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39 Asia Expert Meeting on Regulations relating to Electric Vehicle

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39th Asia Expert Meeting on Regulations relating to Electric Vehicle
Including Measurement of net power (R85),
Date
Place
: 21 November 2014 (FRI)
: VIETNAM REGISTER, Ministry of Transport
18 Pham Hung Rd., My Dinh, Tu Liem, Ha Noi
8:30 - 9:30
Registration
9:30 - 9:40
Opening address: from VR
9:40 - 9:50
Message: from JASIC
9:50 - 10:00
Photo Session
10:00 - 10:30
Technical Requirement for Electrical Vehicle
: from Mr. Takashi HIRAI
Q & A & Discussion
10:30 - 10:50
Coffee Break (20 minutes)
10:50 - 11:50
R85 General Information, Technical Requirements & Testing
: from Mr. Yoshihiro SAKAGUCHI
Q & A & Discussion
11:50 - 12:00
Closing address: from VR
Electrical Vehicle Regulation
November 21st, 2014
Takashi HIRAI
Chief Representative, JASIC Jakarta Office
JAPAN
Point1: Application for Safety Regulation in Japan (#1)
ROADVEHICLESACT(LawNo.185ofJune1,1951)
Article41(SystemsandDevicesofMotorVehicles)
Nomotorvehicleshallbeusedforoperationunlessitconformstothetechnical
standardsforsafety,environmentalpollutioncontrolandenvironmentalconservation
setbytheMLITOrdinanceconcerningthesystemsanddevicesenumeratedineachof
thefollowingItems:
*“operation”shallmeantheuseofaroadvehicleincompliancewiththeproperuseofthe
devicethereof(excepttheuseinplacesotherthanonroads),forthetransportationof
personsorgoodsorotherwise.
Article99(ApplicationMutatisMutandisofProvisionsofSafetyRegulations)
TheprovisionsofArticles40to42inclusiveshallapplymutatismutandistotheuseof
thosemotorvehiclesusedinplacesotherthanroads whichcarryagreatnumber
ofpersonsorareotherwiseparticularlyimportantforpurposesofsafetyorpollution
controlorotherenvironmentalconservation,asprovidedforbytheCabinetOrder.
2
Point1: Application for Safety Regulation in Japan (#2)
ENFORCEMENTCABINETORDERFORROADVEHICLESACT
(CabinetOrderNo.254ofJune30,1951)
Article13(MotorVehiclestowhichProvisionsofSafetyRegulationsApply
MutatisMutandis)
ThemotorvehiclesofArticle99oftheActshallbemotorvehiclesequipped
toaccommodateelevenormorepassengers.
3
Point2: Basic Concept of Regulations for EV
[point‐1]
 UN/ECE Regulations are Regulations for Type Approval.
 Technical requirement for non‐type approved vehicle such as modified vehicle, hand‐made vehicle etc. may be regulated by each government.
“1958 Agreement”
[Article 3]
Wheeled vehicles, equipment or parts for which type approvals have been issued by a Contracting Party in accordance with Article 2 of this Agreement and manufactured either in the territory of a Contracting Party applying the Regulation concerned, or in such other country as is designated by the Contracting Party which has duly approved the types of wheeled vehicles, equipment or parts concerned shall be held to be in conformity with the legislation of all the Contracting Parties applying the said Regulation through type approval.
[point‐2]
 Basically, same technical requirements should be applied to Both EV and non‐EV for type approvals.
 However, some of them could be added or relaxed for EV.
4
What is Basic Concept of Regulations for EV in Vietnam?
[Point‐1]
 WhatVehiclesshouldberegulated?
① InJapan,VehicledrivenonpublicRoadandMotorVehicleswith
elevenormoreaccommodationforpassengers.Forexample,Golf
CartisoutofthescopeofSafetyRegulationinJapan.
[Point‐2]
 WhatTechnicalrequirementshouldbeappliedforEV?
② Fortypeapprovedvehicle,thesevehiclesshouldberegulated
similartotherequirementforordinaryvehicles.Ofcourse,some
requirementswouldbeaddedorrelaxedforEV.
③ However,fornon‐typeapprovedvehiclesuchasmodifiedvehicle,
hand‐madevehicle,itisimpossibletobeappliedthesimilar
technicalrequirement.(EG:Crashtest)
5
The Scope of Today’s presentation
[Point‐1]
 WhatVehiclesshouldberegulated?
① InJapan,VehicledrivenonpublicRoadandMotorVehicleswith
elevenormoreaccommodationforpassengers.Forexample,Golf
CartisoutofthescopeofSafetyRegulationinJapan.
[Point‐2]
 WhatTechnicalrequirementshouldbeappliedforEV?
② Fortypeapprovedvehicle,thesevehiclesshouldberegulated
similartotherequirementforordinaryvehicles.Ofcourse,some
requirementswouldbeaddedorrelaxedforEV.
③ However,fornon‐typeapprovedvehiclesuchasmodifiedvehicle,
hand‐madevehicle,itisimpossibletobeappliedthesimilar
technicalrequirement.(EG:Crashtest)
6
What is the UN/ECE Regulation for EV?
SpecialRequirementforEV
UN‐R100
UN‐R12
UN‐R94
UN‐R95
UN‐R85
R13H
・・・・・
ELECTRICPOWERTRAIN
STEERINGMECHANISM
PROTECTIONOFTHEOCCUPANTSINTHE
EVENTOFAFRONTALCOLLISION
PROTECTIONOFTHEOCCUPANTSINTHE
EVENTOFALATERALCOLLISION
MEASUREMENTOFENGINEPOWER
BRAKING(M1)
*SeveraltestconditionandrequirementisregulatedinsomeregulationssuchasR13H
NoRequirementforEV
EmissionRegulation
7
Contents
‐ Overview of R100, R12, R94, R95
‐ Technical Requirements
1. In‐use Safety(R100 Part Ⅰ)
a. Protection against Electrical Shock
b. Functional Safety
2. Post‐crash Safety(R12, R94, R95) a. Protection against Electrical Shock
b. REESS Requirements
3. REESS Safety(R100 Part Ⅱ)
8
Overview of R100, R12, R94, R95 ‐History
Japanese
Regulation
UN R
WP29
1997
R100-00
2007
Approval of ELSA
Attachment1102)
ELSA1)
Main Issue : Electrical Shock
Attachment1113)
In-Use Discussion
Post-Crash Discussion
2010 R100-01
R100-01(Part Ⅰ)
2011 R12-04
R94-02
R95-03
R12-04
R94-02
R95-03
2013 R100-02
R100-02(Part Ⅱ)
1)
2)
3)
Main Issue : Battery
Informal Group on Electric Safety
Technical Standard for Protection of Occupants
against High Voltage in Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Technical Standard for Protection of Occupants against High Voltage
after Collision in Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles
9
Overview of R100, R12, R94, R95 ‐Scope
UN R
Scope
R100 Series 01
Safety requirements with respect to the
electric power train of road vehicles
R100 Series 02
Part Ⅱ
Safety requirements with respect to the
Rechargeable Energy Storage
System(REESS) of road vehicles
R12
Series 04
Safety Requirements with respect to the
electric power train of road vehicles
after full-wrap frontal collision(5.5)
R94
Series 02
Safety Requirements with respect to the
electric power train of road vehicles
after frontal offset collision(5.2.8)
R95
Series 03
Safety Requirements with respect to the
electric power train of road vehicles
after lateral collision(5.3.7)
Comments
Dedicated to EV,
HEV, and FCV
Post-crash
safety regulations
applied to all the
vehicles
Additional
requirements
dedicated to EV,
HEV, and FCV
10
Overview of R100, R12, R94, R95 ‐Objective Parts
High Voltage Cables
High Voltage
↓
> 60 Vdc
or
> 30 Vac
Integrated Box
- On-board Charger
- DC/DC Converter
Inverter
High Voltage Battery
Charging Inlets
- Normal
- Quick
Other High Voltage Components
- Air Compressor for HVAC
- PTC Heater
Traction Motor
11
Overview of R100, R12, R94, R95
Basic concept for the Protection against Electrical Shock
 Electrical Shock :
The passage of an electric current through the human body by direct
contact or indirect contact with 2 points which have different electric
potential(voltage)
 Direct Contact :
The contact of persons with live parts(the conductive parts intended to be
electrically energized in normal use
 Indirect Contact :
The contact of persons with exposed conductive parts
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
Direct Contact
Indirect Contact
12
Overview of R100, R12, R94, R95
Basic Concept for the Protection against Electrical Shock
(1) Protection
against direct contact
with live parts of the
powertrain
(2)Protection against
indirect contacts with
exposed conductive
parts of the
powertrain
 Prevention by insulation
and/or by the use of barriers,
enclosures, or others
Ensure occupant
safety by 3
approaches (3) Maintenance of 500Ω/Volt
or higher insulation resistance
 Potential equalization resistance
between exposed conductive parts
and electrical chassis be below
0.1.
Minimum insulation resistance of
500/volt, which eliminates occupant
harming risks. Insulation resistance will
be harmonized with related standards
based on the latest studies.
13
R100 Part Ⅰ Technical Requirements
1. Protection against Electrical Shock
Protection against Direct Contact
<Requirement>
The protection against direct contact with live parts1) shall comply with
- IPXXD2) inside the passenger compartment or luggage compartment and
- IPXXB3) in areas other than the passenger compartment or luggage compartment.
These protections (solid insulator, barrier, enclosure, etc.) shall
not be able to be opened, disassembled or removed without the use of tools.
1)
2)
live parts : the conductive parts intended to be electrically energized in normal use.
IPXXB, IPXXD : protection degrees
<Purpose>
to prevent human body from touching “high voltage”.
<Measures>
barrier, enclosure : ex. aluminum casting case etc.
exception : connector, service disconnect
14
R100 Part Ⅰ Technical Requirements
1. Protection against Electrical Shock
Protection against Direct Contact
the passenger compartment
or luggage compartment
IPXXB – 80mm standard
finger cannot touch live parts
(5.1.1.3)
IPXXD –100mm wire cannot
touch live parts (5.1.1.1)
IPXXB – 80mm standard finger cannot
touch live parts (5.1.1.2)
Connectors
(including vehicle inlet)
areas other than
the passenger compartment
or luggage compartment
15
R100 Part Ⅰ Technical Requirements
1. Protection against Electrical Shock
Protection against Direct Contact
<Requirement>
The symbol shall appear on or near the REESS. The symbol background shall
be yellow, the bordering and the arrow shall be black.
The symbol shall also be visible on enclosures and barriers,
which, when removed expose live parts of high voltage circuits.
This provision is optional to any connector for high voltage buses.
This provision shall not apply to any of the following cases:
(a)Where barriers or enclosures cannot be physically accessed, opened, or
removed; unless other vehicle components are removed with the use of tools;
(b) Where barriers or enclosures are located underneath the vehicle floor.
Cables for high voltage buses which are not located within enclosures shall
be identified by having an outer covering with the colour orange.
<Purpose>
to prevent users from opening, disassembling, removing unconsciously.
16
R100 Part Ⅰ Technical Requirements
1. Protection against Electrical Shock
Protection against Direct Contact
EUR/US
ASIA
RUSSIA
ARABIA
17
R100 Part Ⅰ Technical Requirements
1. Protection against Electrical Shock
Protection against Indirect Contact
<Requirement>
For protection against electrical shock which could arise from indirect contact,
the exposed conductive parts, such as the conductive barrier and enclosure,
shall be galvanically connected securely to the electrical chassis by
connection with electrical wire or ground cable, or by welding, or by
connection using bolts, etc. so that no dangerous potentials are produced.
The resistance between all exposed conductive parts and the electrical
chassis shall be lower than 0.1 ohm when there is current flow of at least
0.2 amperes.
This requirement is satisfied if the galvanic connection has been established
by welding.
<Purpose>
to prevent human body from getting an electric shock even if isolation
resistance between the live parts and the exposed conductive parts
decreases.
18
R100 Part Ⅰ Technical Requirements
1. Protection against Electrical Shock
Protection against Indirect Contact
<Requirement>
In the case of motor vehicles which are intended to be connected to the
grounded external electric power supply through the conductive connection,
a device to enable the galvanical connection of the electrical chassis to the
earth ground shall be provided.
The device should enable connection to the earth ground before exterior
voltage is applied to the vehicle and retain the connection until after the
exterior voltage is removed from the vehicle.
Compliance to this requirement may be demonstrated either by using the
connector specified by the car manufacturer, or by analysis.
<Background>
The grounding of the electrical chassis of the vehicle lowers the risk of the
electrical shock during the charging.
19
R100 Part Ⅰ Technical Requirements
1. Protection against Electrical Shock
Isolation Resistance
<Requirement>
If AC high voltage buses and DC high voltage buses are galvanically isolated
from each other, isolation resistance between the high voltage bus and the
electrical chassis shall have a minimum value of 100 ohms/volt of the
working voltage for DC buses, and a minimum value of 500 ohms/volt of the
working voltage for AC buses.
<Purpose>
simultaneously
to prevent arespectively
leak current from passing through the
human body.
※ sufficiently lower than the internal resistance of the human body
AC≧500Ω/V
Motor
DC≧100Ω/V
Inverter
Isolated
Battery
AC+DC≧500Ω/V
Motor
Inverter
Non-isolated
Battery
R100 Part Ⅰ Technical Requirements
1. Protection against Electrical Shock
Isolation Resistance
<Exception for Fuel cell vehicles>
If the minimum isolation resistance requirement cannot be maintained over
time, then protection shall be achieved by any of the following:
(a) Double or more layers of solid insulators, barriers or enclosures that
meet the requirement in paragraph 5.1.1. independently;
(b) On-board isolation resistance monitoring system together with a warning
to the driver if the isolation resistance drops below the minimum required
value.
<Reason>
difficult to keep isolation resistance of FCVs
21
R100 Part Ⅰ Technical Requirements
1. Protection against Electrical Shock
Isolation Resistance
<Requirement>
For the vehicle inlet intended to be conductively connected to the grounded
external AC power supply and the electrical circuit that is galvanically
connected to the vehicle inlet during charging of the REESS, the isolation
resistance between the high voltage bus and the electrical chassis shall be at
least 1 megohm when the charger coupler is disconnected. During the
measurement, the traction battery may be disconnected.
<Reason>
Same as IEC requirement.
electrical circuit
≧1MΩ
Charger
REESS
vehicle inlet
to the grounded
external AC
power supply
R100 Part Ⅰ Technical Requirements
2. Functional Safety
Indicator for “Ready to Run”
<Requirement>
At least a momentary indication shall be given to the driver when the
vehicle is in "active driving possible mode".
However, this provision does not apply under conditions where an internal
combustion engine provides directly or indirectly the vehicle's propulsion
power.
When leaving the vehicle, the driver shall be informed by a signal (e.g.
optical or audible signal) if the vehicle is still in the active driving possible
mode.
<Background>
This requirement follows the provision in R100-00, but the exemption is
added in consideration of hybrid vehicles.
23
R100 Part Ⅰ Technical Requirements
2. Functional Safety
Prevention against Vehicle Movement with Charging Connection
<Requirement>
If the on-board REESS can be externally charged by the user, vehicle
movement by its own propulsion system shall be impossible as long as the
connector of the external electric power supply is physically connected to the
vehicle inlet.
This requirement shall be demonstrated by using the connector specified by
the car manufacturer.
<Purpose>
To prevent a vehicle from tearing off the charging cable.
24
R100 Part Ⅰ Technical Requirements
2. Functional Safety
Indicator of the drive direction
<Requirement >
The state of the drive direction control unit shall be identified to the driver.
<Background>
Electric vehicles normally control the drive direction only by the traction
motor control, not by mechanical devices such as reverse gear .
25
R12, R94, R95 Technical Requirements
Background
 R100 requires not to get an electrical shock even if one failure occurs.
※ For example, if the insulation resistance becomes low, but the
potential equalization still comply with the indirect contact
requirement, there are no risks of having the electrical shock.
 This technical regulation aims to provide the requirements for postcrash safety, then it considers minimum requirements for the protection
of occupants of a vehicle.
 The condition of the electrical shock includes not only the direct
contact, the indirect contact, the insulation resistance, but also the
voltage and the energy of the electrical shock circuit.
26
R12, R94, R95 Technical Requirements
1. Protection against Electrical Shock
<Requirement>
After the impact at least one of the four criteria specified
1. Absence of high voltage
2. Low electrical energy
3. Physical protection
4. Isolation resistance
<Background>
Explained in the previous slide.
27
R12, R94, R95 Technical Requirements
2. REESS Requirements
Electrolyte Spillage
<Requirement>
In the period from the impact until 30 minutes after no
electrolyte from the REESS shall spill into the passenger
compartment and no more than 7 percent of electrolyte shall
spill from the REESS except open type traction batteries
outside the passenger compartment. For open type traction
Batteries no more than 7 per cent with a maximum of 5.0
liters shall spill outside the passenger compartment.
<Purpose>
to prevent electrolyte from catching fire.
28
R12, R94, R95 Technical Requirements
2. REESS Requirements
REESS Retention
<Requirement>
REESS located inside the passenger compartment shall remain
in the location in which they are installed and REESS
components shall remain inside REESS boundaries.
No part of any REESS that is located outside the passenger
compartment for electric safety assessment shall enter the
passenger compartment during or after the impact test.
<Purpose>
to prevent persons from getting hurt by REESS.
29
R100 Part Ⅱ
The Structural Feature of the Regulation
Technical Requirements
Part Ⅰ : Vehicle requirements regarding the electrical safety
(= the requirements of R100-01)
Part Ⅱ : Safety requirements for REESS
(= the requirements added in R100-02)
 Approval Provisions
Part 1 : Vehicle type approval including REESS
Part 2 : REESS type approval
30
R100 Part Ⅱ
The Selection of Test Method (Vehicle / Component)
At the manufacturer's choice the test may be performed as
(a) Vehicle based tests
or
(b) Component based tests
<Background>
 Vehicle manufacturers can secure the REESS safety
by whole vehicle(the control system, vehicle body structure).
 It is difficult for some of REESS suppliers
to test the REESS system as a part of vehicle.
31
R100 Part Ⅱ
Battery Management System(BMS)




SOC
SOH
Operational Limit
Diagnosis
32
R100 Part Ⅱ
Technical Requirements
1. Vibration(Component Based Test)
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
to verify the safety performance of the REESS under a vibration environment during the
normal operation of the vehicle.
Thermal Shock and Thermal Cycling(Component Based Test)
to verify the resistance of the REESS to sudden changes in temperature.
Mechanical Shock(Vehicle Based Test(R12, R94, R95) or Component Based Test)
to verify the safety performance of the REESS during a vehicle crash.
Mechanical Integrity(Vehicle Based Test(R12, R94, R95) or Component Based Test)
to verify the safety performance of the REESS during vehicle crash situation.
Fire Resistance(Vehicle Based Test or Component Based Test)
to verify the resistance of the REESS, against exposure to fire from outside of the vehicle.
External Short Circuit Protection(Component Based Test)
to verify the performance of the short circuit protection.
Overcharge Protection(Component Based Test)
to verify the performance of the overcharge protection.
Over-discharge Protection(Component Based Test)
to verify the performance of the over-discharge protection.
Over-temperature Protection(Component Based Test)
to verify the performance of the protection measures of the REESS against internal
overheating during the operation
33
Emission(No need for Lithium ion battery)
Ref. Current Activities in WP29 for EV
34
1. UN GTR on EV (Electric Vehicle)
June 2011
The US (NHTSA, EPA), the EC and Japan agreed to co‐sponsor such a group.
November 2011
The US, EC and Japan presented the draft proposal to establish 2 working groups to address safety and environmental issues of EVs.
March 2012
AC3 agreed development of UN GTR on EVS.
Organization
WP29
GRSP
Electric Vehicles Safety (EVS)
GRPE
Electric Vehicles and Environment (EVE)
35
1.1 Electric Vehicles Safety (EVS)
Technical sponsor:
Chairman:
Co-vice chairpersons:
Secretary:
EU, Japan, USA, China
Mr. Nha Nguyen(NHTSA, USA)
Mr. Johan Renders(EU), Ms. Chen Chunmei(MIIT, China)
Mr. Kazuyuki Narusawa (NTSEL, Japan)
Object of the proposal
The GTR will cover high voltage electrical safety, electrical components such as electric
connectors and inlets, and REESS-- in particular those containing flammable electrolyte. The
provisions will address the safety of electric vehicles, both in-use and post-crash.
The key items
a. In-use:
a) Protection against electrical shock
b) Safety requirements for conductive and inductive charging including connectivity
c) Safety requirements for REESS risks, including thermal shock, thermal cycling,
mechanical shock, over-discharge, isolation resistance, over-charge, vibration, fire
resistance and short circuit, etc.
b. Post-crash:
a) Protection against electrical shock
b) REESS crashworthiness including the limitation of electrolyte leakage, physical battery
retention, and the maintenance of essential safety performance.
c) REESS safety assessment and stabilization procedure.
December 2015: Submit draft GTR as informal document to GRSP
May 2016: Submit draft GTR as formal document to GRSP
June 2016: Submit draft GTR as informal document to WP.29
November 2016: Submit draft GTR as formal document for a vote at WP.29
36
1.2 Electric Vehicles and Environment (EVE)
Technical sponsor:
Chairman:
Co-vice chairpersons:
Secretary:
EU, Japan, USA, China
Mr. Michael Olechiw (EPA, USA)
Mr. Kazuyuki Narusawa (NTSEL, Japan), Ms. Chen Chunmei (MIIT, China)
Mr. Stéphane Couroux (MOT, Canada)
The key items
It is important to provide a forum for sharing information about developing techniques for
such important considerations such as measuring the energy efficiency of future electric
vehicles, battery durability, cold start performance, and recharging performance.
TOR of EVE
Scope
The term and the work in the groups will cover both battery electric (BEV) and hybrid
electric vehicles (HEV) (including plug-in hybrids (PHEV)) within the range of the1998
Agreement.
The co-sponsors aim to
Exchange information on current and future regulatory requirements for electric vehicles
in different markets,
Minimize the differences between these regulatory requirements, with a view toward
facilitating the development of vehicles to comply with such requirements
Where possible, develop common requirements in the form of one or more UN Global
37
Technical Regulations (GTR)
1.2.1 The new mandate of EVE IWG
(Approved in Nov.2014) Part A (by June 2015)
 further develop the recommendations for future work outlined in the
Electric Vehicle Regulatory Reference Guide.
Part B (needs to be approved by WP.29/AC.3 after June 2015)
 in the case that not all gtr(s) identified in Part A work are suitable for
development by other WP.29 informal working groups, develop new
gtr(s) identified in the workplan.
Timeline
[Part A]
 June 2015 Report the Status of Part A and proposed gtr request fot Part B to
GRPE and WP29/AC3
 If AC.3 approves gtr development to go forward, the following timeline could be
considered:
[Part B]
 November 2015
 January 2018
 June 2018
 November 2018
Approval of the Part B work by WP29/AC.3
Submit the draft gtr based on an informal document by GRPE
Approve the gtr based on a working document by GRPE
38
Final adoption of the gtr by WP.29/AC.3
2. QRTV (Quiet Road Transport Vehicles )
Measures Ensuring the Audibility of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles
At 145th WP29 (June 2008), National Federation of the Blind (NFB) made
a presentation regarding the possible danger for blind people caused by
“quiet cars”.
WP29 agreed to establish an informal group for this issue under GRB.
GRB Informal group on Quiet Road Transport Vehicles (QRTV)
2010-2011: Discussion in GRB
March 2011: WP29 adapted new RE3 including QRTV
Basically Japanese guideline
39
2.1 Current status
US proposed for Global technical regulation (UN GTR) on
QRTV at 55th GRB (February 2012)
Informal document GRB-55-12-Rev.1
Establish an informal group for this issue under GRB.
Chairman : US, Vice- chairman : JAPAN
Working schedule
September, 2011
June, 2012
18-20 July, 2012
December, 2012
16-18 April, 2013
16-18 July, 2013
10-12 December, 2013
November, 2015
: Provide a status report to the GRB
: AC3 agreed to develop the UNGTR
: 1st meeting, Washington D.C., USA
: 2nd meeting, Berlin, Germany
: 3rd meeting, Brussels, Belgium
: 4th meeting, Washington D.C., USA
: 5th meeting, Tokyo, Japan
: Provide a draft GTR on QRTV to WP29
NHTSA issued NPRM in January 2013, which will be also reflected to QRTV GTR
Informal Group on QRTV
https://www2.unece.org/wiki/display/trans/GTR+for+QRTV
40
Thank you very much!
JASIC
Jakarta
Office
lenovo
BNI
Elevator
hall
<Address>
Wisma 46 – Kota BNI, Suite 19.08, 19th Floor
Jl.Jend.SudirmanKav.1,Jakarta10220
<Phone&FAX>
Tel.+62‐21‐251‐3255Fax.+62‐21‐251‐3256
<E‐mail>
[email protected]
UN No.85
MEASUREMENT OF
ENGINE POWER
21 Nov.2014
JASIC
Yoshihiro Sakaguchi
1
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
Both vehicle models has been approved by UN regulations
as show below.
i-MiEV
OUTLANDER plug-in hybrid EV
Front motor
Rear motor
2
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
Contents
1. What’s UN No.85 ?
2. Explanation of the test equipment.
3. Explanation of the
certification test method.
3
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
1. What’s UN No.85 ?
UN No.85 outline
Uniform provisions concerning the approval of internal combustion
engines or electric drive trains intended for the propulsion of motor
vehicles of categories M and N with regard to the measurement of net
power and the maximum 30 minutes power of electric drive trains.
As positioning of an organization,
It belongs in “The Working Party on Pollution and Energy” of WP29.
WP29 : World forum for harmonization of vehicle regulations.
It belongs to UN/ECE and affiliated with the committee
and the 6 working parties.
It carries out a discussion and voting of a proposed standard
which was studied technically by the working party.
4
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
1. What’s UN No.85 ?
United Nations (UN)
U.N. Economic Commission for Europe
WP29
World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations.
GRSG
GRSP
*GRPE : The Working Party on Pollution and Energy
GRPE*
GRRF
GRB
GRE
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF NET POWER
5
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
1. What’s UN No.85 ?
About Mutual recognition
If the test of UN No.85 is certified by a country adopting the regulations,
additional certification by the other countries, joining the agreement
and applying the same regulations, is not necessary.
Individual
Recognition
Mutual
Recognition
Vehicle Manufactures
and Vehicle Parts maker
Vehicle Manufactures
and Vehicle Parts maker
Certification by
the government C
Certification by
the government A
Certification by
the government A
Certification by
the government B
market A
market B
market C
market A
market B
market C
6
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
1. What’s UN No.85 ?
The countries which have adopted UN No.85
Germany, France, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, Belgium, Hungary,
Czech Republic, Spain, Serbia, United Kingdom, Austria, Luxembourg,
Switzerland, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Romania, Poland, Portugal,
Russian Federation, Greece, Ireland, Croatia, Slovenia, Slovakia,
Belarus, Estonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Latvia, Bulgaria,
Lithuania, Turkey, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, ・・・
7
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
1. What’s UN No.85 ?
Contents of UN No.85
1. Scope
2. Definitions
3. Application for approval
4. Approval
5. Specifications and tests
6. Conformity of production
7. Penalties for non-conformity
8. Modification and extension of approval of the drive train type
9. Production definitely discontinued
10. Names and addresses of technical services responsible for
conducting tests, and of administrative departments
8
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
1. What’s UN No.85 ?
Contents of UN No.85
ANNEXES
Annex 1 - Essential characteristics of the internal combustion engine and
information concerning the conduct of tests
Annex 2 - Essential characteristics of the electric drive train and information
concerning the conduct of tests
Annex 3 - Communication concerning the approval or extension or refusal or
withdrawal of approval or production definitely discontinued
of a drive train type pursuant to Regulation No. 85
Annex 4 - Arrangements of approval marks
Annex 5 - Method for measuring internal combustion engine net power
Annex 6 - Method for measuring net power and the maximum 30 minutes
power of electric drive trains
Annex 7 - Checks on conformity of production
9
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
1. What’s UN No.85 ?
Today's candidate for explanation
This regulation is described about the power test of a internal combustion
engine and an electric motor.
Today, we focus on the electric motor, I will explain about how to test and
overview of the test.
Internal combustion engine
Electric motor
10
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
2. Explanation of test equipment.
Electric motor test bench
Dynamo
Torque,
Speed
meter
Testing
Motor
11
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
2. Explanation of test equipment.
The connection of the component.
Test bench
system
DC
Power source
(Input Voltage)
Wiring
Cooling system : Water
Water Pump
Voltage meter
Water hose
Dynamo
Torque/
Speed
meter
Testing
Motor
Motor
controller
Radiator
Torque request
Dynamo
control
unit
Dynamo control PC
and
Data acquisition PC
Speed request
Motor control
PC
(Commercially available
software )
12
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
2. Explanation of test equipment.
Problem of the cooling system
In the bench test, the construction will be as shown when the motor is cooled
by a radiator..
However, in an actual vehicle , other components are also set in the same line.
heat up
motor
controller-A
Radiator
Water
pump
motor-A
motor
controller-B
motor-B
another
component
Coolant
water line
Bench cooling
system system
Actual vehicle cooling
system(example)
13
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
2. Explanation of test equipment.
The connection of the component.
Test bench
system
DC
Power source
(Input Voltage)
Wiring
Cooling system : Oil
Voltage meter
Oil Pump
Oil hose
Water tub
Dynamo
Torque/
Speed
meter
Testing
Motor
Motor
controller
Oil cooler
Torque request
Dynamo
control
unit
Dynamo control PC
and
Data acquisition PC
Speed request
Motor control
PC
(Commercially available
software )
14
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
2. Explanation of test equipment.
About cooling system.
The oil cooling system of the test bench vs the actual vehicle.
Oil temp characteristics when a
programed cycle test is carried out
on the test bench.
Example of “cycle test”.
JC-08, UN No.84, NEDC, etc.
Measurement of Fuel Consumption
Oil temp characteristics when the cycle test
is carried out by the actual vehicle.
15
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
2. Explanation of test equipment.
About Auxiliaries
Auxiliaries to be fitted
The auxiliaries necessary for the drive train operation in the intend application
shall be installed in the same position as in the vehicle.
Auxiliaries to be removed
Air compressor for brakes, Power steering compressor, Suspension system,
Air conditioner system, etc.
Where accessories cannot be removed, the power they absorb in
the unloaded condition may be determined and added to the measured power.
16
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
2. Explanation of test equipment.
The document which should be prepared
By preparing these kind of documents in advance,
the certification test will proceed smoothly.
1
Test motor and controller
2
Auxiliaries (cooling system)
3
Measuring equipment
Model type, ID no. , Serial no.
etc.
Model type, ID no. ,Serial no.
Manufacturer, Inspection date,
Expiration date etc.
17
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
2. Explanation of test equipment.
The document which should be prepared
We have submitted a information concerning the conduct of
tests to the certifying officer.
Annex2 and Annex3
Annex 2
Essential characteristics of the electric drive train and information
concerning the conduct of tests
1. General
1.1. Make: .........................
1.2.Type: ...........................
1.5 Test Voltage: ………….
----2. Motor
2.1. Working principle
2.1.1. Direct current (DC)/alternative current (AC)1 number of phases: ………
2.1.5. Number of poles of the motor: .............
----3. Motor controller
4. Cooling system
18
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
2. Explanation of test equipment.
Accuracy of measurements
DC Voltage source : Maximum voltage drop is 5%.
periods of less than 10sec, excluded.
Torque : +/-1% of measurement torque.
The accuracy in the lower half of the measuring
range of the dynamometer bench may be +/-2%
of measured torque.
Motor speed : 0.5% of measured speed.
Motor inlet air temp. : +/-2K
19
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
3. Explanation of the certification test method.
The certification test in a UN No.85 regulation require
only the NET power test to a internal combustion engine.
However, the test of an electric motor require the following two data.
1. Determination of the NET power.
2. Determination of the maximum 30minutes power.
20
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
3. Explanation of the certification test method.
Outline of the determination of the NET power
1. Measure the maximum power of a full motor load.
This test shall consist of a run at full setting of the power controller.
2. Measurements shall be taken with a sufficient number of motor speed points to define the power curve correctly
between zero and the highest motor speed.
3. Whole test shall be completed within 5minutes.
4. The application value of the power should not have a difference over +/‐2% to a measurement value. 5. Just before beginning the test, the motor shall be run on the bench
for three minutes delivering a power equal to 80% of the maximum power at the speed recommended by the manufacture.
21
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
3. Explanation of the certification test method.
Warm up of a motor before the NET power test
Just before NET measurement, it needs to be warmed up will 80%
of the maximum output for 3 minutes.
This output characteristic is the PMSM
permanent magnet synchronous motor. Maximum power
80% of the
max, power
Motor Speed
Input Voltage
Shaft Power = 80%of max, power
Measurable power
and speed range
Shaft Torque
3min.
22
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
3. Explanation of the certification test method.
Data of 3minutes warm-up
3 minutes
23
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
3. Explanation of the certification test method.
Determination of the NET power
The item of the data which should be measured.
The shaft power value is calculated in the following formula.
P
2∗ ∗ ∗
60 ∗ 1000
P : Shaft power [kW]
N : Motor revolution speed[min-1 (rpm)]
T : Torque[Nm]
π : Circle ratio (The ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter)
Therefore, motor speed and torque are measured.
And voltage is also measured in order to prove that
the value has not changed.
24
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
3. Explanation of the certification test method.
Determination of the NET power
In order to record the voltage and the rotational speed and the torque,
we will prepare tables and graphs like this when measuring the NET.
2.Examination table
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Torque
Shaft Power
Input Voltage
Nm
200.5
200.2
200.1
200.0
199.6
199.5
191.6
176.8
164.5
144.0
128.4
115.3
96.3
82.3
71.4
63.8
61.9
36.5
1.0
kW
2.1
10.5
20.9
41.9
52.3
57.5
60.2
60.2
60.3
60.3
60.5
60.4
60.5
60.3
59.8
60.1
60.0
36.4
1.0
V(DC)
300.2
300.2
300.1
300.2
300.2
300.1
300.1
300.2
300.2
300.1
300.1
300.2
300.1
300.1
300.1
300.1
300.1
300.2
300.2
80
240
Shaft Power
Shaft Power (kW)
No.
Revolution
Speed
min - 1
100.1
500.1
999.7
1999.9
2500.1
2750.0
3000.0
3250.2
3500.1
3999.9
4499.7
5000.4
6000.2
6999.9
8000.1
9000.0
9250.1
9500.2
9750.4
Torque
70
210
60
180
50
150
40
120
30
90
20
60
10
30
0
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
Torque (Nm)
Motor controller
Electric motor
Target
Speed
min - 1
100
500
1000
2000
2500
2750
3000
3250
3500
4000
4500
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
9250
9500
9750
0
9000 10000
Revolution Speed (min-1)
25
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
3. Explanation of the certification test method.
Determination of the target speed for NET power test
2. Measurements shall be taken with a sufficient number of
motor speed points to define a power curve correctly
between zero and the highest motor speed.
→ A sufficient number of target motor speed needs to be decided.
2.Examination table
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Motor controller
Torque
Shaft Power
Input Voltage
Nm
200.5
200.2
200.1
200.0
199.6
199.5
191.6
176.8
164.5
144.0
128.4
115.3
96.3
82.3
71.4
63.8
61.9
36.5
1.0
kW
2.1
10.5
20.9
41.9
52.3
57.5
60.2
60.2
60.3
60.3
60.5
60.4
60.5
60.3
59.8
60.1
60.0
36.4
1.0
V(DC)
300.2
300.2
300.1
300.2
300.2
300.1
300.1
300.2
300.2
300.1
300.1
300.2
300.1
300.1
300.1
300.1
300.1
300.2
300.2
240
80
Shaft Power
70
Shaft Power (kW)
No.
Revolution
Speed
min - 1
100.1
500.1
999.7
1999.9
2500.1
2750.0
3000.0
3250.2
3500.1
3999.9
4499.7
5000.4
6000.2
6999.9
8000.1
9000.0
9250.1
9500.2
9750.4
Torque
210
60
180
50
150
40
120
30
90
20
60
This power characteristic is the PM synchronous motor. 10
0
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
30
0
9000 10000
Revolution Speed (min-1)
Note : Above data is an example .
26
Torque (Nm)
Electric motor
Target
Speed
min - 1
100
500
1000
2000
2500
2750
3000
3250
3500
4000
4500
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
9250
9500
9750
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
3. Explanation of the certification test method.
Determination of the NET power
Actual speed and the maximum torque are measured at each target speed.
Then a shaft power is calculated by multiplying the speed and the torque .
2.Examination table
Electric motor
Motor controller
120
330
Torque
Shaft Power
Input Voltage
110
Nm
300.3
300.2
300.1
300.1
300.1
299.0
278.3
255.7
219.1
191.7
170.8
153.5
128.1
109.5
95.3
85.0
51.6
26.5
1.0
kW
3.1
15.7
31.4
47.1
62.8
78.3
80.1
80.3
80.3
80.3
80.5
80.4
80.5
80.3
79.8
80.1
50.0
26.4
1.0
V(DC)
250.1
250.0
250.1
250.2
250.2
250.3
250.1
250.1
250.2
250.1
250.1
250.2
250.1
250.1
250.2
250.1
250.1
250.2
250.3
100
300
90
270
80
240
70
210
60
180
50
150
40
120
30
90
20
60
10
30
Note : Above data is an example .
Shaft Power
Torque
Torque (Nm)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Revolution
Speed
min - 1
100.1
500.1
999.7
1500.1
1999.9
2500.1
2750.0
3000.0
3500.1
3999.9
4499.7
5000.4
6000.2
6999.9
8000.1
9000.0
9250.1
9500.2
9750.4
Shaft power (kW)
No.
Target
Speed
min - 1
100
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
2750
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
9250
9500
9750
0
0
0
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000
Revolution Speed (min-1)
In the case of the PM
Synchronous Motor
27
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
3. Explanation of the certification test method.
Determination of the NET power
Other controlled motor
Maximum Power In the case of the PM
Synchronous Motor
28
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
3. Explanation of the certification test method.
Determination of the NET power
Other types motor
Maximum Power
In the case of the Induction Motor
29
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
3. Explanation of the certification test method.
Outline of the Maximum 30 min. power test
1. The maximum power value that can be outputted by continuation for 30 minutes.
2. The electric drive train shall run at the bench at a power which is the best estimate of the manufacturer for the maximum 30 minutes power.
3. The speed must be in a speed range, which the NET power
is greater than 90% of the maximum power.
This speed shall be recommended by the manufacture.
4. The power must be in a range of +/‐5% of the power value at the start of this test.
5. The application value of the power should not have a difference over +/‐2% to a measurement value. 30
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
3. Explanation of the certification test method.
Determination of the measurement point
90% of
max. power
Maximum power
Measurable area
NET
power
In the case of the Permanent Magnet
Synchronous Motor
31
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
3. Explanation of the certification test method.
Determination of the measurement point
Temperature rise of the coil due to the current.
Upper limit of the motor coil temp.
Motor coil temp.
motor speed
torque
power
32
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
3. Explanation of the certification test method.
Determination of the measurement point
Example of when the applied torque is too large.
motor coil temp.
Upper limit of the motor coil temp.
motor speed
Overrun
torque
power
NG
Over +/-5%
30min.
33
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
3. Explanation of the certification test method.
Determination of the measurement power, so that the motor coil
temp. does not exceed the upper limit.
Higher coil temp.
rise
Upper limit of the motor coil temp.
Coil temp.
of each power
Higher power
(Larger torque)
Each power
34
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
3. Explanation of the certification test method.
Determination of the measurement point
Examples of items to limit the motor torque
1. Motor coil temp.
The purpose of having many coils inside the motor is to excite magnetic field,
therefore the coil will heat up when applying high current.
Copper wire that make up the coil is divided into insulation class in the
table below.
2. Temp. of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor(IGBT) in Controller
Same as IGBT inside motor controller, high current flows will generate
heat too. Normally, the upper limit temperature is set by the transistor maker.
Thus, temperature limit are set on motor and controller, respectively.
If this limit starts, the torque of motor will be reduced, in order to lower
the temperature.
IEC 60085
Thermal class(℃)
90
105
120
130
155
180
200
220
250
35
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
3. Explanation of the certification test method.
Maximum 30min. power test sheet. (example)
In order to record the voltage and the rotational speed and the torque,
We will prepare tables and graphs like this when measuring the Maximum
30minutes power.
2.Examination table
( hr :min :sec )
min-1
1
Start
2
05min. later
3
10min. later
4
15min. later
5
20min. later
6
25min. later
7
30min. later
Average (7points)
Torque
Input
Voltage
Nm
kW
V(DC)
90
30
25
Shaft output power (kW)
Time
No.
Motor controller
Shaft
Power
60
20
Torque (Nm)
Electric motor
Revolution
Speed
15
30
10
Shaft
Power
5
Torque
0
0
Start
05min.
later
10min.
later
15min.
later
20min.
later
25min.
later
30min.
later
Time
36
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
3. Explanation of the certification test method.
Example of a Maximum 30min. power test
We will measure the motor speed, torque, power, and voltage at the start
of the test.
And 5minutes later, 10minutes later, We will record similar items.
In this example, the interval is 5 minutes.
2.Examination table
Time
( hr :min :sec )
-1
Motor controller
Torque
Shaft
Power
Input
Voltage
Nm
kW
V(DC)
96.3
50.4
250.2
1
Start
16:11:44
min
4999.8
2
05min. later
16:16:44
4999.7
96.1
50.3
250.1
3
10min. later
16:21:44
5000.1
96.0
50.3
250.2
4
15min. later
16:26:44
5000.5
95.9
50.2
250.0
5
20min. later
16:31:44
5000.6
95.8
50.2
250.2
6
25min. later
16:36:44
5000.1
95.6
50.1
250.1
7
30min. later
16:41:44
4999.8
95.5
50.0
250.2
5000.1
95.9
50.2
250.1
Average (7points)
80
120
70
100
60
80
50
60
40
30
40
20
Shaft
Power
10
Within 2% of the applicant value.
Torque
20
0
0
Start
Note : Above data is an example .
Torque (Nm)
No.
Revolution
Speed
Shaft power (kW)
Electric motor
05min.
later
10min.
later
15min.
later
20min.
later
25min.
later
30min.
later
Time
37
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
Summary
1. Many countries have Introduced UN No.85.
2. UN No.85 belongs to UN regulations.
3. A test bench is necessary to measure an power characteristic
of an electric motor to pass a certification test.
4. An extra cooling system may be introduced when necessary.
5. UN No.85 certification test has two test.
Determination of the NET power.
Determination of the maximum 30minutes power.
UN No.85 MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE POWER
Thank you very much
for your attention.
Danh sa.ch can be) tham gia
Hoi nghi chuyen gia Chau A Ian 39 ye Xe dien
Ha NOi, 21-11-2014
TT Ho va ten (64,narnR,) Dun vi PI
. )
Ghi chti (rz;:y.
1.
Takashi Hirai
JASIC - Jakarta Office
2.
Yuki Toba
General Safety
Subcommittee
3.
Yoshihiro Sakaguchi
4.
Dang V* Ha_
General Safety
Subcommittee
Peludy ard,,ibtal Pker..61/
Ab,,,,„
,
PhO Cuc twang
Icy'
5.
Nguy6n Dong Phong
Phong VAQ
6.
Nguy6n Van Platrung
Phong VAQ
7.
NguyL Manh Twang
Ph6ng VAQ
8.
Doan Manh H'
Ph6ng VAQ
144.- ----
9.
To Hoang Tung
Phong VAQ
I.4 '
10. TrAn Ngoc Trung
Ph6ng VAQ
le
11. Nguy6n Manh Thuan
Ph6ng VAQ
12. TrAn Huy Khanh
Phong VAQ
13. TrAn Trung HiL
PhOng VAQ
14. Nguy6n Dire thanh
PhOng VAQ
15. Pham Minh Thanh
Trung tam VMTC
16. Pham Minh V*
Trung tam VMTC
17. NguyL Gia Thinh
Trung tam VMTC
18. WI Dire Chi6n
Trung tam VMTC
19. Dao Huy Hai
Trung tam VMTC
iCiccii„v
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7__ 2 A .,
20. Le Dirc Chung
Trung tam VMTC
21. NguyL Hodi Bac
Trung tam VMTC
22. va Thanh Niem
Trung tam VMTC
23. Nguy'L Cham Anh
Trung tam VMTC
24. Dinh Quang va
Trung tam VMTC
25. Le Wong Hai
Trung tam VMTC
26. NguyL Minh Manh
Trung tam VMTC
27. Cu Huy Son
Trung tam VMTC
28. 1-16 vie't Hai
Trung tam NETC
29. Hoang Van Minh
Trung tam NETC
30. Trinh Ti'L va
Trung tam NETC
31. Nguy'L Van Truyen
Trung tam NETC
32. Nguyen Thai Duang
PhOng VAR
33. NguyL Phuong Nam
PhOng VAR
34. Hoang Xuan Thao
PhOng VAR
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Ph6ng HTQT
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第 39 回アジア専門家会議(電気自動車の規制動向、R85)報告
2014/12/8 最終
日時:2014 年 11 月 21 日(金)9:00~11:30
場所:ハノイ・ベトナム登録局(Vietnam Register)9F 会議室
出席者:(VR) Mr. Dang Viet Ha, Deputy General Director
Mr. Nguyen Dong Phong, Vehicle Certification Department Deputy Director
Mr. Nguyen Van Phuong, Vehicle Certification Department Deputy Director
Mr. Nguyen Huu Phan, Director International Cooperation Department
Ms Nguyen Viet Huong ほか約 25 名、別紙参照
(日本)坂口(三菱/JASIC)、平井(JASIC ジャカルタ)、戸羽(JASIC)
(概要)
・冒頭、VR の Deputy General Director より挨拶。JASIC より本会議開催にあたり VR と出席者に謝
辞。
・続いて JASIC ジャカルタ事務所長の平井より電気自動車に対する日本の規制状況、国連での規制動
向及び関連情報について、坂口氏(三菱/JASIC)より R85 の電気モーターでの馬力測定法について講
義を行い、質疑を行った。
・ベトナムでは電気自動車を環境に優しい車として普及を促進する活動を行っており、電気自動車全般
に関して幅広く関心がもたれている印象。
(講義内容、質疑詳細)
Technical Requirement for Electrical Vehicle
平井所長よりプレゼン。
・ベトナム政府からのリクエストで EV 関係の法規について専門家会議を開催することになった。まず
EV に必要とされる規制全般について解説する。
・まず日本の電気自動車に対する規制の適用状況について説明する。日本の法規はまず公道を走行して
よい車両の要件という観点から規制されており、公道を走行しないノンロード車についてはカバーし
ていない。ただし、ノンロード車両についても、道路運送車両法の第 99 条、同施行令第 13 条で乗員
11 人以上の車両に対しては、保安基準を適用することが明記されている。
・また、UN 規則は型式認証対象車両のための法規であり、型式認証対象ではない単品のハンドメイド
車両や改造車などについては各国政府が国内法規において個別で規制を行うことになる。
・VR から事前質問のあったゴルフカートのような車両は、日本においては「公道を走行」せず「11 人
以上の乗員」にも該当しないので規制対象外の扱い。
・EV に適用される技術要件は従来のガソリン車などと基本的には同じであるべき。
・また、単品のハンドメイド車や改造車については、たとえば衝突要件などを量産車と同様な要件を適
用することは不可能なのでなんらかの措置が必要。
・UN 規則では技術要件については EV もノン EV も基本的には同じ。ものによっては EV の特性に合
わせて要件を緩和したり、EV のための追加要件を規定するケースもある。今日はそういった EV 特有
の部分について、型式認証対象の車両の技術要件にフォーカスして説明する。
<UN 規則に規定されている EV 特有の要件>
・UN 規則で EV 特有の技術要件が含まれるものは R100、R12、R94、R95、R13H などがある。EV
はガソリン車と違いエミッションを出さないのでエミッションの規則はない。
・衝突安全要件はガソリン車と異なり EV 車については高電圧による危険性が懸念される。またバッテ
リーの安全性も担保が必要なため、そのための要件が R12、R94、R95 に規定されている。日本は UN
規則にこういった規定が入る前から国内規制を導入してきた。UN 規則はこういった規制を既存法規
を段階的に改正する形で導入した。
・高電圧保護規定の基本コンセプトは、乗員が直接・間接的にふれるポイントについての電圧規定と保
護、絶縁抵抗要件。
・機能安全要件としては ready to run インジケーターの規定がある。ガソリン車はエンジンが作動して
いるかどうかすぐわかるが、EV のモーターが作動状態にあるかどうかを音で判別することが難しいた
め、走行可能な状態であることをインジケーターで表示する。また、外部充電中に車両を動かすこと
を防ぐため、充電状態を示す。EV はギアなどのメカニカルな手段ではなく traction motor control で
制御するため、走行方向についてもインジケーターで表示する。
・R100 ではカバーされていない衝突後の安全要件については R12、R94、R95 で規定している。
・REESS については R100 および衝突後の要件について R12、R94、R95 で規定している。
・R100 の認可については車両ベース、コンポーネントベースいずれかをメーカーが選択できる。
<参考情報・最近の WP29 の活動から EV 関連のものについて紹介>
・1998 年協定下の GTR 検討において、2011 年から日米欧が共同スポンサーとなって EV に関する GTR
検討を始めた。安全・環境の二面から検討を行い、EVS の GTR を作ることが 2012 年 3 月の WP29
で承認された。
・EVS インフォーマルグループは EU、日本、US、中国がスポンサー、US 議長のもと EU、中国が共
同議長、日本が事務局。US と中国は 1958 年協定の締約国ではないが、世界的な国際基準調和のため
には US 中国も含めた活動は重要。走行中の高電圧安全と衝突要件がメイン。2015 年 12 月 GRSP に
ドラフトを提出し、2016 年 11 月 WP29 での採決をめざしている。
・一方環境面については、EVE インフォーマルグループが検討を行っている。こちらは各国の現行規
制や将来規制の情報交換がメインで、検討対象課題としてはエネルギー消費効率測定法やバッテリー
の耐久性など。先週の WP29 で新マンデートが承認された。その内容は、レファレンスガイドでまと
めた課題について今後 GTR の検討の可能性について継続検討するためのもの。2015 年 6 月まで検討
を行い、その結果 GTR を検討すると結論づけた項目については 2018 年 11 月の WP29 での投票をめ
ざして GTR のドラフティングを行う予定。
・もう一件、EV に関するトピック。EV や HV はモーター走行時の音が静かなため、視覚障害者にと
っては危険性を伴うという指摘があり、そういった車への対策として音による接近通報装置の検討を
WP29/GRB で行うことになった。日本はすでにこういったガイドラインを世界に先駆けて導入してお
り、日本の業界はそれに沿って自主的に接近通報装置を搭載している。発生させる音については実際
に視覚障害者を対象とした体験会を行って評価のうえ決定した。WP29/GRB では日本のガイドライン
をベースとした国際ガイドライン成立後、GTR の検討を始めた。2015 年 11 月の WP29 に GTR ドラ
フト提出をめざしているが、US の国内法規制定プロセスの都合から議論に遅れが生じている。先週の
WP29 で GTR と並行して UN 規則の検討を始めることが承認され、GTR よりも早く UN 規則が成立
する可能性が高い。EV、HV は一定速度以上で走行していればエンジン音がなくともタイヤ騒音など
で存在が確認できるので、モーターのみで低速走行する時に後付の音によって車両の存在を歩行者に
知らせることが接近通報装置の目的。
R85 General Information, Technical Requirements & Testing
坂口氏(三菱/JASIC)よりプレゼン。
・WP29 の枠組みでは R85 採用国同士では認可証が相互承認を行うため、同一型式車両を複数の国に出
す際に個別認証の手続きが不要。多くの国が R85 を採用して相互承認が成立している。日本は R85
をまだ採用していないが現在検討中。
・R85 では ICE と電動モーターの両方をカバーしているが今日は電動モーター部分に特化して試験装
置と試験方法について説明する。
<試験装置の説明>
・電動モーターの特性を計測する試験機はダイナモ、ダイナモ制御装置、回転計測、トルク計、電圧計、
電流計、電力計、 模擬バッテリー等で構成されている。R85 では,モーターとコントローラーを冷却
するための冷却システムに実車の冷却システムを使用する事を要求している。EV の場合、台上試験で
は他のコンポーネントからの発熱影響が考慮されず実車より高い冷却性能が出力されるため、実車の
冷却能力への補正が必要となる。そのため、オイルクーラーを水槽で冷却するオイル冷却システムに
よりシステムのオイル温度を制御するシステムを開発し、認証官の了承を得たうえで活用している。
場合によっては、ベンチ設備に追加して冷却システムの設備を準備する必要があるということ。
・試験時に使用する補機、取り外すべき補機についての規定、認証時に提出するドキュメント、測定精
度は R85 に明記されている。
<試験法の説明>
・NET パワーと 30 分間最大出力の両方を試験する必要がある。
・NET パワーの試験概要は以下の通り。
1. 試験モータの最大負荷時の出力の最大値。アクセル制御が最大となる制御でトルクを印加する。
2. ゼロから最高回転数まで出力曲線を描くために、十分な回転数計測点でデータを取得すること。
3. 計測は 5 分間で終了させる必要がある。
4. 申請値は、計測値に対して+/- 2%以上の差が無いこと。
5. NET 計測前に最大出力の 80%の出力で、メーカの推奨する回転速度で 3 分間モータを駆動させる
こと。
・上記 5 にあるように、NET 測定の前に 3 分間のウォームアップが必要。3 分間のウォームアップ試験
結果はエビデンスとして認証官に提出する。
・ウォームアップの直後に NET パワー測定。モーター出力を計測するため、トルクと回転数と電圧を
計測する。
・30 分間最大出力値の測定方法は以下の通り。
1. 30 分間連続で出力することが可能な、最大の出力値。
2. 電気式ドライブトレーンは、30 分間最大出力についてメーカーが最適とみなす出力で、ベンチ上
で運転するものとする。
3. 回転速度は、最大出力の 90%を超えるような速度範囲になければならない。この速度はメーカー
によって推奨されるものとする。
4. 出力は、テスト開始時の出力に対して、+/-5%の範囲内になければならない。
5. 申請値は、計測値に対して+/- 2%の差が無いこと。
・事前に計測する回転数を決定する必要があるため、計測するポイントを見つけ出す準備の試験が必要。
(全体を通して質疑)
Q1:平井さんに質問。EV、HV の視覚障害者に対する措置はどういったものか?
A1:国際ガイドラインは既に存在しており、EV と HV が 20km/h 以下の速度で走行する際に、従来の
ガソリン車等と同レベルの音を出す装置を装着することを推奨している。視覚障害者への注意喚起
のため、静かな車に音を出す装置を装着するということ。
Q2:その装置が出す音について具体的な技術要件はあるのか。
A2:ガイドラインにはないが、現在検討中の GTR と UN 規則では音量、周波数要件などを検討してお
り、2015 年に提案される予定のドラフトには盛り込まれる。
Q3:どのメーカーが EV、HV を市場に出しているのか。なかなか普及しないのはどういう原因がある
か。
A3:EV を量産しているのはどういったところか。という質問に対しては、日本メーカーでは日産、三
菱など、日本メーカー以外では BMW の i3 など。普及が難しい理由については、まずインフラの
問題。即ちバッテリー充電のための設備が必要になるが十分でないこと。また、バッテリー充電に
かかる時間も重要。何時間もかかるのでは普及はむずかしく、充電時間が短縮されないかぎり大幅
な普及は難しいのでは。日本は PHEV を出しているが。また、暑い地域ではエアコンが必須でそ
の分バッテリーの消耗が早くなるため、一充電走行距離が一定のことも問題だろう。
Q4:EMC についてはどのように評価するのか。
A4:EMC の要件は当然 EV にも適用されるが、EV 特有の要件が何かあるわけではないので、本日の
説明には含めなかった。
Q5:バッテリーの廃棄についてはどう処理されているのか。
A5:使用済みバッテリーの廃棄の問題も重要な問題。日本では、地方自治体やガソリンスタンドなどで
回収するのが一般的。また、一部の事業者では、リサイクル・バッテリーとして再利用するケース
もあると聞いている。
Q6:HV のエミッション規制はどういう法規なのか。また、日本では今 HEV はどのくらい普及してい
るのか。
A6:HEV の試験法は従来のエミッション規則の中に盛り込まれている。今日は EV 特有のものに特化
して説明したのでふれなかった。ふたつ目の質問については今具体的な情報が手元にないが、HEV
台数が増加していることは確か。
Q7:EV についてはベトナムでも Green Car のためのインセンティブ政策をとっている。日本ではどう
いった取り組みをしているのか。目標台数など定めたりしているのか。
A7:EV、HEV を含めた環境に優しい車に対し、日本は補助金と税制優遇措置をとっている。EV 自体
の価格はまだ高いが、補助金と減税措置によりユーザー負担を減らすことで、EV の普及に努めて
いる。
Q8:R85 について。30 分間の最大出力というのはどういうことか。
A8:モータは発熱により温度が上昇すると、パワーが低下する。エンジンであればファン等の冷却によ
り温度バランスを保てるが、電気モーターでは温度バランスを保てない場合があり、パワー低下に
至るため、冷却システムが安定して作動しなければいけない。それを担保するため、30 分間高負荷
継続状態のパワー低下が 5%以内であるよう規定を定めている。冷却システムが適切に作動してい
ればきちんと温度管理ができ、パワーの低下を防ぐことができる。
Q9:日本には REESS の基準はあるか。REESS に不具合があったらどうするのか。
A9:REESS システムに不具合があればメーカーがリコール措置を取る。
VR:電気自動車はベトナムで非常に関心が高い。また電動二輪車についても大きな問題となっている。
今後も JASIC と VR 間で情報交換など続けたい。興味深い講義をしてくれた JASIC の専門家、今
日の出席者全員に感謝。
以上
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