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3a Appendix A CLR - JESUS SPOKE GREEK

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— Appendix A —
WHAT THE DECREES OF CLASSICAL ATTIC REVEAL
ABOUT THE HISTORICAL GREEK SOUNDS
F
the defeat of the Persian invaders, the Athenians entered their
Periclean Golden Age (479-404 BC). Able now to resume refining grammar and
writing, they became increasingly aware of the deficiencies of their writing
system, which did not adequately represent their Attic sounds and grammatical forms.
OLLOWING
The Athenians dealt with such deficiencies officially in 403 BC when, under Archon
Eucleides, they ratified the 24-letter Ionic alphabet, a writing system their kinsmen, the
Ionians, had perfected. Now they could formally write H(η) to distinguish E(ε) from E(η),
ΕΙ(ει), or ΕΙ(ῃ) ; Ω to distinguish O(ο) from Ο(ω), or Ο(ου); ΩI(ῳ) to distinguish OI(οι)
from OI(ῳ ); and the monoliterals Ξ, Ψ to represent the digraphs XΣ (ΚΣ) and ΦΣ (ΠΣ)
respectively (2.14-2.18).
A superficial comparison of Attic decrees of the 5th and 4th centuries BC can readily
reveal some differences between the older Attic script and the newer and definitive
(post-Eucleidian) grammatical script (ἡ μετ᾽ Εὐκλείδην γραμματική). In fact, some of
the differences are reflected in the opening resolution statement typically found in Attic
decrees:
5th c. BC iiE Δ O X e E N T E I B O I E I
K A I T O I Δ E M O Iii
εδοχσεν τει βολει και τοι δεμοι Resolved by the council and the people
4th c. BC iiΕ Δ Ο Ξ Ε Ν Τ Η Ι Β Ο Y Λ Η Ι Κ Α Ι Τ Ω Ι Δ Η Μ Ω Ι i
εδοξεν τηι βουληι και τωι δημωι ἔδοξεν τῇ βουλῇ καὶ τῷ δήμῳ
This study examines samples of Attic decrees from the 5th and 4th centuries BC.1 The aim is
(a) to form a visual approach to certain orthographic changes discussed earlier specifically
with respect to the letters E and O, and (b) to provide an added dimension of
understanding of the effects those changes had on the historical Greek sounds. The
examination touches as well on a few other orthographical issues that come into focus. The
decrees are annotated to highlight the areas of the discussion that follows. Not all
referenced decrees are included.
1
Based on Attic decrees in the Epigraphic Museum (EM) of Athens as presented in Athenian Democracy
Speaking Through Its Inscriptions (2009), auspices of the Hellenic Ministry of Culture. (Henceforth, EM.)
A-1
ΕΜ 13044 Decree of Kleinias (448/7 BC)
Θ
Ε Ο
Ι
ΕΔΟΧΣΕΝΤΕΙΒΟ
ΜΟΙΟΙΝΕΙΣΕΠΡ
ΔΙΑΣΕΛΡΑΜΜΑΤΕ
ΕΠΕΣΤΑΤΕΚLΕΙΝ
ΟLΕΝΚΑΙΤΟΣΑΡΧ
ΙΠΟLΕΣΙΚΑΙΤΟΣ
ΠΙΜΕLΕΣΘΑΙΗΟΠ
ΛΕΤΑΙΗΟΦΟΡΟΣΚ
ΕΚΑΣΤΟΝΚΑΙΑΠΑ
I ΕΧΣΥΜΒΟLΑΔΕΠ
ΡΟΣΤΑΣΠΟLΕΣΗΟ
ΕΙΑΔΙΚΕΝΤΟΙΣΑ
ΟΡΟΝΛΡΑΦΣΑΣΑΔ
ΛΡΑΜΜΑΤΕΙΟΝΤ
ΝΑΜΕΝΕΤΟΙΣΥΜΒ
ΠΑΛΟΝΤΑΣΑΠΟΔΟ
ΝΑΛΝΟΝΑΙΗΟΤΑΜ
ΥΤΑΝΕΣΜΕΤΑΔΙΟ
ΣΗΕLLΕΝΟΤΑΜΙΑ
ΕΟΝΤΑΣΑΠΟΔΟΣΑ
ΣΑΣΧΟΡΙΣΗΟΣΑΙ
ΝΟΣΑΝΔΡΑΣΤΕΤΤ
ΙΛΡΑΦΣΟΜΕΝΟΣ
ΤΕΣΟΝΤΑΣΤΟΜΜE
ΟΜΕΝΔΥΟΠLΕΝΕ
ΡΙΕΡΟΣΤΑΧΕΙΑΣ
ΙΕΠΙΘΡΑΙΚΕΣΕ
ΒΟLΕΝΚΑΙΕΣΤΟ
LΕΥΕΣΘΑΙΠΕΡΙΤ
ΕΙΕΑΝΔΕΤΙΣΑΘ
ΝΦΟΡΟΝΗΟΝΔΕΙ
ΟΝΤΟΙΣΑΠΑΛΟΣ
ΡΑΦΕΣΘΑΙΠΡΟΣ
ΙΟΝΚΑΙΤΟΝΧΣ
ΕΣΤΕΜΒΟLΕΝ
ΥΝΕΣΘΟΔΟΡ
ΚΑΤΑΛΝΟΙΗ
ΦΕΡΕΤΟΕΣΤ
ΝΛΝΟΜΑΣΠΟ
ΟΜΠΑΘΕΝΕΑ
ΝΤΕΣΒΟΟΣΕ
ΙΚΑΤΑΥΤΟ
ΟΙ = ΟΙ = οι proper diphthong
ΕΙ = ΗΙ = ῃ spurious diphthong
!
same spelling, associated with same sound
"
ΕΙ = EΙ = ει proper diphthong
H(h) is missing:
ΕΚΑΣΤΟΝ for ΗΕΚΑΣΤΟΝ
I = Ζ
L = Λ
Λ = Γ
OΙ = ΩΙ = τῷ spurious diphthong
TOΝ + Μ = ΜΜ*
(assimilation)
Ε = EΙ = εις
!
different spelling, same sound
"
ΕΙ = EΙ = δει
Ν + Β = ΜΒ* την βουλην
(assimilation)
Ο = Ω > γνωμας
Ν + Π = ΜΠ*
(assimilation)
*See “Analysis of Phonopathy,” p. A-14.
A-2
Θ Ε Ο Ι
εδοχσεν τει βο
μοι Οινεις επρ
διας εγραμματε
επεστατε Κλειν
ολεν και τος αρχ
ι πολεσι και τος
πιμελεσθαι hοπ
γεται hο φορος κ
εκαστον και απα
ζε χσυμβολα δε π
πος τας πολες hο
ει αδικεν τοις α
ορον γραφσασα δ
γραμματειον τ
ναμενε τοι συμβ
παγοντας αποδο
ναγνοναι hοταμ
υτανες μετα Διο
ς hελλενοταμια
εον τας αποδοσα
σας χορις hοσαι
νος ανδρας τεττ
ι γραφσομενος
τεσοντας τομ με
ο μεν δυο πλεν ε
ριερος ταχειας
ι επι Θραικες ε
βολεν και ες το
λευεσθαι περι τ
ει εαν δε τις Αθ
ν φορον hον δει
ον τοις απαγοσ
ραφεσθαι προς
ιον και τον χσ
ες τεμ βολεν
υνεσθο δορ
καταγνοι h
φερετο ες τ
ν γνομας πο
ομ παθεν ε α
ν τες βοος ε
ι κατ᾽ αυτο
EM 6577 Decree for the foundation of a colony at Brea (445 BC)
ΛΕΤΟΕΑΝΔΕΕΣΑΛΕΙΕΝΕΧ
ΦΕΝΑΣΕΗΟΛΡΑΦΣΑΜΕΝΟΣΠΟ
ΑΥΤΟΙΣΠΑΡΑΣΧΟΝΤΩΝΗOΙΑΠ
ΙΕΡΕΣΑΙΗΥΠΕΡΤΕΣΑΠΟΙΚΙΑΣ
ΙΣΔΟΚΕΙΛΕΟΝΟΜΟΣΔΕΗΕLΕΣΘ
ΕΝΑΕΧΦΥLΕΣΗΟΥΤΟΙΔΕΝΕΜΑΝΤ ΕΝΑ for HENA
ΟΚLΕΙΔΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΑΣΤΕΣΑΙΤΕΝΑ H(h) is missing
ΚΡΑΤΟΡΑΚΑΘΟΤΙΑΝΔΥΝΕΤΑΙΑ
ΕΝΕΤΑΕΧΣΕΙΡΕΜΕΝΑΕΑΝΚΑΘΑ
LΑΜΕΤΕΜΕΝΙIΕΝΒΟΥΝΔΕΚΑΙ
ΛΕΝΕΣΠΑΝΑΘΕΝΑΙΑΤΑΜΕΛΑL
ΑΦΑLLΟΝΕΑΝΔΕΤΙΣΕΠΙΣΤΡΑ
ΝΤΕΝΤΟΝΑΠΟΙΚΟΝΒΟΕΘΕΝΤΑ
ΤΑΤΑΚΑΤΑΤΑΣΧΣΥΛΛΡΑΦΑΣΗ[ΑΙ]
ΤΟΛΡΑΜΜΑΤΕΥΟΝΤΟΣΕΛΕΝΟΝ
ΟΝΤΟΝΕΠΙΘΡΑΚΕΣΛΡΑΦΣΑΙ
Ν + Π = ΜΠ
ΕΙΚΑΙΚΑΤΑΘΕΝΑΙΕΜΠΟLΕΙΠΑ
ΕΝΣΤΕLΕΝΗΟΙΑΠΟΙΚΟΙΣΦΟΝΑ
ΑΝΔΕΤΙΣΕΠΙΦΣΕΦΙIΕΙΠΑΡΑΤΕ
ΦΣ = Ψ
ΤΟΡΑΛΟΡΕΥΕΙΕΠΡΟΣΚΑLΕΣΘΑ
ΡΕΣΘΑΙΕLΥΕΝΤΙΤΟΝΗΕΦΣΕΦΙ
ΕΝΑΙΑΥΤΟΝΚΑΙΠΑΙΔΑΣΤΟΣΕΧ
ΡΕΜΑΤΑΔΕΜΟΣΙΑΕΝΑΙΚΑΙΤΕΣ
ΤΟΝΕΑΜΜΕΤΙΑΥΤΟΙΗΟΙΑΠΟΙΚ
ΟΝΤΑΙ::ΗΟΣΟΙΔΑΝΛΡΑΦΣΟΝΤΑ
EI = ει
ΝΣΤΡΑΤΙΟΤΟΝΕΠΕΙΔΑΝΗΕΚΟΣ
E = EI ειναι
ΚΟΝΤΑΕΜΕΡΟΝΕΜΒΡΕΑΙΕΝΑΙΕ
ΧΣΑΛΕΝΔΕΤΕΝΑΠΟΙΚΙΑΤΡΙΑ
ΙΣΧΙΝΕΝΔΕΑΚΟLΟΥΘΟΝΤΑΑΠΟ
ΟY
ΜΑΤΑ
ΧΣ = Ξ
H(h) is missing:
EMERON for HEMERON
A-3
γετο εαν δε εσαγει ενεχ
φενας ε hο γραφσαμενος πο
αυτοις παρασχοντον hοι απ
ιερεσαι hυπερ τες αποικιας
ις δοκειγεονολος δε hελεσθ
ενα εχ φυλες hουτοι δε νεμαντ
οκλειδεν δε καταστεσαι τεν α
κρατορα καθοτι αν δυνεται α
ενε τα εχσειρεμενα εαν καθα
λα με τεμενιζεν βουν δε και
γεν ες Παναθεναια τα μεγαλ
α φαλλον εαν δε τις επιστρα
ν τεντον αποικον βοεθεν τα
τατα κατα τας χσυγγραφας h[αι]
το γραμματευοντος εγενον
ον τον επι Θραικες γραφσαι
ει και καταθεναι εμ πολει πα
εν στελεν hοι αποικοι σφον α
αν δε τις επιφσεφιζει παρα τε
τορ αγορευει ε προσκαλεσθα
ρεσθαι ε λυεν τι τον hεφσεφι
εναι αυτον και παιδας τος εχ
ρεματα δεμοσια εναι και τες
τον εαμ με τι αυτοι hοι αποικ
ονται:: hοσοι δ᾽ αν γραφσοντα
ν στρατιοτον επειδαν hεκοσ
κοντα εμερον εμ Βρεαι εναι ε
χσαγεν δε τεν αποικιαν τρια
ισχινεν δε ακολουθοντα απο
ματα
EM 6849 The Sprinhouse Decree (432/1 BC)
ΕΡ
ΟΝΙ Κ
Ε Κ Α eΤ Ο
ΡΑΧΜΕΝΤΕ
ΤΕΣΑΛΟ ΛΕ e
ΜΕΝΑLLΑΚΑΘ
ΕΙΗΟ RI Ο e ΑΝΡΕΟ e
Ι ΛΙΣΤΟΝΧΡΕΜΑΤΟ
ΟΣΙ RI ΡΟΤΟΙ RI ΡΥΤΑΝΕ
ΚΥΡΙΟΝΕΚΚLΕ e ΙΟΝ RI ΡΟ
ΘΟ ΝΕΝΑΙΤΟΙΔΕΜΟΙΤΟΙ ΑΘ
ΔΕΜΙΑΛΙΛΝΕΤΑΙΚΑΙΕΧΕΙΑΘ
Ι RI ΕΤΑΜΕΝΑLLΑΚΑΘΑ RI ΕΡΝΙΚΟΜ
Α L Ο Ι Κ Α Ι Ξ Α Ν Θ Ι RI RI Ο Ι Κ Α Ι Τ Ο Ι e Υ Ε [ Σ Ι Ν
ΗΟ e ΑΕΣΤΟΝΦΟΡΟΝΤΟΝΑΘΕΝΑΙΟΝΤΕ
ΒΑΝΕΙΤΑΝΟΜΙIΟΜΕΝΑ
ερ
ον ι κ
ε κ ασ τ ο
ρα χ με ν τ ε
τ ε ς α γογ ες
μ εν α λ λα κ α θ
ε ι h οπ ος α ν ρε ο σ
ι γι σ το ν χρ εμ α τ ο
οσ ι πρ οτ οι πρ υτ α νε
κ υρι ο ν ε κ κλ ε σιο ν πρ ο
θ ον ε να ι τ οι δε μ οι τ οι Αθ
δεμια γιγνεται και εχει Αθ
ιπε τα μεν αλλα καθαπερ νικομ
αλοι και ξανθιπποι και τοις υε[σιν
hοσ α ε ς το ν φο ρο ν τ ον Αθ ε να ι ον τ ε
βανει τα νομιζομενα
A-4
H(h) is missing:
ΕΚΑΣΤΟ for ΗΕΚΑΣΤΟ
ΥΕΣΙΝ for HYEΣIN
Attic H(h) as a symbol
of aspiration had no
acoustic value, so it was
often ignored.
Λ= Γ
L = Λ
I= Ζ
EM 8116 A Decree for the Temple of Athena Nike (Side I) (427/4 BC)
ΚΟΣΕΙΠΕ
ΕΙΗΙΕΡΕΑΝΗΕΑ
ΕΧΣΑΘΕΝΑΙΟΝΗΑΠΑ
ΘΑΙΚΑΙΗΙΕΡΟΝΘΥΡΟΣΑ
ΙΚΑΘΟΤΙΑΝΚΑLLΙΚΡΑΤΕΣΧΣΥΛΛΡΑΦΣ
ΕΙΑΠΟΜΙΣΘΟ ΣΑΙΔΕΤΟΣΠΟLΕΤΑΣΕΠΙΤ
ΕΣLΕΟΝΤΙΔΟΣΠΡΥΤΑΝΕΙΑΣΦΕΡΕΝΔΕΤ
ΕΝΗΙΕΡΕΑΝΠΕΝΤΕΚΟΝΤΑΔΡΑΧΜΑΣΚΑΙ
ΤΑΣΚΕLΗΚΑΙΤΑΔΕΡΜΑΤΑΦΕΡΕ ΝΤΟΝΔΕ
ΜΟΣΙΟΝΝΕΟΝΔΕΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΕΣΑΙΚΑΘΟΤΙ
ΑΝΚΑL LΙ ΚΡΑΤΕΣΧΣΥΛΛΡΑΦ ΣΕΙ ΚΑΙΒΟ
ΜΟΝLΙΘΙΝΟΝ
ΗΕΣ Τ Ι ΑΙ Ο Σ ΕΙ ΠΕ ΤΡ ΕΣ ΑΝΔ ΡΑΣ ΗΕ L ΕΣ Θ
[Α]ΙΕΛΒΟLΕΣΤΟΥΤΟΣΔΕΜΕΤ[ΑΚΑ]LLΙΚΡΑ
ΣΧΣΥΛΛΡΑΦΣΑΝΤΑΣΕΠ
ΕΙΚΑΘΟΤΙΑΠΟΜ
ΕΙ[Τ]ΟΣ
κ ος ε ιπ ε
ε ι hιε ρε α ν hε α
εχς Αθεναιον hαπα
θαι και το hιερον θυροσα
ι κ αθ ᾽ ο τ ι α ν Κα λ λικ ρ ατ ε ς χ συγ γρα φσ
ει απομισθοσαι δε τος πολετας επι τ
ες Λεοντιδος πρυτανειας φερεν δε τ
εν hιερεαν πεντεκοντα δραχμας και
τ α σκ ε λ ε κ α ι τ α δ ε ρ μ α τ α φ ε ρ ε ν τ ο ν δ ε
μ ο σ ι ο ν ν ε ο ν δ ε ο ικ ο δ ο μ ε σ α ι κ α θ ᾽ ο τ ι
αν Καλλικρατες χσυγγραφσει και βο
μ ον λ ι θ ινον
hεστιαιος ειπε τρες ανδρας hελεσθ
[α]ι ε γ β ολ ε ς τ ουτ ος δε μ ε τ [ακα]λ λ ικρ α
σχσυγγραφοντας επ
ε ι κα θ ᾽ ο τ ι α πομ
ε ι[τ ]ο ς
A-5
ειπε
EI = ει,
E =ε
πωλητας E = η
φερειν
E = ε,
Ε = ει
Ο = ΟΥ ου, Ο = Ω ω τοὺς πωλήτας
EI = ει
ΕΛ BOLEΣ ΤΟΥΤΟΣ
= εγ βουλης τουτους
εγ = εκ
Pre-Eucleidian E as ε, η, ει; EI as
ει; and O as ο, ω, ου bespeak the
need to graphically distinguish
grammatical forms, while a mix of
O and OY betrays Ionic inroads
into Attic writing.
EM 8116 B Decree for the Temple of Athena Nike (Side II) (424/3 BC)
ΤΕΙ BOLEΙ
= τῃ βουλῃ
Αἰγεῖς
Λ=Γ
≠
Γ
Λ=Λ
ΤΗΙ ΣΤΗLΗΙ
= τῃ στηλῃ
EΔΟΧΣΕΝΤΕΙΒΟLΕΙΚΑΙΤΟΙΔΕΜΟΙΑΙΛΕΙΣΕΠΡΥΤΑΝΕΥΕΝΕΟΚLΕΙΔΕΣΕΛΡΑΜΜΑΤΕΥΕΑΛΝΟΔΕΜΟΣΕΠΕΣΤΑΤΕΚΑLLΙΑΣΕΙΠΕΤΕΙΗΙΕΡΕΑΙΤΕΣΑΘΗΝΑΑΣΤ ΕΣΝΙΚΕΣΠΕΝΤΗΚΟΝΤΑΔΡΑΧΜΑΣΤΑΣΓΕΓΡΑΜΜΕΝΑΣΕΝΤΗΙΣΤΗ[ΛΗΙ]
ΑΠΟΔΙΔΟΝΑΙΤΟΣΚΩΛΑΚΡ[ΕΤΑΣ]
[Ο]ΙΑΝΚΩΛΑΚΡΕΤΩΣΙΤΟΘ[ΑΡΓΗΛ][ΙΩ]ΝΟΣΜΗΝΟΣΤΗΙΙΕΡ[ΕΑΙΤΗΣΑ][ΘΗΝ]ΑΙΑΣΤΗΣΝΙΚΗ[Σ…
Λ(λ) is used along with L (λ)
Λ(γ) is used along with Γ (γ)
ΗΙΕΡΕΑΙ, ΙΕΡΕΑΙ ἱερέᾳ
The presence or absence of mute
has no effect on pronunciation.
Η(h)
Old forms mixed with new:
In this decree Ionic letters, including H and Ω,
are used peculiarly right along with old Attic
letters, a sign that H and Ω forced their way
into Attic writing long before the ratification of
the Ionic alphabet.
εδοχσεν τει βολει και τοι δεμοι Αιγεις επρυτανευε Νεοκλειδες εγραμματευε Αγνοδεμος επεστατε καλλιας ειπε τει hιερεαι τες Αθηναας τες Νικες πεντηκοντα δραχμας τας γεγραμμενας εν τηι στη[ληι]
αποδιδοναι τος κωλακρ[ετας]
[ ο] ι αν κ ωλ α κρ ε τ ωσ ι το Θ [ αργ ηλ][ ι ω ] ν ο ς μ η ν ο ς τ η ι ι ερ [ εα ι τ η ς Α [θην]αιας της Νικη[ς…
A-6
ΕΙ
HΙ
EM 6591β Decrees Relating to the Sicilian Expedition (415 BC)
Β Ο L Ε Ν Κ Α Θ Ο Τ Ι Α Ρ Ι eΤ Α
Ν Τ Ε Α RI Ο Τ Ο Τ Ι Μ Ε Μ Α Τ Ο e Δ Ο Κ Ε
Τ Ε Τ Ε Μ RI Ο L Ι Ν Α Ν Α L Ο Ν Η Ο e Ο Ν Α
Σ Η Ε Χ e Ε Κ Ο Ν Τ Α Ν Α Υ e Ε Α Μ RI Ρ Ο e
ΜΕΝΟΝΕΙΕe ΦΕΡΕΝΗΟΤΑΝΔΕ
L Ε Σ Ι Α Ν RI Ο Ι Ε e Α Ν Τ Ο Ν Δ Ε Κ Α Η Ε
Ε Ρ Ι Α L L Ο Μ Ε Δ Ε Ν Ο e RI Ρ Ο Τ Ε Ρ Ο Ν
Ε Ε Κ Κ L Ε e Ι Α Ν RI Ο Ι Ε Ν Τ Ο e RI Ρ Υ Τ
ΑΙΤΟΙe e ΤΡΑΤΕΛΟΙe ΤΟΝΝΕΟ
Ο Ι e RI Ε Ρ Ι Δ Ε Τ Ο Ε Κ RI L Ο Τ Ο Ν Ν Ε Ο
RI Α Ν Ο Ρ Θ Ο e Θ Α Ι Ε Ν Τ Ο Ι Δ Ε Μ Ο Ι Η
Κ Κ L Ε e Ι Α Ν RI Ο Ι Ο Ν Τ Ο Ν Η Ο Τ Α Ν Κ Ε
Ο Ν Κ Α Ι Τ Ε e Α L L Ε e Η Υ RI Ε Ρ Ε e Ι Α e
ΚΑΙΑΡΛΥΡΙΟΕe ΚΑLLΙΕΡΕe ΙΝ
ΗΕ...Α... e Ι...ΙLΙΟΝ
βολεν καθοτι αριστα
ντε απ το τιμεματος δοκε
τε τεμ πολιν αναλον hοσον α
ς hεχσεκοντα ναυς εαμ προς
μενον ει εσφερεν hοταν δε
λεσιαν ποιεσαντον δεκα hε
ερι αλλο μεδενος προτερον
ε εκκλεσιαν ποιεν τος πρυτ
αι τοις στρατεγοις τον νεο
οις περι δε το εκπλο τον νεο
πανορθοσθαι εν τοι δεμο h
κκλεσιαν ποιοντον hοταν κε
ον και τες αλλες hυπερεσιας
και αργυριο ες καλλιερεσιν
hε...α...σι...ιλιον
A-7
Though only a dozen years
before the ratification of the
Ionic alphabet, the older
Attic script still holds sway
as shown in this late 5th c.
BC decree.
EM 6978 Honorific Decrees for Eukles (402 BC) and Philokles (399 BC)
ΥΤΑΝΕΥΕΝ
ΕΥΣΕΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΕΥΕΝΣΙΜΙ
ΥΣΕΠΕΣΤΑΤΕΕΥΡΙΠΠΙΔΗ
ΟΝΕΥΚΛΕΙΑΝΔΡΑΓΑΘΙ
ΕΠΕΙΔΗΑΝΗΡΑΓΑΘΟΣΕΓΕ
ΟΝΑΘΗΝΑΙΩΝΚΑΙΤΗΝΚΑΘ
ΑΙΩΝΚΑΙΤΗΝΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙ
ΗΙΒΟΛΗΙΚΑΙΤΩΙΔΗΜΩ[Ι]
ΣΘΟΦΟΡΙΑΝΕΙΝΑΙΑΥΤΩ[Ι]
ΕΠΕΣΤΑΤΕ and ΕΠΕΣΤΑΤEI
Ε = EI = [i] used interchangeably
(same word, same inscription,
different spelling )
ΤΟΙ ΔΕΜΟΙ --> ΤΩΙ ΔΗΜΩΙ
Ο = Ω, Ε = Η
ΤΩΙΔΗΜΩΙ ΛΕΩΝΤΙΣΕΠΡΥ
ΑΙΟΣΕΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΕΥΕΝΕΥΦ
[ Ε]ΠΕΣΤΑΤΕΙΜΕΛΑΝΩΠΟΣΕΙΠ
ΛΗΙΕΠΕΙΔΗΑΝΗΡΑΓΑΘΟΣ
ΙΛΟΚΛΕΟΥΣΠΕΡΙΤΟΝΔΗΜΟ[Ν]
ΗΓΚΑΘΟΔΟΝΤΟΥΔΗΜΟΕΨΗΦ
ΣΠΡΟΕΔΡΟΥΣΟΙΑΝΤΥΓΧΑΝ
ΕΙΣΤΗΝΠΡΩΤΗΝΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑ
ΙΛΟΚΛΕΟΥΣΤΟΥΕΥΚΛΕΟΥΣ
ΣΚΑΙΚΟΣΜΙΟΣΔΟΚΕΙΕΙΝΑ[Ι]
ΠΡΥΤΑΝΕΣΙΤΟΙΣΑΕΙΠΡΥΤ
ΒΑΛΛΕΣΘΑΙΤΗΣΒΟΛΗΣΕ
ΤΗΙΒΟΛΗΙΕΙΝΑΙΤΗΓΚΗ
ΡΤΩΙ ΠΑΤΡΙΑΥΤΟΟ
ΜΟΝΤΟΝ ΑΘΗΝΑΙΩΝ
υτανευεν
ευς εγραμματευεν Σιμι
υς επεστατε ευριππιδη
ον Ευκλει ανδραγαθι
επειδη ανηρ αγαθος εγε
ον Αθηναιων και τηγ καθ
αιων και την ελευθερι
ηι βοληι και τωι δημω[ι]
σθοφοριαν ειναι αυτω[ι]
τωι δημωι Λεωντις επρυ
αιος εγραμματευεν Ευφ
[ε]πεστατει Μελανωπος ειπ
ληι επειδη ανηρ αγαθος
ιλοκλεους περι τον δημο[ν]
ηγ ξαθοδον του δημο εψηφ
ς προεδρους οι αν τυγχαν
εις την πρωτην εκκλησια
ιλοκλεους του Ευκλεους
ς και κοσμιος δοκει εινα[ι]
πρυτανεσι τοις αει πρυτ
βαλλεσθαι της βολης ε
τηι βοληι ειναι τηγ κη
ρ τωι πατρι αυτο ο
μον τον Αθηναιων
A-8
ΛΕΩΝΤΙΣ for ΛΕΟΝΤΙΣ
Ω = Ο = [o] used interchangeably
(orthographical error due to
same sound)
ΤΟY ΔHΜΟ for ΤOY ΔΗΜOY
O for OY persisted for a time
ΤΗΣ ΒΟΛΗΣ for ΤΗΣ ΒΟΥΛΗΣ
O for OY persisted for a time
ΤΩΙ ΠΑΤΡΙ ΑΥΤΟ for ΤΩΙ ΠΑΤΡΙ ΑΥΤΩΙ
ΤΟΝ ΑΘΗΝΑΙΩΝ for ΤΩΝ ΑΘΗΝΑΙΩΝ
Clearly, Ω = Ο
This decree, written around the time of
the ratification of the Ionic alphabet,
shows a compromised transition from
the old writing system to the new as it
reflects elements of both systems.
EM 12749 SEG XXV 149 (303/2 BC)
Τ Ο Ι Σ Ε ΘΕ Λ ΟΝΤ Α Ι Σ Ε Π
ΜΕ Γ Α Σ Α Φ Ι Κ Ο ΜΕ Ν Ο Σ Ε Ι Σ Τ Η Ν
ΜΕ ΩΣ Τ Ο Υ Σ Υ Π Ε Ν Α Ν Τ Ι Ο Υ Σ Τ Η Ι Δ
Χ ΩΡ Α Ν Τ Η Ν Α ΘΗ Ν Α Ι ΩΝ Κ Α Ι Τ ΩΝ Α Λ
Ρ Α Γ Ε Γ Ο Ν Ε Ν Β ΟΗ ΘΗ Σ ΩΝ ΜΕ Τ Α Δ Υ Ν
Γ Ε Ν Ο ΜΕ Ν Ο Σ Π Ο Λ Λ Α Σ ΜΕ Ν Η Δ Η Π Ο Λ
ΒΑ Σ Ι Λ Ε Ι Α Ι Κ Ι ΝΔ Υ ΝΟΝΚ Α Ι ΠΟ Ν
Τ Ο Υ Τ Ι ΜΩΝ Κ Α Ι Π Ε Ρ Ι Π Λ Ε Ι Σ Τ Ο Υ
Κ Α Ι Δ Ε Η ΘΕ Ν Τ ΩΝ Η Γ Ε Ι Σ ΘΑ Ι Τ Η
Κ Α Τ Α Π Ε Λ Ο Π Ο Ν Ν Η Σ Ο Ν Π Ρ Α Ξ Ε Ω ΝΠ Ο
ΚΤ Ο Ι Σ ΕΞ ΕΒΑΛΕΝΕΚΤ ΗΣ ΧΩΡΑΣΤ Ο
ΘΑ Ι Τ Ο Ι Σ Ε ΘΕ Λ ΟΝ Τ ΑΙ Σ Ε Π Ι Λ Ε Κ Τ Ο
Η ΜΗ Τ Ρ Ι Ο Ν Α Ν Τ Ι Γ Ο Ν Ο Υ Β Α Σ Ι Λ Ε Α Β
Φ Ι ΠΠΟΥ Ε ΝΑ Γ ΟΡ Α Ι ΠΑΡ ΑΤ ΗΝ Δ ΗΜ Ο
ΟΥ Σ ΑΛ Λ ΟΥ Σ Ε Λ Λ Η ΝΑΣ Ι Δ Ρ Υ Σ ΑΣ Θ Α Ι
Θ Ι Σ Τ Α ΜΕ Ν Ο Υ Σ Ε Ι Σ Τ Α Σ Θ Υ Σ Ι Α Σ Τ Α Σ
Ρ Ι Ο Υ Κ Α Ι Δ Η Μ Η Τ Ρ Ι Ω Ι Σ Ω Τ Η Ρ Ι Θ Υ Ε Ι [Ν]
Ν ΩΣ Σ Ε ΜΝ ΟΤ Α Τ Α Κ Α Ι Κ Α Λ Λ Α Ι Σ Τ Α Κ Α
Τ ΩΝ Ε Π Ι Λ Ε Κ Τ ΩΝ Τ Ω Ι Β Α Σ Ι Λ Ε Ι Δ Ε
Ο Ν Τ Ε Τ Ι ΜΗ Κ Α Σ Ι Ν Τ Ο Υ Σ Ε Υ Ε Ρ Γ Ε Τ
ΜΑ Ι Σ Τ Ι ΜΩΣ Ι Ν . . .
τοι ς ε θε λο νταις ε π
μ ε γας αφι κομ ε νος ε ις την
μ ε ως το υς υπεν αντιου ς τηι δ
χωρ αν την Α θηναι ων και των αλ
ραγ εγ ονεν β οηθη σων μετα δυ ν
γ εν ομ εν ος πολ λας μ ε ν ηδη πολ
β ασιλ ει αι κιν δυνον και πον
του τιμ ων και πε ρι πλ ε ιστου
και δε ηθ εντω ν ηγε ισ θαι τη
κατα Π ελ οπον νησο ν πραξ εω ν πο
κτο ις ε ξ εβ αλ εν ε κ της χωρας το
θαι το ις εθ ε λονται ς ε πιλε κτο
ημ ητριο ν Α ντιγ ονο υ βασ ιλε α β
φ ιππο υ ε ν αγο ραι παρ α την Δ ημο
ου ς αλ λου ς Ε λλην ας ιδρυ σασ θαι
θι σταμ εν ους ε ις τα ς θυ σιας τας
ρι ου κα ι Δημητρ ιωι Σ ωτηρι θ υει[ ν]
ν ως σε μ νοτατα κα ι καλλ ιστα κα
των ε πιλε κτω ν τω ι βα σιλ ει δε
ων τε τιμ ηκασ ιν του ς ε υε ργ ε τ
μ αις τιμ ωσιν .. .
A-9
Sample of the definitive postEucleidian Attic writing as it
would generally appear for
centuries to come.
In this Attic decree grammatical
forms appear more distinct, and
orthographical errors and phonopathy effects are absent (notice,
for instance, that N before B or
Π does not turn into M.
In the hands of a less literate
author, this writing would have
most likely included various
orthographical errors.
CHANGES IN THE ATTIC ALPHABET AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE
A close examination of the above annotated Attic decrees leads to a number of
observations regarding the historical sounds of Greek:
CONSONANTS
The form of a number of 5th c. BC Attic decree consonants becomes markedly different
in the 4th c. BC. The chart below shows the older form of certain consonants, along with
the form they officially assumed upon the ratification of the Ionic alphabet:
th
th
5 c. BC
4 c. BC
th
th
5 c. BC
4 c. BC
Λ
became
Γ
XsYΛ ΛΡΑΦsΕΙ
ΣΥΓΓΡΑΨΗΙ [χ]συγγράψῃ
I
became
Λ
ΑLLA
ΑΛΛΑ ἀλλά
I
became
Z
ΝΟΜΙI ΟΜΕΝΑ
ΝΟΜΙΖΟΜΕΝΑ νομιζόμενα
Χ e, K e
became
i, Ξ
ΕΔΟΧeΕΝ
ΕΔΟΞΕΝ ἔδοξεν
RI e, Φ e became
Ψ
ΦeΕΦΟe
ΨΗΦΟΣ ψῆφος
s
Σ
became
These changes in form were strictly graphic, not phonetic.
VOWELS E, O and H, Ω
A more radical alphabetic change in Attic Greek was effected by the adoption of H and Ω.
The Athenians began to use these two symbols from about the mid-5th c. BC as
compensatory marks in verse, and later in the century as regular letters in composition. H
and Ω are thus already seen in some pre-Eucleidian decrees. In the chart below, the left
column shows the letters in the 5th c. BC that stood for the same sounds the letters in the
middle column represented in the 4th c. BC. The chart in essence sums up how the older
Attic spelling made a multitasked use of E and O :
E
stood for
EΙ stood for
O
stood for
OI stood for
E, EI, H, ΗΙ as in
ΒΟΛΕ =
ΦΕΡΕ =
βολή, βούλει, βουλή
φέρε, φέρει, φέρῃ
ΕΙ, ΗΙ
as in
ΒΟΛΕΙ =
βούλει, βουλῇ, βολῇ
O, Ω, OY
as in
ΔΟΛΟΣ =
δόλος, δόλους, δοῦλος, δούλους
OI, ΩΙ
as in
ΑΝΘΡΟΠΟΙ = ἄνθρωποι, ἀνθρώπῳ
A-10
H(h) and H(η)
Some scholars hold that in the 5th c. BC Attic H was pronounced as an aspirate (e.g., as
the h in have), whereas after 403 BC it was used as the letter H(η). Still others, like
Gignac, hold that H ceased being used as an aspirate in New Testament times (2.18). A
look at Attic decrees, however, shows that by the 5th century BC, H as an aspirate had
long been a relic of antiquity.
One decree, for instance, shows H both as h and as η literally side by side. First, we see
ΤΕΙ HIEPEAI τει hιερεαι (τῃ hιερεᾳ), and a few lines below we see the same word as
ΤΗΙ ΙΕΡEAI τηι ιερεαι (τῃ ιερεᾳ), that is, not only without the aspiration H(h), but
also with H as η.2 (Note the alternative spelling of τει as τηι.) At the same time, the
legible script of the inscription shows H as η no fewer than seven times, including the
article τῃ before its noun ιερεαι (ιερεᾳ) “priestess.” This can only mean, on the one
hand, that the presence of H(h) in 5th century Attic decrees had no effect on
pronunciation and, on the other, that its presence did not confuse native Athenians
capable of distinguishing initial (and mute) H(h) from the vowel H(η).
That H as an aspiration symbol in Attic had no acoustic value is further corroborated by
the testimony of a number of 5th c. BC Attic decrees. Listed below are examples of
words that one would expect to see aspirated but whose aspiration mark H(h) is missing
(i.e., not inscribed):
th
Decree &
Line (L)
th
th
5 c. pre-Eucleidian
spelling without H(h)
4 c. post-Eucleidian
spelling
EM 13044 L10 448/7 BC
ΕΚΑΣΤΟΝ
ΕΚΑΣΤΟΝ
ἑκαστον
EM 6849
ΕΚΑΣΤΩ
ἑκαστῳ
L14
ΕΚΑΣΤΟ
ΤΟΙΣ ΥΕ [ ΣΙΝ
ΤΟΙΣ ΥΙΕΣΙΝ
τοις υἱεσιν
L12 424/3 BC
ΟΣΠΕΡ
ΩΣΠΕΡ
ὡσπερ
L23
ΟΜΟΛΟΓΟΣΙΝ
ΟΜΟΛΟΓΩΣΙΝ
ὁμολογωσιν
L36
ΕΚΑΣΤΟ
ΕΚΑΣΤΩ
ἑκαστῳ
L39
ΕΚΑΣΤΟΣ
ΕΚΑΣΤΟΣ
ἑκαστος
L39
ΕΛΛΕΣΠΟΝΤΟ-
ΕΛΛΗΣΠΟΝΤΟ-
ἑλλησποντο-
EM 6596
5 cent.
BC date
L3
432/1 BC
ΦΥΛΑΚΑΣ
φυλακας
ΦΥΛΑΚΑΣ
L55
ΕΟΣ
ΕΩΣ
ἑως
L56
ΟΙ ΣΤΡΑΤΕΓΟΙ
ΟΙ ΣΤΡΑΤΕΓΟΙ
οἱ στρατηγοι
EM 6577
L32 445 BC
ΕΜΕΡΟΝ
ΗΜΕΡΩΝ
ἡμερων
EM 6601
L8
ΑΝΤΙ ΟΝ
ΑΝΤΙ ΩΝ
αντι ὡν
2
410/9 BC
EM 8116 B (424/3 BC), τει hιερεαι (line 5), τηι ιερεαι (line 10), p. 51. (See p. A-6)
A-11
E, O and H, Ω, OY
Some epigraphs from the beginning of the last quarter of the 5th c. BC show sporadic,
though clearly “post-Eucleidian,” use of Ω and ΟΥ right along with Ο(ο) and Ο(ου);
and of H(η) and monophthongized EI(ει) right along with E(η) and spurious EI(ηι). This
strongly suggests that O and Ω were interchangeable as were also ΕΙ and Η.
Furthermore, the use of H, Ω, OY indicates that 5th-century Athenians were becoming
increasingly dependent on the Ionic script. These points are supported by the following
reprentative examples from the two sides of a 5th century Attic decree. 3
Side I
Ο
for
Ω
O, OY for OY
ΠΟLΕΤΑΣ
ΒΟΜΟN
ΤΟΥΤΟΣ
for
for
for
πωλητας
βωμόν
τουτους
first syllable ου, second ο
Side II
ΕΙ
ΕΙ
for
for
ΗΙ
ΕΙ
ΤΕΙ ΒΟLΕΙ
EIΠE
for
for
τηι βουληι
ειπε
ΗΙ
for
ΗΙ
Ε
Η
for
for
Η
Η
Ο
Ω
for
for
Ω
Ω
THI ΣΤΗLΗΙ
ΤΗΙ ΙΕΡΕΑΙ
ΔΕΜΟΙ
ΜΗΝΟΣ
ΤΗΣ ΝΙΚΗΣ
ΔΕΜΟΙ
ΚΩΛΑΚΡΕΤΩΣΙ
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
τηι στηληι
τηι ιερεαι
δημωι
μηνος
της Νικης
δημωι
Κωλακρετωσι
τῃ βουλῃ
ειπε -monophthongized ει was
confused with spurious ει (ῃ)
τῃ στηλῃ
τῃ ιερεᾳ
δημῳ
μηνος
της Νικης
δημῳ
Κωλακρετωσι
It is important to distinguish between “spurious” EI, OI and “proper” EI, OI. In the first
case, compensatory adscript “I” evolved to a subscript (around the 12th c. AD). In the
second case, iota “I” during the iotacization process of EI and OI became the dominant
sound (2.2). As for the “I” in AI, formerly Æ, it replaced the E of Æ by analogy with
the spelling of EI and OI (2.14). The distinction, including AI, is as follows:
ΕΙ = ΗΙ = ηι = ῃ
ΟΙ = ΩΙ = ωι = ῳ
ΑΙ = ΑΙ = αι = ᾳ
spurious diphthongs (digraphs)
EI = ει
ΟΙ = οι
AI = ε
proper diphthongs (digraphs)
In post-Eucleidian times the old spelling persisted: OY was still represented by O,
though right along with OY, as in ΤΟΥ ΔΗΜΟ του δημο (= του δημου).4 Generally,
though, 4th century Attic inscriptions show adherence to post-Eucleidian writing.5
3
4
5
EM 8116 side I (427/424 BC), EM 8116 side II (424/423 BC), p. 51. (See p. A-5)
EM 6978 (402-399 BC), p. 105. (See p. A-8)
EM 7368 (302/301 BC), p. 115; and EM 12749 (SEG XXV 149 – 303/2 BC). (See p. A-9)
A-12
Note: In the 5th c. BC the first E in words such as ΠEPIKLEΣ, ΘΕΜΙΣΤΟΚLΕΣ, ΣΚΕLΕ,
ΕΚΚLΕΣΙΑ, ΗΕLLΕΝΟΝ stood for a sound different from that of the second E. The
retention of the first E as ε in these words and the substitution of H for the second E as η
later in the century (i.e., ΠEPIKΛΗΣ, ΘΕΜΙΣΤΟΚΛΗΣ, ΣΚΕΛΗ, ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑ, ΕΛΛΗΝΩΝ)
clearly speak of an orthographic adjustment.6 To interpret such differences in any other way
would imply that upon the ratification of the Ionic alphabet, all contemporary
Athenians—one being Plato, then in his mid-20s—would have had to harmonize their
pronunciation with the sounds of a new Attic Greek pronunciation in midstream!
PHONOPATHY
A speaker’s socio-academic background, speech idiosyncrasies, physical condition,
mood, occasion, articulatory speed, and the like are all forces that have a bearing on
one’s pronunciation. During speech such forces are constantly at work, though
apparently more so at word juncture, where sounds more noticeably separate, fade,
emerge, clash, merge, or blend, often for reasons of euphony. This pathology of speech
sounds is termed phonopathy.
Phonopathy is often reflected in spelling. In New Testament manuscripts, as already
seen (2.11), there is no paucity of cases in which scribes followed their ear in spelling
euphonically, for instance, γ for ν before γ (τὸγ γραμματέα), λ for ν before λ (τὸλ
λόγον), or μ for ν before φ (τὸμ φόρον). There is virtually no variation of phonopathy
seen at word juncture in NT MSS that is not seen also in Attic decrees—the only
difference being that NT writings make use of the letters Ψ(ψ) and Ξ(ξ), neither of
which is seen in older Attic decrees. Listed below are some examples.
Letters at
juncture
Effect on
spelling
Example
Regular spelling
Κ...Β
Ν...Μ
Ν...Σ
Ν...Β
Ν...Π
Σ...Σ
ΓΒ
ΜΜ
ΓΧΣ
ΜΒ
ΜΠ
ΣΧΣ
ΕΓ ΒΟΛΗΣ 7
ΕΑΜ ΜΕ ΤΙ 8
ΤΕΓ ΧΣΥΜΜΑΧΙΑΝ 9
ΤΕΝ ΒΟΛΕΝ 10
ΤΕΜ ΠΟΛΙΝ 11
ΤΑΣ ΧΣΥΓΓΡΑΦΑΣ 12
ΕΚ ΒΟΥΛΗΣ
ΕΑΝ ΜΗ ΤΙ
ΤΗΝ ΣΥΜΜΑΧΙΑΝ
ΤΗΝ ΒΟΥΛΗΝ
ΤΗΝ ΠΟΛΙΝ
ΤΑΣ ΣΥΓΓΡΑΦΑΣ
εκ βουλης
εαν μη τι
την συμμαχιαν
την βουλην
την πολιν
τας συγγραφας
ΜΦΣ
ΠΕΜΦΣΑΙ 13
ΠΕΜΨΑΙ
πεμψαι
intervocalic:
MΠΣ
6
English e stands for a variety of sounds: me, effort, crepe, sergeant, dear, offer. If voters decided to
adopt a different alphabet symbol for each sound the e represents in these words, the adoption would
mean an orthographic change, not a change in pronunciation.
7
EM 8116 (side I, line 16), p. 51. (See p. A-5)
8
EM 6596 (line 56), p. 63.
9
EM 6855 (line 2), p. 67. (with epenthetic X before Σ)
10
EM 6591β (line 2), p. 78. (See p. A-7)
11
EM 6591α (line 6), p. 78.
12
EM 6577 (line 19), p. 81. (with epenthetic X before Σ) (See p. A-3)
13
EM 6596 (line 17), p. 63.
A-13
ANALYSIS OF PHONOPATHY
An inscriptionist’s acoustically-driven chisel is subject to phonopathy. Though he knows
EΓ is not a word (not EK), by relying on his ear he writes ΕΓ before ΒΟΥΛΗΣ. This is
due to the fact that in his pronunciation voiceless stop K becomes a voiced continuant as
it meets voiced continuant B [v]. Hence, K becomes its voiced continuant associate Γ.
Nasal N, on the other hand, is assimilated by nasal M, hence N+M = MM. And voiced N
transfers its voiceness onto voiceless Π, causing it to become voiced, hence MΠ = [mb]
(2.11)—a common phonopathy feature in conversational Neohellenic.
REVIEW OF VOWEL LETTER CHANGES
A look at pre-Eucleidian E and O side by side with their post-Eucleidian associates reveals
the orthographic constraints their use placed on 5th century Attic versifiers, grammarians,
playwrights, orators, tragedians, engravers, schoolmasters, pupils, and ordinary citizens.
And while H and Ω brought confusion and chagrined old practitioners for a time, they
also brought relief from the burden E and O were too ill-equipped to continue to carry.
Greek grammarians could now expertly apply artistic strokes to visually communicate
fine grammatical distinctions, distinctions that still hold true in Neohellenic.
pre-Eucleidian
ε
η
E = E
E = H
E = HI
E = EI
EI
O
O
Ο
OI
=
=
=
=
=
associated
EI = EI
confused and
ΕΚΚLΕΣΙΑΝ
ΕΚΚLΕΣΙΑΝ
ΚΑLLΙΚΡΑΤΕΣ
ΒΟLΕΝ
ΚELΕΥΕ
ΠΟΙΕΝ
ΕΝΑΙ
ΝΕΟΚLΕΙΔΕΣ
ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΕΙΟΝ
ΤΥΧΕΙ
ΣΤΕΣΕΙ
ΕΠΙΦΣΕΦΙΖΕΙ
ΠΡΥΤΑΝΕΙΑΣ
ΕΜ ΠΟLΕΙ
ΤΕΙ ΒΟLΕΙ
ΠΡΟΤΕΡΟΝ
ΒΟLΕΝ
ΑΘΕΝΑΙΟΝ
ΑΘΕΝΑΙΟΙ
ΤΟΙΣ
ΤΟΙ ΔΗΜΟΙ
ΛΥΣΑΙ
ΑΘΕΝΑΙΟΙ
ΤEΙ AΘENAI
post-Eucleidian
HI*
O
OY
Ω*
OI
ΟΙ = ΩΙ
AI = AI
AI = AI
ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑΝ
EKKLΗΣΙΑΝ
ΚΑΛΛΙΚΡΑΤΗΣ
ΒΟΥΛΗΝ
ῃ
ΚΕΛΕΥΗΙ
ει
ΠΟΙΕΙΝ
ΕΙΝΑΙ
ει = ι [i] ΝΕΟΚΛΕΙΔΗΣ
ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΕΙΟΝ
ΤΥΧΕΙ
ΣΤΗΣΕΙ
*(2.2, 2.17) ΕΠΙΨΗΦΙΖΕΙ
ΠΡΥΤΑΝΕΙΑΣ
ΕΝ ΠΟΛΕΙ
ῃ (A-6) ΤΗΙ ΒΟΥΛΗΙ
ο
ΠΡΟΤΕΡΟΝ
ου
ΒΟΥΛΗΝ
ω (A-8) ΑΘHΝΑΙΩΝ
οι
ΑΘΗΝΑΙΟΙ
ΤΟΙΣ
ῳ
ΤΩΙ ΔΗΜΩΙ
ε
ΛΥΣΑΙ
ΑΘΗΝΑΙΟΙ
ᾳ
ΤΗΙ ΑΘΗΝΑΙ
A-14
εκκλησιαν
εκκλησιαν
Καλλικρατης
βουλην
κελευῃ
ποιειν
ειναι
Νεοκλειδης
γραμματειον
τυχει
στησει
επιψηφιζει
πρυτανειας
εν πολει
τῃ βουλῃ
προτερον
βουλην
Αθηναιων
Αθηναιοι
τοις
τῳ δημῳ
λυσαι
Αθηναιοι
τῃ Αθηνᾷ
GENERAL OBSERVATION REGARDING E AND O
During the incursion of Ionic H and Ω into pre-Eucleidian Attic writing in the 5th c. BC,
E as E, EI, HI, H (ΕΠΕΣΤΑΤΕ / ΕΠΕΣΤΑΤEI, p. A-8; ΦΕΡΕΝ for ΦΕΡΕIΝ, p. A-5);
TEI BOLEI, THI ΣΤΗΛΗΙ, p. A-6); ΔΗΜΩΙ, p. A-8) was confused with and
popularly read as the ι-sound of monophthongized EI (EIΠE, p. A-5); and
O was confused with and read as Ω (ΛΕΩΝΤΙΣ for ΛΕΟΝΤΙΣ, p. A-8).
This observation is in line with Plato’s remarks regarding the Athenians’ use of EI or H
in place of I, and of Ω in place of O (2.2). Ironically, Plato’s remarks foreshadowed a
bigger linguistic phenomenon; for, following the ratification of the Ionic alphabet, the
interchangeability of these ι-sound and o-sound letters were to pave an unbroken trail of
orthographical errors among the less literate from Classical Attic down to Neohellenic.
SUMMARY
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
The ratification of the Ionic alphabet included the replacement of a number of
consonant letters with letters that were different in form but representative of
the same sounds that were represented by their replaced counterparts.
H and Ω were adopted to overcome the limitations posed by E and O and to
allow orthography to more adequately represent grammatical forms.
E continued to be used as ε, while H replaced all ι–sound representations of E.
HI replaced spurious EI, while proper diphthong (digraph) EI remained.
The distinction between O and Ω was strictly grammatical. ΩI replaced
spurious OI, and proper diphthong (digraph) OI remained.
O and Ω, sounding alike, were used interchangeably by the less literate.
EI, H, I, sounding alike, were used interchangeably by the less literate.
Familiarity with the phonopathy of Attic sounds helps explain certain spelling
peculiarities. Pronunciation-spelling peculiarities are seen in NT MSS and
among the less literate in Neohellenic.
There is no evidence that Attic H(h) had any acoustic properties, as H(h) is
often seen used erratically or it is missing altogether.
CONCLUSION
The foregoing examination of Attic decrees conclusively shows, on the one hand, that
EI(ει), HI(ῃ), and H(η), used in place of pre-Eucleidian E for sounds other than the
sound of E(ε), and being interchangeable, are associated with the same ι-sound; and, on
the other, that O(ο) and Ω(ω), used in place of pre-Eucleidian O other than the sound of
O(ου), are associated with the same o-sound. It further shows that the acoustically-led
interchangeable spelling of these two sets of letters (ει, ῃ, η and ο, ω, respectively),
seen especially in the light of this work as a whole, is traceable diachronically from
Neohellenic to Classical Attic.
A-15
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