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Classical Tendencies in the Work of Michelangelo
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By
Autchara Nualsawad
A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree
MASTER OF FINE ARTS
Department of Art Theory
Graduate School
SILPAKORN UNIVERSITY
2011
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50005205 : ART THEORY
KEY WORD : CLASSIC ART/ CLASSICAL/ TENDENCIES/ ANTIQUIITY/
MICHELANGELO/ RENAISSANCE
AUTCHARA NUALSAWAD : CLASSICAL TENDENCIES IN THE WORK OF
MICHELANGELO. THESIS ADVISOR : ASSOC. PROF.KRISANA HONGUTEN, Ph.D.
276 pp.
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Of all influences shaping the early work of Michelangelo was that of Classic
Art. This research is aimed to study and analyze Michelangelo’s artistic development so
that would lead to a better understanding and deeper appreciation for the valuable
production of this Renaissance master.
According to theoretical studies in Art History and Visual Art, considerable
reviews of Classical Antiquity, Italian Renaissance, and the nature of Renaissance Art
was undertaken, along with an intensive study in Michelangelo’s life and work before
an analytical step would be determined. Consequently, the approach to classical
tendencies in his artwork could be inferred from such numerous archives.
What best describes Michelangelo’s classical tendencies was in his early work.
The inspiration from the art of Greek Classic and Hellenistic period was echoed within
his ideally well-built figure, whose elegant pose seemed being less in motion enclosing
the force of life within the form. Notwithstanding, his later work masterfully suggested
the handsome movement through statuesque and solid human body.
Not only was the master work of Michelangelo an inspiration to artists in
succeeding expressions that were soon to be recognized as Mannerism and Baroque, but
it also owed much to Classic art. While Classicism has had profound root in Western
art, it is unquestionable that it has been as well a fundament of Michelangelo’s success
in the art world.
Department of Art Theory Graduate School, Silpakorn University Academic Year 2011
Student's signature ....................................................
Thesis Advisor's signature ........................................
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w¢|“˜¥¢|yÛ¢ªv‰Øœ—˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–v˜ªvŸ–¦—±˜©¹–²˜v}¥µ‰Ø˜¦¢©Œ©“š}§v¢§˜—˜˜–²‹±–³Ÿ³
±Š±–ª—²š¥¢ª—©ŠÛ©šÎŽ}¥Ž©—–Ÿš¦v˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–´ ؖª˜®Œ˜|±ßŽ²Œ×|± šª¹—–²š¥v§˜
±yš¬¹¢Žµ œ¢—®×´Žš¦vžˆ¥}¾§v¦‰˜§œv¦¢—®×v¦Œª¹²š¥²w¸|±v˜¸|±׎|§Ž˜¥Š©–§v˜˜– Kuoros ² ×|
Anavysos (•§“Œª¹ 1)
˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–´ŽŸ–¦— Archaic }¥±ŽØŽyœ§–±ßŽ¢¦Ž Ž«¹|¢¦Ž±‰ª—œv¦Žw¢|˜®Œ˜|yœ§–
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yœ§–š¥±¢ª—‰¢×¢Ž–§v—©¹|w«ºŽvœ×§±‰©–²Š×‰Øœ—±ŒyŽ©yŒª¹—¦|µ–×vاœµvšw¢|˜¥Š©–§v˜´ŽŸ–¦—Žªº}«|Œ¾§
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8
vاœ—¦|y|±ßŽ²}¾§v¦‰¢—®×´Ž²Œ×| ©Ž€«¹|Œ¾§´ ؉®²w¸|±v˜¸|Ž¢v}§vŽªº©šÎŽ—¦|“—§—§–Ÿ¥ŒØ¢Ž
¢§˜–ˆÛyœ§–˜®ØŸ«vw¢|˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–¢¢v–§Œ§|Ÿª ŽØ§‰Øœ—˜¢——©º–§|·Ž´ ŽØ§Œª¹±˜ª—vœ×§
—©º–²¢§˜Ûy§¢©y€«¹|µ‰Øvš§—–§±ßŽ±¢vš¦vžˆÛŸ¾§y¦‚w¢||§Ž˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ÿ–¦—Žªº (•§“Œª¹ 2)
•§“Œª¹1 ˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®Kuoros ² ×|Anavysos ˜¥ œ×§|540-515 Ïv×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š ©Ž¢×¢Ž
Ÿ®|1.94 ±–Š˜
Œª¹–§ : Alda Tarella, Wie erkenne ich Römische Kunst g Architektur, Skulptur, (Stuttgart und Zürich:
Malerei), 1987, 48.
9
•§“Œª¹2 Rampin Horseman ˜¥ œ×§|560-550 Ïv×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®|1.10 ±–Š˜
Œª¹–§ : Flavio Conti, Wie erkenne ich Griechische Kunst g Architektur, Skulptur (Stuttgart und Zürich:
Malerei), 1988, 38.
¢—ק|µ˜v¸Š§–Ÿ©¹|Ÿ¾§y¦‚´Žv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–§— Ž­×–±š¬¢—´ŽŸ–¦—ŽªºŽ¦±ßŽ
v§˜±Î‰³¢v§Ÿ´ ؐ˜¥Š©–§v˜–ª³¢v§Ÿµ‰Ø«vž§²š¥“¦‡Ž§œ©ªv§˜Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢˜œ–Œ¦º|v§˜«vž§š¦vžˆ¥
Œ§|v§—œ©•§yŸ¦‰Ÿ×œŽ²š¥œ©vª §˜Ÿš¦v˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰w¢|¢œ¦—œ¥´ŽŸ×œŽŠ×§|·w¢|˜×§|v§—–Ž­ž—Ûµ‰Ø
¢—ק|‹®vŠØ¢|²š¥± –¬¢Ž}˜©|±ßŽ˜˜–§Š©–§v—©¹|w«ºŽ
Ž¢v}§vv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜– Kuoros ‹œ§—²‰×±Œ“±}ا²šØœ§œv˜ªv—¦|Ž©—–
Ÿ˜Ø§|˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–‘®Ø ‚©| ˜¬¢±˜ª—vœ×§ Koré (•§“Œª¹ 3) ‹œ§—²‰×±Œ“±}ا±׎v¦Ž€«¹| Koréy¬¢
Ÿ§œ“˜ –}˜˜—Û‘®ØŒ¾§ ŽØ§Œª¹±’Ó§±ŒœŸ‹§Ž˜œ–Œ¦º|±ßŽ‘®Ø‹œ§—‘šµ–زš¥±y˜¬¹¢|±€×ŽŸ¦|±œ—²‰×±Œ“±}ا
˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜– Koré v¸–ªš¦vžˆ¥yšØ§—yš«|v¦˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜– Kuoros€«¹|¢—®×´ŽŒ×§—¬Ž²w¸|
±v˜¸|yšØ§—v¦¢—®×´Ž²Œ×| ©Ž±Ž¬¹¢|}§vŸ–¦—Žªºµ–׎©—–Ÿ˜Ø§|˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–‘®Ø ‚©|±š¬¢—‰¦|Ž¦ºŽ}«|
Ž¦±ßŽv§˜±Î‰³¢v§Ÿ´ ؝©šÎŽ–ª³¢v§Ÿµ‰Ø«vž§v§˜Œ¾§˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰Œ˜|‘–²š¥±Ÿ¬º¢‘ا¢§•˜ˆÛw¢|
ŸŠ˜ªµ–לק}¥±ßŽ˜©ºœ‘ا§—‘اŠ¥±w¸±Ÿ¬º¢²š¥šœ‰š§—¢¦Ž|‰|§–w¢|‘ا
10
•§“Œª¹3 Peplos Koré ˜¥–§ˆ530 Ïv×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®|1.22 ±–Š˜
Œª¹–§ : Henri Stierlin , GriechHQODQGg9RQ0\NHQH]XP3DUWKHRQ (Köln, n. p., 1997), 58.
˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–´Žל|Š×¢˜¥ œ×§|Ÿ–¦— ArchaicŠ¢Žš§—²š¥Ÿ–¦—yš§ŸŸ©vŠ¢ŽŠØŽ
²Ÿ‰|´ ر ¸Ž“¦‡Ž§v§˜´Žv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Œª¹vاœ ŽØ§–§vw«ºŽvœ×§±‰©–Ž¦¹Žy¬¢©šÎŽŸ–¦—Žªº
±˜©¹–´ Øyœ§–Ÿ¾§y¦‚v¦v§˜Œ¾§˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰Š×§|·–§vw«ºŽµ–לק}¥±ßŽv§˜Œ¾§˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰w¢|
všØ§–±Ž¬º¢ ˜¬¢š¦vžˆ¥Œ§|v§—œ©•§yw¢|–Ž­ž—Û´ ؖªyœ§–± –¬¢Ž}˜©|–§vw«ºŽv§˜Œ¾§˜¢——¦—׎w¢|
±Ÿ¬º¢‘ا¢§•˜ˆÛ“˜©ºœµ œ²š¥± –¬¢Ž}˜©|–§vw«ºŽvœ×§±‰©–²š¥v§˜Œ¾§˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰w¢|±ŸØŽ‘–²š¥
Žœ‰±y˜§v¸–ªyœ§–Ÿ–}˜©|–§vw«ºŽŠ¦œ¢—ק|±׎˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ÿ§˜‹ª² ×|±–¬¢|Delphi (•§“Œª¹
4) ˜¥Š©–§v˜˜– Koré w¢|Euthdikos (•§“Œª¹ 5) Œª¹Ÿ¾§y¦‚“—©º–²Archaic” µ‰Ø}§| §—µ
}§v˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ÿ–¦—Žªº²š¥µ‰Øvš§—±ßŽ´ ŽØ§Œª¹±y˜×|w˜«–²š¥±˜Ø§Ÿ˜Ø¢—²ŒŽ
11
•§“Œª¹4 Ÿ§˜‹ª² ×|±–¬¢|Delphi ˜¥–§ˆ470Ïv×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®|1.80 ±–Š˜
Œª¹–§: H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson, History of Art, 5th Edition Revised (New York : Prentice
Hall, 1997), 186.
12
•§“Œª¹5 Euthdikos Kor鐘¥–§ˆ480 Ïv×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®|58 ±€ŽŠ©±–Š˜
Œª¹–§: Flavio Conti, Wie erkenne ich Griechische Kunst g Architektur, Skulptur (Stuttgart und Zürich:
Malerei, 1998), 39.
v§˜“—§—§–Ÿ˜Ø§|Ÿ˜˜yÛ|§Ž˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Œª¹|‰|§–²š¥µ‰ØŸ¦‰Ÿ×œŽv§˜Ÿ¥ŒØ¢Ž•§“
yœ§–Ÿ–‰­šw¢|˜×§|v§—²š¥}©Š´}Šš¢‰}Žv§˜²Ÿ‰|yœ§–±yš¬¹¢Žµ œŒª¹± –¬¢Ž}˜©|±ßŽ˜˜–§Š©
µ‰Ø±˜©¹–Ÿ¦–™Œ©½‘š²šØœ´ŽŸ–¦—yš§ŸŸ©vw¢|v˜ªvŠ¦œ¢—ק|±׎˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜– Ž¦v˜‘®Øv¾§š¦|Ÿ©ºŽª“
(•§“Œª¹ 6) €«¹|²Ÿ‰|´ ر ¸Ž‹«|yœ§–Ÿ§–§˜‹¢¦Ž±ßŽ±š©w¢|˜¥Š©–§v˜v˜ªvŸ–¦—yš§ŸŸ©v´Žv§˜
Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢•§“w¢|yœ§–“—§—§–w¢|§—‘®Ø Ž«¹|Œª¹v¾§š¦|“—§—§–Š×¢Ÿ®Øv¦yœ§–Š§—¢—ק|µ–×—¢–“ק—
²“Ø}Ž‹«|œ©Ž§ŒªŸ­‰ŒØ§—w¢|ªœ©Š©šÎŽµ–×±“ª—|²Š×²Ÿ‰|š¦vžˆ¥Œ§|v§—œ©•§yŒª¹‹®vŠØ¢|Š§–
š¦vžˆ¥v§˜±yš¬¹¢Žµ œw¢|˜×§|v§—¢¦ŽŸ×|‘š´ ؘ®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Žªº–ªyœ§–±yš¬¹¢Žµ œŒª¹± –¬¢Ž}˜©|
±ßŽ˜˜–§Š©±Œ×§Ž¦ºŽ²Š×—¦|‹×§—Œ¢‰¢§˜–ˆÛ ˜¬¢yœ§–˜®ØŸ«v¢¢v–§Œ§|Ÿª ŽØ§²š¥Œ×§Œ§|¢ªv‰Øœ—
€«¹|±ßŽv§˜Ÿ¥ŒØ¢Ž´ ر ¸Ž‹«|yœ§–Ÿ¦–“¦ŽÛ˜¥ œ×§|˜×§|v§—²š¥}©Š´}Œª¹´všØ©‰v¦Ž}Ž–©¢§}²—v¢¢v
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13
•§“Œª¹6 Ž¦v˜v¾§š¦|}¥Ÿ©ºŽª“}§v ŽØ§}¦¹œ‰Ø§ŽŒ©Š¥œ¦Ž¢¢vw¢|œ© §˜² ×|Aphaia ´Ž±–¬¢|Aegina ˜¥–§ˆ
490Ïv×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š ©Ž¢×¢Ž—§œ1.83 ±–Š˜
Œª¹–§ : Gérard Du Ry 9DQ%HHVWWROOH, ed., Kunstgeschichte (%DGHQ-%DGHQ: %G,), 176.
Ž«|¹ ´Ž‘š|§ŽŒª²¹ Ÿ‰|´ ر ¸Ž“¦‡Ž§v§˜yœ§–vاœ ŽØ§²š¥yœ§–±ª—¹ œ§‚Œ§|‰Ø§Ž
±ŒyŽ©y’Ï–¬¢²š¥v§˜Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢w¢|©šÎŽv˜ªv´Žל|˜¥—¥±œš§400 ÏŒª¹‘קŽ–§y¬¢˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–
š×¢Ÿ¾§˜©‰˜®±Œ“±}اPoseidon (•§“Œª¹ 7) €«¹|±ßŽ‘š|§ŽŒª¹¢—®×´Žל|˜¢—Š×¢˜¥ œ×§|Ÿ–¦—yš§ŸŸ©v
²š¥—­yŒ¢|w¢|Ÿ–¦—yš§ŸŸ©v‘š|§ŽŽªºµ–×±“ª—|²Š×²Ÿ‰|´ ر ¸Ž‹«|Ÿ˜ª˜¥Œª¹µ‰ØŸ¦‰Ÿ×œŽ˜×§|v§—Œª¹–ª
všØ§–±Ž¬º¢¢¦Ž|‰|§–²š¥±Š¸–µ‰Øœ—“šv¾§š¦|´Ž²¢­‰–yŠ©±Œ×§Ž¦ºŽ²Š×—¦|²Ÿ‰|´ ر ¸Žyœ§–
±yš¬¹¢Žµ œ¢¦Ž±ßŽ¢©Ÿ˜¥€«¹|µ‰ØŸ¢‰˜¥Ÿ§Ž±wاv¦Œ×œ|Œ×§¢¦ŽŸ|ק|§–¢—ק|µ˜ØŒª¹Š©
14
•§“Œª¹7 Poseidon ˜¥ œ×§|Ï460-450 Ïv×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§šŸ¾§˜©‰Ÿ®|1.95 ±–Š˜
Œª¹–§: H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson: History of Art, 5th Edition Revised (New York : Prentice
Hall, 1997), 188.
§œv˜ªv±¬¹¢œ×§Ÿ×œŽ˜œ–Œª¹Ÿ–®˜ˆÛ—×¢–±ßŽ‘š–§}§vv§˜‘Ÿ§Žv¦Žw¢|¢|yې˜¥v¢
Ÿ×œŽ—×¢—Œª¹Ÿ–®˜ˆÛ±Œ×§Ž¦ºŽ‰¦|Ž¦ºŽ©šÎŽ}«|–­×|²Ÿœ| §vƒ±vˆ†Û¢¦Ž±ßŽ–§Š˜…§Ž˜×œ–v¦Ž±“¬¹¢Ÿ˜Ø§|
˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Œª¹–ªŸ¦‰Ÿ×œŽ|‰|§–²š¥Ÿ–®˜ˆÛš|Š¦œ²¢­‰–yŠ©‰¦|±׎Œ™žƒªyœ§–Ÿ¦–“¦ŽÛ
w¢|Ÿ¦‰Ÿ×œŽw¢| Polycletus ˜¥Š©–§v˜v˜ªv‘®ØŽªºµ‰Ø˜¦v§˜—v—×¢|±ßŽ¢—ק|Ÿ®|´ŽŸ–¦—w¢|±w§
±“˜§¥Œ™žƒªw¢|±w§Œ¾§´ ؝©šÎŽ¢¬¹Ž·Ÿ§–§˜‹Ž¾§µ´رßŽ š¦v±vˆ†Û´Žv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–
´ ؟–®˜ˆÛ²²š¥–ªyœ§–|‰|§–µ‰ØŸ¦‰Ÿ×œŽŠ§–²¢­‰–yŠ©³‰—²²‘Ž´Žv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|˜®
˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Žªºy¬¢yœ§–Ÿ®|w¢|˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–yœ˜±ßŽ±}¸‰±Œ×§w¢|Ÿ×œŽª˜ž¥yœ§–—§œw¢|
±ŒØ§}¥ŠØ¢|±ßŽŸ§–±Œ×§w¢|’Ò§–¬¢yœ§–—§œw¢|w§š×§|}§v±ŒØ§‹«| ¦œ±wק²š¥yœ§–—§œw¢|w§Ž
}§v ¦œ±wק‹«|š¾§Š¦œŠØ¢|±ßŽ v±Œ×§w¢|’Ò§–¬¢ Polycletus µ‰ØŽ¾§ š¦v±vˆ†Û‰¦|vš×§œ–§´Ø´Žv§˜
Ÿ˜Ø§|˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–§— Ž­×–±š¬¢—Doryphoros (•§“Œª¹ 8) ±“¬¹¢“©Ÿ®}ŽÛœ×§Œ™žƒªŒª¹±w§y©‰y؎w«ºŽ
‹®vŠØ¢|¢ªv‰Øœ—
15
•§“Œª¹8 Polycletus: Doryphoros ˜¥ œ×§|460-450 Ïv×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®|2 ±–Š˜(Ÿ˜Ø§|±šª—Ž²
‘š|§Ž}˜©|Œª¹ š×¢‰Øœ—Ÿ¾§˜©‰)
Œª¹–§: H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson, History of Art, 5th Edition Revised (New York : Prentice
Hall, 1997), 183.
16
“¦‡Ž§v§˜}§vv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–§— Ž­×–±š¬¢—Œª¹–ªš¦vžˆ¥²w¸|±v˜¸|²š¥
yœ§–±yš¬¹¢Žµ œŒª¹}¾§v¦‰w¢|˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Kuoros µ‰Ø“¦‡Ž§–§±ßŽ˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Œª¹±yš¬¹¢Žµ œ
¢—ק|±ßŽ¢©Ÿ˜¥´ŽŒ×œ|Œ×§v§˜—ק|vاœ¢¦ŽŸ|ק|§– ˜¬¢ Contrapposto €«¹|²Ÿ‰|´ ر ¸Ž‹«|yœ§–
²ŠvŠ×§|˜¥ œ×§|±ŒØ§wا|Œª¹˜¦Žº¾§ Ž¦vv¦±ŒØ§Œª¹v¾§š¦|vاœ—ק|Ÿ×|‘š´ ؘ®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–
Doryphoros (•§“Œª¹ 8) ²š¥Apollo ² ×|%HOYHGHUH (•§“Œª¹ 9) ±yš¬¹¢Žµ œµ‰Ø¢—ק|–ªªœ©Šªœ§
±ßŽ˜˜–§Š©Ž¢v}§vŽªº©šÎŽ—¦|Ÿ§–§˜‹Ÿ˜Ø§|˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰Š×§|·w¢|˜×§|v§—–Ž­ž—Ûµ‰Ø¢—ק|
± –¬¢Ž}˜©|Š§–˜˜–§Š©–§v—©¹|w«ºŽ¢ªv‰Øœ—€«¹|v¸±ßŽ‘š–§}§vv§˜«vž§²–ײ}§v˜˜–§Š©
¢—ק|š¥±¢ª—‰‹ª¹‹ØœŽŽ¦¹Ž±¢|
•§“Œª¹9 ˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–±Œ“±}اApollo ² ×|%HOYHGHUH
Œª–¹ §: $SROORGH%HOYHGHUH [Online], accessed 5 May 2011. Available from http://upload. wikimedia.
org.
17
•§“Œª¹10 Praxiteles: Mercury ˜¥ œ×§|320 – 310 Ïv×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®|2.16 ±–Š˜
(Ÿ˜Ø§|±šª—Ž²‘š|§Ž}˜©|Œª¹ š×¢‰Øœ—Ÿ¾§˜©‰)
Œª¹–§: Flavio Conti, Wie erkenne ich Griechische Kunst g Architektur, Skulptur (Stuttgart und
Zürich : Malerei, 1998), 45.
Ž¢v}§vv§˜}¦‰œ§|Œ×§Œ§|²
ContrappostoŒªŸ¹ |ק|§–²šØœv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|˜®
˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Œª¹–ª³y˜|Ÿ˜Ø§|˜®Š¦œ S v¸—¦|Ÿ§–§˜‹²Ÿ‰|Œ×œ|Œ×§Œª¹Ÿ|ק|§–µ‰Øµ–ײ“Øv¦Ž€«¹|˜®
˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Œª¹–ª³y˜|Ÿ˜Ø§|˜®Š¦œ SŽªº±v©‰}§vv§˜©‰±¢ªº—œv§—±“ª—|±š¸vŽØ¢—‰¦|±׎˜®
18
˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Mercury ˜¬¢±Œ“±}ا² ×|v§˜Ÿ¬¢¹ Ÿ§˜ (•§“Œª¹ 10) €«|¹ ±ßŽ‘š|§ŽŸ˜Ø§|Ÿ˜˜yÛw¢|
Praxiteles ˜¥Š©–§v˜‘®Ø–ª¬¹¢±Ÿª—|´Žv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–ŸŠ˜ª±š¬¢—Œª¹–ªŸ¦‰Ÿ×œŽ|‰|§–
v§˜±yš¬¢¹ Žµ œŽ­–× Žœš²š¥–ª±ŸŽ× Û œŽ´ Ø š|´ š“¦‡Ž§v§˜´Žv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž©š¥¢¦Žvاœµvš´Ž
š¦vžˆ¥Žªºw¢|©šÎŽv˜ªvŒ¾§´ Øvš©¹Ž¢§—w¢|˜¥Š©–§v˜˜– Kuoros´ŽŸ–¦—Archaic µ–לק}¥±ßŽ
Œ×§—¬ŽŠ¦œŠ˜|v§˜±yš¬¹¢Žµ œŒª¹²w¸|Œ¬¹¢ ˜¬¢­yš©vš¦vžˆ¥¢¦Ž±ßŽ²²‘Žµ‰Ø §—µ}ŽŸ©ºŽ}§v
˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–w¢|v˜ªv´ŽŸ–¦—Žªº
‘š|§Ž©ºŽ±—ª¹—–¢ªv©ºŽ Ž«¹|Œª¹²Ÿ‰|´ ر ¸Žyœ§–Ÿ§–§˜‹¢¦Ž±ßŽ±š©w¢|©šÎŽv˜ªvŒª¹
“¦‡Ž§v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–µ‰Ø¢—ק|vاœµvšŽ¦¹Žy¬¢˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜¥‰¦œ© §˜ Parthenon
Ž Acropolis ² ×|v˜­|±¢±ŽŸÛ€«¹|Ÿ˜Ø§|w«ºŽ´Ž—­yŒ¢|w¢|Ÿ–¦—yš§ŸŸ©v³‰— Phidias ˜¥Š©–§v˜
±¢vw¢|v˜ªv€«¹|±ßŽ‘®Øyœy­–‰®²š²š¥¢¢v²˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Œª¹´ؐ˜¥‰¦ ŽØ§}¦¹œ²‹šœ‰š§—
²š¥×¢|šœ‰š§—œ© §˜w¢|±Œ“ª Athena ‘š|§ŽŽªºµ‰Ø²Ÿ‰|´ ر ¸Ž‹«|±ßŽ¢¦}~˜©—•§“²š¥yœ§–
~š§‰˜§‰±˜¬¹¢|w¢|©šÎŽ‘®ØŽªº¢—ק|± ¸Žµ‰Ø¦‰²–؜ק±Ž¬º¢ §´Žv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§ŽŽªº}¥Ÿ×|‘š´ Øv§˜}¦‰
œ§|¢|yې˜¥v¢•§“–ªš¦vžˆ¥Œª¹yšØ§—yš«|v¦Ž ˜¬¢‰®€º¾§v¦Žv¸Š§–²Š×˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ž²‹
šœ‰š§—w¢| Phidiasvš¦µ–×–ªš¦vžˆ¥Œª¹€º¾§v¦Ž±š—²–زŠ×˜®±‰ª—œ(•§“Œª¹ 11)
•§“Œª¹11 Phidias: ˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ž®Ž˜®§— Ž­–× ²vAmphora ´Ž²‹šœ‰š§—Ž‘Ž¦|‰Ø§ŽŒ©± Ž¬¢w¢| Ø¢|
˜¥‰©ž…§Ž±Œœ˜®´Žœ© §˜Parthenon ˜¥ œ×§|440 – 430 Ïv×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®|1.06 ±–Š˜
Œª¹–§: Flavio Conti, Wie erkenne ich Griechische Kunst g Architektur, Skulptur (Stuttgart und Zürich
: Malerei, 1998), 53.
19
•§“Œª¹12 Phidias: ˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–}§v ŽØ§}¦¹œ‰Ø§ŽŒ©Š¥œ¦Ž¢¢vw¢|œ© §˜Parthenon ˜¥ œ×§|440 – 430 Ï
v×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®|1.14 ±–Š˜
Œª¹–§: 9DJQPaulsen, GriHFKLVFKH%LOGZHUNH (Königstein im Taunus : n. p., 1962), 67.
˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜® ±Œœª3 ¢|yÛ (•§“Œª¹ 12) €«¹|˜¥‰¦¢—®×Š˜|–­–‰Ø§Žwœ§w¢| ŽØ§}¦¹œ
‰Ø§ŽŒ©Š¥œ¦ŽŠvw¢|œ© §˜ Parthenon±ßŽ¢ªv Ž«¹|‘š|§ŽŒª¹“©Ÿ®}ŽÛ´ ر ¸Ž‹«|yœ§–Ÿ§–§˜‹´Ž˜¥‰¦
¢¦}~˜©—¥w¢| Phidias€«¹|Ÿ§–§˜‹²v݂ؐ §Œª¹±ßŽ¢­Ÿ˜˜yw¢|±w§µ‰Ø¢—ק|§‚~š§‰³‰—Œ¾§´ Ø
“¬ºŽŒª¹˜©±œˆ–­–w¢| ŽØ§}¦¹œŒª¹—§vŠ×¢v§˜}¦‰œ§|¢|yې˜¥v¢–­–š§—² š–±}اÝ‚ §Žªºvš§—±ßŽ
–­–Œª¹–ªyœ§–|§–¢¦Ž³‰‰±‰×Žµ–ײ“؟לŽ˜©±œˆŸ×œŽvš§|w¢| ŽØ§}¦¹œ±š—
Phidias Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢
˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–vš­×–˜®±Œ“ªŸ§–¢|yÛ´ŽŒ×œ|Œ×§²š¥¢©˜—© §‹Œª¹²ŠvŠ×§|v¦Ž±Œ“ª Aphrodite Œ˜|
˜¥Œ¦´ŽŒ×§y˜«¹|Ž¦¹|y˜«¹|Ž¢Žwˆ¥Œª¹±Œ“ª Dione Œ˜|˜¥Œ¦Ž¦¹|Ÿ×œŽ±Œ“ª¢|yیª¹Ÿ§–Œ˜|¢—®×´Ž
¢©˜©—§‹v¾§š¦|—v“˜¥œ˜v§—w«ºŽ±“¬¹¢˜¥Œ¦—¬Ž¢§v¦v©˜©—§w¢|±Œ“ªŒ¦º|3 ¢|yÛ²Ÿ‰|´ ر ¸Žv§˜
±yš¬¹¢Žµ œ¢¦Ž±ßŽ¢©Ÿ˜¥²š¥±ßŽ˜˜–§Š©€«¹|‰®Š×¢±Ž¬¹¢|v¦Ž±ßŽš®v³€×Ÿ×œŽv§˜Œ¾§˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰
±Ÿ¬º¢‘ا¢§•˜ˆÛw¢|±Œ“©‰§Œ¦º|3 ¢|yÛv¸²Ÿ‰|´ ر ¸Ž‹«|“¦‡Ž§v§˜¢¦Žvاœµvš´Žv§˜Œ¾§
˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰w¢|˜©ºœ‘ا}§v˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Kor逫¹|²Ÿ‰|˜©ºœ‘اŒª¹±ßŽ²²‘Žµ‰Ø“¦‡Ž§–§±ßŽ˜©ºœ
‘اŒª¹§|±§²Ž±Ž¬º¢}ŽŸ§–§˜‹± ¸Žš¦vžˆ¥Œ§|v§—œ©•§y²š¥v§˜±yš¬¹¢Žµ œw¢|±Œ“ªŒ¦º|Ÿ§–¢|yÛ
¢—ק|¦‰±}Ž
Ž¢v}§vv§˜Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–´ŽŒ×œ|Œ×§v§˜±yš¬¹¢Žµ œŒª¹Ž­×–Žœš²š¥–ªyœ§–
Š×¢±Ž¬¹¢|v¦Ž²šØœ´Žל|š§—Ÿ–¦—yš§ŸŸ©vw¢|v˜ªv—¦|–ªv§˜Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Œª¹–­×|²Ÿ‰|
‹«|“š¦|² ×|v§˜±yš¬¹¢Žµ œ´Ž¦¹œ“˜©Š§‰¦|}¥± ¸Žµ‰Ø}§v˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜– Apoxyomenos (•§“
Œª¹13) €«¹|±ßŽ‘š|§Žw¢| Lysippus ˜¥Š©–§v˜‘®Ø­v±©v˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–v˜ªv´ Øvاœ¢¢v}§vŸ–¦—
20
yš§ŸŸ©vµŸ®Ÿ× –¦— Hellenistic Lysippus ‘®Ø±ßŽ˜¥Š©–§v˜˜¥}¾§˜§Ÿ¾§Ž¦vw¢|“˜¥±}ا
Alexander – §˜§Ž¦±ßŽ©šÎŽ‘®Ø—©¹|´ ‚×yŽŸ­‰ŒØ§—w¢|Ÿ–¦—Hellenistic
Apoxyomenos ±ßŽ˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®§— Ž­×–±š¬¢—v¾§š¦|—¬ŽŒ¾§yœ§–Ÿ¥¢§‰˜×§|v§—
•§— š¦|}§vv§˜±š×Žvª¡§³‰—´ر š¸vw®‰Žº¾§–¦ŽŒ§Š¦œ²š¥‰©Ž}§vŸŽ§–vª¡§¢¢v}§v‘©œv§—v§˜
Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢š¦vžˆ¥Œ×§Œ§|v§˜±yš¬¹¢Žµ œŒª¹€¦€Ø¢Ž¢¦Ž±v©‰}§vv§˜©‰±¢ªº—œv§—²š¥³—vŠ¦œµ–§w¢|
˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ž¢v}§v}¥²Ÿ‰|´ ر ¸Žyœ§–|§–²˜¢‰Ø§Ž²šØœ—¦|±ßŽv§˜Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢´Ž
š¦vžˆ¥Œª¹±v©Ž}˜©|€«¹|±ßŽv§˜±˜©¹–~§—²œœv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž©š¥²Žœ“Mannerism”¢ªv‰Øœ—
v§˜Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢Œ×§Œ§|v§˜±yš¬¹¢Žµ œ´Ž¦¹œ“˜©Š§ Ž«¹|w¢|–Ž­ž—ÛŸ¥ŒØ¢Ž´ ر ¸Ž‹«|“š¦|
² ×|yœ§–±yš¬¹¢Žµ œŒ§|Ÿ˜ª˜¥¢¦Ž±ßŽ‘š–§}§vv§˜«vž§š¦vžˆ¥Œ§|v§—œ©•§yw¢|–Ž­ž—Û¢—ק|
š¥±¢ª—‰µ–לק}¥±ßŽvšØ§–±Ž¬º¢ ¦œ±wקw¢|w§wا|Œª¹± —ª—‰Š˜| ˜¬¢w§wا|Œª¹—v± —ª—‰´Ž²Žœ±~ª—|
˜œ–Œ¦º|všØ§–±Ž¬º¢w¢|²wŽwا|Œª¹—vw«ºŽ²š¥²wŽwا|Œª¹¢—®×‰Ø§Žš×§|Œ¦º| –‰ŽªºšØœŽŸ×|‘š´ ؘ®
˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Apoxyomenos ±yš¬¹¢Žµ œµ‰Ø¢—ק|¢©Ÿ˜¥²š¥± –¬¢Ž}˜©|¢—ק|±ßŽ˜˜–§Š©
•§“Œª¹13 Lysippus: Apoxyomenos ˜¥–§ˆ330 Ïv×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®|2.10 ±–Š˜(Ÿ˜Ø§|±šª—Ž²
‘š|§Ž}˜©|Œª¹ š×¢‰Øœ—Ÿ¾§˜©‰)
Œª¹–§: Flavio Conti, Wie erkenne ich Griechische Kunst g Architektur, Skulptur (Stuttgart und Zürich
: Malerei 1998), 47.
21
•§“Œª¹14˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰ Apoxyomenos
Œª¹–§ : Apoxyomenos [Online], accessed 16 May 2009. Available from http://www.google.co.th
Ž¢v}§vŽªºš¦vžˆ¥´ ŽØ§w¢|˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜– Apoxyomenos —¦|±‘—´ ر ¸Žv§˜
Ÿ˜Ø§||§ŽŒª¹±ŽØŽš¦vžˆ¥¢¦Ž±ßŽÝ}±}v­yyš(•§“Œª¹ 14) €«¹|µ‰Ø±˜©¹–±wا–§²ŒŽŒª¹v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž²
¢­‰–yŠ©‰¦|}¥Ÿ¦|±vŠµ‰Ø}§v˜® ŽØ§Œª¹–ªš¦vžˆ¥±v¬¢±ßŽŸª¹± šª¹—–²š¥y§|­Ú–±š¸vŽØ¢—Ÿ¦ŽŽ©ž…§Ž
v¦Žœ×§Lysippus ¢§}}¥±ßŽ‘®ØŸš¦v˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–•§“± –¬¢Ž–Ž­ž—Û˜®²˜vw¢|v˜ªvŽ¦¹Žy¬¢˜®
}¦v˜“˜˜‰© Alexander – §˜§(•§“Œª¹ 15) ‘®ØŸ§–§˜‹“©©Š‰©Ž²‰ŽŠ×§|·µ‰Ø±v¬¢y˜«¹|³šv²š¥Œª¹
Ÿ¾§y¦‚“˜¥¢|yی˜|Œ¾§´ Ø¢§˜—˜˜–v˜ªv²“˜× š§—µ—¦|‰©Ž²‰Ž¢§ˆ§Ž©y–¢ªv‰Øœ—
•§“Œª¹15˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ÿš¦v ©Ž¢×¢Ž•§“± –¬¢Ž}¦v˜“˜˜‰©Alexander – §˜§330 Ïv×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š
Ÿ®|2 ”­Š3 Ž©œº ±–Š˜(Ÿ˜Ø§|±šª—Ž²‘š|§Ž}˜©|Œª¹ š×¢‰Øœ—Ÿ¾§˜©‰)
Œª¹–§ : Donald E.Strong, The Classical World (London: n.p., 1997), 75.
22
yœ§–|§–w¢|“š¦|² ×|v§˜±yš¬¹¢Žµ œ´Ž¦¹œ“˜©Š§µ‰Ø“¦‡Ž§–§±ßŽyœ§–±yš¬¹¢Žµ œ¢¦Ž
Œ˜|“š¦|€«¹|–¦v}¥‹®vŽ¾§±ŸŽ¢‰Øœ—Œ×§Œ§|v§˜©‰±¢ªº—œŠ¦œ¢—ק|˜­Ž²˜|‰¦|}¥˜§vƒ¢—ק|±‰×Ž¦‰´Ž
|§Ž˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ÿ–¦— Hellenistic±׎˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–vš­–× Laocoön (•§“Œª¹ 16) ²š¥˜®
˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ž®ŽŸ®|Athena ²š¥Alcyoneus˜¥‰¦²Œ×Ž®§Perganum (•§“Œª¹ 17)
•§“Œª¹16 Laocoön ˜§œŠœ˜˜žŒª¹ 2 ˜¬¢3 v×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®|1.85 ±–Š˜
Œª¹–§: H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson, History of Art, 5th Edition Revised (New York : Prentice
Hall, 1997), 111.
23
•§“Œª¹17 Athena ²š¥Alcyoneus˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ž®ŽŸ®|}§v²Œ×Ž®§Perganum ˜¥ œ×§|166 – 156 Ï
v×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®|2.29 ±–Š˜
Œª¹–§: Gérard Du Ry 9DQ%HHVWWROOH(Editor), Kunstgeschichte (%G,: %DGHQ-%DGHQ, 1981), 189.
˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–´ŽŸ–¦— Hellenistic–¦v}¥±ŽØŽ–œš²š¥v§˜±yš¬¢¹ Žµ œw¢|˜×§|v§—
–§v}Ž±v©Žµ˜œ–Œ¦º|v§˜Œ¾§˜©ºœ‘اŒª¹“˜©ºœµ œ–§v±v©Ž}˜©|}Žv˜¥Œ¦¹|‰¦|yœ§–|‰|§–Œ§|
³y˜|Ÿ˜Ø§|w¢|˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–µ¢—ק|Ž×§±Ÿª—‰§—²š¥´Ž§|y˜¦º|v§˜}¦‰œ§|¢|yې˜¥v¢•§“Œª¹
w§‰±¢v•§“v¸Ÿ×|‘š´ Ø|§Ž©š¥‰Ø¢—y­ˆyקš|µ‰Ø±׎v¦Ž|§Ž˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–š¢—Š¦œŒª¹|‰|§–Œª¹Ÿ­‰
´ŽŸ–¦—Žªºy¬¢9HQXV GH 0LOR (•§“Œª¹ 18) €«|¹ Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢•§“v§˜±yš¬¢¹ Žµ œŒªŽ¹ –×­ Žœš²š¥Ÿ|ק|§–
Œª¹Ÿ­‰w¢|v˜ªv²š¥ Nike of Samothrace (•§“Œª¹ 19) ˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®±Œ“©‰§² ×|¦—Ž¥Œª¹
v¾§š¦|v˜¥“¬¢Ïv± ©˜Ÿ®×±œ §
©šÎŽ´ŽŸ–¦— Hellenistic±˜©¹–´ Øyœ§–ŸŽ´}v¦v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|Ÿ˜˜yÛ|§Ž˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Œª¹
²Ÿ‰|‹«|±¢vš¦vžˆÛŸ×œŽ­yyš–§v—©¹|w«ºŽ‰¦|Ž¦ºŽ˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®± –¬¢Ž´ŽŸ–¦—Žªº}«|–ªš¦vžˆ¥
‘Ÿ–‘Ÿ§Ž˜¥ œ×§|yœ§–|§–²¢­‰–yŠ©²š¥yœ§–±ßŽÝ}±}v­yyš±׎˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®± –¬¢Ž
+HDG RI %HUEHU ˜¬¢ª˜ž¥§œ–­Ÿš©– (•§“Œª¹ 20) €«¹|‹®v“´Ž±ŒœŸ‹§Ž±Œ“±}ا Apollo ² ×|
Cyrene Š×¢–§“¦‡Ž§v§˜´Žv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®± –¬¢Žµ‰Øvاœ±wاŸ®×v§˜Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢´Ž²Žœ
Ý}±}v­yyš–§v—©¹|w«ºŽ‰¦|±׎˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®± –¬¢Ž Head of Man }§v±v§¥Delos (•§“Œª¹
21)
24
•§“Œª¹18 9HQXVGH0LOR š§—Šœ˜˜žŒª¹2 v×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®|204 ±€ŽŠ©±–Š˜
Œª¹–§: GéUDUG'X5\9DQ%HHVWWROOH, ed., Kunstgeschichte %G,%DGHQ-%DGHQ186.
25
•§“Œª¹19 Nike ² ×|Samotrace ˜¥ œ×§|200 – 190 Ïv×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®|3.28 ±–Š˜
Œª¹–§: H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson, History of Art, 5th Edition Revised (New York : Prentice
Hall, 1997), 106.
26
•§“Œª¹20 ˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®± –¬¢Ž+HDGRI%HUEHU ˜¬¢ª˜ž¥§œ–­Ÿš©– ˜¥Š©–§v˜˜– š×¢Ÿ¾§˜©‰
wŽ§‰30.5 ±€ŽŠ©±–Š˜Ÿ–¦—ŠØŽ+HOOHQLVWLF%ULWLVK0XVHXP/RQGRQ
Œª¹–§ : Donald E. Strong, The Classical World (London : Paul Hamlyn, 1965), 95.
•§“Œª¹21 ˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®± –¬¢ŽHead of a man from Delos ˜¥Š©–§v˜˜– š×¢Ÿ¾§˜©‰
wŽ§‰33 ±€ŽŠ©±–Š˜100 Ïv×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š National Museum, Athens.
Œª¹–§ : Donald E. Strong, The Classical World (London : Paul Hamlyn, 1965), 107.
27
‹«|²–؜קv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|Ÿ˜˜y۝©š¥w¢|v˜ªv¢¦Ž±}˜©‚˜­×|±˜¬¢|²š¥vاœµvš¢—ק|Ÿ®|Ÿ­‰}¥
y×¢—·±Ÿ¬¢¹ –š|´ŽŸ–¦— Hellenistic²š¥Ÿ©ºŽŸ­‰µ“˜Ø¢–v¦v§˜Ÿ®‚±Ÿª—¢©µŠ—²v×}¦v˜œ˜˜‰©³˜–¦Ž
¢¦Ž±v˜ª—|µv˜v¸Š§–²Š×˜®²v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž©š¥w¢|§œv˜ªvv¸—¦|y|Œ˜|¢©Œ©“š±ßŽ¢—ק|Ÿ®|Š×¢
©š¥³˜–¦Ž´Ž±¬º¢|ŠØŽ§œ³˜–¦Ž˜®Ø}¦v©šœ¦‡Ž˜˜–v˜ªv‘קŽŒ§|¢§˜—˜˜– Etruscan €«¹|µ‰Ø‹¬¢
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28
•§“Œª¹23 ˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®±Œ“±}اApollo }§vœ© §˜Sassi Caduti ² ×|±–¬¢|Citità Castellana ˜¥–§ˆ
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±“˜§¥©šÎŽEtruscan}¥±ŽØŽv§˜Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢´ ŽØ§˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Œª¹²Ÿ‰|­yš©vš¦vžˆ¥yšØ§—yš«|
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29
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32
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Œª¹–§: 9DJQ3DXOVHQRöPLVFKH%LOGZHUNH (Königstein im Taunus : n.p., 1964), 35.
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Š¦œ¢—ק|±׎˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®± –¬¢Ž }¦v˜“˜˜‰© Augutus (•§“Œª¹ 27) Ÿš¦v‰Øœ— ©Ž¢×¢ŽwŽ§‰
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Augutusµ‰Øvš§—±ßŽ²–ײŸ¾§y¦‚w¢|v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|Ÿ˜˜yÛ|§Ž©š¥´ŽŸ–¦—Š×¢–§Š¦œ¢—ק|±׎˜®
± –¬¢Ž}¦v˜“˜˜‰©Trajan €«¹|“Œª¹±–¬¢|Ostia ²š¥Ÿ˜Ø§|w«ºŽ˜¥–§ˆÏy.. 115
33
•§“Œª¹27 ˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®± –¬¢Ž}¦v˜“˜˜‰©Augustus ˜§œy.. 12 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®|2.04 ±–Š˜
Œª¹–§: 9DJQ3DXOVHQRömische %LOGZHUNH (Königstein im Taunus : n. p., 1964), 30.
34
•§“Œª¹28 ¢Ž­Ÿ§œ˜ª—wÛ ¢|}¦v˜“˜˜‰©Marcus Arelius ˜§œy.. 170 Ÿ¾§˜©‰­Œ¢|Ÿ®|5.12 ±–Š˜
Œª¹–§: 9DJQ3DXOVHQRöPLVFKH%LOGZHUNH (Königstein im Taunus : n. p., 1964), 64.
35
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36
•§“Œª¹29 Ara Pacis (Š®ØŸ¦ŽŠ©•§“) ˜¥ œ×§|Šœ˜˜žŒª¹13 – 9 v×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š ©Ž¢×¢Ž10.5 x 11.6 x 7±–Š˜
Œª¹–§: Alda Tarella, Wie erkenne ich Römische Kunst g Architektur, Skulptur, (Stuttgart und Zürich :
Malerei), 1987, 36.
•§“Œª¹30 ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§vAra Pacis (Š®ØŸ¦ŽŠ©•§“)
Œª¹–§: Gérard Du Ry 9DQ%HHVWWROOH(Editor), Kunstgeschichte, (%DGHQ-%DGHQ %G,1981), 269.
37
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Œª¹–§: Renaissance [Online], accessed 16 May 2009. Available from http://www.wikipedia.org
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•§“Œª¹32 Raphael Santi : The School of Athens, ˜¥ œ×§|y.. 1509 – 1510 }©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—v,
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•§“Œª¹33 Plato (‰Ø§Ž€Ø§—) ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§vThe School of Athens
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www.wikipedia.org
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•§“Œª¹35 Bramante (yŽŒª¹Ÿ¢|Ž¦}§v‰Ø§Žwœ§) ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§vThe School of Athens
Œª¹–§ : The School of Athens [Online], accessed 16 May 2009. Available from http://
www.wikipedia.org
46
•§“Œª¹36 Raphael (yŽŒª¹Ÿ¢|Ž¦}§v‰Ø§Žwœ§) ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§vThe School of Athens
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1377-1446) ±ßŽ‘®Ø‰¾§±Ž©Žv§˜‰®²š³y˜|v§˜Žªº 22
20
21
•§“Œª¹37 Filippo Brunelleschi : •§—´Ž³Ÿ‹Û€§Žš¢±˜Ž³€(San Lorenzo) ±˜©–¹ Ÿ˜Ø§|y.. 1421
Œª¹–§ : John T. Paoletti and Gary M. Radke, Art in Renaissance Italy (London : Laurence King, 2005),
253.
Š×¢–§´ŽŸ–¦—w¢|³yŸ©³–±‰¢±–‰©ª(Cosimo de Mediciy.. 1389 – 1464) ˜¬¢³y
Ÿ©³–‘®¢Ø §œ­³Ÿ(Cosimo the Elder) ­Š˜§—w¢| Giovanniv¸´ Øv§˜ŸŽ¦ŸŽ­ŽŒ§|‰Ø§Žv§˜«vž§
y؎yœØ§©šœ©Œ—§v§˜v˜ªv²š¥³˜–¦Ž³‰—v×¢Š¦º|œ©Œ—§š¦—±“š³Šw«ºŽ( Platonic Academic) ±“¬¹¢
48
ŸŽ¦ŸŽ­Žv§˜y؎yœØ§‘š|§Žw¢|±“š³Š 23 ´ŽÏy.. 1444 ³yŸ©³–‘®Ø¢§œ­³Ÿµ‰Øœ×§}ا|Ÿ‹§Ž©v–©±š
³šŸ³€(Michelozzo di Bartolomeo Michelozzi y..1396-1472) ´ ؟˜Ø§|y™ §ŸŽÛ² ×|Š˜¥v®š
Medici (•§“Œª¹ 38) ²š¥˜©}§y±|©Ž´Žv§˜®˜ˆ¥œ© §˜€§Ž–§˜Û³y( San Marco) ³‰—œ×§}ا|}©Š˜
v˜”˜§¢¦Ž±}š©³y(Fra Angelico y.. 1395–1455) ´ رwª—Ž•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–˜¥‰¦Šv²Š×|•§—´Ž
œ© §˜² ×|Žªº(•§“Œª¹ 39 ) Ÿ×œŽ˜¥Š©–§v˜³‰Ž§±Œš³š( Donatello ˜¬¢ Donato di Niccolò di
Betto Bardi y.. 1386–1466) µ‰Ø˜¦ –¢ –§—´ ؊v²Š×|•§—´Ž³Ÿ‹Û€§Žš¢±˜Ž³€‰Øœ—•§“
˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ž®Ž(•§“Œª¹ 40) Ž¢v}§vŽ¦ºŽŠ˜¥v®š Medici—¦|¢­‹¦–•Û}Š© ˜v˜±§³š¢®±š³š
(Paolo Uccello 1397–1475) ²š¥}©Š˜v˜ Ž­×–”˜§”Κ©³š©Ï( Fra Filippo Lippi y..1406–
1469) }Ž–ª¬¹¢±Ÿª—|±ßŽŒª¹˜®Ø}¦vv¦Ž´ŽŽ§–w¢|}©Š˜v˜² ×|Š˜¥v®š Medici´ŽÏy.. 1464 ±–¬¹¢³yŸ©³–
‘®Ø¢§œ­³Ÿµ‰ØŸ©ºŽªœ©Šš|˜×§|¢¦Žµ˜Øœ©‚‚§ˆw¢|±w§µ‰Ø˜¦±vª—˜Š©´ ؒÝ|µœØ´ŠØ±Ÿ§w¢|³Ÿ‹Û€§Ž³š±˜Ž³€
´Ž…§Ž¥“š±–¬¢|‘®ØŒ˜|y­ˆ˜¥³—ŽÛ¢—ק|–§v–§—Š×¢Žy˜”š¢±˜Ž€Û 24
22
23
•§“Œª¹38 Michelozzo : y™ §ŸŽÛ² ×|Š˜¥v®š±–‰©ª˜¥ œ×§|y.. 1445 – 1460
Œª¹–§ : John T. Paoletti and Gary M. Radke, Art in Renaissance Italy (London : Laurence King, 2005),
259.
49
•§“Œª¹39 Fra Angelico : •§““˜¥²–×–§±˜ª—²š¥“˜¥­Š˜šØ¢–˜¢‰Øœ—Ž¦v­‚²Œ×Ž®§•§—´Žœ© §˜€§Ž
–§˜Û³y Ÿ˜Ø§|±Ÿ˜¸}y.. 1439 Ÿª’­ÒŽŽµ–ØwŽ§‰2.2 x 2.27 ±–Š˜
Œª¹–§: Fra Angelico [Online], accessed 16 May 2009. Available from http://www.wikipedia.org
•§“Œª¹40 Donatello : •§—´Ž³Ÿ‹Û€§Žš¢±˜Ž³€(San Lorenzo) ˜¥ œ×§|1437 - 1443
Œª¹–§ : John T. Paoletti and Gary M. Radke, Art in Renaissance Italy (London : Laurence King, 2005),
254.
50
š¦|}§v³yŸ©³–‘®Ø¢§œ­³ŸŸ©ºŽªœ©Šš|±Ï—³˜±‰¢³yŸ©³–±‰¢±–‰©ª­Š˜§—( Piero
de Cosimo de Mediciy.. 1416–1469) µ‰Ø±wا–§˜© §˜v©}v§˜w¢|y˜¢y˜¦œŸ¬Š×¢}§v©‰§ 25
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v§˜Ž§y§˜ MediciŸ¬Š×¢}§v±}ŠŽ§˜–ˆÛw¢|‘®Ø±ßŽ©‰§µ‰Ø±ßŽ¢—ק|‰ª
Ž¢v}§vŽ¦ºŽ Piero—¦|±ßŽŽ¦vŸ¥Ÿ–± ˜ª—‚±|©Ž²š¥± ˜ª—‚Š˜§³˜§ˆ˜œ–Œ¦º| Ž¦|Ÿ¬¢
±vק·±ßŽ}¾§ŽœŽ–§v¢ªv‰Øœ— Piero±ßŽ‘®Ø˜©±˜©¹–Ÿ˜Ø§| Ø¢|Ÿ–­‰w¢|Š˜¥v®š Medici€«¹|µ‰Ø˜¦v§˜
¢¢v²Šv²Š×|•§—´Ž¢—ק||§–Ÿ|קŸ–v¦yœ§–—©¹|´ ‚×w¢|Š˜¥v®š Medici³‰—¢¦}~˜©—¥©šÎŽ
µ–±y©š±¢|±}š³š( Michelangelo) Ø¢|Ÿ–­‰ŽªºŸ˜Ø§|²šØœ±Ÿ˜¸}´Ž—­yŸ–¦—w¢|š¢±˜Ž³€±‰¢±–‰©ª
­Š˜§—w¢|±w§ (Lorenzo de Mediciy.. 1449–1492)
Ž¢v}§vŽ¦ºŽ±Ï—³˜—¦|œ×§}ا|}©Š˜v˜±Ž¢Ÿ³€v¢Ÿ³€šª( Benozzo Gozzoli y..
1421–1497) ´ رwª—Ž•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—vv§˜±‰©ŽŒ§|w¢|3 ³ ˜§}§˜—Û (The Journey of the
Magi) ˜¥‰¦‘Ž¦|•§—´Žœ© §˜ŽØ¢—w¢|Š˜¥v®š±–‰©ª 26(•§“Œª¹ 41) ¢ªv‰Øœ—´Ž•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž
±Ï—vŽªº˜§v„•§“w¢|yŽŸ¾§y¦‚´ŽŠ˜¥v®š±–‰©ª¢§Œ© Lorenzo de Medici, Piero de Cosimo de
Medici 27³‰—²Š×š¥yŽ´Ž•§“ŽªºŠ×§|²Š×|v§—‰Øœ—±y˜¬¹¢|˜¥‰¦²š¥¢§•˜ˆÛŒª¹ ˜® ˜§|‰|§–€«¹|
Ÿ¥ŒØ¢Žyœ§–˜¹¾§˜œ—–¦¹|y¦¹|w¢|Š˜¥v®š Medici´ ر ¸Ž¢—ק|¦‰±}Ž
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•§“Œª¹41 Benozzo Gozzoli : v§˜±‰©ŽŒ§|w¢|3 ³ ˜§}§˜—Û (The Journey of the Magi) ˜¥ œ×§|y..
1459– 1461 }©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—vœ© §˜ŽØ¢—w¢|Š˜¥v®š Medici
Œª¹–§ : John T. Paoletti and Gary M. Radke, Art in Renaissance Italy (London : Laurence King, 2005),
262.
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w¢|š¢±˜Ž³€±‰¢±–‰©ª ˜¬¢š¢±˜¸Ž³€‘®ØŸ|ק|§–( Lorenzo the Magnificent) 28 ±“˜§¥
Lorenzoµ–×±“ª—|´ ر|©ŽŒ­ŽŸŽ¦ŸŽ­Ž‰Ø§Žv§˜«vž§y؎yœØ§©šœ©Œ—§v§˜Š×§|·w¢|v˜ªv²š¥³˜–¦Ž
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³˜–¦Ž¢ªv‰Øœ— 29 LorenzoŸ¥Ÿ–|§Ž˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ÿ–¦—yš§ŸŸ©vµœØ±ßŽ}¾§ŽœŽ–§v²š¥µ‰ØŸ˜Ø§|
ŸœŽ˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–² ×|Š˜¥v®š MediciµœØŽ}¦Š­˜¦Ÿ San Marco´ŽŽy˜”š¢±˜Ž€Û±“¬¹¢Š¦º|²Ÿ‰|
˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–± š×§Ž¦ºŽ´ ؝©šÎŽµ‰Ø«vž§Œª¹Ÿ¾§y¦‚ŸœŽŽªº—¦|±Î‰±ßŽ³˜|±˜ª—ŽŸ¢Ž©š¥•§—´ŠØv§˜
¢­‹¦–•Ûw¢|Š˜¥v®š Medici 30²š¥±ßŽŸ‹§ŽŒª¹“¥Ÿ¦|Ÿ˜˜yÛw¢|± š×§Ž¦v˜§‚Û˜§¦ˆ†©Š}©
ŽŠvœª±¢vŸ‹§Ž©v˜¥Š©–§v˜²š¥}©Š˜v˜Œª¹–ª¬¹¢±Ÿª—|€«¹|±ßŽ‘®ØŒª¹Š˜¥v®š Medici´ Øv§˜¢­‹¦–•Û
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Medici€«¹|±ßŽ‘®Øvy˜¢|Œª¹–ªyœ§–˜®Øyœ§–Ÿ§–§˜‹²š¥± ¸Žyœ§–Ÿ¾§y¦‚w¢|v§˜«vž§v§˜Œ¾§Ž­
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±˜ª—˜¥‰­}‰¦|‘¬Ž‰©Ž¢¦Ž¢­‰–Ÿ–®˜ˆÛŒª¹“˜Ø¢–´ ر–š¸‰“¦Ž­Û² ×|v§˜”Ñ᎔®©šœ©Œ—§µ‰Ø±}˜©‚|¢v
|§–}Žvš§—±ßŽ®Ž—Ûvš§|w¢|v§˜”Ñ᎔®©šœ©Œ—§´Ž¢©Š§šª²š¥•§y“¬ºŽŒœª—­³˜´ŽŒª¹Ÿ­‰
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²ŽœŒ§|v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|Ÿ˜˜y۝©š¥±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€Û
v˜¥²Ÿv§˜”Ñ᎔®©šœ©Œ—§v§˜Š×§|·w¢|v˜ªv²š¥³˜–¦ŽŽ¾§µŸ®×“¦‡Ž§v§˜´Žv§˜
Ÿ˜Ø§|Ÿ˜˜y۝©š¥Œ­vŸ§w§Œª¹Ÿ¾§y¦‚²Žœy©‰}§vŒ¦º|š¦Œ©–Ž­ž—Ž©—–²š¥š¦Œ©˜˜–§Š©Ž©—–˜œ–Œ¦º|
€§v˜¦v ¦v“¦|w¢|³˜§ˆŸ‹§ŽŒª¹v˜¥}¦‰v˜¥}§—¢—®×Œ¦¹œ¢©Š§šª²š¥©šœ¦Š‹­€«¹|‹®vw­‰y؎“´ŽŸ–¦—
Ž¦ºŽy¬¢²˜|‘š¦v‰¦Ž²š¥²˜|¦Ž‰§š´}¦ºŽ±š©Œª¹y¢—š­v±˜Ø§©šÎŽ´ ؟˜Ø§|Ÿ˜˜yÛ|§Ž©š¥Š§–²
©š¥v˜ªv²š¥³˜–¦Ž€«¹|Š×¢–§v¸µ‰Ø“¦‡Ž§}Žvš§—±ßŽ±¢vš¦vžˆÛw¢|ŠŽ±¢|´ŽŒª¹Ÿ­‰
•§“Œª¹42 ˜¥Ÿ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜–³˜–¦Ž5 ˜¥y¬¢˜¥Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthain, Composite
Order
Œª¹–§ : Nancy Ramage H. and Andrew Ramage, Roman Art (Cambridge : n.p. 1991), 36.
¢©Œ©“šw¢|©š¥yš§ŸŸ©v’Ý|˜§vš«v´Ž|§Ž©š¥±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€ÛŒ­vŸ§w§µ–×}¥±ßŽ
Ÿ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜–˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–²š¥}©Š˜v˜˜–Ÿ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜–±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€ÛŽ¾§±¢§˜¥
Ÿ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜–v˜ªv²š¥³˜–¦Ž(•§“Œª¹ 4 2) –§´Ø¢¢v²Šv²Š×|‘Ž¦| ŽØ§Š«v( façade) ²Š×–©µ‰Ø
Ž¾§–§´Ø´Žv§˜˜¦Žº¾§ Ž¦vŠ¦œ¢§y§˜²±‰ª—œv¦Ÿ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜–v˜ªv ˜¬¢³˜–¦Ž²Š×Ž¾§–§˜¥—­vŠÛ
±ßŽ±Ÿ§ š¢v(pilaster) Œª¹´ؐ˜¥‰¦ ŽØ§Š«vw¢|¢§y§˜±“¬¹¢±ŽØŽv§˜²×|“¬ºŽŒª¹ ŽØ§Š«v¢¢v±ßŽ¦ºŽ·
˜¬¢±ßŽŸ×œŽ·´ ر ¸Ž¢—ק|¦‰±}Ž±׎‘š|§Žw¢| Filippo Brunelleschi (y..1377–1446) ²š¥
53
Leon Batista Alberti (y.. 1404 – 1427) ‘®Ø±ßŽŸ‹§Ž©vŒª¹«vž§˜®²Ÿ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜–v˜ªv²š¥
³˜–¦Ž±“¬¹¢²Ÿœ| §˜®²´ –×´Ž|§ŽŸ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜–Œª¹±ßŽ±¢vš¦vžˆÛŸ¾§ ˜¦—­yŸ–¦—w¢|“œv±w§
Š¦œ¢—ק|±׎Palazzo Rucellai (•§“Œª¹ 43) Œª¹¢¢v²³‰—Leon Batista Alberti€«¹|²×| ŽØ§Š«v
¢¢v±ßŽ3 ¦ºŽ³‰—´Øw¢y©ºœ²š¥˜¥Ÿ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜– Doric Order, Ionic Order ²š¥
Corinthain Order w¢|v˜ªv–§´؊v²Š×|²š¥²×|“¬ºŽŒª¹ ŽØ§Š«v¢¢v±ßŽ¦ºŽ·²š¥±ßŽŸ×œŽ·v§˜
¢¢v² ŽØ§Š«v´Žš¦vžˆ¥ŽªºyšØ§—yš«|v§˜Šv²Š×|‘Ž¦|•§—Ž¢vw¢| Colosseum (•§“Œª¹ 44 –
45 ) w¢|³˜–¦ŽŒª¹—¦|y| š|± š¬¢¢—®×²š¥Š¦º|Š˜¥ |קŽ¢—ק|Ÿ|ק|§–ŒØ§Œ§—Ÿ§—Š§w¢|˜˜‰§
Ÿ‹§Ž©v±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€Û²š¥¢§}±ßŽ Ž«¹|´ŽŸ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜–Œª¹±ßŽ²˜|¦Ž‰§š´}´ Øv¦Ÿ‹§Ž©v
Albertiv¸±ßŽµ‰Ø
•§“Œª¹43 Leon Batissta Alberti : Palazzo Rucellai˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1446 – 1451
Œª¹–§ : Palazzo Rucellai [Online], accessed 16 June 2009. Available from http://www.google.co.th
54
•§“Œª¹44 Colosseum ² ×|v˜­|³˜–
Œª¹–§: Vagn Paulsen, Römische Bildwerke (Königstein im Taunus : n.p., 1964), 52.
•§“Œª¹45 ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰‘Ž¦|‰Ø§ŽŽ¢vw¢|Colosseum ² ×|v˜­|³˜–
Œª¹–§: Vagn Paulsen, Römische Bildwerke (Königstein im Taunus : n. p., 1964), 52.
55
œ© §˜Santa Maria Novella (•§“Œª¹ 46) ² ×|”š¢±˜Ž€Ûv¸±ßŽ¢ªvŠ¦œ¢—ק| Ž«¹|w¢|v§˜Ž¾§
Ÿ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜–v˜ªv²š¥³˜–¦Ž–§˜¥—­vŠÛ´س‰—Ž¾§ Volute€«¹|±ßŽ¢|yې˜¥v¢ Ž«¹|w¢|±Ÿ§
˜¥Ionic Order (•§“Œª¹ 47) w¢|v˜ªv–§´Ø´Žv§˜¢¢v²Šv²Š×|‘Ž¦| ŽØ§Š«vw¢|œ© §˜Žªº
³‰—Ž¾§–§±¬¹¢–Ÿ×œŽw¢|¢§y§˜Œª¹±ßŽ ŽØ§}¦¹œ‰Ø§ŽŽv¦Ÿ×œŽw¢|¢§y§˜‰Ø§Žš×§|Œª¹–ª˜®Œ˜|Ÿª¹± šª¹—–
´ ؑŸ§Ž±wا‰Øœ—v¦Ž¢—ק|š|Š¦œ²š¥|‰|§–
•§“Œª¹46 Leon Battista Alberti : Santa Maria Novella ² ×|”š¢±˜Ž€ÛŸ˜Ø§|±Ÿ˜¸}±–¬¹¢Ïy.. 1470
Œª¹–§: Santa Maria Novella [Online], accessed 16 May 2009. Available from
http://www.wikipedia.org
•§“Œª¹47 ¦œ±Ÿ§˜¥Ionic Order
Œª¹–§ : Henri Stierlin, *ULHFKHQODQGg Von Mykene zum Parthenon (Köln : n.p., 1997), 52.
56
‘š|§Žv§˜¢¢v² ŽØ§Š«v¢ªv² ×| Ž«¹|Œª¹µ‰Ø˜¦²˜|¦Ž‰§š´}}§vŸ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜–³˜–¦Ž
y¬¢œ© §˜Sant’Andrea (•§“Œª¹ 48) ² ×|±–¬¢|–¦ŽŒ¦œ€«¹|±v©‰}§vv§˜Ž¾§±¢§˜®²˜¥Š®¦—w¢|
³˜–¦Ž(•§“Œª¹ 49) –§˜¥—­vŠÛ´ –׉¦|}¥± ¸Žµ‰Ø}§v×¢|˜¥Š®œ|³yØ|wŽ§‰´ ‚׌ª¹¢—®×Š˜|vš§|€«¹|
wŽ§wا|‰Øœ—˜¥Š®Œ§|±wاŸª¹± šª¹—–´Ž¦ºŽ²˜v¦ºŽŒª¹2 ±ßŽ ŽØ§Š×§|œ|³yØ|–Ž š¢vŸ×œŽ¦ºŽŒª¹3
±ßŽ ŽØ§Š×§|œ|³yØ|–Ž± Ž¬¢×¢|œ|³yØ|±ßŽ ŽØ§}¦¹œ²œ© §˜v˜ªvv§˜¢¢v²´Žš¦vžˆ¥Žªº±ßŽ
v§˜Ž¾§±¢§˜®²Œ§|³y˜|Ÿ˜Ø§|˜¥Š®¦—w¢|³˜–¦Ž–§‘Ÿ–‘Ÿ§Ž±wاv¦˜®²œ© §˜w¢|v˜ªv
•§“Œª¹48 Leon Battista Alberti : Sant’ Andrea ² ×|²–ŽŒ¦œ±˜©¹–Ÿ˜Ø§|±–¬¹¢Ïy.. 1470
Œª¹–§: Sant’ Andrea [Online], accessed 16 May 2009. Available from http://www.wikipedia.org
57
•§“Œª¹49˜¥Š®¦—w¢|}¦v˜“˜˜‰©Constantine ´Žv˜­|³˜–˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 312 – 315
Œª¹–§ : Alda Tarella, Wie erkenne ich RöPLVFKH.XQVWg$UFKLWHNWXU6NXOSWXU3ODVWLN (Stuttgart und
Zürich : Malerei, 1987), 17.
v§˜v×¢Ÿ˜Ø§|¢§y§˜Œª¹–ª š¦|y§³‰–€«¹|±ßŽŒª¹Ž©—–¢—ק|–§v´ŽŸ–¦—µ±€ŽµŒŽÛµ‰Øvš§—–§
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v×¢Ÿ˜Ø§|³‰–€«¹|–ª¬¹¢±Ÿª—|Œª¹Ÿ­‰² ×|—­yw¢|Filippo BrunelleschiŽ¦¹Žy¬¢³‰–w¢|– §œ© §˜ Santa
Maria del Fiore (•§“Œª¹ 50) ¢¦Ž±ßŽŸ¦‚š¦vžˆÛ² ×|yœ§–˜­×|±˜¬¢|w¢|Žy˜”š¢±˜Ž€Û
Brunelleschi«vž§˜®²v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|³‰–w¢|³˜–¦Ž}§v – §œ© §˜ Pantheon (•§“Œª¹ 51) €«¹|
³y˜|Ÿ˜Ø§|v×¢‰Øœ—®Ž€ª±–ŽŠÛ²Š×³‰–w¢|– §œ© §˜Santa Maria del Fiorev×¢‰Øœ—¢©…¢¦Ž±ßŽ‘š
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´ ‚×w¢|– §œ© §˜ Santa Maria del Fiore ² ×|±–¬¢|”š¢±˜Ž€Û–ª…§Ž±ßŽ˜®²‰± šª¹—–˜®Œ˜|
¢¦ŽŸ®|Ÿ|קw¢|³‰–‹®v±ŽØŽ‰Øœ—±ŸØŽw¢y©ºœŸªw§œŒª¹²×|“¬ºŽŒª¹ š¦|y§Ÿª²‰|¢¢v±ßŽŸ×œŽ·—¢‰³‰–
˜¥‰¦‰Øœ—š®v³šv²š¥µ–Øv§|±wŽŒ¢|y¾§¢¦Ž±ßŽŸ¦‚š¦vžˆÛ² ×|y˜©ŸŠ}¦v˜˜®Œ˜|Œª¹Ÿ|ק|§–²š¥
Ÿ–®˜ˆÛ²w¢|³‰–² ×|– §œ© §˜ Santa Maria del Fioreµ‰Øvš§—±ßŽ²–ײ´Žv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|³‰–
w¢|– §œ© §˜Œ¦¹œŒ¦º|¢©Š§šª²š¥Œœª—­³˜´ŽŸ–¦—Š×¢–§²–Øv˜¥Œ¦¹|³‰–w¢|– §œ© §˜ St. Peter
(•§“Œª¹ 52) ² ×|v˜­|œ§Š©v¦ŽŒª¹¢¢v²³‰— Michelangelo (y.. 1475 – 1564) v¸µ‰Ø˜¦²˜|
¦Ž‰§š´}}§v³‰–w¢|– §œ© §˜² ×|Žªº±׎±‰ª—œv¦Ž
58
•§“Œª¹50 Filippo Brunelleschi : ³‰–² ×|– §œ© §˜€§ŽŠ§Santa Maria del Fiore² ×|”š¢±˜Ž€Û ˜¥ œ×§|Ï
y.. 1419 – 1436
Œª¹–§ : Margaret Aston, ed., The Renaissance Complete (London : Thames & Hudson, 2009), 277.
•§“Œª¹51– §œ© §˜Phanteon ² ×|v˜­|³˜–
Œª¹–§: Vagn Paulsen, Römische Bildwerke (Königstein im Taunus : n.p., 1964), 61.
59
•§“Œª¹52 Michelangelo : ³‰–² ×|– §œ© §˜St. Peter² ×|v˜­|œ§Š©v¦Ž±˜©¹–Ÿ˜Ø§|±–¬¹¢Ïy.. 1547
Œª¹–§ : Margaret Aston, ed., The Renaissance Complete (London : Thames & Hudson, 2009), 277.
Ÿ‹§Ž©v´ŽŸ–¦—±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€ÛŽ©—–¢¢v²v×¢Ÿ˜Ø§|¢§y§˜Œª¹–ª š¦|y§˜®³‰–Ž²‘Ž‘¦|
˜®v§v§Œv˜ªv´Žv˜¢Ÿª¹± šª¹—–(Greek Cross Plan) ³‰—}¥±ŽØŽŸ×œŽŒª¹±ßŽ³‹|}¦Š­˜¦Ÿ‰Øœ— š¦|y§
˜®³‰–±׎œ© §˜ San Maria della ConsolazioneTodi (•§“Œª¹ 53) Œª¹¢¢v²³‰— Cola da
Caprarola (y.. 1494 -1518) œ© §˜² ×|Žªº–ª²‘Ž‘¦|±ßŽ˜®v§v§Œv˜ªv–ª³‰–wŽ§‰´ ‚×¢—®×Š˜|
vš§|²vŽvš§|w¢|œ© §˜‹®v˜§—šØ¢–‰Øœ—–­w˜® š§—± šª¹—–Œª¹˜¥v¢—®×Œ¦º|Ÿª¹‰Ø§Žw¢|‘Ž¦|Œª¹—¬¹Ž
¢¢v–§–­w± š×§Žªº±ßŽ¢|yې˜¥v¢Œª¹ל—±ŽØŽyœ§–³‰‰±‰×Ž²š¥yœ§–Ÿ|ק|§–w¢|³‰–´ ر‰×Ž¦‰
–§v—©¹|w«ºŽ
60
•§“Œª¹53 Cola da Caprarola : San Maria della Consolazione Todi ±˜©¹–Ÿ˜Ø§|±–¬¹¢Ï y.. 1508
Œª¹–§ : Margaret Aston, ed., The Renaissance Complete (London : Thames & Hudson, 2009), 275.
v§˜y؎“Œ™žƒªŒ§|Œ¦Žª—œ©Œ—§ ˜¬¢ Perspective y¬¢¢ªvÝ}}¦— Ž«¹|Œª¹Ÿ¾§y¦‚Š×¢
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Ÿ‹§Ž©vµ‰Ø²“˜× š§—²š¥Ÿ×|¢©Œ©“šµ—¦|©šÎŽŸ§w§¢¬¹Žµ–לק±ßŽ˜¥Š©–§v˜ ˜¬¢}©Š˜v˜Œª¹
ŠØ¢|v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž´ ؖª˜¥—¥±ßŽ3 –©Š©µ‰Ø± –¬¢Ž}˜©|Š§–˜˜–§Š©–§v—©¹|w«ºŽ
v§˜¢¢v²•§—´Žœ© §˜ San Lorenzo (•§“Œª¹ 37) w¢| Filippo BrunelleschiŠ×§|
µ}§vv§˜¢¢v²•§—´Ž³Ÿ‹Ûœ© §˜Ÿ–¦——­yvš§|´Ž‰Ø§Ž˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰±“˜§¥Ÿ‹§Ž©vŸ–¦—Ž¦ºŽ—¦|
ŠØ¢|´؟‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜–² Basilica Œª¹–ª²‘Ž‘¦|±ßŽ˜®µ–Øv§|±wŽ³˜–¦Ž±ßŽ²²‘Ž´Žv§˜
¢¢v²³Ÿ‹Ûœ© §˜Œ§|y˜©ŸŠÛ§ŸŽ§±“˜§¥˜¦‚§Œ§|y˜©ŸŠÛ§ŸŽ§µ‰Ø š¢–˜œ–±ßŽ¢¦Ž Ž«¹|¢¦Ž
±‰ª—œv¦˜®²Œ§|Ÿ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜–¢—ק|²—vµ–×¢¢v±Ÿª—²šØœ‰¦|Ž¦ºŽŸ‹§Ž©v±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€Û}«|
61
“¢´}Œª¹}¥˜¦±šª¹—Žv§˜¢¢v²•§—´Ž³Ÿ‹Ûœ© §˜±Œ×§Ž¦ºŽFilippo Brunelleschi´،™žƒªŒ¦Žª—
œ©Œ—§²v§˜´رŸØŽŽ¾§Ÿ§—Š§±wاŸ®×}­‰®Ž—Ûvš§|•§“( Linear Perspective ˜¬¢Central
Perspective) –§´Ø´Žv§˜¢¢v²•§—´Žœ© §˜ San Lorenzo³‰—´زŽœ±Ÿ§²š¥×¢|œ|³yØ|w¢|
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Œ©Š¥œ¦Ž¢¢vv§˜¢¢v²•§—´Žœ© §˜¢—ק|±˜ª—|ק—³‰—š¥Œ©º|v§˜˜¥‰¦‰Øœ—šœ‰š§—®ŽÝáŽ
²š¥}©Š˜v˜˜–’§‘Ž¦|´Žš¦vžˆ¥Žªºw¢| Brunelleschi±‘—´ ر ¸Žv§˜Ž¾§Œ™žƒªŒ§|Œ¦Žª—œ©Œ—§–§
˜¥—­vŠÛ´Ø´Žv§˜¢¢v²•§—´Žœ© §˜µ‰Ø¢—ק||‰|§–²š¥Ž×§˜¥Œ¦´}±ßŽ¢—ק|—©¹|
©šÎŽ±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€Û´ Øyœ§–Ÿ¾§y¦‚v¦v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|˜¥—¥•§—´Ž•§“–§v“œv±w§µ‰Ø±“ª—˜
“—§—§–²Ÿœ| § š¦vv§˜²š¥±ŒyŽ©yœ©ªv§˜Š×§|·±“¬¹¢Œ¾§´ ؕ§“}©Š˜v˜˜–²š¥˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ž®Ž‰®
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²Linear Perspective²š¥² Aerial Perspective Œ™žƒªŒ¦Žª—œ©Œ—§² Linear
Perspective±ßŽv§˜´رŸØŽŽ¾§Ÿ§—Š§±wاŸ®×}­‰®Ž—Ûvš§|±“¬¹¢‘š¦v˜¥—¥´Žwˆ¥Œª¹Œ™žƒªŒ¦Žª—œ©Œ—§
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w¢|Ÿª²š¥yœ§–¦‰±}Žw¢|±ŸØŽŠ§–˜¥—¥Œª¹µvšŠ§¢¢vµ©šÎŽŒª¹´ Øyœ§–ŸŽ´}±vª¹—œv¦v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|
˜¥—¥´všØµvš‰Øœ—Œ™žƒªŒ¦Žª—œ©Œ—§ŽªºŸ×œŽ´ ‚×}¥±ßŽ©šÎŽ ¦œvاœ ŽØ§´ŽŸ–¦—Ž¦ºŽ±׎ Lorenzo
Ghiberti (y.. 1378-1455) Donatello (y.. 1386–1466) Leonardo da Vinci (y.. 1452–
1519) ²š¥Giorgione (y.. 1476/78–1510)
Lorenzo Ghiberti±ßŽ˜¥Š©–§v˜yŽ²˜v·Œª¹Ž¾§±¢§ š¦vv§˜Œ§|Œ¦Žª—œ©Œ—§Œª¹y؎“
³‰—Ÿ‹§Ž©v–§˜¥—­vŠÛ´Ø´Žv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ž®Ž‰¦|}¥± ¸Žµ‰Ø}§vv§˜Ž¾§Œ™žƒªŒ¦Žª—
œ©Œ—§²v§˜´رŸØŽŽ¾§Ÿ§—Š§±wاŸ®×}­‰®Ž—Ûvš§|–§´Ø´Žv§˜‘š¦v˜¥—¥•§—´Ž•§“˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–
Ž®ŽŒª¹˜¥‰¦˜¥Š®Ÿœ˜˜yÛw¢|œ© §˜±}©–Žº¾§–ŽŠÛ² ×|±–¬¢|”š¢±˜Ž€Û€«¹|Ÿ×œŽ´ ‚×–¦v}¥´Ø
Ÿ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜–±ßŽŠ¦œל—Š¦œ¢—ק|±׎ •§“v§˜“v¦Žw¢|vž¦Š˜©—Û Solomon v¦˜§©Žª² ×|
Sheba (Solomon and the Queen of Sheba) (•§“Œª¹ 54) Ghiberti Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢•§“­yyšŸ¾§y¦‚Œ¦º|
Ÿ¢|yŽŽªºv¾§š¦|}¦–¬¢Œ¦vŒ§—v¦Ž´ŽŠ¾§² Ž×|vš§|•§“Œ×§–vš§|vš­×–yŽ±ßŽ}¾§ŽœŽ–§v~§v š¦|
w¢|•§“±ßŽ˜® ŽØ§Š¦‰w¢|Ÿ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜–±“¬¹¢²Ÿ‰|•§“•§—´Žw¢|œ© §˜€«¹|˜§}§vv§˜Šv²Š×|
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Ÿ§—Š§w¢|‘®Ø–´ ؓ­×|µŸ®×³‹|Ÿ¦|{v˜˜–²š¥Œ¾§´ ؕ§“‰®–ª–©Š© ˜¬¢–ª˜¥—¥Œª¹š«v±wاµ´Ž•§“€«¹|±ßŽ
±ŒyŽ©y±‰ª—œv¦v§˜¢¢v²•§—´Žœ© §˜ San Lorenzow¢|Filippo BrunelleschiŽ¢v}§vŽªº
Ghiberti —¦|´ر“‰§Ž³yØ|v§v§ŒŒª¹±˜ª—|€Ø¢Žv¦Ž±ßŽ×¢|·µš×}§vwŽ§‰´ ‚×±–¬¹¢¢—®×´Ž˜¥—¥´všØ
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62
•§“Œª¹54 Lorenzo Ghiberti : v§˜“v¦Žw¢|˜§©Žª Sheba v¦vž¦Š˜©—ÛSolomon˜¥ œ×§|Ïy..
1425-1452 Ÿ¾§˜©‰­Œ¢|80 x 80 €–.˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v˜¥Š®Ÿœ˜˜yÛw¢|œ© §˜±}©–
Žº§¾ –ŽŠÛ”š¢±˜Ž€Û
Œª¹–§: Solomon and the Queen of Sheba [Online], accessed 16 May 2009. Available from
http://www.wikipedia.org
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˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ž®Ž|§Ž±šªº—|w¢|vž¦Š˜©—ÛHerod (The Feast of Herod) (•§“Œª¹ 55) Œª¹˜¥‰¦…§Ž
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63
(St. John the Baptist) –§‹œ§—´ Øvž¦Š˜©—Û HerodŒ¢‰“˜¥±ŽŠ˜µœØŠ˜|–­–€Ø§—w¢|•§“±“¬¹¢´ Ø
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•§“Œª¹55 Donatello : |§Ž±šªº—|w¢|vž¦Š˜©—ÛHerod y.. 1427 Ÿ¾§˜©‰­Œ¢|60 x 60 €–.˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v
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Œª¹–§: Bonnie A. Bennett and David G. Wilkins, Donatello (Oxford : Phaidon, 1984), 162.
64
•§“Œª¹56 Masaccio : µŠ˜Ÿ˜ˆ¥“˜¥²–×–§±˜ª—Ž¦v­‚}¢ ێ‘®Ø±wª—Žy¦–•ª˜Û ²š¥‘®Ø˜©}§y y..
1427 }©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—v667 x 317 €–. Santa Maria Novella ”š¢±˜Ž€Û
Œª¹–§ : Rolf Toman, ed., The Art of the Italian Renaissance : architecture, sculpture, painting, drawing
(Köln : Konemann, 1995), 247.
v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|–©Š©šœ|Š§•§—´Ž•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–§|•§“y×¢Žwا|€¦€Ø¢Ž–§v±׎•§“
}©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—vµŠ˜Ÿ˜ˆ¥“˜¥²–×–§±˜ª—Ž¦v­‚}¢ ێ‘®Ø±wª—Žy¦–•ª˜Û²š¥‘®Ø˜©}§y (The Holy
Trinity with the Virgin, St. John and Donors) (•§“Œª¹ 56) Masaccio (y.. 1401 – 1428) Ž¾§
¢|yې˜¥v¢Œ§|³y˜|Ÿ˜Ø§|w¢|Ÿ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜––§±ßŽ¢|yې˜¥v¢ š¦v´Žv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|–©Š©•§—´Ž
•§“±׎±Ÿ§ š¢v(Pilaster) ²š¥×¢|œ|³yØ|Œª¹œ§|¢—®×Ž±Ÿ§vš–•§“­yyš€«¹|±ßŽ‘®Ø˜©}§y±|©Ž
65
´Žv§˜±wª—Ž•§“ŽªºŒª¹y­v±wק¢—®×‰Ø§ŽŽ¢v˜œ–Œ¦º|•§““˜¥²–×–§±˜ª—²š¥Ž¦v­‚}¢ ێ‘®Ø±wª—Žy¦–•ª˜Û Œª¹
—¬ŽwŽ§wا|•§—´Ž×¢|œ|³yØ|¢|yې˜¥v¢Œ¦º| –‰Žªº±ßŽŠ¦œv¾§ Ž‰˜¥—¥Œª¹Š×§|v¦Ž´ Øv¦•§“
¢|yې˜¥v¢Œª¹Ÿ¾§y¦‚Œª¹Ÿ­‰w¢|•§“€«¹|˜¥v¢‰Øœ—“˜¥©‰§“˜¥­Š˜²š¥“˜¥}©Š‹®vœ§|µœØ´Ž´}
vš§|w¢|•§“×¢|œ|³yØ|Œª¹¢—®×‰Ø§Ž´ŽŸ­‰w¢|•§“€«¹|–ªwŽ§‰±š¸vvœ×§×¢|œ|³yØ|Œª¹¢—®×‰Ø§Ž ŽØ§
²š¥²Žœ±ŸØŽw¢|×¢|Ÿª¹± šª¹—–Œª¹˜¥‰¦Ž±“‰§Ž³yØ|y¬¢¢ªv¢|yې˜¥v¢ Ž«¹|Œª¹ל—Ÿ˜Ø§|yœ§–š«v
´ Øv¦•§“}§v•§“Žªº±˜§}¥± ¸Žœ×§©šÎŽµ‰Ø´،™žƒªŒ¦Žª—œ©Œ—§² Central Perspective €«¹|–ª
“¬ºŽ…§Ž–§}§vv§˜y©‰y¾§ŽœˆŒ§|yˆ©Š§ŸŠ˜Û–§ל—´Žv§˜v¾§ Ž‰±ŸØŽŒ­v±ŸØŽ´ ؜©¹|±wاŸ®×}­‰
®Ž—Ûvš§|w¢|•§“Ž¦¹Žy¬¢±ŸØŽŒ­v±ŸØŽŒª¹v¾§ Ž‰µœØ´Ž¢|yې˜¥v¢w¢|•§“±׎²Žœ±ŸØŽŒª¹±v©‰}§v
¦œ±Ÿ§ š¢v±Ÿ§}˜©|²š¥±ŸØŽw¢|’Ó§±“‰§ŽŒ­v±ŸØŽ}¥–§˜˜}v¦ŽŒª¹…§Žw¢|µ–Øv§|±wŽ(•§“Œª¹
57)
•§“Œª¹57 •§“²Ÿ‰|±ŸØŽŒ¦Žª—œ©Œ—§²Central Perspective w¢|•§“ µŠ˜Ÿ˜ˆ¥“˜¥²–×–§±˜ª—Ž¦v­‚
}¢ ێ‘®Ø±wª—Žy¦–•ª˜Û ²š¥‘®Ø˜©}§y
Œª¹–§ : Rolf Toman, ed., The Art of the Italian Renaissance : architecture, sculpture, painting, drawing
(Köln : Konemann, 1995), 247.
66
•§“¢§ §˜±—¸Ž–¬º¢Ÿ­‰ŒØ§— (The Last Supper) (•§“Œª¹ 58) w¢| Leonardo da Vinci
v¸´رŒyŽ©yœ©ªv§˜Œª¹yšØ§—yš«|v¦Žv¦•§“ “•§“µŠ˜Ÿ˜ˆ¥“˜¥²–×–§±˜ª—Ž¦v­‚}¢ ێ‘®Ø±wª—Ž
y¦–•ª˜Û²š¥‘®Ø˜©}§y ” ±׎v¦Ž LeonardoŽ¾§±ŸŽ¢•§““˜¥±—€®Ž¦¹|˜¥Œ¦¢—®×Š˜|vš§|•§“¢—ק|
Ÿ|Œ×§–vš§|¢¦y˜Ÿ§œvŒ¦|º 12 yŽŒªv¹ §¾ š¦|Šv´}²š¥|­Ž|| š¦|}§vµ‰Ø—Ž© “˜¥Ÿ­˜¥±Ÿª—|w¢|“˜¥
±—€®Œª¹Š˜¦Ÿœ×§ Ž«¹|´Ž“œv±}ا}¥Œ˜—Š×¢wا Leonardo Ÿ˜Ø§|–©Š©šœ|´ Øv¦•§“‰Øœ—v§˜v¾§ Ž‰}­‰
®Ž—Ûvš§|´Žv§˜–¢|± ¸Ž´ Øv¦•§“µœØŒª¹˜©±œˆ‰œ|Š§wا|wœ§w¢|“˜¥±—€®}§vŽ¦ºŽ}«|v¾§ Ž‰´ Ø
±ŸØŽŒ­v±ŸØŽŒª¹±v©‰}§vv§˜œ§|³y˜|Ÿ˜Ø§|Œ§|Ÿ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜–±׎±Ÿ§y§Žw¢y©ºœ²š¥ ²Žœ±ŸØŽ
w¢|×¢|Ÿª¹± šª¹—–Œª¹˜¥‰¦’Ó§±“‰§Ž´ ؜©¹|±wاŸ®×}­‰®Ž—Ûvš§|Œª¹v¾§ Ž‰µœØ (•§“Œª¹ 59) Ž¢v}§vŽªº
Leonardo —¦|±wª—Ž³y˜|Ÿ˜Ø§|Ÿ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜–•§—´Ž•§“šØ¢v¦Ÿ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜–•§—´Ž ¢~¦Ž}Ž
š¢–˜œ–±ßŽ¢¦Ž Ž«¹|¢¦Ž±‰ª—œv¦Ž}ŽŒ¾§´ ؑ®Ø–˜®ØŸ«v˜§œv¦œ×§}¥Ÿ§–§˜‹±‰©Ž±wاµ´Ž•§“Žªºµ‰Ø
(•§“Œª¹ 60) ¢§ §˜±—¸Ž–¬º¢Ÿ­‰ŒØ§— ±ßŽŠ¦œ¢—ק|w¢|•§“±wª—ŽŒª¹Ž¾§Œ™žƒªœ©Œ—§² Central
Perspective–§´Ø´Žv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|˜¥—¥•§—´Ž•§“´ ؟–}˜©|²š¥Ÿ–®˜ˆÛ²µ‰Ø¢—ק|—¢‰±—ª—¹ –ŒªŸ¹ ‰­
´Ž—­yŸ–¦—Žªº
•§“Œª¹58 Leonardo da Vinci : ¢§ §˜±—¸Ž–¬¢º Ÿ­‰ŒØ§— ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1495 – 1498 }©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—v402 x
910 €–. Santa Maria della Grazie –©š§Ž
Œª¹–§ : The Last Supper [Online], accessed 16 May 2009. Available from http://www.wikipedia.org
67
•§“Œª¹59 •§“v§˜²Ÿ‰|±ŸØŽŽ¾§Ÿ§—±wاŸ®}× ‰­ vš§|w¢|•§“¢§ §˜±—¸Ž–¬¢º Ÿ­‰ŒØ§—
Œª¹–§: v™žˆ§ |žÛ¢­±ŒŽ, ±‘—yœ§–š¦Œª¹µ–ך¦w¢|“˜ ¦Ÿš¦‰§œ©Žª” (v˜­|±Œ“¤ : ˜©ž¦Œ¢–˜©ŽŒ˜Û“˜©ºŽŠ©º|
²¢Ž‰Û“¦š©©¹|, 2552), 61.
•§“Œª¹60 ¢§ §˜±—¸Ž–¬¢º Ÿ­‰ŒØ§— •§—´Ž ¢~¦Ž´ŽÝ}}­¦Ž
Œª¹–§: v™žˆ§ |žÛ¢­±ŒŽ, ±‘—yœ§–š¦Œª¹µ–ך¦w¢|“˜ ¦Ÿš¦‰§œ©Žª” (v˜­|±Œ“¤ : ˜©ž¦Œ¢–˜©ŽŒ˜Û“˜©ºŽŠ©º|
²¢Ž‰Û“¦š©©¹|, 2552), 62.
68
•§“Œª¹61 Andrea del Verrocchio ²š¥Leonardo da Vinci : v§˜±}©–Žº¾§–ŽŠÛw¢|“˜¥±—€®
˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1472-1475 ŸªŽº¾§–¦Ž²š¥Ÿª’­ÒŽŽµ–Ø177 x 151 €–. ¢©šÖUffizi
”š¢±˜Ž€Û
Œª¹–§ : Daniel Arasse, Leonardo da Vinci, The Rhythm of the Word (New York : Konecky &
Konecky, 1998), 47.
Ž¢v}§vŒ™žƒªŒ¦Žª—œ©Œ—§² Central Perspective ²šØœ©šÎŽ±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€Û—¦|Ž¾§
Œ™žƒªŒ¦Žª—œ©Œ—§² Aerial Perspective €«¹|´Øyœ§–±wؖw¢|Ÿª²š¥±ŸØŽ±ßŽŠ¦œ‘š¦v˜¥—¥´ Øv¦
•§“³‰—v§˜š‰yœ§–±wؖ²š¥yœ§–Ÿ‰w¢|±ŸØŽ²š¥Ÿªš|¢—ק|y×¢—±ßŽy×¢—µŠ§–˜¥—¥´všØµvš
w¢|•§“±“¬¹¢Ÿ˜Ø§|–©Š©Œª¹Ÿ–}˜©|¢—ק|±ßŽ˜˜–§Š©´ Øv¦•§“¢ªv‰Øœ—
±ŒyŽ©yv§˜±wª—Ž•§“´Ž
69
š¦vžˆ¥Žªº±˜ª—vœ×§ Sfumato €«¹|y©‰y؎³‰—Leonardo²š¥Giorgione (y.. 1476/78 – 1510)
Š¦œ¢—ק|‘š|§Ž•§“±wª—Ž‰Øœ—±ŒyŽ©yŽªºµ‰Ø²v× v§˜±}©–Žº¾§–ŽŠÛw¢|“˜¥±—€® (•§“Œª¹ 61 – 62) €«¹|
±ßŽ‘š|§Ž©ºŽ²˜vw¢| LeonardoŒª¹±wª—Ž˜×œ–v¦ Andrea del Verrocchio (y.. 1435 – 1448)
¢§}§˜—Ûw¢|±w§•§“Mona Lisa w¢|Leonardo (•§“Œª¹ 63 – 64) ²š¥“The Tempest” (•§“
Œª¹65 – 66) w¢|Giorgione ©šÎŽŸv­šק|±œŽ©Ÿ±ßŽŠØŽ
•§“Œª¹62 ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v v§˜±}©–Žº¾§–ŽŠÛw¢|“˜¥±—€®
Œª¹–§ : Daniel Arasse, Leonardo da Vinci, The Rhythm of the Word (New York : Konecky &
Konecky, 1998), 47.
70
•§“Œª¹63 Leonardo da Vinci : Mona Lisa ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1503-1505 ŸªŽº¾§–¦ŽŽ‘ا´77 x 53 €–.
“©“©•¦ˆ†ÛŸ‹§ŽLouvre §˜ªŸ
Œª¹–§ : Daniel Arasse, Leonardo da Vinci, The Rhythm of the Word (New York : Konecky &
Konecky, 1998), 387.
•§“Œª¹64 ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v•§“Mona Lisa
Œª¹–§ : Daniel Arasse, Leonardo da Vinci, The Rhythm of the Word (New York : Konecky &
Konecky, 1998), 413.
71
•§“Œª¹65 Giorgione : The Tempest y.. 1506 Ÿª’­ÒŽ‘Ÿ–µw×w§œ²š¥Žº¾§–¦Žœ¢šŽ¦ŒŽ‘ا´82 x 73 €–.
Venice Accademia, Venice
Œª¹–§ : Sylvia Ferino – Pagden and Giovanna Nepi Scirè, ed., Giorgione : myth and enigma (Milano :
Skira, 2004), 189.
•§“Œª¹66˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v The Tempest
Œª¹–§ : Sylvia Ferino – Pagden and Giovanna Nepi Scirè, ed., Giorgione : myth and enigma (Milano :
Skira, 2004), 189.
72
•§“Œª¹67 Leonardo da Vinci : •§“v§˜«vž§v¥³ šv˜ªž¥–Ž­ž—Û ŸªŽº¾§–¦Ž²š¥Ÿª’­ÒŽŽµ–Ø177 x 151 €–.
¢©šÖUffizi ”š¢±˜Ž€Û
Œª¹–§ : Daniel Arasse, Leonardo da Vinci, The Rhythm of the Word (New York : Konecky &
Konecky, 1998), 72.
š¦Œ©˜˜–§Š©Ž©—–€«¹|²“˜× š§—´Ž¢©Š§šªŸ–¦—Ž¦ºŽŸ×|‘š´ ؝©šÎŽ±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€ÛŸŽ´}Œª¹}¥
Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž©š¥´ ر –¬¢Ž}˜©|Š§–˜˜–§Š©³‰—´؍˜˜–§Š©±ßŽ²–ײ‰¦|Ž¦ºŽ“œv±w§}«| ¦Žµ
«vž§Œ­vŸ©¹|}§v˜˜–§Š©µ–לק}¥±ßŽŒ­×|Ž§Ò§±w§²–׎º¾§š¾§§˜ŠØŽµ–زš¥‰¢vµ–ØŠš¢‰}Ž
Ÿ˜ª˜¥w¢|–Ž­ž—Û²š¥Ÿ¦ŠœÛ©šÎŽ±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€Û«vž§Ÿ˜ª˜¥Œ¦º|•§—´Ž²š¥•§—Ž¢vw¢|–Ž­ž—Û¢—ק|
š¥±¢ª—‰‹ª¹‹ØœŽ±“¬¹¢Œª¹}¥Ÿ§–§˜‹±wª—Ž•§“–Ž­ž—Û´ ر –¬¢Ž}˜©|²š¥–ªŸ˜ª˜¥‹®vŠØ¢|Š§– š¦vv§—
œ©•§y‰¦|˜§v„ š¦v…§Ž}§v•§“˜×§|v§˜«vž§v§—œ©•§yw¢| Leonardo±׎v§˜«vž§v¥³ šv
ª˜ž¥w¢|–Ž­ž—Û (•§“Œª¹ 67) v§˜«vž§všØ§–±Ž¬º¢˜©±œˆµ š× (•§“Œª¹ 68) ²š¥ v§˜«vž§¢œ¦—œ¥
•§—´Žw¢|ŸŠ˜ª (•§“Œª¹ 69) ˜œ–Œ¦|º v§˜«vž§•§“±š¬¢—§—Ÿ§–yŽ w¢|Raphael (•§“Œª¹ 70)
Ž¢v}§vŽ¦ºŽ©šÎŽ±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€Û—¦|y©‰y؎±ŒyŽ©yChiaroscuro ´Žv§˜±wª—Ž•§“–Ž­ž—Û´ ؖª˜©–§Š˜
vš–vš«|± –¬¢Ž}˜©|Š§–˜˜–§Š©¢ªv‰Øœ—±ŒyŽ©yŽªº±ßŽœ©ªv§˜µš×yקŽº¾§ Ž¦vw¢|Ÿª±“¬¹¢´ رv©‰²Ÿ|
±|§²š¥Ÿ˜Ø§|˜©–§Š˜²š¥yœ§–vš–vš«|´ Øv¦ ˜®Œ˜|w¢|–Ž­ž—Û²š¥Ÿ˜˜“Ÿ©|¹ Š×§|· Masaccio
±ßŽ©šÎŽyŽ²˜v·Œª¹Ž¾§±ŒyŽ©yv§˜µš×yקyœ§–¢×¢Ž²v×w¢|Ÿª–§´Ø´Žv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|˜©–§Š˜´ Øv¦
˜®Œ˜|w¢|–Ž­ž—Û´ ر –¬¢Ž}˜©|Š§–˜˜–§Š©±׎•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—v v§˜w¦µš×¢‰¦–²š¥¢ª”
73
¢¢v}§vŸœ˜˜yÛ (The Expulsion Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden) (•§“Œª¹ 72)
Ž¢v}§vŽ¦ºŽ©šÎŽ±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€Û—¦|´ Øyœ§–ŸŽ´}Š×¢v§˜±wª—Ž~§v š¦|w¢|•§“´ ر –¬¢Ž}˜©|Š§–
˜˜–§Š©€«¹|}¥Ÿ×|‘š´ ؕ§“Œ©œŒ¦ŽÛ±˜©¹–±wا–§–ªŒ§Œ´Ž•§“}©Š˜v˜˜––§vw«ºŽ}Ž²—vŠ¦œ
¢¢v±ßŽŸ§w§ Ž«¹|w¢|v§˜±wª—Ž•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–¢—ק|±ßŽ±¢v±Œ´ŽŸ–¦—Baroque
•§“Œª¹68 Leonardo da Vinci : •§“v§˜«vž§všØ§–±Ž¬¢º ˜©±œˆµ š×˜¥ œ×§|Ï1510-1511§vv§ –«v²š¥
‹×§Ž 28.9 x 19.8 €–. Winsor Castle, Royal Library
Œª¹–§ : Daniel Arasse, Leonardo da Vinci, The Rhythm of the Word (New York : Konecky &
Konecky, 1998), 97.
•§“Œª¹69 Leonardo da Vinci : •§“v§˜«vž§¢œ¦—œ¥•§—´Žw¢|ŸŠ˜ªy.. 1509 §vv§ –«v‹×§Ž²š¥¢šÛv
Ÿª²‰|46.7 x 33.2 €–. Winsor Castle, Royal Library
Œª¹–§ : Daniel Arasse, Leonardo da Vinci, The Rhythm of the Word (New York : Konecky &
Konecky, 1998), 281.
74
•§“Œª¹ 70 Raphael : •§“v§˜«vž§•§“±š¬¢—§—Ÿ§–yŽ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1504-1505 §vv§ –«v²š¥¢šÛv
‰¾§24.3 x 14.8 €–. British Museum š¢Ž‰¢Ž
Œª¹–§ : Bette Talvacchia, Raphael (London : Phaidon Press, 2007), 163.
•§“Œª¹71 Masaccio: v§˜w¦µš×¢‰¦–²š¥¢ª”¢¢v}§vŸœ˜˜yÛ ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1426-1427 }©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—v
208 x 88 €–. œ© §˜±š¸vBrancacci ´Ž– §œ© §˜ Santa Maria del Carmine ”š¢±˜Ž€Û
Œª¹–§ : Stefano Zuffi, Italian Painting Artists and Their Masterpieces throughout the ages (Cologne :
Konemann, 1998), 57.
75
¢©Œ©“šw¢|š¦Œ©–Ž­ž—ÛŽ©—–Œª¹œ×§“yקw¢|yŽ¢—®×Œª¹‘šw¢||§Ž” Œ¾§´ ØyŽ´ŽŸ–¦—±˜¢±ŽŸ
€¢|€Û“—§—§–´Øyœ§–Ÿ§–§˜‹w¢|ŠŽŸ˜Ø§|‘š|§Ž²š¥¬¹¢±Ÿª—|´ Øv¦Š¦œ±¢|‰¦|Ž¦ºŽ˜˜‰§“×¢yا
²š¥y™ ‰ª‘®Ø˜¹¾§˜œ—–¦¹|y¦¹|€«¹|•§y•®–©´}´Žyœ§–˜®Øyœ§–Ÿ§–§˜‹yœ§–Ÿ¾§±˜¸}´Ž¢§ª“²š¥…§Ž¥
yœ§–±ßŽ¢—®×w¢|ŠŽ±¢|}«|Ž©—–œ×§}ا|©šÎŽ´ رwª—Ž•§“± –¬¢Žw¢|ŠŽ±¢|²š¥y˜¢y˜¦œµœØ´Ž
Ø§Ž±“¬¹¢˜¥‰¦§˜–ª²š¥²Ÿ‰|‹«|yœ§–±ßŽ‘®Ø–ª˜ŸŽ©—–Ÿ®|w¢|ŠŽ•§“± –¬¢Ž´ŽŸ–¦—±˜¢±ŽŸ
€¢|€Û}¥±ŽØŽyœ§–± –¬¢Ž}˜©|Š§–˜˜–§Š©²š¥š¦vžˆ¥¢¦Ž±ßŽÝ}±}v­yyš±“¬¹¢Ÿ¥ŒØ¢Ž
­yš©v•§“w¢|‘®Ø±ßŽ²¢¢v–§¢—ק|¦‰±}Ž€«¹|}¥Š×§|}§v•§“± –¬¢ŽŸ–¦—yš§ŸŸ©vŒª¹‘Ÿ–‘Ÿ§Ž
yœ§–± –¬¢Ž}˜©|Š§–˜˜–§Š©±wاv¦yœ§–|§–¢¦Ž±ßŽ¢­‰–yŠ©
•§“Œª¹72 Piero della Francesca: Federico da Montefeltro ±y§ŒÛ² ×|Urbino y.. 1465 ŸªŽº¾§–¦Ž²š¥Ÿª’­ÒŽ
Žµ–Ø47 x 33 €–. ¢©šÖUffizzi ”š¢±˜Ž€Û
Œª¹–§ : Eleonor Bairati , Piero della Francesca (New York : Crescent Books, 1991), 75.
v§˜±wª—Ž•§“± –¬¢ŽŸ–¦—±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€Û´Žל|²˜v·©šÎŽ}¥Ž©—–±wª—Ž•§“²Ÿ‰|
´ ŽØ§‰Ø§Žwا|€«¹|Ž×§}¥±ßŽ±“˜§¥©šÎŽ—¦|µ–ן§–§˜‹²vصwÝ‚ §Œ§|±ŒyŽ©y´Žv§˜±wª—Ž•§“
ŽØ§Š˜|´ ر –¬¢Ž}˜©|µ‰Ø~§v š¦|w¢|•§“–¦vŽ©—–±wª—Ž±ßŽ•§“Œ©œŒ¦ŽÛ¢¦ŽvœØ§|´ ‚×µ“§š±׎
•§“± –¬¢ŽFederico da Montefeltro ±y§ŒÛ ² ×|Urbino (Federico da Montefeltro the
Counts of Urbino)w¢|Piero della Francesca (y.. 1415 – 1492) (•§“Œª¹ 72) §|y˜¦º|
©šÎŽ¢§}±wª—Ž~§v š¦|±ßŽ•§“ ŽØ§Š×§|Œª¹±Î‰vœØ§|±“¬¹¢²Ÿ‰|´ ر ¸ŽŒ©œŒ¦ŽÛ¢¦ŽvœØ§|µvšŒª¹¢—®×
76
•§—Ž¢v²–؜ק©šÎŽ}¥–ªŒ¦vž¥’Ï–¬¢±ßŽ±—ª¹—–}ŽŸ§–§˜‹‹×§—Œ¢‰­yš©vš¦vžˆ¥w¢|‘®Ø±ßŽ²µ–×
œ×§}¥±ßŽ˜®˜×§| ŽØ§Š§²š¥¢§˜–ˆÛyœ§–˜®ØŸ«vµ‰Ø± –¬¢Ž}˜©|Œª¹Ÿ­‰²šØœv¸Š§–²Š×v§˜±wª—Ž
•§“± –¬¢Ž´Žš¦vžˆ¥Žªºvš¦‰®µ–×±ßŽ˜˜–§Š©–§v±Œ×§´‰±Œ×§Ž¦v±“˜§¥•§“±wª—Ž´ ŽØ§‰Ø§Žwا|
–¦v–¢|‰®²w¸|Œ¬¹¢²š¥µ–×y×¢—±ßŽ˜˜–§Š©±Œ×§Œª¹yœ˜²Š×wØ¢‰ªw¢|v§˜±wª—Ž•§“± –¬¢Ž´Žš¦vžˆ¥Žªº
v¸y¬¢Œ¾§´ ؕ§“Œ©œŒ¦ŽÛ±wا–§–ªŒ§Œ´Žv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|˜˜—§v§´ Øv¦ •§“²š¥—¦|Œ¾§´ ؝©šÎŽ–ª
³¢v§Ÿµ‰Ø’Ðv’ŽŒ¦vž¥’Ï–¬¢´Žv§˜±wª—Ž˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰w¢|±Ÿ¬º¢‘ا¢§•˜ˆÛ²š¥¢¦‚–ˆªŽ§Ž§Ž©‰Œª¹±ßŽ
±y˜¬¹¢|²Š×|v§—²š¥±y˜¬¹¢|˜¥‰¦w¢|‘®Ø±ßŽ²´ ر –¬¢Ž}˜©|²š¥±ª¹—œ§‚–§v—©¹|w«ºŽ¢ªv‰Øœ—
•§“Œª¹73 Leonardo da Vinci: ‚©|Ÿ§œ²š¥“¦|“¢Ž ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1488-1490 ŸªŽº¾§–¦ŽŽµ–Ø54.8 x 48.3
€–. “©“©•¦ˆ†ÛŸ‹§ŽCzartoryski Krakow
Œª¹–§ : Daniel Arasse, Leonardo da Vinci, The Rhythm of the Word (New York : Konecky &
Konecky, 1998), 396.
77
š¦|}§vŽ¦ºŽ¢ªv±“ª—|µ–×vª¹Ÿ©ÏŠ×¢–§©šÎŽv¸Ÿ§–§˜‹±˜ª—Ž˜®Øv§˜±wª—Ž•§“± –¬¢Ž´ Ø
± –¬¢Ž}˜©|²š¥±ßŽ˜˜–§Š©–§v—©¹|w«ºŽ³‰—v¾§ Ž‰´ ؑ®Ø±ßŽ²±¢ª—|ª˜ž¥µŒ§|‰Ø§Žwا|±“ª—|
±š¸vŽØ¢— ˜¬¢²Ÿ‰|•§“´ ŽØ§±“ª—|Ÿ§–´ŽŸªŸ¹ œ× Ž±׎•§“± –¬¢Ž ‚©|Ÿ§œ²š¥“¦|“¢Ž (Lady
with an Ermine /Portrait de Cecilia Gallerani) w¢|Leonardo da Vinci (•§“Œª¹ 73)
•§“± –¬¢Ž“Tommaso Inghirami” w¢|Raphael (•§“Œª¹ 74) ²š¥•§“± –¬¢Žw¢|±}ا±–¬¢|±œ
Ž©Ÿ Leonardo Loredan (Doge Leonardo Loredan) w¢| Giovanni Bellini (y.. 1430 –
1516) (•§“Œª¹ 7 5) §|y˜¦º|©šÎŽ¢§}±wª—Ž´ ؏­yyš•§—´Ž•§“–¢|¢¢v–§Ž¢v•§“±“¬¹¢Ÿ
Ÿ§—Š§v¦‘®Ø– ‰¦|±׎•§“± –¬¢Ž§—³“v‘اŸª²‰| ˜¬¢•§“± –¬¢ŽŠ¦œ±¢|w¢|©šÎŽ (Man in
a red Turban: Self – Portrait) w¢|Jan Van Eyck (y..1395 – 1441) (•§“Œª¹ 7 6) ±ßŽŠØŽ´Ž
˜¥—¥Žªº©šÎŽµ–×y×¢—Ž©—–±wª—Ž•§“Œ©œŒ¦ŽÛµœØ´Ž~§v š¦|w¢|•§“± –¬¢ŽŸ–¦—²˜v·²Š×–¦v˜¥§—Ÿª
‰¾§ŸŽ©Œ´Ž~§v š¦|w¢|•§“±“¬¹¢±ŽØŽ´ ŽØ§w¢|‘®ØŒª¹±ßŽ²´ ر‰×Ž¦‰–§v—©¹|w«ºŽ
.
•§“Œª¹ 74 Raphael: Tommaso Inghirami ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1510-1514 91 x 61 €–. Palazzo
Pitti ”š¢±˜Ž€Û
Œª¹–§: Bette Talvacchia, Raphael (London : Phaidon Press, 2007), 123.
78
•§“Œª¹75 Giovanni Bellini: Doge Leonardo Loredan ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1501 - 1505ŸªŽº¾§–¦ŽŽ‘ا´61.5 x
45 €–. “©“©•¦ˆ†Û² ×|§Š© š¢Ž‰¢Ž
Œª¹–§ : Rolf Toman, ed., The Art of the Italian Renaissance : architecture, sculpture, painting, drawing
(Köln : Konemann, 1995), 357.
•§“± –¬¢Ž´ŽŸ–¦—Ž¦ºŽ–¦v}¥Ž©—–±wª—Ž‰Øœ—ŸªŽº¾§–¦Ž–§vvœ×§Ÿª’­ÒŽ±“˜§¥ŸªŽº¾§–¦Ž–ªyקŸªŒª¹
˜Ø¢Ž€«¹|´ Øyœ§–Ž­×–Žœš²š¥yœ§–vš–vš¬Žv¦Žµ‰Ø‰ªvœ×§Ÿª’­ÒŽŒª¹–ªyקŸªŒª¹±—¸Ž²š¥‰Ø§Ž²–؜קv§˜
Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢•§“Œ¦º|Ÿ¢|²}¥²ŠvŠ×§|v¦Žv¸Š§–²Š×Ÿ©¹|Œª¹©šÎŽŒ¦º|Ÿ¢|vš­×–Žªº´ Øyœ§–Ÿ¾§y¦‚¢—®×±Ÿ–¢
y¬¢v§˜Ÿ¥ŒØ¢Ž´ ر ¸Ž‹«|Œ§ŒŒ§|Ÿ¦|y–w¢|‘®ØŒª¹±ßŽ²¢¢v–§´ ر ¸Ž¢—ק|¦‰±}ŽŒª¹Ÿ­‰
79
•§“Œª¹76 Jan van Eyck: §—³“v‘اŸª²‰| ˜¬¢•§“± –¬¢ŽŠ¦œ±¢|w¢|©šÎŽy.. 1
Œª¹–§ : Timothy Foote, The World of Bruegel (Amsterdam : Time-Life International, 1968), 38.
•§“± –¬¢Ž´ŽŸ–¦—±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€ÛŸ×œŽ´ ‚×–¦v‹®v´رßŽ±y˜¬¹¢|–¬¢˜¥v§¦v‰§Ž­•§“
w¢|Ž¦ºŽvy˜¢|}Ž§|y˜¦º|Œ¾§´ ؕ§“± –¬¢Žw¢|­yyš± š×§Žªº–ªš¦vžˆ¥yšØ§—v¦¢Ž­Ÿ§œ˜ª—Û
–§vvœ×§•§“Œª¹±wª—ŽµœØ±ßŽŒª¹˜¥š«v ˜¬¢˜¥‰¦Ø§ŽŒ¦¹œµ—vŠ¦œ¢—ק|±׎
•§“± –¬¢Žw¢|
Federico da Montefeltro ±y§ŒÛ² ×|Urbino €«¹|~§v š¦|±ßŽ•§“Œ©œŒ¦ŽÛ¢¦ŽvœØ§|µvšŒª¹–ª•®±w§
Ÿš¦€¦€Ø¢Žµ–§w¢|±–¬¢|Urbino •§“Ø§Ž±–¬¢|Œª¹¢—®×µvšš©}Žvš§—±ßŽ±“ª—|}­‰‰¾§±š¸v·ל—
±ŽØŽ´ ŽØ§w¢|Federico da Montefeltro´ ؖªwŽ§‰´ ‚×–§vw«ºŽ‰¦|Ž¦ºŽ•§“Œ©œŒ¦ŽÛw¢|±–¬¢|
Urbino }«|±ßŽ± –¬¢ŽŸ¦‚š¦vžˆÛŒª¹²Ÿ‰|´ ر ¸Ž¢¾§Ž§}´Žv§˜vy˜¢|Ø§Ž±–¬¢|w¢| Federico da
Montefeltro Œ×§Ž±y§ŒÛ² ×|Urbino ‘®Ø—©¹|´ ‚×¢—ק|²ŒØ}˜©|v§˜Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢´Žš¦vžˆ¥ŽªºŸ¢‰yšØ¢|
v¦¢­‰–yŠ©w¢|‘®ØyŽŸ–¦—Ž¦ºŽ€«¹|–­×|±ŽØŽv§˜²Ÿœ| §±vª—˜Š©—¬¹¢±Ÿª—|¢¦Ž±ßŽ¢–Š¥´ Øv¦ŠŽ±¢|
80
•§“Œª¹77 Michelangelo: Giuliano de Medici ‰—­y² ×|Neumours (˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰) ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 15261534 ©Ž¢×¢Ž630 x 420€–. Ÿ­Ÿ§ŽŠ˜¥v®š±–‰©ªœ© §˜San Lorenzo ”š¢±˜Ž€Û
Œª¹–§ : Charles Sala, Michelangelo Sculpture Painter Architect (Paris : Terrail, 1996), 117.
¢—ק|µ˜v¸Š§–v§˜Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢•§“± –¬¢Ž´ŽŸ–¦—±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€Ûw¢|©šÎŽv¸µ–×}¾§±ßŽŠØ¢|
±ŽØŽ²Š×yœ§–± –¬¢Ž}˜©|±Ÿ–¢µ±“˜§¥©šÎŽ¢§}ŠØ¢|±wª—Ž•§“Š§–yœ§–˜¥Ÿ|yÛ ˜¬¢yœ§–“«|
“¢´}w¢|‘®Øœ×§}ا|‰Øœ—±׎v¦Ž‰Øœ—± Š­Žªº•§“± –¬¢Ž­yyšv¸¢§}}¥‰®‰ª ˜¬¢Ÿœ—|§–vœ×§yœ§–±ßŽ
}˜©|v¸µ‰Ø ‰¦|Ž¦ºŽ“¦‡Ž§v§˜Ÿ®|Ÿ­‰w¢|©š¥•§“± –¬¢Ž´ŽŸ–¦—±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€Û }«|±ßŽv§˜Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢
yœ§–|‰|§–Œª¹‘Ÿ–‘Ÿ§Ž˜¥ œ×§|yœ§–± –¬¢Ž}˜©|¢¦Ž±ßŽÝ}±}v­yyš²š¥yœ§–±ßŽ¢­‰–yŠ©±wا
‰Øœ—v¦Ž‰¦|}¥± ¸Žµ‰Ø¢—ק|¦‰±}Ž}§v˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ÿš¦v ©Ž¢×¢Ž˜® Giuliano de Medici •§—´Ž
Ÿ­Ÿ§Žw¢| Š˜¥v®š±–‰©ª´Žœ© §˜San Lorenzo ² ×|”š¢±˜Ž€Ûw¢|Michelangelo (•§“Œª¹ 77)
81
•§“Œª¹78 Donatello: ¢Ž­Ÿ§œ˜ª—Û Gattamelata Ÿ¾§˜©‰˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1444-1453 Piazza del
Santo, Padua
Œª¹–§: Bonnie A. Bennett and David G. Wilkins, Donatello (Oxford : Phaidon, 1984), 91.
š¦Œ©–Ž­ž—Ž©—–²š¥š¦Œ©˜˜–§Š©Ž©—–Œª¹²“˜× š§—´Ž¢©Š§šªwˆ¥Ž¦ºŽµ–×±“ª—|²Š×Ž¾§µŸ®×
yœ§–Ž©—–´Žv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž}©Š˜v˜˜–•§“± –¬¢Ž±Œ×§Ž¦ºŽ²Š×—¦|Ž¾§µŸ®×v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|¢Ž­Ÿ§œ˜ª—Û´ Øv¦‘®ØŒ¾§
y­ˆ˜¥³—ŽÛ²v׏اŽ±–¬¢|¢ªv‰Øœ—v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|¢Ž­Ÿ§œ˜ª—Û€«¹|±y—±ßŽŒª¹Ž©—–´ŽŸ–¦—¢§ˆ§}¦v˜³˜–¦Ž²Š×
µ‰Ø —­‰¥|¦vµŽ§ŽŽ¦“¦ŽÏµ‰Øvš§—–§±ßŽ²–ײ´Žv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|¢Ž­Ÿ§œ˜ª—Û˜®yŽwª¹–ا´ŽŸ–¦—±˜¢±ŽŸ
€¢|€Û³‰—±~“§¥¢—ק|—©¹|¢Ž­Ÿ§œ˜ª—Ûw¢|}¦v˜“˜˜‰© Marcus Arelius (•§“Œª¹ 28) ¢—ק|µ˜v¸Š§–
¢Ž­Ÿ§œ˜ª—Ûw¢|³˜–¦Ž}¥–­×|±ŽØŽv§˜±©‰®±vª—˜Š©w¢|}¦v˜“˜˜‰©‘®Ø—©¹|´ ‚×±v˜ª—|µv˜²š¥–¦v}¥Ÿ˜Ø§|w«ºŽ
±“¬¹¢±ßŽ‘š˜¥³—ŽÛŒ§|v§˜±–¬¢|±ßŽŸ¾§y¦‚´Žwˆ¥Œª¹¢Ž­Ÿ§œ˜ª—Ûw¢|±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€ÛŸ˜Ø§|w«ºŽ±“¬¹¢
82
±ßŽ¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛ²vב®ØŒ¾§˜¥³—ŽÛ²v׏اŽ±–¬¢|³‰—µ–×y¾§Ž«|œ×§­yyš‘®ØŽ¦ºŽ}¥±ßŽvž¦Š˜©—Û ˜¬¢w­ŽŽ§|
±׎¢Ž­Ÿ§œ˜ª—Û Gattamelata w¢|Donatello (•§“Œª¹ 78) ²š¥¢Ž­Ÿ§œ˜ª—Û Bartolomeo Celleoni
w¢|Verrocchio (•§“Œª¹ 79) ±ßŽŠØŽ
•§“Œª¹79 Andrea del Verrocchio: ¢Ž­Ÿ§œ˜ª—Û Bartolomeo Colleoni ˜¥ œ×§|Ï y.. 1Œª¹–§ : Margaret
Aston, ed., The Renaissance Complete (London : Thames & Hudson, 2009), 87.
¢—ק|µ˜v¸Š§–²ŽœŒ§|v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž©š¥´Ž˜®²´ –׌ª¹Ž¾§±¢§ š¦vŒ™žƒªŒª¹y©‰y؎
w«ºŽ´ –×–§´Ø´Žv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž´ ر –¬¢Ž}˜©|Š§–˜˜–§Š©v¸µ–×´ט®²±‰ª—œ´Žv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž
©š¥´ŽŸ–¦—±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€Û±“˜§¥—¦|–ªvš­×–©šÎŽŒª¹—¦|Ž©—–Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž´Ž²Žœ¢­‰–yŠ©€«¹|Ÿ¬Œ¢‰
˜®²v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§ŽŠ×¢±Ž¬¹¢|–§}§vŸ–¦—³v©yŠ¢Žš§—±׎±‰ª—œv¦Ž‰¦|Ž¦ºŽ˜®²v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|
|§Ž´ŽŸ–¦—±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€Û}«|Ÿ§–§˜‹²×|¢¢vµ‰Ø±ßŽ2 ²ŽœŒ§|y¬¢˜®²v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž²
“yš¬¹Žš®v±vק”²š¥“yš¬¹Žš®v´ –×”
83
•§“Œª¹80 Fra Angelico: v§˜˜¥v§³¢|v§˜Ÿœ˜˜yۗ|¦ “˜¥²–×–§±˜ª— ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1432 – 1433 Ÿª’­ÒŽŽµ–Ø
175 x 180 €–. Museo Diocesano, Cortona
Œª¹–§ : Rolf Toman, ed., The Art of the Italian Renaissance : architecture, sculpture, painting, drawing
(Köln : Konemann, 1995), 251.
˜®²v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž©š¥¢¦Ž±ßŽ±¢vš¦vžˆÛw¢|©šÎŽ´Žvš­×– “yš¬¹Žš®v±vק ”y¬¢v§˜
±wª—Ž•§“€«¹|±ŽØŽv§˜´؟ªŒª¹Ÿ‰´Ÿ²š¥±ŸØŽŒª¹¢×¢Ž œ§Ž|‰|§–Ÿ×|‘š´ ؏­yyš•§—´Ž•§“€«¹|¢—®×´Ž
Œ×œ|Œ×§Œª¹Ÿ|ק|§––ªyœ§–±yš¬¹¢Žµ œŽ­×–Žœš²š¥¢×¢ŽØ¢—±׎v§˜˜¥v§³¢|v§˜Ÿœ˜˜yۗ¦|“˜¥
²–×–§±˜ª— (The Annunciation) w¢|Fra Angelico (y.. 1395-1455) (•§“Œª¹ 80) v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|
˜¥—¥´všØµvš•§—´Ž•§“Žªº—¦|y|´ؘ®²±‰©–y¬¢´،™žƒªŒ¦Žª—œ©Œ—§²˜¥Ÿv§˜ˆÛ‰Øœ—v§˜
š‰wŽ§‰w¢|˜®Œ˜|•§—´Ž•§“š|Š§–˜¥—¥´všØµvš±“ª—|±š¸vŽØ¢— ˜¬¢v§˜´رŸØŽ±¢ª—|45 ¢|§
˜¬¢±ŸØŽŒª¹y‰³yØ|µ–§´Ž˜˜–§Š©±“¬¹¢‘š¦v˜¥—¥´ ؚ«v±wاµ•§—´Ž•§“ (•§“Œª¹ 81) ²Š×}¥µ–×–ª
v§˜š‰yœ§–y–¦‰w¢|±ŸØŽ²š¥Ÿª±–¬¹¢¢—®×´Ž˜¥—¥Œª¹ ק|¢¢vµ(•§“Œª¹ 8 2 ²š¥ 83) ©šÎŽŒª¹}¦‰¢—®×
´Žvš­×–yš¬¹Žš®v±vקµ‰Ø²v× Fra Angelico (y.. 1395-1455) , Lorenzo Monaco (y..1370-1425)
Gentile da Fabriano (y.. 1370-1427) Fra Filippo Lippi (y..1406/8-1469) Alessio
84
Baldovinetti (y..1427-1499) Sandro Botticelli (y.. 1444/45-1510) Pietro Perugino (y..
1449-1524) ±ßŽŠØŽ¢—ק|µ˜v¸Š§–©šÎŽyš¬¹Žš®v±vק§|yŽv¸¢§}“¦‡Ž§v§˜±wª—Ž•§“w¢|ŠŽ±¢|
´ ،¦ŽŸ–¦—‰Øœ—v§˜Ž¾§±¢§±ŒyŽ©yœ©ªv§˜w¢|©šÎŽyš¬¹Žš®v´ –×–§˜¥—­vŠÛ´Ž|§Žw¢|ŠŽv¸µ‰Ø‰¦|}¥
± ¸Žµ‰Ø‰¦ ´Ž‘š|§Žל| š¦|·w¢| Botticelli©šÎŽyš¬¹Žš®v±vקyŽŸ­‰ŒØ§—±׎•§“ yœ§–
³v±˜Ø§Š×¢v§˜Ÿ©ºŽ“˜¥Ž–Ûw¢|“˜¥±—€®Œ×§–vš§|± š×§Ÿ§œv¢¦Žµ‰Ø²v׎¦v­‚ Jerome Ž¦v­‚
Paul ²š¥Ž¦v­‚Peter (Lamentation over the Dead Chirst with St. Jerome, St. Paul and
St. Peter) (•§“Œª¹ 84)
•§“Œª¹81 Fra Filippo Lippi: v§˜Ÿ¦vv§˜¥“˜¥­Š˜w¢|“˜¥²–×–§±˜ª— y.. 1459 Ÿª’­ÒŽŽµ–Ø127 x 116 €–.
Staatliche Museen, Berlin
Œª¹–§ : John T. Paoletti and Gary M. Radke, Art in Renaissance Italy (London : Laurence King, 2005),
263.
85
•§“Œª¹82 Sandro Botticelli: v§˜˜¥v§³¢|v§˜Ÿœ˜˜yۗ|¦ “˜¥²–×–§±˜ª— y.. 1489/90Ÿª’­ÒŽŽµ–Ø172.5 x
278.5 €–.
Œª¹–§ : Barbara Deimling , Sandro Botticelli 1444/45-1510 (Koln : Benedikt Taschen, 1994), 64.
•§“Œª¹83 ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§vv§˜˜¥v§³¢|v§˜Ÿœ˜˜yۗ|¦ “˜¥²–×–§±˜ª—
Œª¹–§ : Barbara Deimling , Sandro Botticelli 1444/45-1510 (Koln : Benedikt Taschen, 1994), 65.
86
•§“Œª¹84 Sandro Botticelli: yœ§–³v±˜Ø§Š×¢v§˜Ÿ©Žº “˜¥Ž–Ûw¢|“˜¥±—€®Œ§× –vš§|± š×§Ÿ§œv¢¦Žµ‰Ø²v×
Ž¦v­‚Jerome Ž¦v­‚Paul ²š¥Ž¦v­‚Peter ˜¥ œ×§|y.. 1490 -1492 Ÿª’­ÒŽŽµ–Ø107 x 71 €–.
Alte Pinakothek, Munich
Œª¹–§ : Barbara Deimling , Sandro Botticelli 1444/45-1510 (Koln : Benedikt Taschen, 1994), 71.
©šÎŽvš­×–yš¬¹Žš®v´ –×µ‰Ø˜×œ–v¦Ž²Ÿœ| §²š¥y©‰y؎±ŒyŽ©y´ –×·–§´Ø´Žv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž
w¢|ŠŽ´ ؉®–ªyœ§–± –¬¢Ž}˜©|Š§–˜˜–§Š©µ–לק}¥±ßŽv§˜Ž¾§±¢§Œ™žƒªŒ¦Žª—•§“² Central
Perspective Œª¹y©‰y؎³‰—“œvŸ‹§Ž©v–§˜¥—­vŠÛ´Ø´Žv§˜±wª—Ž•§“´ ؖª˜¥—¥´všØµvš‰¦|Š§± ¸Ž
(•§“Œª¹ 56-59) ˜¬¢v§˜´رŒyŽ©y Sfumato Œª¹š‰yœ§–±wؖ²š¥yœ§–Ÿ‰w¢|Ÿª²š¥yœ§–y–¦‰
w¢|±ŸØŽ±“¬¹¢‘š¦v˜¥—¥±wاµ•§“´Ž•§“(•§“Œª¹ 6 1-66) Š§– š¦vv§˜w¢|Œ™žƒªŒ¦Žª—œ©Œ—§²
Aerial PerspectiveŽ¢v}§vŽ¦ºŽ—¦|y©‰y؎±ŒyŽ©yChiaroscuro €«¹|´Øv§˜µš×yקŽº¾§ Ž¦vw¢|Ÿª´ رv©‰
²Ÿ|±|§±“¬¹¢Œ¾§´ ؘ®Œ˜|–Ž­ž—Û–ª˜©–§Š˜²š¥yœ§–vš–vš«|Œª¹± –¬¢Ž}˜©|Š§–˜˜–§Š©¢ªv‰Øœ—
(•§“Œª¹ 85-87) Š¦œ¢—ק|‘š|§ŽŒª¹¦‰±}Žw¢|©šÎŽvš­×–yš¬¹Žš®v´ –×±׎ v§˜Š˜«|µ–Øv§|±wŽ“˜¥
±—€® ( Crucifixion) (•§“Œª¹ 88) ²š¥ yœ§–±˜Ø§³vŠ×¢v§˜}§vµw¢|“˜¥±—€®
( The
Lamentation Over the Dead Christ) w¢|Andrea Mantengna (y.. 1430/31-1506) (•§“Œª¹
89) ²š¥v§˜±{ª¹—Ž“˜¥±—€® (The Flagellation of Chirst) w¢|Piero della Francesca (•§“Œª¹
90) ©šÎŽŒª¹}¦‰¢—®×´Žvš­×–yš¬¹Žš®v´ –×µ‰Ø²v× Leonardo da Vinci, Masaccio, Albrecht Dürer
(y.. 1471-1528) Rogier van der Weyden (y..1399/1400-1464) ²š¥Michelangelo ±ßŽ
ŠØŽ
87
•§“Œª¹85 Giorgione: ‰ŽŠ˜ª² ×|ŒØ¢|Œ­×| (Pastoral Concert) ˜¥ œ×§|Ï y.. 1509 – 1510 ŸªŽº¾§–¦ŽŽ‘ا´
110 x 138 €–. “©“©•¦ˆ†ÛŸ‹§ŽLouvre §˜ªŸ
Œª¹–§ : John T. Paoletti and Gary M. Radke, Art in Renaissance Italy (London : Laurence King, 2005),
467.
•§“Œª¹86 Michelangelo : v¾§±Ž©‰¢‰¦–˜¥ œ×§|Ï y.. 1509–1510 }©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—v œ© §˜Sistine
œ§Š©v¦Ž ³˜–
Œª¹–§ : John T. Paoletti and Gary M. Radke, Art in Renaissance Italy (London : Laurence King, 2005),
467.
88
•§“Œª¹87 Raphael : ¦—Ž¥² ×|Galatea y.. 1512 }©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—v295 x 224 €–.Villa Farnesina
³˜–
Œª¹–§ : Bette Talvacchia, Raphael (London : Phaidon Press, 2007), 129.
•§“Œª¹88 Andrea Mantegna : v§˜Š˜«|µ–Øv§|±wŽ“˜¥±—€®˜¥ œ×§|Ï y.. 1457 – 1460 ŸªŽº¾§–¦ŽŽµ–Ø67 x
93 €–. “©“©•¦ˆ†ÛŸ‹§ŽLouvre §˜ªŸ
Œª¹–§ : König, Eberhard, ed., The Great Painters of the Italian Renaissance Volume II The Triumph of
Color (Konigswinter : H.F. Ullmann, 2008), 78.
89
•§“Œª¹89 Andrea Mantegna : yœ§–±˜Ø§³vŠ×¢v§˜}§vµw¢|“˜¥±—€® y.. 1490 Ÿª’­ÒŽŽµ–Ø68 x 81 €–.
Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan
Œª¹–§ : Charlotte Gerlings, 100 Great Atrtists A Visual Journey from Fra Angelico to Andy Warhol,
(New York : Gramercy Books, 2006), 127.
•§“Œª¹90 Piero della Francesca : v§˜±{ª—¹ Ž“˜¥±—€® ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1455 – 1460 Ÿª’­ÒŽ²š¥ŸªŽº¾§–¦ŽŽµ–Ø
58.4 x 81.5 €–. Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, Urbino
Œª¹–§ : Birgit Laskowski, Piero della Francesca 1416/17 – 1492 (Koln : Konnemann, 2000), 78.
90
±©|¢˜˜‹ŒØ§—ŒŒª¹ 2
1
±}˜©‚µ—Ž¥, ˜¥œ¦Š©§ŸŠ˜ÛŸ§všŸ–¦—vš§| , “©–“Ûy˜¦º|Œª¹3 (v˜­|±Œ“ ¤ : ¢–˜v§˜
“©–“Û, 2517), 425.
2
Renaissace, [Online], accessed 20 October 2010. Available from http://
www.wikipedia.org
3
2539), 301.
4
Ž®²v؜³¢•§Ÿ, ˜¥œ¦Š©§ŸŠ˜Û³šv, “©–“Ûy˜¦º|Œª¹2 (v˜­|±Œ“ ¤ : Ÿ¾§Ž¦v“©–“ÛŸ­w•§“´},
±˜¬¹¢|±‰ª—œv¦Ž, 302.
–×¢–˜§œ|Û²Ÿ|³Ÿ–±vž–˜ª, ˜¥œ¦Š©§ŸŠ˜ÛŸ§vš—­yÝ}}­¦Ž(y.. 1453 –
1914) (v˜­|±Œ“¤: }­¡§š|v˜ˆ– §œ©Œ—§š¦—, 2520), 23.
6
Ž®²v؜³¢•§Ÿ, ˜¥œ¦Š©§ŸŠ˜Û³šv, 302.
7
±˜¬¹¢|±‰ª—œv¦Ž, 302.
8
–×¢–˜§œ|Û²Ÿ|³Ÿ–±vž–˜ª, ˜¥œ¦Š©§ŸŠ˜ÛŸ§vš—­yÝ}}­¦Ž(y.. 1453 –
1914), 22 – 27 .
9
±}˜©‚µ—Ž¥, ˜¥œ¦Š©§ŸŠ˜ÛŸ§všŸ–¦—vš§|, 424 – 425.
10
¢Ž¦ŽŠÛ¦—±š§ ¥“¦Ž­²š¥yŽ¢¬¹Ž·, ¢§˜—˜˜–Š¥œ¦ŽŠv Ž¦|Ÿ¬¢±˜ª—Ž˜¥v¢
˜§—œ©§080 121 (Žy˜…–: yˆ¥¢¦vž˜§ŸŠ˜Û– §œ©Œ—§š¦—©š§v˜, 2529), 73.
11
–×¢–˜§œ|Û²Ÿ|³Ÿ–±vž–˜ª, ˜¥œ¦Š©§ŸŠ˜ÛŸ§vš—­yÝ}}­¦Ž(y.. 1453 –
1914), 4 .
12
±˜¬¹¢|±‰ª—œv¦Ž.
13
±}˜©‚µ—Ž¥, ˜¥œ¦Š©§ŸŠ˜ÛŸ§vš , “©–“Ûy˜¦º|Œª¹3 (“˜¥Žy˜ : ±wž–˜˜ˆv©},
2497), 643 – 644.
14
–×¢–˜§œ|Û²Ÿ|³Ÿ–±vž–˜ª, ˜¥œ¦Š©§ŸŠ˜ÛŸ§vš—­yÝ}}­¦Ž(y.. 1453 –
1914), 6 – 7.
15
±˜¬¹¢|±‰ª—œv¦Ž.
16
²“Œ˜©±€ª—±¢Ÿ. ²‰±Žª—šŸÛ²š¥ŸŠª±œŽ}ª. µ£Ÿš¢, “š©v˜¥œ¦Š©§ŸŠ˜Û³šv , ²š
³‰—y­ˆ§v˜œ§ˆ©—Ûœ©˜­¡ Û(v˜­|±Œ“¤: ±Ž¦¹Ž²Žš}ª³¢v˜§””Îv, 2549), 28 – 29.
17
yˆ¥¢¦vž˜§ŸŠ˜Û}­¡§š|v˜ˆÛ– §œ©Œ—§š¦—, ¢§˜—˜˜–Ÿ–¦—´ –× –Ý}}­¦Ž , “©–“Û
y˜¦º|Œª¹6 (v˜­|±Œ“¤: Ÿ¾§Ž¦v“©–“Û}­¡§š|v˜ˆÛ– §œ©Œ—§š¦—, 2538), 29 – 30.
18
v™žˆ§ |žÛ¢±­ ŒŽ, ±‘—yœ§–š¦Œª¹µ–ך¦w¢| “˜ ¦Ÿš¦‰§œ©Žª ”, (v˜­|±Œ“¤: ˜©ž¦Œ
¢–˜©ŽŒ˜Û“˜©ºŽŠ©º|²¢Ž‰Û“¦š©©¹|}¾§v¦‰(– §Ž), 2552), 18.
19
±˜¬¹¢|±‰ª—œv¦Ž.
5
91
20
The School of Athens [Online], accessed 16 May 2009. Available from http://
www.wikipedia.org
21
Rolf Toman (ed.), The Art of the Italian Renaissance (Oldenburg : Neue
Stalling, 1995), 256.
22
Ibid.
23
–×¢–˜§œ|Û²Ÿ|³Ÿ–±vž–˜ª, ˜¥œ¦Š©§ŸŠ˜ÛŸ§vš—­yÝ}}­¦Ž(y.. 1453 –
1914), 12.
24
Rolf Toman, ed., The Art of the Italian Renaissance, (Oldenburg : Neue
Stalling, 1995), 257.
25
Ibid.
26
Ibid.
27
Rosa Maria Letts, The Renaissance Cambridge introduction to the history
of art, (New York : the Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 1981), 49.
28
Rolf Toman, ed., The Art of the Italian Renaissance, (Oldenburg : Neue
Stalling, 1995), 257.
29
˜¥—®˜¢­š­§ƒ¥ [Ž. ˆ§vŽº¾§ ], ¦Žµ‰±wا‹«|©š¥ , “©–“Ûy˜¦º|Œª¹2 (v˜­|±Œ“¤ :
2540), 119.
23
v™žˆ§ |žÛ¢±­ ŒŽ, “Michelangelo Buonarroti ²š¥¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Žw¢|Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§
Julius II”, ´ŽŸ®}©¦Š˜Ž©Œ˜˜v§˜³y–²v؜² ×|yœ§–Ÿ­v´Ÿ , Ž©Œ˜˜v§˜©šv˜˜–¢§}§˜—Ûyˆ¥
}©Š˜v˜˜–˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–²š¥•§““©–“Û– §œ©Œ—§š¦—©š§v˜y˜¦º|Œª¹26, 2552 (v˜­|±Œ“¤ : ˜©ž¦Œ
¢–˜©ŽŒ˜Û“˜©ºŽŠ©º|²¢Ž‰Û“¦š©©¹|}¾§v¦‰(– §Ž), 2552), 91.
ŒŒª¹3
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•§“Œª¹91 Danielle da Volterra: •§“± –¬¢ŽMichelangelo ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1550-1555 Leadpoint ²š¥
black chalk, traces of white heightening 29.5 x 21.9 €–. Teylers Museum, Haarlem
Œª¹–§ : Achim Gnann, Michelangelo The Drawing of Genius (Vienna : Albertina, c2010), 385.
92
93
Michelangelo ˜¬¢Michelagniolo di Ludovico Buonarroti Simoni ±v©‰±–¬¹¢œ¦ŽŒª¹
6 –ªŽ§y–y.. 1475 Œª¹Caprese (Ý}}­¦Ž˜®Ø}¦vv¦Ž´Ž¬¹¢Caprese Michelangelo) –®×Ø§Ž±š¸v·´Ž
±–¬¢| Casentino ²yœØŽ Tuscany €«¹|¢—®× ק|}§vŽy˜”š¢±˜Ž€Û˜¥–§ˆ60 v©³š±–Š˜) 1
Michelangelo ±ßŽ­Š˜yŽŒª¹Ÿ¢|´Ž}¾§ŽœŽ6 yŽw¢| Ludovico di Leonardo di Buonarroti
Simoni²š¥ Francesca di Neri di Miniato del Sera Š˜¥v®šw¢|©‰§ Michelangelo ±ßŽ
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}©Š˜v˜˜–²š¥—¦|¢µ‰®}©Š˜v˜±wª—Ž˜®¢ªv‰Øœ—}Žv˜¥Œ¦¹|µ‰Ø˜®Ø}¦v²š¥±ßŽŸ §—v¦ Francesca
Granacci ‘®Ø±ßŽ©ž—Ûw¢|©šÎŽ“ª¹ŽØ¢|Š˜¥v®š Ghirlandaio Œª¹–ª¬¹¢±Ÿª—|´ŽŸ–¦—Ž¦ºŽ Granacci µ‰Ø
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}«|µ‰ØŒ¾§Ÿ¦‚‚§v¦©šÎŽ“ª¹ŽØ¢|Š˜¥v®š Ghirlandaio±“¬¹¢´ Ø
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2
3
4
5
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³¢v§Ÿµ‰Ø«vž§‘š|§Žw¢|©šÎŽ¦ºŽy˜®¢§Œ©±׎ Giotto di Bondone (y..˺1267–1337)²š¥
Masaccio (y.. 1401 –1428)€«¹|šØœŽ²šØœ²Š×±ßŽ©šÎŽ‘®Ø­v±©v²ŽœŒ§|v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|Ÿ˜˜y۝©š¥
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‘š|§Žw¢|©šÎŽŒ¦º|Ÿ¢|yŽŽªºw¢|Michelangelo±׎•§“Š¢Žv§˜w«ºŽŸ®×Ÿ˜œ|Ÿœ˜˜yÛw¢|Ž¦v­‚
}¢ ێ‘®Ø²Š×|“˜¥œ˜Ÿ§˜ (The Ascension of John the Evangelist into Heaven) (•§“Œª¹ 92 ²š¥
93) ´Žœ© §˜ŽØ¢— Peruzzi ² ×|œ© §˜Santa Croce ”š¢±˜Ž€Û •§“Š¢Ž•§žª³Ÿ‹Û (The Tribute
Money) (•§“Œª¹ 94 ²š¥95) ²š¥•§“Š¢Ž ¢¦y˜Œ®ŠÏ±Š¢˜Û²}vŒ˜¦“—Û ²š¥yœ§–Š§—w¢|¢§Ž§
±Žª— (Peter Distribute the Goods and Death of Ananias) (•§“Œª¹ 96 ²š¥97) ´Žœ© §˜ŽØ¢—
94
Brancacci ² ×|œ© §˜Santa Maria del Carmine ”š¢±˜Ž€Û Michelangelo±˜ª—Ž±wª—Ž•§“v¦“ª¹
ŽØ¢|Š˜¥v®šGhirlandaioµ‰Øµ–׋«|Ï±w§}«|—ا—µ«vž§©š¥v¦ Bertoldo di Giovanni (y..
1420-1491) ‘®Ø±ßŽ©ž—Ûw¢| Donatello˜¥Š©–§v˜±¢v² ×|—­y±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|ŸÛŒª¹³˜|±˜ª—Ž©š¥´Ž
v§˜¢­‹¦–•Ûw¢|Lorenzo de Medici
•§“Œª¹92 Giotto : v§˜w«ºŽŸ®×Ÿ˜œ|Ÿœ˜˜yÛw¢|Ž¦v­‚}¢ ێ‘®Ø²Š×|“˜¥œ˜Ÿ§˜y.. 1330
}©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—vœ© §˜±š¸vPeruzzi ´Ž³Ÿ‹ÛSan Croce ”š¢±˜Ž€Û
Œª¹–§ : Robert Coughlan and The Editor of Time–life Books, The World of Michelangelo 1475-1564
(New York : Time-Life Books, 1966), 28.
•§“Œª¹93 Michelangelo : •§“v§˜y¦‰š¢v}§v˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰w¢||§Ž}©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—vv§˜w«Žº Ÿ®Ÿ× ˜œ|Ÿœ˜˜yÛ
w¢|Ž¦v­‚}¢ ێ‘®Ø²Š×|“˜¥œ˜Ÿ§˜w¢|Giottoy.. 1490 §vv§²š¥ –«v31.6 x 20.4 €–.
“©“© •¦ˆ†ÛŸ‹§ŽLouvre §˜ªŸ
Œª¹–§: Yvonne Paris, Michelangelo 1475-1564 (UK : Parragon Books, 2009), 15.
95
•§“Œª¹94 Masaccio: •§žª³Ÿ‹Ûy.. 1427 }©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—vœ© §˜±š¸vBrancacci ´Ž³Ÿ‹Û Santa Maria del
Carmine ”š¢±˜Ž€Û
Œª¹–§ : Robert Coughlan and The Editor of Time–life Books, The World of Michelangelo 1475-1564
(New York : Time-Life Books, 1966), 29.
•§“Œª¹95 Michelangelo: •§“|§Žy¦‰š¢v˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰w¢||§Ž}©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—v•§žª³Ÿ‹Û(Ž¦v­‚Peter)
w¢|Masaccio˜¥ œ×§|y.. 1493 §vv§²š¥ –«v31 x 18.5 €–. “©“©•¦ˆ†ÛŸ‹§ŽLouvre §˜ªŸ
Œª¹–§ : Robert Coughlan and The Editor of Time–life Books, The World of Michelangelo 1475-1564
(New York : Time-Life Books, 1966), 29.
96
•§“Œª¹96 Masaccio: ¢¦y˜†®ŠÏ±Š¢˜Û²}vŒ˜¦“—Û²š¥yœ§–Š§—w¢|¢§Ž§±Žª—y.. 1425-1428 }©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—v
230 x 162 €–. œ© §˜±š¸vBrancacci ´Ž³Ÿ‹ÛSanta Maria del Carmine ”š¢±˜Ž€Û
Œª¹–§: Yvonne Paris, Michelangelo 1475-1564 (UK : Parragon Books, 2009), 15.
•§“Œª¹97 Michelangelo: •§“œ§‰±ŸØŽvš­×–§—Ÿ§–yŽ (Ÿ¦ŽŽ©ž…§Žœ×§±ßŽ|§Žy¦‰š¢v˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰w¢||§Ž
}©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—vw¢|Masaccio´Ž³Ÿ‹ÛSanta Maria del Carmine) y.. 1490§vv§²š¥ –«v
29.4 x 20.1 €–. Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna
Œª¹–§: Yvonne Paris, Michelangelo 1475-1564 (UK : Parragon Books, 2009), 14.
97
•§“Œª¹98 Ottavio Vanini : µ–±y©š±¢|±}š³šŽØ¢—v¾§š¦|Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢‘š|§ŽŸš¦v ©Ž¢×¢Ž˜®Š¦œ”¢Ž(Fuan) Œª¹±w§
Ÿš¦v‰Øœ—’Ï–¢¬ w¢|ŠŽ–§¢œ‰´ سš±˜¸Ž³€‘®ŸØ |ק|§–y.. 1635 }©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—vPitti Palace, Sala
degli Argenti, Florence
Œª¹–§: Yvonne Paris, Michelangelo 1475-1564 (UK : Parragon Books, 2009), 17.
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dell’ Arca y.. 1469-1473 ©Ž¢×¢ŽBasilica of San Domenico, Bologna
Œª¹–§: Yvonne Paris, Michelangelo 1475-1564 (UK : Parragon Books, 2009), 28.
•§“Œª¹ 105 Michelangelo : Ž¦v­‚Petronius˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1494-1495 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 64 €–. Basilica of
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Œª¹–§: Yvonne Paris, Michelangelo 1475-1564 (UK : Parragon Books, 2009), 28.
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•§“Œª¹ 106 Michelangelo : Ž¦v­‚Proculus˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1494-1495 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 58.5 €–. Basilica of
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Œª¹–§: Yvonne Paris, Michelangelo 1475-1564 (UK : Parragon Books, 2009), 29.
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Œª¹–§: Yvonne Paris, Michelangelo 1475-1564 (UK : Parragon Books, 2009), 30.
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•§“Œª¹110 ²Œ×Ž®§Piccolomini ´Žœ© §˜² ×|±–¬¢|Siena˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1483-1504 Andrea Bregno ±˜©¹–
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Œª¹–§ : piccolomini-altar-andrea-bregno [Online], accessed 20 May 2010. Available from
http://www.lib-art.com
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Œª¹–§ : Gabriele Bartz and Eberhard König, Michelangelo Bournarroti, (Cologne : Konemann, 1998),
55.
•§“Œª¹112 Michelangelo : Ž¦v­‚Paul˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1501-1504 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 127 €–. œ© §˜² ×|±–¬¢|
Siena
Œª¹–§: Yvonne Paris, Michelangelo 1475-1564 (UK : Parragon Books, 2009), 61.
111
•§“Œª¹113 Michelangelo : Ž¦v­‚Pius˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1501-1504 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 134 €–. œ© §˜² ×|±–¬¢|
Siena
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
•§“Œª¹114 Michelangelo : Ž¦v­‚Gregory˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1501-1504 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 136 €–. œ© §˜² ×|±–¬¢|
Siena
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
112
•§“Œª¹115 Michelangelo : David˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1501-1504 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®|516 €–. Galleria dell’
Accademia, Florence
Œª¹–§: Yvonne Paris, Michelangelo 1475-1564 (UK : Parragon Books, 2009), 43.
113
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±‰©–Œª¹}¥Ž¾§˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜® Davidµ˜¥‰¦µœØ´Ž€­Ø–‘Ž¦|‰Ø§ŽŽ¢v–­wŠ¥œ¦Ž¢¢vw¢|– §œ© §˜
² ×|Žy˜”š¢±˜Ž€Û‰¦|Ž¦ºŽ˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®Žªº}«|‹®vŽ¾§–§Š¦º|µœØŒª¹ ŽØ§ Palazzo Vecchio ´Ž±‰¬¢Ž
–©‹Ž­ §—Žy.. 1504 ²ŒŽŒª¹˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ÿ¾§˜©‰˜® Judith ²š¥Holofernesw¢|Donatello 24
Š×¢–§´Ž±‰¬¢ŽŸ©| §y–y.. 1502 Michelangeloµ‰Ø˜¦œ×§}ا|´ Ø š×¢Ÿ¾§˜©‰˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®
David±“¬¹¢Ÿ×|µ—¦|˜¥±Œ’˜¦¹|±Ÿ€«¹|Ý}}­¦Žµ‰ØŸ®‚ §—µ²šØœ
•§“Œª¹116 Michelangelo : Bruges Madonna˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1501 – 1504 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 128 €–.
Notre-Dame, Bruges
Œª¹–§: Yvonne Paris, Michelangelo 1475-1564 (UK : Parragon Books, 2009), 59.
114
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¢×¢Ž˜®“˜¥²–×–§±˜ª—²š¥“˜¥­Š˜ ˜¬¢Bruges Madonna (•§“Œª¹ 116) €«|¹ Ÿ˜Ø§|±Ÿ˜¸}´Ž˜§œÏ
y.. 1504 Ÿ¦ŽŽ©ž…§Žv¦Žœ×§Michelangeloµ‰Ø˜¦v§˜œ×§}ا|}§v Jean – Alexandre Mouscron
“×¢yا‘ا‘®Ø˜¹¾§˜œ—§œ±”š––©´ ؟˜Ø§|˜®“˜¥²–×–§±˜ª—²š¥“˜¥­Š˜±“¬¹¢Ž¾§µ˜¥‰©ž…§ŽµœØ´Ž
œ© §˜ŽØ¢—˜¥}¾§Š˜¥v®šw¢|ŠŽŒª¹¢—®×´Ž– §œ© §˜ Notre – Dame ² ×|±–¬¢| Bruges
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y..1505 ²š¥˜¥‰©ž…§Ž¢—®×´Žœ© §˜ŽØ¢—w¢|Š˜¥v®šMouscron–§}œ}Žv˜¥Œ¦¹|Œ­vœ¦ŽŽªº 25
24
•§“Œª¹117 Michelangelo : Ž¦v­‚²–Œ©œ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1505 – 1506 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 218 €–. Galleria
dell’Accademia, Florence
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
115
±–¬¹¢œ¦ŽŒª¹24 ±–ž§—Žy.. 1503
Michelangeloµ‰Ø˜¦v§˜œ×§}ا|´ ؟˜Ø§|
˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ÿš¦v ©Ž¢×¢Ž˜®‘®Ø±‘—œ}Ž¥12 ¢|y۟¾§ ˜¦– §œ© §˜² ×|±–¬¢|”š¢±˜Ž€Û³y˜|v§˜Žªº
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1505 Michelangelo ŠØ¢|±‰©ŽŒ§|µv˜­|³˜–±“¬¹¢Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž´ Øv¦Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§ Julius II Ÿ¦‚‚§Žªº}«|
‹®v—v±š©vµ±–¬¹¢œ¦ŽŒª¹18 ¦Žœ§y–y.. 1505 ‘š|§Ž©ºŽ±‰ª—œŒª¹ MichelangeloŸ˜Ø§|Ÿ¾§ ˜¦
³y˜|v§˜Žªº²Š×—¦|µ–×±Ÿ˜¸}y¬¢˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜® Ž¦v­‚²–Œ©œ (•§“Œª¹ 117) ¢—ק|µ˜v¸Š§–
Ÿ¦ŽŽ©ž…§Žœ×§±–¬¹¢y˜¦º|Œª¹Michelangelo ŽªŸ¦‚‚§}§v³˜–vš¦–§”š¢±˜Ž€Û˜¥ œ×§|±‰¬¢Ž±–ž§—Ž
–“™}©v§—Žy.. 1506 ±w§Ž×§}¥´Øל|±œš§ŽªºŸš¦v˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®Ž¦v­‚²–Œ©œŠ×¢±“¬¹¢±ßŽ
v§˜{ק±œš§v¸±ßŽµ‰Ø 26
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˜®Œ˜|vš–¢ªvŸ¢|©ºŽy¬¢ Madonna Teddei (•§“Œª¹ 118) €«¹|Ÿ˜Ø§|w«ºŽ´Ž˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 15041505 Ý}}­¦Ž¢—®×Œª¹ Royal Academy v˜­|š¢Ž‰¢Ž²š¥ Madonna Pitti (•§“Œª¹ 119) €«¹|Ÿ˜Ø§|
w«ºŽ´ŽÏy.. 1505 Ý}}­¦Ž¢—®×Œª¹ Museo Nazionale del Bargello±–¬¢|”š¢±˜Ž€Û¢—ק|µ˜v¸Š§–
‘š|§ŽŒ¦º|Ÿ¢|©ºŽŽªºv¸—¦|±ßŽ|§ŽŒª¹—¦|Ÿš¦vµ–×±Ÿ˜¸}±׎±‰ª—œv¦Ž
Ž¢v}§v‘š|§Ž˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–²šØœ Michelangelo —¦|µ‰Ø˜¦v§˜œ×§}ا|´ رwª—Ž•§“
}©Š˜v˜˜–¢ªv‰Øœ—±׎•§“ Doni Tondo ˜¬¢y˜¢y˜¦œ¦v‰©½Ÿ©Œ©½v¦Ž¦v­‚}¢ ێ‘®Ø±}©–Žº¾§–ŽŠÛ
(The Holy Family with St. John the Baptist) (•§“Œª¹ 120) Œª¹Ÿ˜Ø§|w«ºŽ´Ž˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1503
– 1504 Agnolo Doni µ‰Øœ×§}ا|´ ؝©šÎŽ±wª—Ž•§“Žªºw«ºŽ±“¬¹¢±ßŽŒª¹˜¥š«v´Ž|§Ž²Š×||§Žw¢|±w§v¦
Maddalena Strozzi Doni TondoŽ¾§±ŸŽ¢•§““˜¥²–×–§±˜ª—v¾§š¦|±¢ªº—œv§—µ‰Ø§Ž š¦|±“¬¹¢˜¦
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vš­×–§— Ž­×–±š¬¢—Œª¹¢—®×´Ž~§v š¦|w¢|•§“²Ÿ‰|´ ر ¸Ž‹«|yœ§–ŸŽ´}Ÿ˜ª˜¥¢¦Ž|‰|§–w¢|
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25
116
•§“Œª¹118 Michelangelo : Modanna Teddei˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1504-1505 ©Ž¢×¢Ž±ŸØŽ‘קŽ®Ž—Ûvš§|
109 €–. Royal Academy of Arts, London
Œª¹–§: Yvonne Paris, Michelangelo 1475-1564 (UK : Parragon Books, 2009), 57.
•§“Œª¹119 Michelangelo: Madonna Pitti˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1505 ©Ž¢×¢Ž85.5 x 82 €–. Bargello Museum,
Florence
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
117
•§“Œª¹120 Michelangelo : y˜¢y˜¦œ¢¦Ž¦v‰©½Ÿ©Œ©½²š¥Ž¦v­‚}¢ ێ‘®Ø±}©–Žº¾§–ŽŠÛ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1503–1504
Ÿª’ŽÒ­ Žµ–رŸØŽ‘קŽ®Ž—Ûvš§|120 €–. ¢©šÖUffizi, Florence
Œª¹–§: Yvonne Paris, Michelangelo 1475-1564 (UK : Parragon Books, 2009), 55.
Ž¢v}§vŽ¦ºŽ´Žל|™‰® Ž§œw¢|Ïy.. 1504-1505 Michelangelo—¦|µ‰Ø˜¦v§˜œ×§}ا|
}§vGonfalonier Piero Soderini ´ رwª—Ž•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—v˜¥‰¦’§‘Ž¦| Gran
Consiglio ( Ø¢|˜¥­–Ÿ•§² ×|Žy˜˜¦…) ´Ž Palazzo della Signoria €«¹|Leonardo da Vinci
µ‰Ø˜¦v§˜œ×§}ا|¢—®×v×¢Ž²šØœ³‰—±wª—Ž•§“ Ÿ–˜•®–©²¢Žvª¢§˜ª (Battle of Anghiari) (•§“Œª¹ 121)
Ÿ×œŽ Michelangelo±wª—Ž•§“Ÿ–˜•®–©²yŸ©Ž§ (Battle of Cascina) (•§“Œª¹ 122) Ž¦±ßŽ|§ŽŒª¹‘®Ø
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•§“Ÿ–˜•®–²© yŸ©Ž§w¢| Michelangelov¸±Ÿ˜¸}²Š×±“ª—|² Cartoon ±Œ×§Ž¦ºŽ±“˜§¥©šÎŽµ‰Ø
—v±š©vŸ¦‚‚§±Ž¬¹¢|}§vŠØ¢|±‰©ŽŒ§|µv˜­|³˜–±“¬¹¢Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž´ Øv¦Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§ Julius II27
118
•§“Œª¹121 Peter Pual Rubens : Ÿ–˜•®–²© ¢Žvª¢§˜ªy¦‰š¢v}§v•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–’§‘Ž¦|w¢|
Leonardo da Vinci œ§‰±ŸØŽ700 x 170 €–. “©“©•¦ˆ†Ÿ‹§ŽLouvre, Paris
Œª¹–§: Arezzo_anghiari_Battle_standard_leonardo_da_vinci_paint .jpg [Online], accessed 30 May 2010
Available from http://www.wikipedia.org
•§“Œª¹122 Aristotele (Bastiano) Sangallo: Ÿ–˜•®–©²yŸ©Ž§y¦‰š¢v}§v•§“Cartoon w¢|Michelangelo
y.. 1542 Grisaille on wood 76.5 x 130 €–. Earl of Leicester Collection, Holkham Hall,
Norfolk, England
Œª¹–§ : Achim Gnann, Michelangelo The Drawing of Genius (Vienna : Albertina, 2010), 256.
119
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Michelangelo µ‰Ø˜¦±|©Žœ×§}ا|´ ؟˜Ø§|¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§ŽwŽ§‰´ ‚×– «–§Žªº±ßŽ}¾§ŽœŽ‹«|
10,000 Ducat ²š¥}¥ŠØ¢|Ÿ×|–¢|§Ž•§—´Ž5 ÏŒ¦ŽŒªŒª¹Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§ Julius II –¢±|©Ž|œ‰²˜v
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27
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120
•§“Œª¹123 Ÿ¦ˆ…§Ž³‰—¢Ž­–§Žw¢|²˜×§|¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Žw¢|Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§Julius II ˜§œÏy.. 1505
Œª¹–§ : Gabriele Bartz and Eberhard König, Michelangelo Bournarroti, (Cologne : Konemann, 1998),
61.
121
•§“Œª¹124 Ÿ¦ˆ…§Ž³‰—¢Ž­–§Žw¢|²˜×§|¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Žw¢|Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§Julius II ˜§œÏy.. 1513
Œª¹–§ : Gabriele Bartz and Eberhard König, Michelangelo Bournarroti, (Cologne : Konemann, 1998),
61.
122
•§“Œª¹125 Ÿ¦ˆ…§Ž³‰—¢Ž­–§Žw¢|²˜×§|¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Žw¢|Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§Julius II ˜§œÏy.. 1516
Œª¹–§:v™žˆ§ |žÛ¢­±ŒŽ, “Michelangelo Buonarroti ²š¥¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Žw¢|Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§ Julius II”, ´Ž³y–
²v؜² ×|yœ§–Ÿ­v´Ÿ , Ž©Œ˜˜v§˜©šv˜˜–¢§}§˜—Ûyˆ¥}©Š˜v˜˜–˜¥Š©–§v˜˜– ²š¥•§““©–“Û– §œ©Œ—§š¦—
©š§v˜y˜¦º|Œª¹26, 2552 (v˜­|±Œ“¤: ˜©ž¦Œ ¢–˜©ŽŒ˜Û “˜©ºŽŠ©º|²¢Ž‰Û“¦š©©¹|}¾§v¦‰(– §Ž), 2552), 100.
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•§“Œª¹126 Ÿ¦ˆ…§Ž³‰—¢Ž­–§Žw¢|²˜×§|¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Žw¢|Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§Julius II ˜§œÏy.. 1532
Œª¹–§:v™žˆ§ |žÛ¢­±ŒŽ, “Michelangelo Buonarroti ²š¥¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Žw¢|Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§ Julius II”, ´Ž³y–
²v؜² ×|yœ§–Ÿ­v´Ÿ , Ž©Œ˜˜v§˜©šv˜˜–¢§}§˜—Ûyˆ¥}©Š˜v˜˜–˜¥Š©–§v˜˜– ²š¥•§““©–“Û– §œ©Œ—§š¦—
©š§v˜y˜¦º|Œª¹26, 2552 (v˜­|±Œ“¤: ˜©ž¦Œ ¢–˜©ŽŒ˜Û “˜©ºŽŠ©º|²¢Ž‰Û“¦š©©¹|}¾§v¦‰(– §Ž), 2552), 106.
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•§“Œª¹127 Michelangelo : ¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§ŽJulius II˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1505 – 1545 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 218 €–.
San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
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¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Žw¢|“˜¥¢|yۚ|‰Øœ—± Š­Žªº“˜¥¢|yÛ}«|Œ˜|×§—±ª¹—|²š¥µ–×—¢–´ Ø Michelangelo
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Michelangelo¢ªv‰Øœ—
Ÿ‹§Žv§˜ˆÛ‰|¦ vš×§œŒ¾§´ Ø Michelangelo˜®ØŸ«v± –¬¢Ž‹®v‰®‹®v‰® –©¹Ž²š¥‹®v± —ª——¹¾§¦v‰©½˜ª
¢—ק|²˜| ±w§}«|Š¦‰Ÿ©Ž´} Žªvš¦µ—¦|”š¢±˜Ž€Û±–¬¹¢œ¦ŽŒª¹17 ±–ž§—Žy.. 1506 yœ§–w­×ŽwØ¢|
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§œ”š¢±˜Ž€Û Giuliano da Gallo Ÿ‹§Ž©v²š¥œ©œv˜Œª¹Œ¾§|§Ž¢—®×Œª¹v˜­|³˜–´Ž±œš§Ž¦ºŽ
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wا—¦|y|w¬Ž¢—®×´Žv˜­|³˜–¢ªvŽ§ŽŠ×¢µwاy|ŠØ¢|Ÿ˜Ø§|Ÿ­Ÿ§Ž´ ؊¦œ±¢|v×¢ŽŒª¹}¥Ÿ˜Ø§|Ÿ­Ÿ§Ž´ Ø¢|yÛ
Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§±ßŽ²Ž×²š¥Žª¹v¸y¬¢Ÿ§± Š­Œª¹Œ¾§´ Øwا}§v–§¢—ק|v¥Œ¦Ž ¦Ž 30
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Julius IIŒ˜|—vŒ¦“¢¢v}§vv˜­|³˜–±–¬¹¢œ¦ŽŒª¹23 Ÿ©| §y–y.. 1506 ²š¥Œ˜|—vŒ¦“±wا±–¬¢|
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ŠØ¢|v§˜ 31 ‰Øœ—± Š­ŽªºMichelangelo}«|}¾§´}Ÿ˜Ø§|‘š|§ŽŽªº²Š×³‰—‰ª²–؜ק}¥±ßŽ|§ŽŒª¹±w§µ–׋Ž¦‰
v¸Š§–€«¹|Œ¾§´ Ø|§ŽŸ˜Ø§|¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Ž Julius IIŠØ¢|±š¬¹¢Ž¢¢vµ¢ªv
Michelangelo´رœš§´Žv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|¢Ž­Ÿ§œ˜ª—“Û ˜¥˜®Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§ Julius II Œª¹±–¬¢|
BolognaŠ¦º|²Š×š§—±‰¬¢Ž“™}©v§—Žy.. 1506 ‹«|š§—±‰¬¢Žv­–•§“¦ŽÛy.. 1508 ±Ž¬¹¢|}§v
Michelangeloµ–׋Ž¦‰´Žv§˜ š×¢³š ¥˜¥Š©–§v˜ Ž­×–}«|µ‰Øw¢y¾§˜«vž§´Ž‰Ø§Ž±ŒyŽ©yv§˜ š×¢
˜®Ÿ¾§˜©‰}§vAntonio Maria da Legniano ² ×|±–¬¢|³³š‚‚ק 32 ˜® š×¢w¢|¢|y۟¦ŽŠ¥§§
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Œ×§˜¥Œ§Ž“˜ MichelangeloŠØ¢| š×¢˜®˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Œª¹–ªyœ§–Ÿ®|vœ×§3 ±–Š˜²š¥ Ž¦v
˜¥–§ˆ17,000 v©³šv˜¦–Žªº‹«|2 y˜¦º|}«|Ÿ¾§±˜¸} 33¢Ž­Ÿ§œ˜ª—Û² ×|¦—Ž¥w¢|Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§ Julius II
‹®vŽ¾§µŠ©‰Š¦º|µœØ± Ž¬¢˜¥Š®Œ§|±wا´ ‚×w¢|œ© §˜ San Petronio ² ×|±–¬¢|³³š‚‚קµ‰Ø±“ª—|3
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GuilianoŽ¦¹Ž±¢| 34
š¦|}§vŒª¹ Michelangelo Ÿ˜Ø§|˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ÿ¾§˜©‰˜®Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§ Julius II±Ÿ˜¸}Ÿ©ºŽ
š|˜§œŠØŽÏy.. 1508 ˜¥Š©–§v˜ Ž­×–‘®ØŽªºµ‰Ø±‰©ŽŒ§|}§v±–¬¢|³³š‚‚קvš¦Ÿ®×v˜­|³˜–³‰—
–­|× œ¦|œ×§}¥µ‰ØŸ˜Ø§||§Ž¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Žw¢|Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§ Julius II Š×¢´ رŸ˜¸}²Š×yœ§– œ¦|Žªºvš¦
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w¢|œ© §˜Sistine (•§“Œª¹ 128) Œª¹¢—®×´Ž³y˜|v§˜±šª¹—Ž²š|²š¥w—§—œ© §˜ St. Peter ³‰—Œ˜|w®×
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MichelangeloŠØ¢|±wª—Ž•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–˜¥‰¦±“‰§Žœ© §˜ Sistine‰Øœ—yœ§–}¾§´}
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±˜ª—Ž±wª—Ž•§“v¦“ª¹ŽØ¢|Š˜¥v®š Ghirlandaiowˆ¥Œª¹±w§–ª¢§—­µ‰Ø13 Ïv¸Š§–²Š×v¸±ßŽ˜¥—¥±œš§
µ–׋|« 1 Ï²š¥‹«|²–؜ק±w§}¥±y—±wª—Ž•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–Ø§|²Š×v¸µ–×±y—±˜ª—vŠŽ±¢|œ×§±ßŽ}©Š˜v˜
±š—Ÿ¦vy˜¦º|¢—ק|µ˜v¸Š§–‹«|²–؜קMichelangelo}¥Œ¾§|§ŽŽªº‰Øœ—yœ§–w–w¬¹Ž´}²Š×±w§v¸µ‰Ø¢­Œ©
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Sistine€«¹|Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢±˜¬¹¢|˜§œ}§v“˜¥y˜©ŸŠÛ˜˜–y¦–•ª˜Û•§y“¦Ž¥Ÿ¦‚‚§±vק±ßŽ±œš§Ž§Ž‹«|2 Ï
±w§±wª—Ž•§“±šª—Ž²³y˜|Ÿ˜Ø§|w¢|Ÿ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜–€«¹|Œ¾§ ŽØ§Œª¹²×|“¬ºŽŒª¹w¢|±“‰§Ž³yØ|w¢|
œ© §˜¢¢v±ßŽ9 ×¢|´Ž²Š×š¥×¢|}¥±wª—Ž•§“±˜¬¹¢|±š×§}§v“˜¥y˜©ŸŠÛ˜˜–y¦–•ª˜Û•§y“¦Ž¥
Ÿ¦‚‚§±vק³‰—±˜©¹–Š¦º|²Š×v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|³švw¢|“˜¥‘®Ø±ßŽ±}اµ}Ž‹«|v§˜±–§–§—µ–×µ‰ØŸŠ©w¢|³Ž¢§ Û
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×¢|Œª¹ 1 “˜¥±}اŒ˜|²—vyœ§–Ÿœ×§|¢¢v}§vyœ§––¬‰( God Division Light From
Darkness)
×¢|Œª¹ 2 “˜¥±}اŒ˜|Ÿ˜Ø§|“˜¥¢§Œ©Š—Û“˜¥}¦ŽŒ˜Û²š¥“¬“¦Ž­ÛŽ§Ž§Ž©‰( Creation
of the Sun and the Moon and the Plants)
32
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34
35
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×¢|Œª¹ 3 “˜¥±}اŒ˜|²—v²‘׎Žº¾§¢¢v}§v²‘׎‰©Ž( God Dividing the Waters and
the Earth)
×¢|Œª¹4 “˜¥±}اŒ˜|Ÿ˜Ø§|¢‰¦––Ž­ž—ÛyŽ²˜v(The Creation of man, Adam)
×¢|Œª¹5 “˜¥±}اŒ˜|Ÿ˜Ø§|¢ª”–Ž­ž—Û‘®Ø ‚©|yŽ²˜v(The Creation of Woman, Eve)
×¢|Œª¹ 6 v§˜Œ¾§‘©‰vƒŸœ˜˜yÛ²š¥v§˜‹®vw¦µš×¢¢v}§vŸœŽ¢ª±‰¸Ž( The Fall of Man
and the Explusion From the Garden of Eden)
×¢|Œª¹7 v§˜‹œ§—±y˜¬¢¹ |Ÿ¦|±œ—w¢|³Ž¢§ Û(Noah’s Offering)
×¢|Œª¹8 œ¦ŽŽº§¾ Œ×œ–³šv(The Great Flood)
×¢|Œª¹9 v§˜±–§–§—µ–×µ‰ØŸŠ©w¢|³Ž¢§ Û(Drunkenness of Noah) 37
•§“–Ž­ž—Ûvœ×§300 yŽŒª¹ Michelangelo ˜˜}|œ§‰¢—ק|˜¥ˆªŠ²Ÿ‰|´ ر ¸Žyœ§–
±yš¬¹¢Žµ œ¢—ק|¢©Ÿ˜¥²š¥±Š¸–µ‰Øœ—ªœ©Šªœ§yœ§–²–׎—¾§´Žv§—œ©•§y–Ž­ž—Ûw¢| Michelangelo
Œ¾§´ ؕ§“–Ž­ž—Û–ª–œšŒª¹vš–vš«|± –¬¢Ž}˜©|Š§–˜˜–§Š©v§˜©‰±¢ªº—œv§—¢—ק|˜­Ž²˜|w¢|
˜×§|v§—–Ž­ž—Û²Ÿ‰|´ ر ¸Ž–œš¢¦Ž Ž§ Ž¦v²š¥v§˜±yš¬¢¹ Žµ œ¢¦ŽŒ˜|“š¦|˜®²v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž
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Michelangelo ±wª—Ž•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–ŽªºŠ¦º|²Š×™‰®´µ–Ø‘š©w¢|Ïy.. 1508 ³‰—±˜©¹–±wª—Ž
}§v±“‰§Ž‰Ø§ŽŒ©Š¥œ¦ŽŠvw¢|œ© §˜µ—¦|Œ©Š¥œ¦Ž¢¢v²š¥±wª—Ž±Ÿ˜¸}Ÿ©ºŽ±–¬¹¢Ïy.. 1512
Šš¢‰˜¥—¥±œš§4 ÏŽªº Michelangeloµ‰Ø¢‰ŒŽ±“ª—˜“—§—§–¢­Œ©ŠŽ²š¥Œ­×–±Œ±œš§Œ¦º| –‰
´ Øv¦v§˜±wª—Ž•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–Žªº³‰—²Œ}¥µ–×¢¢vµµ Ž±š—±w§ŠØ¢|Š×¢Ÿ®Øv¦yœ§–—§vš¾§§v²ŸŽ
±w¸‚´Žv§˜±wª—Ž•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–Žªº±“˜§¥±w§ŠØ¢|Ž¢Ž±wª—Ž•§“´ŽŸ‹§ŽŒª¹Œª¹–ª²Ÿ|Ÿœ×§|ŽØ¢—±ßŽ
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132
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2004), n. pag.
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•§“Œª¹133 Michelangelo : Œ§Ÿvƒ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1514-1516 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 229 €–. “©“©•¦ˆ†ÛŸ‹§Ž
Louvre Paris
Œª¹–§ : Gabriele Bartz and Eberhard König, Michelangelo Bournarroti, (Cologne : Konemann, 1998),
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Œª¹–§ : Joachim Poeschke, Michelangelo and His World (New York : Harry N. Abrams, 1996), n. pag.
136
•§“Œª¹135 Michelangelo : Œ§Ÿ‘®Ø–ª±y˜§˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1530-1533 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 261 €–. Galleria
dell’Accademia, Florence
Œª¹–§: Yvonne Paris, Michelangelo 1475-1564 (UK : Parragon Books, 2009), 76.
137
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dell’Accademia, Florence
Œª¹–§: Yvonne Paris, Michelangelo 1475-1564 (UK : Parragon Books, 2009), 75.
138
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dell’Accademia, Florence
Œª¹–§ : Gabriele Bartz and Eberhard König, Michelangelo Bournarroti, (Cologne : Konemann, 1998),
35.
139
•§“Œª¹138 Michelangelo : Victoria˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1525 – 1530 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 261 €–. Palazzo Vecchio,
Florence
Œª¹–§ : Frank Zöllner and Chrifstof Thoenes, Michelangelo 1475-1564 Life and Works, (Koln :
Taschen, 2010), 220.
140
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Œª¹–§ : Frank Zöllner and Chrifstof Thoenes, Michelangelo 1475-1564 Life and Works, (Koln :
Taschen, 2010), 60.
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Nemours ²Š× š¦|}§vŽ¦ºŽ´ŽÏy.. 1527 Š˜¥v®šMedici v¸ŠØ¢|Ÿ®‚±Ÿª—¢¾§Ž§}Œ§|v§˜±–¬¢|µ¢ªv
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wˆ¥Œª¹ Michelangelo“¾§Ž¦v¢—®×´ŽØ§Ž±v©‰˜¥ œ×§|Ï y.. 1513 -1534 ±w§µ‰Ø
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¢¢v² ŽØ§Š«v Basilica San Lorenzo (y.. 1516-1520) (•§“Œª¹ 140) |§Ž¢¢v² Ø¢|±Š˜ª—–
“©Œª §|§ŸŽ§´Žœ© §˜ San Lorenzo (y.. 1520 – 1524) Ø¢|Ÿ–­‰ Laurenziana (y.. 1523)
(•§“Œª¹ 141) ²š¥¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Žw¢|Š˜¥v®š Medici´Žœ© §˜San Lorenzo² ×|”š¢±˜Ž€Û(y..
1524-1534) (•§“Œª¹ 142-143) €«¹|±ßŽ¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Ž¢¦Ž|‰|§–Œª¹Šv²Š×|‰Øœ—˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ÿš¦v ©Ž
¢×¢ŽwŽ§‰´ ‚×±ßŽ}¾§ŽœŽ–§v±ßŽŠØŽ 43
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141
•§“Œª¹140 Michelangelo ²š¥Pietro Urbano : ŠØŽ² ŽØ§Š«vBasilica San Lorenzo˜¥ œ×§|Ï
y.. 1516–1520 wŽ§‰216 x 283 x 50 €–. Casa Buonarroti, Florence
Œª¹–§ : Frank Zöllner and Chrifstof Thoenes, Michelangelo 1475-1564 Life and Works, (Koln :
Taschen, 2010), 203.
•§“Œª¹141 Michelangelo : |§Ž¢¢v²•§—´Ž Ø¢|Ÿ–­‰Laurenzianay.. 1523 Florence
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
142
•§“Œª¹142 Michelangelo : Ÿ­Ÿ§ŽŠ˜¥v®šMedici (Ÿ­Ÿ§ŽLorenzo de Mediciv¦ŸŽ—§²š¥¢˜­³ˆŒ¦—)
˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1524- 1531 ©Ž¢×¢Ž630 x 420€–. œ© §˜San Lorenzo, Florence
Œª¹–§ : Frank Zöllner and Chrifstof Thoenes, Michelangelo 1475-1564 Life and Works, (Koln :
Taschen, 2010), 257.
143
•§“Œª¹143 Michelangelo : Ÿ­Ÿ§ŽŠ˜¥v®šMedici (Ÿ­Ÿ§ŽGiuliano de Mediciv¦Œ©œ§²š¥˜§Š˜ª)
˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1525 – 1534 ©Ž¢×¢Ž630 x 420€–. œ© §˜San Lorenzo, Florence
Œª¹–§ : Frank Zöllner and Chrifstof Thoenes, Michelangelo 1475-1564 Life and Works, (Koln :
Taschen, 2010), 256.
144
•§“Œª¹144 Michelangelo : “˜¥±—€®‘®Ø”ÑáŽy¬Žª“ ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1519–1520 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 205 €–. San Maria
sopra Minerva, Rome
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Œª¹ MichelangeloŸ˜Ø§|w«ºŽ´Ž”š¢±˜Ž€Û—­yŒª¹Ÿ¢|Žªºµ‰Ø²vא˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–
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(Crepuscolo) (•§“Œª¹ 146) ²š¥˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜® ¢˜­³ˆŒ¦— (Aurora) (•§“Œª¹ 14 7) Œª¹Ÿ˜Ø§|w«ºŽ
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˜¥}¾§Š˜¥v®š Medici €«¹|Š¦º|wŽ§wا| Medici Madonna Michelangeloµ‰Ø¢¢v²²š¥
–¢ –§—´ ؝©šÎŽ‘®Øל—Ÿ¢|yŽy¬¢ Giovanni Angelo Montorsoli (y.. 1507-1563) ²š¥
Raffaello da Montelupo (y.. 1505-1563/67) ±ßŽ‘®ØŸš¦v˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®Ž¦v­‚Œ¦º|Ÿ¢|ŽªºŠ×¢
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San Lorenzo œ© §˜² ×|Š˜¥v®šMedici ´Ž±–¬¢|”š¢±˜Ž€Û
43
46
146
•§“Œª¹145 Michelangelo: Lorenzo ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1524-1531 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 178 €–. San Lorenzo, Medici
Chapel, Florence
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
147
•§“Œª¹146 Michelangelo : ŸŽ—§ (Crepuscolo) ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1524-1531 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 195 €–.
San Lorenzo, Medici Chapel, Florence
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
148
•§“Œª¹147 Michelangelo : ¢˜­³ˆŒ¦— (Aurora) ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1524-1531 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 206 €–.
San Lorenzo, Medici Chapel, Florence
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
149
•§“Œª¹148 Michelangelo : Giuliano˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1525-1534 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 178 €–. San Lorenzo, Medici
Chapel, Florence
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
150
•§“Œª¹149 Michelangelo : Œ©œ§ (Giorno) ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1524-1531 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 185 €–. San Lorenzo,
Medici Chapel, Florence
Œª¹–§ : Joachim Poeschke, Michelangelo and His World (New York : Harry N. Abrams, 1996), n. pag.
151
•§“Œª¹150 Michelangelo : ˜§Š˜ª (Notte) ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1526-1531 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 194 €–. San Lorenzo,
Medici Chapel, Florence
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
152
•§“Œª¹151 Michelangelo : Medici Madonna˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1524-1534 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 226 €–.
San Lorenzo, Medici Chapel, Florence
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUe (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
153
•§“Œª¹152 Michelangelo : Medici Madonna˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1524-1534 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 226 €–.
San Lorenzo, Medici Chapel, Florence
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
154
•§“Œª¹153 Giovanni Angelo Montorsoli : Ž¦v­‚Comas ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1521-1534 ©Ž¢×¢ŽSan
Lorenzo, Medici Chapel, Florence
Œª¹–§ : Gabriele Bartz and Eberhard König, Michelangelo Bournarroti, (Cologne : Konemann, 1998),
71.
•§“Œª¹154 Raffaello da Montelupo :Ž¦v­‚Damian ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1521-1534 ©Ž¢×¢ŽSan Lorenzo,
Medici Chapel, Florence
Œª¹–§ : Gabriele Bartz and Eberhard König, Michelangelo Bournarroti, (Cologne : Konemann, 1998),
71.
155
•§“Œª¹155 Michelangelo: ±Œ“±}ا² ×|²–׎º¾§š¾§§˜˜¥–§ˆÏy.. 1525 ‰©Ž± Žª—œŸ®| 180 €–. San
Lorenzo, Medici Chapel, Florence
Œª¹–§ : Joachim Poeschke, Michelangelo and His World (New York : Harry N. Abrams, 1996), n. pag.
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156
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48
•§“Œª¹156 Michelangelo : ±‰¸v§—Ž¦¹|y­v±wק˜¥–§ˆÏy.. 1530 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 54 €–. Hermitage,
Leningard
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWecture (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
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w¢|Michelangelo•§““©–“Û27.5 x 40.6 €–. Alberta, Viena
Œª¹–§ : Achim Gnann, Michelangelo The Drawing of Genius (Vienna : Albertina, 2010), 256.
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Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
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Œª¹–§ : Gabriele Bartz and Eberhard König, Michelangelo Bournarroti, (Cologne : Konemann, 1998),
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‰Øœ—± Š­Žªº´ŽÏy.. 1559 Daniele da Volterra š®v©ž—Ûw¢|Michelangelo}«|µ‰Ø˜¦
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57
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•§“Œª¹161 Michelangelo : v§˜vš¦´}w¢|Ž¦v­‚Paul˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1542–1545 }©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—v
625 x 661 €–. Vaticano, Palazzi Vaticanti, Cappella Paolina, Rome
Œª¹–§ : Gabriele Bartz and Eberhard König, Michelangelo Bournarroti, (Cologne : Konemann, 1998),
118.
•§“Œª¹162 Michelangelo : v§˜Š˜«|µ–Øv§|±wŽŽ¦v­‚Peter ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1545-1550 }©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—v
625 x 662 €–. Vaticano, Palazzi Vaticanti, Cappella Paolina, Rome
Œª¹–§ : Gabriele Bartz and Eberhard König, Michelangelo Bournarroti, (Cologne : Konemann, 1998),
119.
164
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Paolina ² ×|œ§Š©v¦ŽŽ¦¹Žy¬¢•§“ v§˜vš¦´}w¢|Ž¦v­‚ Paul (Coversion of St. Paul) (•§“Œª¹
161) €«¹|±wª—Žw«ºŽ´Ž˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1542-1545 ²š¥
v§˜Š˜«|µ–Øv§|±wŽŽ¦v­‚ Peter
(Crucifixion of St. Peter) (•§“Œª¹ 162) €«¹|±wª—Žw«ºŽ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1545-1550
•§“Œª¹163 Michelangelo : Palazzo Farnese ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1517-1589
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
´Ž—­yv˜­|³˜–¢¦Ž±ßŽ—­yŸ­‰ŒØ§—w¢|Michelangelo©šÎŽ±¢v² ×|—­y±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€Û‘®ØŽªº
µ‰Ø¢¢v²¢§y§˜¢ªv±ßŽ}¾§ŽœŽ–§v±“˜§¥ š¦|}§vŒª¹ Antonio da Sangallo, the Younger
Ÿ‹§Ž©v‘®Ø±ßŽŸ §—w¢|±w§µ‰Ø±Ÿª—ªœ©Šš|Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§ Paul III v¸µ‰Ø–¢ –§—´ Ø Michelangelo
±ßŽ‘®Ø˜¦‘©‰¢|§Žw¢| SangalloŠ×¢¢§Œ© Palazzo Farnese (y.. 1517-1589) (•§“Œª¹ 1 63)
²š¥v§˜yœy­–v§˜v×¢Ÿ˜Ø§|– §œ© §˜ St. Peter ´ –×(y.. 1506-1626) €«¹| Michelangeloµ‰Ø
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—¦|µ‰Ø˜¦–¢ –§—´ Ø¢¢v²}Š­˜¦Ÿ Piazza del Campidoglo (The Piazza of the Capitol in
Rome) ´Žv˜­|³˜–(y.. 1537-1940) (•§“Œª¹ 166) ¢ªv‰Øœ—Michelangelo¢¢v²}¦Š­˜¦ŸŽªº±Ÿ˜¸}
165
±–¬¹¢Ïy.. 1546 ²Š×v§˜˜¦±šª¹—Ž²š¥±“©¹–±Š©–²´Ž š§——­y š§—Ÿ–¦—Œ¾§´ Øv§˜v×¢Ÿ˜Ø§|
}Š­˜¦ŸŽªº±Ÿ˜¸}Ÿ–®˜ˆÛ´ŽÏy.. 1940
•§“Œª¹164 Michelangelo : ŠØŽ²³‰–– §œ© §˜ St. Peter ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1558-1561 Ÿª’­ÒŽŽµ–Ø
500 x 400 x 200€–. Museo Petriano, Rome
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
•§“Œª¹165 Michelangelo : – §œ© §˜St. Peter ´ –ט¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1506-1626
Œª¹–§: St. Peter [Online], accessed 28 June 2010. Available from http://www.wikipedia.org
166
•§“Œª¹166 Etienne du Pérac: •§““©–“Ûy¦‰š¢v|§Ž¢¢v²}Š­˜¦ŸPiazza del Campidoglo (The Piazza of
the Capitol in Rome) w¢|Michelangeloy.. 1569
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
•§“Œª¹167 Michelangelo : Brutus ©Ž¢×¢Ž˜¥–§ˆÏy.. 1538
Œª¹–§ : Gabriele Bartz and Eberhard König, Michelangelo Bournarroti, (Cologne : Konemann, 1998),
111.
167
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œ© §˜Santa Maria Maggiore ² ×|v˜­|³˜–²Š×˜§œÏy.. 1555 ±w§vš¦´ØyØ¢ŽŒ­v˜¥ Ž¹¾§
Œ¾§š§—‘š|§Ž©ºŽŽªº}Ž ©Ž¢×¢Ž²Šv¢¢v±ßŽ±Ÿª¹—|·Š×¢–§ Francesco Bandini µ‰Øw¢˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–
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w«ºŽ±–¬¹¢˜¥–§ˆÏy.. 1556 Pietá Palestrina ‹®vŸš¦v‰Øœ— ©Ž®ŽŒª¹–ªš¦vžˆ¥yšØ§— ©Ž¢×¢Ž±–¬¹¢
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˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Žªº¢—®×´ŽGalleria dell’ Accademia ±–¬¢|”š¢±˜Ž€Û 63
60
61
62
168
•§“Œª¹168 Michelangelo : Pietá Santa Maria del Fiore ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1548-1555 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 226 €–.
Duomo, Florence
Œª¹–§: Antonio Paolucci, Michelangelo The Pietás (Milan : Skira, 1999), 87.
169
•§“Œª¹169 Michelangelo : Pietá Palestrina ˜¥–§ˆÏy.. 1556 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 253 €–. Accademia,
Florence
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–©ºŽŸ­‰ŒØ§—Œª¹Michelangeloµ‰ØŸš¦vµœØy¬¢Pietá Rondanini (•§“Œª¹ 170)
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Sforzesco ² ×|±–¬¢|–©š§ŽPietá Rondanini ±ßŽ˜¥Š©–§v˜˜– ©Ž¢×¢ŽŒª¹ Michelangelo€«¹|¢—®×
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œ¦ŽŒª¹12 v­–•§“¦ŽÛy.. 1564 Michelangeloµ‰Ø—¬ŽŸš¦v˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®Žªº¢—®×Šš¢‰Œ¦º|œ¦ŽŸ¢|
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±Šª—|±“˜§¥“©žµwص‰Ø2 œ¦Žv¸}§v³švŽªºµ¢—ק|µ–×–ªœ¦Ž œŽvš¦´Žœ¦ŽŒª¹18 v­–•§“¦ŽÛy.. 1564
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Ž¦±ßŽ±œš§Ž§Ž‹«|447 Ï²šØœŒª¹ Michelangelo©šÎŽ±¢v² ×|—­y±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€Ûµ‰Ø
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63
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•§“Œª¹170 Michelangelo : Pietá Rondanini ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1556-1564 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 195 €–. Castello
Sforzesco, Milan
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
171
±©|¢˜˜‹ŒØ§—ŒŒª¹ 3
1
‰®Œª¹ Ludwig Goldscheider, Michelangelo paintings · sculpture · architecture
(London : Phaidon, 2004), 7.
2
‰®Œª¹ Yvonne Paris, Michelangelo 1475 – 1564 (UK : Parragon Books, 2009),
28.
3
Ibid, 33.
4
‰®Œª¹ Linda Murray, Michelangelo (London : Thames and Hudson, 1980), 32.
5
¢Ø§|}§vv™žˆ§ |žÛ¢±­ ŒŽ, “Michelangelo Buonarroti ²š¥¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Žw¢|
Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§ Julius II”, ´ŽŸ®}©¦Š˜Ž©Œ˜˜v§˜³y–²v؜² ×|yœ§–Ÿ­v´Ÿ , Ž©Œ˜˜v§˜©šv˜˜–
¢§}§˜—Ûyˆ¥}©Š˜v˜˜–˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–²š¥•§““©–“Û– §œ©Œ—§š¦—©š§v˜y˜¦º|Œª¹26, 2552
(v˜­|±Œ“¤: ˜©ž¦Œ¢–˜©ŽŒ˜Û“˜©ºŽŠ©º|²¢Ž‰Û“¦š©©¹|}¾§v¦‰(– §Ž), 2552), 92.
6
‰®Œª¹ Frank Zöllner and Christof Thoenes, Michelangelo 1475 – 1564 Life and
Work (Koln : Taschen, 2010), 25.
7
Linda Murray, Michelangelo, 32.
8
‰®Œª¹˜¥—®˜¢­š­§ƒ¥[Ž.ˆ§vŽº¾§], ¦Žµ‰±wا‹«|©š¥ (v˜­|±Œ“¤: ˜©ž¦ŒŠØŽ¢Ø¢
²v˜––ª¹}¾§v¦‰, 2540), 123.
9
±–¬¹¢Ïy.. 1503 “˜¥y§˜Û‰©Ž¦šFrancesco Piccolomini µ‰Ø˜¦v§˜²Š×|Š¦º|´ رßŽ“˜¥
Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§Puis III
10
‰®Œª¹Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Michelangelo [Online], accessed 10
February 2010. Available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_of_Michelangelo
11
Giorgio Vasari ²š¥Ascanio Condiviµ‰Øvš×§œ´Ž Ž¦|Ÿ¬¢Œª¹±vª¹—œv¦˜¥œ¦Š©ªœ©Š
w¢|Michelangelow¢|“œv±w§œ×§‘š|§Ž˜®“˜¥²–×–§±˜ª—²š¥“˜¥­Š˜©ºŽŽªº±ßŽ˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–
š×¢Ÿ¾§˜©‰ wˆ¥Œª¹ Vasari vš×§œœ×§|§Ž©ºŽŽªº±ßŽ˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ž®Ž Condivi vš¦“®‰‹«|
˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–š¢—Š¦œ ¢Ø§|}§vGiorgio Vasari, Lives of the Painters, Sculptors and
Architects, vol. 2, 656. ²š¥Ascanio Condivi, The Life of Michelangelo (New York:
Oxford University Press, 1987), 24. v§˜´ ØwØ¢–®šŒª¹µ–׊˜|v¦Žw¢|­yyšŒ¦º|Ÿ¢|yŽŽªºŒ¾§´ Ø
Ÿ§–§˜‹Ÿ˜­µ‰Øœ×§yŽŒ¦º|y®×Ž×§}¥µ–×±y—± ¸Ž‘š|§Ž©ºŽŽªº–§v×¢Ž±“˜§¥˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®Žªº‹®vŸ×|µ
—¦|±–¬¢|BrugesŠ¦º|²Š×±‰¬¢ŽŸ©| §y–y.. 1505 Albrecht Dürer ©šÎŽ±¢v§œ±—¢˜–¦Ž² ×|—­y
±˜¢±ŽŸ€¢|€Û€«¹|µ‰Ø–ª³¢v§Ÿµ± ¸Ž‘š|§Ž©ºŽŽªº´Žœ© §˜² ×|±–¬¢| Brugesµ‰Ø±wª—Ž´Ž¦ŽŒ«vw¢|±w§
œ×§±w§µ‰Ø–˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ÿš¦v ©Ž¢×¢Ž˜®“˜¥²–×–§±˜ª—w¢|
Michelangelo´Žœ© §˜ Notre
Dame±–¬¹¢œ¦ŽŒª¹7 ±–ž§—Žy.. 1521 ‰®Œª¹Martin Weinberger, Michelangelo the Sculptor,
vol. 1 (London: William Clowes and Sons, Limited, 1967), 115.
172
12
16.
13
‰®Œª¹Ludwig Goldscheider, Michelangelo paintings · sculpture · architecture,
‰®Œª¹Linda Murray, Michelangelo, 52.
‰®Œª¹v™žˆ§ |žÛ¢­±ŒŽ, Michelangelo Buonarroti ²š¥¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Žw¢|
Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§Julius II, 96.
15
‰®Œª¹ ±˜¬¹¢|±‰ª—œv¦Ž, 98.
16
¢Ø§|}§v±˜¬¹¢|±‰ª—œv¦Ž, ŽØ§±‰ª—œv¦Ž.
17
¢Ø§|}§v±˜¬¹¢|±‰ª—œv¦Ž, ŽØ§±‰ª—œv¦Ž.
18
‰®Œª¹±˜¬¹¢|±‰ª—œv¦Ž, 107.
19
‰®Œª¹±˜¬¹¢|±‰ª—œv¦Ž, 98 -99.
20
‰®Œª¹±˜¬¹¢|±‰ª—œv¦Ž, 99.
21
‰®Œª¹ ±˜¬¹¢|±‰ª—œv¦Ž, ŽØ§±‰ª—œv¦Ž.
22
‰®Œª¹ ±˜¬¹¢|±‰ª—œv¦Ž, ŽØ§±‰ª—œv¦Ž.
23
‰®Œª¹œ©®š—ÛšªºŸ­œ˜˜ˆ, ªœ©Š²š¥‘š|§Žw¢|}©Š˜v˜²š¥˜¥Š©–§v˜Š¥œ¦ŽŠv,
(v˜­|±Œ“¤ : ˜©ž¦Œy¢–²“yŒÛ“˜©ºŽŒÛ}¾§v¦‰, 2542), 34 – 39.
24
‰®Œª¹˜¥—®˜¢­š­§ƒ¥[Ž.ˆ§vŽº¾§], ¢Ø§|²šØœ, 126.
25
‰®Œª¹v™žˆ§ |žÛ¢­±ŒŽ, Michelangelo Buonarroti ²š¥¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Žw¢|
Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§Julius II, 101.
23
‰®Œª¹±˜¬¹¢|±‰ª—œv¦Ž, ŽØ§±‰ª—œv¦Ž.
24
¢Ø§|}§v±˜¬¹¢|±‰ª—œv¦Ž, ŽØ§±‰ª—œv¦Ž.
25
¢Ø§|}§v±˜¬¹¢|±‰ª—œv¦Ž, ŽØ§±‰ª—œv¦Ž.
26
¢Ø§|}§v±˜¬¹¢|±‰ª—œv¦Ž, ŽØ§±‰ª—œv¦Ž.
27
‰®Œª¹Ludwig Goldscheider, Michelangelo paintings · sculpture · architecture,
24.
28
“˜¥y§˜Û‰©Ž¦šGiulio de Medici •§— š¦|µ‰Ø±ßŽŸ¦ŽŠ¥§§Clement VII ±–¬¹¢
œ¦ŽŒª¹19 “™}©v§—Žy.. 1523
29
‰®Œª¹Ludwig Goldscheider, Michelangelo paintings · sculpture · architecture,
25.
30
Ibid.
31
Ibid, 28.
32
Ibid, 28.
33
Ibid, 25 – 29.
14
173
34
684.
35
‰®Œª¹Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Painters, Sculptors and Architects, vol. 2,
‰®Œª¹Ronald Ormiston, Michelangelo His Life and Works in 500 Images
(London: Lorenz Books, 2010), 232.
36
‰®Œª¹ Yvonne Paris, Michelangelo 1475 – 1564, 148 – 149.
37
‰®Œª¹Ludwig Goldscheider, Michelangelo paintings · sculpture · architecture,
28 - 29.
38
‰®Œª¹Ludwig Goldscheider, Michelangelo paintings · sculpture · architecture,
9.
39
Lunette y¬¢˜©±œˆ“¬ºŽŒª¹œ×§|˜®y˜«¹|œ|vš–¢—®×± Ž¬¢ ŽØ§Š×§|
40
‰®Œª¹˜¥—®˜¢­š­§ƒ¥[Ž.ˆ§vŽº¾§], ¦Žµ‰±wا‹«|©š¥, 127 – 128.
41
‰®Œª¹œ©®š—ÛšªºŸ­œ˜˜ˆ, ªœ©Š²š¥‘š|§Žw¢|}©Š˜v˜²š¥˜¥Š©–§v˜Š¥œ¦ŽŠv, 41.
42
‰®Œª¹Ludwig Goldscheider, Michelangelo paintings · sculpture · architecture,
32.
43
‰®Œª¹œ©®š—ÛšªºŸ­œ˜˜ˆ, ªœ©Š²š¥‘š|§Žw¢|}©Š˜v˜²š¥˜¥Š©–§v˜Š¥œ¦ŽŠv, 43.
44
‰®Œª¹Ludwig Goldscheider, Michelangelo paintings · sculpture · architecture,
33.
45
‰®Œª¹v™žˆ§ |žÛ¢­±ŒŽ, Michelangelo Buonarroti ²š¥¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Žw¢|
Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§Julius II, 107.
46
‰®Œª¹Ludwig Goldscheider, Michelangelo paintings · sculpture · architecture,
34.
47
‰®Œª¹v™žˆ§ |žÛ¢­±ŒŽ, ±˜¬¹¢|±‰ª—œv¦Ž, 94.
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Œª¹–§: Diana E. E. Kleiner, Roman Sculpture (New Haven : Yale University Press, 1992), 1992, 258.
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Œª¹–§ : Joachim Poeschke, Michelangelo and His World (New York : Harry N. Abrams, 1996), n. pag.
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•§“Œª¹183 Michelangelo : Pietà˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1498-1499 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®|174 €–. Vatican St. Peter’s, Rome
Œª¹–§: Antonio Paolucci, Michelangelo The Pietás (Milan : Skira, 1999), n. pag.
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•§“Œª¹184 ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®Pietá
Œª¹–§: Antonio Paolucci, Michelangelo The Pietás (Milan : Skira, 1999), n. pag.
•§“Œª¹185 ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®Pietá
Œª¹–§: Antonio Paolucci, Michelangelo The Pietás (Milan : Skira, 1999), n. pag.
192
•§“Œª¹186 Michelangelo : Pietà˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1498-1499 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®|174 €–. Vatican St. Peter’s, Rome
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•§“Œª¹187 Leonardo da Vinci : “˜¥²–×–§±˜ª—“˜¥­Š˜²š¥Ž¦v­‚²¢ŽŽÛ y.. 1510 ŸªŽº¾§–¦ŽŽµ–Ø
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•§“Œª¹188 Raffaello Santi : –§‰¢ŽŽ§²š¥Žvv˜¥}© y.. 1507 ŸªŽº¾§–¦ŽŽµ–Ø107 x 77€–. Galleria degli
Uffizi, Florence
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“¦š©©¹|, 2552), 90.
•§“Œª¹189 Albrecht Dürer : µŠ˜Ÿ˜ˆ¥ y.. 1511 Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
Œª¹–§: v™žˆ§ |žÛ¢­±ŒŽ, ±‘—yœ§–š¦Œª¹µ–ך¦w¢|“˜ ¦Ÿš¦‰§œ©Žª” (v˜­|±Œ“¤ : ˜©ž¦Œ¢–˜©ŽŒ˜Û“˜©ºŽŠ©º|²¢Ž‰Û
“¦š©©¹|, 2552), 90.
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Œª¹–§: Bonnie A. Bennett and David G. Wilkins, Donatello (Oxford : Phaidon, 1984), 171.
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•§“Œª¹192 Michelangelo : Bruges Madonna˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1501 – 1504 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 128 €–.
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Œª¹–§ : Achim Gnann, Michelangelo The Drawing of Genius (Vienna : Albertina, 2010), 169.
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Œª¹–§:v™žˆ§ |žÛ¢­±ŒŽ, “Michelangelo Buonarroti ²š¥¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Žw¢|Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§ Julius II”, ´Ž³y–
²v؜² ×|yœ§–Ÿ­v´Ÿ , Ž©Œ˜˜v§˜©šv˜˜–¢§}§˜—Ûyˆ¥}©Š˜v˜˜–˜¥Š©–§v˜˜– ²š¥•§““©–“Û– §œ©Œ—§š¦—
©š§v˜y˜¦º|Œª¹26, 2552 (v˜­|±Œ“¤: ˜©ž¦Œ ¢–˜©ŽŒ˜Û “˜©ºŽŠ©º|²¢Ž‰Û“¦š©©¹|}¾§v¦‰(– §Ž), 2552), 94.
v§˜ŒªŸ¹ Ž¦ Š¥§§Julius II Œ˜|–¢ –§—´ Ø Michelangelo ±wª—Ž•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž
±Ï—v˜¥‰¦±“‰§Žœ© §˜ Sistine ³‰—Œ˜|w®×œ×§ §v±w§µ–׌¾§|§ŽŽªº“˜¥¢|yÛ}¥Œ˜|—v±š©vŸ¦‚‚§
v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Žw¢|“˜¥¢|yێ¢v}§v}¥Œ¾§´ Øv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§ŽŽªº‹®v±š¬¹¢Ž¢¢vµ
²šØœ—¦|Ÿ˜Ø§|yœ§–w–w¬¹Ž´}²š¥y¦²y؎´}´ Øv¦©šÎŽ Ž­×–‘®ØŽªº¢—ק|²ŸŽŸ§ ¦Ÿ±“˜§¥±w§ŠØ¢|}¾§´}
±wª—Ž•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–Œª¹±w§µ–׋Ž¦‰²š¥µ–׊˜|v¦Ÿ§w§v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§Žw¢|±w§²Š×v§˜±wª—Ž•§“
}©Š˜v˜˜–Žªºv¸vš¦vš§—±ßŽ³¢v§ŸŸ¾§y¦‚Œª¹Œ¾§´ Ø MichelangeloŸ§–§˜‹“¦‡Ž§²ŽœŒ§|v§˜
Ÿ˜Ø§|Ÿ˜˜yÛ|§Žw¢|ŠŽ±¢|±“˜§¥v˜¥œŽv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|Ÿ˜˜yÛ|§Ž}©Š˜v˜˜–€«¹|±ßŽ•§“2 –©Š©´رœš§
ŽØ¢—²š¥´ ؑšŸ¦–™Œ©½Œª¹˜œ‰±˜¸œvœ×§v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–€«¹|±ßŽ3 –©Š©‰Øœ—± Š­ŽªºŠš¢‰
201
˜¥—¥±œš§vœ×§4 ÏŒª¹©šÎŽ‘®ØŽªºµ‰ØŒ­×–±ŒŒ¦º|²˜|v§—²š¥²˜|´}´ Øv¦v§˜±wª—Ž•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–˜¥‰¦
œ© §˜ Sistine}«|Œ¾§´ رw§Ÿ§–§˜‹“¦‡Ž§²ŽœŒ§|v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|Ÿ˜˜yÛ|§Ž©š¥w¢|ŠŽ±¢|}§v
²ŽœŒ§|Œª¹´všØ±yª—|v¦©š¥yš§ŸŸ©vµŸ®×˜®² MannerismŒª¹yšØ§—yš«|v¦²ŽœŒ§|v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|
|§Ž²±£±šŽ©ŸŠ©vw¢|v˜ªv
´ŽŠ¢Ž²˜vŸ¦ŽŠ¥§§ Julius II Œ˜|–ª“˜¥˜¥Ÿ|yÛ´ Ø Michelangelo ±wª—Ž•§“
}©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—v˜¥‰¦±“‰§Žœ© §˜ Sistine ±ßŽ•§“¢¦y˜Ÿ§œv( Apostles) 12 ¢|yÛ²Š×©šÎŽ
Ž­×–y©‰œ×§v§˜Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢•§“±˜¬¹¢|±š×§}§v“˜¥y˜©ŸŠÛ•§y“¦ŽŸ¦‚‚§±vק–ªyœ§–± –§¥Ÿ––§vvœ×§
²š¥±w§v¸Ÿ§–§˜‹³ŽØ–ŽØ§œ´ Ø¢|y۟¦ŽŠ¥§§—¢–˜¦²Žœy©‰Žªºw¢|±w§µ‰Ø Michelangelo ²×|“¬ºŽŒª¹
±“‰§Ž³yØ|w¢|œ© §˜¢¢v±ßŽ9 ×¢|³‰—±wª—Ž•§“±šª—Ž²³y˜|Ÿ˜Ø§|±“‰§Ž³yØ|²¢­³–|yیª¹–ª
œ|³yØ|˜¦Žº¾§ Ž¦všØ¢v¦³y˜|Ÿ˜Ø§|w¢|Ÿ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜–}˜©|(•§“Œª¹ 123 ²š¥) ´Ž²Š×š¥×¢|Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢
±˜¬¹¢|˜§œ}§v“˜¥y˜©ŸŠÛ˜˜–y¦–•ª˜Û•§y“¦ŽŸ¦‚‚§±vקŠ¦º|²Š×Š¢Ž“˜¥±}اŸ˜Ø§|³švµ}Ž‹«|v§˜
±–§–§—w¢|³Ž¢§ Û Ž¢v}§vŽªº—¦|˜§vƒ•§“± š×§‘®Ø±‘—œ}Ž¥( Prophet) ²š¥±Œ“©‰§“—§v˜ˆÛ
(Sibyl)Ž¦¹|¢—®×Ž¦šš¦|vۘ¥ œ×§|“¬ºŽŒª¹Ÿ§–± šª¹—–—¢‰² š–Ž³yØ| š¦|y§( Hip cap) ¢ªv‰Øœ—
(•§“Œª¹ 197 ²š¥198) ´Ž“¬ºŽŒª¹˜®y˜«¹|œ|vš–Ž×¢| ŽØ§Š×§|( Lunette) (•§“Œª¹ 199) ²š¥
Ÿ§–± šª—¹ –—¢‰² š–Ž³yØ| š¦|y§( Hip cap) ²Ÿ‰|±˜¬¹¢|˜§œ±vª¹—œv¦˜˜“­˜­žw¢|“˜¥±—€®
y˜©ŸŠÛ(•§“Œª¹ 200) Ÿ×œŽ“¬ºŽŒª¹Ÿ§–± šª¹—–Œª¹¢—®×Š˜|–­–w¢|±“‰§Ž³yØ|Œ¦º|4 –­–w¢|œ© §˜
(Pendentive) ±ßŽ•§“±˜¬¹¢|±š×§±vª¹—œv¦œª˜v˜˜–w¢|œª˜­˜­ž²š¥œª˜ŸŠ˜ª}§v“˜¥y˜©ŸŠÛ˜˜–y¦–•ª˜Û
•§y“¦ŽŸ¦‚‚§±vק(•§“Œª¹ 201) •§“}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Žœ© §˜Œª¹˜¥v¢µ‰Øœ—yŽ}¾§ŽœŽ
–§v–§—Žªºµ–×±“ª—|²Š×²Ÿ‰|´ ر ¸Žyœ§–—©¹|´ ‚×¢š¦|v§˜w¢|v§˜}¦‰œ§|¢|yې˜¥v¢•§“±Œ×§Ž¦ºŽ
²Š×—¦|²Ÿ‰|´ ر ¸Ž¢¦}~˜©—•§“w¢| MichelangeloŒª¹Ÿ§–§˜‹}¦‰²×|“¬ºŽŒª¹w¢|±“‰§Ž³yØ|Œª¹–ªwŽ§‰
´ ‚׋«|±v¬¢500 Š§˜§|±–Š˜µ‰ØŸš¦€¦€Ø¢Ž¢—ק|—¢‰±—ª¹—–¢ªv‰Øœ—µ–×±“ª—|±Œ×§Ž¦ºŽ
Michelangelo—¦|±wª—Ž•§“±šª—Ž²˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ÿš¦v ©Ž¢×¢Ž(•§“Œª¹ 202) ²š¥˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–
Ž®Ž š×¢‰Øœ—Ÿ¾§˜©‰´Ž˜®Œ˜|vš–¢ªv‰Øœ—(•§“Œª¹ 203) v§˜Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢±׎ŽªºŸ¥ŒØ¢Ž´ ر ¸Ž‹«|²Žœy©‰
w¢|©š¥—­yvš§|€«¹|}©Š˜v˜˜–˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–²š¥Ÿ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜–‹®v š¢–˜œ–±ßŽ¢¦Ž Ž«¹|¢¦Ž
±‰ª—œv¦Ž‰¦|y¾§vš×§œŒª¹œ×§Ÿ‹§ÝŠ—v˜˜–±˜ª—±Ÿ–¬¢Ž–§˜‰§w¢|©š¥Œ­vŸ§w§
202
•§“Œª¹197 ‘®±Ø ‘—œ}Ž¥Daniel˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Gabriele Bartz and Eberhard König, Michelangelo Bournarroti, (Cologne : Konemann, 1998),
47.
•§“Œª¹198 ±Œ“©‰§“—§v˜ˆÛPersian ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Frank Zöllner and Chrifstof Thoenes, Michelangelo 1475-1564 Life and Works, (Koln :
Taschen, 2010), 165.
203
•§“Œª¹199 “¬ºŽŒª¹˜®y˜«¹|œ|vš–Ž×¢| ŽØ§Š×§|(Lunette) ²Ÿ‰|±˜¬¹¢|˜§œ±vª¹—œv¦˜˜“­˜­žw¢|“˜¥±—€®y˜©ŸŠÛ
˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Frank Zöllner and Chrifstof Thoenes, Michelangelo 1475-1564 Life and Works, (Koln :
Taschen, 2010), 189.
•§“Œª¹200 Ÿ§–± šª¹—–—¢‰² š–Ž³yØ| š¦|y§(Hip cap) ²Ÿ‰|±˜¬¹¢|˜§œ±vª¹—œv¦˜˜“­˜­žw¢|“˜¥±—€®
y˜©ŸŠÛ(Josias ²š¥©‰§–§˜‰§) ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Gabriele Bartz and Eberhard König, Michelangelo Bournarroti, (Cologne : Konemann, 1998),
41.
204
•§“Œª¹201 Ÿ×œŽ“¬ºŽŒª¹Ÿ§–± šª¹—–Œª¹¢—®×Š˜|–­–w¢|±“‰§Ž³yØ|–­–w¢|œ© §˜(Pendentive) •§“±˜¬¹¢|±š×§±vª¹—œv¦
§„© §˜©—²Û ×|v§˜˜¢‰w¢|—©Ÿ˜§±¢š“The Brazen Serpent” }§v“˜¥y˜©ŸŠÛ˜˜–y¦–•ª˜Û•§y“¦ŽŸ¦‚‚§±vק˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Gabriele Bartz and Eberhard König, Michelangelo Bournarroti, (Cologne : Konemann, 1998),
41.
•§“Œª¹202 •§“±šª—Ž²˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ÿš¦v ©Ž¢×¢Ž˜®Putti ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜
Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Frank Zöllner and Chrifstof Thoenes, Michelangelo 1475-1564 Life and Works, (Koln :
Taschen, 2010), 157.
205
•§“Œª¹203 •§“±wª—Ž±šª—Ž²˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ž®Ž š×¢‰Øœ—Ÿ¾§˜©‰´Ž˜®Œ˜|vš–˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž
±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Frank Zöllner and Chrifstof Thoenes, Michelangelo 1475-1564 Life and Works, (Koln :
Taschen, 2010), 101.
´Ž™‰®´µ–Ø‘š©w¢|Ïy.. 1508 Michelangelo±˜©¹–±wª—Ž•§“}§v±“‰§Žœ© §˜}§v‰Ø§Ž
Œ©Š¥œ¦ŽŠvµ—¦|Œ©Š¥œ¦Ž¢¢v€«¹|±ßŽv§˜±wª—Ž•§“±˜ª—|š¾§‰¦± Š­v§˜ˆÛ—Ø¢Ž š¦|y¬¢±˜©¹–}§v
•§“Ÿ­‰ŒØ§—µ—¦|•§“²˜v(•§“Œª¹ 204) “¬ºŽŒª¹Ž³yØ|±“‰§ŽŒª¹¢—®×Š˜|vš§|‹®v²×|¢¢v±ßŽ9 ×¢|
²Š×“¬ºŽŒª¹•§“´Ž²Š×š¥×¢|}¥–ªwŽ§‰´ ‚×±š¸vŸš¦v¦Žµ³‰—–ª˜®§— Ž­×–±š¬¢—( Inudi) Ž¦|¹ ´Ž
Œ×§Œ§|Š×§|·Ž ¦œ±Ÿ§Š˜|–­–Œ¦|º 4 w¢|•§“± –¬¢Žv¦Œ¾§ ŽØ§Œª±¹ ßŽv˜¢•§“(•§“Œª¹ 205) v§˜
±wª—Ž•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–w¢| Michelangelo²×|¢¢v±ßŽ3 ˜¥—¥˜¥—¥²˜v±wª—Ž±˜¬¹¢|˜§œ±vª¹—œv¦³Ž
¢§ ۀ«¹|˜¥v¢‰Øœ—•§“±š×§±˜¬¹¢|3 Š¢Žy¬¢v§˜±–§–§—µ–×µ‰ØŸŠ©w¢|³Ž¢§ Û (•§“Œª¹ 206) œ¦ŽŽº¾§
Œ×œ–³šv(•§“Œª¹ 207) ²š¥v§˜‹œ§—±y˜¬¢¹ |Ÿ¦|±œ—w¢|³Ž¢§ Û (•§“Œª¹ 208) ˜¥—¥Œª¹Ÿ¢|–ªŒ¦º| –‰
3 •§“y¬¢v§˜Œ¾§‘©‰vƒŸœ˜˜yÛ²š¥v§˜‹®vw¦µš×¢¢v}§vŸœŽ¢ª±‰Ž(•§“Œª¹ 209)v¾§±Ž©‰¢ª”(•§“
Œª¹210) ²š¥ v¾§±Ž©‰¢‰¦– (•§“Œª¹ 211) ˜¥—¥Œª¹Ÿ§–˜¥v¢µ‰Øœ—3 •§“Ÿ­‰ŒØ§—y¬¢ “˜¥±}ا
Œ˜|²—v²‘׎Žº¾§¢¢v}§v²‘׎‰©Ž (•§“Œª¹ 212) “˜¥±}اŒ˜|Ÿ˜Ø§|“˜¥¢§Œ©Š—Û“˜¥}¦ŽŒ˜Û²š¥“¬
“¦Ž­ÛŽ§Ž§Ž©‰(•§“Œª¹ 213) ²š¥“˜¥±}اŒ˜|²—vyœ§–Ÿœ×§|¢¢v}§vyœ§––¬‰(•§“Œª¹ 214)
206
.
•§“Œª¹204 Michelangelo : }©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Žœ© §˜Sistine ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1508-1512 }©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—v
40.23 x 13.3 –. œ© §˜Sistine, Rome
Œª¹–§ : Frank Zöllner and Chrifstof Thoenes, Michelangelo 1475-1564 Life and Works, (Koln :
Taschen, 2010), 40-41.
207
•§“Œª¹205 §— Ž­–× ±š¬¢—(Inudi) Ž¦¹|´ŽŒ×§Œ§|Š×§|·Ž ¦œ±Ÿ§Š˜|–­–Œ¦º|4 w¢|•§“˜§œv¦Œ¾§ ŽØ§Œª¹±ßŽ
v˜¢•§“
Œª¹–§: Dividing_water_from_Heaven [Online], accessed 28 April 2011. Available from http://www.
wikipedia.org
•§“Œª¹206 v§˜±–§–§—µ–×µ‰ØŸŠ©w¢|³Ž¢§ ۘ¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1508-1509 280 x 570 €–.˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v
}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
208
•§“Œª¹207 œ¦ŽŽº¾§Œ×œ–³šv }©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—v˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1508-1509 280 x 570 €–.˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v
}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
•§“Œª¹208v§˜‹œ§—±y˜¬¢¹ |Ÿ¦|±œ—w¢|³Ž¢§ Û ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1508-1509 280 x 570 ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v
}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
209
•§“Œª¹209 v§˜Œ¾§‘©‰vƒŸœ˜˜yÛ²š¥v§˜‹®vw¦µš×¢¢v}§vŸœŽ¢ª±‰Ž˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1509-1510 280 x 570 €–.
˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
•§“Œª¹210v¾§±Ž©‰¢ª” ˜§œÏy.. 1509-1510 170 x 260 €–. ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜
Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
210
•§“Œª¹211v¾§±Ž©‰¢‰¦–˜§œÏy.. 1510 280 x 570 €–. ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜
Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
•§“Œª¹212 “˜¥±}اŒ˜|²—v²‘׎Žº§¾ ¢¢v}§v²‘׎‰©Ž˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
211
•§“Œª¹213 “˜¥±}اŒ˜|Ÿ˜Ø§|“˜¥¢§Œ©Š—Û“˜¥}¦ŽŒ˜Û²š¥“¬“¦Ž­ÛŽ§Ž§Ž©‰y.. 1511 180 x 260 €–.
˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
•§“Œª¹214 “˜¥±}اŒ˜|²—vyœ§–Ÿœ×§|¢¢v}§vyœ§––¬‰}©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—vy.. 1511 180 x 260 €–.
˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Gabriele Bartz and Eberhard König, Michelangelo Bournarroti, (Cologne : Konemann, 1998),
55.
212
±–¬¹¢œ¦ŽŒª¹15 Ÿ©| §y–y.. 1511 š¦|}§vŒª¹ Michelangelo±wª—Ž•§“Ÿ×œŽ²˜v±Ÿ˜¸}
µ‰Ø–ªv§˜˜¬º¢Ž¦¹|˜Ø§Ž´Ž˜©±œˆŽªº¢¢vŠ§–“˜¥¦‚§w¢|Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§ Julius II Œ¾§´ Ø Michelangelo
µ‰Ø–ª³¢v§Ÿ–¢|± ¸Ž•§“Œª¹±w§±wª—ŽŽ±“‰§ŽŒª¹–ªyœ§–Ÿ®|‹«|21 ±–Š˜}§v“¬ºŽ‰Ø§Žš×§|±ßŽy˜¦º|²˜v
Œ¾§´ رw§–¢|± ¸Žyœ§–‘©‰“š§‰´Ž•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–w¢|ŠŽ±¢|Ž¦¹Žy¬¢˜®–Ž­ž—ÛŒª¹˜§vƒŽ“¬ºŽŒª¹
•§“–ªwŽ§‰±š¸v–§v±v©Žµ‰Øœ—± Š­Žªº´Ž˜¥—¥Š×¢–§±w§}«|²vصwwØ¢‘©‰“š§‰Žªº³‰—±wª—Ž˜®–Ž­ž—Û
´ ؖªwŽ§‰´ ‚×–§vw«ºŽvœ×§±‰©–¢—ק|± ¸Žµ‰Ø¦‰±“¬¹¢Œ¾§´ ؑ®Ø–Œª¹—¬Ž¢—®×‰Ø§Žš×§|œ© §˜Ÿ§–§˜‹–¢|± ¸Ž
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±–¬¹¢±˜ª—±Œª—•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–˜¥‰¦±“‰§Žœ© §˜ Sistine Œª¹Michelangelo±wª—Ž´Ž
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y¬¢Œ×§Œ§|v§˜±yš¬¹¢Žµ œw¢| ±Œ“©‰§“—§v˜ˆÛ Delphi (•§“Œª¹ 217) €«¹|±wª—Žw«ºŽ˜§œÏy..
1509 ±–¬¹¢±˜ª—±Œª—v¦w¢|±Œ“©‰§“—§v˜ˆÛ Libyan (•§“Œª¹ 218) Œª¹±wª—Žw«ºŽ˜§œÏy.. 1511
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Œ×§Œ§|v§˜±yš¬¢¹ Žµ œw¢|±Œ“©‰§“—§v˜ˆÛ Libyan ²Ÿ‰|´ ر ¸Ž“š¦|² ×|yœ§–±yš¬¢¹ Žµ œŒª¹
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µ‰Ø§Ž š¦|±“¬¹¢—v“˜¥y¦–•ª˜Û±š×–´ ‚ײš¥ Ž§ Ž¦vw«ºŽ}Ž±‘—´ ر ¸Ž–œšvšØ§–±Ž¬º¢¢¦Ž|‰|§–w¢|
˜×§|v§—–Ž­ž—Û¢—ק|¦‰±}Žv§˜±yš¬¹¢Žµ œ¢¦ŽŒ˜|“š¦|´Žš¦vžˆ¥Žªº—¦|˜§v„´ ر ¸Ž¢—ק|¦‰±}Ž´Ž
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(•§“Œª¹ 219-220)
213
•§“Œª¹215 ‘®±Ø ‘—œ}Ž¥Zechariah˜§œÏy.. 1509 ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
•§“Œª¹216 ‘®±Ø ‘—œ}Ž¥Jonah ˜§œÏy.. 1511 ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
214
•§“Œª¹217 ±Œ“©‰§“—§v˜ˆÛDelphi ˜§œÏy.. 1509 ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
•§“Œª¹218 ±Œ“©‰§“—§v˜ˆÛLibyan ˜§œÏy.. 1511 ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
215
•§“Œª¹219 •§“§— Ž­–× ±š¬¢—˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
•§“Œª¹220 •§“§— Ž­–× ±š¬¢— ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
216
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˜×§|¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Žw¢| Julius II²š¥}©Š˜v˜˜–˜¥‰¦±“‰§Žœ© §˜ Sistine³‰—Ž¾§±ŸŽ¢•§“
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cap) (•§“Œª¹ 221 ²š¥222) y¬¢•§“Ÿ¥ŒØ¢Žw¢|˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–Ž®ŽŸš¦v ©Ž¢×¢Ž˜® Madonna
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•§“œ¦ŽŽº§¾ Œ×œ–³švŽ±“‰§Žœ© §˜ Sistine (•§“Œª¹ 207) v¸–ªvš©¹Ž¢§—w¢|•§“ Cartoon Ÿ–˜•®–©
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•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—v˜¥‰¦±“‰§Žœ© §˜
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œ©‹ªŒ§|² ×|v§˜Ÿ˜Ø§|Ÿ˜˜yÛ|§Ž©š¥Œª¹‘קŽ–§w¢| Michelangelo²šØœ±Œ×§Ž¦ºŽ²Š×—¦|±‘—´ ر ¸Ž
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4 ÏŒª¹ MichelangeloŒ­×–±Œ´Žv§˜±wª—Ž•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–Žªº¢—ק|y˜¹¾§±y˜×|³‰—Ž¾§±¢§²Žœy©‰}§v
³y˜|v§˜¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Žw¢| Julius II –§“¦‡Ž§Š×¢—¢‰}ŽŸ×|‘š´ زŽœŒ§|´Žv§˜Ÿ˜Ø§||§Ž
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217
•§“Œª¹221 Ÿ§–± šª¹—–—¢‰² š–Ž³yØ| š¦|y§(Hip cap) ²Ÿ‰|±˜¬¹¢|˜§œ±vª¹—œv¦˜˜“­˜­žw¢|“˜¥±—€®
y˜©ŸŠÛ(Ozias) ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
•§“Œª¹222 Ÿ§–± šª¹—–—¢‰² š–Ž³yØ| š¦|y§(Hip cap) ²Ÿ‰|±˜¬¹¢|˜§œ±vª¹—œv¦˜˜“­˜­žw¢|“˜¥±—€®
y˜©ŸŠÛ(Salmon) ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJ gVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
218
•§“Œª¹223 Apollonius : Torso of Belvedere ˜§œÏ 50 Ïv×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®|224 €–.Museo
Pio-Clementino, Rome
Œª¹–§ : Gabriele Bartz and Eberhard König, Michelangelo Bournarroti, (Cologne : Konemann, 1998),
34.
219
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²š¥³y˜|v§˜±wª—Ž•§“}©Š˜v˜˜–˜¥‰¦±“‰§Žœ© §˜ Sistine²šØœ Michelangelo¢§}ŠØ¢|´Ø
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Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
•§“Œª¹228 ‘®±Ø ‘—œ}Ž¥Isaiah˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰}§v}©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Ž– §œ© §˜Sistine
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
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Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
•§“Œª¹230 ³‹|˜¥±ª—|Koré (Caryatide) œ© §˜Erechteum ŽAcropolis ² ×|v˜­|±¢±ŽŸÛ
Œª¹–§ : Henri Stierlin, *ULHFKHQODQGg9RQ0\NHQH]XP3DUWKHRQ (Köln, n. p., 1997), 210.
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•§“Œª¹231 Michelangelo: }©Š˜v˜˜–Ž±“‰§Žœ© §˜Sistine ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1508-1512 }©Š˜v˜˜–®Ž±Ï—v
40.23 x 13.3 –. œ© §˜Sistine, Rome
Œª¹–§ : Frank Zöllner and Chrifstof Thoenes, Michelangelo 1475-1564 Life and Works, (Koln :
Taschen, 2010), 74.
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Lorenzo ²š¥Giuliano €«¹|Ž¦¹|¢—®×´Ž€­Ø–‰Ø§ŽŽœ§|¢—®×´ŽŠ¾§² Ž×|—¢‰w¢|˜®Ÿ§–± šª¹—–Ÿ×œŽ
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š¦vžˆ¥´ Ø ¦Ž š¦|±¢Ž±wا §v¦ŽyšØ§—˜®Ÿ§–± šª¹—–Œª¹šØ¢v¦˜®Ÿ§–± šª¹—–w¢|³y˜|Ÿ˜Ø§| š¦v¢ªv
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232
•§“Œª¹232 •§—´Ž¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Ž² ×|Š˜¥v®šMedici ‘Ž¦|‰Ø§Ž²Œ×Ž®§
Œª¹–§ : Frank Zöllner and Chrifstof Thoenes, Michelangelo 1475-1564 Life and Works, (Koln :
Taschen, 2010), 204.
233
•§“Œª¹233 •§—´Ž¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Ž² ×|Š˜¥v®šMedici
Œª¹–§ : Frank Zöllner and Chrifstof Thoenes, Michelangelo 1475-1564 Life and Works, (Koln :
Taschen, 2010), 225.
•§“Œª¹234 •§—´Ž¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Ž² ×|Š˜¥v®šMedici
Œª¹–§ : Frank Zöllner and Chrifstof Thoenes, Michelangelo 1475-1564 Life and Works, (Koln :
Taschen, 2010), 224.
234
•§“Œª¹235 Michelangelo : Ÿ­Ÿ§ŽLorenzo de Medici˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 152 – 1531 ©Ž¢×¢Ž630 x 420€–.
œ© §˜San Lorenzo, Florence
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
•§“Œª¹236 Michelangelo : Ÿ­Ÿ§ŽGiuliano de Medici˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1525 – 1534 ©Ž¢×¢Ž630 x 420€–.
œ© §˜San Lorenzo, Florence
Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
2004), n. pag.
235
•§“Œª¹237 ³v…´Ÿ×±‹Ø§v˜¥‰®vw¢|Larthia Seianti }§v±–¬¢|Chiusi ˜¥–§ˆŠØŽŠœ˜˜žŒª¹2 v×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š
Terracotta ˜¥§—Ÿª
Œª¹–§: Gérard Du Ry Van Beesttolle , ed., Kunstgeschichte (Baden-Baden : Bd. I, 1981), 235.
•§“Œª¹238 ³v…´Ÿ×±‹Ø§v˜¥‰®vw¢|Ÿ§–ª•˜˜—§y®× Ž«¹|}§v±–¬¢|Cerveteri ˜¥–§ˆ520 Ïv×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š
Terracotta ˜¥§—Ÿª
Œª¹–§: H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson, History of Art, 5th Edition Revised (New York : Prentice
Hall, 1997), 225.
236
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239
•§“Œª¹239 ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®˜§Š˜ª
Œª¹–§ : Frank Zöllner and Chrifstof Thoenes, Michelangelo 1475-1564 Life and Works, (Koln :
Taschen, 2010),
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Œª¹–§ : Joachim Poeschke, Michelangelo and His World (New York : Harry N. Abrams, 1996), n. pag.
240
•§“Œª¹241 ˜§—š¥±¢ª—‰˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–˜®˜§Š˜ª
Œª¹–§ : Joachim Poeschke, Michelangelo and His World (New York : Harry N. Abrams, 1996), n. pag.
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Œª¹–§ : Joachim Poeschke, Michelangelo and His World (New York : Harry N. Abrams, 1996), n. pag.
241
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2004), n. pag.
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Œª¹–§ : Joachim Poeschke, Michelangelo and His World (New York : Harry N. Abrams, 1996), n. pag.
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Œª¹–§ : Joachim Poeschke, Michelangelo and His World (New York : Harry N. Abrams, 1996), n. pag.
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•§“Œª¹254 Michelangelo : Pietá Santa Maria del Fiore ˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1548-1555 ©Ž¢×¢ŽŸ®| 226 €–.
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Œª¹–§ : Ludwig Goldscheider, 0LFKHODQJHORgSDLQWLQJgVFXOSWXUHgDUFKLWHFWXUH (London : Phaidon,
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1
Quattrocento y¬¢©š¥¢©Š§±šª—Ž´Ž˜¥ œ×§|Ïy.. 1400 – 1499 ©šÎŽŒª¹–ª
¬¹¢±Ÿª—|´ŽŸ–¦—Žªºµ‰Ø²v× Filippo Brunelleschi, Donatello, Andrea del Verrochio, Filippo
Lippi, Fra Angelico
2
}§v“˜¥y˜©ŸŠ˜˜–y¦–•ª˜Û•§y“¦ŽŸ¦‚‚§±‰©–´Ž€§–®±¢š~¦Œª¹1 ŒŒª¹ 17 Œ
vš¢ŽŒª¹45 – 47 ¢Ø§|}§vv™žˆ§‰˜­ˆ‹Ž¢– . “‰§œ©‰ .” }­šŸ§˜ ¢©šÖ– §œ©Œ—§š¦—©š§v˜ , 2
~¦“©±ž(“™ž•§y–2535 - “™ž•§y–2537) : 15 – 16.
3
Rolf Toman, (ed.), Gothic · Architecture · Sculpture · Painting (China :
Tandem Verlag GmbH, 2007), 352 – 353.
4
‰®Œª¹˜¥—®˜¢­š­§ƒ¥ [Ž.ˆ§vŽº¾§ ], ¦Žµ‰±wا‹«|©š¥ (v˜­|±Œ“¤ : ˜©ž¦ŒŠØŽ¢Ø¢
²v˜––ª¹}¾§v¦‰, 2540), 123.
5
v™žˆ§ |žÛ¢±­ ŒŽ, ±‘—yœ§–š¦Œª¹µ–ך¦w¢| “˜ ¦Ÿš¦‰§œ©Žª ”, (v˜­|±Œ“¤: ˜©ž¦Œ
¢–˜©ŽŒ˜Û“˜©ºŽŠ©º|²¢Ž‰Û“¦š©©¹|}¾§v¦‰(– §Ž), 2552), 86.
6
±˜¬¹¢|˜§œw¢|Ÿ§œ¢±–€¢Ž˜§v„´Ž±˜¬¹¢|“Ÿ|y˜§–² ×|v˜­|Œ˜¢— ”Ÿ§œ¢±–€¢Ž±ßŽ
Ž¦v˜ ‚©|‘®ØvšØ§ §‚² ×| Cappadocia ´Ž±¢±ª—ŽØ¢—±š×§v¦Žœ×§“œv±¢´ؑ®Ø§—±“¬¹¢v§˜‰¾§˜|
±‘ק“¦Ž­Ûw¢|ŠŽ±Œ×§Ž¦ºŽ´ŽŸ–¦—w¢|˜§©Žª Penthesileia ± š×§Ž¦v˜Ÿ§œ¢±–€¢Žµ‰Øל—§œŒ˜¢—
˜v¦§œv˜ªv¢Ø§|}§v. – §w¦ŽÛ, ´y˜±ßŽ´y˜´Ž±ŒœŽ©—§—v˜ªv-³˜–¦Ž (v˜­|±Œ“¤ :³¢. ±¢Ÿ.
“˜©ºŽŠ©º|±£§ŸÛ, 2541), 47.
7
Niobe y¬¢˜§©Žª² ×|v˜­|ŒªŸÛ“˜¥Ÿœ§–ªy¬¢˜§§²¢–“©¢¢ŽNiobe–ªªœ©Š¢—®×¢—ק|
–ªyœ§–Ÿ­w–§vyœ§–Ÿ­w± Ž¬¢Ÿ©¹|¢¬¹Ž´‰y¬¢“˜¥Ž§|µ‰Ø´ Øv¾§±Ž©‰±}ا§—±}¸‰¢|yÛ²š¥±}ا ‚©|±}¸‰
¢|yی­v“˜¥¢|yۚ؜Ž²Š×–ª“˜¥Ÿ©˜©³~–|‰|§–œ¦Ž Ž«¹| Niobe± ¸Ž˜˜‰§§œ±–¬¢|v¾§š¦|“§v¦ŽŒ¾§
“©ª®§±Œ“ªšª³Šv¦˜§³¢˜Ÿ²š¥˜§©‰§y¬¢±Œ“¢¥“¢š³š²š¥±Œ“ª¢§˜Û±Œ–©Ÿ“˜¥Ž§|}«|µ–ד¢´}
–§v€«¹|“˜¥Ž§|µ–×±“ª—|²Š×œ×§vš×§œ“œv§œ±–¬¢|Œª¹–§®§±Œ“±Œ×§Ž¦ºŽ²Š×—¦|—vŠŽw«ºŽ± Ž¬¢±Œ“¢ªv
‰Øœ—³‰—vš×§œœ×§ŠŽ±¢|–ªŸ–¦Š©–§vvœ×§±Œ“ªŒ­v¢|yÛ²š¥—¦|–ªšv® –§vvœ×§±Œ“ª±šŠ³ŠŒª¹–ª±“ª—|
±Œ“¢¥“¢š³š²š¥±Œ“ª¢§˜Û±Œ–©Ÿ±Œ×§Ž¦ºŽ±–¬¹¢±Œ“ª±šŠ³ŠŒ˜§±˜¬¹¢|v¸Œ˜|³v˜–§v}«|¦‚§´ ؚ®v·
µ}¦‰v§˜š|³ŒžNiobe´ ؟§Ÿ–±Œ“¢¥“¢š³š²‘š|˜{ק“˜¥³¢˜ŸŒ¦|º ±}¸‰Ÿ×œŽ±Œ“ª¢§˜Û±Œ–©Ÿ{ק
“˜¥˜§©‰§Œ¦º|±}¸‰w¢| Niobe€«¹|Ÿ˜Ø§|yœ§–±˜Ø§³v±Ÿª—´}´ زv× Niobe±ßŽ¢¦Ž–§v}Ž}–‰©¹|
¢—®×v¦yœ§–±˜Ø§³v“˜¥Ž§|Œ˜|˜¹¾§µ رŸª—´}}Ž˜×§|v§—vš§—±ßŽ ©Ž´ŽŒª¹Ÿ­‰¢Ø§|}§v‰§˜ˆª
±–¬¢|–§(±˜ª—±˜ª—|). ±Œ“Ž©—§—²š¥Š¾§Ž§Žv˜ªv³˜§ˆ, “©–“Ûy˜¦º|Œª¹2 (˜©ž¦ŒŸ¾§Ž¦v“©–“Ûwاœ”Ò§|
}¾§v¦‰: v˜­|±Œ“¤, 2546), 51-55.
8
¢“˜¥y˜©ŸŠ˜˜–˜¥±ŒµŒ—, “˜¥y˜©ŸŠ˜˜–y¦–•ª˜Û•§y“¦ŽŸ¦‚‚§±‰©–´Ž±¢¸v³€
³‰ŒŒª¹32 Œvš¢ŽŒª¹ 19 – 20 (v˜­|±Œ“¤: ¢“˜¥y˜©ŸŠ˜˜–˜¥±ŒµŒ—, 2512) 146.
265
9
Laocoön Ž¦vœ² ×|v˜­|Œ˜¢—€«¹|µ‰Ø“—§—§–¢v§œv˜­|Œ˜¢—´ ،¾§š§—–اµ–ØŒª¹
§œv˜ªvŒ©º|µœØ³‰—“—§—§–±Š¬¢Ž§œv˜­|Œ˜¢—œ×§Ž×§}¥±ßŽvš«vw¢|“œvv˜ªv‰Øœ—± Š­Žªº±Œ“±}ا
³“µ€‰¢Ž}«|Ÿ×||®—v¦ žÛ}§vŒ¥±š2 Š¦œ–§Ÿ¦| §˜ Laocoön ²š¥­Š˜§—Ÿ¢|yŽw¢|±w§}Žw§‰´}
Š§—¢Ø§|}§v“®šŸ­w±Š–©—§ŽŽŒÛ, ±Œ“±}اv˜ªv-³˜–¦Ž (v˜­|±Œ“¤: ³˜|“©–“Û– §}­¡§š|v˜ˆÛ˜§
œ©Œ—§š¦—, 2546), 110.
10
¢§˜—˜˜–Etruscan ‹¬¢v¾§±Ž©‰w«ºŽ˜§œy˜©ŸŠÛŠœ˜˜žŒª¹8 v×¢Žy˜©ŸŠv§š˜©±œˆ
‰©Ž²‰ŽŒª¹¢—®×˜¥ œ×§|²–׎º¾§ Arno ²š¥²–׎º¾§Tiber ˜¬¢˜¥ œ×§|Œ¥±š Tyrrhenian ²š¥±Œ¬¢v±w§
Apennies §œEtruscan–ªyœ§–Ÿ¦–“¦ŽÛv¦˜¥±Œv˜ªv‰©Ž²‰Ž´Ž²‹Œ¥±š±–‰©±Š¢˜Û±˜±Žª—Ž
²š¥¢§˜—˜˜–Villanova €«¹|±y—Š¦º|¢—®×Œ§|Œ©Š¥œ¦ŽŠvw¢|±–¬¢|³³š‚‚ק´ŽÝ}}­¦ŽŽvš­×–Žªº
µ‰ØŸ˜Ø§|yœ§–±}˜©‚´ Øv¦‰©Ž²‰Ž˜¢·±–¬¢|³³š‚‚קµ}Ž‹«|˜©±œˆŒ§|Š¢Žš×§|w¢|²–׎º¾§
Tiber ²š¥˜©±œˆŒª¹Š¦º|w¢|v˜­|³˜–´ŽÝ}}­¦ŽŽ¢v}§vŽªº§œ Etruscan—¦|–ªyœ§–Ÿ¦–“¦ŽÛv¦
‰©Ž²‰Ž´Ž²‹Š¥œ¦Ž¢¢v±׎±–³Ÿ³±Š±–ª—¢ª—©ŠÛ²š¥±¢±ª—ŽØ¢—¢ªv‰Øœ—‰®Œª¹v™žˆ§ |žÛ¢­
±ŒŽ, ©š¥yš§ŸŸ©v (¢–˜©ŽŒ˜Û“˜©ºŽŠ©º|²¢Ž‰Û“¦š©©¹|}¾§v¦‰(– §Ž), 2549), 68.
11
¢|yÛv§˜vª±‰ªº—ŽŸÛ¢©Ž±Š¢˜Û±Ž¦Ž²Žš² ×|˜¥±ŒµŒ—, “˜¥y˜©ŸŠ˜˜–´ –×´Ž–¦Œ©œ
ŒŒª¹ 9 Œvš¢ŽŒª¹ 9 (v˜­|±Œ“¤ : ¢|yÛv§˜vª±‰ªº—ŽŸÛ¢©Ž±Š¢˜Û±Ž¦Ž²Žš² ×|˜¥±ŒµŒ—, 2523),
33.
12
±˜ª—±Œª—Œª¹ ŽØ§15-16.
13
v™žˆ§ |žÛ¢±­ ŒŽ, “Michelangelo Buonarroti ²š¥¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Žw¢|Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§
Julius II”, ´Ž Ÿ®}©¦Š˜Ž©Œ˜˜v§˜³y–²v؜² ×|yœ§–Ÿ­v´Ÿ , Ž©Œ˜˜v§˜©šv˜˜–¢§}§˜—Ûyˆ¥
}©Š˜v˜˜–˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–²š¥•§““©–“Û– §œ©Œ—§š¦—©š§v˜y˜¦º|Œª¹26, 2552 (v˜­|±Œ“¤ : ˜©ž¦Œ
¢–˜©ŽŒ˜Û“˜©ºŽŠ©º|²¢Ž‰Û“¦š©©¹|}¾§v¦‰(– §Ž), 2552), 102-103.
14
‰®Œª¹±˜¬¹¢|±‰ª—œv¦Ž, ŽØ§±‰ª—œv¦Ž.
15
‰®Œª¹±˜¬¹¢|±‰ª—œv¦Ž, ŽØ§97.
16
‰®Œª¹±˜¬¹¢|±‰ª—œv¦Ž, ŽØ§103-104.
17
‰®Œª¹Laocoön and his son [online], accessed 29 January 2010. Available from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laoco%C3%B6n_and_His_Sons
18
Rolf Toman (ed.), The Art of the Italian Renaissance, (Oldenburg : Neue
Stalling, 1995), 257.
19
˜¥—®˜¢­š­§ƒ¥(Ž. ˆ§vŽº¾§), ¦Žµ‰±wا‹«|©š¥ , “©–“Ûy˜¦º|Œª¹2 (v˜­|±Œ“¤ :
2540), 119.
20
v™žˆ§ |žÛ¢±­ ŒŽ, Michelangelo Buonarroti ²š¥¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Žw¢|Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§
Julius II, 91.
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2535 - “™ž•§y–2537) : 15-19.
v™žˆ§ |žÛ¢±­ ŒŽ. ±‘—yœ§–š¦Œª¹µ–ך¦w¢|˜ ¦Ÿš¦‰§œ©Žª. v˜­|±Œ“¤: ¢–˜©ŽŒ˜Û“˜©ºŽŠ©º|²¢Ž‰Û“¦
š©©|¹ , 2552.
_______________. ©š¥yš§ŸŸ©v. v˜­|±Œ“¤: ¢–˜©ŽŒ˜Û“˜©ºŽŠ©º|²¢Ž‰Û“¦
š©©|¹ , 2552.
_______________. ©š¥y˜©Ÿ±Šª—Ž´ŽŒœª—­³˜. v˜­|±Œ“¤ : Ÿ—§–±“˜Ÿ²–±Ž}±–ØŽŒÛ}¾§v¦‰, 2548.
_______________. “Michelangelo Buonarroti ²š¥¢Ž­Ÿ˜ˆÛŸ‹§Žw¢|Ÿ¦ŽŠ¥§§Julius II”, ´Ž
³y–²v؜² ×|yœ§–Ÿ­v´Ÿ, Ž©Œ˜˜v§˜©šv˜˜–¢§}§˜—Ûyˆ¥}©Š˜v˜˜–˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–
²š¥•§““©–“Û– §œ©Œ—§š¦—©š§v˜y˜¦º|Œª¹26, 2552. v˜­|±Œ“¤: ˜©ž¦Œ ¢–˜©ŽŒ˜Û
“˜©ºŽŠ©º|²¢Ž‰Û“¦š©©¹|}¾§v¦‰(– §Ž), 2552.
yˆ¥¢¦vž˜§ŸŠ˜Û}­¡§š|v˜ˆÛ– §œ©Œ—§š¦— . ¢§˜—˜˜–Ÿ–¦—´ –×–Ý}}­¦Ž. “©–“Ûy˜¦º|Œª¹6. v˜­|±Œ“¤
: Ÿ¾§Ž¦v“©–“Û}­¡§š|v˜ˆÛ– §œ©Œ—§š¦—, 2538.
±}˜©‚ µ—Ž¥. ˜¥œ¦Š©§ŸŠ˜ÛŸ§všŸ–¦—vš§|. “˜¥Žy˜: yš¦|œ©Œ—§, 2508.
___________. ˜¥œ¦Š©§ŸŠ˜ÛŸ§všŸ–¦—´ –×. “˜¥Žy˜: yš¦|œ©Œ—§, 2508-2509
®Ÿ©˜© }§–˜–§Ž. —­³˜´Ž–¦—–Ÿ–¦—.v˜­|±Œ“¤: ˜¦vžÛŸ©Ö, 2528.
‰§˜ˆª±–¬¢|–§(±˜ª—±˜ª—|). ±Œ“Ž©—§—²š¥Š¾§Ž§Žv˜ªv³˜§ˆ. “©–“Ûy˜¦º|Œª¹2.˜©ž¦ŒŸ¾§Ž¦v“©–“Ûwاœ
”Ò§|}¾§v¦‰: v˜­|±Œ“¤, 2546.
Œ¢–ÖŸ¦Ž, ±}.±¢¸–. ˜¥œ¦Š©§ŸŠ˜Û—­³˜y.. 1494 - y..1789. ²š³‰—Ž¦ŽŒ§³Š©v¥“­vv¥ˆ¥
²š¥Ž©¢¢ŽŸŽ©Œœ|Ûˆ ¢—­—§.“˜¥Žy˜: Ÿ–§y–Ÿ¦|y–§ŸŠ˜Û² ×|˜¥±ŒµŒ—,
2512.
Œ¦vž©ˆ§ ŸœŽ§ŽŽŒÛ.œ©‚‚§ˆ©šÎŽ. “˜¥Žy˜: ³¢±‰ª—ŽŸ³Š˜Û, 2511.
Ž® ²v؜³¢•§Ÿ. ˜¥œ¦Š©§ŸŠ˜Û³šv: ³šv—­y³˜§ˆ—­yvš§| —­y—­³˜y˜¢| yœ§–±ßŽ´ ‚׳šv—­y
Ý}}­¦Ž(Šœ˜˜žŒª¹20). v˜­|±Œ“¤: Ÿ­w•§“´}, 2539.
Žº¾§±|©Ž ­‚±Ïà—–. —­³˜±˜©¹–ŠØŽ—­y´ –×. v˜­|±Œ“¤: – §œ©Œ—§š¦—˜§–y¾§² |, 2519.
. – §w¦ŽÛ. ´y˜±ßŽ´y˜´Ž±ŒœŽ©—§—v˜ªv-³˜–¦Ž.v˜­|±Œ“¤:³¢. ±¢Ÿ. “˜©ºŽŠ©º|±£§ŸÛ, 2541.
˜¥—®˜¢­š­§ƒ¥[Ž.ˆ§vŽº¾§]. ¦Žµ‰±wا‹«|©š¥.v˜­|±Œ“¤: ˜©ž¦ŒŠØŽ¢Ø¢²v˜––ª¹}¾§v¦‰, 2540.
“®šŸ­w±Š–©—§ŽŽŒÛ. ±Œ“±}اv˜ªv-³˜–¦Ž.v˜­|±Œ“¤: ³˜|“©–“Û– §}­¡§š|v˜ˆÛ˜§œ©Œ—§š¦—, 2546.
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274
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,2549.
²–yŽªššÛ, œ©š±šª—–±¢. ˜¥œ¦Š©§ŸŠ˜Û³šv. ²š³‰— Ÿ­}©Š˜§œ­‡©±Ÿ‹ª—˜...²š¥yŽ¢¬¹Ž·.v˜­|±Œ“¤:
³˜|“©–“Û– §œ©Œ—§š¦—˜˜–§ŸŠ˜Û , 2519.
œ©®š—ÛšªºŸ­œ˜˜ˆ. ªœ©Š²š¥‘š|§Žw¢|}©Š˜v˜²š¥˜¥Š©–§v˜Š¥œ¦ŽŠv. v˜­|±Œ“¤ : ˜©ž¦Œy¢–²“yŒÛ
“˜©Žº ŒÛ}¾§v¦‰, 2542.
©šÖ “ª˜¥˜ª. ˜¥œ¦Š©§ŸŠ˜Û©š²š¥²¢—ק|©š³‰—Ÿ¦|±w. ²š²š¥±˜ª—±˜ª—|³‰— ±wª—Ž—©º–©˜©.
v˜­|±Œ“¤: yˆ¥}©Š˜v˜˜–˜¥Š©–§v˜˜–²š¥•§““©–“Û – §œ©Œ—§š¦—©š§v˜, 2531.
Ÿ§y˜ ל—˜¥Ÿ©Œ©½. yœ§–Ÿ¾§y¦‚w¢|y˜©ŸŠÛŠœ˜˜žŒª¹ 15. v˜­|±Œ“¤: •§yœ©§˜¥œ¦Š©§ŸŠ˜Û
– §œ©Œ—§š¦—˜ªŽy˜©ŽŒ˜œ©³˜‡ ˜¥Ÿ§Ž–©Š˜, 2522.
²Ÿ|³Ÿ–±vž–˜ª. –×¢–˜§œ|Û. ˜¥œ¦Š©§ŸŠ˜ÛŸ§vš—­yÝ}}­¦Ž(y.. 1453-1914).
v˜­|±Œ“– §Žy˜: }­¡§š|v˜ˆ– §œ©Œ—§š¦—, 2517.
¢“˜¥y˜©ŸŠ˜˜–˜¥±ŒµŒ—. “˜¥y˜©ŸŠ˜˜–y¦–•ª˜Û•§y“¦ŽŸ¦‚‚§±‰©–.v˜­|±Œ“¤: ¢“˜¥y˜©ŸŠ
˜˜–˜¥±ŒµŒ—, 2512.
¢|yÛv§˜vª±‰ªº—ŽŸÛ¢©Ž±Š¢˜Û±Ž¦Ž²Žš² ×|˜¥±ŒµŒ—. “˜¥y˜©ŸŠ˜˜–´ –×. v˜­|±Œ“¤: ¢|yÛv§˜vª
±‰ª—º ŽŸÛ¢Ž© ±Š¢˜Û±Ž¦Ž²Žš² ×|˜¥±ŒµŒ—, 2523.
¢Ž¦ŽŠÛ¦—±š§ ¥“¦Ž­²š¥yŽ¢¬¹Ž·. ¢§˜—˜˜–Š¥œ¦ŽŠv Ž¦|Ÿ¬¢±˜ª—Ž˜¥v¢˜§—œ©§080 121.
Žy˜…–: yˆ¥¢¦vž˜§ŸŠ˜Û– §œ©Œ—§š¦—©š§v˜, 2529.
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