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Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
EVALUATING THE PERFORMANCE OF NEW AND INSERVICE PAVEMENTS IN ITALY USING HIGH-SPEED
NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
Ing. Stefano Drusin
[email protected]
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
ANAS Company Profile
Key facts & figures
Established in 1928
Joint-stock company (100% property of Ministry of Treasury)
Quality certified (e.g. UNI ISO 9001/2000 and 17020/2005)
Share Capital: 2,269,892,000 Euro
Turnover: 2,900,000,000 Euro (in the last 5 years)
Employees: 6,700 (6,500 in Italy)
Managed Road/Motorway network : 25,000 km
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 2
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
ANAS Company Profile
Managing Italian national road network
Construction of new highway and motorways
Maintenance of the national road and motorway network
Works Supervision on all road works
Mission
Study and research on safety and road maintenance
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 3
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
Research and Innovation
ANAS invests significant resources in
research and innovation in all road related
activities (materials; road safety; road
management, etc.)..
The Cesano National Research Centre is the
scientific, and technical heart of ANAS setting
standards, quality criteria and best practices for
the entire road infrastructure
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 4
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
CONCRETE AND
STEEL LABORATORY
HIGH SPEED
SURVEY
ASPHALT
CONCRETE
LABORATORY
SOIL AND ROCK
LABORATORY
VERTICAL AND
HORIZONTAL SIGN
LABORATORY
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 5
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
ROAD PAVEMENTS have been deeply changed
due to the SCIENTIFIC EVOLUTION in this field
1928
STARTING FROM EMPIRICAL SOLUTIONs BASED ON EXPERIENCE
PAVEMENTS EARNED THE DIGNITY OF SCIENCE
PAVEMENTS ARE NOW TREATED SUCH AS A PROPER
STRUCTURE TO BE DESIGNED
not only in terms of materials, thickness, etc
BUT MAINLY IN TERMS OF PERFORMANCES TO BE
GAINED IN THE FIELD
PERFORMANCEs PROVIDED BY CONTRACTORS
MUST BE VERIFIABLE
DESIGN IN EACH PART OF THE WORK
THIS IS ANAS
PERFORMANCES
BASED METHODOLOGY
2013
DESIGN
CONTROL
LAYING
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 6
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Evaluation of Actual
Network Condition
Testing and Approval
of Works
ANAS network
about 25.000 Km
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
Pavement
Design
All step integrated in
the ANAS management
system based on
performance
evaluation
Pavement
Construction
Maintenance of existing road
New road construction
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 7
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
1- STEP OF EVALUATION OF THE
ACTUAL NETWORK CONDITION
TROUGH THE HIGH EFFICENCY
SURVEY
3 - STEP OF PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
2 - STEP OF PAVEMENT DESIGN FOR
NEW CONSTRUCTION OR FOR
MAINTENANCE OF EXISTING
PAVEMENT
4 - STEP OF QUALITY CONTROL
TROUGH THE HIGH EFFICENCY
SURVEY FOR FINAL APPROUVAL OF
WORK
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 8
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
The ANAS Management System is based on Performance
Indicator (PI)connected to Technical Parameter (TP)
The PI is a non-dimensional measurement unit, which varies from 0 to
100, and measures the DIFFUSION of the TP that is under evaluation.
Its distribution, in the different levels of QUALITY of the TP, defines
the state of the pavement
An illustrative example for the TP “skid resistance” clarifies the
concept
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 9
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
TECHNICAL PARAMETER
A
B
C
D
E
In this example SKID NUMBER CAT
QUALITY LEVELS
A% --------> Percentage of pavement at level A
B% --------> Percentage of pavement at level B
C% --------> Percentage of pavement at level C
D% --------> Percentage of pavement at level D
Excellent
Good
Medium
Sufficient
Bad
etc.
The averaged diffusion of the different levels represent the
Performance Indicator of skid resistance
ANAS formula to averaged this diffusion could be
I CAT= f (A+3/4B+1/2C+1/4D)
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 10
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
ICAT = Performance Indicator of skid resistance
In this way the index varies from 0 to 100
Following the suggested formula:
I CAT= f (A+3/4B+1/2C+1/4D)
IF A = 100%
I CAT = 100
IF A,B,C,D = 0%
I CAT = 0
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 11
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
The ANAS Management System is based on performance indicator (PI)
The ANAS Management System is based on measurement of the overall Quality of the
road starting from the Technical Parameters.
ANAS proposes the today best technology to fast measure each parameters taking into
account environmental and traffic constraints.
For each evaluation more than one parameter is needed, for example the pavement
parameters are:
• Skid Resistance
• Roughness
• Bearing Capacity
NEW
• Distresses
• Traffic Noise
Technical Parameters are measured trough the HIGH SPEED EQUIPMENT that measure
the road on site, continuously, with high accuracy, high speed, and extremely low impact
on traffic.
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 12
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
FWD - “FALLING WEIGHT
DEFLECTOMETER”
ERMES
ROUTINE EVALUATION OF MACROTEXTURE,
EVENNES AND SKID RESISTANCE
TP
FSD Dynamic Road Phonometer
PAV
TSD - TRAFFIC SPEED
DEFLECTOMETER
HORIZONTAL SIGN
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 13
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
BEARING CAPACITY COLLECTED AT HIGH SPEED
NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
NEW
TRAFFIC SPEED DEFLECTOMETER
IN CONNECTION WITH “SLOW” FWD TEST
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 14
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
FIRST INTERNATIONAL
TSD TRIAL IN DENMARK
2013
DENMARK
1° TSD
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
ITALY
POLAND
AUSTRALIA
ANAS HAS DEVELOPED
Since 2009 THE USE OF
TSD
FOR FINAL APPROVAL OF
WORK
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 15
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
BEATRING CAPACITY MEASUREMENT
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
THE SHAPE OF DEFLECTIONS BASIN
DEPENDS ON CONTRIBUTION BY ALL DIFFERENT LAYERS
… DEFLECTIONS FARREST FROM THE LOAD (D1500)
PROVIDES INDICATIONS ON THE BC OF SUBGRADE
BEARING CAPACITY IS THE RESULT OF EACH COMPONENT
such as MATERIAL, LAYERS, THEIR INTERACTION
INCLUDED ANY CRACK INSIDE THEM
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 16
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
DEFLECTION BASINS CAN BE MEASURED WITH
TWO ALTERNATIVES EQUIPEMENTS
FWD and TSD measure same parameter by different
systems and different speed.
F.W.D.
FALLING WHEIGHT DEFLECTOMETER
T.S.D.
TRAFFIC SPEED DEFLECTOMETER
850 KPa
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 17
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
Measuring Pavement Bearing Capacity with Traditional System
Applied stress load (1700 kPa) to simulate traffic conditions
Recorded air temperature at each measurement
Surface repair
IS300 = D0 - D300
IS200 = D0 - D200
adjusted to consider the
deformability of the substrate
D1500
Deep repair
D300
RS control
D900
D200
D0
RP control
IS indexes are corrected and reported
to standard conditions (14 ° C)
IS14°C
C ×(14 −Ttesting )
=e
ISTtesting
Ttesting = Tair (easy to evaluate).
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 18
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
Measuring Pavement Bearing Capacity with ANAS TSD
Stress load is applied continuously by a 12 tons loaded wheel rolling at 80 km/h
Multiple temperature recordings
RP control
CALCULATED VALUES
ARE THE SAME
Deep repair
IS300 = D0 - D300
MEASUREMENTS ARE
CONTINUOUSLY RECORDED (1 m)
AND AVERAGED EVERY 10 m
RS control
Surface repair
IS200 = D0 - D200
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 19
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement
Siti sperimentali
Evaluation 2014
September 15
2014
Blacksburg,
e -18,
risultati
ottenutiVIRGINIA
INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE
English
Temp_10cm_Avg
Temp_superfice_Avg
Temp_10cm_Avg
IS300 versus Temp_aria_Avg
Tair
standard
7060
200
55
180
60
50
160
30
30
BELLS3
Temp_05cm_Avg
BELLS3
Tpav from air
BELLS3
Tpav from air
Temp_15cm_Avg
Temp_10cm_Avg
Tpav from air
Temp_20cm_Avg
ANAS for RP
C=0.037
IS-Tair b English Standard HD 29/08
140
IS300 (micron)
40
35
IS-Tair ANAS c=0.022
IS-Tair Baltzer and Janzen
45
50
40
IS-Tair ANAS c=0.037
from Baltzer
and Janzen
120
100
80
60
25
Connessione via
modem o diretta
ANAS for RS
C=0.022
SS1 “Aurelia”
km 23.500
40
2020
15
20
WIM
and
temperature
sensors
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
10
10
17/08/2009 17/08/2009 18/08/2009 18/08/2009 19/08/2009
14/08/2009 14/08/2009 15/08/2009 15/08/2009 16/08/2009 16/08/2009
Tair (°C)
01/08/2009
0.0012.0006/08/2009
0.00
11/08/2009
0.000.00 16/08/2009
21/08/2009
0.00
31/08/2009 0.00
12.00
12.000.00
0.00
12.00 26/08/2009
0.00 0.00 12.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
ANAS
- Condirezione
Generale
– Direzione
Centrale Ricerca
e Nuove
Tecnologie
ANAS
s.p.a.S.p.A.
- Codirezione
Generale
TecnicaTecnica
- Unità Ricerca
e Innovazione
– Centro
Sperimentale
StradalePag. 20
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
BEARING CAPACITY ASSESSMENT’S CRITERIA
- DESIGNED IS300 VALUE IS CALCULATED FOR THE PAVEMENT STRUCTURE
- SINCE IS300 IS AFFECTED BY TEMPERATURE
SOME TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS MUST BE CONSIDERED
ACCEPTANCE CURVE
RESTRICTED
NON RESTRICTED (VALID) AREA
required by the acceptance
RESTRICTED AREA
AREA
PENALITY
DESIGNED IS300
EXAMPLE
ACCEPTED
AVERAGE VALUES IS FALLING WITHIN “ VALID AREA” - IF HIGHER THAN FIXED ONES WILL BE UNDER PENALTY - IF LOWER THEY WILL BE ACCEPTED
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 21
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
NEW CURVES IN PROGRESS FOR IS COMPLIANCE VERIFICATION
Present acceptance curves IS showed troubles in
case of excessive use of recycled materials (RAP)
Very strong pavements showed very low values of Is with negative
influence on long term perfomance and reduction of residual life
IS
Due to this Is acceptance curve have been adjusted to be sure that designed fatigue
life of mixes will be obtained
BEARING CAPACITY and FATIGUE LIFE ARE CHECKED
WITH ONE SINGLE HIGH PERFORMANCE TEST
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 22
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
FATIGUE OF MIXES IS TESTED BY ITS TESTS BASED ON
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
FAST ANAS MEASUREMENT OF FATIGUE LIFE
SINUSOIDAL LOAD AT 10Hz AND 20 °C Air Temperature
CURVE DI FATICA
4.00
3.50
TENSIONE APPLICATA σ daN/cmq
3.00
2.50
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
1,000
10,000
100,000
1,000,000
10,000,000
CICLI A ROTTURA
FATIGUE RESISTANCE IS CHECKED COMPARING VARIOUS MIXES
WITH A REFERENCE ONE – THE GREEN ONE
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 23
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
NEW CURVES IN PROGRESS FOR IS COMPLIANCE VERIFICATION
TO PREVENT CONTRATORS FROM USING TOO RIGID MIXES WITH LESS DEFORMABILTY BUT LESS
RESIDUAL LIFE, A LOWER ACCEPTANCE CURVE WAS ADDED TO THE UPPER ONE.
A
B
C
IS VALUES INCLUDED IN AREA “A” ARE
NOT ACCEPTABLE
IS VALUES INCLUDED IN AREA “B” ARE
ACCEPTABLE
IS VALUES INCLUDED IN AREA “C” ARE UNDER PENALTY OR FATIGUE
TEST ON CORES MUST BE REPEATED (by comparison)
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 24
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
LET’S GO BACK TO THE MANAGEMENT OF PARAMETERS DETECTED
1. EVALUATION OF HOMOGENEOUS SECTION BY
SPECIFIC SOFTWARE
2. DISTRIBUTION OF QUALITY LEVELS ON THE ROAD
3. DESIGN OF MAINTENANCE
4. WORKS
5. PUNCTUAL CONTROL OF RESULTS OBTAINED WITH
THE WORKS
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 25
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
1 - RESULTS PROCESSED TO FIND HOMOGENEOUS SECTIONS NAMELY SECTIONS
SHOWING “STABLE” VALUES
SINGOL VALUES IS NOT SIGNIFICANT
AVERAGE
PENALTY
SINGOL VALUE
VALUE OF SECTION
REQUIRED VALUE
GOOD
THE AVERAGE VALUE (OF EACH SECTION) INSTEAD MUST
COMPLY WITH REQUIRED ONES
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 26
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
2. DISTRIBUTION OF QUALITY LEVELS ON THE ROAD
New
works
300
IS300 (14°C Tair)
New
pavement
Existing
HOMOGENEOUS SECTION
IS300 (14°C Tair)
300
250 works
Very poor
TECHNICAL PARAMETER
Very poor
Rejected
200
TECHNICAL PARAMETER
pavement
HOMOGENEOUS SECTION
250
EXISTING PAVEMENT
OF 2 KM Existing
Rejected
200
Poor
Poor
150
150
Sufficient
Accepted
with
Accepted
100 penalty
100
50
with
Accepted
penalty
050
39000
40000
41000
42000
Accepted
0
39000
Sufficient
Medium
40000
41000
43000
44000
Chianage (m )
42000
45000
46000
47000
Good
Medium
Excellent
Good
48000
49000
Excellent
43000
44000
Chianage (m )
45000
MANAGING INDICATOR is I bc = 25 + ¾ 15 = 36,25
46000
47000
48000
49000
I bc = 36,25
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 27
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
BEARING CAPACITY OF THE NETWORK IS REGULARLY
INVESTIGATED
PERFORMANCE INDICATOR IBC IS CALCULATED
«Premium network» IBC80,1 (100)
25.000 Km
Excellent
Good
Medium
Sufficient
Poor
Very Poor
LEVELS of IS30014°C
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 28
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
3. DESIGN OF MAINTENANCE
ReportS
DISTRIBUTION OF PERFORMANCE INDICATOR
USING GEOGRAFICAL REPRESENTATION
LOCATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF OPTIMAL
MAINTENANCE SUPPORTED BY THE SOFTWARE
ROAD EYE
ROAD EYE Software
Google MAPS
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 29
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Materials
3. DESIGN OF MAINTENANCE
“ANY MATERIAL”
•Virgin materials
•Marginal materials
•Recycling
•Etc. etc
Design of thichnesses and
evaluation residual life
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
Fatigue life and Moduli
“Measure of fatigue life of
material”
Simplified fatigue life machine “ANAS”
Reference curves for
final acceptance
EXAMPLE - definition of
Performance
Bearing Capacity
by Is Structural Index
Lavorazione tipo RPA1 - Valori limiti ammissibili per Indice Strutturale e pressione applicata 1700kPa
110
zona non valida per le
verificihe di accettabilità
della lavorazione
100
zona valida per le verificihe di accettabilità della
lavorazione
zona non valida per le verificihe di accettabilità
della lavorazione
IS300
90
80
70
schiumato con 1 mese di maturazione
60
schiumato con 6 mesi di maturazione
50
schiumato con 1 anno di maturazione
40
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
T aria °C
19
21
23
25
27
29
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 30
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
4. WORKS
ANAS in 2009 adopted a CONTRACT SPECIFICATIONS where the approval
and the final payment is related to the test performed at the end of work with
measurements made with high-speed non-destructive testing
ANAS
STANDARD
SPECIFICATION
5. PUNCTUAL CONTROL OF RESULTS
OBTAINED WITH THE WORKS
….to PAY ONLY WORKS WELL DONE!
THIS APPROACH enhances the self-control of the executing company during the execution of the work
ONLY JOB WELL DONE WILL BE PAYED
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 31
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
Pavement Evaluation 2014
September 15 -18, 2014
Blacksburg, VIRGINIA
FWD
ERMES
FSD
TSD
ANAS MANAGEMENT WITH THE PERFORMANCE
INDICATORS
ANAS S.p.A. - Condirezione Generale Tecnica – Direzione Centrale Ricerca e Nuove Tecnologie
Pag. 32
Centro Sperimentale Stradale
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