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Contents
LESSONS
2
GRAMMAR
pp.
Remember
1
Countable & uncountable nouns
How much/many, many, much, some, any, a lot of, plenty
Remember
2
Subject & Object pronouns Possessive adjectives & pronouns
Possessive case - Prepositions of place
Remember
Remember
Lesson
Lesson
Lesson
Vocabulary
Lesson
Lesson
Lesson
Vocabulary
Writing
Writing
REVISION 1
Lesson
Lesson
Lesson
Vocabulary
Lesson
Lesson
Lesson
Vocabulary
Writing
Writing
REVISION 2
Lesson
Lesson
Lesson
Vocabulary
Lesson
Lesson
Lesson
Vocabulary
Writing
Writing
REVISION 3
Lesson
Lesson
Lesson
Vocabulary
Lesson
Lesson
Lesson
Vocabulary
Writing
Writing
REVISION 4
3
4
1
2
3
1
4
5
6
2
1
2
Present Simple
Grammalysis A2
Adverbs of frequency - time expressions
Present Continuous
Present Continuous vs. Present Simple
15-17
18-19
20-21
Future Simple
22-23
My Sitting Room
24-25
Future Simple vs. be going to + verb
26-27
Future Continuous
28-29
Can - be able to / Must - have to
30-31
32-33
Jobs in the House
My school subjects & activities this year
34
My favourite superhero
35
36-39
Was/were - Could <> was/were able to
40-41
Past Simple (1): regular verbs
42-43
Past Simple (2): irregular verbs
44-45
46-47
Eating out
Used to - Had to / didn’t have to
48-49
Past Continuous
50-51
Past Continuous vs. Past Simple
52-53
54-55
In the Town
56
My first day of school this year
57
My favourite celebration
58-61
Adjectives: comparative & superlative
62-63
Adverbs: comparative & superlative
64-65
Present Perfect (1): regular verbs
Key words (1)
Present Perfect (2): irregular verbs
66-67
68-69
Travel
Key words (2)
70-71
Present Perfect vs. Past Simple
72-73
Present Perfect Continuous
74-75
Free time activities at Home
76-77
My self-image
78
My busy month
79
(Lessons 13-18 Vocabulary 5-6)
19
20
21
7
22
23
24
8
7
8
12-14
be going to + verb
(Lessons 7-12 Vocabulary 3-4)
13
14
15
5
16
17
18
6
5
6
8-11
Non continuous verbs
(Lessons 1-6 Vocabulary 1-2)
7
8
9
3
10
11
12
4
3
4
5-7
80-83
May - might - should
84-85
Past Perfect Simple
86-87
Past Perfect Continuous
88-89
Feelings
90-91
First and zero conditionals
92-93
Second conditional
94-95
Third conditional
96-97
Jobs
My personal funny story
My expert advice to you
(Lessons 19-24 Vocabulary 7-8)
98-99
100
101
102-105
LESSONS
GRAMMAR
pp.
Lesson
25
Future Perfect
106-107
Lesson
26
Wish / If only
108-109
Lesson
27
Too & (not) enough
110-111
9
Countries & Nationalities / The Weather
Vocabulary
112-113
Lesson
28
Passive voice (1): Present & Past Simple
114-115
Lesson
29
Passive voice (2): All tenses
116-117
Lesson
30
Passive voice (3): The passive infinitive
118-119
Vocabulary
10
Writing
9
Writing
10
REVISION 5
Health problems
120-121
My predictions for my future
122
My three wishes
123
(Lessons 25-30 Vocabulary 9-10)
124-127
Lesson
31
Question tags
128-129
Lesson
32
Relative pronouns
130-131
Lesson
33
Relative clauses: defining vs. non-defining
132-133
Vocabulary
11
Lesson
Technology and Communication
134-135
34
Full vs. bare infinitive
136-137
Lesson
35
The gerund
138-139
Lesson
36
Be / Get used to
140-141
Vocabulary
12
Natural disasters and Man-made problems
Writing
11
About my country
12
My sincere apologies to you
Writing
REVISION 6
(Lessons 31-36 Vocabulary 11-12)
142-143
144
145
146-149
Lesson
37
Reflexive / Emphatic pronouns
150-151
Lesson
38
Causative form
152-153
Lesson
39
Modal Perfect forms
154-155
Vocabulary
13
Lesson
Music
156-157
40
Indirect speech (1): Statements
158-159
Lesson
41
Indirect speech (2): Questions
160-161
Lesson
42
Indirect speech (3): Commands / Requests
162-163
Vocabulary
14
The Media
Writing
13
My opinion about having chores done
Writing
14
My exclusive interview
REVISION 7 (Lessons 37-42 Vocabulary 13-14)
164-165
166
167
168-171
FINAL REVISION 1
Tenses: Present & Future
172
FINAL REVISION 2
Tenses: Present Perfect & Past
173
FINAL REVISION 3
Modals, semi-modals & modal perfect
174
FINAL REVISION 4
Adjectives & Adverbs: comparison
175
FINAL REVISION 5
Conditionals & Wishes
176
FINAL REVISION 6
Passive voice
177
FINAL REVISION 7
Relative pronouns & Clauses
178
FINAL REVISION 8
Infinitives & Gerund
179
FINAL REVISION 9
Reflexives & Causative form
180
FINAL REVISION 10
Indirect speech
181
Writer’s guide & companion
183-189
Glossary (Vocabulary 1-14)
190-191
Verbs & Tenses
192-195
Irregular Verbs
196
Grammalysis A2
3
countable & uncountable
Remember 1 How many/much...? - many - muchNouns:
- some - any - a lot of - plenty of
Grammar Theory
A
Countable plural nouns: regular & irregular
A1. Μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά με ομαλό πληθυντικό
A2. Μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά με ανώμαλο πληθυντικό
Ο ομαλός πληθυντικός των μετρήσιμων ουσιαστικών σχηματίζεται
με τις καταλήξεις -s, -es, -ies ή -ves, ανάλογα με την περίπτωση.
1. Κατάληξη -s: για τα περισσότερα ουσιαστικά,
π.χ. book books, apple apples.
2. Κατάληξη -es: για ουσιαστικά που λήγουν σε -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -o,
π.χ. bus buses, class classes, brush brushes,
church churches, box boxes, potato potatoes.
Εξαιρέσεις: ουσιαστικά σε -o ξένης προέλευσης,
π.χ. photo photos, piano pianos, kilo kilos, video videos.
3. Κατάληξη -ies: για ουσιαστικά που λήγουν σε σύμφωνο + y,
π.χ. baby babies, party parties. ΑΛΛΑ: boy boys.
4. Κατάληξη -ves: για ουσιαστικά που λήγουν σε -f και -fe,
π.χ. leaf leaves, life lives. Εξαίρεση: roof roofs.
Τα μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά που έχουν ανώμαλο πληθυντικό δεν
παίρνουν καμία από τις καταλήξεις των ομαλών.
1. Είτε παραμένουν ίδια, π.χ.
sheep = πρόβατο/-τα
fish = ψάρι /-ια
deer = ελάφι / -ια
species = είδος / -η
2. Είτε αλλάζει ένα γράμμα ή δύο, π.χ.
man - men
woman - women
tooth - teeth foot - feet
goose - geese
3. Είτε μπαίνει άλλη κατάληξη, π.χ.
child - children ox - oxen = βόδι / βόδια
4. Είτε αλλάζουν εντελώς, π.χ.
mouse - mice
person - people = άνθρωπος / άνθρωποι
1
Fill in with the plural forms
of the nouns:
-s
radios
toys
photos
kilos
-es
-ies
-ves
dishes
diaries
knives
foxes
glasses
potatoes
peaches
dish - diary - fox - radio - knife - toy - wolf - city - person - photo - glass - species
loaf - woman - potato - lady - peach - wife - goose - company - kilo - story - sheep
cities
ladies
companies
stories
2
ΘΥΜΗΣΟΥ ότι πριν από μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά πληθυντικού:
Βάζουμε How many ...?
How many churches are there in your city?
How many people are there in London?
lions in this zoo?
b. plenty of
c. some
3. How
a. a lot of
boys in our class.
c. many
fish are there in that tank?
b. many
c. any
4. He's very popular, so he's got
a. many
b. plenty of
5. Let's have
a. any
b. many
fans.
c. any
pancakes for breakfast.
c. some
women
geese
sheep
many - any - a lot of - some
many
many
5. Let's buy some
friends at school. Just two.
a lot of
people in it.
pen friends have you got?
mice in the house.
flowers for mum today. Four or five
roses for example.
many
6. There aren't
4
Circle a, b or c.
2. We haven't got
a. some
b. a lot of
wives
species
any
4. Don't be
afraid. There aren't
Βάζουμε many & any (στην ερώτηση και την άρνηση)
Are there many / any boys in your class?
She hasn’t got many / any friends at school.
1. Are there
a. any
loaves
2. I live in
a very big city and there
are
3.How
people
wolves
Fill in with:
1. I haven't got
Βάζουμε a lot of, plenty of & some (στην κατάφαση)
We’ve got a lot of / plenty of / some geese in our garden.
3
irregular
oranges in the fridge. Just three.
Rewrite in the plural using:
some - any
1. There isn't a church in that city.
There aren't any churches in those cities.
2. Has your neighbour got a goose in her yard?
Have your neighbours got any geese in their yards?
3. There is a wild sheep and a small deer over there.
There are some wild sheep and some small deer over there.
4. There is a man and a child in that photo.
There are some men and some children in those photos.
Grammalysis A2
5
Grammar Theory
B
Uncountable nouns
Τα μη μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά ΔΕΝ έχουν πληθυντικό διότι δεν μπορούμε να τα αριθμήσουμε, π.χ. δεν μπορούμε να πούμε one water,
two waters. Είναι πάντα στον ενικό, ΔΕΝ παίρνουν a/an και συνοδεύονται από ρήματα στον ενικό.
Μη μετρήσιμα είναι αρκετά τρόφιμα και ποτά όπως: cheese, ham, butter, bread, meat, flour, milk, water, juice, coffee, coke, beer, etc.
Όταν θέλουμε να μιλήσουμε συγκεκριμένα για την ποσότητα τους, βάζουμε πριν από αυτά άλλα ουσιαστικά που είναι μετρήσιμα και
δείχνουν το βάρος τους, τη συσκευασία τους, κτλ. Θυμήσου ότι ενδιάμεσα μπαίνει πάντα η πρόθεση of. Παραδείγματα:
a can of beer a carton of milk
a jar of honey
a glass of lemonade a bottle of juice a litre of water a cup of coffee a slice of cheese μία φέτα τυρί
a bag of flour μία σακούλα αλεύρι
a kilo of meat ένα κιλό κρέας
a packet of spaghetti ένα πακέτο μακαρόνια
a loaf of bread
μία φραντζόλα ψωμί
a bar of chocolate μία πλάκα σοκολάτας
a piece of cake
ένα κομμάτι κέικ
a bowl of sugar
ένα μπολάκι ζάχαρη
5
6
Fill in the shopping list.
loaf/-ves
1. Two
kilos
of meat.
carton(s)
2. One
carton
of juice.
slice(s)
3. Four
cans
of beer.
packet(s)
4. One
loaf
of bread.
jar(s)
5. Three
bag(s)
can(s)
kilo(s)
packets
6. One
bag
of sugar.
7. Ten
slices
of ham.
8. One
jar
of jam.
3. Where's my
4. Let's buy a
bar
6. Please, give me the
1. There isn't
a. plenty of
b. much
2. Have we got
a. some
b. a lot of
3. I like spaghetti with
a. much
b. any
4. Let's have
a. some
jam for the pancakes?
c. any
butter in it.
c. plenty of
pizza for lunch.
b. much
c. any
5. Don't worry! We've got
a. much
b. a lot of
6
cheese in the fridge.
c. some
Grammalysis A2
much - any - plenty of - some
orange juice left. Only a glass or two.
some
spaghetti for dinner. There's half a
packet left in the cupboard.
any
milk left? Oh, no! I can't drink my
much
beer left. Ten cans at least!
lemonade is there in the fridge?
Write sentences with: There is / isn’t + a lot of - much - any
There is a lot of beer.
1.
2. There isn't much chocolate.
3. There isn't much milk.
4. There is a lot of honey.
5. There isn't any jam.
6. There isn't any apple juice.
2.
3.
6.
5.
4.
bread left.
c. any
b. bars
2. Let's make
5.How
1.
b. litre
a. cans
of beef, too.
got plenty of
4. We've
9
a. bowl b. bar
of sugar.
much
3. Isn't there
coffee black!
Βάζουμε much & any (στην ερώτηση και την άρνηση)
Is there much / any sugar in the bowl?
There isn’t much / any honey in the jar.
a. loaves b. litres
of water a day. a. kilo
cans
Fill in with:
b. bar
isn't
1. There
Βάζουμε a lot of, plenty of & some (στην κατάφαση)
We’ve got a lot of / plenty of / some juice in our fridge.
a. bag
of bread?
bowl
litre
7. Drink at least one
7
a. glass b. cup
of chocolate for Liz.
loaves
b. piece
a. bottle b. bowl
of tea?
5. Have we got enough
8. Let's get two
a. loaf
of cake, please?
of water in the fridge?
cup
Βάζουμε How much ...?
How much orange juice have we got?
How much milk is there in the fridge?
Circle a, b or c.
piece
bottle
2. Is there a
ΘΥΜΗΣΟΥ ότι πριν από μη μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά:
8
Circle a or b and fill in.
1. Can I have a
of spaghetti.
ένα "αλουμινένιο" κουτί μπύρα
ένα χαρτόκουτο γάλα
ένα βαζάκι μέλι
ένα ποτήρι λεμονάδα
ένα μπουκάλι χυμός
ένα λίτρο νερό
ένα φλιτζάνι καφές
HONEEY
HONEY
Jam
ΠΡΟΣΕΞΕ ότι μη μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά είναι κι
άλλες λέξεις που έχεις μάθει (εκτός από τρόφιμα
και ποτά), όπως:
money (χρήματα)
homework (εργασίες για το σπίτι)
housework (δουλειές του σπιτιού)
information (πληροφορίες)
furniture (έπιπλα)
Κι ενώ στα ελληνικά έχουν και ενικό και
πληθυντικό, στα αγγλικά έχουν μόνο ενικό, αλλά
με σημασία πληθυντικού. Π.χ. λέμε: I've got plenty
of homework (όχι homeworks) - We've got some
new furniture (όχι furnitures) - There isn't much
money left (όχι There aren't many moneys).
11
10
Rewrite the sentences correctly.
1. There are plenty of moneys in my bag. There is plenty of money in my bag.
2. Can you give me some informations?
Can you give me some information?
3. I like your furnitures. Are they new?
I like your furniture. Is it new?
4. I hate houseworks. They are tiring.
I hate housework. It is tiring.
5. Are all these homeworks for tomorrow?
Is all this homework for tomorrow?
Fill in with: How much - How many + a noun
from the list. (singular or plural)
How much
How many butter
peaches
12
butter
1.
peach
2.
glass
3.
How many
glasses
of wine can I drink?
cheese
4.
How much
cheese
would you like?
story
5.
How many stories
can you tell us?
money
6.
How much
money
have you got?
tooth
7.
How many
teeth
has the baby got?
brush
8.
How many brushes
do you need?
13
1.I would like
a. any
2.How many
a. loaves
b. a cup of
tea, please.
c. many
b. bars
of ham are there?
c. slices
3.Have you got
a. many
b. much
have we got?
can you eat?
14
Circle a, b or c.
money left?
c. plenty of
What can you see in the picture?
I can see
three eggs, two pieces of cheese, one jar of jam,
one bar of chocolate, two glasses of milk, and
three tomatoes.
Choose and fill in with the words:
any - slices - much - many - cans - plenty of - cartons
Dear diary,
We've got a party tonight, so there are
1.
plenty of
drinks from the
supermarket in the kitchen. There
4.Have we got any
a. flours
b. bag of flour
left?
c. flour
is beer and wine, but also ten
5.What lovely furniture!
a. Is it
b. Are they
expensive?
c. Are you
and twelve 3.
6.Are you afraid of
a. mice
b. mouse
?
c. mouses
7.How many
a. tooth
b. teeth
have sharks got?
c. tooths
8.There are
a. a lot of
b. much
cars in the city centre.
c. any
9.Let's buy
a. milks
from the supermarket.
b. some milk
c. a milk
one loaf of bread, ...
2.
cartons
of juice
cans
of coke.
We've also got
4.
5.
slices
of cheese and ham for the pizzas, but not
many and there isn't 6.
much
flour
either, only half a bag! Mum says it's enough, but I'm not so sure.
And I hope we've got tomatoes in the fridge, or else we can't make
7.
any
sauce! Anyway, I'm very excited and can't
wait to have lots of fun tonight.
Grammalysis A2
7
Remember 2
Grammar Theory
A
Subject & Object pronouns - Possessive adjectives & pronouns
Possessive case - Prepositions of place
Subject & Object pronouns
Προσωπικές αντωνυμίες (υποκείμενα & αντικείμενα ρημάτων)
Ξέρεις ήδη ότι τα subject pronouns είναι οι προσωπικές αντωνυμίες που βάζουμε
ΠΡΙΝ από τα ρήματα. Οι αντωνυμίες αυτές είναι τα υποκείμενα των ρημάτων.
Δείχνουν ποιος κάνει αυτό που λέει το ρήμα.
Παραδείγματα: I hate geography. / You are my best friend. / He is worried.
She likes zoology. / It is cold. / We have got a dog. / They live in the UK.
Για κάθε subject pronoun, υπάρχει αντίστοιχο object pronoun. Τα object pronouns
είναι προσωπικές αντωνυμίες που βάζουμε ΜΕΤΑ τα ρήματα και λέγονται αντικείμενα
των ρημάτων. Δείχνουν σε ποιον (ή σε τι) πηγαίνει η ενέργεια του ρήματος.
I (εγώ) you (εσύ)
he (αυτός)
she (αυτή)
it (αυτό)
we (εμείς)
you (εσείς)
they (αυτοί, ές, ά)
me (εμένα, με)
you (εσένα, σε)
him (αυτόν, τον)
her (αυτήν, την)
it (αυτό, το)
us (εμάς, μας)
you (εσάς, σας)
them (αυτούς, ές, ά
/ τους, τις, τα)
Παραδείγματα: Can you help me? - Of course I can help you. / Give him your book. / You can call her Chris or Christine.
Where's my book? I can't find it. / We're here. Can't you see us? / We can call them English or British.
Τα object pronouns μπαίνουν επίσης μετά από προθέσεις. Π.χ. Can you study with me? / Some of them are English.
Can you cook for us? / I've got a present for her. / Don't worry about us.
1
4
Choose and circle.
1. Sandra is online. Let's send it / her a short e-mail.
Rewrite the sentences as in the
example.
1. This flower shop belongs to Mr Watson.
2. You and Jean are my best friends and I trust you / us.
It belongs to him.
3. That rubber is ours. Give it back to them / us, please.
2. My sister and I often go out with our classmates.
4. What a cute little cat! Can I touch it / them?
We often go out with them.
5. Those ducks look very hungry. Let's feed him / them.
6. Our teacher talks too quickly. We don’t understand her / us.
3. My uncle sometimes visits me and my family.
7. Jim hasn’t got any money. Let’s give it / him some.
He sometimes visits us.
4. Miss Kent doesn't like the cake.
2
Fill in with:
5. Your parents are talking to Mrs Black.
1. Where is Sophie? Mum is worried
about
her
.
you fix
2. Dad! Our bikes are broken. Can
them
, please?
3. I don't hate apple juice! I just don't like it
5. I’m so thirsty! Can you give
me
7. It's Sam's birthday today. Let's buy
them
him
.
They
are flying to Paris tomorrow.
she
4. Does
often tells
5. He
often chat online?
us
up!
7. Does
anyone here like
(I / me)
(They / Them)
(we / us)
is from Ireland. (He / Him)
them
her
8. There
is Betty. Let’s talk to
Grammalysis A2
(We / Us)
(she / her)
funny stories.
He
6. Ted
isn't English.
8
?
.
a. she
b. him
a. he
a. we
is still sleeping.
b. she
3. Why don’t you tell
a. she
c. him
about your problem?
b. me
4. What's wrong with
c. you
? Why do you look so sad?
b. you
c. us
5. I can’t do my homework. Can you help me with
a. him
b. them
(they / them)
6. Your friends are very nice.
(she / her)
a. They
.
c. her
2. Bob is late again. I'm sure
back my book, please!
Circle a, b or c and fill in.
1. What is Tania talking about? I don’t understand
a present.
can't come to the party tonight.
me
2. Give
3.
5
Choose and fill in.
We
1.
It is eating them!
.
8. Your mum and I are going to
bed now. Don’t wake us
3
6. That dog is eating our hamburgers!
some water, please?
6. Rick and Pat are my friends and I love
They are talking to her.
.
you
4. Do you and Ron have problems?
I can help
She doesn't like it.
me - you - him - her - it - us - them
b. You
c. it
are also very funny.
c. Them
?
Grammar Theory
B
Possessive adjectives & Possessive pronouns
Κτητικά επίθετα
Κτητικές αντωνυμίες
Θυμήσου ότι μπαίνουν πριν τα ουσιαστικά. Δε μπορούμε
να τα βάλουμε μετά τα ουσιαστικά, όπως στα ελληνικά.
Λέμε my name (το όνομά μου) και όχι name my.
Μπαίνουν στη θέση των άρθρων. Γι αυτό δε βάζουμε
a, an ή the όταν τα χρησιμοποιούμε πριν τα ουσιαστικά.
Λέμε my name (το όνομά μου) και όχι the my name.
Κάθε κτητικό επίθετο μας δείχνει σε ποιον ανήκει κάτι.
Γι αυτό και είναι διαφορετικά για κάθε πρόσωπο, όπως
βλέπεις στο παρακάτω πινακάκι:
I
you
he
she it
we
you
they
my name
your name
his name
her name
its name
our house
your house
their house
(το όνομά μου)
(το όνομά σου)
(το όνομά του)
(το όνομά της)
(το όνομά του/της*)
(το σπίτι μας)
(το σπίτι σας)
(το σπίτι τους)
* για πράγματα (άψυχα), φυτά ή ζώα
6
Fill in with: my - his - her - its - our - your - their
Σε κάθε κτητικό επίθετο, αντιστοιχεί μία κτητική αντωνυμία.
Η καθεμία από αυτές τις αντωνυμίες, όπως το λέει και η λέξη,
χρησιμοποιείται αντί του "ονόματος", δηλαδή στη θέση του
ουσιαστικού που ανήκει σε κάποιον.
Οι κτητικές αντωνυμίες χρησιμοποιούνται λοιπόν, για να ΜΗΝ
επαναλάβουμε ένα ουσιαστικό που αναφέρθηκε προηγουμένως
και που ανήκει σε κάποιον. Π.χ. Is this your car? - Yes, it’s mine.
(Ναι, είναι δικό μου - όπου mine εδώ σημαίνει: my car).
Έτσι λοιπόν, οι κτητικές αντωνυμίες ΔΕΝ ακολουθούνται ποτέ
από ουσιαστικό (αυτό ισχύει μόνο για τα κτητικά επίθετα), διότι το
ουσιαστικό (noun) εννοείται.
Δες εδώ και
μελέτησε τον
πίνακα αντιστοιχίας
κτητικών επιθέτων
και αντωνυμιών:
* δεν αντιστοιχεί
κτητική αντωνυμία
στο επίθετο its.
7
mine yours
his
hers
--- *
ours
yours
theirs
my (+ noun) your (+ noun)
his (+ noun)
her (+ noun)
its (+ noun)
our (+ noun)
your (+ noun)
their (+ noun)
(δικός μου)
(δικός σου)
(δικός του)
(δικός της)
(δικός μας)
(δικός σας)
(δικός τους)
Fill in with: mine - yours - his - hers - ours - theirs
cars. Your cars are fast.
1. You and Kim have got new
1. - Do these books belong
to Linda? - Yes, they’re
2. Where is that girl from?What’s her
his
2. - Whose is that bike? Your
brother’s? - Yes, it’s
3. Here comes Mr Brown with
his
4. Those guys are not funny. Their
name?
big fat dog!
3. This isn’t my jacket. Mine
jokes are very silly!
4. - Do you like our new shop?
- Wow! Is it really yours
5. The city of Las Vegas is famous
for its
casinos.
6. We haven’t got enough money to fix our
7. I live in Australia and
8
my
car.
house is near Sydney.
9
Choose and circle.
5. - Lisa’s got a kilt! - It’s not
6. - Is this your laptop?
- No, my / mine is over there.
7. - Does this diary belong to Liz?
- Yes, it’s her / hers diary.
?
, silly! It’s her dad’s!
.
?
Circle a, b or c and fill in.
2. - The Scotts are driving a Porsche!
- Yes, but it isn’t their / theirs.
5. - You’ve got fantastic furniture!
- Yes, but it’s not our / ours.
hers
a. your a. me a. I a. her a. you a. She b. yours
b. my
b. me
b. hers
b. your
b. Her
a. they b. theirs c. them
them
Hey! Look at (7)
!
They are driving a car that looks ours
like (8)
!
theirs
But, that car isn't (9)
!
our
It’s (10)
car! Help!
a. ours a. you a. us b. our
b. my
b. our
c. us
c. theirs
c. ours
E:
F:
E:
my boyfriend.
That's (11)
He
(12)
is from Africa.
(13)
his name?
Oh! What's
it
Sayd, and (14)
means “happy”.
a. mine a. Him a. his a. her b. my
b. He
b. me
b. its
c. me
c. His
c. hers
c. it
my
It's (3)
little sister's. her
And that’s (4)
laptop. your sister?
A: How old is (5)
She
B: (6)
is 8 years old!
C:
D:
.
is the new brown one.
7. Look at all those cats they’ve
got! Are they all theirs
yours
A: Is this mobile
phone (1)
?
B: No, it isn'tmine
(2)
.
4. - Is this my cup of tea?
- No, it isn’t your / yours.
.
6.- Are these toys yours, ours
children? - No, they’re not
1.- Is this Samantha’s room?
- No, it isn’t her / hers.
3. - Are these kids yours?
- Of course they’re my / mine kids.
hers
c. you
c. mine
c. my
c. she
c. hers
c. Hers
Grammalysis A2
9
Grammar Theory
C
Possessive case
Γενική κτητική
1. Όταν βάζουμε ‘s στα κύρια ονόματα και ακολουθεί ουσιαστικό,
λέμε σε ποιον ανήκει το ουσιαστικό.
Π.χ. This is Mary’s room (= αυτό είναι της Μαρίας το δωμάτιο).
Το ίδιο γίνεται και με ουσιαστικά που περιγράφουν πρόσωπα
ή ζώα. Π.χ.: the boy’s bicycle ( = του αγοριού το ποδήλατο),
my dog’s ears ( = του σκύλου μου τα αυτιά), κτλ.
2. Αν όμως έχουμε ουσιαστικό σε πληθυντικό με κατάληξη -s,
(π.χ. boys, dogs) και θέλουμε να μιλήσουμε για κάτι που τους
ανήκει, βάζουμε ΜΟΝΟ την απόστροφο ΧΩΡΙΣ το s. Π.χ.: the
boys’ bicycles = των αγοριών τα ποδήλατα, my dogs’ toys =
των σκύλων μου τα παιχνίδια, κτλ.
ΑΛΛΑ: σε περίπτωση ανωμάλων πληθυντικών χωρίς κατάληξη
-s, ισχύει ο πρώτος κανόνας, π.χ.: the children’s books.
10
Fill in with ‘s or ‘ as in the examples.
teacher's
1. Our English
2.Your brothers'
jokes are not funny.
boyfriend's
3.Her
hair is red.
my
5. I don’t like
6.These
parents'
girls’
parrot doesn’t talk.
children’s
9. The Browns’
11
car.
toys are cheap.
house is next to ours.
is
(brothers)
2. That girl's eyes are very beautiful!
‘s=
P.C.
3.Who's got my rubber and my pencil?
‘s=
has
(Paul)
4. Some people's pets are really strange.
‘s=
P.C.
(parents)
5.What’s making that loud noise?
‘s=
is
6. My cousin Kim's feet are huge!
‘s=
P.C.
7. Our neighbour's got a sports car.
‘s=
has
(Mr White)
(children)
(The Browns)
Fill in using one or two ‘s as in the
examples.
Those are
Larry and Sally's
children.
2. My brother has got a blue pen and my sister has got a red one.
These are
my brother's and my sister's
pens.
3. Dad has got a sister and mum has got a sister too.
These are
dad's and mum’s
sisters.
4. Barry and his wife have got a beautiful house.
Barry and his wife’s
This is
house.
5. Tina has got a new car but her brother has got an old one.
Those are
Tina’s and her brother’s
cars.
6. Karen and Sam have both got very interesting jobs.
I really like Karen’s and Sam’s
jobs.
7. Mr Fox has got hens and Mrs Penn has got sheep.
Look at
Mr Fox’s and Mrs Penn’s
animals.
8. John and his sister have got a fish tank in their house.
There are goldfish
in
John and his sister’s
fish tank.
9. Linda and her husband have got tulips in their garden.
Let’s look at Linda and her husband’s
10
Grammalysis A2
Fill in with is, has or P.C. (possessive case).
‘s=
1. Larry and Sally have got two children.
12
1.Bob's chatting online with his cousin.
clothes are nice. (girls)
7. Mr White’s
8.Those
sister?
ΠΡΟΣΕΞΕ να μη συγχέεις το ‘s της Γενικής Κτητικής με το
‘s = is ή το ‘s = has. Π.χ.: This is John’s room. ≠ John’s
ten years old. (‘s=is) ≠ John’s got a cat. (‘s=has)
(teacher)
father is Scottish. (boyfriend)
Paul’s
4. Do
you know
3. Όταν θέλουμε να πούμε ότι κάτι ανήκει σε ΔΥΟ πρόσωπα,
βάζουμε ‘s στο ΔΕΥΤΕΡΟ πρόσωπο.
Π.χ. This is Mary and John's house = σημαίνει ότι το σπίτι
ανήκει και στους ΔΥΟ (και στη Mary, και στο John).
4. Όταν όμως μιλάμε για πράγματα που ανήκουν σε δύο
πρόσωπα και όπου το ΚΑΘΕ πρόσωπο έχει το ΔΙΚΟ ΤΟΥ,
βάζουμε ‘s ΚΑΙ ΣΤΑ ΔΥΟ πρόσωπα.
Π.χ. These are Mary’s and John’s cars = σημαίνει ότι ο
καθένας έχει από ένα αυτοκίνητο.
tulips.
ΘΥΜΗΣΟΥ ότι όταν θέλουμε να πούμε ότι κάτι «ανήκει» σε
ένα ΠΡΑΓΜΑ (ή γενικά κάτι άψυχο), δε χρησιμοποιούμε τη
Γενική Κτητική των ονομάτων.
Εδώ βάζουμε την πρόθεση of (με ή χωρίς άρθρο), π.χ.:
the window of the car = το παράθυρο του αυτοκινήτου
(και όχι the car’s window)
the capital of Greece = η πρωτεύουσα της Ελλάδας
(και όχι Greece’s capital)
13
Rewrite with the possessive case or
of (the). (attention to the ORDER of the words)
baby’s hands
1. The
(baby
hands)
legs of the table
2. The
(table
legs)
3. The postman's bike
(postman
bike)
4. The windows of the classroom
(classroom
windows)
5. The teacher’s clothes
(teacher
clothes)
6. The capital of France
(France
capital)
7. The centre of the city
(city
centre)
are small.
are short.
is yellow.
are open.
are funny.
is Paris.
is very noisy.
Grammar Theory
D
Prepositions of place: in, at, on, to
Οι τοπικές προθέσεις in, at, on, to
Για να πούμε πού βρισκόμαστε ή πού πηγαίνουμε, χρησιμοποιούμε τοπικές προθέσεις πριν από ουσιαστικά ή κύρια ονόματα.
Οι προθέσεις in, at, on (= σε) δείχνουν ότι είμαστε κάπου (ΣΤΑΣΗ / ΤΟΠΟΘΕΣΙΑ), ενώ η πρόθεση to (=προς) δείχνει ότι πηγαίνουμε
κάπου (ΚΙΝΗΣΗ / ΚΑΤΕΥΘΥΝΣΗ). Πρόσεξε ότι σε μερικές περιπτώσεις δε μπαίνει άρθρο μετά τις προθέσεις αυτές.
Δες τώρα και θυμήσου τa παρακάτω παραδείγματα:
ΣΤΑΣΗ / ΤΟΠΟΘΕΣΙΑ: I am, I’m living, I’m staying, I’m sitting, I’m lying, I’m waiting ... + in, at, on
in + για χώρες, περιοχές, πόλεις, χωριά
in + για εσωτερικό κλειστών ή
περιφραγμένων χώρων
at + συγκεκριμένα κτίρια / σημεία
at + συγκεκριμένα περιβάλλοντα
on + μεταφορικά μέσα
on + επιφάνειες
at the cinema, at the theatre
at the museum, at the aquarium
at the supermarket, at the zoo
on the bus, on the train
in the UK, in the USA, in Greece, in France ...
in Scotland, in England ... / in London, in Athens ...
in the garden, in the car, in the street, in the house,
in the classroom, in the playground, in bed, in class
at home, at school, at work
at the party
on the plane, on the bike
on the ship, on the boat
on the beach, on the farm
ΚΙΝΗΣΗ / ΚΑΤΕΥΘΥΝΣΗ: I’m going, I’m coming, I’m flying, I’m driving, I’m running ... + to
They're driving to the zoo.
She's coming to the party.
We're going to the beach.
14
Fill in with:
1. We always have fun
You're driving to London.
They're going to Scotland.
We're flying to the UK / the USA.
at
birthday parties.
in
the playground.
2. My classmates aren’t
in
3. Look! Those kids are dancing
4. There are a lot of horses
5. My parents are still
at
6. There are a lot of tourists
on
the street.
this farm.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Circle a or b and fill in.
1. The kids are in the
2. Belinda is at the
a. classroom
b. class
.
a. aquarium
b. school
.
a. garden
b. class
.
classroom
aquarium
3. We are sitting in
class
4. Tom’s reading in
bed
.
a. car
b. bed
5. I'm tired. Let's go
home
.
a. home
b. house
on
6. Ben is going to
a. his house
b. home
a. Greece
b. USA
this boat.
work.
Choose and fill in.
Let’s meet at
the zoo at six.
to
He is flying
the USA now.
live
in
Ken doesn't
England.
to
Dad drives
work every day. The girls are at
the cinema.
to
Come
our house tonight.
Are you on
the train now?
16
ΕΞΑΙΡΕΣΗ (χωρίς to)
I'm going home.
ΑΛΛΑ: I'm going to my house.
the theatre.
at
7. Jonathan isn't here. He's
still
15
17
in - at - on
She's driving to work.
They're running to school.
He's going to bed.
7. Poppy lives in the
18
(at - to - on)
(in - to - at)
(in - to - on)
(on - at - to)
(on - at - to)
(in - at - to)
(on - to - at)
Fill in with: in - at - on - to
1. Never talk on
your mobile phone in
the car.
on
2. Mr Black is
the plane to London now.
at
3. Why isn’t she
school today? Is she sick?
Go to
4. Come on, kids!
your classrooms now.
5. Where's your
sister? Isn't she at
home?
on
6. Let's not stay
the beach any longer.
7. Our dog is fighting with a cat in
the garden.
his house
USA
.
.
Choose and fill in with:
between - near - next to - around - in front of - behind - under
ΘΥΜΗΣΟΥ εδώ
και τις υπόλοιπες
τοπικές προθέσεις
που έχουν πάντα τις
παρακάτω σημασίες
και χρησιμοποιούνται
όπως και στα ελληνικά:
under = κάτω από
near = κοντά σε
next to = δίπλα σε
in front of = μπροστά σε
behind = πίσω από
between = ανάμεσα σε
around = γύρω από
near
1. We live
the centre of a
very large city. The noise is terrible!
2. There’s a fantastic green garden all
around
my new school.
next to
3. My bedroom is right
my brother’s room and I can hear every
sound that he makes.
in front of
4. A tall student sits
class and I can’t see anything.
me in
5. Oh, dear! I think there’s someone
behind
us. Let’s run quickly!
6. - Mum! I can’t find my shoes!
under
- Look
your bed, dear!
between
7. There’s a supermarket
the flower shop and the post office.
Grammalysis A2
11
Remember 3
Grammar Theory
A
Present Simple- Adverbs of frequency - Time expressions
Present Simple: affirmative
Ενεστώτας απλός - κατάφαση
PRESENT SIMPLE - AFFIRMATIVE
Ο Ενεστώτας απλός χρησιμοποιείται για συνήθειες που
έχουμε και δείχνει ότι κάνουμε κάτι που επαναλαμβάνεται.
1. Στην κατάφαση σχηματίζεται βάζοντας ένα ρήμα μετά
από κάθε πρόσωπο. Πρόσεξε ότι στα πρόσωπα he, she, it
προσθέτουμε ένα -s στην κατάληξη του ρήματος.
2. Στα ρήματα που τελειώνουν σε: -ss /-sh / -ch / -x / -o
βάζουμε την κατάληξη -es στα he, she, it. Παραδείγματα:
I watch he / she / it watches - I dress he / she / (it) dresses
I go he / she / it goes - I do he / she / it does (="νταζ"!)
1
I play
you play
he plays
she plays
it plays
we play
you play
they play
I watch 2
you watch
he watches
she watches
it watches
we watch
you watch
they watch
3
I study
you study
he studies
she studies
it studies
we study
you study
they study
3. Όταν το ρήμα τελειώνει σε σύμφωνο + y, τότε βγάζουμε το -y και στη θέση του βάζουμε την κατάληξη -ies.
Παραδείγματα: I study he / she / (it) studies you cry he / she / it cries - we carry he /she/it carries - they tidy
4. Αν όμως υπάρχει φωνήεν πριν το -y, τότε ακολουθούμε τον πρώτο κανόνα και βάζουμε την κατάληξη -s.
Παραδείγματα: I play he / she / it plays (και όχι plaies) - you buy he / she / (it) buys (και όχι buies).
Write the 3rd person singular of the verbs in
the Present Simple.
1
2
eats
3
fixes
flies
teaches
cries
4. Dad
tidies
stays
goes
studies
5. They
do
6. Sally always
Circle a, b or c and fill in.
wake up
The boys
at 7 o'clock every morning.
usually eat their dinner in the kitchen.
dresses
stay
Most people
at hotels.
very beautifully.
speak
5. Some
of my teachers
too loudly.
have meat more than twice a week.
4
ΛΕΞΕΙΣ - ΚΛΕΙΔΙΑ του Ενεστώτα απλού:
ΘΥΜΗΣΟΥ τα λεγόμενα adverbs of frequency
(επιρρήματα συχνότητας) που δείχνουν πόσο συχνά
κάνουμε κάτι:
always = πάντα often = συχνά
sometimes = μερικές φορές
usually = συνήθως
never = ποτέ
Τα επιρρήματα συχνότητας μπαίνουν ΠΡΙΝ το κύριο
ρήμα στον ενεστώτα απλό.
Π.χ. I sometimes wake up early. / He often plays tennis.
We usually have breakfast. / She never watches T.V.
Εξαίρεση: το ρήμα be. Τα επιρρήματα συχνότητας
μπαίνουν ΜΕΤΑ τα am, is, are.
Π.χ. He is always late. / I am often lazy.
Grammalysis A2
in the lake at weekends.
sits
2. My brother
Ken never
carries
sleeps
Sue
4. I think
12
swim
3. Mothers often
3. On holidays,
my family and I often
6.
1. We
he, she, it + ... -ies
washes
Fill in with the Present Simple
of the verbs:
buys
1. My parents
2.
he, she, it + ... -es
the garage every month.
the dishes after lunch.
has
c. wakies up
a. My sister
b. The boys
c. Jimmy
a. stay
b. staies
c. stays
a. dressies
b. dress
c. dresses
a. speakes
b. speaks
c. speak
a. Most people
b. This man
c. Grandma
Write sentences with adverbs of
frequency in the Present Simple.
(usually)
My brother is usually very funny.
(often)
Grandma often watches TV with us.
(never)
I am never hungry in the morning.
5. The sun - shine - in summer (sometimes)
Ron and Liz sometimes do the dishes together.
4. I - be - hungry in the morning a big breakfast.
b. wakes up
3. Grandma - watch - TV with us about their kids.
a. wake up
2. My brother - be - very funny still.
worry
1. Ron and Liz - do - the dishes together
he / she / (it) tidies
worry - do - have - sit - swim - tidy
wash - carry - eat - buy - fly - fix - sleep - teach - cry - study - go - stay
he, she, it + ... -s
Προσοχή
στο ρήμα have,
που σημαίνει
έχω, ή τρώω ή
πίνω και όπου
στα he, she, it
βάζουμε has
και όχι haves.
The sun always shines in summer.
(always)
Grammar Theory
B
Present Simple: interrogative & negative
Ενεστώτας απλός - ερώτηση & άρνηση
Ο χρόνος αυτός σχηματίζεται στην ερώτηση και την άρνηση με το βοηθητικό ρήμα do,
το οποίο εδώ δεν σημαίνει "κάνω" και δεν μεταφράζεται.
Πρόσεξε ότι τόσο στην ερώτηση, όσο και στην άρνηση ΔΕΝ βάζουμε πλέον στο ρήμα τις
καταλήξεις -s , -es και -ies της κατάφασης στα πρόσωπα he, she, it. Δηλαδή λέμε π.χ.:
Does he wash? (και όχι does he washes?) - Does she study? (και όχι does she studies?)
She doesn't go (και όχι she doesn't goes) - He doesn't carry (και όχι he doesn't carries)
Στον ολόκληρο τύπο της άρνησης, βάζουμε: do not (= don't) και does not (= doesn't).
Σε σύντομες απαντήσεις (yes/no) μετά από ερωτήσεις, βάζουμε την προσωπική
αντωνυμία που ταιριάζει και do / don't ή does / doesn't.
Παραδείγματα: Do you like milk? - Yes, I do. / No, I don't.
Does Tim play tennis? - Yes, he does. / No, he doesn't.
5
6
Fill in with: Do - Does and give short answers.
PRESENT SIMPLE
INTERROGATIVE
-
NEGATIVE
do I play ... ?
do you play ... ?
does he play ... ?
does she play ... ?
does it play ... ?
do we play ... ?
do you play ... ?
do they play ... ?
I don't play
you don't play
he doesn't play
she doesn't play
it doesn't play
we don't play
you don't play
they don't play
Choose and circle.
1. Do
you often go to the cinema? √
2. Does
your sister drink tea? X
Yes, I/we do.
No, she doesn't.
Mr Green teach English? X
No, he doesn't.
3. Some of my classmates don't / doesn't like maths.
the kids like cartoons? √
Yes, they do.
4. Where do she / you usually spend summer?
vegetarians eat chicken? X
No, they don't.
5. Does / Do anyone here know what this is?
Mary watch horror films? √
Yes, she does.
6. I'm afraid Linda doesn't study / studies enough.
3.
Does
4. Do
5.
Do
6. Does
7
doesn't go
Do the kids have
Does Mrs Ray speak
5. Why
does it rain
Do kangaroos live
6.
Australia?
(not go) shopping on weekdays.
(the kids / have) lunch at school?
make
3. My don't
neighbours
4.
2. What time does Peter has / have English classes?
Fill in with the Present Simple.
1.Nick
2.
1. Dad does / doesn't work on Saturdays.
7.My sisters
the bus to school.
(not make) any noise.
(Mrs Ray / speak) Italian well?
8.How much
(this hat / cost)?
(it / rain) so much in England?
don't take
(not take)
does this hat cost
Fill in the questions with do / does
and answer with time expressions.
ΧΡΟΝΙΚΕΣ ΕΚΦΡΑΣΕΙΣ - ΚΛΕΙΔΙΑ
του Ενεστώτα απλού:
8
ΘΥΜΗΣΟΥ ότι κάποιες χρονικές εκφράσεις που δείχνουν
κάθε πότε κάνουμε κάτι μπορεί επίσης να συνοδεύουν τον
Ενεστώτα απλό. Παραδείγματα:
every day / week / month / year ...
once / twice / three times a week / a month / a year
in the morning / afternoon / evening
in (the) summer / autumn / spring / winter
in January / March / August ...
on Mondays / Tuesdays ...
on Wednesday afternoons / on Friday evenings
at night / Christmas / Easter
at noon / midnight / ten o’clock / half past eight
at the weekend / at weekends
Τέτοιες εκφράσεις μπαίνουν είτε στην αρχή, είτε στο τέλος
των προτάσεων, π.χ. I go to school every day.
At weekends we meet our friends in the park.
time
1.What
Για να ρωτήσουμε πόσο συχνά γίνεται κάτι χρησιμοποιούμε
το How often ...?, π.χ. How often do you travel abroad?
(kangaroos / live) in
do you take the bus to school?
I take the bus to school at half past eight.
2.When does
8.30
Helen study for school?
She studies for school in the evening.
evening
often does
3.How
Mr Brown eat fast food?
He eats fast food on Mondays and Fridays / twice
Mo + Fr
a week.
4.When
do
the Smiths go to the beach?
They go to the beach in (the) summer.
summer
5.When does
your dad wash the car?
He washes the car at the weekend /
weekend
at weekends.
Grammalysis A2
13
9
Look at the pictures and correct the sentences as in the example.
1 Jane
2 My sisters
3 Mr Black
go to the cinema
have ballet classes
4 Mum
sleep late
5 My parents
tidy our rooms
6 Grandpa
watch TV
go jogging
1. Jane plays basketball at the weekend.
She doesn't play basketball at the weekend. She goes to the cinema.
2. My sisters go to the gym on Mondays.
My sisters don't go to the gym on Mondays. They have ballet classes.
3. Mr Black wakes up early on Sundays.
Mr Black doesn't wake up early on Sundays. He sleeps late.
4. Mum relaxes on the couch on Saturdays.
Mum doesn't relax on the couch on Saturdays. She tidies our rooms.
5. My parents read books in the evening.
My parents don't read books in the evening. They watch TV.
6. Grandpa rides his bicycle every day.
Grandpa doesn't ride his bicycle every day. He goes jogging.
10
Ask When - questions and answer as in the example.
Ted - have lunch - noon
1. When
does
Ted
the girls - tidy up - Saturdays
2. When
do
the girls
the boys - wake up - 7 o’clock
3. When
do the boys wake
Mrs Pitt - drive home - evening
4. When does Mrs Pitt drive home?
- She
drives home in the evening
.
you - get together - weekends
5.
When do you get
together?
- We
get together at weekends
.
Mike - study for school - night
6.
When does Mike study
for school?
- He
11
have
lunch? up
on Saturdays
.
up?
- They
wake
up
at 7 o'clock
.
weekends!
plenty of interesting
Do
you really
out with friends?
this interesting?
Ted: Of course
I do. Everyone in my family (7) enjoys
spending
lots of
time on the Internet at weekends. My sister (8) chats
with her friends from Australia, my mum (9) downloads
sends
new recipes
and my dad (10)
e-mails to his business
partners.
Ken: Oh, dear! What a family!
14
Grammalysis A2
studies for school at night
12
.
Read the dialogue again
and give short answers.
1. Does Ted go out at the weekend?
No, he doesn't.
2. Does Ted stay at home at the weekend?
find
.
tidy
stay
Ted: Well,
not exactly. I (4)
at home and
play
(5)
some cool computer games online.
(6)
Ken: Oh, no!
at noon
- They
enjoy - go - find - send - stay - download - do - love - chat - play
Ken: What do you usually do?
go
(3) Do you
lunch
tidy
up?
Fill in the dialogue with the Present Simple
of the verbs:
love
Ted: I just (1)
(2)
do
I always
things then.
has
- He
Yes, he does.
3. Does Ted's sister download new recipes?
No, she doesn't.
4. Does Ted's family spend much time online?
Yes, they do.
5. Does Ken like Ted's family?
No, he doesn't.
Remember 4 Present Continuous - Present Continuous vs. Present Simple
Grammar Theory
A
Present Continuous: affirmative
Ενεστώτας διαρκείας - κατάφαση
Ο Ενεστώτας διαρκείας χρησιμοποιείται όταν μιλάμε για πράγματα που κάνουμε τώρα ή προσωρινά.
Για να τον σχηματίσουμε κλίνουμε στον ενεστώτα το βοηθητικό ρήμα be (δεν μεταφράζεται "είμαι") και ακολουθεί το βασικό μας ρήμα
με την κατάληξη -ing, π.χ. play + ing = playing.
ΘΥΜΗΣΟΥ τους υπόλοιπους κανόνες σχηματισμού της "-ing form":
PRESENT CONTINUOUS - AFFIRMATIVE
1. Εάν το κύριο ρήμα είναι μονοσύλλαβο και τελειώνει σε ένα φωνήεν + ένα σύμφωνο,
τότε διπλασιάζεται το τελευταίο σύμφωνο πριν το -ing.
Full form
Short form
Π.χ. run you are running (όχι runing) / cut he is cutting / jog we are jogging
I am playing
I'm playing
ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ: δε διπλασιάζονται τα γράμματα x, w, z και y.
you are playing
you're playing
Ο κανόνας αυτός ισχύει και για δισύλλαβα ρήματα που τονίζονται στη λήγουσα ή που
he is playing
he's playing
λήγουν σε -l, π.χ. forget he is forgetting, travel we are travelling.
she is playing
she's playing
it is playing
it's playing
2. Εάν το κύριο ρήμα τελειώνει σε -e, το βγάζουμε πριν βάλουμε την κατάληξη -ing.
we are playing
we're playing
Π.χ. come I am coming (όχι comeing) / write I am writing (όχι writeing)
you are playing
you're playing
3. Εάν το κύριο ρήμα τελειώνει σε -ie, φεύγουν τα δύο αυτά γράμματα και στη θέση τους
they are playing
they're playing
μπαίνει ένα y πριν το -ing. Π.χ. lie he is lying (όχι lieing)
Xρονικές EΚΦΡΑΣΕΙΣ-ΚΛΕΙΔΙΑ του Ενεστώτα διαρκείας: now, right now, at the moment, today, tonight, this week, this month,
this year, ... και οτιδήποτε άλλο μας δείχνει ότι κάτι γίνεται τώρα, τη στιγμή που μιλάμε και / ή ότι είναι μια προσωρινή κατάσταση.
1
Fill in with the Present Continuous of the verbs:
1.come
2.put
3.show
4.study
5.run
6.make
7.lie
8.eat
2
am coming
9. relax
are putting
10. hide
He
She
is showing
11. drive
is studying
12. wear
It
We
is running
13. begin
are making
14. stand
I
You
You
They
are lying
15. win
are eating
16. hold
I
You
am relaxing
He
She
is driving
Yes, mum!
I am coming
home now!
are hiding
is wearing
is beginning
It
We
are standing
are winning
You
They
are holding
Choose and circle.
I'm in the park opposite my house now and I
am (1) sitting / siting on a bench under a tree.
It is a beautiful day and there are a lot of people
3
Fill in with the Present Continuous
of the verbs:
sleep - read - play - have - watch - do
here. Some of them (2) is / are walking and
It is a quiet evening in Ricky's house tonight.
talking quietly and some others are (3) joging / jogging around the
1.Ricky
lake. Two boys are (4) feeding / feedding the ducks and the ducks
2.His parents
are (5) fighting / fight with one another to get the food. They are
3.His cat
is doing
his homework.
are watching
is sleeping
TV.
on the sofa.
(6) makeing / making a lot of noise too! It is so funny that everybody
4.His sisters
(7) is / are laughing now. An old woman (8) is joinning / joining the
5.His grandpa
boys and she (9) throwing / is throwing some bread into the lake
But ... wait a minute! What's that noise? ... Oh, no!
too! More hungry ducks are (10) comeing / coming now and there's
6.His neighbours
are playing
board games.
is reading
are having
a book.
a party!
even more noise. The ducks are (11) having / have a food fight today!
Grammalysis A2
15
Grammar Theory
B
Present Continuous:
interrogative & negative
4
P Sandra
1.
Ενεστώτας διαρκείας - ερώτηση & άρνηση
Η ερώτηση και η άρνηση του Ενεστώτα διαρκείας γίνεται
όπως κάνουμε ερώτηση και άρνηση στο ρήμα be και πάλι εδώ
ακολουθεί η "-ing form" του κύριου ρήματος.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS
INTERROGATIVE - NEGATIVE
am I playing ...?
are you playing ...?
is he playing ...?
is she playing ...?
is it playing ...?
are we playing ...?
are you playing ...?
are they playing ...?
I'm not playing
you aren't playing
he isn't playing
she isn't playing
it isn't playing
we aren't playing
you aren't playing
they aren't playing
Σε σύντομες απαντήσεις (yes / no) μετά από ερωτήσεις σε
Present Continuous, βάζουμε την προσωπική αντωνυμία
που ταιριάζει και χρησιμοποιούμε μόνο το ρήμα be στο
πρόσωπο που ταιριάζει.
Παραδείγματα:
- Are you joking? - Yes, I am. / - No, I'm not.
- Is Tim learning French? - Yes, he is. / - No, he isn't.
- Are the children sleeping? - Yes, they are. / No, they aren't.
Look at the pictures and write
dialogues in the Present Continuous,
as in the example. Use:
5
watch TV - wait for the bus - ride his bike - chat online - sing
0. Connie - study - English - now - ?
Is Connie studying
No, she isn't.
English now?
She's chatting online.
1. Your brother - sleep - now - ?
?
is talking
?
on the phone now.
(stay) here this month.
Are his cousins staying
here this month?
O His cousins aren't staying
Benton is flying
3.P
Mrs
here this month.
?
(fly) to London tonight.
Is Mrs Benton flying
O Mrs Benton isn't flying
sons are travelling
4.P
Her
to London tonight?
to London tonight.
?
(travel) abroad this week.
Are her sons travelling
O Her sons aren't travelling
dog is drinking
5.P That
Is that dog drinking
milk?
O
That dog isn't drinking
milk!
Ask What - questions as in the
example.
1.What is Sam reading?
6
Sam is reading a sports magazine.
2.What is the baby holding?
The baby is holding a pencil.
3.What are the children eating?
4.What is aunt Mary making?
The children are eating ice-cream.
Aunt Mary is making a cake.
- Are the kids having lunch now?
5.What are those boys playing?
- No, they aren't. They're watching TV.
Those boys are playing cards.
6.What is that man carrying?
- Is that woman listening to music?
- No, she isn’t. She’s waiting for the bus.
4. These people - dance - ?
- Are these people dancing?
- No, they aren't. They're singing.
Grammalysis A2
(drink) milk!
?
- No, he isn't. He's riding his bike.
abroad this week.
3. That woman - listen - to music - ?
abroad this week?
on the phone now?
O Sandra isn't talking
cousins are staying
2.P His
- Is your brother sleeping now?
2. The kids - have - lunch - now - ?
(talk) on the phone now.
Is Sandra talking
16
Fill in with the Present Continuous.
That man is carrying some wood.
Grammar Theory
C
Present Simple: interrogative & negative
C1. Η χρήση του Ενεστώτα διαρκείας
C2. Η χρήση του Ενεστώτα απλού
(1) Ο Ενεστώτας διαρκείας χρησιμοποιείται όταν μιλάμε για
πράγματα που κάνουμε τώρα ή προσωρινά και συνοδεύεται
από χρονικές λέξεις και εκφράσεις που δείχνουν ότι η πράξη,
είτε γίνεται τη στιγμή που μιλάμε, είτε είναι μία προσωρινή
κατάσταση.
(1) Ο Ενεστώτας απλός χρησιμοποιείται για συνήθειες που
έχουμε, δείχνοντας ότι κάτι επαναλαμβάνεται τακτικά και για
μόνιμες καταστάσεις. Συνοδεύεται από χρονικές λέξεις και
εκφράσεις που δείχνουν πόσο συχνά ή κάθε πότε κάνουμε
κάτι.
Παραδείγματα:
Παραδείγματα:
now, right now, at the moment, this week, this weekend,
this month, this year, today, tonight, ...
Υπάρχουν όμως κι άλλες ενδείξεις για το ότι κάτι γίνεται
τη στιγμή που μιλάμε, όπως: Look! Listen! κτλ.
always, often, usually, sometimes, never
once, twice, three times a (day / week / month / year ...)
every day / week / month / year ..., in the morning,
in the evening, on Mondays, at the weekend, ... (βλ. σελ. 8)
(2) Κάποιες φορές, κυρίως με ρήματα που δηλώνουν
μετακίνηση, ο χρόνος αυτός χρησιμοποιείται και για πράξεις
που θα γίνουν στο κοντινό μέλλον και οι οποίες είναι
προγραμματισμένες και σίγουρες. Παραδείγματα:
He's leaving Scotland tomorrow. - They're going to Paris this
weekend. - We're flying back to London in two hours.
7
(2) Στο ρήμα have (χωρίς το got) όταν σημαίνει "έχω".
Π.χ. I don't have enough money / Does he have a car?
ΑΛΛΑ: όταν το ρήμα have σημαίνει "τρώω, πίνω, κάνω"
και μιλάμε για πράξη που κάνουμε τώρα, θα βάλουμε Present
Continuous. Π.χ. I'm having breakfast now.
9
Choose and circle.
1. They are sleeping at the moment / every day.
Present Continuous or Simple? Look
at the time expressions, FIND the
right tense and write.
2. Do you meet your friends this weekend / at weekends?
0. Your sister - go - to church - ? 3. Ted snores loudly tonight / every night.
4. I'm going to a music school this year / on Fridays.
now - on Sundays
Is your sister going to church now?
Does your sister go to church on Sundays?
5. Are the children having breakfast now / in the morning?
6. He doesn't watch TV today / in the afternoon.
7. We are staying at a hotel this week / once a week.
8
history at the moment.
b. study
c. are studying
2. We
a. are having
brunch today at 11.00.
b. have
c. has
the girls
a. Do ... come
b. Is ... coming
4. Grandma
a. aren't making
b. works
6. Our neighbours
a. has
b. have
7. What
a. is ... doing
back home now?
c. Are ... coming
cakes every day.
b. isn't making c. doesn't make
5. Jimmy
a. is working
We usually have lunch at school.
We are having lunch at school today.
right now - every day
2. Kate - not listen - to music Circle a, b or c.
1. I
a. am studying
3.
usually - today
1. We - have - lunch at school on a farm this month.
c. work
you usually
b. do ... do
Ted
8. Where
a. are ... going
b. does ... go
Kate isn't listening to music right now.
Kate doesn't listen to music every day.
Do the kids sleep quietly at night?
Are the kids sleeping quietly tonight?
this weekend - at weekends
4. Mrs Green - tidy - the house Mrs Green is tidying the house this weekend.
Mrs Green tidies the house at weekends.
always - now
5. I - not sit - next to Sue three dogs.
c. are having
I don't always sit next to Sue.
I'm not sitting next to Sue now.
at weekends?
c. are ... doing
6. Your friend - travel - abroad - ? tomorrow?
c. is ... going
at night - tonight
3. The kids - sleep - quietly - ? this year - in summer
Is your friend travelling abroad this year?
Does your friend travel abroad in summer?
Grammalysis A2
17
Lesson 1
Non continuous verbs
Grammar Theory
Ρήματα που δε σχηματίζουν χρόνους διαρκείας
Ρήματα που δε σχηματίζουν χρόνους διαρκείας
Θυμήσου ότι τα λεγόμενα Non continuous verbs, δε σχηματίζουν ποτέ Ενεστώτα διαρκείας, διότι δείχνουν
ότι αυτό που λέμε είναι μια μόνιμη ή συνηθισμένη κατάσταση. Για τα ρήματα αυτά χρησιμοποιούμε τον
Ενεστώτα απλό.
Μερικά από τα ρήματα αυτά είναι τα εξής:
1. Ρήματα προτίμησης
like = μου αρέσει
love = αγαπώ
want = θέλω
hate = μισώ
prefer = προτιμώ
3. Ρήματα αντίληψης
think = νομίζω
believe = πιστεύω
know = ξέρω
remember = θυμάμαι
understand = καταλαβαίνω
2. Ρήματα αίσθησης
see = βλέπω
hear = ακούω
smell = μυρίζω
taste = έχω γεύση
sound = ακούγομαι
4. Άλλα ρήματα
need = χρειάζομαι
mean = εννοώ, σημαίνει
belong (to) = ανήκω (σε)
He's talking too fast!
I don't understand him.
Έτσι λοιπόν, ακόμα κι αν αυτό που λέμε συμβαίνει τώρα, θα χρησιμοποιήσουμε Ενεστώτα απλό για
τα παραπάνω ρήματα στη θέση του Ενεστώτα διαρκείας.
Παραδείγματα: I don’t understand what you are saying
(και όχι I’m not understanding) She wants to go out
(όχι She’s wanting)
Do you like ice-cream?
(όχι Are you liking) This soup smells great
(όχι is smelling)
18
Grammalysis A2
What are you
cooking, mum?
It smells
wonderful!
I'm making some soup but
I don't think it's ready yet.
1
is watching
(watch) her favourite cartoon now.
1. Jane
loves
She really
(love) cartoons!
2. We
We
are doing
need
am taking
belongs
4. I
it
(do) our exercises for tomorrow.
(need) help to understand them.
wants
(want) to go out tonight, but his
is asking
(ask) him to stay at home.
3. Tom
mother
(take) this book back now because
(belong) to me.
is eating
5. No-one
(eat) these vegetables
prefer
because they all
(prefer) pizza.
2
Fill in with the Present Simple or Continuous.
are you
talking
1. Who
(talk) to now?
Does
believe
2.
your sister
(believe) in UFOs?
do
your friends think
(think) of me?
3. What
is
driving
4. Where
Fred
(drive) to now?
are
running
5. Why
the kids
(run) so fast?
Does
understand (understand) this?
6.
anyone
Do
know
7.
you
(know) this man?
4
Fill in with the Present Simple or Continuous.
1. Jim
he
doesn't like
isn't watching
2. Oh, dear!
They
don't
know
3. You
you
5. Liz
she
(not like) love stories, that’s why
(not watch) this film tonight.
aren't joking
(not joke)! They really
(not know) where Greece is!
don't sound
aren't feeling
am not staying
don't want
4. I
I
5
3
Fill in with the Present Simple or Continuous.
(not sound) very well. I hope
(not feel) seasick on this boat.
(not stay) at home tonight because
(not want) to get bored.
isn't listening
(not listen) to the teacher. I’m sure
doesn't understand
(not understand) him.
Fill in with the Present Simple or Continuous.
is going
1. Brian
(go) out with his friends tonight
wants
and
his sister
(want) to go with him.
2. I
so I
don’t remember
(not remember) this story
am reading (read) it again.
doesn’t understand
3. Fay
is helping
to do so Max
bike
4. That
belongs
Is Nathan riding
5. Anthony
tonight.
He
is cooking
loves
(not understand) what
(help) her.
(belong) to Tommy. Why
(Nathan / ride) it?
(cook) pizza and spaghetti
(love) Italian food!
Circle a or b.
1. What
you
about elephants?
a. do ... know
b. are ... knowing
2. - This cake
- What's wrong with it?
a. doesn't taste
b. isn't tasting
good.
3. We
our
grandparents this weekend.
a. don't visit
b. aren't visiting
4. I
French this year
and I
it a lot.
a. learn / am liking
b. am learning / like
5.
you
anything
from the supermarket?
a. Are ... needing
b. Do ... need
6. Where
Helen
to this year?
a. is ... moving
b. does ... move
6
1.
Circle a or b.
mum
help with the shopping?
a. Does ... need
b. Is ... needing
2. Ron and Julie
to the city next year.
a. move
b. are moving
3. What a silly story! I
one word of it!
a. don’t believe
b. am not believing
4. Mum
a cake. It
great!
a. is making / smells
b. makes / is smelling
5. Greece
good idea for a holiday.
a. is sounding
b. sounds
like a
6. Someone
a song.
you
it?
a. is singing / Do ... like
b. sings / Are ... liking
Grammalysis A2
19
Lesson 2
be going to + verb
Grammar Theory
Be going to + verb
Be going to + verb = πρόκειται να / σκοπεύω να ... / θα ... + ρήμα (για μελλοντικές πράξεις)
Κλίνοντας το ρήμα go στον Ενεστώτα διαρκείας και βάζοντας στη συνέχεια to + ρήμα, μιλάμε για πράγματα που
πρόκειται να συμβούν στο άμεσο μέλλον. Ο μέλλοντας αυτός αποδίδεται στα ελληνικά λέγοντας «πρόκειται
να ...», «σκοπεύω να ...» ή απλά «θα ...» και το ρήμα που περιγράφει την πράξη μας. Δες παρακάτω τους τρεις
τύπους του με το ρήμα play.
AFFIRMATIVE
INTERROGATIVE
NEGATIVE
I'm going to play
am I going to play ... ?
I'm not going to play
you're going to play
are you going to play ... ?
you aren't going to play
he's going to play
is he going to play ... ?
he isn't going to play
she's going to play
is she going to play ... ?
she isn't going to play
it's going to play
is it going to play ... ?
it isn't going to play
we're going to play
are we going to play ... ?
we aren't going to play
you're going to play
are we going to play ... ?
you aren't going to play
they're going to play
are they going to play ... ?
they aren't going to play
Δίνουμε σύντομες απαντήσεις (yes/no) με την προσωπική αντωνυμία που ταιριάζει και μόνο το βοηθητικό
ρήμα be.
Παραδείγματα:
- Are you going to sleep?
- Yes, I am. / - No, I’m not.
- Is Jason going to play?
- Yes, he is. / - No, he isn’t.
- Are the kids going to study?
- Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t.
Oh no!
He's going
to fall!
ΧΡΗΣΗ:
1. Οι πράξεις που εκφράζονται με be going to + verb είναι προγραμματισμένες από αυτόν που μιλάει ή
σίγουρες.
2. Ο μέλλοντας αυτός χρησιμοποιείται επίσης για προβλέψεις μελλοντικές, που όμως δεν είναι αόριστες, αλλά
που βασίζονται σε ΕΝΔΕΙΞΕΙΣ. Δηλαδή, βλέπουμε, ακούμε ή μαθαίνουμε κάτι (= ένδειξη) και βασιζόμαστε
σε αυτό για να πούμε ότι κάτι ΘΑ γίνει.
Παραδείγματα:
20
There are clouds in the sky. (ένδειξη)
He looks tired. (ένδειξη)
Grammalysis A2
It’s going to rain.
He’s going to fall asleep.
1
Fill in with be going to + verb.
2
Fill in with be going to + verb.
take - rain - land - get bored - drink - fly
1. Jim and I - not play
Jim and I are not going to play
1. I
tennis today.
2. Mum - not serve
Mum is not going to serve
dinner at 7:00pm.
am going to get bored
2. The Smiths
are going to fly
3.
Our trip
is going to take
two weeks.
4. The kids
are going to drink
coca cola.
5.
His flight
is going to land
6. It 3. Phil - not listen
Phil is not going to listen
. There’s nothing to do.
is going to rain
to Japan.
at 6:15am.
. Look at those clouds.
serve - not rain - play - take off - not pack - think
to music.
4. I - not take
I am not going to take
2. Dad
is going to think
a break after all.
3. They
are going to serve
5. You and Sam - not stay
You and Sam are not going to stay
4. We
aren’t going to pack
much for the trip.
5. Jack
is going to play
tennis tonight.
6. It
with us tonight.
3
is going to take off
1. Our plane
in ten minutes.
about my idea.
isn’t going to rain
lunch at 2 o’clock.
. We can go out.
Fill in these e-mails with be going to + verb.
Hi Ross!
am not going to chat
I1
(not chat) online
Hi Pete!
I1
am not going to work
(not work) next
week
and I 2
are going
. Jane and I 2
for
a few days. My brother
are going to take
(take) a
to fly
short holiday. We 3
(fly) to Canada. It 3 is going
are going to find
to be
(be) so exciting!
(find) a small hotel by
.
the sea
We 4
4
are going to stay
are not going to do
We
(stay) with my uncle
(not do)
is going to take very much. I 5
in Vancouver. He 5
am going to lie
(lie)
e beach an 6
on th
(take) us on a boat trip to see whales!
d Jane
is going to
swim (sw
am not going to miss
I 6
(not miss) that!
im). It 7
is going to be
See you soon. David.
(be) very peaceful. Love
, Sarah.
4
Ask questions with be going to + verb. Then give Yes (P) or No (O) answers.
P)
- (O)
- (P)
- (O)
- (P)
- (O)
- (O)
- (P)
- (O)
- (P)
- (P)
1.She - feel better soon?
-
Is she going to feel better soon?
-(
Yes, she is.
2.Dad - come back tonight?
-
Is dad going to come back tonight?
No, he isn’t.
3.You - jump over the wall?
-
Are you going to jump over the wall?
4.The cat - eat that mouse?
-
Is the cat going to eat that mouse?
5.They - get bored at home?
-
Are they going to get bored at home?
6.Liz - visit you on Friday?
-
Is Liz going to visit you on Friday?
7.You - work this weekend?
-
Are you going to work this weekend?
8.They - see the film tonight?
-
Are they going to see the film tonight?
9.Jim - walk to school today?
-
Is Jim going to walk to school today?
10.The bus - be late again?
-
Is the bus going to be late again?
11.You - start piano lessons?
-
Are you going to start piano lessons?
Yes, I am.
No, it isn’t.
Yes, they are.
No, she isn’t.
No, I’m not. / we aren’t.
Yes, they are.
No, he isn’t.
Yes, it is.
Yes, I am. / we are.
Grammalysis A2
21
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