
sudionici zadnjih predavanja sudjelovali su u nagradnom izvlaèenju pri èemu je dvoje sudio
nika primilo nagradu GPS autonavigaciju tvrtke Geosustavi, te im ovom prilikom zahvalju
jemo na doniranim nagradama.
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Vijesti, Geod. list 2012, 2
Slika 3. Izloba geodetske i geoinformatièke opreme.
Slika 4. Obilazak tvrðave Brod.
132
Vijesti, Geod. list 2012, 2
Slika 5. Sveèana veèera.
Slika 6. Dopredsjednica FIG a Chryssy A. Potsiou.
Meðunarodni simpozij o inenjerskoj geodeziji sveèano je zatvorio, prigodnim govorom,
predsjednik HGD a Joef Delak, dipl. ing. geod.
Hrvatsko geodetsko društvo uloilo je mnogo truda u organizaciju Meðunarodnog simpozija
o inenjerskoj geodeziji. Veseli nas primjerena posjeæenost i zadovoljstvo svih sudionika
organizacijom i kvalitetom znanstveno struènih radova, što nam daje poticaj za organizaci
ju buduæih skupova.
Joef Delak
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REPUBLIKA HRVATSKA
Dravna geodetska uprava
HR 10000 Zagreb, Gruška 20
www.dgu.hr
INSPIRATION – Spatial Data Infrastructure in the Western Balkans
Dana 21. i 22. oujka 2012. u Zagrebu je odran uvodni radni sastanak projekta
“INSPIRATION Spatial Data Infrastructure in the Western Balkans”. Projekt kao nit vo
dilju ima promociju infrastrukture prostornih podataka u dravama regije. Glavna tema sa
stanka bilo je iskazivanje oèekivanja zemalja korisnica od samog projekta.
U ime glavnih korisnika projekta, dravnih institucija nadlenih za dravnu izmjeru i kata
star, sastanku su prisustvovali predstavnici (slika 1):
• Središnjeg ureda za registraciju nekretnina Republike Albanije
• Federalne uprave za geodetske i imovinsko pravne poslove Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine
• Republièke uprave za geodetske i imovinsko pravne poslove Republike Srpske, BiH
• Uprave za nekretnine Crne Gore
• Katastarske agencije Kosova (This designation is without prejudice to positions on status,
and is in line with UNSC 1244 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of inde
pendence.)
• Agencije za katastar na nedvinosti Republike Makedonije
• Republièkog geodetskog zavoda Republike Srbije i
• Dravne geodetske uprave Republike Hrvatske.
Slika 1. Sudionici uvodnog sastanka.
Sastanku je u ime Europske komisije prisustvovao i predstavnik Joint Reaserch Centre dr.
sc. Vlado Cetl. Projekt æe biti implementiran od strane konzorcija kojeg èine:
• GFA Consulting Group GmbH, Njemaèka
• Con terra GmbH, Njemaèka
• Umweltbundesamt GmbH, Austrija
• GISDATA d.o.o., Hrvatska.
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Vijesti Dravne geodetske uprave, Geod. list 2012, 2
Tri su osnovne komponente projekta:
• Analiza zakonodavnog i institucionalnog okvira za uspostavu NIPP a
• Stvaranje kapaciteta i prijenos znanja
• Promocija i dizanje svijesti o NIPP u.
Na sastanku Upravnog odbora ravnatelj DGU a, gosp. Danko Markovinoviæ, imenovan je
predsjednikom, a ravnatelj Agencije za katastar na nedvinosti Republike Makedonije gosp.
Ljupèo Georgievski zamjenikom predsjednika Upravnog odbora.
Tomislav Ciceli
FIG Working Week 2012
Glavni godišnji radni tjedan Meðunarodnog udruenja geodeta (FIG) FIG Working Week,
odrao se u Rimu od 6. do 10. svibnja 2012. s temom “Knowing to manage the territory, pro
tect the environment, evaluate the cultural heritage”. Na konferenciji je sudjelovalo više od
1500 delegata iz cijelog svijeta. Glavni organizatori konferencije bili su institucija Consiglio
Nazionale Geometri e Geometri Laureati (Nacionalno vijeæe geodeta i diplomiranih inenje
ra geodezije) i FIG, dok je glavni partner bio FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of
United Nation). Sveèano otvaranje konferencije (slika 1) bilo je u Guiseppe Sinopoli Hall,
Parco della Musica uz koncert Simfonijskog orkestra iz Rima.
Slika 1. Sveèano otvaranje konferencije.
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135
Kao predstavnici Dravne geodetske uprave u radu konferencije sudjelovali su dr. sc. Dan
ko Markovinoviæ, ravnatelj i Jelena Unger, dipl. ing. geod., proèelnica Podruènog ureda za
katastar Koprivnica. Gosp. Markovinoviæ je, pored ostalog, sudjelovao u radu Foruma di
rektora (Director General Forum) (slika 4), organiziranog za direktore organizacija èlanica
FIG a u èijoj su nadlenosti katastar i kartografija, a gða. Unger u sesiji “Land Policy and
Reform” s prezentacijom rada “Cooperation between Municipality and Cadastre on Land
and Housing Policy” (slika 2 i slika 3). Rad je nastao u koautorstvu s Majom Ištvan Krapi
Slika 2. Predstavljanje Hrvatske.
Slika 3. Izlaganje Jelene Unger.
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Vijesti Dravne geodetske uprave, Geod. list 2012, 2
nec, dipl. ing. arh., proèelnicom Upravnog odjela za komunalno gospodarstvo, prostorno
ureðenje i zaštitu okoliša u Gradu Koprivnici.
U radu se daje prikaz projekata realiziranih u suradnji izmeðu Grada Koprivnice i Dravne
geodetske uprave, koji su doprinijeli poboljšanju katastarskih podataka i modernizaciji ka
tastra te pomogli Gradu u izgradnji uèinkovitog sustava prostornog planiranja, zašiti okoli
ša i odrivom razvoju. Opisana je interakcija katastarskog i prostorno planskog sustava u
mnogim segmentima djelovanja Grada Koprivnice, pa i u primjeni Zakona o postupanju s
nezakonito izgraðenim zgradama.
U tri dana konferencije prezentacije radova odravale su se u desetak paralelnih sesija,
razvrstane prema temama iz mnogih podruèja kao što su: prostorne informacije, zemljišna
administracija, zemljišni menadment, geodetski datumi, fotogrametrija, inenjerska geo
dezija, prostorno planiranje, zaštita okoliša i kulturnih dobara, klimatske promjene, hidro
grafija, kartografija, oporezivanje, GIS, praæenje deformacija i još mnoga druga. Lijepo je
vidjeti da je u jednakom rangu s ostalim podruèjima naše struke i sam katastar. Bez obzira
o kojoj se zemlji radi, katastar se svugdje tretira kao bitno podruèje za sveopæi razvoj svake
zajednice.
Slika 4. Sudjelovanje u radu Foruma direktora.
Iz bogatog programa treba još izdvojiti inspirativnu posjetu katastru (slika 5) koji je zajed
no sa zemljišnom knjigom u sastavu Agenzie del Territorio (slika 6). Agencija je tako orga
nizirana da ovlašteni inenjeri geodezije preuzimanje podataka i predaju elaborata obavlja
ju elektronskim putem. Potpisivanje je riješeno elektronskim potpisom, a pristojbe se plaæa
ju iz depozita koji svaki ovlaštenik polae u katastru. Katastar se sastoji od zemljišnog kata
stra Land cadastre, u kojem se obraðuje 82 milijuna èestica i katastra urbanih zgrada
Urban building cadastre, u kojem se obraðuje 63 milijuna zgradnih èestica. Za preuzimanje
podataka i predaju elaborata u Agenciji su izradili specifiène vlastite aplikacije PREGEO za
zemljišni (ruralni) katastar i DOCFA za katastar zgrada, koje su dostupne ovlaštenicima
putem web stranice Agencije bez plaæanja ikakve naknade i upotrebljavaju se na jedinstveni
naèin u cijeloj dravi.
Vijesti Dravne geodetske uprave, Geod. list 2012, 2
Slika 5. Posjet katastru.
Slika 6. Predstavljanje Agenzie del Territorio.
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U drugom dijelu godišnje skupštine odranom zadnji dan skupa, koji je vodio Cheehai Teo
(slika 7), predsjednik FIG udruenja, izabrana su dva nova potpredsjednika za razdoblje od
2013. do 2016. godine Bruno Razza iz Italije i Pengfei Cheng iz Kine te predsjednici komi
sija za razdoblje od 2013. do 2014. godine. Prihvaæeni su neki novi èlanovi FIG udruenja,
tako da se broj redovnih èlanova poveæao na 105 (iz 87 zemalja), broj korporativnih na 25, a
broj akademskih na 90.
Slika 7. Provoðenje izbora u FIG u.
Takoðer, izabrane su dvije nove destinacije za daljnje odravanje skupova FIG a. FIG
Working Week 2015. odrat æe se u Sofiji u Bugarskoj, a 2016. u Christchurchu u Novom
Zelandu. Velika panja posveæena je mladima i enama u našoj profesiji te je paralelno
odrana i prva FIG konferencija mladih geodeta.
Danko Markovinoviæ i Jelena Unger
Geod. list 2012, 2
PREGLED STRUÈNOG TISKA I SOFTVERA
139
USPOREDBA PODATAKA ATKIS-a i OpenStreetMapa
ATKIS (Amtliches Topographisch Kartographisches Informationssystem) je slubeni topo
grafsko kartografski informacijski sustav Republike Njemaèke. Izvedbeni projekt ATKIS a
završen je, nakon petogodišnjeg rada, 1989. godine i tada se pristupilo njegovoj realizaciji.
Topografske informacije pohranjene su u digitalnim topografskim modelima za koje se upo
trebljavaju i nazivi digitalni modeli krajolika (Digitale Landschaftsmodelle DLM). Postoje
èetiri DLM a: Osnovni DLM (odgovara kartama mjerila 1:10 000
1:25 000), DLM50
(1:50 000 1:100 000), DLM250 (1:200 000 1:500 000) i DLM1000 (1:1 000 000 i sitni
ja mjerila). Glavni izvornik za izradu Osnovnog DLM a je njemaèka osnovna karta mjerila
1:5000 na kojoj toèkasti i linijski elementi imaju poloajnu toènost od ±3 m. Stoga i polo
ajna toènost Osnovnog DLM a u najveæoj mjeri odgovara toj toènosti.
OpenStreetMap (OSM) je projekt virtualne zajednice s ciljem stvaranja slobodne, svi
ma dostupne karte, koju svatko moe sam i doraðivati. Karte, odnosno kartografski
podaci na OSM u su doprinosi suradnika, a uglavnom nastaju primjenom ruènih
GPS ureðaja, preuzimanjem podataka s aerosnimaka ili satelitskih snimaka i iz drugih
slobodnih izvora. Podaci su raspoloivi za preuzimanje prema Open Database License
(http://hr.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenStreetMap). Projekt pokrenut 2004. do danas je naišao
na veliki odaziv (oko 400 000 registriranih korisnika) pa su za mnoge dijelove svijeta do
stupne detaljne karte. Poloajna toènost podataka iznosi oko ±5 m, što odgovara toènosti
ruènih GPS ureðaja.
Da bi se ispitala potpunost (completeness) i poloajna toènost (positional accuracy) podata
ka OSM a, odluèili su u Institutu za geoinformatiku i daljinska istraivanja Sveuèilišta u
Osnabrücku usporediti te podatke s podacima Osnovnog DLM a ATKIS a (u daljnjem tek
stu ATKIS). U Donjoj Saskoj odabrana su tri ispitna podruèja velièine 5 km × 5 km u tri
grada razlièite velièine: velikom (Hannover), srednjem (Aurich) i malom (Wagenfeld). Za
obradu i usporedbu podataka primijenjen je sustav za upravljanje bazama podataka. Iza
bran je PostgreSQL s PostGIS om. U pripremi podataka svi podaci transformirani su u isti
koordinatni sustav. Buduæi da su podaci ATKIS a u sustavu Gauss Krügerove projekcije, to
su i podaci OSM a transformirani u taj sustav. U sljedeæem koraku iz oba skupa podataka
izdvojeni su isti isjeèci.
U analizi podataka prvo je ispitana potpunost linijskih i površinskih objekata. Linijski po
daci svrstani su u ovih pet skupina: cestovni promet, eljeznièki promet, osi vodenih toko
va, opskrbni vodovi i ograde. Površinski podaci svrstani su u ove skupine: vegetacija, vode,
prometne površine, izgraðene površine i slobodne površine u naseljima.
Pomoæu SQL upita odreðene su potom duljine linijskih elemenata i površine površinskih
objekata. Pretpostavka je da je datoteka linijskih elementa potpunija što je zbroj duljina li
nija veæi, a da je datoteka površinskih objekata potpunija što je zbroj površina veæi. Analiza
potpunosti linijskih objekata pokazala je da na podruèju Hannovera u svim skupinama,
osim u skupini osi vodenih tokova, više podataka sadri OSM, a na podruèju Wagenfelda u
svim skupinama više podataka ima ATKIS. Analiza potpunosti površinskih podataka poka
zala je da u gotovo svim skupinama bitno više podataka sadri ATKIS. U OSM u veliki udio
površinskih podataka ima veliki grad, vrlo malo podataka grad srednje velièine, a gotovo da
nema površinskih podataka u malom gradu.
U analizi poloajne toènosti linijskih objekata podaci ATKIS a, zbog veæe toènosti, smatrani
su referentnim. Uz osi linijskih objekata ATKIS a zamišljeni su koridori širine 10 m i po
tom je ispitivano u kojoj se mjeri linijski objekti OSM a nalaze unutar tih koridora. Za ocje
nu poloajne toènosti vano je da su duljine linija u oba skupa podataka podjednake duljine.
Npr. na podruèju Hannovera OSM sadri oko 164 km više cestovnih podataka nego ATKIS.
Stoga se samo 64% cestovnih podataka OSM a nalazi unutar koridora od 10 m ATKIS ovih
podataka. Tamo gdje su duljine priblino jednake, toènost OSM podataka opæenito je dobra,
a slabija je jedino za osi vodenih tokova.
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Pregled struènog tiska i softvera, Geod. list 2012, 2
U zakljuèku autori istraivanja zakljuèuju da su podaci ATKIS a nezamjenjivi u pravnim i
javnim pitanjima. Na tom podruèju podaci OSM a ne mogu zamijeniti podatke ATKIS a niti
ih potisnuti. Umjesto toga podaci OSM a pruaju višestruke moguænosti primjene tamo gdje
se trai besplatna zamjena za slubene ili komercijalne podatke, npr. kao temeljna karta za
razne tematske karte.
Izvor:
Schoof, M. (2012): ATKIS Basis DLM und OpenStreetMap Ein Datenvergleich anhand au
sgewählter Gebiete in Niedersachsen. Kartographische Nachrichten 1, 20 26.
Nedjeljko Franèula
GPS Solutions
Èasopis GPS Solutions (izdavaè Springer) izlazi kvar
talno i pokriva sve moguæe primjene globalnih na
vigacijskih satelitskih sustava (GNSS) poput GPS a,
GLONASS a, Galilea. Primarni interes posveæen je no
vim, inovativnim i zahtjevnim namjenama. Neka od
moguæih podruèja primjene jesu: zrakoplovstvo, izmje
ra i kartiranje, poljoprivreda i šumarstvo, pomorska i
rijeèna navigacija, javni prijevoz, komunikacije, meteo
rologija i znanost o atmosferi, geoznanosti, praæenje
globalnih promjena, tehnologija i inenjerstvo, GIS,
geodezija i dr. Oèekuju se prilozi širokog spektra GNSS
profesionalaca ukljuèujuæi sveuèilišne istraivaèe,
znanstvenike iz vladinih laboratorija, proizvoðaèe GPS
prijamnika, javne slubenike, poslovne ljude i dr.
Èasopis izlazi od 1997, na internetu su dostupni saetci
od 1998, a slobodan pristup cjelovitim tekstovima mo
guæ je samo za poneke èlanke
(http://www.springerlink.com/content/1080 5370).
Èasopis je od 2004. ukljuèen u ugledne bibliografske i citatne baze Current Contents
Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences i Science Citation Index Expanded. Faktor odjeka (IF)
za 2010. iznosi 1,483.
U stalnoj rubrici Geodetskog lista Iz stranih èasopisa ponekad se navode i naslovi èlanaka
iz ovog èasopisa. Ovdje skreæemo pozornost na èetiri èlanka objavljena 2011. i dva èlanka iz
2012.
• R. F. Leandr, M. C. Santos, R. B. Langley: Analyzing GNSS data in precise point positio
ning software, 2011, 1.
• P. J. G. Teunissen, G. Giorgi, P. J. Buist: Testing of a new single frequency GNSS carrier
phase attitude determination method: land, ship and aircraft experiments, 2011, 1. (slo
bodan pristup).
• P. Wielgosz: Quality assessment of GPS rapid static positioning with weighted iono
spheric parameters in generalized least squares, 2011, 2.
• A. Parkins: Increasing GNSS RTK availability with a new single epoch batch partial
ambiguity resolution algorithm, 2011, 4.
• S. Lejeune, G. Wautelet, R. Warnant: Ionospheric effects on relative positioning within a
dense GPS network, 2012, 1.
• D. Firuzabadì, R. W. King: GPS precision as a function of session duration and reference
frame using multi point software, 2012, 2.
Nedjeljko Franèula
Pregled struènog tiska i softvera, Geod. list 2012, 2
141
IZ STRANIH ÈASOPISA
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica, Vol.47, No.1., 2012.
• Comparing GLONASS only with GPS only and hybrid positioning in various length of
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• A theory on geoid modelling by spectral combination of data from satellite gravity gradiometry,
terrestrial gravity and an Earth Gravitational Model. L. E. Sjöberg and M. Eshagh. 13. 28.
• Impact of compensating mass on the topographic mass A study using isostatic and
non isostatic Earth crustal models. M. Bagherbandi. 29. 51.
• Evaluation of NRTK positioning using the RENEP and rap networks on the southern
border region of Portugal and Spain. M. S. Garrido, E. Giménez, J. A. Armenteros, M. C.
Lacy and A. J. Gil. 52. 65.
• On the question of the accuracy of leveling. O. A. Mozzhukhin. 66. 68.
Allgemeine Vermessungs-Nachrichten, Vol.119, No.2., 2012.
• Das Laser Radar reflektorlose Distanzbestimmung mittels Frequenzmodulation. Chri
stoph Naab, Maria Hennes.
• Erweiterung des Entfernungsmessbereichs bei modulierten Entfernungskameras durch
ein Zeit Frequenz Multiplexverfahren. Boris Jutzi.
• Leistungsfähigkeit eines “Reflektor 160” in Kombination mit einem Lasertracker. Fran
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• Die kinematische Leistungsfähigkeit des iGPS. Claudia Depenthal.
Geoinformatica, Vol.16, No.2., 2012.
• Comparison of four line based positional assessment methods by means of synthetic data.
Francisco Javier Ariza López, Antonio Tomás Mozas Calvache. 221. 243.
• Blind and squaring resistant watermarking of vectorial building layers. Julien Lafaye,
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• Automatic classification of building types in 3D city models Using SVMs for semantic
enrichment of low resolution building data. André Henn, Christoph Römer, Gerhard
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• Generating seamless surfaces for transport and dispersion modeling in GIS. Fernando
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• Greening the Cadastre: Incorporating Natural/Fuzzy Boundaries. Rohan Bennett and
Paul van der Molen.
• Unique National Geodetic Network in Cameroon: Supporting a Nation’s Land Reform
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• INSPIRE’s Shift in Emphasis: Implementation Enters a New Phase. Ian Masser.
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• Mitigation of atmospheric perturbations and solid Earth movements in a TerraSAR X
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• Numerical computation of spherical harmonics of arbitrary degree and order by exten
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• Relation between geoidal undulation, deflection of the vertical and vertical gravity gra
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• Genetic Algorithms: a stochastic approach for improving the current cadastre accuracies.
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Ein Blick in die Geodateninfrastruktur Deutschland. Sebastian Schmitz.
• Ist der Datenschutz Finis Terrae auf unserer Reise in einen offenen Geodatenmarkt?.
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Verena Händler, Volker Willert.
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Vlado Cetl
Geod. list 2012, 2
IN MEMORIAM
143
PROF. DR. SC. PREDRAG TERZIÆ
1918.-2012.
Naš cijenjeni prof. dr. sc. Predrag Terziæ iznenada nas je napustio u utorak 10. travnja
2012. U petak 20. travnja na gradskom groblju Mirogoj ispratili smo ga na vjeèni poèinak.
U ime Geodetskog fakulteta Sveuèilišta u Zagrebu oprostio se dekan profesor Miodrag Roiæ,
a prigodnim govorom o ivotu i djelu profesora Terziæa oprostio se jedan od njegovih naj
bliih suradnika profesor Nikola Solariæ.
Profesor Predrag Terziæ roðen je 1918. godine u Zenici. Osnovnu školu završio je u San
skom mostu, a gimnaziju u Banja Luci 1937. Iste se godine upisao na Kulturno tehnièki i
geodetski odsjek Tehnièkog fakulteta Sveuèilišta u Zagrebu. Studij prekida 1941., a nastav
lja ga nakon drugoga svjetskog rata. Diplomirao je 1948. godine.
Nakon završetka studija radio je godinu dana u Geozavodu u geofizièkoj grupi. Za asistenta
na Tehnièkom fakultetu izabran je 1949. godine kod profesora Nikolaja Abakumova. Habi
litacijsku radnju pod naslovom Astrolab s prizmom, primjena metoda Zingera i Pjevcova
obranio je 1963. Iste je godine izabran za docenta, a 1971. za izvanrednog profesora. Dokto
rirao je 1982. obranivši doktorsku disertaciju Neki aspekti metoda suvremenih astronom
skih odreðivanja geografske širine. U znanstveno nastavno zvanje redovitog profesora iza
bran je 1983., a u mirovinu odlazi 1988. godine. Profesor Terziæ jedan je od rijetkih djelatni
ka Geodetskog fakulteta koji je praktièno cijeli svoj radni vijek od priblino 40 godina odra
dio na matiènom fakultetu.
Nastavni i znanstveni razvojni put profesora Terziæa bio je postepen. Svoj pedantan, upo
ran i temeljit rad okrunio je obranom doktorske disertacije i to kad je veæ imao 64 godine,
što je rijetkost. U toj vrijednoj disertacijskoj radnji zakljuèio je da se uzroci sustavnih po
greška izmeðu noæi nalazi u pojedinim dijelovima instrumenta, a ne u anomalijama refrak
cije, kao što je u to vrijeme mislila veæina astronoma.
Od znanstvenih radova profesora Terziæa posebno treba izdvojiti: Odreðivanje razlike geo
grafskih duljina opservatorija Maksimir i Hvar i Odreðivanje geografske širine astronom
ske toèke Opservatorija Hvar. Ti se radovi istièu pedantnošæu i preciznošæu, a astronomska
odreðivanja geografskih koordinata Opservatorija Hvar izvedena su s najveæom moguæom
144
In memoriam, Geod. list 2012, 2
toènošæu koja se moe postiæi s preciznim teodolitom Wild T4. Geografske koordinate koje
je odredio na Opservatoriju Hvar upotrebljavane su kao referentne koordinate pri uspostav
ljanju novih geoidnih toèaka na podruèju Hrvatske (posebice na podruèju Dinarida i jadran
skih otoka).
Sistematiènost i temeljitost obiljeila je nastavni rad profesora Terziæa, a takav naèin rada
prenosio je i na sve ostale oko sebe. Njegovi studenti i suradnici nauèili su kako je za obra
zovanje geodetskih struènjaka vano temeljito odravanje predavanja i vjebi, pedantno i
precizno opaanje i obraðivanje rezultata mjerenja.
Da bi svoje znanje prenio drugima, ponajprije studentima, napisao je profesor Terziæ 1982.
udbenik Sferna astronomija. U njemu je detaljno opisao osnovna podruèja sferne astrono
mije od nebeskih koordinatnih sustava i preraèunavanja koordinata, pojava koje mijenjaju
koordinate nebeskih tijela do vremenskih sustava i skala, navodeæi brojne primjere, što je
studentima olakšalo pripremanje i polaganje ispita.
Godine 1988. kad odlazi u mirovinu izlazi iz tiska njegov drugi udbenik Geodetska astro
nomija II. U njemu je profesor Terziæ sustavno opisao podruèja praktiène astronomije od
suvremenih ureðaja za mjerenje i registraciju vremena, astrometrijskih i astrogeodetskih
instrumenata do metoda odreðivanja astronomskih koordinata i azimuta s konkretnim
primjerima iz astrogeodetske prakse. I taj je udbenik znaèajno olakšao praæenje nastave i
pripremanje ispita iz geodetske astronomije. Ujedno je olakšao i predavaèima, jer se moglo
više posvetiti izlaganju automatiziranih metoda geodetske astronomije koje su nalazile sve
veæu primjenu u geodetskoj praksi.
Vrijednost udbenika uoèljiva je usporedimo li ih s onodobnim tematskim udbenicima na
njemaèkom, engleskom i ruskom jeziku. Tako primjerice Siglov Geodatische Astronomie (I.
izdanje 1975.) sadrajno obuhvaæa gradivo sferne i praktiène astronomije koje je profesor
Terziæ podijelio i opisao u dvije knjige. Uralov Kurs geodezièeskoj astronomii iz 1980. obu
hvaæa samo podruèje praktiène astronomije što sadri i Geodetska astronomija II. Po
nekima najutjecajniji onodobni udbenik na engleskom jeziku Muellerov Spherical and
Practical Astronomy as applied to Geodesy iz 1969., sadrajno nadmašuje udbenike profe
sora Terziæa, no sva su glavna podruèja sferne i praktiène astronomije zastupljena i u
udbenicima profesora Terziæa. Dok je u drugoj polovici XX. st. postojalo više vrijednih
udbenika iz geodetske astronomije na nekoliko dominantnih europskih jezika, na podruèju
bivše drave postojale su, pored udbenika profesora Terziæa, samo Ševarliæ Brkiæeva Geo
detska astronomija I iz 1963. i Opšta astronomija iz 1979. godine. Veæ je iz naslova ove po
sljednje jasno da su u njoj, izmeðu ostaloga, obraðena i podruèja opæe astronomije koja nisu
neposredno vezana uz geodetsku astronomiju. Zbog toga su u tom udbeniku astrogeodet
ska podruèja opæenitija za razliku od temeljitih i detaljnih opisa u udbenicima profesora
Terziæa. Prema tome, udbenici profesora Terziæa po sadraju i sustavnosti te jasnom izla
ganju tematske materije ne zaostaju za navedenim udbenicima i u potpunosti obuhvaæaju
ona podruèja klasiène astronomije koja èine geodetsku astronomiju.
Struèni rad profesora Terziæa, slièno kao i nastavni i znanstveni rad, karakterizirala je te
meljitost i visoka toènost mjerenja, koju je rijetko tko kao on uspijevao postiæi. Od znaèajnih
struènih radova koje je izveo moemo istaknuti sljedeæe:
• rad na tunelu u Sri Lanki (zajedno s profesorom Veljkom Petkoviæem)
• radove na projektu melioracije podruèja Nanlet u Burmi (zajedno s profesorom Veljkom
Petkoviæem)
• radove na kontroli deformacija brana i
• radove na preciznom nivelmanu na podruèju rafinerije Sisak.
Za marljiv je društveni rad profesor Terziæ primio više priznanja, nagrada i odlikovanja, od
kojih spominjemo:
• medalju za zasluge za narod
• orden rada sa zlatnim vijencem
In memoriam, Geod. list 2012, 2
145
• plaketu Geodetskog fakulteta Sveuèilišta u Zagrebu za uspješnu suradnju u znanstve
no nastavnoj djelatnosti i za afirmaciju Fakulteta u povodu proslave 60. obljetnice geodet
ske visokoškolske nastave u Hrvatskoj
• pohvale i nagrade geodetske tvrtke Geozavod iz Zagreba
• izabran je za poèasnog èlana Saveza geodetskih inenjera i geometara SR Hrvatske.
Profesor Terziæ je i u svojim 80 im i 90 im godinama ivota bio vrlo zainteresiran za rad i
napredak Geodetskog fakulteta. Nadasve je volio svoju obitelj. Uvijek je govorio, kako je
najvanija obitelj, a uspjesi na poslu su prolazni. S ljubavlju i ponosom govorio je o sinu Ne
nadu, snahi Danici i unukama.
Premda meðu nama više neæe biti profesora Predraga Terziæa ostat æe ivjeti u našim misli
ma i srcima, kao uporan, temeljit i marljiv u radu i pravedan, èovjek koji je osobito cijenio
poštenje. Hvala mu za sve što je uèinio za napredak Geodetskog fakulteta i geodetske astro
nomije u Hrvatskoj.
Popis udbenika i knjiga
1. Terziæ, P.: Sferna astronomija, Sveuèilište u Zagrebu, 1972, 346 stranica.
2. Terziæ, P.: Geodetska astronomija II, Sveuèilište u Zagrebu, Geodetski fakultet, 1988,
263 stranice.
Popis objavljenih znanstvenih radova
1. Terziæ, P.: Astrolab s prizmom, primjena metoda Zingera i Pjevcova. Zbornik radova
Geodetskog fakulteta Sveuèilišta u Zagrebu, Niz A, Svezak 22, Zagreb, 1980.
2. Terziæ, P.: Odreðivanje razlike geografskih duina opservatorija Maksimir i Hvar. Zbor
nik radova Geodetskog fakulteta Sveuèilišta u Zagrebu, Niz A, Svezak 25, Zagreb, 1980.
3. Terziæ, P.: Neki aspekti metoda suvremenih astronomskih odreðivanja astronomske ši
rine. Zbornik radova Geodetskog fakulteta Sveuèilišta u Zagrebu, Niz B, disertacije, A,
Svezak 7, Zagreb, 1983.
4. Terziæ, P.: Odreðivanje geografske širine astronomske toèke Opservatorija Hvar, Zbor
nik radova Geodetskog fakulteta Sveuèilišta u Zagrebu, Niz A, Svezak 37, Zagreb, 1985.
Popis objavljenih struènih radova
1. Radiogeodezija, Geodetski list, 1950, 1 3, 77 78.
2. Efemeride 1952., Almanah Boškoviæ 1952., Hrvatsko prirodoslovno društvo, Zagreb,
1952, 8 60, 81 86.
3. Efemeride 1953., Almanah Boškoviæ 1953., Hrvatsko prirodoslovno društvo, Zagreb,
1953, 6 75.
4. Efemeride 1954., Almanah Boškoviæ 1954., Hrvatsko prirodoslovno društvo, Zagreb,
1954, 6 76.
5. Efemeride 1955., Almanah Boškoviæ 1955., Hrvatsko prirodoslovno društvo, Zagreb,
1955, 6 76.
6. Efemeride 1956., Almanah Boškoviæ 1956., Hrvatsko prirodoslovno društvo, Zagreb,
1956, 6 76.
7. Efemeride 1957., Almanah Boškoviæ 1957., Hrvatsko prirodoslovno društvo, Zagreb,
1957, 6 76.
8. Komparacija invarske vrpce H.2567, Geodetski list, 1957, 5 8, 144 151, Petkoviæ, Terziæ.
146
In memoriam, Geod. list 2012, 2
9. Efemeride 1958., Almanah Boškoviæ 1958., Hrvatsko prirodoslovno društvo, Zagreb,
1958, 6 65, 88 96.
10. Efemeride 1959 1960., Almanah Boškoviæ 1959. 1960., Hrvatsko prirodoslovno dru
štvo, Zagreb, 1959, 6 76, 84 154.
11. Efemeride 1961 1962., Almanah Boškoviæ 1961. 1962., Hrvatsko prirodoslovno dru
štvo, Zagreb, 1961, 6 76, 84 84, 88 158.
12. Efemeride 1963., Almanah Boškoviæ 1963., Hrvatsko prirodoslovno društvo, Zagreb,
1963, 6 76.
13. Efemeride 1964 1965., Almanah Boškoviæ 1964. 1965., Hrvatsko prirodoslovno dru
štvo, Zagreb, 1964, 6 78, 83 86, 90 162.
14. Efemeride 1966 1967., Almanah Boškoviæ 1966. 1967., Hrvatsko prirodoslovno dru
štvo, Zagreb, 1966, 6 78, 83 86, 90 162.
15. Efemeride 1976., Almanah Boškoviæ 1976., Hrvatsko prirodoslovno društvo, Zagreb,
1976, 6 76.
16. Sadašnje stanje osnovnih mrea stalnih geodetskih toèaka u SR Hrvatskoj. Zbornik ra
dova Saveza geodetskih inenjera i geometara Jugoslavije, Hercegnovi, 1976, 20 30,
Gjurgjan, Klak, Petkoviæ, Terziæ.
Popis znaèajnih izvedenih struènih radova i eleborata
1.
Geomagnetska mjerenja na podruèju rudnika Ljubija i podruèju Podgoraèa u geofizièkoj
grupi Geozavoda, 1948. godina.
2.
Terenski radovi na triangulaciji, poligonskoj mrei i terestrièkoj fotogrametriji u podru
èju rudnika Raduša u Makedoniji, u geofizièkoj grupi Geozavoda, 1948. godina.
3.
Radovi s Eötvösovim variometrom u rudniku Vareš i na HE Nikola Tesla i na prijenosu
smjera i visina kroz vertikalno okno za HE Nikola Tesla, u geofizièkoj grupi Geozavoda,
1948. godina.
4.
Triangulacijski radovi na jednom dijelu podruèja nacionalnog parka Plitvièka jezera, te
renski rad i raèunska obrada podataka mjerenja, 1952. godina.
5.
Sastav programa opaanja za odreðivanje vremena Zigerovom metodom za Astronom
ski opservatorij u Maksimiru, 1954. godina.
6.
Raèunanje srednjih ekvatorskih koordinata zvijezda po programu odreðivanja geograf
ske širine zapadnog stupa Astronomskog opservatorija u Maksimiru za 1953. do 1959.
godine.
7.
Obrada jednog dijela opaanja izvršenih Horrebow Talcottovom metodom na zapadnom
stupu Astronomskog opservatorija u Maksimiru 1955. i 1956. godine.
8.
Tahimetrijsko snimanje 160 ha Tivatskog polja za projekte melioracija s kartiranjem
snimljenog podruèja, 1953. godina.
9.
Tahimetrijsko snimanje jednog dijela opæine Rabac, 1954. godina.
10. Izjednaèenje poligonske i nivelmanske mree opæine Rabac, 1954. godina.
11. Kontrolna mjerenja iskolèenja tunela HE Gojak. Vršene su: kontrole smjera, visina i
duina uz mjerenja invarnim icama na nekim dijelovima trase tlaènog i pristupnih tu
nela. Toènost izvršenih mjerenja i raèunanja potvrðena je visokim slaganjem pravaca i
visina na mjestima proboja tunela. Radovi su vršeni kroz tri godine, 1954. do 1957. go
dine, u okviru Geodetskog zavoda Tehnièkog fakulteta, odnosno AGG fakulteta.
12. Premjer jednog dijela Makarske, u okviru Geodetskog zavoda Tehnièkog fakulteta,
1955. godina.
13. Tehnièki nivelman uz rijeku Kupèinu i rijeku Èesmu u duini od 120 km, 1956. godina.
147
In memoriam, Geod. list 2012, 2
14. Odreðivanje 26 trigonometrijskih i orijentacijskih toèaka na podruèju Graèaca za Zajed
nicu elektroprivrednih poduzeæa SR Hrvatske, 1956. godina.
15. Precizna indirektna mjerenja duina, uz mjerenje baza invarnim icama za mostove
preko Save u Jankomiru i u Trnju. Kolektivni rad èlanova Geodetskog zavoda AGG fa
kulteta, 1956. godina.
16. Trigonometrijska i poligonska mrea jednog dijela poplavnog podruèja rijeke Gomjeni
ce, terenski rad i obrada podatka mjerenja za Geodetski zavod AGG fakulteta, 1957. go
dina.
17. Sudjelovanje u astronomskim radovima na trigonometrijskoj toèki prvog reda Koz
jak/Laplaceova toèka/ u SR Srbiji. Radove je izvodila Savezna geodetska uprava, 1958.
godina.
18. Dopuna mikrotriangulacijske mree za kontrolu deformacija brane HE Peruèa i odreði
vanje horizontalnih i vertikalnih pomaka brane u prvom mjerenju, 1959. godina.
19. Trigonometrijska mrea i orijentacijske toèke za aerofotogrametrijsko snimanje na jed
nom dijelu podruèja Sinj Livno, za potrebe zajednice elektroprivrednih poduzeæa SR
Hrvatske, u okviru Zavoda za višu geodeziju AGG fakulteta, 1959. godina.
20. Snimanje 1037 ha terena za istoèni i zapadni lateralni kanal zajednice Kupa
1960. i 1961. godina.
Kupèina,
21. Geodetski i astronomski radovi za projekt melioracija rijeke Nanlet u Burmi, zajedno
s profesorom Veljkom Petkoviæem, kao suradnik poduzeæa Elektroprojekt: mjerenja
mree precizne poligonometrije, mjerenja bazisa samostalne trigonometrijske mree,
mjerenja ove trigonometrijske mree, astronomska orijentacija mree, sva raèunanja i
izjednaèenja. Radovi su obavljeni u vremenu od 25. 11. 1963. do 1. 5. 1964. godine.
22. Kontrolna mjerenja visina toèaka tlaènog cjevovoda Liš HE Nikola Tesla, za Elektro
projekt u Zagrebu, 1965. godina.
23. Kontrolna mjerenja za HE Senj u kosom cjevovodu, tunelu Gusiæ polje Hrmotine te
meljnog ispusta na brani Sklope, za poduzeæe Elektroprojekt u Zagrebu, 1965. godina.
24. Odreðivanje deformacija betonske brane Valiæi na Rjeèini i horizontalnih pomaka toèa
ka klizišta na desnoj obali Rjeèine, za poduzeæe Elektroprojekt, 1965. i 1966. godina.
25. Geodetska osnova za hidrotehnièki tunel Polpitiya za Maskeliyaoya projekt u Šri Lan
ki. Kontrola ranije postavljenih toèaka od strane Survey Departementa iz Colomba i
kontrole svih elemenata u nacrtima kanadske projektne organizacije Ingledow Kid iz
Vancouvera. O izvršenim mjerenjima dat je izvještaj “Geodetski radovi” na 243 stranice
na hrvatsko srpskom i engleskom jeziku. Proboji svih tunela izvršeni su s visokom toè
nošæu. Duina tlaènog tunela s dva pristupna tunela iznosi 8500 metara. Radove je
izvršio zajedno s profesorom Veljkom Petkoviæem, za poduzeæe iz Splita.
26. Mjerenje visina kontrolnih toèaka na brani Sklope HE Senj i betonskoj brani Selišæe
HE Senj za odreðivanje vertikalnih pomaka ovih toèaka. Radovi su izvršeni u okviru
Zavoda za višu geodeziju za HE Senj u 1967., 1968. i 1969. godini.
27. Odreðivanje horizontalnih pomaka kontrolnih toèaka na nasipima u Gusiæ polju, toèa
ka mikrotriangulacije i orijentacijskih toèaka za HE Senj u 1967. i 1968. godini.
28. Projekt radova iz geodetske astronomije na Opservatoriju Hvar, 1971. godina.
29. Kontrolna mjerenja visina repera preciznim nivelmanom na podruèju Rafinerije Sisak,
1979. godina.
30. Kontrolna mjerenja visina repera preciznim nivelmanom u podruèju strojarnice, brane,
dovodnog kanala i na nasipima jezera HE Varadin, za Višu geotehnièku školu Va
radin, 1979. do 1983. godine.
Nikola Solariæ i Drago Špoljariæ
148
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4th
International Conference on
Cartography and GIS
Albena, Bulgaria, 18. 22. 6.
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SRPANJ
ESRI International User Conference
San Diego, California, USA, 23. 27. 7.
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KOLOVOZ
XXII ISPRS 2012 Congress
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32nd International Geographical
Congress Cologne 2012
Cologne, Germany, 26. 30. 8.
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RUJAN
GIScience 2012
Columbus, Ohio, USA, 18. 21. 9.
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SDI Days
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LISTOPAD
INTERGEO 2012
Hannover, Germany, 9. 11. 10.
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V. simpozij ovlaštenih inenjera
geodezije
Opatija, Hrvatska, 19. 21. 10.
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3 International FIG Workshop on 3D
Cadastres
Shenzhen, China, 25. 26. 10.
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Geod. list 2012, 2
NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC
CONFERENCE GEO2012
Belgrade, Serbia, 26. 27. 10.
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STUDENI
International Symposium on
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2012
Vienna, Austria, 22. 23. 11.
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PROSINAC
Gi4DM
Enschede, The Netherlands, 13. 16. 12.
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2013
International IABSE Conference 2013
Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 6. 8. 5.
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26th International Cartographic
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Dresden, Germany, 25. 30. 8.
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IAG Scientific Assembly 2013
Potsdam, Germany, 1. 6. 9.
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INTERGEO 2013
Essen, Germany, 8. 10. 10.
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/index.php
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2014
XXV FIG International Congress
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 16. 21. 6.
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