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Competenza di riferimento per la lezione/UF dedotta dal Piano

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Titolo: DISPENSA INGLESE-GRAMMATICANDO INSIEME (CLASSI QUARTE)
Area:
LINGUAGGI
Autore: PROF.SSA BIGNAMI SONIA
Competenza di riferimento per la lezione/UF
dedotta dal Piano Formativo specifico
TESTO ED IMMAGINI SONO A CURA DELLA DOCENTE, NON SONO
STATI PRESI DA ALCUN TIPO DI LIBRO, MA E’ STATA VISIONATA LA
SEGUENTE BIBLIOGRAFIA ED UTILIZZATE LE PROVE ESAME ANNI
2012/2013/2014:
Fiocchi Patrizia, Jordan Edward (2008), Steps 1, Editrice La Scuola
Fiocchi Patrizia, Jordan Edward (2008), Steps 2, Editrice La Scuola
DISPENSA DI
INGLESE
☺
Grammaticando insieme…
Classi quarte
A cura della docente Prof.ssa Bignami Sonia
2
PARTI DEL DISCORSO
SOSTANTIVO (NOUN) : INDICA UNA PERSONA, COSA, ANIMALE CHE COMPIE
UN’AZIONE ESEMPIO: A STUDENT, A PEN, A DOG…
VERBO (VERB) : INDICA UN’AZIONE COMPIUTA DAL SOGGETTO ESEMPIO: TO GO,
TO BE, CAN…
AGGETTIVO (ADJECTIVE) : INDICA LA QUALITA’ DEL SOGGETTO, PUO’ ESSERE
QUALIFICATIVO, POSSESSIVO, DI NAZIONALITA’… ESEMPIO: MY, NICE, BIG,
ENGLISH…
AVVERBIO (ADVERB) : SPECIFICA QUANDO E DOVE E’ AVVENUTA UN’AZIONE,
COME SI FA QUALCOSA… ESEMPIO : KINDLY, NOW, SLOWLY…
PRONOME (PRONOUN) : AL POSTO DEL SOGGETTO, PUO’ ESSERE PERSONALE
SOGGETTO (I, YOU…) O PRONOME COMPLEMENTO OGGETTO (ME, THEM…) O
PRONOME POSSESSIVO (MINE, YOURS…)
CONGIUNZIONE (CONJUNCTION) : UNISCE DUE PAROLE O DUE FRASI (AND, OR, SO,
BECAUSE…)
PREPOSIZIONE (PREPOSITION) : INTRODUCE UN COMPLEMENTO (AT, ON, IN, BY…)
INTERIEZIONE (INTERJECTION) : ESCLAMAZIONE CON IL PUNTO ESCLAMATIVO (HI!,
HEY!, OH NO!...)
ARTICOLO (ARTICLE) : VIENE USATO PER INTRODURRE UN SOSTANTIVO, PUO’
ESSERE DETERMINATIVO (THE) O INDETERMINATIVO (A, AN)
3
WHO-WHAT-WHICH-WHERE-WHEN-WHY-HOW
SONO LE QUESTION WORDS E SI CHIAMANO COSI’ PERCHE’ SERVONO AD INTRODDURE
DELLE DOMANDE…
WHAT = CHE
COSA/QUALE TRA UN
NUMERO ELEVATO DI
SCELTE
WHO = CHI
WHO ARE YOU? I’M
MARY
CHI SEI? SONO MARY
WHAT IS YOUR NAME? IT’S
PAUL
QUALE E’ IL TUO NOME? PAUL
WHICH = CHE COSA/ QUALE
TRA UN NUMERO LIMITATO DI
SCELTE
WHERE = DOVE
WHICH IS YOUR NAME? LUCA OR
PIERO?
WHERE ARE YOU FROM? I
COME FROM MILAN
QUALE E’ IL TUO NOME? LUCA O
PIERO?
DA DOVE VIENI? VENGO DA
MILANO
4
WHY = PERCHE’ (SOLO
NELLE DOMANDE, NELLE
RISPOSTE SI USA
BECAUSE)
WHEN = QUANDO
WHEN IS YOUR BIRTHDAY?
TOMORROW
WHY ARE YOU HAPPY? BECAUSE
THE SCHOOL IS NOT OPEN
QUANDO E’ IL TUO COMPLEANNO?
DOMANI
PERCHE’ SEI FELICE? PERCHE’ LA
SCUOLA NON E’ APERTA
HOW = COME
HOW ARE YOU? I
AM FINE
COME STAI? STO
BENE!
5
-
HOW FAR =
QUANTO DISTA
HOW OFTEN =
QUANTO SPESSO
HOW OFTEN DO YOU EAT
CHEESE?
HOW FAR IS IT FROM
MILAN TO NAPLES?
QUANTO SPESSO MANGI
FORMAGGIO?
QUANTO DISTA
MILANO DA NAPOLI?
HOW TALL = PER
ALTEZZA (SOLO
PERSONE)
HOW LONG = DURATA
HOW TALL ARE YOU?
HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN A
VET?
DA QUANTO SEI VETERINARIO?
6
7
ESERCIZI SU QUESTION WORDS
1 SEGUI LE INDICAZIONI DATE
CHIEDI ALL’INSEGNANTE QUANTO E’ ALTO L’EVEREST
CHIEDI A TUO ZIO QUANTO E’ ALTO DENNIS
CHIEDI A TUA MAMMA QUALE E’ LA SUA BORSA, QUELLA BLU O QUELLA NERA
CHIEDI DI CHI E’ QUELLA BICICLETTA
CHIEDI A FRANK QUANTO DISTA LONDRA DA MANCHESTER
CHIEDI A MARY QUANTO SPESSO MANGIA PIZZA
CHIEDI QUANTO E’ GRANDE LA STANZA
CHIEDI QUANTO E’ PROFONDO IL TUNNEL
CHIEDI A MARY IL SUO NUMERO
CHIEDI A MARY SE IL SUO NUMERO E’ 338 232323 O 339 232323
CHIEDI A MISTER JACKSON QUANTO COSTA QUELL’AUTO
CHIEDI ALL’INSEGNANTE QUANTI ALLIEVI CI SONO IN CLASSE
CHIEDI CHI E’ QUELLA DONNA CON ELIZABETH
8
PRONOMI RIFLESSIVI
MYSELF
YOURSELF
HIMSELF / HERSELF / ITSELF
OURSELVES
YOURSELVES
THEMSELVES
LA FORMA IMPERSONALE DEL PRONOME RIFLESSIVO E’ ONESELF
SI USANO QUANDO IL SOGGETTO ED IL COMPLEMENTO OGGETTO COINCIDONO
QUANDO UN’AZIONE SI RIFLETTE SUL SOGGETTO
ECCO I VERBI CHE RICHIEDONO I PRONOMI RIFLESSIVI:
TO AMUSE = DIVERTIRSI
YOU WILL AMUSE YOURSELF ON YOUR TRIP (TI DIVERTIRAI DURANTE IL TUO
VIAGGIO)
TO BLAME = SENTIRSI IN COLPA
MARY BLAMES HERSELF FOR WHAT HAPPENED (MARY SI SENTE IN COLPA PER
QUELLO CHE E’ SUCCESSO)
TO CUT = TAGLIARSI
HE CUT HIMSELF CHOPPING ONIONS (LUI SI E’ TAGLIATO TRITANDO LE CIPOLLE)
TO ENJOY = DIVERTIRSI
WE ENJOYED OURSELVES THE OTHER NIGHT ( CI SIAMO DIVERTITI L’ALTRA
NOTTE)
TO HELP = SERVIRSI
I AM HELPING MYSELF (MI STO SERVENDO)
TO HURT = FERIRSI
MY BROTHER HURT HIMSELF WHILE PLAYING (MIO FRATELLO SI E’ FERITO
MENTRE GIOCAVA)
TO INTRODUCE = PRESENTARSI
9
PLEASE, INTRODUCE YOUSELF TO THE STUDENTS (PREGO, PRESENTATI AI
STUDENTI)
TO WASH / TO SHAVE / TO DRESS (LAVARSI, RADERSI, VESTIRSI) IN INGLESE NON
HANNO I RIFLESSIVI!
ESERCIZI SUI PRONOMI RIFLESSIVI
1 TRADUCI IN ITALIANO LE SEGUENTI FRASI
I HURT MYSELF
HE CALLED HIMSELF “ZORRO”
I WILL DO IT MYSELF
MISTER POTTER HIMSELF CAME TO THE MEETING
I BOUGHT A PRESENT FOR MYSELF
SHE DID IT BY HERSELF
THE MAN IS TALKING TO HIMSELF
THEY CALL THEMSELVES “THE WOLVES”
DON’T USE THIS KNIFE OR YOU’LL CUT YOURSELF
CHILDREN ENJOY THEMSELVES AT THE PARK
HE LIVES BY HIMSELF
10
FUTURO CON WILL
SI USA IL FUTURO CON WILL QUANDO SI DECIDE AL MOMENTO DI FARE
UN’AZIONE CHE NON ERA IN PROGRAMMA
ESEMPIO: IL TELEFONO SUONA, RISPONDERO’
THE PHONE RINGS, I WILL GET IT!
SI USA IL FUTURO CON WILL PER FARE PREVISIONI SU CIO’ CHE SI PENSA
ESEMPIO: PENSO PIOVERA’
I THINK IT WILL RAIN
SI USA IL FUTURO CON WILL QUANDO UN EVENTO AVVERRA’ SENZA DIPENDERE
DALLA VOLONTA’ DI CHI PARLA
ESEMPIO : IL TRENO PARTIRA’ ALLE 9
THE TRAIN WILL LEAVE AT 9
WILL E’ UGUALE PER TUTTE LE PERSONE E LA FORMA NEGATIVA E’ WILL NOT
FUTURO CON PRESENT CONTINOUS
SI USA IL FUTURO CON IL PRESENTE CON LA FORMA ING QUANDO SI PROGRAMMA
UN’AZIONE E SI SA CHE AVVERRA’
ESEMPIO : SI SPOSERANNO DOMANI ALLE 10
THEY ARE GETTING MARRIED TOMORROW AT 10
FUTURO CON BE GOING TO
SI USA IL FUTURO CON TO BE GOING TO (CON TO BE CONIUGATO!) QUANDO NON
SI E’ DEL TUTTO SICURI CHE UN’AZIONE AVVERRA’ O QUANDO LA PREVISIONE
E’ BASATA SU CIO’ CHE SI VEDE
ESEMPIO : IL CIELO E’ NUVOLOSO, ANDRA’ A PIOVERE
THE SKY IS CLOUDY! IT IS GOING TO RAIN
MARY FREQUENTERA’ UN CORSO DI CHITARRA
MARY IS GOING TO ATTEND A GUITAR COURSE
11
ESERCIZI SUL FUTURO VARI TIPI
1 TRADUCI IN ITALIANO LE SEGUENTI FRASI
WILL YOU COME BACK SOON?
WILL JOHN AND GEORGE COME TO THE PARTY?
THE TELEPHONE IS RINGING: I WILL ANSWER!
I’LL CALL YOU AS SOON AS I GET TO THE AIRPORT
TOMORROW MARY WILL BE 16!
I’LL GO TO SAO PAULO FOR MY HOLIDAY
IT’S HOT HERE, I’LL OPEN THE WINDOW
I’M GOING TO LEAVE TOMORROW AT 7 A.M.
LOOK AT THOSE CLOUDS! IT’S GOING TO RAIN!
I’LL MEET HER TOMORROW!
I AM GETTING MARRIED ON SUNDAY!
COMPOSTI DI SOME, ANY, NO
I COMPOSTI DI SOME, ANY E NO SI COMPORTANO COME GLI AGGETTIVI INDEFINITI
DA CUI SONO FORMATI, QUINDI:
1 I COMPOSTI DI SOME SI USANO NELLE FRASI AFFERMATIVE ED INTERROGATIVE
QUANDO SI OFFRE O SI CHIEDE PER AVERE QUALCOSA
2 I COMPOSTI DI ANY SI USANO NELLE FRASI NEGATIVE ED INTERROGATIVE
12
3 I COMPOSTI DI NO SI USANO IN FRASI CHE HANNO SIGNIFICATO NEGATIVO, MA IL
VERBO DEVE SEMPRE ESSERE ALLA FORMA AFFERMATIVA
SOMETHING, ANYTHING, NOTHING
HAVE YOU GOT ANYTHING TO DO, TODAY?
ANYTHING TRADUCE QUALCOSA
I HAVE GOT SOMETHING TO DO
SOMETHING TRADUCE QUALCOSA
I HAVEN’T ANYTHING TO DO
ANYTHING TRADUCE NIENTE
I HAVEN’T NOTHING TO DO
NOTHING TRADUCE NIENTE
SOMEBODY, ANYBODY, NOBODY, SOMEONE, ANYONE, NO
ONE
IS THERE ANYBODY AT HOME?
ANYBODY TRADUCE QUALCUNO
THERE IS SOMEBODY AT HOME
SOMEBODY TRADUCE QUALCUNO
THERE IS NOBODY AT HOME
NOBODY TRADUCE NESSUNO
THERE IS ANYBODY AT HOME
ANYBODY TRADUCE NESSUNO
SOMEWHERE, ANYWHERE, NOWHERE
I CAN’T FIND MY BOOK, BUT IT MUST BE SOMEWHERE
SOMEWHERE TRADUCE DA QUALCHE PARTE
I CAN’T FIND IT ANYWHERE
ANYWHERE TRADUCE DA NESSUNA PARTE
13
IT COULD BE ANYWHERE
ANYWHERE TRADUCE QUALUNQUE POSTO
WHERE ARE YOU GOING? NOWHERE
NOWHERE TRADUCE DA NESSUNA PARTE
ESERCIZI SUI COMPOSTI DI SOME, ANY, NO
1 TRADUCI IN ITALIANO LE SEGUENTI FRASI
I CAN’T FIND MY GLASSES ANYWHERE
I’M COOKING SOMETHING, I’M VERY HUNGRY!
WHERE IS THE CAT? CAN’T ANYBODY TELL ME?
SOMEBODY BROKE THIS CHAIR!
THERE IS SOMETHING YOU SHOULD KNOW!
SOMEBODY LEFT THIS BAG HERE!
WHAT DO YOU WANT TO EAT? SOMETHING NICE!
NOBODY IS PERFECT!
14
PERIODO IPOTETICO: TIPO ZERO
LE DUE FRASI SONO AL PRESENTE E SI USA QUANDO LA FRASE PRINCIPALE E’
SEMPRE VERA
ESEMPIO: SE LA SCALDI, L’ACQUA BOLLE A 100 GRADI
IF YOU HEAT WATER TO 100C, IT BOILS
SE NON STUDI HAI UN BRUTTO VOTO
IF YOU DON’T STUDY YOU HAVE A BAD MARK
PERIODO IPOTETICO: PRIMO TIPO
IN QUESTO CASO LA FRASE CON IF E’ AL PRESENTE E LA FRASE PRINCIPALE AL
FUTURO E SI USA PER UN FATTO FUTURO CHE AVVERRA’ SE SI REALIZZERA’ LA
CONDIZIONE DELLA IF E CHE HA UNA BUONA PROBABILITA’ DI REALIZZARSI
ESEMPIO: STARO’ A CASA, SE PIOVERA’
IF IT RAINS, I WILL STAY AT HOME
SE ANDREMO A TROVARE MARY, LEI SARA’ MOLTO FELICE
IF WE GO TO VISIT MARY, SHE WILL BE VERY HAPPY
PERIODO IPOTETICO: SECONDO TIPO
LA FRASE CON IF E’ AL PASSATO E L A PRINCIPALE AL CONDIZIONALE PRESENTE E
SI USA QUANDO UNA SITUAZIONE FATICA A REALIZZARSI, CI SONO POCHE
SPERANZE CHE SI REALIZZI
ESEMPIO: SE VINCESSI UN MILIONE DI EURO POTREI SMETTERE DI LAVORARE
IF I WON A MILLION EUROS, I COULD STOP WORKING
PERIODO IPOTETICO: TERZO TIPO
SONO FATTI NON AVVENUTI IN PASSATO, LA FRASE PRINCIPALE SARA’ AL
CONDIZIONALE E LA FRASE CON IF AL PAST PERFECT
ESEMPIO: AVRESTI PASSATO L’ESAME SE AVESSI STUDIATO DI PIU’
IF YOU HAD STUDIED HARDER, YOU WOULD HAVE PASSED THE EXAM
15
ESERCIZI SUL PERIODO IPOTETICO
1 TRADUCI IN ITALIANO LE SEGUENTI FRASI
IF I GET HOME LATE, MY MOTHER WILL GET ANGRY
IF I HAD ENOUGH MONEY, I WOULD BUY A NEW BOAT
IF YOU GO TO BED VERY LATE, YOU FEEL TIRED THE NEXT DAY
IF YOU PASS ALL YOUR EXAMS, I WILL BUY YOU A NEW BIKE
IF DAVID LOVED MARGOT, HE WOULD MARRY HER
IF PEOPLE STOP DRINKING, THEY DIE
IF PEOPLE DIDN’T USE THEIR CARS, THERE WOULDN’T BE SO MUCH POLLUTION
IT’S RAINING! IF YOU DON’T TAKE THE UMBRELLA, YOU WILL GET WET
IF YOU BEHAVE LIKE THAT AGAIN, YOU WILL BE PUNISHED
TODAY IS YOUR SISTER’S BIRTHDAY. IF I WERE YOU, I WOULD BUY HER A BOX OF
CHOCOLATES
2 INDICA CHE TIPO DI PERIODO IPOTETICO SONO LE FRASI DELL’ESERCIZIO
PRECEDENTE
16
VERBI MODALI
I VERBI MODALI SONO QUEI VERBI CHE MANCANO DI ALCUNI TEMPI, SONO
INVARIABILI (OVVERO UGUALI A TUTTE LE PERSONE), NELLE FORME
INTERROGATIVA E NEGATIVA NON HANNO BISOGNO DELL’AUSILIARE PERCHE’
SONO GIA’ LORO STESSI AUSILIARI E I VERBI CHE LI SEGUONO SONO ALL’INFINITO
SENZA IL “TO” (TRANNE OUGHT) ED INDICANO POTERE, VOLERE E DOVERE
VERBI MODALI A CONFRONTO: CAN E COULD
CAN
: USATO PER ESPRIMERE CAPACITA’ ED ABILITA’, SI USA ANCHE
PER DARE O RICEVERE UN PERMESSO ED E’ UGUALE PER TUTTE LE PERSONE, NON
PRENDE LA “S” ALLA 3 SINGOLARE (I CAN, SHE CAN…)
PER FARE LA FORMA NEGATIVA BASTA AGGIUNGERE “NOT” ( I CAN NOT, I CAN’T, I
CANNOT…)
PER FARE LA FORMA INTERROGATIVA BASTA INVERTIRE (CAN I?, CAN SHE?...)
NON HA L’INFINITO (NON ESISTE “TO CAN”)
CAN PUO’ ESSERE SOSTITUITO DA MAY CHE HA LO STESSO SIGNIFICATO SOLO E’
FORMALE
ESEMPI: CAN YOU SPEAK ITALIAN? CAN I USE YOUR PC?
COULD
: USATO PER ESPRIMERE CAPACITA’ ED ABILITA’ AL
PASSATO, UGUALE PER TUTTE LE PERSONE, AGGIUNGE “NOT” ALLA FORMA
NEGATIVA ED INVERTE ALL’INTERROGATIVA
LO SI PUO’ USARE AL POSTO DI CAN AL PRESENTE IN MANIERA PIU’ FORMALE
(COULD I OPEN THE WINDOW, PLEASE?)
ESEMPI: WHEN I WAS A BOY I COULD PLAY PIANO / I COULD SING WHEN I WAS
YOUNG
17
VERBI MODALI A CONFRONTO : MAY E MIGHT
MAY
: INDICA POTERE FARE QUALCOSA ED E’ USATO ANCHE PER
INDICARE UNA EVENTUALITA’ (ESEMPIO: YOUR BAG MAY WEIGH UP TO 5 KILOS),
USATO PER ESPRIMERE UNA PROBABILITA’ FUTURA (I MAY GO TO PARIS NEXT
MONTH)
ALLA FORMA NEGATIVA SI AGGIUNGE IL “NOT” (I MAY NOT HAVE ENGLISH TEST
NEXT WEEK)
MIGHT
: INDICA UNA EVENTUALITA’ PIU’ REMOTA DI MAY ED
ALLA NEGATIVA SI AGGIUNGE IL “NOT” (SHE MIGHT NOT HAVE MISSED HER
FLIGHT)
VERBI MODALI A CONFRONTO : WILL E WOULD
WILL
:
INDICA VOLERE ED E’ USATO PER ESPRIMERE RICHIESTE,
INVITI O BUONA VOLONTA’ DI FARE QUALCOSA ED E’ USATO ANCHE PER
ESPRIMERE IL PERMESSO O PER OFFRIRE QUALCOSA
ESEMPI: I WILL WAIT FOR YOU / WILL YOU COME WITH ME? / WILL YOU HAVE A
CUP OF COFFEE?
SI USA SPESSO LA FORMA CONTRATTA ‘LL
WOULD
:
USATO
PER
ESPRIMERE
BUONA
VOLONTA’,
RICHIESTA O INVITO (WOULD YOU DO IT FOR ME, PLEASE?) O PER INDICARE LA
18
PROBABILITA’ (THIS NOISE WOULD BE THE CAT), SI USA NEL PASSATO PER
INDICARE “ERO SOLITO” (WHEN I WAS A LITTLE BOY I WOULD PLAY FOOTBALL)
PER INDICARE DISPONIBILITA’ A FARE QUALCOSA O ESPRIMERE UN’AZIONE
ABITUALE CHE SI FACEVA NEL PASSATO TRADUCEND CON “ERO SOLITO” (WHEN I
WAS A BOY I WOULD PLAY VOLLEYBALL…)
VERBI MODALI A CONFRONTO : SHALL E SHOULD
SHALL
: INDICA DOVERE E SI USA SOLO NELLA FORMA
INTERROGATIVA E SOLAMENTE PER LA PRIMA PERSONA SINGOLARE (I) E PLURALE
(WE)
SI USA PER FARE PROPOSTE O DARE SUGGERIMENTI (SHALL WE GO?, SHALL WE
DANCE?...), PER OFFRIRSI DI FARE QUALCOSA (SHALL I TURN OFF THE RADIO?...) O
PER CHIEDERE UN PARERE O UN CONSIGLIO IN MANIERA FORMALE (WHERE SHALL
I GO?...)
SHOULD
:
SI USA PER DARE CONSIGLI, SUGGERIMENTI O
FARE RACCOMANDAZIONI (SHE SHOULD QUIT SMOKING /YOU SHOULD GO TO THE
DOCTOR…)
SI USA PER FARE RIMPROVERI (YOU SHOULDN’T BEHAVE LIKE THAT!...) O PER
FARE UNA SUPPOSIZIONE (THE MATCH SHOULD START IN ONE HOUR…)
VERBI MODALI A CONFRONTO : MUST /MUST NOT / HAVE TO
/ DON’T HAVE TO
MUST E HAVE TO
HANNO LO STESSO
SIGNIFICATO (I MUST FEED MY CATS = I HAVE TO FEED MY CATS) ED INDICANO
19
UN’AZIONE OBBLIGATA E UNA NECESSITA’,
IL MUST SI USA ANCHE PER
ESPRIMERE UN DOVERE O UN OBBLIGO MORALE (I MUST HELP MY MOTHER, I
MUST PLAY WITH MY BROTHER… NON SONO OBBLIGATO, MA SO CHE E’
NECESSARIO FARLO)
CON MUST INTENDIAMO ANCHE ESPRIMERE UNA REGOLA O UN OBBLIGO (YOU
MUST STOP!)
MUST NOT
INDICA
UNA
PROIBIZIONE
O
UNA
MANCANZA DI NECESSITA’ (YOU MUST NOT FEED ANIMALS!) O UN DIVIETO (YOU
MUST NOT COME HOME LATE)
DON’T HAVE TO
(O DOESN’T HAVE TO)
INDICA UNA MANCANZA DI OBBLIGO O UNA COSA NON NECESSARIA (YOU DON’T
HAVE TO GO TO BED LATE NON E’ NECESSARIO CHE VAI A LETTO PRESTO PUOI
ANDARE PRESTO O TARDI, IL CONSIGLIO E’ DI NON ANDARE TARDI, MA C’E’
LIBERTA’ DI SCELTA)
ESERCIZI SUI MODALI A CONFRONTO
1 COMPLETA CON LA PAROLA ADATTA LE CARATTERISTICHE DEI VERBI
MODALI
I VERBI MODALI SONO VERBI … (PARTICOLARI/UGUALI) CHE NON HANNO ALCUNE
… (VOCI VERBALI/REGOLE). ALLA 3 PERSONA SINGOLARE … (PRENDONO/NON
PRENDONO) LA “S” SONO CIOE’ … (UGUALI/DIVERSI) PER TUTTE LE PERSONE.
ALLA NEGATIVA AGGIUNGONO … (NOT/DON’T)
CAN E COULD INDICANO … (POTERE/DOVERE), CAN E’ AL … (PRESENTE/PASSATO)
E COULD E’ AL … (PRESENTE/PASSATO)
MAY E MIGHT INDICANO … (POTERE/POSSIBILITA’)
SHALL SI USA … (PER I-WE/PER TUTTE LE PERSONE)
MUST E HAVE TO SONO … (DIVERSI/UGUALI)
20
1 COMPLETA CON “MUST” O “MUST NOT”
YOU … PARK YOUR CAR HERE! IT IS FORBIDDEN!
YOU … RUN OR YOU WILL MISS YOUR TRAIN
I … GO TO THE BANK, I NEED SOME MONEY
YOU … SMOKE, IT IS BAD FOR YOUR HEALTH!
YOU … EAT A LOT OF VEGETABLES!
YOU … EAT A LOT OF CHOCOLATE!
YOU … DISTURB THE ANIMALS!
YOU … PICK FLOWERS HERE! IT IS FORBIDDEN!
YOU … TAKE THIS MEDICINE AFTER DINNER
YOU … SPEAK TO STRANGERS
YOU … EAT DURING THE LESSONS
YOU … EXCEED THE SPEED LIMIT
I … DRINK MILK BECAUSE I AM ALLERGIC TO IT
YOU … DISTURB DURING THE LESSONS
PRESENT PERFECT
IL PRESENT PERFECT INDICA UN’AZIONE CHE PUR ESSENDOSI SVOLTA NEL
PASSATO HA ANCORA DEI RIFLESSI NEL PRESENTE
QUANDO SI DEVE USARE IL PRESENT PERFECT? SI DEVE USARE NEI SEGUENTI CASI:
1) AZIONE SVOLTA NEL PASSATO MA IL TEMPO NON E’ ESPRESSO (NON DICO
QUANDO!)
HO VISTO QUEL FILM (NON DICO SE IERI, UNA SETTIMANA FA…)
I HAVE SEEN THAT FILM
21
2) AZIONE PASSATA, TEMPO ESPRESSO, MA ANCORA L’AZIONE DURA MENTRE
SI PARLA
HO VISTO QUEL FILM QUESTA SETTIMANA (DICO QUANDO, MAANCORA LA
SETTIMANA NON E’FINITA!)
I HAVE SEEN THAT FILM THIS WEEK
3) QUANDO COMPAIONO QUESTE PAROLE: JUST, ALREADY, EVER, NEVER,
RECENTLY, YET
HAVE YOU ALREADY MET HIM?
I HAVE JUST MET HIM
HAVE YOU EVER MET HIM? (EVER SOLO PER FRASI INTERROGATIVE)
I HAVE NEVER MET HIM (NEVER VUOLE VERBO AFFERMATIVO)
I HAVE MET HIM RECENTLY
I HAVEN’T MET HIM YET
JUST, ALREADY, EVER, NEVER SEMPRE TRA HAVE/HAS ED IL VERBO
RECENTLY, YET SEMPRE A FINE FRASE
4) L’AZIONE E’ INIZIATA NEL PASSATO MA DURA ANCORA NEL PRESENTE
SONO INTRODOTTE IN ITALIANO DALLA PREPOSIZIONE “DA” ED IN INGLESE
DA “SINCE/FOR”
RICORDA SINCE TRADUCE DA QUANDO MENTRE FOR DA QUANTO TEMPO
HOW LONG HAVE YOU KNOWN HIM? (DA QUANTO LO CONOSCI?)
I HAVE KNOWN HIM FOR 3 YEARS
I HAVE KNOWN HIM SINCE 1995
COME SI FORMA? SEGUENDO LA TABELLA
22
ESERCIZI SUL PRESENT PERFECT
1 TRADUCI IN ITALIANO LE SEGUENTI FRASI
HAVE YOU EVER BEEN IN ENGLAND? YES, I HAVE BEEN THERE 3 TIMES
WHY HAVE YOU NOT CALLED HIM YET?
HAVE YOU SEEN THAT NEW MOVIE YET?
I HAVE BEEN WORKING HERE SINCE 2010
THE TRAIN TO ROME HAS ALREADY LEFT
MARY HAS BEEN MARRIED 3 TIMES!
WE HAVE LIVED HERE FOR A YEAR
I THINK I HAVE NOT SEEN HER BEFORE
I HAVE SEEN YOUR FRIEND MARY
I HAVE KNOWN MARY SINCE 1990
23
DISCORSO DIRETTO E DISCORSO INDIRETTO
CON IL DISCORSO DIRETTO VENGONO RIPORTATE LE PAROLE TRA VIRGOLETTE
PRONUNCIATE DA UNA PERSONA: MARY SAID: “WHAT A NICE DAY!”, CON IL
DISCORSO INDIRETTO LE PAROLE NON SONO CITATE E NON VENGONO RIPORTATE
ESATTAMENTE: MARY SAID THAT IT WAS A NICE DAY!
IL VERBO CHE INTRODUCE IL DISCORSO INDIRETTO E’ SOLITAMENTE IL SIMPLE
PAST POICHE’ RIFERISCE UNA COSA DETTA NEL PASSATO, SI USANO
NORMALMENTE I VERBI TO TELL E TO SAY E DOPO QUESTI VERBI SI PUO’ METTERE
O TRALASCIARE IL “THAT” (=CHE). SI USA TO TELL QUANDO SI DICE A CHI E’
STATO DETTO QUALCOSA E NON SI METTE LA PREPOSIZIONE, MENTRE TO SAY SI
USA SE NON SI DICE A CHI ERA RIVOLTA LA FRASE
MARK TOLD ME: “I AM TIRED”
MARK SAID: “I AM TIRED”
MARK TOLD ME THAT HE WAS TIRED
MARK SAID THAT HE WAS TIRED
I VERBI CHE POSSONO INTRODURRE IL DISCORSO INDIRETTO SONO:
TO ADD (AGGIUNGERE)
TO ADMIT (AMMETTERE)
TO ANSWER (RISPONDERE=
TO COMPLAIN (LAMENTARSI)
TO DENY (NEGARE)
TO EXPLAIN (SPIEGARE)
TO PROMISE (PROMETTERE)
TO REMARK (NOTARE)
TO REPLY (REPLICARE)
DISCORSO DIRETTO
SIMPLE PRESENT
“I AM TIRED” MARK SAID
PRESENT CONTINOUS
“I AM WRITING A LETTER” MARK SAID
SIMPLE PAST
“I SAW HER ON MONDAY” MARK SAID
DISCORSO INDIRETTO
SIMPLE PAST
MARK SAID THAT HE WAS TIRED
PAST CONTINOUS
MARK SAID THAT HE WAS WRITING A
LETTER
PAST PERFECT O SIMPLE PAST (QUANDO
LA SITUAZIONE DURA ANCORA NEL
TEMPO)
MARK SAID THAT HE HAD SEEN HER ON
MONDAY
MARK SAID THAT HE SAW HER ON
MONDAY
24
ERO SOLITO = I USED
“WHEN I WAS A LITTLE BOY I USED TO
RIDE MY BIKE TO SCHOOL” MARK SAID
PAST CONTINOUS
“I WAS THINKING OF GOING
HOLIDAY” MARK SAID
ERO SOLITO = I USED
MARK SAID THAT HE USED TO RIDE HIS
BIKE TO SCHOOL WHEN HE WAS A
LITTLE BOY
PAST CONTINOUS
ON MARK SAID THAT HE WAS THINKING OF
GOING ON HOLIDAY
PRESENT PERFECT
“I HAVE SEEN THAT FILM” MARK SAID
PAST PERFECT
MARK SAID THAT HE HAD SEEN THAT
FILM
FUTURO CON WILL
CONDIZIONALE PRESENTE
“I WILL BUY A BOOK FOR MARY” MARK MARK SAID THAT HE WOULD BUY A
SAID
BOOK FOR MARY
CONDIZIONALE PRESENTE
CONDIZIONALE PRESENTE
“I WOULD LIKE TO SEE THAT FILM” MARK SAID THAT HE WOULD LIKE TO
MARK SAID
SEE THAT FILM
IMPERATIVO
INFINITO CON TO
“LISTEN TO ME!” MARK SAID
MARK SAID TO HIS FRIENDS TO LISTEN
TO HIM
INFINITO
INFINITO
“I AM HERE TO LEARN ENGLISH” MARK MARK SAID THAT HE WAS THERE TO
SAID
LEARN ENGLISH
ANCHE LE ESPRESSIONI DI TEMPO CAMBIANO IN BASE ALLA SEGUENTE TABELLA
25
ESERCIZI SUL DISCORSO DIRETTO ED INDIRETTO
1 TRASFORMA LE FRASI DAL DISCORSO DIRETTO ALL’INDIRETTO
MARY SAID: “WHAT A NICE BABY”
PAUL SAID: “WHAT A NICE WOMAN!”
THE TEACHER SAID: “THIS TEST IS VERY EASY”
“I AM TIRED” MY SISTER SAID
THE BOY SAID: “I AM READING A BOOK”
MARY SAID: “I AM COOKING WITH MY MOTHER”
MY FRIEND SAID: “I SAW GEORGE ON SATURDAY”
MARY SAID: “I WILL BUY A NEW BIKE FOR MY SON”
THE TEACHER SAID TO HER STUDENTS: “LISTEN TO ME!”
THE TEACHER SAID: “I AM HERE TO HELP MARY AND THOMAS”
2 TRASFORMA LE FRASI DAL DISCORSO INDIRETTO AL DIRETTO
MARY SAID SHE WAS THERE TO HELP HER MOTHER
JOHN SAID THAT HE WOULD BUY A RING FOR HIS WIFE
GEORGE SAID THAT HE WAS VERY BUSY AND HE WAS TEACHING ENGLISH TO HIS
SISTER
THE BOYS SAID THAT THEY HAD SEEN THAT FILM WITH THEIR TEACHER
26
PRONOMI RELATIVI: WHO, THAT, WHICH, WHOSE, WHERE
I PRONOMI RELATIVI SI USANO PER INDICARE DI CHI O DI CHE COSA SI STA
PARLANDO
QUANDO CI RIFERIAMO ALLE PERSONE USIAMO WHO O THAT
THE BOYS THAT ARE SINGING ARE MY BROTHERS
I WORK WITH THE LADY WHO IS SITTING NEXT TO HELEN
ADRIAN IS THE BOY WHO LENT ME HIS CAR
QUANDO CI RIFERIAMO A COSE O ANIMALI USIAMO WHICH O THAT
THE TV PROGRAMME WHICH I WATCHED YESTERDAY IS “MASTER CHIEF”
BALMORAL CASTLE IS A PRIVATE PROPERTY THAT BELONGS TO THE BRITISH
ROYAL FAMILY
THIS IS THE MOBILE PHONE THAT/WHICH I BOUGHT LAST WEEK
QUANDO CI SI RIFERISCE A COSA O A CHI APPARTIENE QUALCOSA O QUALCUNO SI
USA IL PRONOME WHOSE CHE TRADUCE DI CUI/DEL QUALE...
SHOW ME THE MAN WHOSE PAINTINGS ARE EXHIBITED AT THE GALLERY
QUANDO SI VUOLE INDICARE UN LUOGO SI USA WHERE CHE TRADUCE IN CUI/ NEL
QUALE…
LIVERPOOL IS THE PLACE WHERE THE BEATLEAS WERE BORN
27
FAC SIMILE PROVE D’ESAME
1 LETTERA: HAI APPENA CONCLUSO LA SCUOLA ED OTTENUTO IL DIPLOMA.
DOPO LE VACANZE TI PIACEREBBE RECARTI ALL’ESTERO PER FREQUENTARE
UN CORSO DI SPECIALIZZAZIONE E AL TEMPO STESSO TROVARE UN LAVORO
PART-TIME. SCRIVI UNA E-MAIL AL TUO AMICO JACK PER SPIEGARGLI I TUOI
PROGETTI. AGGIUNGI ALCUNE INFORMAZIONI SU DOVE TI PIACEREBBE
ANDARE (CITTA’, NAZIONE), QUALE CORSO VORRESTI FREQUENTARE, CHE
TIPO DI LAVORO PART-TIME VORRESTI TROVARE E ALTRE COSE CHE TI
PIACEREBBE FARE MENTRE SEI ALL’ESTERO (MINIMO 50 PAROLE)
2 LEGGI IL SEGUENTE TESTO E COMPLETA CON L’ALTERNATIVA CORRETTA
JFK INTERNATIONAL – ONE OF THE WORLD’S BUSIEST AIRPORTS
JOHN F. KENNEDY INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT IS ONE OF THE BUSIEST
INTERNATIONAL AIRPORTS IN THE WORLD. LOCATED IN THE QUEENS DISTRICT OF
NEW
YORK
CITY,
JFK
INTERNATIONAL
AIRPORT
HANDLES
…
(MOST/MORE/LESS/FEWER) INTERNATIONAL PASSENGERS THAN ANY OTHER
AIRPORT IN THE UNITED STATES. IN 2010 OVER 46 MILLION PASSENGERS WENT …
(ON/IN/OUT/THROUGH) THE TERMINALS OF JFK. THE AIRPORT IS A CITY IN ITSELF.
MORE THAN 90 AIRLINES … (FLY/GO/DEPART/ARRIVE) IN AND OUT OF NEW YORK’S
JFK AIRPORT. THE BUSIEST ROUTES FROM JFK LEAD TO LONDON, MADRID AND
PARIS. THE AIRPORT OPENED IN 1948. ORIGINALLY, IT WAS CALLED IDLEWILD
AIRPORT. IT WAS … (RECALLED/INAUGURATED/RENAMED/CLOSED) SHORTLY
AFTER PRESIDENT KENNEDY WAS ASSASSINATED IN 1963. CURRENTLY THERE ARE
FOUR RUNWAYS ON … (WHO/THAT/WHICH/WHERE) PLANES TAKE OFF AND LAND.
ONE OF THEM IS LONG ENOUGH FOR A SPACE SHUTTLE TO LAND. JFK AIRPORT HAS
EIGHT TERMINALS WITH A TOTAL OF OVER 150 GATES. ALL THE TERMINALS ARE
CONNECTED WITH EACH OTHER THROUGH A TRAIN SYSTEM. THIS TRAIN SYSTEM
CONNECTS THE AIRPORT WITH DOWNTOWN NEW YORK. IT TAKES PASSENGERS
ABOUT 30 TO 40 MINUTES … (GET/TO GET/LAND/TO LAND) TO CENTRAL
MANHATTAN, ABOUT 20 KM FROM THE AIRPORT. MOST OF THE CARGO BETWEEN
EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES PASSES THROUGH JFK AND ALMOST A QUARTER
OF ALL INTERNATIONAL … (GOODS/GOOD/BUSINESS/ITEMS) TO AND FROM THE
USA ARE HANDLED BY THE AIRPORT. JFK INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT HAS ALSO
BEEN THE LOCATION OF SEVERAL ACCIDENTS AND TRAGEDIES. AMONG …
(IT/WHICH/WHO/THEM) A TWA FLIGHT EXPLODED SHORTLY AFTER TAKING OFF
FROM JFK. ALL 230 PEOPLE WERE KILLED. IN APRIL 2011 AN AIRBUS A-380 CRASHED
INTO A SMALLER PLANE … (AFTER/WHILE/BEFORE/AMONG) STILL ON THE
GROUND. FORTUNATELY … (EVERYBODY/SOMEBODY/NOBODY/ANYBODY) WAS
INJURED.
3 COMPLETA LA PARTE MANCANTE IN MODO CHE LA SECONDA FRASE ABBIA
LO STESSO SIGNIFICATO DELLA PRIMA. PUOI UTILIZZARE FINO A TRE PAROLE
28
LET’S GO TO THE CINEMA TONIGHT! = WHY DON’T … TO THE CINEMA TONIGHT?
IT’S NOT GOOD FOR YOU TO EAT TOO MUCH JUNK FOOD = YOU … EAT TOO MUCH
JUNK FOOD
PAUL IS NOT AS TALLL AS BOB = BOB IS … THAN PAUL
YOU CAN ONLY EAT THERE IF YOU BOOK IN ADVANCE = IF YOU DON’T BOOK IN
ADVANCE, YOU … THERE
BOB’S PUB HAS BEEN OPEN FOR 5 YEARS = BOB O PENED THIS PUB …
4 SCEGLI TRA LE FRASI INDICATE QUELLA CHE RIPRODUCE IL SIGNIFICATO
DEL TESTO
MODERN ART MUSEUM: 10% DISCOUNT FOR GROUPS OF 10 OR MORE PEOPLE
A)
B)
C)
D)
YOU CAN PAY LESS MONEY IF YOU ENTER WITH 12 FRIENDS
YOU CAN PAY LESS MONEY IF YOU ENTER ALONE
TICKETS FOR GROUPS OF 8 PEOPLE ARE LESS EXPENSIVE
TICKETS FOR GROUPS OF 5 PEOPLE COST 10% MORE
FASHION HAIR STYLE: OPEN TUESDAY TO SATURDAY 9.00 A.M. TO 8.00 P.M.
BOOKING NOT NECESSARY
A) YOU CAN GO TO THE HAIRDRESSER’S ON SUNDAY MORNING WITHOUT
BOOKING
B) YOU CAN GO TO THE HAIRDRESSER’S ON MONDAY AT 2 P.M. WITHOUT
BOOKING
C) YOU CAN GO TO THE HAIRDRESSER’S ON SATURDAY AT 9 IN THE EVENING IF
YOU BOOK
D) YOU CAN GO TO THE HAIRDRESSER’S ON FRIDAY AT 3 IN THE AFTERNOON
WITHOUT BOOKING
FROM: JOHN
TO: SUE
HI JOHN. I’M FLYNG TO ROME TOMORROW. I NEED TO BE AT THE AIRPORT AT 8.00
A.M. COULD YOU DRIVE ME THERE ON YOUR WAY TO SCHOOL? THANKS!
A)
B)
C)
D)
SUE MUST GO TO SCHOOL TOMORROW
SUE IS TAKING A PLANE TO ROME TOMORROW
SUE IS DRIVING TO THE AIRPORT TOMORROW MORNING
JOHN IS LEAVING BY PLANE TOMORROW
PRIORITY SEAT FOR PEOPLE WHO ARE DISABLED OR PREGNANT
A) YOU CAN’T SIT THERE IF YOU ARE PREGNANT
29
B) YOU SHOULD OFFER THIS SEAT TO A DISABLED PERSON OR TO A PREGNANT
WOMAN
C) YOU CAN SIT HERE IF YOU ARE NOT DISABLED
D) PREGNANT WOMEN SHOULD ALWAYS STAND UP
MOTORWAY E4 LONDON SOUTH EXIT CLOSED FOR REPAIRS FROM 10 P.M. TO 6 A.M.
UNTIL 30TH SEPTEMBER
A) YOU CAN’T DRIVE ALONG THE E4 UNTIL THE END OF SEPTEMBER
B) YOU CAN’T DRIVE ALONG THE E4 AT NIGHT UNTIL THE END OF SEPTEMBER
C) LONDON SOUTH EXIT WILL BE CLOSED EVERY NIGHT UNTIL THE END OF
SEPTEMBER
D) LONDON SOUTH EXIT WILL BE CLOSED ALL DAY UNTIL THE END OF
SEPTEMBER
5 LEGGI LE SEGUENTI DESCRIZIONI E SCEGLI QUELLA PIU’ ADATTA ALLE
PERSONE DI SEGUITO INDICATE
COURSE 1 – CREATIVE WRITING
ARE YOU INTERESTED IN CREATING YOUR OWN NOVEL? IF YOU FEEL YOU HAVE A
LOT TO SAY BUT YOU DON’T KNOW HOW, THIS COURSE WILL HELP YOU ACQUIRE
THE WRITING SKILLS YOU NEED
COURSE 2 – MODERN AUTHORS
IF YOU WANT TO LEARN ABOUT THE GREATEST WRITERS OF TODAY, THIS COURSE
IS JUST WHAT YOU ARE LOOKING FOR. A FAMOUS LITERARY CRITIC WILL GUIDE
YOU THROUGH THE WORKS OF THE BEST CONTEMPORARY WRITERS
COURSE 3 – DRAWING
IF YOU HAVE A CREATIVE MIND AND LIKE DRAWING YOUR EMOTIONS, THIS
COURSE IS FOR YOU. AN EXPERIENCED TEACHER WILL SHOW YOU THE BASIC
DRAWING TECHNIQUES TO PRODUCE YOUR OWN MASTERPIECES!
COURSE 4 – FRENCH PAINTERS
THIS COURSE IS FOR PEOPLE WHO LIKE PAINTING AND WANT TO LEARN MORE
ABOUT THE GREAT MASTERS OF THE PAST. AN ART CRITIC WILL GUIDE YOU TO
UNDERSTAND THE INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES USED BY THE MOST FAMOUS
PAINTERS OF FRANCE
ANN HAS BEEN A KEEN READER SINCE SHE WAS A CHILD. SHE HAS READ A LOT OF
BOOKS OF MODERN WRITERS AND NOW SHE WOULD LIKE TO KNOW MORE ABOUT
THEM = COURSE N. …
SOPHIE LIKES ART, IN PARTICULAR PAINTING. WHENEVER SHE HAS SOME FREE
TIME SHE VISITS MUSEUMS AND ART GALLERIES, BUT NOW SHE WOULD LIKE TO
30
KNOW SOMETHING MORE ABOUT THE TECHNIQUES USED BY THE GREAT MASTERS
OF THE PAST = COURSE N. …
JOHN IS REALLY KEEN ON DRAWING AND SPENDS HIS TIME DRAWING ON ANY
PIACE OF PAPER HE CAN FIND. NOW HE WOULD LIKE TO IMPROVE HIS TECHNIQUES
WITH THE HELP OF A GOOD TEACHER = COURSE N. …
MARK HAS ALWAYS BEEN INTERESTED IN BOOKS, IN PARTICULAR CRIME STORIES.
HE HAS READ A LOT AND HAS JUST STARTED TO WRITE A NOVEL BUT HE THINKS
HE NEEDS TO DEVELOP HIS WRITING SKILLS
1 LETTERA: IL TUO AMICO JOSH HA DECISO DI TRASCORRERE UN MESE IN
ITALIA DURANTE LE VACANZE ESTIVE. GLI PIACEREBBE VISITARE QUALCHE
LOCALITA’ FAMOSA O CITTA’ D’ARTE E VORREBBE ANCHE TRASCORRERE
QUALCHE GIORNO AL MARE. NON HA MOLTI SOLDI, MA E’ DISPOSTO A FARE
QUALCHE LAVORO OCCASIONALE PER PAGARSI LA VACANZA. SCRIVIGLI UNA
E-MAIL CON TUTTE LE INFORMAZIONI ED I SUGGERIMENTI CHE TI HA
CHIESTO, IN PARTICOLARE QUALI CITTA’ E LOCALITA’ POTREBBE VISITARE,
COSA POTREBBE VEDERE, IN QUALE LOCALITA’ DI MARE POTREBBE
TRASCORRERE QUALCHE GIORNO, QUALE SISTEMAZIONE POTREBBE
TROVARE E QUALE POSSIBILITA’ DI LAVORO CI SONO (MINIMO 50 PAROLE)
2 LEGGI IL SEGUENTE TESTO E COMPLETA CON L’ALTERNATIVA CORRETTA
LIKE IT OR HATE IT, THE SHARD-EUROPE’S TALLEST BUILDING – HAS CHANGED
THE LONDON SKYLINE FOREVER
LAST JULY, LONDON’S … (NEWER/NEWEST/MORE NEW/MOST NEW) SKYSCRAPER
WAS OFFICIALLY COMPLETED. THE SKYSCRAPER IS CALLED THE SHARD AND IT
COST ABOUT £430 MILLION TO BUILD. AT A HEIGHT OF ALMOST 310 METRES, IT IS
THE TALLEST BUILDING IN EUROPE. THE SHARD IS SO TALL …
(SO/AS/THAT/WHICH) OTHER GREAT MONUMENTS LIKE ST PAUL’S CATHEDRAL
AND TOWER BRIDGE LOOK SMALL … (IN/ON/TO/AS) COMPARISON. THE SHARD HAS
COMPLETELY CHANGED THE APPEARANCE OF LONDON. HOWEVER, NOT
EVERYONE THINKS THAT IT IS A CHANGE FOR THE BETTER. THE SHARD WAS …
(DESIGN/DESIGNER/DESIGNED/DESIGNS) BY THE FAMOUS ITALIAN ARCHITECT
RENZO PIANO. WHEN HE BEGAN DESIGNING THE SHARD, PIANO WANTED A VERY
TALL BUILDING THAT LOOKED … (HOW/SO/TO/LIKE) A SPIRE. THE SIDES OF THE
BUILDING AREN’T REGULAR, SO THE BUILDING HAS AN USUAL SHAPE. IT LOOKS
LIKE A BROKEN SPLINTER OF GLASS (OR SHARD). THAT IS HOW THE BUILDING GOT
ITS NAME: THE SHARD. PIANO UNDERSTOOD THAT IT WAS A RISK TO BUILT SUCH
AN UNUSUAL BUILDING … (WHO/WHICH/WHOSE/THAT) SHAPE REMINDS HIM OF
31
THE SPIRE OF THE CHURCHES OF LONDON AND OF THE TALL MASTS OF THE SHIPS
THAT WERE ONCE … (IN/ON/FOR/AGAINST) THE RIVER THAMES. THE SHARD HAS 87
FLOORS. AT THE TOP, THERE IS AN OBSERVATORY WHICH IS OPEN …
(TO/FOR/AT/IN) THE PUBLIC. AT THE MOMENT THE BUILDING IS EMPTY, BUT
EVENTUALLY THERE WILL BE A LUXURY 5-STAR HOTEL, TOP QUALITY
RESTAURANTS, LUXURY APARTMENTS, A SPA AND OFFICES. LOCAL RESIDENTS
DIDN’T WANT THE BUILDING, BUT THE PLANS WERE APPROVED AND, IN 2009,
BUILDING WORK BEGAN. A LOT OF PEOPLE WERE STILL UNHAPPY ABOUT THE
SHARD. CRITICS SAID THAT SUCH A TALL SKYSCRAPER MIGHT BE GOOD IN A CITY
LIKE NEW YORK, BUT IT WOULD NOT … (LOOK/SEE/WATCH/OBSERVE) GOOD IN
LONDON. THE SHARD, THE SPLINTER OF GLASS, NOW DOMINATES THE LONDON
SKYLINE. IT IS NOT CERTAIN, HOWEVER, THAT ORDINARY LONDON CITIZENS WILL
… (NEVER/EVER/ALWAYS/OFTEN) ACCEPT IT AS A VALUABLE ADDITION TO THE
CITY.
3 COMPLETA LA PARTE MANCANTE IN MODO CHE LA SECONDA FRASE ABBIA
LO STESSO SIGNIFICATO DELLA PRIMA. PUOI UTILIZZARE FINO A TRE PAROLE
WHY DON’T YOU SAVE SOME MONEY IF YOU WANT TO BUY A NEW CAR? = I THINK
YOU … SAVE SOME MONEY IF YOU WANT TO BUY A NEW CAR
BOB’S PUB HAS BEEN OPEN FOR 5 YEARS = BOB OPENED THIS PUB …
PAUL IS NOT AS TALL AS BOB = BOB IS … THAN PAUL
YOU CAN ONLY EAT THERE IF YOU BOOK IN ADVANCE = IF YOU DON’T BOOK IN
ADVANCE, YOU … THERE
LET’S GO TO THE CINEMA TONIGHT! = WHY DON’T YOU … TO THE CINEMA
TONIGHT?
4 SCEGLI TRA LE FRASI INDICATE QUELLA CHE RIPRODUCE IL SIGNIFICATO
DEL TESTO
TURN OFF ALL MOBILES IN THE LIBRARY
A) YOU MUST LEAVE YOUR MOBILE AT HOME IF YOU WANT TO ENTER THE
LIBRARY
B) YOU CAN KEEP YOUR MOBILE WITH YOU IN THE LIBRARY IF IT IS SWITCHED
OFF
C) YOU CAN’T GO INTO THE LIBRARY IF YOU HAVE A MOBILE WITH YOU
D) YOU MUST LEAVE YOUR MOBILE ON A TABLE AT THE ENTRANCE OF THE
LIBRARY
SPRING SCHOOL MARATHON IN WESLEY PARK: RACE STARTS AT 9.00 A.M.
PARTICIPANTS SHOULD MEET AT 8.30 A.M. AT THE PARK GATE TO GET THEIR RACE
NUMBERS. NO NUMBERS WILL BE GIVEN AFTER 8.45 A.M. RACE WILL BE HELD IN
ANY WEATHER
32
A)
B)
C)
D)
PARTICIPANTS SHOULD GATHER AT 9.00 A.M. AT THE PARK
THE MARATHON WILL BE CANCELLED IF IT RAINS
PARTICIPANTS CAN GET THEIR NUMBERS AT 9.00 A.M.
PARTICIPANTS MUST GET THEIR NUMBERS BEFIRE 9 O’ CLOCK
PRIORITY SEAT: FOR PEOPLE WHO ARE DISABLED OR PREGNANT
A) YOU CAN’T SIT HERE IF YOU ARE PREGNANT
B) YOU SHOULD OFFER THIS SEAT TO A DISABLED PERSON OR TO A PREGNANT
WOMAN
C) YOU CAN SIT HERE IF YOU ARE NOT DISABLED
D) PREGNANT WOMEN SHOULD ALWAYS STAND UP
FROM: ANNE
TO: ROBERT
SORRY, I CAN’T DRIVE YOU TO SCHOOL TOMORROW. MY MUM NEEDS THE CAR TO
GO TO HER OFFICE. WE CAN GO BY BUS TOGETHER, IF YOU LIKE. LET ME KNOW!
A)
B)
C)
D)
ANNA AND ROBERT CAN’T GO TO SCHOOL BY CAR TOMORROW
ANNA IS USING HER MOTHER’S CAR TOMORROW
ANNA IS DRIVING HER MUM TO THE OFFICE TOMORROW
ROBERT IS DRIVING ANNA TO SCHOOL TOMORROW
SUMMER SALE UNTIL END OF JUNE: BUY YOUR NEW JEANS NOW! A FREE T-SHIRT
WITH EACH PAIR AND AN EXTRA 30% OFF IT YOU BUY TWO PAIRS!
A) IF YOU BUY TWO PAIRS OF JEANS BEFORE THE END OF JUNE YOU’LL GET A
FREE T-SHIRT
B) IF YOU BUYT A PAIR OF JEANS AND A T-SHIRT BEFORE THE END OF JUNE
YOU’LL HAVE A SPECIAL DISCOUNT
C) IF YOU BUY TWO PAIRS OF JEANS BEFORE THE END OF JUNE YOU’LL HAVE A
SPECIAL DISCOUNT
D) IF YOU BUY A PAIR OF JEANS IN JULY YOU’LL HAVE A FREE T-SHIRT
5 LEGGI LE SEGUENTI DESCRIZIONI E SCEGLI QUELLA PIU’ ADATTA ALLE
PERSONE DI SEGUITO INDICATE
JOB 1 – CHILDREN CAMPS IN THE COUNTRY
WE ARE LOOKING FOR GROUP LEADERS FOR OUR CHILDREN SUMMER CAMPS IN
THE COUNTRY. IF YOU LIKE STAYING WITH CHILDREN AND ARE ABLE TO
ORGANISE AND DO A RANGE OF OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES, THIS IT THE RIGHT JOB FOR
YOU! WE CAN PROVIDE ACCOMMODATION AND MEALS AND COVER ALL
EXPENSES.
33
JOB 2 – SUNSHINE RETIREMENT HOME
STAFF IS NEEDED FOR OUR RETIREMENT HOME FOR OVER 70S AT A SEASIDE
RESORT ON THE SOUTH COAST, FROM THE BEGINNING OF JULY TO THE END OF
SEPTEMBER. EXPERIENCE IS REQUIRED, AS THE JOB WILL INVOLVE TAKING CARE
OF ELDERLY PEOPLE. ACCOMODATION, MEALS AND A SMALL SALARY WILL BE
PROVIDED.
JOB 3 – SUNRISE HOTELS
WOULD YOU LIKE A SUMMER JOB IN ONE OF THE MOST BEAUTIFUL SEASIDE
RESORTS IN SPAIN? WE HAVE VACANCIES FOR TOUR OPERATORS AND
RECEPTIONISTS IN OUR 4-STAR HOTELS. ACCOMODATION AND MEALS WILL BE
PROVIDED, THE SALARY IS QUITE GOOD. APPLICANTS MUST SPEAK SPANISH AS
WELL AS AT LEAST ONE OTHER FOREIGN LANGUAGE.
JOB 4 – WANT TO BE A CHEF?
WE HAVE A CHAINS OF EXCLUSIVE RESTAURANTS IN FRANCE AND WE ARE
LOOKING FOR YOUNG PEOPLE TO WORK AS WAITERS AND WAITRESSES DURING
THE SUMMER SEASON. NO PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE REQUIRED AS YOU CAN LEARN
WHILE WORKING WITH OUR QUALIFIED CHEFS. WE CAN PROVIDE INDIVIDUAL
ROOMS, FREE MEALS AND A SMALL WAGE.
MARY IS GOING TO STUDY MEDICINE AT UNIVERSITY NEXT YEAR AND SHE
WOULD LIKE TO FIND A SUMMER JOB AT THE SEASIDE. SHE LOVES HELPING
PEOPLE AND HAS ALREADY WORKED WITH ELDERLY PEOPLE AS A VOLUNTEER.
SHE DOESN’T MIND WORKING HARD = JOB N. …
BOB IS A STUDENT AND HE IS LOOKING FOR A HOLIDAY JOB TO GET A BREAK
FROM THE TOWN. HE’S AN ACTIVE YOUNG MAN, HE LOVES WALKING, STAYING
OUTDOORS AND HE’S VERY GOOD AT ORGANISING THINGS = JOB N. …
ALAN WOULD LIKE TO OPEN HIS OWN RESTAURANT IN THE FUTURE AND HE’S
LOOKING FOR A HOLIDAY JOB. HE’S MORE INTERESTED IN GAINING EXPERIENCE
THAN IN EARNING MONEY. HE LIKES TRAVELLING AND CAN SPEAK FRENCH,
GERMAN AND SPANISH = JOB N. …
JANET IS GOING TO ATTEND AN EXPENSIVE COURSE NEXT YEAR SO SHE WOULD
LIKE TO FIND A WELL PAID JOB. SHE LIKES BEING WITH OTHER PEOPLE AND
HAVING EXPERIENCES ABROAD. SHE CAN SPEAK GERMAN, FRENCHE AND SPANISH
= JOB N. …
34
1 LETTERA: IL PROSSIMO MESE DI LUGLIO, NELLA CITTA’ IN CUI VIVI SI
TERRA’ IL SUMMER ROCK FESTIVAL, A CUI PARTECIPERANNO NUMEROSI
GRUPPI E CANTANTI PER UNA SERIE DI CONCERTI CHE DURERA’ UNA
SETTIMANA. IL TUO AMICO TED, CHE VIVE NEGLI STATI UNITI, VORREBBE
VENIRE IN ITALIA IN OCCASIONE DELL’EVENTO E TI HA SCRITTO PER
CHIEDERTI ALCUNE INFORMAZIONI. SCRIVIGLI UNA E-MAIL CON TUTTE LE
INFORMAZIONI E I CONSIGLI, IN PARTICOLARE DOVE E QUANDO SI TERRANNO
I CONCERTI, QUALI SONO I CONCERTI PIU’ INTERESSANTI, COME E’ POSSIBILE
PROCURARSI I BIGLIETTI, DOVE POTRA’ ALLOGGIARE, QUALE ALTRE
ATTIVITA’ (VISITE, ESCURSIONE, ECC.) POTREBBE FARE MENTRE E’ NEL TUO
PAESE (MINIMO 50 PAROLE)
2 LEGGI IL SEGUENTE TESTO E COMPLETA CON L’ALTERNATIVA CORRETTA
MODERN BRITISH FAMILIES
FATHER LEAVES FOR WORK … (AT/IN/ALL/EVERY) THE MORNING AFTER
BREAKFAST. THE CHILDREN TAKE THE BUS TO SCHOOL, AND MOTHER STAYS AT
HOME COOKING AND CLEANING UNTIL FATHER AND THE KIDS RETURN HOME IN
THE EVENING. THIS IS THE TRADITIONAL PICTURE OF A HAPPY FAMILY …
(LIVED/LIVE/LIVING/LIVES) IN BRITAIN, BUT IS IT TRUE TODAY? THE ANSWER IS –
NO! THE PAST TWENTY YEARS … (SEEN/HAVE SEEN/WILL SEE/SEE) ENORMOUS
CHANGES IN THE LIVES AND STRUCTURES OF FAMILIES IN BRITAIN, AND THE
TRADITIONAL MODEL IS NO LONGER TRUE IN MOST CASES. THE BIGGEST CHANGE
HAS BEEN CAUSED … (BY/FROM/FOR/TO) DIVORCE. AS MANY AS 2 OUT OF 3
MARRIAGES NOW END IN DIVORCE, LEADING TO A SITUATION …
(WHO/WHICH/WHEN/WHERE) MANY CHILDREN LIVE WITH ONE PARENT AND ONLY
SEE THE OTHER ONE AT WEEKENDS OR HOLIDAYS. THERE HAS ALSO BEEN A HUGE
RISE … (OF/AT/IN/BY) THE NUMBER OF MOTHERS WHO WORK. …
(BECAUSE/BECAUSE OF/WHY/SINCE) THE LARGE RISE IN DIVORCES, MANY WOMEN
NEED TO WORK TO SUPPORT THEMSELVES AND THEIR CHILDREN. EVEN WHEN
THERE IS NO DIVORCE, IN MANY FAMILIES BOTH PARENTS …
(NEED/MUST/SHOULD/WOULD) TO WORK IN ORDER TO SURVIVE. THIS HAS CAUSED
AN INCREASE IN CHILDCARE FACILITIES. IN ADDITION, WOMEN ARE NO LONGER
HAPPY TO STAY AT HOME RAISING CHILDREN, AND MANY HAVE CAREEERS
EARNING AS MUS AS OR EVEN MORE THAN MEN. HOWEVER, THESE CHANGES
HAVE NOT HAD A TOTALLY NEGATIVE EFFECT. FOR WOMEN, IT IS NOW MUCH
EASIER
TO
HAVE
A
CAREER
AND
GOOD
SALARY.
…
(ALTHOUGH/SINCE/EVEN/BECAUSE) IT IS DIFFICULT TO BE A WORKING MOTHER, IT
HAS BECOME NORMAL AND IT’S NO LONGER SEEN AS A BAD THING FOR THE
CHILDREN. AS FOR CHILDREN THEMSELVES, SOME ARGUE THAT MODERN
CHILDREN GROW UP TO BE … (MOST/MORE/MUCH/AS) INDEPENDENT AND MATURE
THAN IN THE PAST.
35
3 COMPLETA LA PARTE MANCANTE IN MODO CHE LA SECONDA FRASE ABBIA
LO STESSO SIGNIFICATO DELLA PRIMA. PUOI UTILIZZARE FINO A TRE PAROLE
LET’S GO TO THE CINEMA TONIGHT! = WHY DON’T… TO THE CINEMA TONIGHT?
YOU CAN ONLY EAT THERE IF YOU BOOK IN ADVANCE = IF YOU DON’T BOOK IN
ADVANCE, YOU … THERE
I DON’T THINK IT’S A GOOD IDEA TO EAT SUCH A LOT OF JUNK FOOD IF YOU WANT
TO KEEP FIT = YOU … EAT SO MUCH JUNK FOOD IF YOU WANT TO KEEP FIT!
BOB’S PUB HAS BEEN OPEN FOR 5 YEARS = BOB OPENED THIS PUB ...
PAUL IS NOT AS TALL AS BOB = BOB IS … THAN PAUL
4 SCEGLI TRA LE FRASI INDICATE QUELLA CHE RIPRODUCE IL SIGNIFICATO
DEL TESTO
OPEN FIELD CAR PARK: 1€ PER HOUR, FIRST HOUR FREE. GET YOUR TICKET AT
ENTRANCE, PAY FOR PARKING AT EXIT. THE MACHINE GIVES CHANGE.
A) YOU MUST PAY BEFORE GETTING INTO THE CAR PARK
B) YOU CAN PAY AT EXIT ONLY IF YOU HAVE CHANGE
C) IF YOU PARK YOUR CAR FOR ONLY ONE HOUR, YOU DON’T HAVE TO PAY
ANYTHING
D) YOU CAN PAY AT THE ENTRANCE WHEN YOU GET THE TICKET
FROM: JOSH
TO: ANDREW
HI ANDREW! ALEX HAS JUST TOLD ME HE’S GOT AN EXTRA FREE TICKET FOR THE
CONCERT TOMORROW! IT YOU’RE INTERESTED, LET HIM KNOW RIGHT NOW. IT’LL
BE FUN IF YOU COME WITH US!
A)
B)
C)
D)
JOSH HAS AN EXTRA TICKET FOR THE CONCERT
ALEX HAS AN EXTRA TICKET BECAUSE HE’S NOT GOING TO THE CONCERT
ANDREW CAN GO TO THE CONCERT ONLY IF HE PAYS FOR THE TICKET
ANDREW CAN HAVE THE TICKET IF HE CALLS ALEX RIGHT NOW
PRIORITY SEAT: FOR PEOPLE WHO ARE DISABLED OR PREGNANT
A) YOU CAN’T SIT HERE IF YOU ARE PREGNANT
B) YOU SHOULD OFFER THIS SEAT TO A DISABLED PERSON OR TO A PREGNANT
WOMAN
C) YOU CAN SIT HERE IF YOU ARE NOT DISABLED
D) PREGNANT WOMEN SHOULD ALWAYS STAND UP
36
GREEN FARM MARKET: ALL OUR FOODS ARE MADE WITH LOCALLY PRODUCED
INGREDIENTS! ALSO GUTEN FREE PRODUCTS. GARDEN CAFÉ OPEN WITH FREE
SEATING BUT YOU CAN CONSUME ONLY FOOD AND DRINKS BOUGHT HERE!
A) YOU CAN BUY FOOD AT THE MARKET AND EAT IT IN THE GARDEN CAFÉ
B) YOU CAN BUY FOOD AT THE MARKET AND EAT IN THE GARDEN CAFÉ WITH
YOUR OWN DRINKS
C) ALL THE FOODS SOLD AT THE MARKET ARE GLUTEN FREE
D) SOME OF THE FOOD AT THE MARKET HAS BEEN BOUGHT IN THE LOCAL
AREA
MOTORWAY EXIT N. 5 WILL BE CLOSED FOR REPAIRS EVERY NIGHT FROM 10 P.M.
TO 6 A.M. UNTIL THE END OF MAY
A) IT WON’T BE POSSIBLE TO DRIVE ALONG EXIT N. 5 AT EIGHT IN THE EVENING
IN MAY
B) IT WON’T BE POSSIBLE TO DRIVE ALONG EXIT N. 5 AT ELEVEN IN THE
EVENING IN JUNE
C) IT WILL BE POSSIBLE TO DRIVE ALONG EXIT N. 5 AT NINE IN THE EVENING IN
MAY
D) IT WILL BE POSSIBLE TO DRIVE ALONG EXIT N. 5 AT FIVE IN THE MORNING IN
MAY
5 LEGGI LE SEGUENTI DESCRIZIONI E SCEGLI QUELLA PIU’ ADATTA ALLE
PERSONE DI SEGUITO INDICATE
BOOK 1 - A JOURNEY INTO THE PAST
WRITTEN BY THE MOST FAMOUS EXPLORER OF CENTRAL AMERICA, THIS BOOK
WILL TAKE YOU ALONG THE ANCIENT ROUTE THAT STARTS FROM THE SANDY
CARIBBEAN SHORES AND WINDS INTO THE DEEP FOREST AND UP MOUNTAINS
WHERE MAGNIFICENT REMAINS OF THE ANCIENT MAYAN CIVILISATION CAN STILL
BE SEEN
BOOK 2 – A LAND TO DISCOVER
WRITTEN BY ANNABEL FIELDS, OUR FAMOUS REPORTER OF AUSTRALIAN BIRTH,
THIS BOOK IS A NECESSARY GUIDE FOR ANYONE WHO WANTS TO VISIT THE
ISLAND, WHERE PAST AND PRESENT COEXIST. WHETHER YOU WANT TO STAY IN
SIDNEY AND ENJOY ITS MODERN AND VIVID LIFE, OR TO TRAVEL DEEP INTO THE
DESERT AND DISCOVER THE ISLAND’S NATURAL BEAUTIES, THIS BOOK IS THE
RIGHT THING FOR YOU!
BOOK 3 – LIFE AND MYSTERIES OF A SPY
SET IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY, IN THE TROUBLED YEARS OF THE
SECOND WORLD WAS, THIS BOOK IS THE STORY OF ONE OF THE MOST FAMOUS
SPIES WHO WORKED FROM PARIS TO VIENNA AND BERLIN. NOT ONLY A SPY, BUT
37
ALSO A BEAUTIFUL WOMAN, FAMOUS FOR HER LOVE AFFAIRS, HES SECRETS
REMAIN UNDISCLOSED.
BOOK 4 – SECRETS OF MI5
A BOOK THAT WILL TAKE YOU INTO THE SECRETS OF MI5, THE BRITISH SECURITY
SERVICE, FAMOUS FOR ITS ACTIVITIES DURING AND AFTER THE SECOND WORLS
WAR. AFTER LEAVING THE SERVICE, THE AUTHOR OF THIS BOOK DECIDED TO
REVEAL SOME OF HIS MOST SECRET MISSIONS IN A BREATHTAKING NOVEL WHERE
FICTION AND REALITY MIX TOGETHER
BOB IS GOING TO AUSTRALIA AS PART OF HIS JOB, BUT HE WOULD ALSO LIKE TO
VISIT THE COUNTRY. HE’S LOOKING FOR A GUIDEBOOK TO MAKE THE MOST OF HIS
HOLIDAY = BOOK N. …
ALAN IS AN ENGLISHMAN WHO LIKES READING ABOUT THE RECENT HISTORY OF
HIS COUNTRY. IN PARTICULAR HE ENJOYS READING SPY-STORIES AND
BIOGRAPHIES = BOOK N. …
ANN IS INTERESTED IN PAST CULTURES AND EXOTIC LANDSCAPES, BUT CAN’T
AFFORT A HOLIDAY IN DISTANT PLACES. SO SHE LIKES READING BOOKS THAT
DESCRIBE EXOTIC PLACES AND THE CULTURES FROM THE PAST = BOOK N. …
SARAH IS GOING ON HOLIDAY AND SHE WOULD LIKE TO TAKE AN INTERESTING
BOOK WITH HER. SHE LOVES ROMANTIC STORIES, BUT SHE IS ALSO INTERESTED IN
THE HISTORY OF EUROPE = BOOK N. …
38
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