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(Durham): On the Origins and Setting of Greek Scoptic Epigram

1 Greek Literary Epigram: From the Hellenistic to the early Byzantine Era Ivana Petrovic (Durham): On the Origins and Setting of Greek Scoptic Epigram 1.
Nicarchus AP 11. 395 Πορδὴ ἀποκτέέννει πολλοὺς ἀδιέέξοδος οὖσα, πορδὴ καὶ σῴζει τραυλὸν ἱεῖσα µμέέλος. οὐκοῦν εἰ σῴζει καὶ ἀποκτέέννει πάάλι πορδήή, τοῖς βασιλεῦσιν ἴσην πορδὴ ἔχει δύύναµμιν. 2. A fart which cannot find an outlet kills many a man A fart also saves, sending forth its lisping music. Therefore if a fart saves, and on the other hand kills, A fart has the same power as kings. Etymology: fart is cognate with Greek πέέρδοµμαι, as well as the Latin pēdĕre, Sanskrit pardate, Avestan pəәrəәδaiti, Italian fare un peto, French "ʺpéter"ʺ, Russian пердеть, Serbian "ʺprd"ʺ and Polish "ʺpierd"ʺ. IE PIE *perd [break wind loudly] or *pezd [the same, softly], all of which mean the same thing. Like most Indo-­‐‑European roots in the Germanic languages, it was altered by Grimm'ʹs law, so that Indo-­‐‑European /p/ > /f/, and /d/ > /t/, as the German cognate furzen also manifests. 3. Preface at the beginning of bk. 11 of AP: Τὸ συµμποτικὸν εἶδος ἐκ σκωµμµμάάτων σύύγκειται καὶ συµμβουλῆς, τῶν παλαιῶν ἀεὶ παρὰ τὸν πόότον ἀλλήήλους ἀποσχεδιαζόόντων. ἵν’ οὖν µμηδὲ τούύτων ἀµμοιρῆις, καὶ ἐξ αὐτῶν ὑπέέταξα τὰ ἐµμπεσόόντα. The sympotic genre consists of jokes and advice, since the ancients always improvised with each other over drinks. So that you might not be left without a fair share of this material, I have drawn up below those that came to hand of these items, too. The second preface comes after the poem 64 in bk. 11 of AP: Πολλὴ κατὰ τὸν βίίον τῶν σκωπτικῶν ἐπιγραµμµμάάτων ἡ χρῆσις·∙ φιλεῖ γάάρ πως ἄνθρωπος ἢ αὐτὸς εἴς τινας παίίζειν ἢ ἑτέέρου πρὸς τοὺς πλησίίον ἀποσκώώπτονος ἀκούύειν, ὅπερ, οἶµμαι, διὰ τῶν ἑξῆς τοῖς παλαιοῖς γινόόµμενον ἐπιδείίξοµμεν. In life, there is much use for the scoptic epigram: people like to make fun of others, or to hear jokes about their fellow men. I think it will become evident on the basis of the following material that this was the case with the ancients, too. 4. Hesiod, Theogony has 4 instances of ὄσσαν ἱεῖσαι (all pertaining to the singing of the Muses). One is in the Odyssey 12.192 (of Sirens) ἔνθεν ἀπορνύύµμεναι κεκαλυµμµμέέναι ἠέέρι πολλῷ Thence they arrise and go forth wrapped in darkness ἐννύύχιαι στεῖχον περικαλλέέα ὄσσαν ἱεῖσαι, (10) walking abroad in the night, projecting their beautiful voices ὑµμνεῦσαι Δίία τ’ αἰγίίοχον καὶ πόότνιαν Ἥρην hymning Zeus who holds the aegis and reverend Hera. 43 αἱ δ’ ἄµμβροτον ὄσσαν ἱεῖσαι projecting their immortal voice 44 θεῶν γέένος αἰδοῖον πρῶτον κλείίουσιν ἀοιδῇ they first celebrate in song the lofty raceof the gods. 5.Geometric drinking cup (Skyphos / Kotyle, 10×15 cm, found on Ischia at the site of Pithikoussai), ca. 720/710 BC 1 2 CEG 454 Νέέστορoς ἔ[ην] εὔποτ[ον] ποτέέριον. (iambic trimeter?) Nestor had a drinking cup (or: I am the cup of Nestor) good hὸς δ'ʹ ἄν τοδε πίίεσι ποτερίί[ο] αὐτίίκα κενον (H) for drinking; whoever drinks from this cup will at once hίίµμερος hαιρέέσει καλλιστε[φάά]νο Ἀφροδίίτες. (H) be seized by desire for fair-­‐‑crowned Aphrodite. 1 ἔ[ην τ]ι Heubeck: ε[ιµμ]ι G. Buchner & C.F. Russo, Rend. Linc. VIII s. 10 (1955) 226, n. 2 The supplement in v. 1 is based on A. Heubeck, Archaeologia Homerica III 10, Göttingen 1979, 110-­‐‑116. 6. Il. 11, 632-­‐‑37: πὰρ δὲ δέέπας περικαλλέές, ὃ οἴκοθεν ἦγ’ ὁ γεραιόός, Next a most beautiful cup, which the old man had brought from χρυσείίοις ἥλοισι πεπαρµμέένον·∙ οὔατα δ’ αὐτοῦ home; it was studded with riverts of gold, and there were 4 τέέσσαρ’ ἔσαν, δοιαὶ δὲ πελειάάδες ἀµμφὶς ἕκαστον handles to it; on each handle a pair of golden doves χρύύσειαι νεµμέέθοντο, δύύω δ’ ὑπὸ πυθµμέένες ἦσαν. was feeding, one on either side; and there were 2 supports ἄλλος µμὲν µμογέέων ἀποκινήήσασκε τραπέέζης below. Another man would strain to move it from the table πλεῖον ἐόόν, Νέέστωρ δ’ ὁ γέέρων ἀµμογητὶ ἄειρεν when it was full, but Nestor, the old man, could lift it easily. 7. A fragment of an exact parallel to ‘Nestor’s cup’ from Eretria shows the beginning of the first hexameter line in the feminine version (Bartoněk/Buchner 1995: 190–2): h δ ̓ ἂν τô[δε ... αὐτίίκα κνε̄ν | ...] 8. GVI 350 from Eutresis in Boeotia, 3rd c BC Ἐνθάάδ'ʹ ἐγὼ κεῖµμαι Ῥόόδιος. τὰ γελοῖα σιωπῶ Here I, Rhodius, lie. I do not utter jokes [κ]αὶ σπαλάάκων ὄλεθρον λείίπω κατὰ γαῖαν ἅπασαν. And I leave the cursed moles throughout the whole land. αἰ δέέ τις ἀντιλέέγει, [κα]ταβὰς δεῦρ'ʹ ἀντιλογείίτω. If anyone has a different view, let him come down here to express it. 9. Cicero, De or. 2.239: Est etiam deformitatis et corporis vitiorum satis bella materies ad iocandum. 10. Suetonius, Lives of the Caesars V: The deified Claudius, 32: Convivia agitavit et ampla et assidua ac fere patentissimis locis, ut plerumque sesceni simul discumberent. Convivatus est et super emissarium Fucini lacus ac paene summersus, cum emissa impetu aqua redundasset. Adhibebat omni cenae et liberos suos cum pueris puellisque nobilibus, qui more veteri ad fulcra lectorum sedentes vescerentur. Convivae, qui pridie scyphum aureum subriupisse exstimabatur, revocato in idem posterum calicem fictilem apposuit. Dicitur etiam meditates edictum, quo veniam daret flatum crepitumque ventris in convivio emittendi, cum periclitatum quendam prae pudore ex continentia repperisset. He gave frequent and grand dinner parties, as a rule in spacious places, where six hundred guests were often entertained at one time. He even gave a banquet close to the outlet of the Fucine Lake and was well-­‐‑nigh drowned, when the water was let out with a rush and deluged the place. He always invited his own children to dinner along with the sons and daughters of distinguished men, having them sit at the end of the couches as the ate, after the old time custom. When a guest was suspected of having stolen a golden bowl the day before, he invited him again the next day, but set before him an earthenware cup. He is even said to have thought of an edict allowing the privilege of breaking wind quietly or noisily at the table, having learned of a man who ran some risk by restraining himself through modesty. D.W. Hurley, Cambridge G&L Classics commentary (2001) ad loc: Continentia only here for the retention of gas, but contineo is the usual verb. 11. Seneca, Apocol. 4.3. Ultima vox eius haec inter homines audita est, cum maiorem sonitum emisisset illa parte, qua facilius loquebatur: “vae me, puto, concacavi me.” His last words that were heard among men were these, after a louder utterance in the locality where he expressed himself the more easily: “Oh, dear! I think I have soiled myself. 2 3 12 Petronius, Cena Trimalchionis 47.3-­‐‑8 Trimalchio: alioquin circa stomachum mihi sonat, putes taurum. itaque si quis vestrum voluerit sua re [causa] facere, non est quod ilium pudeatur. nemo nostrum solide natus est. ego nullum puto tam magnum tormentum esse quam continere. hoc solum vetare ne lovis potest. rides, Fortunata, quae soles me nocte desomnem facere? nec tamen in triclinio ullum vetuo facere quod se iuvet, et medici vetant continere. vel si quid plus venit, omnia foras parata sunt: aqua, lasani et cetera minutalia. credite mihi, anathymiasis in cerebrum it et in toto corpore fluctum facit. multos scio sic periisse, dum nolunt sibi verum dicere.'ʹ gratias agimus liberalitati indulgentiaeque eius, et subinde castigamus crebris potiunculis risum. At times I have such a rumbling about my stomach, you'ʹd think I had a bull bellowing inside me! So if any of you want to relieve yourselves, there'ʹs no necessity to be ashamed about it. None of us is born solid. I don'ʹt know any torment so bad as holding it in. It'ʹs the one thing Jove himself cannot stop. What are you laughing at, Fortunata, you who so often keep me awake o'ʹ nights yourself? I never hinder any man at my table from easing himself, and indeed the doctors forbid our balking nature. Even if something more presses, everything'ʹs ready outside,-­‐‑-­‐‑
water, close-­‐‑stools, and the other little matters needful. Take my word for it, the vapors rise to the brain and may cause a fluxion of the whole constitution. I know many a man that'ʹs died of it, because he was too shy to speak out."ʺWe thank our host for his generous indulgence, taking our wine in little sips the while to keep down our laughter. 13 Petronius, Cena Trimalchionis 34: Trimalchio: intellectual and a poet on human existance potantibus ergo nobis et accuratissime lautitias mirantibus laruam argenteam attulit servus sic aptatam, ut articuli eius vertebraeque luxatae in omnem partem flecterentur. hanc cum super mensam semel terumque abiecisset, et catenatio mobilis aliquot figuras exprimeret, Trimalchio adiecit : eheu nos miseros, quam totus homuncio nil est. H sic erimus cuncti, postquam nos auferet Orcus. H ergo vivamus, dum licet esse bene. P Lauding his generosity, we were starting in on the wine, when a slave brought up a silver skeleton so admirably constructed that its joints and vertebrae worked in all directions. Having danced this on the table again and again, and after putting the nimble system through a few turns, Trimalchio added: 'ʹ Alas ! how little are we all; poor man Is nothing; and like this skeleton we Shall be when Orcus takes us hence. Then let'ʹs live merrily while we can. 14 Trimalchio’s slave falls on his master, everyone laments the accident, Trimalchio promptly composes a poem (55): 'ʹ Very well,'ʹ says Trimalchio, 'ʹ but I mustn'ʹt let slip this ita'ʹ inquit Trimalchio 'ʹ non oportet hunc casum sine inscriptione transire'ʹ statimque codicillos poposcit et non opportunity without a piece of a propos of your remarks.'ʹ Straightway he demanded tablets, and without much ado, diu cogitatione distortus haec recitavit : recited as follows : Whate'ʹer is least expected comes to pass, quod non expectes, ex transverso fit For 'ʹtis not ours to choose, but to obey et supra nos Fortuna negotia curat. The whims of Fortune. Then quare da nobis vina Falerna, puer. Hither boy, the generous Falernian,'ʹ The epigram turned our conversation on poets, and for a long ab hoc epigrammate coepit poetarum esse mentio diuque time we conceded the palm for song to Mopsus the Thracian summa carminis penes Mopsum Thracem memorata est 15 Trimalchio discusses literature and recites his favourite passage (56): donee Trimalchio “rogo” inquit “magister, quid putas inter Ciceronem et Publilium interesse? ego alterum puto disertiorem fuisse, alterum honestiorem. quid enim his melius dici potest? "ʺ luxuriae rictu Martis marcent moenia. tuo palato clausus pavo pascitur plumato amictus aureo Babylonico, gallina tibi Numidica, tibi gallus spado ; ciconia etiam, grata peregrina hospita pietaticultrix gracilipes crotalistria avis exul hiemis, titulus tepidi temporis, nequitiae nidum in caccabo fecit modo. quo margaritam caram tibi, bacam Indicam? an ut matrona ornata phaleris pelagiis tollat pedes indomita in strato extraneo ? zmaragdum ad quam rem viridem, pretiosum vitrum ? quo Carchedonios optas ignes lapideos ? But pardon, master,'ʹ says Trimalchio, what difference do you find between Cicero and Publius ? To my mind the former was the more eloquent, and the latter the more noble. And now, in truth, what could be finer than this ? — "ʺThe walls of Rome fall down and sink before Thy wanton luxury. For thee, enclosed in coop. The peacock thrives, with feathery gold of Babylon bedekt. The Numidian bird for thee; for thee the capon, Ay, the very stork itself, the wandering bird. Thy welcome guest, exemplar sweet of fond parental love. Graceful and airy, chinking with bill like castanets Which dancers use. Exile of winter, harbinger of spring-­‐‑ In that bad pot of thine its last nest makes. Why dost deem the pearl a prize, the olive-­‐‑shaped from India? Or why the emerald'ʹs green — a precious bauble? 3 4 nisi ut scintillet probitas e carbunculis. aequum est induere nuptam ventum textilem, palam prostare nudam in nebula linea ? "ʺ 56 Quod autem “inquit” putamus secundum literas difficillimum esse artificium ? ego puto medicum et nummularium: medicus, qui scit quid homunciones intra praecordia sua habeant et quando febris veniat, etiam si illos odi pessime, quod mihi iubent saepe anatinam parari ; nummularius, qui per argentum aes videt. Or why the Punic stones of living fire? Virtue, forsooth, from carbuncles springs ! "ʺ 'ʹWhat profession are we to think most difficult after letters? For my part I think medicine and money-­‐‑changing, because the physician knows what men have in their insides and when the fever is coming on. All the same, I hate them like poison for prescribing me duck'ʹs meat so often. And I think the money-­‐‑changer'ʹs business difficult because he has to discern the copper in the silver. 16 Trimalchio’s dinner party as a reflection of 1st c AD sympotic discourse P. Habermehl (NP): An invitation brings the protagonists of the novel to the table of Trimalchio, a freedman as wealthy as he is eccentric. There they participate, with fascinated horror, in an extravagant banquet, listening to the abysmally base yet superficial conversation of the host and his friends. Time: 1st c AD Place: Cena Trimalchionis is set in a Campanian town, several times referred as colonia and as Graeca urbs – Cumae, Puteoli? Trimalchio is from the Greek Near East. Topics of conversation at Trimalchio’s dinner-­‐‑party (T’s contributions to conversation are italicized): quality of wine (passim), food (passim), briefness of life, joy of symposia (34); joke (Carpe / carpe) (36); Trimalchio’s wealth and his wife (the bitch!) (37-­‐‑38); “oportet etiam inter cenandum philologiam nosse”: T’s display of education starts with a detailed account of astrology (39); explanation of a particularly elaborate dish (41); dangers of frequent bathing (41); brevity of life (42); bad-­‐‑mouthing of absent acquaintances (43-­‐‑44-­‐‑45-­‐‑46-­‐‑47); downfall of Roman values (44); Trimalchio’s indigestion (45); T’s two libraries (one Greek and one Latin); discussion of rhetoric with orator Agamemnon; 12 labours of Heracles, episode from the Odyssey, Sibyl of Cumae (46); practical joke (49); T’s collection of real Corinthian dishes with a brief joke on “Corinthian” and a grossly inaccurate and comic explanation of the origin of Corinthian dishes (50); anecdote about the inventor of glass (51) “in argento plane studiosus sum”: T’ boasts about various vessels with representation of mythic scenes (brief ecphraseis), bad and unintentionally comic retelling of various myths with a conclusion: “meum enim intellegere nulla pecunia vendo” (52); overview of news from T’s properties (53), T’s poem, discussion of poetry, syncrisis of Cicero and Publilius (55); discussion of most demanding vocations (doctors!); useful animals and insects, commented as “iam etiam philosophos de negotio deiciebat”(56); practical jokes with apophoreta (56); viscous scolding of laughing Ascyltos with a comment: “non didici geometrias, critica et alogias menias, sed lapidarias litteras scio, partes centum dico ad aes, ad pondus, ad nummum”, riddle (57-­‐‑58); stories about werewolf and witches (61-­‐‑63); enter Habinas who describes the dishes served at the previous dinner-­‐‑party (66); Fortunata’s jewellery is displayed, she makes out with Habinas’ wife and they both badmouth their husbands, Habinas joins them in bawdy mock-­‐‑wrestling (67); Habinas praises his singing slave: “et numquam didicit, sed ego ad circulators eum mittendo erudibam. Itaque parem non habet, sive muliones volet sive circulators imitari”; musical performance (68-­‐‑9); T. praises his Protean cook (70); T’ recites his last will and testament and describes his tomb with inscriptions (71); universal crying (72); bathing (72); T praises the bath and sings Menecrates’ cantica (73); Fortunata scolds Trimalchio (74); T’ hits Fortunata and scolds her back (74); T’s life-­‐‑story (75-­‐‑77); T’s mock-­‐‑
funeral. Performances at Trimalchio’s dinner party: -­‐‑
Trimalchio’s recitation of an epigram about brevity of life (34) -­‐‑
aria from a mime (36); -­‐‑
lascivious dance led by Trimalchio (52); -­‐‑
acrobats (53); -­‐‑
Trimalchio’s “improvised” poetry and -­‐‑
T’s recitation of hexameter verses about the downfall of Roman values (55); -­‐‑
Homeristae provide a theatrical performance of Homeric passages, they speak Greek, while Trimalchio reads the text in Latin and “explains” the plot (59); -­‐‑
Freedman’s story about the werewolf (rather lascivious and told hesitantly: itaque hilaria mea sint, etsi timeo istos scholasticos, ne me derideant”, but demures, saying: narrabo tamen; quid enim mihi aufert qui ridet? Satius est rideri quam derideri!) (61-­‐‑62); 4 5 -­‐‑
Trimalchio’s story about the witches (63); Alexandrian slave sings (68); Habinas’ slave sings the Aeneid mixed with Atellanian verses (68); and plays “music” using a lamp instead of a flute (69); Trimalchio’s last will and testament with an ecphrasis of his tomb (71); T praises the benefits of a bath and sings Menecrates’ cantica (73); T’s mock-­‐‑funeral: cornet-­‐‑players play a funeral march, fire-­‐‑brigade bursts in (78). 17 Hedylus 5 G-­‐‑P πίίνωµμεν·∙ καὶ γάάρ τι νέέον, καὶ γάάρ τι παρ’ οἶνον Let us drink, and so over wine I hope to invent εὕροιµμ’ ἂν λεπτὸν καίί τι µμελιχρὸν ἔπος. Something new, some sweet and refined song. ἀλλὰ κάάδοις Χίίου µμε κατάάβρεχε καὶ λέέγε ‘παῖζε, drench me with amphoras of Chian wine and say: play Ἡδύύλε’. µμισῶ ζῆν ἐς κενόόν, οὐ µμεθύύων. Hedylus! I hate to live pointlessly, unintoxicated. 18 Hedylos 6 G-­‐‑P ἐξ ἠοῦς εἰς νύύκτα καὶ ἐκ νυκτὸς πάάλι Σωκλῆς From down into the evening and again from the night, εἰς ἠοῦν πίίνει τετραχόόοισι κάάδοις, until dawn, Socles drinks from three-­‐‑galon jugs, εἶτ’ ἐξαίίφνης που τυχὸν οἴχεται. ἀλλὰ παρ’ οἶνον and then suddenly departs. But while drinking Σικελίίδου παίίζει πουλὺ µμελιχρόότερον, he plays far sweeter than Sicelidas, ἐστὶ δὲ δήή, πολὺ <δὴ> στιβαρώώτερος. ὡς δ’ ἐπιλάάµμπει and he is even more sturdy. Such is the radiance of his ἡ χάάρις, ὥστε φίίλει καὶ γράάφε καὶ µμέέθυε. Grace, that you, too, my friend should drink and write. 19 Martial 7.85 Quod non insulse scribis tetrasticha quaedam That you write four-­‐‑verse poems not without flair, disticha quod belle pauca, Sabelle, facis, that you compose a few verses well, Sabellus -­‐‑-­‐‑, laudo nec admiror. Facile est epigrammata belle I praise this, but I don’t admire it. It is easy to write good epigrams, scribere, sed librum scribere difficile est. but it is not easy to write a book. 20 Lucillius AP 11. 131-­‐‑140 AP 11. (131.) ΛΟΥΚΙΛΛΙΟΥ
Οὔτ’ ἐπὶ Δευκαλίωνος ὕδωρ, ὅτε πάντ’ ἐγενήθη,
οὔθ’ ὁ καταπρήσας τοὺς ἐπὶ γῆς Φαέθων
ἀνθρώπους ἔκτεινεν, ὅσους Ποτάµων ὁ ποιητὴς
καὶ χειρουργήσας ὤλεσεν Ἑρµογένης.
ὥστ’ ἐξ αἰῶνος κακὰ τέσσαρα ταῦτ’ ἐγενήθη, (5)
Δευκαλίων, Φαέθων, Ἑρµογένης, Ποτάµων.
Nor water in Deucalion’s day when all became water
nor Phaethon who burned up the inhabitants of the earth
slew so many men as Potamon the poet
And Hermogenes by his surgery killed.
So from the beginning of the ages there have been these four curses:
Deucalion, Phaethon, Hermogenes and Potamon.
(132.) ΤΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΥ
Μισῶ, δέσποτα Καῖσαρ, ὅσοις νέος οὐδέποτ’ οὐδεὶς I hate, lord Caesar, those who are never pleased with any young writer
ἤρεσε, κἂν εἴπῃ, „µῆνιν ἄειδε, θεά,“
even if he says “sing, o goddess, the wrath”,
ἀλλ’ ἢν µὴ Πριάµου τις ἔχῃ χρόνον ἡµιφάλακρος but if a man is not as old as Priam, if he is not half bad
ἢ καὶ κυρτὸς ἄγαν, οὐ δύνατ’ ἄλφα γράφειν.
And not so very much bent, they say he can’t write a b c.
εἰ δ’ ὄντως οὕτως τοῦτ’ ἔστ’ ἔχον, ὦ ὕπατε Ζεῦ, (5) But, Zeus most high, if this really be so,
εἰς τοὺς κηλήτας ἔρχεται ἡ σοφία.
Wisdom visits but the raptured.
(133.) ΤΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΥ
Τέθνηκ’ Εὐτυχίδης ὁ µελογράφος. οἱ κατὰ γαῖαν,
φεύγετ’· ἔχων ᾠδὰς ἔρχεται Εὐτυχίδης·
καὶ κιθάρας αὑτῷ διετάξατο συγκατακαῦσαι
δώδεκα καὶ κίστας εἰκοσιπέντε νόµων.
Eutychides the lyric poet is dead. Fly, ye people who dwell
under earth; Eutychides is coming with odes,
and he ordered them to burn with him twelve lyres
And twenty-five cases of music.
5 6 νῦν ὑµῖν ὁ Χάρων ἐπελήλυθε. ποῦ τις ἀπέλθῃ (5)
λοιπόν, ἐπεὶ χᾄδην Εὐτυχίδης κατέχει;
Now indeed Charon has got hold of you. Where can one depart
to in future, since Eutychides is established in Hades too?
(134.) ΤΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΥ
Ἀρχόµεθ’, Ἡλιόδωρε; ποιήµατα παίζοµεν οὕτω (1) Shall we begin, Heliodorus? Shall we play thus at these poems
ταῦτα πρὸς ἀλλήλους; Ἡλιόδωρε, θέλεις;
together? Do you wish it, Heliodorus?
„Ἆσσον ἴθ’, ὥς κεν θᾶσσον ὀλέθρου ...“ καὶ γὰρ ἔµ’ ὄψει “Come near, that swifter thou mayst reach Death’s goal”, for you
µακροφλυαρητὴν Ἡλιοδωρότερον.
Will see in me a master of tedious twaddle more Heliodorian than yourself.
(135.) ΤΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΥ
Μηκέτι, µηκέτι, Μάρκε, τὸ παιδίον, ἀλλ’ ἐµὲ κόπτου No longer, Marcus, no longer lament the boy, but me,
τὸν πολὺ τοῦ παρὰ σοὶ νεκρότερον τεκνίου.
Who am much more dead than that child of yours.
εἰς ἐµὲ νῦν ἐλέγους ποίει πάλιν, εἰς ἐµὲ θρήνους,
Make elegies, hangman, now for me, make dirges for me
δήµιε, τὸν στιχίνῳ σφαζόµενον θανάτῳ.
Who am slain by this versy death.
τοῦ σοῦ γὰρ πάσχω νεκροῦ χάριν, οἷα πάθοιεν (5) For all the sake of that dead child of yours I suffer what
οἱ καταδείξαντες βιβλία καὶ καλάµους.
I would the inventors of books and pens might suffer.
(136.) ΤΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΥ
Οὐχ οὕτω κακοεργὸν ἐχαλκεύσαντο µάχαιραν
ἄνθρωποι διὰ τὰς ἐξαπίνης ἐνέδρας,
οἷον ἀκήρυκτον, Καλλίστρατε, καὶ σὺ προσελθὼν
ποιεῖς µοι φονικῶν ἑξαµέτρων πόλεµον.
σάλπιγξον ταχέως ἀνακλητικόν· εἰς ἀνοχὰς γὰρ (5)
καὶ Πρίαµος κλαύσας ἡµερίων ἔτυχεν.
No sword so maleficent was ever forged by man
for sudden treacherous attack
as is the undeclared war of murderous hexameters, Callistratus, that you
Come to wage with me.
Sound the retreat on the bugle at once, for even Priam
By his tears gained his foes consent to an armistice.
(137.) ΤΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΥ
Ὠµοβοείου µοι παραθεὶς τόµον, Ἡλιόδωρε,
καὶ τρία µοι κεράσας ὠµοβοειότερα
εὐθὺ κατακλύζεις ἐπιγράµµασιν. εἰ δ’ ἀσεβήσας
βεβρώκειν τινὰ βοῦν τῶν ἀπὸ Τρινακρίας,
βούλοµ’ ἅπαξ πρὸς κῦµα χανεῖν· εἰ δ’ ἐστὶ τὸ κῦµα
ἔνθε µακράν, ἄρας εἰς τὸ φρέαρ µε βάλε.
You serve me a slice of raw beef, Heliodorus,
and pour me out three cups of wine rawer than the beef,
and then you wash me out at once with epigrams. If sinning
against heaven I have eaten of the oxen from Trinacria,
I would like to gulp down the sea at once – if the sea is too
Far from here, take me up and throw me into a well.
Ἂν τοῦ γραµµατικοῦ µνησθῶ µόνον Ἡλιοδώρου,
If I only think of the grammarian Heliodorus,
εὐθὺ σολοικίζον τὸ στόµα µου δέδεται.
My tongue at once commits solecisms and I suffer from a speech impediment.
(139.) ΤΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΥ (p1)
Γραµµατικὸν Ζηνωνὶς ἔχει πώγωνα Μένανδρον, (1)
τὸν δ’ υἱὸν τούτῳ φησὶ συνεστακέναι.
τὰς νύκτας δ’ αὐτῇ µελετῶν οὐ παύεται οὗτος
πτώσεις, συνδέσµους, σχήµατα, συζυγίας.
Zenonis keeps Menander the bearded grammar-teacher
And says she has entrusted her son to him,
but he never stops at night making her practise
Cases, conjunctions, figures and conjugations.
(140.) ΤΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΥ
Τούτοις τοῖς παρὰ δεῖπνον ἀοιδοµάχοις λογολέσχαις, To these praters, these verse-figter of the supper table,
τοῖς ἀπ’ Ἀριστάρχου γραµµατολικριφίσιν,
these slippery dominies of Aristarchus’ school
οἷς οὐ σκῶµµα λέγειν, οὐ πεῖν φίλον, ἀλλ’ ἀνάκεινται who care not for making a joke or drinking, but lie
νηπυτιευόµενοι Νέστορι καὶ Πριάµῳ,
there playing infantile games with Nestor and Priam,
µή µε βάλῃς κατὰ λέξιν „ἕλωρ καὶ κύρµα γενέσθαι“· (5) cast me not literally “to be their pray and spoil”.
σήµερον οὐ δειπνῶ „µῆνιν ἄειδε, θεά
Today I don’t sup on “sing, goddess, the wrath.”
Sens (2011), 184-185: 134 and 137 are companion pieces.
6 7 21 Reference to symposium as setting (with elements of hic-­‐‑et-­‐‑nunc deixis) Sympotic epigrams 11; 19; 20; 23-­‐‑28; 55-­‐‑57; 63 Scoptic epigrams 138 Lucillius (mentions epigrammatic performance); 140 Lucillius; 206; 207 Palladas; 209 Ammianus; 232 Callias of Argos; 244 Nicarchus; 295 Lucillius General reference to symposium Mention of symposium in immediate future Mention of symposium in recent past Sympotic epigrams 1; 9; 12; 31-­‐‑34; 38; 41; 45-­‐‑49; 58; 62 Scoptic epigrams 208 Lucillius; 379 Agathias Scholasticus; 394 Lucillius Sympotic epigrams 10; 35; 44; 59; 60 Sympotic epigrams 14; 39; 61; 64 Scoptic epigrams 96 Nicarchus; 205 Lucillius; 313 Lucillius; 314 Lucillius; 325 Automedon; 330 Nicarchus; 377 Palladas; 387 Palladas; 402 Lucian; 410 Lucian; 413 Ammianus; 429 Lucian Bibliography Aubreton, R. (1972) Anthologie Grecque. Première partie. Anthologie Palatine, X (livre XI), Paris. Bartonêk, A. / Buchner, G. (1995) Die ältesten griechischen Inschriften von Pithekoussai (2. Hälfte des VIII. bis 1. Hälfte des VII. Jhs.), Die Sprache 37.2, 129–231. Baumbach, M. / Petrovic, A. / Petrovic, I. (2010)(edd)., Archaic and Classical Greek Epigram, Cambridge. 2
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