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itihkµde] µdz]u tbi cfa]xzilk. 0ib lgbu |x] h_f^zdu gku fbl•|]^ g]^
h`za]^, ^hrznief •µ]zvi fµh]zba` ab•labi h]^ h]^_`tief t_^a`,
hitmg`, iei‹^agba` µf |b`v]zi lbz•hbi g]^ temlg]x g•gf hizitmt]x
"Œitawegƒf". }zt•gfzi gi ab•labi i^g` tazfµwlgkaie tbi ei
g]h]jfgkjfw ‹k_r ab]e]lg]bnwi |wh_i lg] cfe]|]nfw] "‡wgli" (hzoke
sie ‡fµ]), b|b]agrgku g]^ ]h]w]^ rgie d__keiu, a. ~hi_giƒru. ~fg`
ih• i^gr gke fh]nr g] cfe]|]nfw] dnilf g] µfti_fw] g]^. Œ•t] gku
i^ckµdeku ^tzilwiu fafwek gke hfzw]|], k h•_k ihdagklf µft`_]
hz•‚_kµi f_]e]lwiu (i^ckµde]^ h^zfg]x).
€bu h]__du fjeba•gkgfu lgke hfzb]nr gbu demef k vb_wi h]^ fwnf
"s]^n]^µbogba]" niziagrzi. ‘b ed]b lg]e f_fxjfz] g]^u nz•e]
hktiweief lg] _•v] "€zihdglbi" (€zihdƒb]), lg] |`l]u µf g]^u
f^ai_xhg]^u. yafw ^hrznie fb|ba` g]h]jfgkµdei hibnew|bi, kn]xlf
h`egi µ]^lbar l^e]|f^•µfek ih• g]e n]z• gme ƒf^tizboe. €] iwljkµi
41
g]^ iegitmeblµ]x ^hrznf µ•e] lg]e ij_kgblµ• aib lgbu teolfbu. sg]
|^eiµba• gku a^‚dzeklku gku iµhniƒwiu, hdzi ih• g]^u w|b]^u
^h]^ztbadu jdlfbu aigfwnief aib tfmztbie]w, d__kefu aib izµdeb]b.
}^g• g] “h]_^fjeba• tzivfw]” dµf__f ei µfgiµ]zvolfb g]e g•h] lf
iejblµdek h]_bgfwi h]^ ] a•lµ]u ih]ai_]xlf "}g_iegw|i g]^
„^cfbe]^ \•eg]^". • |kµ]azigwi gku }µhniƒwiu rgie h_]xlbi aib
l^µµfgfwnf fefzt` lgke ie`hg^ck gku ]ba]e]µwiu gku s]‚bfgbaru
„emlku. •^µ`µib h]_x ai_i hmu lg] _bµ`eb gku h•_ku µdeief tbi
µdzfu µft`_i cdei h_]wi h]^ tdµbƒie gi iµh`zbi g]^u µf gbu ai_xgfzfu
h]bab_wfu g]^ eg•hb]^ aihe]x "siµl]xe" aib "€ziµhƒ]xe". }h• g]
fzt]lg`lb] g]^ 0]eg•zalb vfxtief lh`ebi fw|k c^_fwiu h]^ vgb`neief
ih• g] |`l]u gku hfzb]nru, •hmu aiz^|b`, v]^eg]^ab` aib hxc]. Šbi
gke hz]lv]z` gku }µhniƒwiu lgke ]ba]e]µwi gku s]‚bfgbaru „emlku,
g] ai_]aiwzb g]^ 1936 k |kµ]azigwi ‚zi‚fxgkaf µf g] ieogig]
hiz`lkµ], g] µfg`__b] g]^ Œdebe. \z]u gbµr i^g]x g]^ lkµiegba]x
tft]e•g]u, lgke h•_k hzitµig]h]brjkaf µft`_k hizd_ilk lgke
_fmv•z] "3k †bfjefwu" (izt•gfzi Œfmv•z]u ybzreku - \z]lhfag
~wzi) gke ]h]wi fwni gke gxnk ei hizia]_]^jrlm.
€ke hizd_ilk ^h]|fn•gie ] …dlg]z Œia•µhi. (hzoke g•gf hz•f|z]u
g]^ fagf_flgba]x loµig]u g]^ a•µµig]u.) Šbi g] h]^ fciviewlgkaf
izt•gfzi g] hiz`lkµ] i^g• k blg]zwi lbmh` aib |fe µiu ih]ai_xhgfb.
€]e nfbµoei gku w|biu nz]eb`u, gke kµdzi g]^ µft`_]^ nb]eb`, ] a•lµ]u
gku }µhniƒwiu iedµfef gk lmz• g]^ …. Œia•µhi ih• gke €^v_w|i. }h•
g]e lgijµ• g]^ 0f_il]xzb mu g] afegzba• jdigz] gku h•_ku, g]
vdzfgz] a]^‚i_]xlie l^e`|f_v]b aib vw_]b g]^ l^tnmzfµde]^, ]
]h]w]u itihb•gief b|biwgfzi ih• g]e _i• g]^. sg]e fhbar|fb] µb_rlief
] h]_bgba•u fahz•lmh]u gme iznoe gku Šfmztwiu aib k hzogk
}µhn`ƒbi hb_•g]u ~iwzk Ž‚bgeƒµhi. •`vgkaf µhz]lg` lgke fwl]|]
g]^ ‚]gieba]x arh]^. „glb a`gm ih• µ^lgrzbfu l^ejrafudv^tf ih•
gke ƒmr ] hblg•u `ejzmh]u g]^ iµhn`ƒba]^ _i]x …dlg]z Œia•µhi,
h]^ icb]_]t]xlf g]^u iejzoh]^u icb]azigba` aib •nb µf v^_fgba`
azbgrzbi. ‘ g•gf ^h]^zt•u ^tfwiu aib tbigz•u fe fefztfwi a. sfµfzgƒru
42
dQWeZ QOKO\IOTWf QJ_VRKWµWX. gJMWRWcJ]W hOM ibµW (i]NPO)
43
- ‰bogku, fwnf |k_olfb hmu ] …. Œia•µhi |fe dhilnf ih• aiµb`
iljdefbi h]^ ji µh]z]xlf ei hz]ai_dlfb ibvew|b] j`eig]. ywnf µ•e]
‚izka]”i aib tb' i^g• nzklbµ]h]b]xlf fb|bar l^laf^r tbi fewln^lk
ia]ru. Šbi hb] _•t] |fe dtbef i^g]‹wi, h]^ lf gdg]bfu hfzbhgolfbu fweib
ihiziwgkgk, mu l^erjmu "|fe temzwƒfb aiefwu"... sxeg]µi, g] µekµfw]
g]^ g`v]^ g]^ bl]hf|ojkaf feo k ]ba]tdefb` g]^ µiƒw µf g]^u
l^ttfefwu g]^u fagf_dlgkaie lie hz]|•gfu g]^ dje]^u. €i lg]bnfwi h]^
ieivdzm, dn]^e hizjfw ih• µbi lfbz` eg]a]^µdegme h]^ fweib a]µµ`gb
gku ƒmru µ]^. ‘ tb]u g]^ …. Œia•µhi - ‡i]xv rgie vw_]u µiu aib fto
rµ]^e µ`zg^ziu aib µdg]n]u gku fh]nru fafweku. €ke |faifgwi g]^
]t|•egi hfz`lief 100 nz•ebi ih• gke tdeeklk g]^ Œia•µhi aib
µhz]lg` lgke fwl]|] g]^ h`za]^ cieilgrlief g] µekµfw], i__` h]^
‚zwla]egib gi hzitµigba` ]lg` g]^ fweib `temlg].
€] ai_]aiwzb g]^ 1936, lf ij_kgba]xu itoefu h]^ tbe•eg]^lie lgke
}µhniƒwi, gi hib|b` g]^ f__keba]x ln]_fw]^ hrzie hzogk jdlk. Šbi g]
_•t] i^g• ] hz•f|z]u gku a]be]‚]^_w]^ gku ‘^aziewiu a. \fgz•‚lab
h]^ hizijdzbƒf lgke hfzb]nr gke fh]nr fafwek, dlgfb_f lg] ln]_fw] ebakgr ]_]a_kzmµdek l^__]tr ih• hef^lg` •ztiei. €] f__keba•
ln]_fw] l^ne` |bfa|ba]xlf gke hzmgb` lf ij_kgbadu |b]ztieolfbu gku
noziu. • ln]_bar h]|]lvibzbar ]µ`|i "~h]^zf‚dlgeba" rgief
h`eg]gf ie`µfli lg]^u hzog]^u lf g]hba• i__` aib lf f^zxgfz]
fhwhf|]. €] 1936, 1937 aib 1938 µfg` ih• hz]azbµigba]xu itoefu
µfgfwnf 3 v]zdu lg]^u gf_ba]xu gku ~•lniu. ‘ ‚ilba•u a]zµ•u gku
]µ`|iu ih]gf_]xgie ih• hiwagfu g]^ ln]_fw]^ µiu. ‘ gz•h]u
hibneb|b]x h]^ iedhg^llf k ]µ`|i niziagkzbƒ•gie mu ] hb] gfneba`
aigizgblµde]u aib ]µ]zv•gfz]u. €] µbaz• s]^n]xµb fafwek gke fh]nr
|•ciƒf •hmu µh]z]xlf gke }µhniƒwi.
•µ]^e deiu ih• g]^u gf_f^giw]^u ih•v]bg]^u g]^ 2]^ f__keba]x
ln]_fw]^. €] 1938, lf µbi h]_x |xla]_k hfzw]|] tbi •_k gke s]‚bfgbar
„emlk _•t] i__itru gku fjebaru h]_bgbaru, gi f__keba` ln]_fwi gku
h•_ku tweief zolbai aib lgi nmzb` tfmztb`ebai. }h• gke f__kebar
a]bemewi fwnie twefb •_i gi ihiziwgkgi ‚rµigi tbi ei |bigkzkj]xe gi
44
45
ln]_fwi i__` •_fu ]b faa_rlfbu fwnie ih]zzbvjfw. 0_fwlief gke
fvkµfzw|i, g] jdigz]. 0ib µhz]lg` µiu a_fwlief •_fu gbu h•zgfu lgke
h]_bgblgbar ƒmr gku noziu. • "µbazr y__`|i" dhi‹f ei ^h`znfb lgke
vb_bar ]ba]tdefbi gku }µhniƒwiu. •hmu hz]iedvfzi rµ]^e ih• g]^u
gf_f^giw]^u ih•v]bg]^u g]^ f__keba]x _^afw]^ aib µfg` g] a_fwlbµ]
g]^ lgi µdgzi g]^ |^eig]x hz]lhij]xli ei |bigkzrlm gk t_olli k
]h]wi izt•gfzi µf ‚]rjklf ei |olm fcfg`lfbu lgke y__`|i tbi
ieiteozblk hg^nw]^ aib ei h`zm gke `|fbi fcilarlfmu fhittd_µig]u.
•l] iv]z` g]^u |bmtµ]xu nmzwu |baiwmµi i__k_]tzivwiu, aib gbu
fagf_dlfbu fhw sg`_be, |fe nzfb`ƒfgib ei ieivfzjo. €] jdµi i^g• dnfb
fcieg_kjfw lf l^ƒkgrlfbu aib ‚b‚_wi. •d_m µ•e] ei lkµfbolm •gb lf
fafwefu gbu fagf_dlfbu lkµiegbadu iho_fbfu fwnf aib ] vb_•cfe]u
tfmztb`eba]u _i•u ] ]h]w]u dnilf gi lkµiegba•gfzi fjeba` g]^
lgf_dnk. €ozi h]^ fwµilgf lgke y__`|i, h]__du ]ba]tdefbfu ia•µi
_iµ‚`e]^e dttzivi ih• |b`v]zfu fblittf_wfu gku ‡mlwiu tbi gke
ie`a_klk gku jieigbaru h]beru h]^ fhb‚`_ief a`h]gf lf l^ttfefwu aib
vw_]^u g]^u. }eivdzfgib g•h]u aib kµfz]µkewi fagd_flku aijou aib ]b
f__fw‹fbu aigkt]zboe _•t] gme ]h]wme ijmoe]^e g]^u jie•egfu "tbi
h`egi". •^µ`µib gke "–h•jflk Œdebetazieg" •gie g] 1949 fwnie
fagf_flgfw a]µµigba]w ktdgfu - ^hfzilhblgdu g]^ Œdebetazieg gke
fh]nr g]^ •' \ita]lµw]^ \]_dµ]^. •i ieivdzm gi _•tbi g]^
lgzigkt]x Š. 0. q]xa]‚ lnfgba` µf g] jdµi: "~f gwh]gi |fe µh]zo ei
aigi_`‚m tbigw la]golief i^g]xu g]^u iejzoh]^u!?" €] 1938 hdzili
bigzbar lg] hiefhblgrµb] "0•aabe]u sgzig•u" g]^ 0zile]eg`z. €]
1942 _•t] gku b|biwgfzi |xla]_ku aig`lgilku fcibgwiu g]^ h]_dµ]^, g]
hiefhblgrµb] d|mlf dagigi ih]_^grzbi, aig` 4 nz•ebi emzwgfzi. ‘
lgzig•u fwnf ie`tak ih• tbigz]xu. €i tfzµieba` lgzigfxµigi
h_klb`ƒief g] 0zile]eg`z. sg] €]^ihld ‚zbla•gie lf fcd_bck |^eigr
µ`nk tbi ei ie]bngfw hdzilµi lgi hfgzd_ibi g]^ }—ƒfzµhigƒ`e. ~bi
ih• gku ]zfbedu hfzb]ndu g]^ s]^n]xµb fwnf r|k aigi_kvjfw, feo k
h•_k |fn•gie bl]hf|mgba]xu ‚]µ‚iz|blµ]xu. yµ`u g]^u lgzigbmgba]xu
tbigz]xu µiu ih]ai_]xlief “lgzigbogfu nmzwu lg]_r". ~fg` g] gd_]u
46
g]^ h]_dµ]^ g] 1946 l^ednbli gku lh]^|du lg] 5] dg]u g]^
hiefhblgkµw]^.
PQRSQTU VQWXYSXWZ[
yweib |xla]_] ei j^µ`lib aib ei tz`vfbu tbi fafwek gke fh]nr. •gie ]
`ejzmh]u temzwƒfb •gb vgiwfb, k gbµmzwi ^h]vdzfgib f^a]_•gfzi. •gie
•µmu gbµmzfwgf la_kz` a`h]b]u ijo]u - i^g• h]e`fb hfzbll•gfz].
€d_fbmlf deiu gz]µfz•u h•_fµ]u. ‘ vilblµ•u fwnf ebakjfw. s' i^gr gk
h]_^fgr µ`nk µiƒw µf •_]^u g]^u _i]xu gku s]‚bfgbaru „emlku
^hfzilhbƒ•eg]^lie gke “higzw|i g]^u” aib ]b d__kefu. \]__]w ih•
i^g]xu |fe cieilkaojkaie ih• gi hf|wi µ`nku `__]b g•l]b t^zwlief
lgi lhwgbi g]^u ie`hkz]b. }zafg]w ih• i^g]xu ‚zi‚f^graief µf
ieogigi µfg`__bi aib hiz`lkµi gku yss†, \]_mewiu,
€lfn]l_]‚iawiu, ‘^ttizwiu. ‘b s]^n]^µbogfu rgief hfzrvie]b tbi
g]^u rzmfu g]^u. \]b]u |fe temzwƒfb hwlm ih• g] zmlba• ‹f^|oe^µ]
€l]^vgf_]‚ 0melgiegbe g]e •_wi \ihi|•h]^_]; • g]e jz^_ba•
aig`la]h], h]_^gbµkµde] µf µfg`__bi - _]nit• ‡bliegw|k •. †. tbi g]e
]h]w]e µ`_blgi dnfb tzivgfw aib ‚b‚_w]. ‘ h•_fµ]u |fe hiziµdzblf
]xgf gke ]ba]tdefbi µiu - |fe t^zwlief hwlm ] tiµhz•u µ]^ aib |x]
ih• gi i|dzvbi. €]e aibz• gme h]_fµbaoe |bigizinoe lgke y__`|i,
lgke s]‚bfgbar „emlk fwnf l^lgijfw fhbgz]hr i__k_fttxku lg]^u
d__kefu |kµ]az`gfu, fhbafvi_ru gku ]h]wiu rgief ] sfztadb
sfztadf‚bgu sµbze•‚. yafwek gke fh]nr fwni iei_`‚fb ‚]kj•u g]^ tbi
gke hfzb]nr gku }µhniƒwiu. sf dei ih• gi v^__`|bi h]^ µdnzb lrµfzi
v^_`m, ieitz`vfgib: "‘^|fwu „__keiu |dngkaf ei h]_fµrlfb fe`egbi
lgke s]‚bfgbar „emlk lgke h_f^z` gme Šfzµieoe. 0iefwu ih• g]^u
d__kefu |fe |ba`lgkaf ih• lgzig]|bafw] tbi hz]|]lwi gku \igzw|iu."
~' i^g• g] gz•h] jd_m ei hm hmu |fe ^hrznf aiedeiu _•t]u gdllfzi
nz•ebi µfg` g]e h•_fµ], ei fc]zblgfw deiu g•l] fztigba•u _i•u h]^
_`µ‚ief lkµiegbar |z`lk lgke ih]aig`lgilk gme |bi_^µdeme
h•_fme aib gku ]ba]e]µwiu.
47
~fg` gke fc]zwi gme f__reme, •hmu tz`vief ]b g]hbadu fvkµfzw|fu,
lgke }µhniƒwi aib gke Šfmztwi ^hrzcf ih•g]µk hgolk lgke
]ba]e]µwi. •gie ˆ]xeku µreiu. yh]nr h]^ µiƒfxief gbu ai__bdztfbfu,
i__` aib fh]nr fc]zwiu. sgbu 13 hz]u 14 ˆ]^ew]^ g]^ 1949, ]h_blµde]b
fahz•lmh]b gme azigbaoe ]zt`eme gku noziu ngxhklie gbu h•zgfu gme
f__kebaoe lhbgboe. sg] |ba• µiu rzjief deiu icbmµigba•u aib |x]
lgzigbogfu. ~iu ‚`_ief lgke tmewi. Žznblie ei ‹`ne]^e g] lhwgb,
µrhmu fwniµf az^µµde] ]h_blµ•. }h• gk lgbtµr •µmu h]^ |fe ^hrznf,
fee]fwgf |fe ‚zraie gwh]gi. sgk l^ednfbi µiu |bi‚`lief gke ih•vilk
gku yjebaru yhbgz]hru }lv`_fbiu h]^ d_ftf hmu µiu |bone]^ef lf
ih•µiazfu hfzb]ndu gku s]‚bfgbaru „emlku. • fx_]tk fzogklk µiu
rgief: "Šbi hb] _•t];", µi ih`egklk |fe ^hrzcf. €] e^ngfzbe•
s]^n]xµb dtbef iteozblg]. Šdµblf µf j]zx‚]^u gme v]zgktoe,
ti‚twlµigi lax_me, vmedu, a_`µigi t^eibaoe aib hib|boe. „cm ih•
a`jf f__keba• lhwgb ^hrznf dei v]zgkt•, g] ]h]w] ji hrtibef lf
`temlgk aigfxj^elk g]^u niµde]^u fafwek gk lgbtµr iejzoh]^u, ]b
]h]w]b i|^eig]xlie ei aigi_`‚]^e gi iwgbi gdg]biu ‚iz‚iz•gkgiu.
~fg` g] niµ• g]^ tiµhz]x µ]^ gke ozi h]^ ^hfzilhbƒ•gie gke
\igzw|i, fafw h]^ ] j`eig]u |fe |biazwefb gbu fjeba•gkgfu, k i|fzvr
µ]^ µiƒw µf g] µbaz• hib|w gku µfgia•µblf lf µiu. 0ib i^gr rgie lg]e
aig`_]t] hz]u |bmtµ•. }hf^jxejkai lg]e icbmµigba• aib g]^ fwhi:
"‘b vilwlgfu la]golief g]e higdzi i^goe gme ]zvieoe aib gozi ]b
s]‚bfgbadu izndu - tbi gbu ]h]wfu j^lwilf gk ƒmr g]^ g•l] jizzi_di hzdhfb ei ih]µiazxe]^e aib ei fc]egol]^e gke ]ba]tdefbi g]^;!" •gie
g]^ d|fbci g] tzihg• hblg]h]bkgba• jie`g]^ g]^ `egzi gku i|fzvru
µ]^ lgi hf|wi µ`nku, ] icbmµigba•u hiwze]egiu gke f^jxek h`em g]^,
fhdgzf‹f lgke t^eiwai aib gi hib|b` ei hiziµfwe]^e lg] lhwgb. sf |x]
ozfu, dhzfhf ei µiƒd‹]^µf gi hz`tµigi lf µi_iadu l^laf^ilwfu h]^
fzµkefx]egie mu |^eig•gkgi ei h`z]^µf µiƒw µiu µ•e] ihiziwgkg]
z]^nblµ• aib lfeg]e•hiei. Šbi ei hizi__k_wlm ei tft]e•gi µf i^g`
fhw gme tfzµieoe g] 1941 ji rjf_i ei ieivdzm hmu •gie cfaweklf ]
h•_fµ]u, ih• gbu hfzb]ndu …`beg]zv aib 0e`gfµhfzta g]^ s]^n]xµb
48
fc]zwƒief g]^u tfzµie]xu h]^ ƒ]xlief fafw nz•ebi. €]^u ivrlief 2
µdzfu aib •nb 2 ozfu aib µ`_blgi tbi ei µiƒd‹]^e •_i g]^u gi
hz`tµigi. „glb lgi f__keba` lhwgbi h]^ fwnie tfµwlfb µf hfzb]^lwfu
aib ih]jdµigi h]^ ih]agrjkaie µf h]__` nz•ebi a•h]^,
ftaigilg`jkaie ]ba]tdefbfu ih• gke |^gbar Šfmztwi. €b f^tfebar
aweklk g]^ az`g]^u hz]u i^g]xu aib h•l] ih`ejzmhk tbi g]^u d__kefu
h]^ tbi ieg`__itµi g]^u hfzwµfef k `µµ]u g]^ ih]µiaz^lµde]^
0iƒinlg`e, aib hiz`tafu |wnmu h•zgfu, hiz`j^zi, |wnmu vmu aib efz•.
\]^ µf gi `zzmlgi hib|b` aib tdz]egfu ai_]xegie ei cieingwl]^e gk
ƒmr g]^u nmzwu aiµb` lbt]^zb` •gb ia•µi µfg` ih• i^g• gi nz•ebi gku
fhb‚wmlku ji gf_fboeief.
•gie cfaweklf g] v]zgkt• h]^ ji µiu hrtibef iµdgzkgi nb_b•µfgzi
µiazb`, k i|f_vr µ]^ µf |`az^i lgi µ`gbi dgzfcf ih• hwlm
hiziai_oegiu ei gke h`z]^µf µiƒw µiu. ywnf v]‚kjfw ei µfwefb µ•ek
gku µf gi hib|b`, nmzwu l^ttfefwu aib vw_]^u. \z]lh`jkli ei gke
kzfµwlm aib ei gku hm hmu fhfb|r |fe temzwƒiµf h]^ µiu hktiwe]^e
aib hmu ji fweib fafw k aig`lgilk, µ•_bu µ`jibei ji gke fb|]h]b]xli.
sgke fzogklk g]^ icbmµigba]x gb |bi‚igrzbi fwniµf, ih`egkli hmu
fwniµf l]‚bfgba` aib ]^|dh]gf fwniµf `__i, fee]oegiu hmu |fe
rµilgie d__kefu ^hra]]b. ‘ higdziu µ]^ ] \dgz]u ~h]^µh]^zw|ku ,
g] |b`lgkµi 1921-1924 h]^ k }µhniƒwi fegill•gie lgke demlk
l]‚bfgbaoe |kµ]azigboe, rgie iznkt•u g]^ ilg^e]µba]x gµrµig]u gku
hfzb]nru ~bn`b_]‚ai, aib fhbafvi_ru g]^ gµrµig]u aig` gku
|bivj]z`u. •gie lgke i^_r µhraie fahz•lmh]b gme g]hbaoe iznoe
fe|bivfz•µfe]b tbi gke iwgbi lx__k‹ku, g]ewlief hmu k ]ba]tdefbi
~h]^µh]^zw|k |fe µh]zfw ei |bmngfw µbiu aib fweib l]‚bfgbar. •
ih`egklk •µmu rgie µ]e]_fagbar "yweib lgk _wlgi, `zi µh]zfw". ~f
i^g•e g]e gz•h] ieitemzwlief gke icb]hzfhr l^µ‚]_r g]^ higdzi µ]^
lgi flmgfzba` •ztiei ilv`_fbiu g]^ az`g]^u, fc]zwƒ]egiu i^g•e aib
gke ]ba]tdefb` g]^. sgke |bi|z]µr, •gie vg`eiµf lg] lgijµ• gzdeme
"…wƒeibi yldzi" h]^ rgie _wt] dcm ih• gke h•_k ] icbmµigba•u µ]^
49
‹bjxzblf hmu ^hrznf ^h]lkµfwmlk tbi gke ]ba]tdefbi µ]^ hmu rgie
`azmu fhbawe|^ek aib hmu ^hrznf hfzwhgmlk de]h_ku iegwlgilku µiu...
†fe cdzm ie µh]z]xe ei ‚zfj]xe _dcfbu h]^ ei hfzbtz`v]^e gke vzwak
h]^ ‚ilw_f^f lgke h_igv•zµi g]^ lgijµ]x. ~dli ih• a_fblg`
fµh]zba` ‚it•ebi vg`eief gi a_`µigi gme hib|boe aib ]b vmedu gme
t^eibaoe. "•]rjfbi! }e]wcgf µiu! \ebt•µilgf!" ‘b h•zgfu i^gdu aib gi
hiz`j^zi ie]wtief µ•e] aig` gke h]zfwi g]^ gzde]^ µfgicx gme
h•_fme, feo gke ozi h]^ h_klb`ƒiµf aig]bakµdefu hfzb]nr a_fweief
fzµkgba`, tbi ei µke ‚_dhfb ] a•lµ]u gb l^ed‚ibef gke fh]nr gku
fbzreku aib h]b]^u µfgivdz]^e lf fµh]zba` ‚it•ebi..
"\X]^_Y` abWX, aQW`SQµbWX, cX] W[ Y[dZef W[ µUW g[dh?"
}zt` exngi. ‘ xhe]u |fe µf hb`efb. †^l`zflgfu lad‹fbu tbi g]
`temlg] µd__]e µf a^zbfx]^e. €] gzde] fweib lgiµigkµde] lf dei
µbaz• lgijµ•, ] ]h]w]u fweib tfµ`g]u µf hiz•µ]bi ‚it•ebi. –hrznie
v]zdu hfzbµdeiµf h]__du ozfu olh]^ k iµic]lg]bnwi ei
cieicfaberlfb. ’iveba` ih• g] |bh_ie• gzde] `a]^li dei µf_itn]_ba•
gzit]x|blµi. •gief j_bµµdefu t^eiwafu h]^ gzit]^|]xlief lgi
f__keba` : "\]^_`ab cde], cfebgfµde], h]^ ei aijwlm ei µke nijo?"
€] gzit]x|b i^g• g] j^µ`µib ih• gbu i|fzvdu µ]^ lgi eb`gi. •d_kli
ei µ`jm ih• h]^ dzn]egib i^gdu ]b t^eiwafu aib ‚tiwe]egiu ih• g]
gzde] ia]_]xjkli gk vmer g]^u tbi ei g]^u ‚zm. sgke fzogklk µ]^
ih• h]^ fweib µ]^ ihiegrlief hmu dzn]egib ih• g] •ig]xµb aib µf gke
lfbz` g]^u µf zogklie iegwlg]bni. - "Šemzwƒfgib h]^ liu hktiwe]^ef;”
- "sgke a•_ilk, |fe ‚_dhfbu;" - ia]xlgkaf vmeing` ih• a`h]b]e µdli.
•^µrjkai gi _•tbi g]^ higdzi µ]^. "0`jf h]^_w gzit]^|`fb lg] |ba•
g]^ noz] aib lgk |bar g]^ vm_b`".. sf deie ih• g]^u fh•µfe]^u
lgijµ]xu µiu, µbi t^eiwai µk dn]egiu `__i hfzbjozbi ieg]nru tbi gi
•li |bi|ziµigbƒ•eg]^lie, hr|kcf ih• g] ‚it•eb aib dgzfcf lgke
dzkµ]. €ke ieiteozbli. •gief iljferu ih• gke _wlgi ieiµ]eru tbi
gke fblitmtr lgke ‹^nbigzbar a_bebar g]^ s]^n]xµb. }a]xlgkaie
50
hz]fb|]h]bkgba]w h^z]‚]_blµ]w lg]e idzi, lgk l^ednfbi •µmu hz•_i‚i
ei fcktrlm lg]^u icbmµigba]xu hmu k t^eiwai dhilnf ih• ‹^nbigzbar
iljdefbi. ~fg` ih• izafg• gzdcbµ] aib iv]x gke ftaigd_fb‹ie ]b
|^e`µfbu gku k t^eiwai dhflf a`gm. ‘b lgzigbogfu h]^ gke hb`lief,
iv]x gku txzblie aib gku d|flie gi ndzbi, gke ‚`_ief lf fb|ba• ‚it•eb
- v^_iar, ih• g] ]h]w] i^gr l^ednfbi voeiƒf: "“ilwlgfu,
|]_]v•e]b!". sf 15 µdzfu k |bi|z]µr lg] "h]^jfe`" gd_fbmlf. ~iu
cfv]zgolief (a^zb]_fagba`) lie ƒoi lg] lgijµ• "•f_wai—i
}_faldf‚ai" (~dti }_faldf‚ai) g]^ …•gb]^ 0iƒinlg`e, ih• •h]^
µiu µfgivdzief µf v]zgkt` lf |b`v]zi a]_n•ƒ gku hfzb]nru. •
]ba]tdefbi µ]^ ‚zdjkaf lg] µ•_bu vgbitµde] a]_n•ƒ "ˆeg`_b". }h•
fafwek gke kµdzi µbi µbazr hiz`tai nmzwu hiz`j^zi aib h•zgfu dtbef
lhwgb µiu. †fe ^hrznf ]xgf vmu ]xgf h•lbµ] efz•. ~•e] hkt`|b,
tfµ`g] ‚zoµba] efz• g] ]h]w] ji µh]z]xlf ei aigiei_mjfw µ•e]
xlgfzi ih• vb_gz`zblµi aib ‚z`lbµ]. sg] a]_n•ƒ (itz]gba• nmzb•)
jO_OcPNSM 1949. [I JkVKIPNWI PNZM OMOµWMl NZa MbOa NWXa JUTONSPNOPZa
51
^hrznf µbaz• µitiƒ`ab. \]^_]xlf ‚•gai, gl`b, ƒ`nizk aib lhwzgi. Šbi
‹mµw |fe tbe•gief a]^‚degi, ih_ou |fe ^hrznf. –hfxj^e]u g]^
µitiƒb]x, ] ˆ‚`e \fgz•‚bgu, rgief ih• g]^u zol]^u h]^ |bongkaie
emzwgfzi. ‘ hz•f|z]u g]^ a]_n•ƒ •gie dµijf •gb ie`µfli lg]^u
"ef]vfzµde]^u" ^hrznf tbigz•u, µ]^ ihf^jxejkaf µf gke hiz`a_klk
ei |m gke `zzmlgk t^eiwai g]^ aib gke hfjfz` g]^. €ke fh•µfek µdzi
mu |fwtµi f^temµ]lxeku tbi gke jfzihfwi, µiu vdzief azdiu, i_fxzb,
cbe•ti_i gi ]h]wi gi µ]bzilgraiµf µf •_]^u g]^u txz]. •_]b rµilgie
ih• g] s]^n]xµb. • h•_k i^gr µiu demef.
i`TfWQZ[ SUj kflj l Vb^`[ µbe[ [c' S[ m_YT][
sf µwi ih• gbu hiz`tafu ftaigilg`jkaf k ]ba]tdefbi g]^ a. 0]l`zi.
0`h]bi lgbtµr h]^ rµ]^e hfzilgba•u ih• g] "lhwgb" g]^, fw|i dei
µft`_] z]_•b h]^ lg•_bƒf g]e g]wn], µbi zihgbar µknier aib dei
k_fagzba• lw|fz]. - "\mu aig`vfzfu ei hfz`lfbu •_i i^g` ih• g]e
d_ftn];" - g]e zogkli ih]zkµde]u. - "•gie hrti ei h`zm g] z]_•b g]^
g]wn]^, ] icbmµigba•u µ]^ fwhf •nb, hrti ei h`zm gk zihgbar µknier,
µ]^ _dfb h`_b •nb, h`m ei hb`lm a`gb `__], ei h`_b g] •nb. y, g•gf
`e]bci g] hiz`j^z] aib `znbli ei vme`ƒm "•]rjfbi, ‚]rjfbi, µiu
_klgfx]^e!". ‘ icbmµigba•u µf ih]µ`az^ef ih• g] hiz`j^z] aib fwhf
itnmµde]u: "\`zf µiƒw l]^ •gb jd_fbu, izafw ei µke vme`ƒfbu!". ‘
0]l`ziu |bkt]xgie aib td_itf µf gke ‹^nr g]^ tbi g] hmu aig`vfzf
ei cftf_`lfb g]e vx_iai gku g`cku. ~bi v]z` lg] a]_n•ƒ µiu vdzief
gke gibewi "• aig`zzf^lk g]^ •fz]_we]^". • gibewi cfaweitf aib
gf_fwmef µf g]e sg`_be "ebakgr", "higdzi •_me gme _ioe", "a]z^viw]
fhblgrµ]ei" "µdti lgzigkt•" ag_. srµfzi h_d]e temzwƒ]^µf •gb |fe
fwnf aiµwi µ•zvmlk fag•u ih• a`h]bi |bfgr igf_ru lfµbe`zbi. sg]
gd_]u gku gibewiu ] sg`_be vg`efb lg] •fz]_we], fafw h]^ g]e
^h]|dnfgib h_rj]u a•lµ]^ vme`ƒ]egiu |b`v]zi l^ejrµigi. \z]u g]
gd_]u aigi_`‚iµf gb vme`ƒief, •gie µhraf deiu axzb]u aib ‚z•egkcf:
" qrgm ] sg`_be, ] µft`_]u vw_]u g]^ f__keba]x _i]x!" 0ib td_bi aib
52
aikµ•u! ~fg` g] gd_]u gku hz]‚]_ru h_klwili g]^u |x] efiz]xu h]^
µiu vdzief gke gibewi. - "\fwgf µ]^, h]b]u |b`_fcf i^gr gk gibewi;" "yµfwu." - ihiegrlief - "Šbi ei tbi ei |fwgf g]e vw_] aib higdzi h]^
liu dnmlf l' i^gr gke `µµ]!". • ih`egklk gi a`_^hgf •_i.
nXg[Voj p`TY_WXq
0`h]bi lgbtµr lg] a]_n•ƒ fµviewlgkaf ] fhbafvi_ru gµrµig]u
"fb|baoe fc•zblgme" gku yµ •f …gf (izt•gfzi dtbef 0i Šaf ~hf), ]
_]nit•u sbza`e]‚. ~f a`_flf µiƒw µf g]e axzb] ˆ‚`e \fgz•‚bgu zol] lb|fz` - tbi ei a]^‚fegb`l]^µf lg] tzivfw] g]^. ybhojkaie
h]__` lf fafwek gk l^e`egklk. \`em lgke a]^‚degi ] sbza`e]‚ fwnf
lkµfbolfb hmu fweib fb|baf^µde]u µknieba•u aib |fe ‚zdjkaf µf gke
jd_klk g]^ lg] noz] gku ~•†. sgke ih_r µi iegbafbµfebar
hizigrzklr µ]^ hmu g] dje]u µ]^ |fe f^jxefgib lf gwh]gi µhz]lg`
lg] az`g]u ] sbza`e]‚ ih`egklf "€] temzwƒm!". yeo ] ˆ‚`e \fgz•‚bgu
hz•ljflf: - "yµfwu ]b ]zj•|]c]b ‡ol]b hrziµf gke hwlgk µiu ih• g]^u
d__kefu. ywµilgf _i]w gku w|biu hwlgku aib a]^_g]xziu. ywµilgf
^h]nzfmµde]b ei |bigkz]xµf ai_du lndlfbu aib •nb ei gbu
aigilgzdv]^µf!" sg] gd_]u gku a]^‚degiu ] sbza`e]‚ µiu d|mlf ei
aigi_`‚]^µf hmu fe|bivdzfgib ei ‚]kjrlfb i__` |fe µh]z]xe •_i ei
twe]^e iµdlmu. Šbi iznr ji hz]lhij]xlf ei ih]agrlfb `|fbi
hz•l‚ilku lg]e g]hba• iznba• gku ~•†, l^egitµig`znk qf_debe, tbi
ei fekµfzmjfw ] gf_f^giw]u tbi g] gzitba• gku aig`lgilku. Mµ[EH CJ
Y\]BJCJ, [SQFDJABCUµ[ \NCSH [K[E]CSH YCS P[] µFH ^SDEAF][ BG] YNOBG
ABF PUAKCNF QD\]JF ^JF BC] NF\ µFH KFJ P[] _C`GaLKF][ ]F µFH
PRACS] QbDJ `CLa[JFH.
p]WS[Vµ[S_TgUj rQ^bW`W
€ke fh•µfek µdzi ihf^jxejkai lg]e l^egitµig`znk qf_debe tbi ei
ih_]^lgfxlfb dlgm _wt] g] µizgxzb] µiu, ei g]e fekµfzolm lf gb
53
ih`ejzmhfu aib iej^tbfbedu l^ejrafu ƒ]xlief ]b ]ba]tdefbdu µiu, •gb
µfgicx µiu |fe ^hrznf aiefwu µf teolk lgi itz]agke]gz]vba`. •
l^e]µb_wi µiu rgie lxeg]µk. • hzogk fzogklk g]^ rgie: "\]b]u l]^
d|mlf g] |baiwmµi ei fµvieblgfwu f|o µhz]lg` µ]^;" aib µfg`: "•gie
dvfzie f|o g]^u tfzµie]xu, deiu aijktkgru (hz]vdl]ziu) |]x_f^f
lg] lg`‚_]. Šb' i^g• lgzw‚f ih• |m hdzi". €]^ rgief i|b`v]z] h]b]u
rl]^e: aijktkgru k ^hfxj^e]u lg`‚_]^. yc]zwlgkafu, `zi g] icwƒfbu.
•tiwe]egiu ih• g] tzivfw], lg] |b`|z]µ] l^e`egkli g]e _]nit•
sbzaie]‚ ] ]h]w]u fe|bivdzjkaf tbi g] ih]gd_flµi gku l^e`egklku.
~f l^µ‚]x_f‹f ei ihf^j^ejo lg]e tfeba• tziµµigdi gku \fzb]nru
\ingiz`_, s]^_g`e]‚. †fe rcfzi, lf h•lfu ia•µi h•zgfu ji nzfbilgfw
ei ng^hrlm.
pX]^S_WXq - VQW`Yoj VT[µµ[Sb[j
ywnf iv•zkgk ƒdlgk. •_]b ]b itz•gfu rgief ihiln]_kµde]b lg] µ`ƒfµi
‚iµ‚iab]x. sg] tzivfw] |fe ^hrznf aiefwu fag•u g]^ tfeba]x
tziµµigdi. • h•zgi h]^ ]|kt]xlf rgie µbl`e]bngk. sgke fzogklk gku
‚]kj]x tbi h]b] jdµi dnm dzjfb, ih`egkli |^eig`: "~fgivdzfgf liu
hiziai_o, hmu deiu d__keiu fc•zblg]u - tbigz•u lg] fh`ttf_µi - jd_fb
ei g]^ µb_rlfb". • ‚]kj•u hzbe hz]_`‚fb ei µhfb lg] tzivfw g]^ g]e
‚zraf µhz]lg` gku lgke h•zgi. ‘ s]^_g`e]‚ µf a`_flf µdli aib
zogklf h]b] ƒrgkµi µf dvfzef l' i^g•e. "\fwgf µ]^ liu hiziai_o, k
hb] |kµ]azigbar nozi k s]‚bfgbar „emlk, ^h`znfb r •nb;" ‘ h•e]u aib
k hwazi fwnie ^hfznfb_wlfb µdli µ]^, tb' i^g• µ]^ µw_kli a`hmu
ie`zµ]lgi. ‘ s]^_g`e]‚ •µmu rgie `ejzmh]u µf aigie•klk.
skaojkaf ih• gk jdlk g]^, da_fblf gke h•zgi aib µ]^ fwhf: "siu
hiziai_o µb_rlgf hb] lbt` aib µhfwgf lg] e•kµi." • l^ƒrgklk hrzf
fµhblgf^gba• niziagrzi aib az`gklf izafgr ozi. €]^ hfzbdtzi‹i •_i
µiu gi ‚`liei, tbi gke i|^eiµwi µiu ei ƒ]xµf lgke hfwei, |wnmu vmu
aib efz• aib hz•ljfli: "}e µiu vdzief f|o tbi ei hfj`e]^µf iu µiu
54
g] h]xef aib ji a`e]^µf g] hie tbi ei g] fhblhfxl]^µf." ‘ tfeba•u
tziµµigdiu teozbƒf tbi g] a]_n•ƒ "ˆeg`_b", tb' i^g• ia]xt]egiu µf
l^µh•ebi, hrzf iµdlmu gk_dvme] g]e gitµig`znk qf_debe, g]e ]h]w]
µf |^la]_wi dhfblf ei fhbgzd‹fb gke µfgia•µblk µiu lg] afegzba` gku
hfzb]nru s_]‚b`eai. }h]nibzfgoegiu, µ]^ fwhf hmu ji hz]lhijrlfb ei
|bfa|barlfb `|fbi aib tbi gbu ^h•_]bhfu ]ba]tdefbfu. €ke fh•µfek µdzi
l^tadegzmli •_]^u g]^u |ba]xu µiu µfgie`lgfu aib fekµdzmli hmu µf
|^la]_wi |olief gke `|fbi µfgia•µblku lgke ]ba]tdefbi µ]^ aib hmu
ei µke ih]jizzxe]egib tbigw ] axzb]u s]^_g`e]‚ ^h]lndjkaf ei µiu
‚]kjrlfb •_]^u. sxeg]µi, •_]b µfgivdzjkaie lgke s_]‚b`eai.
s kfl eSUW p^Xq`_WY[
~dli lf a^zb]_fagba` µbaz• |b`lgkµi k ƒmr lgke s_]‚b`eai hrzf
`__k gz]hr. sxeg]µi `znblie ei ie]wt]egib µitiƒb` ih• d__kefu •hmu
zivfwi, glitaiz`|bai, `znblie ei hiz`t]^e t_^a`, hitmg`,
iei‹^agba`. €] hiƒ`zb |fe rgie µ]e`ni g•h]u it]zihm_klboe, i__`
aib noz]u •h]^ iegi__`llief edi. ‘ deiu d_ftf hmu lgke hfzb]nr
~dti }_faldf‚ai lg]e a]µ‚ba• lb|kz]|z]µba• lgijµ• ^hrznie
h]__` ‚it•ebi lgi ]h]wi hz]tziµµigwƒief ei µiu µfgivdz]^e µdlm
g]^ ˆz`e lgke y__`|i. Ž__]b |fe l^µvme]xlie µ'i^g• aib _dtief hmu
temzwƒief µf ‚f‚ib•gkgi •gb lgke ‘|kll• fweib izitµdei µfzba`
f__keba` h_]wi gi ]h]wi ji µiu h`ef lgke y__`|i. •^µ`µib
niziagkzblgba` •gie µbi l]vr t^eiwai hizigrzklf: "~ke hblgfxfgf
aiedeie! •gb ia]xtfgib fweib hiziµxjbi. sgke f__kebar hzfl‚fwi
a`j]egib rl^ni aib hwe]^e g]e f__keba• aivd g]^u aib aizvw |fe g]^u
aiwtfgf." †fe µiu nzfbiƒ•gie aiefwu. sxeg]µi µf a`_flie ih• gke
g]hbar i^g]|b]waklk tbi |b]zblµ• lgk |]^_fwi lf dei fhiznbia•
adegz] g]^ e•gb]^ 0iƒinlg`e, lgke h•_k €lfµadeg. • g]hbar
^tfb]e]µbar ^hkzflwi µf gke lfbz` gku µf |b•zblf lg] fhiznbia•
adegz] - €]^zaflg`e.
55
tX]TYQeS_W
• µfgia•µblk lg] €]^zaflg`e rgie |xla]_k ‹^nba` aib lmµigba`. Šbi
`__k µbi v]z` dhzfhf ei ivrl]^µf hwlm deie noz] h]^ µ•_bu
aig]barjkaf, ei ivrl]^µf hwlm iejzoh]^u, ed]^u vw_]^u aib ei
aigf^j^ej]xµf lgke i‚f‚ib•gkgi. sgke ]zfber hfzb]nr ~bztai_bµl`b
^hrznf fzt]lg`lb] h]^ fhfcfztiƒ•gie µ•_^‚|] aib `__i µdgi__i. €ke
hfzb]nr i^gr tfµwlief µf fcfb|baf^µde]^u lf |b`v]zi fhittd_µigi
µfgie`lgfu, a^zwmu •µmu µknieba]xu aib |biv•zme fb|oe gfneba]xu.
~f fc]egmgba• a•h], ] `|fb]u i^g•u g•h]u hrzf µ]zvr µbiu lxtnz]eku
h•_ku. sf |dai nz•ebi, •gie k h•_k tb•zgiƒf gke fhdgfb] gme |fa`gme
tfefj_wme gku, aijou aib gke µfg]e]µilwi gku lf "0feg`]^", ] g]hba•u
gxh]u ieiteozbƒf aib ^h]tz`µµbƒf gke hz]lh`jfbi gme
aigilaf^ilgoe gku: 0iƒ`nme, ‘^ƒµhdame aib ‡olme. Šbi g]^u
hzitµigba]xu •µmu ngwlgfu - d__kefu, |fe ^hrznf a]^‚degi. †fe
^hrzniµf ]xgf mu "µixz]b" tbi gke nozi µiu. ~f gke `vbcr µ]^ lgke
hfzb]nr, |b]zwlgkai mu tbigz•u-ef^z]_•t]u aib izt•gfzi mu
|bf^j^egru g]^ e]l]a]µfw]^ aib gku h]_^a_bebaru g]^ ‘zfbe]x
sb|kz]|z•µ]^ g]^ €]^zaflg`e. •µ]^e ] hzog]u ef^z]_•t]u g]^
µft`_]^ i^g]x e]µ]x.
€] €]^zaflg`e fweib µbi blg]zbar h•_k. ywnf h]__` µekµfwi izniwiu
iznbgfag]ebaru. €] gƒiµw h]^ ^hrznf lgke h•_k rgie dei ih• gi
µfti_xgfzi g]^ 0iƒinlg`e aijou aib gku txz] tfmtzivbaru hfzb]nru.
}e aib k h•_k |fe niziagkzbƒ•gie ih• gbu iedlfbu h]^ hizfwnf, fwnf
mlg•l] vmu, efz• aib h•lbµ] efz•.
€] e]l]a]µfw] lg] ]h]w] cfawekli ei |]^_fxm, rgie ai_`
fv]|bilµde] tbi gke fh]nr fafwek. †bdjfgf iagbe]tzivba• gµrµi,
v^lb]jfzihf^gba•, a_beba• fztilgrzb] a_h. }h• gbu hzogfu ab•_iu
µdzfu |]^_fb`u, `znbli ei icb]h]bo µfj•|]^u ‹^n]jfzihfwiu. ~bi
v]z` µiu fhbladvgkaf µbi a]hd_i h]^ fwnf n`lfb gk vmer gku. sgbu
aigigiagrzbfu fcfg`lfbu, gke dnilf ih• g] `tn]u. Šbi izafg• |b`lgkµi
jfzihf^•gie lgke €ilade|k, |wnmu •µmu ih]gd_flµi. ~fg` ih•
56
itmtr ^hemgblµ]x k a]hd_i cieiµw_klf. €ke fh•µfek µdzi rzjf k
µkgdzi gku, h]^ µf |`az^i niz`u lgi µ`gbi µf f^nizwlgklf h]^
cie`|mli gk vmer lgk a•zk gku. ‡ogklf: "Šbigzd, gozi gzit]^|`fb
l^ednfbi, µrhmu dglb |bigzdnfb a`h]b] awe|^e];" •zdµkli gke
itnmµdek µkgdzi ihiegoegiu: "}u gzit]^|`fb •l] jd_fb! yweib
ih•_^gi ^tbru." –hrznf hfzblgigba•, h]^ vdzief µbi t^eiwai h]^
dnilf ih•g]µi gke •zilr gku µfg` ih• ef^zba• a_]eblµ•. ‘b tbigz]w
h]^ gke hizia]_]^j]xlie |fe d‚zblaie aiedei hij]_]tba• lxµhgmµi
h]^ ji µh]z]xlf ei hz]ai_dlfb gke iho_fbi •zilku. „hfbgi ih•
|bi|bailwi ^hemgblµ]x, ‚traf ih• g] e]l]a]µfw] ‚_dh]egiu. •^µ`µib
deie tdz] h]^ rzjf µf hiz`h]ei tbi gke ^tfwi g]^. }h' gke a]^‚degi
dµiji hmu tfeerjkaf lgke Šfmztwi aib rgie hiegzfµde]u µf
tfmztbier. sgke fc]zwi ‚zdjkaf µ•e]u. ~b_]xlf µ•e] tfmztbieba` aib
rcfzf f_`nblgi zolbai. †bongkaf tbigw lg] |bi‚igrzb• g]^ dtzivf “d__keiu”. „tzi‹f fhiefb_kµµdei tz`µµigi lgi tfmztbieba` lg]e
sg`_be aib ~hdzbi tbi ei g]^ fhbgzd‹]^e ei t^zwlfb hwlm lg]e g•h]
g]^, lgke Šfmztwi, i__` ih`egklk livou |fe hrzf h]gd. •]rjkli g]e
tdz]egi ei e]lk_f^gfw lg] e]l]a]µfw] aib g]e az`gkli •l] aibz•
nzfbiƒ•eg]^lie ei vgbing]xe gi nizgb` g]^ tbi ei µfgia]µwlfb lg]e
g]hba• w|z^µi ieihrzme.
~bi 0^zbiar fwni h]_x fe|bivdz]^li l^e`egklk. 0ig` g]e e•µ],
gdg]bi µdzi •_]b ]b µfgie`lgfu dhzfhf ei |we]^e hiz•e lg] g]hba•
lgzigbmgba• gµrµi. ~ke g^n•e g] la`l]^µf. ~i hz]u gi h]x ei
gzdcfbu; }a•µi aib lgbu igd_fbmgfu fag`lfbu gku s]‚bfgbaru „emlku
|fe ^hrznf noz]u tbi µiu. ~bi g^hbar µdzi lg] lgzig]_]tba• gµrµi,
µbi ieilgigmµdek t^eiwai h_klwilf g]e higdzi µ]^. •gie k }zb`|ek
- a•zk fe•u vw_]^ g]^ higdzi µ]^, g]^ fµh•z]^ 0]µeke]x, h]^ g]
1921 dv^tf lgke y__`|i. • }zb`|ek rgie hiegzfµdek µf tfmztbie•.
ywnf gf_fbolfb gku lh]^|du gku lg] ‚b]_w, lg] µ]^lba• hiefhblgrµb]
gku €bv_w|iu aib |]x_f^f lf ]znrlgzi ]hfzdgiu. •gie fc]zblµdek lie
•_]^u g]^u `__]^u tbi g]e temlg• _•t]. sg] |bi‚igrzb] dtzivf “f__kew|i”. €ke lgfw_ief tbi |]^_fb` lg] €lfµadeg •h]^ _fbg]^zt]xlf
57
zmlba• jdigz] gku ]hfzdgiu. “iwefgib hmu k a_kz]e]µb` h]^ `vklf
g] µdti dje]u h]^ n`zblf lg]e a•lµ] gke a]^_g]xzi, gke gdnek,
|bd|mlf g]e nzblgbieblµ• aib `vklf ]e•µigi gi ]h]wi µfweief
iefcwgk_i lgke blg]zwi, d|bef g] |baiwmµi l’i^g•.
~bi v]z` izt` g] ‚z`|^ µf ai_dlief fhfbt•egmu lg] e]l]a]µfw] fwnf fblinjfw deiu ‚izb` `zzmlg]u ih• gke hfzb]nr ~bztai_bµl`tbi.
•|k lg] |b`|z]µ] `a]^ti gbu vmedu g]^ iljfe]xu tbi ‚]rjfbi, h]^
vg`eief ih• gke a_wei g]^. „hfbgi ih• d_ftn] |bihwlgmli hmu ^hdlgfb
ef^zba• a_]eblµ• h]^ hz]r_jf µfg` gke ie`temlk fe•u tz`µµig]u
•h]^ k t^eiwai aib k a•zk g]^ izerjkaie ei l^µµfg`ln]^e lgbu edfu
l^ejrafu h]^ fwni hz]‚`_fb k ƒmr. ~fg` ih• aig`__k_k itmtr, ]
axzb]u Œf^gdzku, - dglb _dtief g]e iljfer - dtbef ai_xgfzi. ‘vfw_m
hiz•_] i^g` ei ieivdzm hmu h]__du t^eiwafu g]e f__reme dn]egiu
|biv]zfgbar fjeba•gkgi •hmu: tfmztbiedu, izµdebfu, iµhn`ƒfu, rzjief
µiƒw µf g]^u `egzfu g]^u tbi ei µ]bz`l]^e µiƒw g]^u gk _xhk aib gk
niz`. sgbu hfzb]ndu •h]^ aig]ba]xlie ]b d__kefu, |fe ^hrznie hzogfu
‚]rjfbfu. yafwei gi nz•ebi hdjibeie h]__]w `ejzmh]b ih• ‚izbdu
iljdefbfu •hmu gxv]u, v^µigwmlk, µhz]^ad_mlk aib lxvb_k. •µ]^e
ieitailµde]u ei ivbfzoem izafg• nz•e] tbi gke fekµdzmlk g]^
a•lµ]^ dglb olgf ei hz]v^_`llfgib aig`__k_i. ~f gke ‚]rjfbi gku
|b]waklku g]^ fzt]lgilw]^ h]_^µfgi__f^µ`gme, fhbgfxnjkaf k
ieihi_iwmlk g]^ agkzw]^ aib k iei‚`jµblk ^hkzflboe g]^
e]l]a]µfw]^ aib gku a_bebaru.
uT_µµ[ SX] Y[dUVUSl ve[S`_WU
•gief ibvew|b] tbi µdei ei _`‚m tz`µµi ih• deie l^e`|f_v] bigz•,
|b]bakgr g]^ µibf^gkzw]^ g]^ s]^n]xµb. ~fzbadu µdzfu hzbe fwnie
ia]^lgfw vrµfu hmu ih• g]e lb|kz]|z]µba• lgijµ• g]^ €]^zaflg`e
hdzilf iµic]lg]bnwi µf Šfmztbie]xu µfgie`lgfu ie`µfli lg]^u
]h]w]^u ‚zbla•gie aib ] aijktkgru }ligb`ek. sg] tz`µµi g]^ µf
58
hiziai_]xlf ei g]e ‚]kjrlm ei µfgivfzjfw lg] e]l]a]µfw] g]^
€]^zaflg`e. ~f gke ‚]rjfbi g]^ ^h]^ztfw]^ ^tfwiu aib gme g]hbaoe
]zt`eme, hrziµf gke `|fbi ei ftaigilgijfw mu hz]—lg`µfe]u g]^
gµrµig]u µibf^gbaru t^eiba]_]twiu. ˜lg•l] tbi a`h]b] _•t] g]
l^tafazbµde] gzde] lgfw_ief hwlm lgke Šfmztwi aib lxeg]µi d_i‚i
tz`µµi ih• gke €bv_w|i •h]^ ] aijktkgru µf f^nizblg]xlf tbi lgke
‚]rjfbi gke ]h]wi |^lg^nou |fe µh•zflf ei fhmvf_kjfw.
wQV_^U g[T_
~f gke ih•vilk g]^ }emg`g]^ †bailgkzw]^ gku s]‚bfgbaru „emlku
ih• gbu 20 ~izgw]^ g]^ 1954, k ]ba]tdefbi ihi__`njkaf ih• gke
^h]nzfmgbar hiziµ]er lg] 0iƒinlg`e, aib hrzf `|fbi fhblgz]vru
lg]e iznba• g•h] aig]bawiu. • g]hbar i^g]|b]waklk |fe rjf_f ei
ih]nmzblgfw gi h_d]e h]_xgbµi lgf_dnk gku a]bemewiu gku, tb' i^g• aib
µf a`jf gz•h] aij^lgfz]xlf gke fhblgz]vr µiu. }eita`lgkai ei
ihf^j^ejo lg]e fblittf_di g]^ e]µ]x, lxegz]v] ‡]ta`emv, ] ]h]w]u
µfl]_`‚klf tbi ei ‚]kjrlfb. \rtiµf µiƒw g]^ lg] g]hba• ^tfb]e]µba•
gµrµi tbi ei ^h]tzivfw k ih•_^lk µ]^. †fe ji cfn`lm gi _•tbi g]^:
"0igi_i‚iwem hmu ] tbigz•u a. ~h]^µh]^zw|ku rgie tbi liu
ieia`_k‹k, i__` aiefwu |fe dnfb hbi g] |baiwmµi ei hizigfwefb g]
nz•e] fc]zwiu g]^ ih• g] lhwgb". }vre]egiu hwlm i^g•e g] fe|bivdz]e
g•h], dhibzei µiƒw µ]^ gke µfti_xgfzk f^temµ]lxek h]^ fwni h]gd tbi
g]^u iejzoh]^u: g]^u 0iƒ`n]^u, ‘^ƒµhda]^u, zol]^u aib `__]^u, h]^
µiu l^µhizilg`jkaie aib fµhblgfxgkaie i^g` gi |xla]_i nz•ebi.
ytaigi_fwh]egiu, `vkei hwlm µ]^ dei a]µµ`gb ƒmru. y|o teozbli aib
it`hkli gke t^eiwai h]^ lg`jkaf lxegz]v•u µ]^ lf •_k gk |bi|z]µr
gku ƒmru µ]^. •gief g•h]u h]^ tfeerjkaie gi hib|b` µ]^, k a•zk
y_dek aib ] tb•u 0melgiegwe]u. ‘ µfti_xgfz]u h_]xg]u fweib k
]ba]tdefbi. 0ib fwµib f^teoµme lgke t^eiwai µ]^, ˆmlkvrei
€lb_btaizw|k, h]^ gke hz]lg`gf^f •_i i^g` gi nz•ebi.
59
vcXg[`TQS`eµoj
€ke kµdzi gku ieinozklku fag•u ih• g]^u d__kefu h]^ µiu demef
a]ber gxnk, rzjief ei µiu ih]nibzfgwl]^ef aib eg•hb]b, 0iƒ`n]b,
‡ol]b, ‘^ƒµhda]b. ‘ 0iƒ`n]u ~hfagbµwg, hi_b•u iljferu µ]^, a`_flf
fafwe]^u h]^ vfxtief lg] flgbig•zb] aib adzilf h]__du liµh`ebfu.
„hfbgi µf hrtf lg]^u bfzfwu gme 0iƒ`nme aib ‘^ƒµhdame ]b ]h]w]b
rzjie ei ih]nibzfgwl]^e. \_klwili aib dtfbzi g] afv`_b µ]^ gbµr h]^
µ]^ a`eief tbi ei dzj]^e. „eiu ih• i^g]xu µ]^ ih`egklf: "˜u bigz•u
aib `ejzmh]u, ivrefgf lgbu aiz|bdu gme aig]wame µiu f^temµ]lxek. ‘
}__`n ei eib µiƒw liu!". }ed‚kai gbu la`_fu g]^ gzde]^ h]^
fg]bµiƒ•gie ei cfaberlfb •gie k ~izwai €]µh]lw|k µ]^ d|mlf
‚bilgba` dei hz`lbe] a]^‚`zb n]egzru a_mlgru aib fwhf: "}vrlgf g]
ei cfg^_bngfw µdnzb ei gd_]u". "Šbigw;" - ieizmgrjkai. "Šbi ei eib ]
|z•µ]u liu hz`lbe]u aib ie]bng•u". €] gzde] cfaweklf aib gi lgi µ`gbi
g]^ a•lµ]^ fµviewlgkaie |`az^i. \•l] la_kzr aib `|bak fweib k
ƒmr. ~i ƒmr - fweib h•_fµ]u: ]b |^eig]w hz]nmz]xe, ]b i|xeig]b
^h]nmz]xe, ]b v]‚kglb`zk|fu ih]|z]xe aib gzdn]^e. \]__`
nzfb`lgkaf ei hfz`lfb ] _i•u µiu, tb' i^g• µ`__]e ih]agrliµf dei
|^eig• ie]l]h]bkgba• lxlgkµi.
vV[cUµbWX pX]gXRµ`
€]e ‘ago‚zk g]^ 1954 lg] lb|kz]|z]µba• lgijµ• g]^ s]^n]xµk µiu
hfzbµdeief l^ttfefwu, tfwg]efu vw_]b, l^e`|f_v]b. •gie µbi h]_x
jfzµr ^h]|]nr h]^ tdµbƒf µf niz` gi |`az^i. • i|f_vr µ]^ s]vwi tbi
ei gbµrlfb g] tft]e•u, dvgbicf iefhie`_khg] tb]zgbe• gzihdƒb. ‘b
hz]h•lfbu h]^ ia]xlgkaie l' i^g•, µ]^ d|beie tbi `__k µbi v]z` ei
aigi_`‚m h•l] g]^u fwniµf _fw‹fb aib gk niz` h]^ ebojief µfg` gke
fhblgz]vr µiu. • µdzi i^gr rgie µbi ih• gbu hb] f^g^nblµdefu h]^
fwni. yhdlgzf‹i lgke tfedgfbz` µ]^, gke h•_k gku eb•gku µ]^, fafw h]^
]b vw_]b fwei b h`egi hiz•e aib |fe cfne]xe. ~f µft`_k f^temµ]lxek
60
m WITWUbMJIO µWX PNIa OKcba NWX ’70, PNO TO\fNJKO cKVMIO PNW hWXcWfµI.
61
j^µ`µib g]^u tfwg]efu ~h]a]^gl`‚i aib ~hitaig]xzbi aijou aib g]e
ai_xgfz] vw_] - l^e`|f_v] sfµb•e ˆ`a]‚_f‚bgu ~bµbe]l‚w_b. •gie g]e
fw|i j^µrjkai hmu µ•_bu fwnf µ`jfb tbi g]e fc]zblµ• µiu ih• gke
h•_k, rzjf lhwgb •h]^ ‚zraf lgi lai_]h`gbi µ•e] gke i|fzvr µ]^ ei
cflh` lf _^tµ]xu. •gie g]^ |bktrjkaf gb l^ed‚k, gke ita`_bilf
|iaz^lµde]u ab i^g•u. }zt•gfzi •µmu aig`vfzf ei hz]_`‚fb g] gzde]
lf deie ih• g]^u a]egbe]xu lgijµ]xu lgke h•_k (yldzb) aib µiu dvfzf
gl`egfu tfµ`gfu gz•vbµi. •gie tz`vm i^gdu gbu tziµµdu, cieiebojm
ei µf l^efhiwze]^e gi tft]e•gi aib ]b fba•efu fafweku gku µiazberu
µdziu. yweib ^hdz]n] ei dnfbu ai_]xu vw_]^u. 0ib fwµib f^teoµme lgk
µ]wzi µ]^ h]^ g]^u fwni. "†fe ^h`zn]^e hb] bfz]w |flµ]w lg]e a•lµ],
ih• g]^u |flµ]xu gku vb_wiu" - dtzivf ] ~. Ša•zab. €ke itb•gkgi gku
vb_wiu i^gru gke v^_]xliµf h`egi.
P`XT`eµoj eSX WXeXYXµQZX
~f gke feg]_r g]^ ^h]^zt]x ^tfwiu fwni |b]zblgfw mu ef^z]_•t]u lg]
2] azigba• e]l]a]µfw] g]^ s]^n]xµb. sxeg]µi gi ef^z]_]tba`
gµrµigi g]^ 1]^ aib g]^ 2]^ e]l]a]µfw]^ feojkaie lf dei µft`_], µf
noz] vb_]cfewiu µdnzb 60 ig•µme •h]^ ied_i‚i ei |bf^jxem xlgfzi
ih• gke ih]nozklk - _•t] iljdefbiu - g]^ l^ei|d_v]^ µ]^ s.€.
€i‚iegb`e. •µ]^e ^h]nzfmµde]u •nb µ•e] ei iln]_]xµib µf g]^u
iljfefwu µ]^, i__` aib µf gi |b]bakgba` g]^ gµrµig]u. ~fg` g]
tz`µµi µ]^ lgke µfti_xgfzk g•gf fvkµfzw|i "ˆƒ‚dlgbi" (…di),
hfgxniµf ei |bf^zxe]^µf ia•µi hfzbll•gfz] g] gµrµi µf ed]^u
fc]h_blµde]^u noz]^u tbi fcfb|baf^µdei ef^z]_]tba` hfzblgigba`.
sg] vb_ba• hfzb‚`__]e g]^ 2]^ azigba]x e]l]a]µfw]^ fzt`lgkai 35
nz•ebi. ˜u bigz•u hdzili fafw gi hb] h_]xlbi aib hizitmtba` µ]^
nz•ebi. €] e]l]a]µfw] rgie g] |fxgfz] lhwgb µ]^ aib ]b l^e`|f_v]b |fxgfzk ]ba]tdefbi.
62
i^^UW`Yl [cXeSX^l eSX pX]gXRµ`.
€] 1959 gke s]‚bfgbar „emlk fhbladvgkaie a^‚fzekgba]w fahz•lmh]b
gku y__`|]u ih]gf_]xµfe]b ih• 12 ‚]^_f^gdu. €] hz•tziµµi
hiziµ]eru g]^u hfzb_`µ‚ief fhwlaf‹k lf f__kebar ]ba]tdefbi lgke
h•_k g]^ s]^n]xµb aib lf µbi lf a`h]b] a]_n•ƒ. (itz]gba• nmzb•).
Šemzwƒ]egiu hmu fto aib k ]ba]tdefbi µ]^ µb_`µf gke ef]f__kebar
|b`_fag] i__` dn]^µf aib gke iegwlg]bnk |^eig•gkgi vb_]cfewie, ]b
fahz•lmh]b gme iµhn`ƒbame a^‚fzekgbaoe iznoe ihf^jxejkaie lf
µiu, ƒkgoegiu ei |fng]xµf gke ih]lg]_r lg] lhwgb, g]ewƒ]egiu hmu ji
iei_iµ‚`eief •_i gi ihibg]xµfei dc]|i. €]^u ih`egkli hmu ji rgie
gbµr µ]^ ei |fngo g]^u ‚]^_f^gdu ih• gke blg]zbar higzw|i µ]^ tbi
_]tizbilµ• µ]^. „glb aib dtbef. • l^e`egklk rgie icdnilgk. •
t^eiwai µ]^ ]zt`emlf µft`_] h_]xlb] gzihdƒb µf h]egbiadu aib
ai^a`lbfu l^egitdu. €i gzit]x|bi aib ]b nmz]w fei__`ll]egie µf gbu
hz]h•lfbu. \z]u g] gd_]u gku l^e`egklku ]b hizf^zbla•µfe]b µiƒw µf
63
g]^u ai_flµde]^u gzit]^|rlief lgi zolbai "€i ‚z`|bi gku ~•lniu".
„eiu ih• g]^u ‚]^_f^gdu µf zogklf ie fwni l^ttfefwu lgke y__`|i
g]^u ]h]w]^u ji rjf_i ei fhblafvgo. }h`egkli hmu fwni g]e jfw] µ]^
lgke }jrei, g]e µbaz•gfz] i|fzv• g]^ higdzi µ]^. €•gf ] ‚]^_f^gru
µ]^ hz•gfbef ei tz`‹m tz`µµi lg]e jfw] µ]^ ƒkgoegiu ei µf ai_dlfb
lgke y__`|i. †we]egiu g]^ g] tz`µµi izt•gfzi, |fe hfzwµfei ei µ]^
dzjfb k hz•la_klk µdli lg]e hzog] µrei.
idW`Y`eS`Yl cX^`S`Yl SUj uQfTVZ[j.
• }µhniƒwi fwnf h`em ih• 20 fjeba•gkgfu. y|o a^zwmu ƒ]xlief
}µhn`ƒb]b, „__kefu, Šfmztbie]w, ‡ol]b, }zµdeb]b, Œbj]^ie]w,
Šfzµie]w aib h]__]w `__]b. †fe g]^u demef µ•e] ] a]be•u g•h]u
|biµ]eru, i__` aib a]be•u lf‚ilµ•u, vb_wi. •µilgie •_]b
"s]^n]^µbogfu"! 0ib i^g•u rgie ] fjeba•u hz]l|b]zblµ•u µiu.
†^lg^nou •µmu rzjief gdg]bfu fh]ndu •h]^ }µhniƒwi nmzwlgkaf lf
|x] fnjzba` lgzig•hf|i, g] iµhn`ƒba] aib g] tfmztbieba•. 0ib f|o |fe
nmz]xlie `__i djek. „hzfhf ei |bi_dcfbu µf h]b•e ji fwlib, µf g]e
deie k µf g]e `__]e. }__` hmu ei |bi_dcfbu; }v]x |fe |b`_fti vw_]^u
µf ‚`lk g] |bi‚igrzb], ]xgf |fn•µ]^e fhb_fagba` g]^u iljfefwu, i__`
µf ‚`lk gbu a]bedu _]tbadu icwfu aib ih_` iejzohbei l^eibljrµigi.
€ke fh]nr fafwek, k a`jf h_f^z` hz]lhij]xlf ei µiu h`zfb µf g]
µdz]u gku. yµfwu fwniµf r|k hfz`lfb tfe]ag]ewi, fagf_dlfbu, fc]zwfu, •'
\ita•lµb]... Šemzwƒiµf gb flgw |^lg^nwi. Šb' i^g• rµilgie ^hdz gku
fbzreku aib gme ai_oe lndlfme µf g]^u txz] µiu. •_fu ]b hz]lh`jfbfu
µiu ei aijkl^n`l]^µf g]^u fjebablgdu jfzµ]advi_]^u ih]g^tn`eief
k µwi µfg` gke `__k. ‘b }µhn`ƒb]b jfmz]xlie gke tk |bar g]^u aib
tfmztbie]w •gb ]b }µhn`ƒb]b iera]^e µiƒw µf gke tk g]^u l' i^g]xu.
~•e] ]b d__kefu fafw |fe fwnie ei nmzwl]^e gwh]gi. • fhbjfgba•gkgi,
g] n`]u, lgi|bia` `znblf ei aigiag` gke hfzb]nr, ]|ktoegiu µ•e] lf
µbi ]zjr lad‹k: …i ftaigi_fw‹]^µf gk tk gme higdzme µiu, aib ei
t^zwl]^µf lgk tk gme hihh]x|me µiu.
64
ic`eSTXxl.
€ke hfzw]|] gke hfzflgz•baiu (h]_bgbar µfgizzxjµblk), •gie
ni_izolief gi |flµ` gku hfzbjmzb]h]wklku g]^ l]‚bfgba]x _i]x, fwnf
iznwlfb ei l^ƒkgbdgib g] jdµi ei ie]bng]xe gi lxe]zi tbi gke f_fxjfzk
µfgiaweklk gme f__reme lgke nozi g]^u. „glb lgi gd_k gku |faifgwiu
g]^ 80' lg] s]^n]xµb fwnf l^lgijfw lx__]t]u µf •e]µi "yhblgz]vr",
µf fhbafvi_r g]e ••|mzi }_n`ƒ]‚ aib •_wi \ihi|•h]^_], •h]^
iei_`µ‚ief ei ]ztieolfb •_fu gbu ihibg]xµfefu fhivdu µf g] f__keba•
hz]cfefw] lgk ~•lni aijou aib µf gbu g]hbadu izndu, tbi ei h`z]^µf
gke `|fbi fc•|]^ ih• gke nozi aib gke `|fbi µ•ebµku hiziµ]eru lgke
y__`|i. \zdhfb ei lkµfbolm hmu aib ]b g]hbadu izndu i__` aib ]b
hz]cfebadu |weief gke aig`__k_k ‚]rjfbi tbi ei ]_]a_kzmjfw g] a`jf
iwgkµi. „glb, •l]b fhbj^µ]xlief vfxtief ]ztiemµdei aib |wnmu
hz]‚_rµigi. €zb`egi aib a`gb nz•ebi µfg`, k ]ba]tdefbi µ]^
ftaigd_fbhf cie` g]e g•h] gku. ~•e] h]^ i^gr gk v]z` ] gz•h]u |fe
rgie ieitailgba•u. }h_` |fe jd_iµf ei ciei|]xef gi w|bi ‚`liei aib
gi hib|b` µiu. …i µke iegbazwl]^e h]gd cie` aiedei fjebablgba•
ƒrgkµi. ’ie`, •hmu g•gf lg] 0iƒinlg`e ih]nibzfg]xliµf vw_]^u aib
iefagwµkg]^u iejzoh]^u, gke µerµk gme ]h]wme dhibzei µiƒw µ]^ lg]
`temlg] µd__]e. †fe ji cfn`lm h]gd g] l^tabekgba• ih]nibzfgblgrzb]
‚z`|^ h]^ µ]^ |b]zt`emlf g] hz]lmhba• g]^ e]l]a]µfw]^. sgke
µerµk µiu ji µfwefb fhwlku aib k ‚zi|b` lg] m|fw] •h]^ k t^eiwai µ]^
fzt`lgkaf mu aijktrgzbi tbi h]__` nz•ebi. \zdhfb ei lkµfbolm hmu
teozbƒi gke y__`|i izafg` ai_`. €ke fwni fhblafvgfw gdllfzbu v]zdu
aig•hbe hz•la_klku g]^ jfw]^ µ]^ h]^ dµfef fafw ih• g] 1939. €]e
ih]ai_]xlief "] jfw]u •`ebiu ] zol]u." Šb' i^g• |fe µh]zo ei hm
hmu fzn•µilgie |wnmu ei µiu hfzbµdefb aiedeiu aib gwh]gi. • hfzw]|]u
gku degicku lf edfu l^ejrafu |fe fweib fxa]_k. ˆ|biwgfzi •gie i^g•
iv]z` gke µ•ebµk ftaig`lgilk lf iegwjflk µf gke ih_r fhwlaf‹k.
y^g^nou tb' i^g• e]b`lgkaie vw_]b aib l^ttfefwu µiu ]b ]h]w] r|k
µdeief lgke y__`|i. ~fzba]w ih• i^g]xu fweib ln]_ba]w µ]^ vw_]b:
65
s]vbiew|ku Šb`eeku ih• g]e \fbzib`, ]b i|f_v]w sbµlmew|k, ] ˆtae`eg
}l`g]‚ h]^ µdefb lgke •flli_]ewak. yweib aib ]b l^ttfefwu µ]^: ]
c`|fzv]u (h_d]e ihoe ih' gk ƒmr) Šbozt]u ~h]^µh]^zw|ku, µidlgz]u
azigbaru l^µvmebaru ]znrlgziu, k ci|dzvk }_wak µf g]e `egzi gku
0olgi aib h]__]w `__]b. s^ttfefwu ih• gke }_fcie|z]xh]_k, h]^ lf
|xla]_fu tbi µiu lgbtµdu lf ed] g•h] lg`jkaie lgrzbtµi tbi µiu.
\oWS`X` [co m`_xXTQj ogdQj SX] iRaQ`WX] \oWSX]
€] tft]e•u •gb µiu ih]ai_]xe h•egb]^u, g] µ`jiµf f|o, lgke y__`|i.
sgke hzoke s]‚bfgbar „emlk ^hrzniµf aib ^h`zn]^µf lie µbi v^_r d__kefu. y|o •_]^u •l]^u dn]^e dzjfb ih• gbu nozfu gku yss† g]^u
ih]ai_]xef "‡ml]h•egb]^u". 0ib |fe dnfb lkµilwi ih• h]^ dnfbu
dzjfb, ih• g]e 0ixail], 0iƒinlg`e r ‘^ƒµhfablg`e, tbi g]^u eg•hb]^u
•_]b fwµilgf ih• gke ‡mlwi. }__` g]^u h•egb]^u h]^ rzjief ih• gke
€]^zawi, |fe ih]ai_]xe iegwlg]bni "€]^za]h•egb]^u". }^g]w fweib
y__ke]h•egb]b. sgke ]^lwi •µmu dn]^µf g]^u w|b]^u hz]t•e]^u,
fwµilgf w|bi v^_r. ‘b d__kefu h]^ aig]ba]xlie lf hfzb]ndu g]^ hzoke
\]egbia]x ‚ilb_fw]^, ^hdlgklie tfe]ag]ewi ih• g] g]^zaba•
aijflgou. sgke hz]lh`jfbi gku |b`lmlku, dei µdz]u g]^ h_kj^lµ]x
aigdv^tf lgke y__`|i, dei `__] ‚zdjkaf lgke ‡mlwi, a^zwmu lgi
hiz`_bi g]^ yxcfbe]^ \•eg]^. }__` aib lgk ‡mlwi ^hdlgklie
tfe]ag]ewi gke fh]nr gme sgi_beblgbaoe faaijizwlfme. sgbu iµµo|fbu
fzrµ]^u g]^ 0iƒinlg`e aib g]^ ‘^ƒµhfablg`e dµfbeie tbi h`egi
54.000 hgoµigi f__reme h]egwme. \zdhfb ei ieivdzm hmu g] f__keba•
az`g]u ‚]rjklf g]^u hi_bee]lg]xegfu d__kefu. ywnf l^lgijfw fb|ba•
w|z^µi µf gke ]e]µilwi "{|z^µi \i_bee]lg]xegme y__reme", g]
]h]w] ied_i‚f ‚iz^lrµiegk |z`lk lf jdµigi ih]aig`lgilku gme
hz]lvxtme ih• gke hzoke s]‚bfgbar „emlk. sg]^u k_babmµde]^u `em
gme 65 fgoe, aigi‚`__]^e ia•µi lxegick. sg] hz•‚_kµi gku
fhittf_µigbaru ih]aig`lgilku h]__]w ‚zraie _xlk iln]_]xµfek µf
g] fµh•zb], a^zwmu lf g]hba` hiƒ`zbi (_i—adu it]zdu). yhwlku izafg]w
66
fhmvf_rjkaie ih• gi fb|ba` tbi g]^u µfgie`lgfu l^µvdz]^li |`efbi
tbi gke it]z` lgdtku. 0ib •_i i^g` µf v•eg] gke `__k higzw|i,
(hzoke s]‚bfgbar „emlk) h]^ tbi h]__]xu ih• µiu µ]^ |]^_d‹iµf 30,
40 aib 50 nz•ebi ]xgf ladvgfgib ei h_kzolfb aiedei fw|]^u lxegicku.
\•l] µ`__]e h]^ dn]^µf ie`µfli µiu ie`hkz]^u •' \ita]lµw]^
h]_dµ]^, aib ‚fgfz`e]^u fztilwiu. \•l] ia•µi µiu dµfbef ei
ƒrl]^µf; †^lg^nou, gi hfzilµdei nz•ebi |fe t^zwƒ]^e.
y` bgXWSQj mQW [WS[cXYTZdUY[W.
Šbi ei feol]^µf a`hmu g]^u l^µhigzbogfu µiu, ih]vilwliµf ei
ie]wc]^µf a`h]bi lgbtµr lgke }_fcie|z]xh]_k h]_bgblgbar _dlnk µf
gwg_] "yxcfbe]u \•eg]u" tbi gke ]h]wi g] az`g]u µiu d|mlf 300.000
|zinµdu. sgi µdgzi gme |^eig]grgme µiu vgb`ciµf g] noz] h]^
e]bab`liµf, it]z`liµf gk_f•zilk, la`ab, a]^z|wliµf aib
g]h]jfgrliµf dei inzfwilg] tbi a`h]b]^u hb`e]. ‘ztieoeiµf
fa|z]µdu, blg]zbadu aib h]_bgblgbadu l^ƒkgrlfbu lf lndlk µf gke
y__`|i aib gke ‡mlwi. ~f gke ‚]rjfbi gku t^eiwaiu µ]^ qmƒfvweiu,
^hrznie f]zgilgbadu fa|k_olfbu g] \`lni aib gke \zmg]nz]eb`. •
g]hbar gk_f•zilk µfgd|b|f i^gdu gbu l^tafegzolfbu. }__` mu temlg•e,
k |xeiµk g]^ iejzoh]^ fweib g] h]zg]v•_b. ‘b ]ba]e]µwfu h]^
µiƒfxiµf ih• gbu l^e|z]µdu, ih• a`h]bi lgbtµr aib µfg` |fe
fhiza]xlie aib dglb ] hz]™h]_]tblµ•u µiu aigdzzf^lf. sgke
hz]lh`jfbi ei |bigkzrl]^µf •li fwnie |kµb]^ztkjfw, ihf^j^ejraiµf
tbi lgrzbck lf bln^z` hz•lmhi, i__` fafwe]b |fe iegih]azwjkaie. •
_dlnk az`gklf 3 nz•ebi.
~f gke f^aibzwi, jd_m ei j^µkjo gke h]_bgblgbar ƒmr gme f__reme
lg] s]^n]xµb µfg` gke fhblgz]vr ih• g] 0iƒinlg`e. • hzogk
f__kew|i - fhwgbµk ai__bgdneku gku }µhniƒwiu rgie k l]_wlgzbi gku
vb_izµ]ebaru - •_ti \iea]ƒw|k - 0]z]hdgu, k ]h]wi |b]zt`emlf
n]z]tzivba• l^taz•gkµi ^h• gke |bfxj^elk g]^ }_da]^ \]_^µigw|k.
0ijktkgru g]^ m|fw]^, ] Šb`eeku €]aµiaw|ku ]zt`emlf l^taz•gkµi
67
µf •e]µi "šiz]h]x_i", h]^ gzit]^|]xlf f__keba` gzit]x|bi aib
hdzi ih• gi lxe]zi gku }µhniƒwiu. €] l^taz•gkµi "~h]^ƒ]xab", h]^
|bfxj^ef ] ~]^z]^ƒw|ku 0melgiegwe]u µf g]e l]_wlgi \dgz]
~h]^µh]^zw|k fwnf µft`_k ihrnklk lgbu l^ei^_wfu h]^ d|bef lf
|b`v]zfu h•_fbu gku }µhniƒwiu aib gku Šfmztwiu f^zxgfzi. sf dei ih•
gi µfti_xgfzi aib h_]xlbi a]_n•ƒ gku hfzb]nru g]^ s]^n]xµb, g]
‘egwlb, h]^ |bfxj^ef ] y^lg`jb]u }eilgilb`|ku, ] tb]u µ]^
0melgiegwe]u, |kµb]xztklf g]
l^taz•gkµi "}zt]eixgfu". sgi
fttiwebi gku ediu h]_bgblgbaru _dlnku mu fhwgbµ]u ai_flµde]u
hizf^zbla•gie ] ‘|^lldiu †kµkgzb`|ku, feo g] l^taz•gkµi
}zt]eixgfu g]e ai_ml•zblf µf g]e gzit]x|b "0i_mlrzjfu ‘|^lldi".
€ke hfzw]|] i^gr vibe•gie hmu ji hzitµig]h]bkj]xe •_fu f_hw|fu tbi
gke ieitdeeklk gku "~bazru y__`|iu", i__` µ`gibi... †^lg^nou
hizdµfbef µ•e] lie f_hw|i.
nZV[ ^oV`[ V`[ SUW X`YXVbWQ`[.
ye`µblk nz•e] µfg` g]e fzn]µ• µiu lgke y__`|i aib iv]x
cfhfz`liµf gi hzogi ‚ilba` tzivfb]azigba` hz]‚_rµigi, k
]ba]tdefbi µ]^ `znblf ei |defgib lbt`-lbt` µf g] µdz]u. • lg]bnfbo|fbu
teolk gku ef]f__kebaru ]hml|rh]gf ‚]kj]xlf lgke hz]lizµ]tr. €i
hib|b` µ]^, k y_dek aib ] 0melgiegwe]u, lgke fhb_]tr fhittd_µig]u
ia]_]xjklie g]e |ba• µ]^ |z•µ].
• a•zk fweib µibf^grziu
t^eiba]_•t]u feo ] tb]u - ‹^nwigz]u. ‘ izbjµ•u gme bigzoe lgke
]ba]tdefbi µiu i^crjkaf lg] hz•lmh] g]^ tiµhz]x µ]^, g]^
~igjiw]^ }_niƒw|k h]^ fweib hib|wigz]u. • t^eiwai g]^ tb]x µ]^ fweib
vb_•_]t]u. 0ib ] hb] a]egbe•u aib itihkµde]u µ]^ `ejzmh]u - k
t^eiwai µ]^, µf gke ]h]wi hfz`liµf ndzb-ndzb •_] i^g• g] µiazx aib
|xla]_] |z•µ] gku ƒmru, ia•µi l^efnwƒfb ei |b|`lafb lg] m|fw] gku
}_fcie|]xh]_ku. yhwgbµk ai__bgdneku gku }µhniƒwiu, ji^µ`lbi
aijktrgzbi h]^ ai__bdztklf h]__du vmedu h]^ lrµfzi fzµkefx]^e lf
jdigz] •hfziu lgk ~•lniu. †fe vieg`ƒfgib gke ƒmr gku nmzwu
68
µ]^lbar. }h• g] 1990 lg] |kµ]gba• m|fw] }_fcie|z]xh]_ku `e]bcf tbi
hzogk v]z` gµrµi vmekgbaru. „nm g]^u _•t]^u µ]^ ei fwµib
hfzrvie]u. €i hib|b` µ]^ ‚zraie g]e |z•µ] g]^u. 0ib gi ftt•ebi g]e
l^efnwƒ]^e fh`cbi.
i]g[T`eSXRµQ [V[cUµbWU i^^_m[!
‘b ieiµerlfbu µf t^zwlief h]__` nz•ebi hwlm. • a`jf hz•gilk µf
a`efb ei cieiƒo fafwefu gbu lgbtµdu. Š^zwƒ]egiu hwlm lg] hizf_j•e
µ]^, jd_m ei f^nizblgrlm gk ƒmr µ]^ h]^ µ]^ d|mlf gk |^eig•gkgi
•nb µ•e] ei ebolm d__keiu i__` aib ei twem h]_wgku gku y__`|iu.
~]^ dzn]egib _•tbi vw_me gke ozi h]^ ivreiµf hwlm g] s]^n]xµb:
"ylfwu dnfgf h]^ ei h`gf, k higzw|i liu ji liu |fngfw. yµfwu f|o gb ei
a`e]^µf; €b ji ih]twe]^µf;" • y__`|i µiu |dngkaf. ~iu ita`_bilf,
µiu ‚]rjklf •l] i^g• rgie |^eig•e. y^nizblg]xµf tbi •_i! ~fg` ih•
h]__` nz•ebi ieiƒrgklku aib lgfeinozbiu aigivdziµf ei ‚zfj]xµf
lg]e g•h] µiu, ih• g]e ]h]w] aiedeiu |fe ƒkg`fb ei g]e
ftaigi_fw‹]^µf. y^nizblg]xµf, h]^ gke ozi gme fjebablgbaoe
|biv]zoe lg] s]^n]xµb k y__`|i |fe µiu cdnilf. €] f__keba• az`g]u
dlgfb_f h_]w] h]^ ji µfgdvfzef •_]^u g]^u d__kefu h]^ fhbj^µ]xlie
ei ivrl]^e hwlm g]e `__]gf vb_•cfe] i^g• g•h]. •i g] j^µ•µilgf
µbi ƒmr, aib a_kz]|]g]xµf i^gr gke fba•ei lg]^u ih]t•e]^u µiu.
z`XVT[xZ[
Šfeerjkaf lgke h•_k s]^n]xµb g] 1920. }h]v]wgklf µf `zblgi ih• g]
2] f__keba• ln]_fw] g] 1937-38. s^µµfgfwnf fefzt` lg]e ij_kgblµ•,
fb|ba` lg] h]|•lvibz]. €ke w|bi nz]eb` µhraf lg] bigzba• g]^
hiefhblgrµb] g]^ 0•aabe] sgzig]x, lgke h•_k 0zile]eg`z, g] ]h]w]
gf_fwmlf g] 1947 _•t] |bia]hru lh]^|oe ih• g]e h•_fµ]. €i h]_fµba`
nz•ebi ^hkzfg]xlf lg] loµi h^z]‚]_ba]x g]^ s]^n]xµb. yhw 35
nz•ebi rgie lgke bigzbar fhbgz]hr hizia]_]xjklku gme
69
ef]lx__fagme. \rzf 3 fcfb|bafxlfbu lg]e g]µdi gku ef^z]_]twiu lf
hiefhblgrµb] gku ~•lniu aib 15 nz•ebi rgief ^hfxj^e]u ef^z]_•t]u
gku h•_ku g]^ s]^n]xµb. €i gf_f^giwi nz•ebi |bfxj^ef g]
ef^z]hij]_]tba• gµrµi g]^ 2]^ azigba]x e]l]a]µfw]^ gku h•_ku µf
60 a_wefu. sgke }_fcie|z]xh]_k fzt`lgkaf tbi 4,5 nz•ebi.
sgbu 24 “f‚z]^`zb]^ g]^ 1971, tbi gke hz]lv]z` g]^ lg] lxlgkµi
^tfwiu gku noziu g]^ ih]efµrjkaf µfg`__b] fhwgbµ]^ bigz]x gku
}µhniƒwiu. €] 1979 µf feg]_r g]^ hz]d|z]^ gku }eogigku yhbgz]hru
gku yss†, gbµrjkaf µf µfg`__b] tbi gke h]_^fgr fztilwi aib
hz]lv]z` g]^.
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