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Archaeobotanical evidences of food plants in

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Giovanna Bosi*
Rossella Rinaldi*
Mauro Rottoli°
Elisabetta Castiglioni°
Marta Bandini Mazzanti*
Archaeobotanical evidences of food
plants in Northern Italy during the
Roman Age
TrentinoAlto Adige
- 12 sites
Valle
d’Aosta 0 sites
FriuliVenezia
Giulia 3 sites
Veneto 7 sites
Lombardia 32 sites
Piemonte 4 sites
Emilia Romagna 17 sites
Liguria 6 sites
Repubblica San
Marino - 1 site
Allium sativum L.
Amaranthus cf. blitum L.
Anethum graveolens L.
Apium graveolens L.
Atriplex hortensis L.
Avena sativa L.
Beta vulgaris L.
Borago officinalis L.
Brassica napus L.
Brassica nigra (L.) Koch
Brassica rapa L. subsp. rapa
Bryonia dioica Jacq.
Cannabis sativa L.
Carthamus cf. tinctorius L.
Carthamus lanatus L.
Castanea sativa Miller
Celtis australis L.
Chenopodium album L.
Cicer arietinum
Cichorium intybus L.
Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansfeld
Convolvulus arvensis L.
Coriandrum sativum L.
Cornus mas L.
Cornus sanguinea L.
Corylus avellana L.
Cucumis melo L.
Cucumis sativus
Cydonia oblonga
Cyperus esculentus L.
Daucus carota L.
Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.
Diospyros lotus L.
Dipsacus fullonum L.
Eruca sativa Miller
Ficus carica L.
Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
Fragaria vesca L.
Hordeum vulgare L.
Humulus lupulus
Juglans regia L.
Juniperus communis L.
Lactuca cf. sativa L.
Lactuca serriola L.
Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley
Lamium album L.
Lathyrus cicera
Lathyrus sativus L.
Lens culinaris Medicus
Linum usitatissimum L.
Lupinus albus L.
Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh.
Malva sylvestris L.
Melissa officinalis L.
Mentha aquatica L.
Mentha arvensis L.
Mentha pulegium L.
Mentha spicata L.
Mentha suaveolens/longifolia
Morus nigra L.
Myrtus communis L.
Nasturtium officinalis R. Br.
Nepeta cataria
Olea europaea L.
Origanum majorana L. cf.
Origanum vulgare L.
Panicum miliaceum L.
Papaver rhoeas/dubium
Papaver somniferum L.
Pastinaca sativa
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss
Phoenix dactylifera L.
Physalis alkekengi L.
Pimpinella anisum L.
Pinus cembra L.
Pinus pinea L.
Pisum sativum L.
Plantago major L.
Polygonum hydropiper L.
Portulaca oleracea L.
Prunus armeniaca
Prunus avium L.
Prunus domestica L. subsp. domestica
Prunus domestica L. subsp. insititia
Prunus dulcis (Mill.) Webb.
Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.
Prunus spinosa L.
Punica granatum L.
Pyrus communis L.
Quercus cf. robur L.
Raphanus raphanistrum L.
Rubus fruticosus aggr.
Rubus caesius L.
Rubus idaeus L.
Salvia officinalis L.
Sambucus nigra L.
Sanguisorba minor Scop.
Sanguisorba officinalis L.
Satureja hortensis L.
Secale cereale L.
Setaria italica
Sinapis alba L.
Sonchus oleraceus L.
Sorbus cf. torminalis (L.) Crantz
Sorbus domestica L.
Sorgum bicolor
Stellaria media (L.) Vill.
Taraxacum officinale group
Thymus serpyllum group
Triticum aestivum/durum
Triticum aestivum L.
Triticum durum Desf.
Triticum monococcum L.
Triticum dicoccon Schrank
Triticum spelta
Urtica dioica L.
Urtica urens L.
Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr.
Vicia ervilia
Vicia faba L. var. minor
Vicia cf. sativa L.
Vitis vinifera L. subsp. vinifera
cereal - 1
pulse - 2
fruit/nut - 3
vegetable - 4
herb/spice - 5
other use - 6
4, 5
4, 6
5
5
4
1
4
4, 5
4, 6
5
4
4
4
6
6, 5
3
3
3
2
4
3, 4
4
5
3
3
3
3, 4
4
3
4
4, 5
1
3
4
4, 5
3
5
3
1
4, 6
3, 6
5
4
4
4
4
2
2
2
6, 5
2
3
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
3
5
4, 5
5
6, 4
5
5
1
4
5, 6
4, 6
5
3
3
5
3
3
2
4
5, 4
4, 5
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
5
3
4
4
5
1
1
5
4
3
3
1
4
4
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
4
4
2
2
2
3
cultivaded/wild
taxon
kind
The aim of this study is to highlight carpological remains of food plants that
have been found in Roman archaeological sites of this area. Only the cultivated
and wild plants reported as food by the Latin literary sources (eg. André, 2009;
Dalby, 2003; Prance & Nesbitt, 2005) were considered (see table below).
c
w/c
c/w
w/c
c/w
c
c
w
c
c
c
w
c
c/w
w/c
c/w
c/w
w/c
c
w/c
c
w
c
w/c
w
w/c
c
c
c
w/c
c/w
w
c
w
w/c
c
w/c
w
c
w/c
c
c/w
c
w/c
c
w
c
c
c
c
c
c
w
c/w
w/c
w/c
w/c
w/c
w/c
c
c
w/c
w
c
c
c
c
w
c
w/c
c
c
w/c
c/w
c
c
c
w
w
w/c
c
c
c
c/w
c
c
w/c
c
c
w/c
w/c
w
w
c/w
c
w
w/c
w/c
c
c
c
c
w/c
w/c
c
c
w/c
w/c
w
c
c
c
c
c
c
w
w
w
c
c
c
c
classical sources
André, Prance &
Dalby, 1961
Nesbitt,
2003 (2009)
2005
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
André,
1985
Approximately 20 other sites will be added later and we will consider separately
the necropolis from other contexts.
X
X
X
1
X
X
X
3
The result is a list of about 100 taxa
of plants that can be used for food.
There are several categories; cereals
(ruling naked wheats, einkorn,
emmer and barley; broomcorm
millet prevalent among the minor
cereals), pulses (mostly faba
bean – Vicia faba var. minor – and
lentil), more than thirty taxa of
fruits (besides versatile grape, also
walnut, hazelnut, fig and peach
are the species with the highest
frequency), vegetables (including
bottle
gourd
and
chicory),
condiments (dill, celery, coriander,
mint, savory, cultivated poppy,…)
and plants for beverages, oils and
food dyes. Moreover, findings of
food preparations (eg. bread) were
found in several sites.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
2
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
4
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
5
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
6
7
8
X
X
X
X
X
context
site
Bazzano - pozzo Casini
Bologna - Fiera Bologna
Bologna - nuova stazione Altà Velocità
Casalecchio di Reno
Gambulaga - Portomaggiore
Voghenza
provinc
e
region chronology (century)
5 th-6 th AD
1 st BC - 1 st AD
1 st -2 nd AD
1 st -3 rd AD
Bologna
1 -3 AD
st
Ferrara
rd
1 st -3 rd AD
Modena - ex Cassa di Risparmio
15-40 AD
Modena - ex Cinema Capitol
Modena - loc. Baggiovara - Podere Fossa Buracchione
Modena - loc. Cittanova
2 BC - 6 AD
2 nd BC - 6 th AD
2 nd BC - 2 nd AD
Modena - Novi Sad
Modena - Palazzo Vaccari
Modena - viale Amendola
Sassuolo - loc. Poggio di Montegibbio
Ferrovia Modena-Sassuolo
Parma - piazza Garibaldi
Russi
Domagnano
Aqueleja - Insulae quartieri nord
Aquileja - Canale Anfora
Aquileja - ex Essiccatoio
Genova - S. Lorenzo
Luni - Domus
Luni - Mura e porta occidentale
Varignano
Albenga - via Pontelungo
Bergamo - via degli Orti
Casazza - loc. Brolo
Levate - loc. Roggia Colleonesca
Lovere - via Martinoli
Verdello - loc. Colabiolo
Breno - Santuario di Minerva
Brescia - Capitolium
Brescia - S. Giulia
Brescia - via A. Mario
Desenzano - loc. Faustinella - S. Cipriano
Desenzano - loc. Faustinella-S. Cipriano
Manerbio - Cascina Trebeschi
Nave
Pescarzo
Sirmione
Como - via Benzi
Como - via Benzi
Mariano Comense - via T. Grossi
Ponte Lambro - loc. Schieppo
Calvatone
Cremona - Piazza Marconi
Cremona - S. Lorenzo
Piadena - S. Paolo Ripa d'Oglio
Inveruno
Legnano - via P. Micca
Milano - Università Cattolica
Trezzo d'Adda - Cascina S. Martino
Lomello - via Gallerina
Lomello - Villa Maria
Angera
Angera
Arsago Seprio - loc. S. Ambrogio
Cerrione
Peveragno - loc. Castelvecchio
Pinerolo - Doma Rossa
Vercelli - corso Prestinari
S. Lorenzo di Sebato
San Candido - Casa dell'organista
San Candido - Fondo Böden
San Candido - Maso Grantner/Lösch
Villa Bassa
Villandro
Isera
Loppio - Isola di S. Andrea
Mezzocorona
Monte S. Martino ai Campi di Riva
Nago
Riva del Garda - via Dante
Mel
Vittorio Veneto - loc. S. Rocco
Padova - Banca Etica
Padova - Borgomagno
Montebelluna - fondo Sernaglia
Altino - loc. Fornace
Verona - Porta Palio e Spianà
nd
ER
Modena
Parma
Ravenna
RSM
Udine
Genova
La Spezia
Savona
Bergamo
Brescia
Como
Cremona
Milano
Pavia
Varese
Biella
Cuneo
Torino
Vercelli
Bolzano
Trento
Belluno
Padova
Treviso
Venezia
Verona
th
1 st BC - 5 th AD
3 rd -6 th AD
2 nd BC - 2 nd AD
2 nd BC - 6 th AD
1 st BC - 2 nd AD
4 th-2 nd BC
1 st -4 th AD
RSM 6 th AD
4 th-5 th AD
FVG 1 st -4 th AD
1 st BC - 1 st AD
1 st BC - 1 st AD
2 nd BC -1 st AD/3 rd -4 th AD
LI 4 th AD
1 st BC - 6 th AD
1 st BC - 2 nd AD
1 st AD
1 st -5 th AD
1 st BC - 1 nd AD
1 st -2 nd AD
1 st BC - 1 st AD
3 rd BC - 1 st AD
2 nd BC
Late Roman
5 th-6 th AD
1 st -2 nd AD
5 th-6 th AD
1 st -3 rd AD
1 st BC - 1 st AD
2 nd -1 st BC
5 th-6 th AD
1 st -3 rd AD
LO
3 rd AD
1 st -2 nd AD
Late Roman
1 st AD
1 st AD
1 st BC - 1 st AD
1 st BC
1 st -2 nd AD
1 st -2 nd AD
3 rd AD
4 th-5 th AD
2 nd -3 rd AD/Late Roman
4 th-5 th AD
1 st -2 nd AD
3 rd -4 th AD
1 st BC
1 st BC - 2 nd AD
3 rd -6 th AD
PI
1 st -5 th AD
2 nd -3 rd AD
1 st -5 th AD
2 nd -3 rd AD; 7 th -8 th AD
2 nd -3 rd AD
1 st AD; 4 th AD
Late Roman
1 st -2 nd AD; 4 th-5 th AD
TAA st
1 AD
5 th-7 th AD
1 st BC - 5 th AD
4 th-5 th (6th ) AD
3 rd -6 th AD
Roman
Roman
1 st BC - 4 th-5 th (6 th) AD
Roman
VE Roman
Roman
Romanization/1 st -2 nd AD
Roman
burials (bc = cremation;
bi = inhumation), sacred
areas (sa), settlements
(se), other context (oc)
oc (hiding-well)
bc
bc
bc
bc
bc
oc (reclaimed
channel)
se ( domus)
bc
sa/se
bc/bi/se/oc
se ( domus)
oc (aqueduct)
se ( domus)
bc
sa
se (well domus)
se (well)
se
se
se
se
se
se
se
bc
bc
se
bc
bc
bc
sa
se
se
se
bc
se
bc
bc
se
se
bc/bi
se
bc
se/b
se
se ( domus)
bc
bc
bc
bc
bi
se (cistern)
se
se
bc
se
bc
bc
se
bc
se (well)
bc
se
se
se
se
se
se ( domus)
se
se
se
se
bc
se
se
bc
bc
bc
sa
bc
references
Marchesini et al. 2008
Marchesini & Marvelli 2007
Marchesini & Marvelli 2007
Marchesini & Marvelli 2007
Marchesini & Marvelli 2006; Marchesini & Marvelli
2007
Forlani & Bandini Mazzanti 1984
Rinaldi 2010; Rinaldi et al. 2013
Rinaldi 2010; Rinaldi et al. 2013
Rinaldi 2010; Rinaldi et al. 2011
Rinaldi 2010
Bosi & Bandini Mazzanti 2010; Rinaldi et al. in press;
Bosi et al in press; Montecchi et al. in press
Rinaldi 2010; Rinaldi et al. 2013
Rinaldi 2010; Rinaldi et al. 2013
Rinaldi et al. 2010; Rinaldi 2010
Marchesini & Marvelli 2007
Bosi et al. 2011; Mercuri et al. 2012
Bandini Mazzanti et al. 2001
Mercuri et al. 2009
Rottoli 2001
Rottoli in press
Maselli Scotti, Rottoli 2007
Castelletti et al. 1996
Castelletti 1977
Rottoli 2001
Rottoli unpub.; Gervasini 2005
Rottoli, Castiglioni 2011
Castiglioni et al. 2007
Castiglioni 2005
Negri unpub.; Rottoli, Castiglioni 2011
Cottini 1998
Castiglioni et al. 1998
Castiglioni, Rottoli 2010
Castelletti 1987
Castiglioni, Cottini, Rottoli 1999
Castelletti, Maspero 1988
Castiglioni, Rottoli 2007
Castiglioni, Rottoli 2007
Castiglioni, Rottoli 2010a
Rottoli 1987
Castiglioni et al. 1998; Castiglioni et al. 1999
Rottoli 1998
Castiglioni, Rottoli 2006
Castiglioni, Rottoli 2006
Castiglioni et al. 1999a
Castelletti 1988; Madella 1993
Rottoli 1996
Castiglioni, Rottoli 2012
Rottoli unpub.; Rottoli, Castiglioni 2011
Rottoli 1987
Cottini, Rottoli 2000
Castelletti, Motella 1990
Maspero, Rottoli 2005
Castiglioni, Rottoli 2012
Castelletti 1975
Nisbet 1987
Castelletti 1985; Negri unpub.
Rottoli 1995
Motella 1990
Castiglioni et al. 2011
Motella 1995
Motella De Carlo 2006
Castiglioni, Motella unpubb.; Sadori et al. 2009
Castiglioni, Rottoli in press
Castiglioni 2005
Castiglioni 2005
Castiglioni 2005
Banzi et al. 2009
Nisbet 2008
Castiglioni, Cottini, Rottoli 2011
Moser 2006; Maurina 2009
Castiglioni, Rottoli 1994
Castiglioni 2007
Rottoli in press
Rottoli in press
Castiglioni, Rottoli in press
Castiglioni, Rottoli in press
Rottoli, Castiglioni 2011
Rottoli, Castiglioni 2011
Motella De Carlo 2000
Rottoli 2009
Castiglioni unp.; Rottoli, Castiglioni 2011
X
X
1 - Triticum cf. durum (rachis segment - 4,4 mm); 2 - Triticum cf.
monococccum (rachis fragment with fork - 6 mm); 3 - Triticum
dicoccon (caryopsis - 5 mm); 4 - Hordeum vulgare (caryopsis - 5,4
mm); 5 - Vicia faba var. minor (seeds); 6 - Lens culinaris (seed 2,1 mm); 7 - Satureja hortensis (mericarp - 1,1 mm); 8 - Triticum
aestivum/durum (caryopsis - 5 mm)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
9
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
10
X
X
X
Thanks to the arcaheobotanical finds it was
possible to better understand the relationship
between man and plants (eg. reconstructions
of the site of Novi Sad, Modena, between the
first century BC and the first century AD drawings: Riccardo Merlo)
X
9 - Coriandrum sativum (mericarp - 3,1 mm); 10 - Diospyros lotus (calix - 18 mm); 11 - Myrtus communis (seed - 2,4
mm); 12 - Celtis australis (endocarps - 3,2 mm); 13 - Pastinaca sativa (mericarp - 4,8 mm); 14/15 - Beta vulgaris
(cluster and achene 6 and 2,4 mm); 16 - Atriplex hortensis (achene - 2,2 mm); 17 - Brassica cf. rapa (seed - 1,9 mm);
18 - Morus nigra (endocarp - 3,4 mm); 19 - Lagenaria siceraria (seed - 14,1 mm); 20 - Olea europaea (endocarp - 8,8
mm); 21 - Corylus avellana (nut - 14,3 mm); 22 - Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera (pip - 6,7 mm); 23 - Prunus persica
(endocarp - 21,2 mm); 24 - Phoenix dactylifera (seeds and berry); 25 - Ficus carica (syconia); 26 - Juglans regia
(endocarp fragments)
11
cereals
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
12
13
X
X
nr. sites
14
15
26
X
X
X
X
pulses
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
16
17
fruits
18
nr. sites
X
nr. sites
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
This paper (which follows
other partial syntheses - eg.
Rinaldi, 2010; Bosi et al., 2011;
Rottoli & Castiglioni, 2011) is a
review of carpological records
obtained from about one
hundred archaeological sites of
the Roman Period (3rd century
BC – 6th century AD) located
in Northern Italy (Piedmont,
Lombardy, Trentino –AltoAdige,
Veneto, Friuli – Venezia Giulia,
Liguria, Emilia Romagna) and
in the Republic of San Marino.
The types of deposit are various,
such as necropolis, sacred
areas, inhabited and productive
structures (see table at right).
*Laboratory of Palynology and Palaeobotany University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy
°Laboratory of Archaeobiology - Museums of
Como, Italy
e-mail: [email protected]
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
22
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
19
20
21
23
24
25
Ethnobotanical information (eg. Gallino, 2001; Guarrera, 2006; Picchi & Pieroni, 2005) about the use of the plants recognised in this study are
collected to show how traditions sometimes has persisted to the present day and in the same areas of archaeological sites.
References: Andrè J., 2009. L’alimentation et la cuisine à Rome. Les Belles Lettres, Paris; Bosi G., Rinaldi R. Bandini Mazzanti M., 2011. Flax and weld: archaeobotanical records from Mutina (Emilia Romagna, Northern Italy), dated to the Imperial Age, first half 1st century A.D. Vegetation History and
Archaeobotany, 20: 543-548; Dalby A., 2003. Food in the Ancient World from A to Z. Routledge, London; Gallino B., 2001. Phytoalimurgia Pedemontana (di Oreste Mattirolo, 1918). Blu Edizioni, Peveragno; Guarrera P.M.G., 2006. Usi e tradizioni della Flora Italiana. Aracne, Roma; Picchi G., Pieroni A.
(eds.), 2005. Atlante dei prodotti tipici: le Erbe. Agra, Roma; Prance G., Nesbitt M. (eds.), 2005. The cultural history of Plants. Routledge, New York; Rinaldi R., 2010. Archeobotanica del Periodo Romano nell’area di Modena nel quadro delle conoscenze archeobotaniche nell’ambito emiliano-romagnolo.
Doctoral Thesis, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia; Rottoli M.,Castiglioni E., 2011. Plant offerings from Roman cremations in northern Italy: a review. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 20: 495-506.
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