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Brush up English! -Grammar- 解答編

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Brush up English! -Grammar No.1Edit by halef
Rearrange the words
1,時勢に遅れないように、新聞には毎日目を通すことにしている。
I make it a rule to glance through the newspaper every day (so as not to fall behind
the times).
(as / to / times / so / not behind / the / fall)
2,そんなことが二度と起きないように気を付けます。
I’ll (see to it that it doesn’t happen again).
(it / it / that / to / see / again / happen / doesn’t)
3,たいていの場合、人は誤ったことを言いふらすつもりはないまま、噂話をする。
Most of the time, people who (gossip do not intend to spread false rumors).
(do / false / gossip / intend / not / spread / to)
4,砂漠で生きていくためには植物も動物も非常に少ない水でやっていく能力をもたねばならな
い。
Plants and animals (must be able to get along with very little water to survive in) the
desert.
(be able to / get along with / must / to survive in / very little water)
5,まだ結婚するつもりはありません。
(I have no intention of getting married yet).
(getting / I / intention / have / yet / no / married / of)
6,話を聞かれないように私たちは小声で話した。
We spoke (in low voices lest our conversation should be overheard).
(lest / should / our conversation / be overheard / in low voices)
7,彼は本をわきへ押しやって私の座る場所をつくってくれた。
He (pushed aside the books to make room for me to sit).
(aside / room / to / books / pushed / the / make)
Complete the sentences
1,ジョンは笑われるのを恐れて自分の失敗を隠しておいた。
John kept his mistake secret (for fear of being laughed at (made fun of) him).
2,私たちはお互いが見えるようにいすを並べました。
We arranged the chairs (so that we can see each other (to make it easier to see each
other)).
3,お待たせしてすみません。もう少し早く来るつもりだったのですが。
I’m sorry I’ve kept you waiting. (I intend to come here a little earlier).
4,彼らは新党を結成するために旧党を解散した。
They dissolved their own parties for (organizing (establishing / creating / building
etc…) new one (the purpose of forming a new one)).
5,娘に涙を見られまいとして彼は顔を背けた。
He turned his face away (not to be seen his tears by his daughter (to hide (conceal) his
tears from daughter)).
Put into English
1,すべての人は地球の環境を守るためにあらゆる努力をすべきだ。
All human beings should make every effort (do everything they can do) to save the
Earth’s environment.
2,私の祖母が英国を訪れた目的は、田舎の写真を撮ることでした。
The purpose of my aunt’s visit (approaching) England was to take pictures of the
English countryside.
3,入試も迫っていますから、風邪をひかないように気を付けてください。
You’re going to take entrance exams soon (The entrance exam is coming soon), so take
care of yourself not to have (catch) a cold (that you don’t catch a cold).
4,自動車は便利であると同時に危険でもある。1人1人の運転者は、交通規則を守って、事故を
起こさぬように常に注意しなければならない。
Cars are not only useful, but also dangerous. Each driver have to (must) observe the
traffic law and pay attention not to cause car accident.
5,魅力的な未来像を描くために、政治家はやりたい事とできる事の区別をしばしばあいまいにす
る。
To (In order to) imagine (present / represent) an attractive vision of the future,
politician (statesman) often make the distinction unclear the things (avoid making
the things clear) which they want to do and be able to do.
6,その会議の目的は、女性の権利を保護するよう、各国政府に強く求めることにあった。
The purpose of the conference (meeting) was to request strongly (demand) that every
country government protect women’s right(s).
Brush up English! -Grammar No.2Edit by halef
Rearrange the words
1,彼が失敗した本当の理由は何だと思いますか。
What do you think the (real reason for his failure is)?
(his / is / failure / reason / for / real)
2,交通事故の大部分は運転者の側の不注意のせいだといわれる。
It is said that most traffic accidents (are due to carelessness on the part) of the
drivers.
(carelessness / on / part / are / the / to / due)
3,コミュニケーションの手段としての話し言葉が重要なのは、言葉を通して文化が共有され、後
世に伝えられるからである。
Speech, as a means of communication, is (of major importance because it is the chief
way through which culture is shared) and passed on.
(because / culture is shared / it is the chief way / of major importance / through which)
4,テーブルから落ちそうなものをつかもうとするときはいつでも、他のものをひっくり返してし
まうのはなぜだろう。
Why (is it that whenever you attempt to catch something) that’s falling off the table,
you manage to knock something else over?
(is / it / something / that / to catch / you attempt / whenever)
5,ACME 社は我が町の住民に多くの働き口を提供した。この会社を誘致した地方議会は懸命だ
った。
ACME Corporation has provided a lot of jobs to people in our community. It was
(clever of our local council to bring that company) here.
(local council / of our / that company / clever / to bring)
Complete the sentences
1,会合は雨のために翌日に延期された。
The meeting was postponed (because of (due to / on account of) (the) rain) until the
following day.
2,なぜ彼を訪問できなかったのですか。
(What prevented (kept) you) from visiting him?
3,口数が少ないので、彼女はつかみどころのない人だ。
She is mysterious (because she doesn’t say much (that she is a person of few words)
(silent / because of her silence)).
4,私達は世界で毎日 1 万人ぐらいの子供たちが餓死していると聞いて驚いた。
We were (surprised to hear (at hearing) that there are about 10,000 children die of
(from) hunger (starvation) everyday in the world).
Put into English
1,いい時間に電話をくれたよ。君に会う約束を忘れていたよ。
It’s a good time to call me. (You called me at the best time.) I have (completely)
forgotten about our appointment to see you. (It reminds me of our appointment.)
2,申しわけありませんが、急用ができましたので、早めに失礼します。
I’m sorry, but I have urgent business, so I must be going earlier (but since urgent
business come up (arise), I’d like to be excused earlier).
3,日本の漫画は物語の複雑さゆえに、世界の若者の間で人気を博している。
Japanese comics are very popular among young people all over the world because
they have complex story lines. (Japanese comics have complex story lines, therefore,
they are really popular among young people all over the world.)
4,ここ数十年で、人間による環境破壊と乱獲のために多くの種類の動植物が著しく減少した。
For some decades (During the past few decades / In (For) a few decades), many kinds
of plants and animals species have (has) disappeared remarkably (sharply) by human
environmental disruption and overexploitation (because of the environmental
disruption and overexploitation by human being).
5,今から考えると、先生の教えが私の心に響いたのは、先生の尊敬できる誠実な人柄によるとこ
ろが大きかったように思う。
I came to think of it my teacher’s lesson got to my heart because of (due to) teacher’s
(his or her) respectable sincere character.
6,そもそもぼくがロンドンにやって来た理由の1つは、自分のことをもっとよく知りたいと思っ
たからなんだ。
Originally (To begin with,) one of the reasons why I came to London was I wanted to
know myself better.
Brush up English! -Grammar No.3Edit by halef
Rearrange the words
1,その場面は非常におかしかったので聴衆は笑わずにはいられなかった。
The scene was so (funny that the audience could not help laughing).
(audience / could / funny / help / laughing / not / that / the)
2,その少年は親切にも私を駅まで連れて行ってくれた。
(It was kind of the boy to take) me to the station.
(boy / it / the / kind / was / take / to / of)
3,彼は急いで教室に行きましたが、そこにはだれもいませんでした。
He hurried to the classroom (only to find that it was empty).
(that / to / empty / was / find / only / it)
4,私のドイツ語は下手過ぎて通じませんでした。
My German was (too poor to make myself understood with).
(to / myself / make / too / understood / poor / with)
5,彼は目を覚ますと見知らぬ人々に囲まれているのに気付いた。
He awoke (to find himself surrounded by strange people).
(strange / to / people / by / surrounded / himself / find)
6,見渡す限り一面砂ばかりであった。
There was nothing but sand (as far as the eye could see).
(could / as / as / see / eye / far / the)
Complete the sentences
1,彼女が快方に向かっているのでほっとした。
(I was relieved that) she was getting better. (I felt relief that / To my relief,)
2,彼がどうなったかだれも知らない。
No one knows (what has become of him (what happened to him / his whereabouts)).
3,彼は気が滅入って何も食べる気になれなかった。
He was so depressed (that he didn’t want to eat (feel like eating) anything (he had no
appetite / he didn’t have an appetite)).
4,月は本が読めるほどの明るさだった。
The moon was bright (enough to read books by).
5,私はずっとその演奏会のチケットを手に入れようとしてきたが、うまくいかなかった。
I have long been (trying to get the concert tickets (ticket for the concert), but in vain
(but I could not succeed / get it)).
Put into English
1,言葉はあまりに身近にあるので、その存在を忘れてしまうことさえある。
Words are so close to us that we sometimes forget their existence. ((Language is so
close to us / We are surrounded by language) that we sometimes take it for granted.)
2,目を覚ますと、彼は自分自身がベンチに横になっているのに気付いた。
He woke up (awoke) to find himself lying (and noticed (found) that he was lying) on a
bench.
3,「手を貸そうか。その箱は重くて一人では教室まで持っていけないよ」「一人でなんとかでき
るよ。ありがとう」
“Can (Shall) I give you (lend) a hand? That box is too heavy (for you) to carry (take) to
the classroom alone.” “I can manage on my own (by myself). Thank you anyway.
(Thanks, but I think I can do it by myself.)”
4,その双子の姉妹は見分けがつかないほどよく似ていました。
The twin sisters looked so alike (so much) that I couldn’t tell them apart (tell which
was which / who was who).
5,我々は言論の自由に慣れてしまっているので、この権利を獲得するのに何世紀も要したことを
忘れがちである。
We are so used (accustomed) to (the) freedom of speech that we tend to (sometimes)
forget that it took centuries to gain the right (it took (us) hundreds of years to acquire
the right).
6,20 世紀の歴史の最も重要な教訓は、独裁は結局国を破滅させるということである。
The most important lesson from history of the 20th century is that dictatorship
(finally) destroy (ruin) any country (a nation) (in the end / after all) (any dictator ruins
their state after all).
Brush up English! -Grammar No.4Edit by halef
Rearrange the words
1,高くなければどんな料理でもかまいません。
(Any dish will do as long as it) is inexpensive.
(any / as / dish / do / it / long / as / will)
2,もう 1 回そんな言葉を口にしたら、だれもあなたを信用しなくなるでしょう。
(Another such remark and no one will trust) you.
(and / one / another / trust / will / no / remark / such)
3,駐車するところがありさえすれば車の旅行も便利だ。
Traveling by car is convenient (provided that you have somewhere to park).
(that / park / you / somewhere / provided / have / to)
4,ほかに指示がなければ、後ろの出口から出なさい。
(Unless otherwise) instructed, you should (leave by the back exit).
(back / by / otherwise / exit / leave / the / unless)
5,そこから 1,2 キロ行くと「風の谷」という標識が出ています。
(One or two kilometers after that), you’ll see a sign that says “Valley of the Winds”.
(after / or / kilometers / one / two / that)
6,旅行の用意が周到であれば、面倒が大いに省けるだろう。
(Careful preparation for a journey will save you a lot of trouble).
(preparation / trouble / you / a lot of / careful / a journey / save / will / for)
7,ポップコーンをほおばる客にシーッて言わないなら、いっしょに映画に行ってもいいわ。
I will go to the movies with you (on the condition that you don’t hush) popcorn-eaters.
(you / that / hush / the condition / on / don’t)
Complete the sentences
1,急ぎなさい。さもないと学校に遅れますよ。
Hurry (up, or (else) (=otherwise) you will be late for) school.
2,右へ曲がると病院があります。
((+If you) Turn right (and)) you’ll find a hospital.
3,電車が遅れなければ、お昼にはロンドンに着きますよ。
You (will arrive in (at) London by noon (by the afternoon / around noon) unless (You
won’t arrive in London by noon if)) the train is delayed.
4,規則に従いさえすれば、自由にこの部屋を使えます。
You are allowed (to use this room freely (as you like) as long as you obey (on the
condition that you follow)) the rules.
Put into English
1,魚が新鮮かどうかは目を見ればすぐわかる。
You can easily tell whether fish is freshly or not when you (watch?) check their eyes. (I
will tell at once whether fish is fresh or not for its eyes. / Eyes of fish tell you if they
are fresh or not.)
2,その国の風俗習慣やものの考え方を知らなくては、その国の言語を十分に理解することはでき
ない。
You can’t understand the country’s language enough unless you know its culture. (If
you don’t know (Without knowing / But for knowing) the country’s culture, you can’t
really (truly) understand its language.)
3,私達はペットボトルをリサイクル用の箱にいったん捨てると、それがその後どうなるかという
ことをおそらくあまり考えないでしょう。
We may not think that what happens (will happen) to plastic bottles when (once) we
throw to them (plastic bottles) into recycling containers. (We would not think about
what once plastic bottle thrown in recycling containers is going to after that.)
4,もしあなた方が人々の過ちを許すなら、天の神もあなた方を許してくださる。
If you forgive others’ mistakes, (the) god (in heaven) will forgive you (as well).
5,もし君に偉大な才能があるなら、勤勉はそれに磨きをかけるだろう。もし君に普通の能力しか
ないのなら、勤勉はその不足を補うだろう。
If you have great talent, the diligence improves it. If you have ordinary talent (are a
just average), the diligence makes up for its lack.
6,虹にはいくつの色があるかと日本人に尋ねれば、7 に決まっているさという答えが返ってくる
だろう。だが世界のいろいろな言語を視野におくと、この問いに対する答えは実は思ったほど
簡単ではないのである。
Asking Japanese people how many colors does a rainbow has, they will answer that of
course it’s seven. But looking at (considering) various languages in the world, it is not
easier than we expect to answer this question. (When you ask Japanese “How many
colors does a rainbow have”, they usually say “It has seven colors absolutely.” But it is
surprisingly difficult (for world’s several eyes) to answer the question.)
Brush up English! -Grammar No.5Edit by halef
Rearrange the words
1,ちょっとお話があるのですが。
(Could I have a word with you) for a moment?
(word / with / a / I / have / could / you)
2,彼女は、招待されたパーティーに出席したくなかった。
She didn’t (feel like attending the party to which she had been) invited.
(she / like / attending / the party / which / been / feel / to / had)
3,クレオパトラの鼻がもう少し低かったら、世界の歴史は変わっていただろう。
(Had Cleopatra’s nose been shorter), the whole face of the world (would have been
different).
(shorter / have / had / been / been / Cleopatra’s nose / would / different)
4,たとえ明日がこの世の最期だとしても、私は今日も 1 本のリンゴの木を植えよう。
(Even if the earth were to come to an end) tomorrow, I would still plant another apple
tree today.
(if / to / to / even / the earth / were / an end / come)
5,もしあなたが僕の立場だったら、その時どうしていましたか。
(Suppose) you (had been in) my place, what (would) you (have been done) at that
time?
(had / suppose / in / have / would / been / done)
6,「ラジオをつけていいですか」「そうですね。なるべくならつけないでほしいのですが」
“Do you mind if I turn on the radio?” “Well, (I would rather you didn’t).”
(rather / you / I / didn’t / would)
7,この箱を棚の上においてくれませんか。
(Could you put this box on the shelf) for me?
(the / put / on / this / you / shelf / could / box)
Complete the sentences
1,音楽がなければこの世はつまらない場所になってしまうことだろう。
(If it were not for (But for / Without) music,) the world would be a dull place.
2,もしこんなにたくさんの宿題がなければ、買い物に行けるのに。
I could go shopping (if I didn’t have so much (a lot of) homework like (as) this).
3,あの非常にうまい守りがなければ、そのゲームに負けてしまったであろう。
(If I had not been for (If we had not had)) that great defensive play, we would have lost
the game.
4,幸い雨が止みました。さもなくば傘を借りなければならなかったでしょう。
Fortunately, it stopped raining. (Otherwise I would have had to) borrow an umbrella.
Put into English
1,自分も子供たちのように若いときにアメリカに来ていたらなあ。
If only I would have come in America like my children when I was young. (How I wish
I had been in America like my children when I was young.)
2,この季節のこの強い風さえなければここは冬でも快適な場所なのですが。
If only we didn’t have (If it were not for / Expect for / Without / But for) this strong
wind of this season, this (region) is comfortable place even in winter.
3,昔漢字が日本に伝わらなかったら、日本語は今日とは違ったものになっていたであろう。
If Chinese characters hadn’t been introduced in japan long ago (in the old days), the
Japanese language would be different from what it is now.
4,学生時代にこんな本に巡りあっていたなら、人生が変わっていたかもしれない。
My life would be different (what it is now) on the condition that I had come across this
book. (If I had read (encountered / come across) such a book like this when I was in my
college days, my life might have been changed.)
5,お手数をおかけして申し訳ありませんが、お車をもう少し前に移動していただけませんか。
Can I trouble you to move your car forward a bit? (I’m sorry to have troubled you so
much, but would you mind if you move your car a little forward?)
Brush up English! -Grammar No.6Edit by halef
Rearrange the words
1,レポートは手書きでもワープロでも構わない。
It (makes no) difference (whether you write) a paper (by hand or on) a word processer.
(by / hand / makes / no / on / or / whether / write / you)
2,メグはひどい風邪をひいていたが、それでもそのミュージカルを見に行った。
Meg had a bad cold, (but even so she went to see the) musical.
(the / went / even / to / but / so / she / see)
3,彼はだれがなんと言おうと自説をまげない男だ。
He never (changes his opinions no matter what anyone says).
(what / says / changes / no / matter / his opinions / anyone)
4,君に一番似合うと思う T シャツをどれでも持っていってよい。
You (may take whichever T-shirt suits you best).
(take / suits / whichever / T-shirt / may / best / you)
5,我々はその損失を埋め合わせるのに最良と考えられる措置を何でもとるつもりだ。
We (will take whatever measures are considered best to) make up the loss.
(whatever / best / to / are / measure / will / considered / take)
6,一度読む価値のある本ならば、二度読む価値がある。
Any (book that is worth reading once) is worth reading (twice).
(once / twice / book / is / reading / that / worth)
7, In many developing nations, (the poor often go without even the most basic care).
Either the cost is too high or the nearest doctor is too far away.
(basic / care / often go / the poor / the most / without / even)
Complete the sentences
1,確かに中古車は安いが、必ずしも信頼できるとは限らない。
It’s true that used cars (are cheap (inexpensive), but they are not always reliable (able
to trust)).
2,二月だというのに春真っ盛りのような暖かさだ。
(Although (Though / Even though) it is February), it’s warm like the height of spring.
3,この手紙を誰が書いたにしろ、その人はユーモアのセンスがある。
(Whoever (that) wrote this letter has) a good sense of humor.
4,うちの息子は覚えるのは確かに早いが、忘れるのはもっと早い。
My son is a quick learner, (but he is a faster forgetter).
5,彼は学校で一番厳しい先生だったが、みんなに好かれていた。
(Although he was the strictest teacher at school), he was liked by every student.
Put into English
1,誰が電話をしてこようとも、私は留守だと言ってくれ。
Whoever (No matter who) calls (me), tell them that I’m out now.
2,私は夕食にお客を招待することをいつも楽しんだ。しかし、幼い子供が二人いたので、おいし
くて見た目もきれいな料理を用意するのは大変だった。
I always enjoyed inviting friends for (some guests to our) dinner. However, it was not
an easy job (for me) to prepare delicious and attractive dishes with two young children
to take care of.
3,誰も傷つけたくないのはわかるけど、あなたの本当の気持ちを話すべきだと思います。
I understand you don’t want to hurt anybody, but (I think) you should tell what you
really think (feel).
4,人種差別は法律的にはもう存在しないことになっているが、現実には社会のいたるところに存
在し続けている。
(Although / though) The racial discrimination is forbidden (not existence / supposed to
have disapproved) by legal (laws), (but) it is still exist everywhere in society.
5,どれほど失敗を重ねようとも、決して絶望してはならない。一度の試みが失敗に終わったから
といって、希望を捨てるのは間違っている。
If we make a lot of mistakes, never despair. Even if one method doesn’t work (went
wrong), it’s wrong to give up hope (to lose hopes) after a single failure (only one
failure).
6,日本が世界一の長寿国になったのはめでたいことである。でも色々な機会に認知症の老人の話
などを聞くにつけ、長生きすることが果たしてそれ程おめでたいことなのかと思わざるを得な
くなる。
It is very happy for Japan to become the world’s top country for long life, but every
time I get an opportunity to hear stories of senile elderly on various occasions, I
cannot help wondering whether it is truly fortunate to live so long.
Brush up English! -Grammar No.7Edit by halef
Rearrange the words
1,人生でとても大切なことは、おそらく個人個人でみな異なるだろう。
What is (most important in life will probably differ from person to person).
(differ / will probably / to / most important / person / person / in life / from)
2,目と口が別々のことを言っているときには、私は前者の言葉を信じます。
When the eyes (say one thing and the tongue another), I rely on the language of the
former.
(and / another / one / say / the / thing / tongue)
3,あなたか私のどちらかが彼の代わりに会議に出なければならないでしょう。
Either (you or I will have to attend the conference in his) place.
(in / attend / I / his / have to / or / the conference / you / will)
4,どの文化に属する人もときに仲間を求め、またときに独りでいたがる。
People of all cultures (seek companionship at some times and privacy at others).
(privacy / companionship / and / at some times / at others / seek)
5,私には使う金がないのに、彼には金を使うものがない。
(While) I have no money to spend, he (has nothing to spend money on).
(on / money / nothing / while / spend / has / to)
6,努力のかいなく、私の計画に関するすべてがうまくいかぬように思われた。
(In spite of) my efforts, (everything seemed to be going wrong with) my plan.
(seemed / going / to / wrong / everything / with / in spite of / be)
7,全体としてはいい公演だったが、テノールは彼の最高の出来ではなかった。
On the whole, the performance was (good though the tenor wasn’t at his best).
(his / the / tenor / good / best / at / though / wasn’t)
Complete the sentences
1,事情は 50 年前とは大違いである。
(Situations (Circumstances / Matters / Things) are quite (very / extremely) different
from (to)) what they were fifty years ago.
2,私は新しい規則に反対です。
I am (against (opposed) the new regulation (rule(s) / law(s))).
3,私は働きながら大学を卒業しました。いろいろ苦労はありましたが。
I worked my way through college, ((even) though I had many hardships).
4,その絵は見苦しくは見えない。むしろ美しいと思う。
That picture doesn’t seem ugly to me; (it is rather beautiful (on the contrary (rather /
in fact / actually) I think it’s beautiful)).
5,米とアジア人の関係は小麦と西洋人の関係に似ている。
Rice (is to Asians what wheat is to) Europeans.
Put into English
1,先月母が入院し手術を受けました。手術はうまくいったのですが、母は高齢ですから、体力が
心配です。
Last month, my mother entered the hospital and had an operation. The operation was
successful; however I’m worry about her physical strength because she is old.
2,我々は自分の周りのあらゆるものから影響を受けている。そのことにめったに気づかないけれ
ども。
We have been influenced by everything around us, though we are seldom aware of it.
3,科学の進歩が必ずしも人類の幸福につながらず、その反対であることが多いのは残念だ。
(It’s regrettable (That’s a pity) that) Technological (Scientific) progress does not
necessarily lead to humankind (our?) happiness, but often have the opposite effect.
4,他人のやっていることは易しそうに見えるが、いざ自分でやってみると、それが必ずしも見か
けほど易しくはないことがわかる。
What others do often looks (like) easy, but when it comes to doing the job ourselves,
we realize that it’s not necessarily as easy as it seems.
5,最近、私達は人を「勝ち組」と「負け組」に分けがちである。しかし、何をもって勝ち組とす
るかは、人それぞれの判断による。
Recently, we tend to divide people into two categories: winners and losers. However,
what defines a winner is up to each person’s judgement.
6,謙虚になれ、ということを人びとは互いに教え合っています。しかしなかなかそのとおりの気
持ちにはなり難いようです。むしろ、自分が愚かである、欠点がある、力が弱い、という事実
を直視することによって、人は、言われなくても謙虚にならざるをえないでしょう。そうして
その事実を直視することによって、本当の力が出てきます。
People (We often) tell one another say to be humble. However, it is difficult to do (feel)
that way. Rather we cannot help becoming modest by realizing the fact that they are
foolish, they have a fault and they are week. (We are rather forced to be modest
through realizing the fact that we are not wise, not perfect and not strong, even if we
are not told to.) And they will appear (show) true (real) strength when they face
(accept) the fact.
Brush up English! -Grammar No.8Edit by halef
Rearrange the words
1,見ようとしない人ほど盲目の人はいない。
None (are so blind as those who won’t see).
(blind / those / won’t / who / as / are / see / so)
2,私が何を言っても彼女にはききめはありませんでした。
(Nothing I could say had any influence on) her.
(influence / I / nothing / had / could / any / on / say)
3,こんなことをしていたらとてもうまくはゆくまい。
We’ll (never get anywhere if we go on) like this.
(if / on / get / we / go / anywhere / never)
4,彼らは次のバスが来るまでしばらく待つしかなかった。
They (could do nothing but wait for) a while until the next bus come.
(but / could / do / for / nothing / wait)
5,昨日私はまったく思いがけないところでジェーンに出くわした。
Yesterday, I (ran into Jane where I least expected to) see her.
(to / where / ran / expected / Jane / I / into / least)
6,まさか彼女にそこで会うとは思ってもみなかった。
She (was the last person I expected to see) there.
(person / to / last / expected / was / see / the / I)
7,スーパーで売っている野菜は、すべてが新鮮とはかぎらない。
Not (all the vegetables sold at the supermarket are fresh).
(the supermarket / sold / vegetables / fresh / the / are / all / at)
Complete the sentences
1,Open-minded というのは偏見がないという意味です。
Being open-minded means (that no prejudice (at all) (you don’t have any prejudice / to
be (being) unprejudiced)).
2,この件についてはそれだけしか知りません。
(That’s all I know / That’s the only thing (point) I know) about this matter.
3,彼らが来ないうちに帰ったほうがいい。
You’d better leave (here before they come / while they are out).
4,健康が富に勝ることは言うまでもない。
It goes without (saying that health is more important (better) than wealth).
5,今日の多くの人たちは、テレビなしではいられない。
Many people today (can’t do (live) without television).
Put into English
1,昔も今も、また未来においても変わらないことがある。
There are unchangeable things (in the) past, present and future. (There is something
unchangeable from ancient on now and forevermore.)
2,大地震で火災が起こると、道路が通れなくなるので、消防車による消火は期待できない。
Because it becomes impossible to pass the road when a fire happens due to a big
earthquake, we can’t expect to put it off by fire-engines. (When the big earthquake
occurs, we can’t expect extinguishing a fire by fire-engines because roads prevent us
going through.)
3,大学卒業はもはや就職するためのパスポートではなくなりつつあるということに、多くの人が
気づき始めている。
A lot of (More and more / A number of) people start (begin) to realize that graduating
them from university (college) isn’t a passport to get work (a job).
4,迷っていてはどうにもならない。やってみるに越したことはない。
Being at a loss cannot help you. (Hesitation is getting you nowhere.) Nothing is better
than trying to do anything.
5,最近、一生懸命働くばかりでなく、自分の人生を充実させようと考える人々が増えている。
Recently, more and more people try not only to work hard, but also to make their lives
more enjoyable.
6,住み慣れた町や村の生活ではふつう特に考えないでいても、旅先では否応なしに考えさせられ
るものに、方角がある。まず、その土地その土地で東西南北の方角がどこに当たるのかがわか
らなければ、地図を地図として見ることもできなければ、自分がいまどこにいるのかもわから
ない。また、行きたいと思うところがあっても、どちらの方角に行ったらいいのかもわからな
い。
You usually don’t think about directions in your hometown. However, when you are
traveling, you must. First, if you don’t know your directions, you can’t read a map and
you won’t know where you are. Also, even if you have place where you want to visit,
you don’t know which way you should go. (We usually don’t think about the town or
village where we have lived so long, but one of the things which we cannot avoid
thinking in a trip is directions. First of all, we can’t read a map and can’t understand
where we are, if we can’t read all directions. Also, we can’t go where you want to go
even if we know which way we should go.)
Brush up English! -Grammar No.9Edit by halef
Rearrange the words
1,コンピュータは蒸気エンジンやガソリンエンジン同様重要な発明だ。
(The computer is as important an invention as) the steam and the gasoline engine.
(an / is / the computer / important / as / as / invention)
2,時間を最大限に活用しなさい。そうすれば必ず成功するでしょう。
Make the (most of your time and you will surely succeed).
(will / most / time / succeed / of / you / surely / and / your)
3,古くからのことわざで「郷に入れば郷に従え」というが、食事の席ほどこのことわざを実感す
ることはない。
The old saying “When in Rome do as the Romans do” (is never more true than when at
the dinner table).
(the dinner table / is / true / when / never / at / more / than)
4,彼と知り合ったとき、実に感じのよい人だと思った。
When I came to know him, I (found him to be as pleasant a person) as I had ever
known.
(as / found / him / person / pleasant / to / be / a)
5,運動のしすぎは身体のためにならずむしろ害になる。
(Too much exercise does more harm than good).
(much / harm / too / good / more / does / exercise / than)
6,詩は朗読することによりいっそう理解が深まる。
Reading (poetry aloud helps us understand it better).
(aloud / us / it / poetry / understand / better / helps)
7,ペイジがどんな人なのかまるで見当もつかない。
I don’t (have the slightest idea what Paige looks like).
(have / what / idea / like / looks / Paige / slightest / the)
Complete the sentences
1,昇進後、ビルは長時間働くようになり、子供の顔を見るのも少なくなった。
After his promotion, Bill (started (came to) work longer and so he looks his kids face
less than before).
2,彼女は姉に劣らず活発だ。
She is no (less active than her sister). =She is as active as her sister.
3,ヤンキーズはその年ぶっちぎりで最強だった。
The Yankees (was by far the strongest (team) during) that season.
4,私の妻は私よりも友人がはるかに多い。
My wife has (many more friends than I have).
Put into English
1,東京とニューヨークではどちらが人口が多いと思いますか。
Which do you think has a larger population, Tokyo or New York?
2,環境問題のことになると、彼はおそらく専門家に劣らず知識がある。
When it comes to environmental issues (Speaking of environmental issues), probably
he has no less knowledge than that of a specialist.
3,辞書はたくさん持っていたほうがいい。それぞれの辞書はそれぞれの長所をもっている。そし
て一般的に言って辞書は新しいほうがいい。毎日新しい言葉が次から次へと生まれてくるし、
言葉の意味もどんどん変化しているからだ。
We should (We’d better) have a lot of dictionaries as each of them has its own strength
(strong point). And (also) generally speaking, new dictionary is better because new
words are being made one after another everyday (new words are increasing
everyday), and meaning of words are constantly changing.
4,教師が身につけるべき最も難しいことのひとつは、質問してから答えを得るまでに時間を十分
かけることである。
One of the most difficult things teachers should learn is to give enough time for
students to answer after asking a question (to wait patiently for students to come up
with their answers / to take enough time to get answer the question).
5,自動車産業は大気汚染の防止のためにも激化する競争に生き残るためにも、より環境にやさし
い車の開発が必要だということを認識し始めている。
The automobile industries begins to know (realize / become aware of) that they are
needed to develop more environmentally friendly cars (in order) to reduce air
pollution and to survive increasing competition.
6,ともすると、私たちは世の中が常に進歩を続けていると思いがちだ。今と昔を比べれば、昔の
ほうが当然遅れており、劣っている、などと漠然と考えている。だが、人間は必ずしも賢くな
っているわけではない。
We tend to think the world always keeps making progress (We are likely to think that
the world always make progress). (Compared the present and the past,) We are
thinking vaguely that the past are not always smart (are inferior to (later / worse
than) the present). However, human beings are necessarily becoming wiser than they
were.
Brush up English! -Grammar No.10Edit by halef
Rearrange the words
1,考えれば考えるほどその問題は難しく思われました。
The more I thought about the problem, (the more difficult it seemed) to me.
(it / difficult / more / the / seemed)
2,貴社製品は品質の点で彼らのものより大変優れているように思われます。
Your product (seems) to (be much superior to theirs in quality).
(superior / quality / theirs / in / seems / much / be / to)
3,ジャックは私の手にあまる相手であった。
(Jack was more than a match for me).
(more / match / me / Jack / than / for / was / a)
4,彼は私が要した時間の 3 分の 1 でそれを片付けた。
He did it (in one-third of the time it took) me.
(it / of / the / in / one-third / time / took)
5,彼女は私の 3 倍も多く CD を持っていることを鼻にかけている。
She’s (proud that she has three times as many CDs) as I do.
(as / CDs / many / proud / she has / that / three / times)
6,今年は新聞に通常の 3 倍の広告を出す予定です。
This year we plan to (place three times as many advertisements) as usual in the
newspaper.
(advertisements / as / many / place / three / times)
7, Hands-free phone systems do not reduce crash risk. People (who chat on their mobile
phones while driving are four times as likely) to crash even if they are using a
hands-free phone system to talk.
(while driving / as likely / who chat on their mobile phones / four times / are)
Complete the sentences
1,高い所に登れば登るほど呼吸が困難になる。
The (higher we climb (go) up), the (more difficult we’ll find (breathing) it to breathe).
2,長く外国にいればいるほど、故郷からの便りがますます大切になってきます。
The longer you live abroad, the (more important letters from your home become).
3,外国語を身に付けようとするとき、開始年齢が早ければ早いほど、その上達は早い。
The earlier you start (to learn a foreign language, the faster you will improve it).
4,その人は怒って弁解の言葉も言わずに立ち去った。
The angry person (went away (left) there without (saying)) a word of apology.
5,このエアコンの消費電力はあのエアコンの 2 分の 1 だ。
This air conditioner (uses half as much electricity as) that one.
Put into English
1,多くの社会は文字言語を持たない。世界中には約 3,000 の言語があるが、文字を持つ言語はそ
のうちの半分以下である。
Many societies don’t have a written language. Though there are about three thousand
languages in (all) the world, less than half of them have a written languages.
2,私たちの住む日本の社会は、個性を重んじるよりも、むしろほかの人とうまくやってゆくこと
に、より大きな価値を置く社会のようだ。
In Japanese society, avoiding confliction is seems to be more valued than expressing
individuality.
3,アメリカに留学したことのある日本人は、アメリカの大学生は高校時代よりもはるかに勉強す
るとしばしば口にする。
Some Japanese who have studied in America often say that American university
students study harder (more) than they did in their high school days (they did in
when they were high school students).
4,日本語は母語だから書くことぐらいなんでもない、と思うのは考えが浅い。我々は、確かに日
本語の読み書き、話ができるが、書くのがうまい人は、話すのがうまい人と同じぐらい限られ
ている。
It is wrong to think that writing in Japanese is easy because it’s our native language.
It is true that we can read, write and speak Japanese, but people who can (truly)
write well are as limited as those who can (truly) speak well.
5,友情はほかの何にもまして重要なものである。友だちがまったくいないのは、人間にとって最
悪の状態だろう。1 人のよい友だちがいるだけでいい。友だちがいるといないとでは大きな違
いがある。
Nothing is so important as friendship. Having no friend is the worst situation
(condition) for people (human being). Even one good friend is enough. There is a big
difference between having a friend and having no friend (Having a friend or no friend
is very different).
6,家屋のなかで台所が重要な位置を占めるようになり、主婦の立場が強くなると、最新の技術を
利用した機器類が台所に導入された。
As the kitchen began to occupy a more important position in the house and
housewife’s position became stronger, appliances using the latest technology were
introduced to the kitchen. (The more important position the kitchen occupy in a house
and stronger the housewives’ position is, the more improved appliances used the
latest technique are in a kitchen.)
Brush up English! -Grammar No.11Edit by halef
Rearrange the words
1,すべて私がそこを去ったときのままでした。
Everything (there was as it had been when I left).
(been / was / there / as / I / left / it / had / when)
2,子供は遊びを通して言葉が人間関係にどのように影響するかを学ぶ。
Children (learn how language influences human relationships) while they are playing
with other children.
(how / human relationships / influences / language / learn)
3,疑わしいのは彼の発言でなく態度であった。
It was not what he said but (the way he said it that made me suspicious).
(made / he said / the way / suspicious / that / it / me)
4,花嫁の父親になるのはどんな心境だろうか。
I wonder (what it is like to be the) father of the bride.
(is / it / the / to / what / like / be)
5,私の妻は育児に関しては自分なりの意見をもっている。
My wife has her own ideas (as to how children should be brought up).
(as / be brought / children / how / should / to / up)
6,こうした事件ではよくあることだが、うわさはたちまち町中に広がった。
(As is the case with these affairs), the rumor swept through the town.
(these / case / the / affairs / is / as / with)
7,あなたとはこれっきり絶交よ。
I never want to (have anything to do with you) again.
(do / you / anything / with / have / to)
8,彼らは彼が演奏する音楽に合わせて踊っているかのようだった。
They (looked as if they were dancing to) the music he played.
(if / were / to / as / they / dancing / looked)
Complete the sentences
1,彼はよくラジオをつけっぱなしで眠ってしまう。
He often falls (asleep with turning on the radio (asleep without turning off the radio /
asleep leaving the radio on)).
2,日本は石油を外国に依存している。
Japan (depends on (importing the oil from) foreign countries (for oil)).
3,自転車がパンクしたみたい。
It (looks (seems) as if my (the) bicycle has a flat (tire)).
4,この会社の全従業員の 3 分の 2 が技術者です。
(Two-thirds of all the employees in this company) are engineers.
Put into English
1,旅に出ることは、物事の違った見方を教えてくれる。
Going on a trip (traveling) give us a different point of view of things.
2,悪い習慣を改めることによって、人生が大きく変わることがあります。
Your life can be improved greatly by getting rid of bad habits. (Getting rid of (your)
bad habits can improve your life greatly (sometimes your life improves
extraordinarily).)
3,お金だけを追い求めてむだに過ごすには、人生は短すぎる。
Life is too short to spend seeking after only money (wealth) and to waste a time.
4,地球の表面の 7 割を占める海には、まだ計り知れない資源が眠っている。
The ocean covering about seventy percent of the earth’s surface (surface of the earth),
has immeasurable (incredible) resources still contained beneath there (which covers
about 70 percent of the surface of the earth has infinite resources beneath there).
5,人間は社会の産物なので、社会の影響から自分を解放することは事実上不可能であると主張す
る人々がいる。
Some people insist (say / claim) that it is impossible for human beings to free
themselves (actually) from social influences since (as) the humans are products (the
results) of society.
6,要するに、われわれは皆、われわれ自身の好みと偏見に彩られためがねをかけながら、人生を
生きていくのである。
In short, all of us live our lives wearing glasses colored with our preference and
prejudice.
Brush up English! -Grammar No.12Edit by halef
Rearrange the words
1,彼は他人を思いやる心を持つようしつけられた。
He (was brought up to be considerate to others).
(up / was / considerate / brought / be / to / to / others)
2,彼は、警察から母親がひどいけがをしたことを知らされて病院にかけつけた。
When (told by the police how badly injured) his mother was, he hurried to the
hospital.
(badly / by / how / injured / the police / told)
3,提案された計画にどれほどの効果があるか全くわからない。
There’s (no telling how effective the proposed plan will be).
(be / effective / how / no / telling / will / the proposed plan)
4,子供が皆大きくなって家を離れたら、どんな気持ちがするだろうか。
How does it feel (to have) all your children (grown up and away from home)?
(grown / up / from / home / to / have / away / and)
5,妻は彼を説得してたばこをやめさせようとしたがだめだった。
His wife (made a vain attempt to stop him from) smoking.
(vain / stop / a / to / made / from / him / attempt)
Complete the sentences
1,車を修理してもらうのに 10 万円かかった。
It (costs me one-hundred thousand yen to have my car repaired (to repair my car)).
2,一旦試験が始まったら、誰も部屋に入れてもらえません。
Once the exam begins, (no one is allowed to enter the room (they will not let anyone in
(this room) / no one can enter the room)).
3,この歌手は当時、日本ではほとんど知られていなかった。
In those days, (this singer was little known (not well known / hardly a famous person)
in Japan (most people in Japan didn’t know this singer)).
4,この本を読めばその作家のことがよくわかるでしょう。
This book (tells us (much) about the writer (will help (helps / enables) you to
understand the author better)).
5,長いことお待たせしてまことに相すみません。
I’m awfully (sorry to have kept you waiting so long).
6,彼はよくうそをつくから、信用できない。
As he often tells lies, (I can’t trust him).
Put into English
1,最近はお金を引き出すことさえできますし、コンビニは本当に便利ですね。
Since we can even draw money at convenience stores nowadays, convenience stores
are really convenient.
2,大きいものも小さいものも、すべてのものは、小さすぎて見ることのできない原子からできて
いる。
Everything (All matter / all things) both large and small is made up (are consisted) of
atoms, which are too small to be seen.
3,人間は、自分で生きているのではなく、大きな存在によって生かされている。(司馬遼太郎『21
世紀に生きる君たちへ』による)
Human beings do not live on their own (are not living by ourselves (themselves)
alone), but they are given life (made to live / are lived) by something greater (God) (by
the bigger thing).
4,日記というと、続かないからと嫌う人もいる。しかし、日々気が付いたことを書きとめておく
だけでも日記は成り立つと思う。そんなに難しくはない。
Some people dislike a diary because they can’t keep writing in it. However, I
personally think that you can create a diary by recording the things you notice each
day (a diary can be just filled with what you notice by recording that each day). It’s
not so difficult.
5,子供たちに良い教育を受けさせることは、アジア全体にとっての優先事項である。しかし非常
に多くの子供達が、いまなお適切な教育を受けられないでいる。
Providing a good education for children (Educating children well) is a high priority
matter all over Asia. However, even now many children still can’t get (receive) a good
(proper) education.
6,日本語では、相手の意見に合わない、同意できない場合は、はっきりとはいわないで、少しお
茶を濁したような言い方をする場合が多い。相手の意見について反対するわけだが、その人の
意見に対してというよりは、その人の人格そのものを否定しているととられるおそれがあるか
らである。
In Japanese, (most) people never (clearly) directly disagree with other’s opinion. The
reason for this is that disagreeing with a person’s opinion might be misunderstood as
a criticism of the person’s character.
Brush up English! -Grammar No.13Edit by halef
Rearrange the words
1,地震があるたびに、より多くの人が自然の力を実感するように思う。
I think that (every time there is an earthquake more people will come to) realize how
powerful nature is.
(every / an earthquake / time / people / there is / will come to / more)
2,私は間食をしないことにしています。
I make (it a rule never to eat between) meals.
(a / between / eat / it / never / rule / to)
3,昼も夜も雨が降り続き、川の土手は今にも崩れそうであった。
It rained all night and all day, (during which time the river banks threatened to
collapse).
(to / banks / which / threatened / during / the river / collapse / time)
4,学生時代、私は友人とよく夜を徹して哲学とか政治について議論したものだ。
During my school days my friends and (I would stay up all night discussing)
philosophy or politics.
(all / I / night / stay / discussing / would / up)
5,1つの問題が解決し、ある行動方針が決定したかと思うと、たちまち新しい案が浮かんできた。
No (sooner had) one problem (been) solved and a course of action (decided on than) a
new idea (presented itself).
(been / decided / had / itself / on / presented / sooner / than)
6,1 月 15 日現在、このクラスの受講登録者は 39 名です。
Thirty-nine students (are registered for this class as of) January 15.
(for / of / this / are / as / class / registered)
Complete the sentences
1,以前自転車で通勤していましたが、今ではバスを使っています。
I (would to go to work by bicycle, but now I take the (commute to there by)) bus.
2,私たちは日没前にさらに 10 マイル歩かなければならなかった。
We had (to walk another 10 miles before the) sunset.
3,10 年ぶりに故郷に戻った。
I went back to my hometown (for the first time in ten years).
4,外出するとき台所の灯りはつけたままにしておくんです。
I (always leave the kitchen light on) when I go out.
5,本を読んでいるうちに眠ってしまった。
I (fell asleep while I was) reading a book.
6,彼女が自転車を修理するのに 3 時間かかった。
It (took her three hours to fix (repair) the (her) bicycle (to have the bike fixed
(repaired))).
Put into English
1,包丁の使い方を身につけるためには、自分で長い間やってみるしかない。
In order to learn how to use a kitchen knife, you should try using it yourself (have to
practice for many hours). (We only have to take time to practice (learn) how to use a
kitchen knife.)
2,彼は心に浮かんできたことをよく紙切れに書き留めていた。
He often used to write (jot) down on a piece of paper what came to his mind (when a
good idea came into his mind (occurred to him) / when he hit on (upon) a good idea).
3,時がたつのは早いもので、イタリアに留学して 3 年になります。
Time really flies. Three years have passed since I went (came) to Italy to study. (Time
passed so fast. It will have studied in Italy for 3 years. ※ただしこの文の場合、next
month 等、「来月で 3 年になる」というような補足が必要)
4,ある調査によれば、年収 4 万ドル以上を稼ぐ人々の約 30 パーセントが、5 人以上の親しい友
人がいると言っている。
According to the research (a survey), about 30% people of those who earn over (more
than) forty thousand dollars a year have less than 5 (more than / at least five / five or
more) friends.
5,「国際化」という言葉が使われるようになって何年も経ちました。「国際化」の本当の意味を
考えてみることが大切です。
It has been many years since the word “internationalization” began to be used (to use
the phrase “globalization”). It is important to consider the true meaning of the word
now.
6,人は自分をわかってくれようとする相手に対して心を開くものだ。だから相手にわかってもら
いたければ、まず相手をわかろうとするところから出発すべきだ。
People open (up) their hearts to those who try to understand them. So if we (you)
want them to understand us, we (you) should start to try to understand others.
Brush up English! -Grammar No.14Edit by halef
Rearrange the words
1,そこで彼女に会えるとは思ってもみませんでした。
(She was the last person I would have expected to see) there.
(have / she / I / to see / the last / was / expected / would / person)
2,これこそ私が長年探していた蝶です。
This is (the very butterfly which I have been in) search of for years.
(been / butterfly / I / in / have / the / very / which)
3,トムは妹にその映画がどんなに怖かったか話した。
Tom (told his sister how horrifying the movie had been).
(the / how / been / his / horrifying / told / sister / had / movie)
4,翌年になってはじめて彼の夢が実現した。
Not until the (following years did his dream come true).
(come / did / dream / following / his / true / year)
5,人間が寒い北の地域に定住することを可能にしたのは、火の使用と衣服の着用であった。
It was the control of fire and (the use of clothing that allowed humans to settle) in the
cold northern areas.
(allowed / humans / that / the use of clothing / to settle)
6,あなたはこれらの小包をだれに、そして何のために送るのですか。
Who (are you sending these packages to and why)?
(to / you / why / packages / are / and / these / sending)
7,問題は、コストではなくサービスの質です。
It is (not the cost but the quality of the service that matters).
(matters / the quality of / the cost / but / that / not / the service)
Complete the sentences
1,市役所はどこにあるか教えていただけませんか。
Could you tell (me the way to (go to) the city hall (me where the city hall is))?
2,長期の天気予報によれば、今年は春が遅いらしい。
The long-range weather forecast says ((that) spring will come late this year (it will be
late to set in spring this year)).
3,それはあなたが期待していたことではないかもしれない。
It is (maybe not what you expected (perhaps different from (possibly not) what you
have expected)).
4,彼がそんなことを言ったはずがない。絶対にない。
He (can’t (couldn’t / shouldn’t) have said such a thing). He just (can’t have done /
couldn’t have).
5,長年車を運転していますが、一度たりとも事故を起こしたことはありません。
I haven’t had (even a (single) accident in my all years) driving a car.
Put into English
1,ふるさとの良さはふるさとを離れて初めてわかる。
It is not until (the time) you leave your hometown that you truly realize its value.
2,昨夜外はひどい嵐であった。さらに悪いことには 2 時間以上も停電した。
There was a terrible storm last night, (and) what’s worse (to make matters worse), the
power was out due to the storm for more than 2 hours (it caused a blackout for more
than 2 hours).
3,教育ほど大切なものはないと思う。どのような教育を受けるかによって人の人生が決定される
といっても決して過言ではない。
(I think) Education is really important (Nothing is so important as education). It is no
exaggeration to say that the kind of education one gets determines one’s life (that
humans’ lives are determined by how they are educated).
4,言語は、人間にのみ備わった能力である。何か考えごとをするときに、私たちは常に言葉を使
っている。
Language is an ability that only humans have (Language is only knowledge that
human can have). When we think (about) something, we (always) use it (language).
5,私は世界のいろいろな国に行ってみたいと思います。そして、さまざまな場所で人々がどのよ
うな暮らしをしているのか自分の目で見たいのです。
I want to go many countries all over the world. And I want to see by myself how
people live in each place.
6,コンクリートの建物に囲まれ、機能第一主義の無機質な都会で暮らしていると、鳥や虫の鳴き
声に耳をすませたり、名も知らぬような草木に目をやったりしながら、季節の微妙な移り変わ
りを実感するようなことがめっきり少なくなってきたように思う。もっと心に余裕を持ち、一
回きりのかけがえのない人生をうるおいのあるものにしたいと考えて、田舎に移住することを
決断する人が近年増えてきているのも無理からぬことである。
As I live in a dull city emphasizes on efficiency being surrounded by concrete
buildings, I think (that) there are fewer moments when I notice the slight change of
seasons through (by) the sounds of birds or insects, and that I only rarely glimpse of
plants and trees that are unfamiliar to me. It is understandable that, in recent years,
more and more people have decided to move to the countryside to enrich (gain peace of
mind) and to make the most of the only life they have. (Surrounded by the concrete
buildings, living in boring urban city with the motto of “Efficiency comes First”, we
have little chance feeling the little changes of seasons listening to the birds and
insects and the plants that haven’t known. It is natural that it has been increased the
number of people decided to move to countryside to relax and to lead a rich life once in
recent years.)
Brush up English! -Grammar No.15Edit by halef
Rearrange the words
1,彼女はしなければならないことをしないでいることが時々ある。
Sometimes she (leaves those things undone which she ought to) do.
(leaves / ought / she / things / those / to / undone / which)
2,今となっては、彼に助けを求めるしかありません。
All (we can do now is ask him for) help.
(ask / is / can / now / him / we / for / do)
3,あなたの悪い点は、すべての人にあなたの思うとおりにするように、いつも要求することで
す。
Your problem is that (you always demand that everybody do as) you wish.
(you / that / as / everybody / demand / to / do / does / always) (2 語不要)
4,君がそのクラブに入るかどうかは君が決めることだ。
It’s (up to you to decide whether or not) you will join the club.
(whether / you / to / to / up / not / decide / or)
5,彼が私たちの計画を支持してくれない可能性は十分ある。
He (may very well refuse to support our plan).
(to / our / support / well / plan / may / refuse / very)
6,彼は希望を捨てないようにしようと言った。
He (suggested that they should not give up hope).
(that / not / up / give / they / suggested / hope / should / to / them) (2 語不要)
7,会合は火曜日に開かれるはずだったが、延期しなければならなくなった。
(The meeting was supposed to take place on Tuesday), but it had to be postponed.
(supposed / take / the meeting / Tuesday / place / was / on / to)
8,生半可な知識より何も知らないほうがましだ。
You (may as well not know a thing at all as know it imperfectly).
(a thing / may / at all / imperfectly / know / as well / it / as know / not)
Complete the sentences
1,歩行者にもいくぶん事故に責任があった。
The pedestrian (had the responsibility for the accident (was to blame for the
accident to some (somewhat) extent)).
2,客は目の前でその肉を切るよう要求した。
The customer required (that meat to be cut) in her presence.
3,あなたはもちろんパーティーに来ると思っていました。
I took (it for granted that you would) come to the party.
4,みんな、もう寝る時間よ。
It’s (time to (go to) bed (already bedtime / high time you went to bed)), kids.
Put into English
1,私の説明がわからなかったら遠慮しないで質問しなさい。
Don’t hesitate to ask me (a question), if you (anyone) don’t understand my
descriptions.
2,彼女の提案は真面目に考えてみる必要がある。
We must let (have to) think seriously (about) her suggestion. (Her suggestion is worth
serious consideration.)
3,私たちの社会では、特定の場合に何を着るべきかについて、暗黙の合意があるようだ。
In our society, there are unspoken agreements that aren’t uttered about what we
should wear on a certain occasion (we have a rule that don’t say what we have to wear
on a certain occasion).
4,民主主義は輸出も輸入もできない。内部から育てていかなければならない。
Democracy can’t be exported or imported. It has to be developed (fostered) from
within (a country) (It has to grow up inside of the people).
5,海外に出かける若者には、外から日本と日本人を見つめて欲しいものです。
I want young people who go abroad to look at Japan and its people objectively.
Brush up English! -Grammar No.16Edit by halef
Rearrange the words
1,すべての人間は生まれながらにして自由であり、その尊厳と権利において平等である。-世界
人権宣言-
All human beings are (born) free and equal in dignity and rights.
2,我々は排出量が増え続ける一方の二酸化炭素から生じる危険に気づいていないように思える。
We seem (blind) to the dangers of the ever-increasing output of carbon dioxide.
3,人間が科学技術の僕となるほうがその逆よりも容易なようだ。
It almost seems easier for man to become a servant of technology instead of vice
(versa).
4,合衆国のいたるところで、春先になっても鳥が戻ってこない地域が増えている。かつて美しい
鳥のさえずりが聞こえた早朝が、今は妙に静かなのだ。
Over increasingly large areas of the United States, spring now comes unheralded by
the return of the birds, and the early mornings are strangely (silent) where once they
were filled with the beauty of bird song. -Rachel CarsonRearrange the words
1,人種が違うというだけの理由で望む職場で働けないとしたら、あなたはどう思いますか。
(How would you feel if you couldn’t) work where you wanted to simply because of your
race?
(you / you / would / if / how / couldn’t / feel)
2,子供たちが良い学校教育を受けられない国が世界には少なからずある。
There are still quite a few countries (where children cannot get (obtain / receive) a
good education).
(a / cannot / education / children / good / where) (1 語補足)
3,台風が日本に来るたびに、自然を完全には支配できないことを実感する。
(Every time a typhoon strikes (hits) Japan), I realize that we will never completely
control nature.
(a / Japan / time / typhoon / every) (1 語補足)
4,先進国の首脳は、核兵器の撤廃の可能性について、お互いに話し合いました。
The leaders of developed countries (talked with each other about the possibility of
abolishing nuclear weapons).
(about / each other / nuclear weapons / of abolishing / talked with / the possibility)
5,動物も地球上の住民で、私たちと地球を共有しているとあなたは感じますか。
Do you feel that animals are also residents here (and that we are sharing the earth)?
(are / that / the / sharing / we / and / earth)
Put into English
1,私たち日本人はエネルギーの節減についてもう少し関心を持つべきではないだろうか。
Japanese people should be more concerned about (interested in) saving energy.
2,最近ではたいていのものがプラスチックでできている気がする。
Recently (Nowadays), it seems most of the things (I feel many (most) products) are
made of plastic.
3,20 世紀初頭、物理学が革命的変革を経験したように、21 世紀初頭、生物学が革命的に変わろ
うとしている、とアメリカの雑誌は報じている。
An American magazine says that biology is undergoing revolutionary change in the
early 21st century, as (just like) physics experienced innovative (revolutionary) change
in the early (at the beginning of the) 20th century.
4,自然と折り合っていくのは、不便、不自由さを逆手にとって楽しむということでもある。私た
ちは、自然が強いてくるものを、まず受け入れることから始める。それは都市生活の合理性や
便利さの追求とは相対すると言ってもいい。
Living (To live) in harmony (Getting along with nature) means to accept (to live)
inconvenience. First we should begin by accepting what nature demands of us (we
have to begin by accepting what nature force to). We can say that it is sometimes
directly opposite to the efficiency and city (urban) life.
Brush up English! -Grammar No.17Edit by halef
Complete the sentences
1,すぐに思い出します。ここまで出かかっているんです。
I’ll think of the word in a second-it’s on the tip of my (tongue).
2,歴史を繰り返すためではなく、それを発展の礎とするために歴史を知ることが大切なのである。
It is important to know our history so we can (build) on it rather than (repeat) it.
3,千の言葉を尽くして説明しなければならないことも写真なら一枚でこと足りる。
One picture is (worth) a thousand words.
4,あなたのように英語が達者になりたいものです。
I wish I had as good a (command) of English as you do.
Rearrange the words
1, It is often said that (the world we live in has become smaller than it was) even a
decade ago.
(we live in / smaller than / it was / the world / has become)
2, And the more of a global society it becomes, the more urgent it becomes for people (to
realize the importance of learning languages other than their own) in order to
communicate.
(the importance of / their own / to realize / other than / learning languages)
3, However, (on) many (occasions) when people from different countries meet, English
becomes the (means of communication).
(of / communication / means / on / occasions)
4, You may wonder whether English-speaking people are (satisfied) with only (speaking
one language) while others are (struggling to become bilingual).
(bilingual / to become / satisfied / struggling / speaking one language)
5, Probably the fact is, quite a few native speakers (of English find it regrettable not to
be able to communicate) in any other language.
(not to be able / find it / of English / to communicate / regrettable)
Put into English
1,英語の“bully”は英語辞典では「だれか、特により弱い者を、痛い目にあわせると脅したり、恐
い目にあわせると脅すこと」と定義されており、日本語の「いじめる」にほぼ相当する語と言
える。
By on English dictionary, the word “bully” is defined as “to hurt someone or frighten
them, especially someone is smaller or weaker” is its meaning what the Japanese
word “Ijimeru” is to its meaning. (By on English dictionary, the word “bully” is defined
as “threating someone, especially weak, to treat a person to a painful or have a
dreadful experience.” And we can say that it is nearly the same as the Japanese word
“Ijimeru.”)
2,ヨーロッパの街角や乗り物の中で他人の身体に一寸触れたようなとき、ヨーロッパの人間は決
まって「すみません」とか、「ごめんなさい」という軽い謝りの言葉を口にする。
When Europeans happen to touch others (while they are) on the street or on public
transportation in Europe, Europeans usually apologize (by saying / say) “Excuse me”
and (or) “I’m sorry” as little apology.
3,あいさつというのは、身ぶりや言葉の慣習的な交換のことであり、それによって互いの地位や
親しさの度合いなどが確認される。
Greetings are customary exchange of gestures and words. (By using it,) We can
confirm their social relationship and degree of intimacy.
4,昨年我が国を訪れたある英国人は、彼の出会った日本人の多くが、日本の生活や文化について
いろいろ尋ねても満足に答えてくれないので何度も落胆した、と語っていた。
A British man who (had) visited Japan last year said that he was disappointed many
times because many of the Japanese (whom) he met could not answer satisfactorily to
his question about Japanese life (lifestyle) and (its) culture.
5,(1)1950 年代の前半には、東京で育った男が、パリで暮らすようになっても、少なくとも日常
生活において、大きな相違を感じることはなかった。
(2)私の場合も、フランスで初めて地下鉄を見たのではなく、東京で乗り慣れた交通機関がパ
リではもう少し便利にできていると思ったにすぎない。
(1) Early in the (The former) 1950s, a man who grew up in Tokyo wouldn’t feel a great
difference (uncomfortable living) in Paris at least in everyday life (who grew up in
Tokyo living in Paris, there were few differences of them in everyday life).
(2) (Also) As for me (In my case), I didn’t see a subway system in France (it was not in
France that I saw a subways) for the first time, I just felt the transportation seemed a
little more convenient than the one I was used to using in Tokyo.
Brush up English! -Grammar No.18Edit by halef
Complete the sentences
1,Success(成功)が work(努力)よりも先に来るのは辞書の中だけだ。(ヴィダル・サスーン)
The only place (where) success comes (before) work is a dictionary.
2,彼は一生懸命親の期待に応えようとした。
He tried hard to (live) up to his parents’ expectations.
3,若者は時間が無限にあると思いがちだ。
Young people have a (tendency) to believe that time is limitless.
4,金もうけに時間を費やしていられるほど私の人生は長くない。
I can’t (afford) to waste my time making money.
5,一定の年齢に達したら人は自分の顔に責任を持たなければならない。
After a certain age every man should be (responsible) for his face.
6,好きな女の子からにっこりされると、その日 1 日がハッピーになる。
A smile from your girlfriend makes the (whole) day brighter.
7,今日では男性も女性もかつては不可能だった場所で働く機会に恵まれている。
Nowadays both men and women have (opportunities) to work where they once
couldn’t.
Rearrange the words
1,生きていくのにどれほどお金が必要なのかについては、人それぞれで考えが異なる。
Each person has his own idea of (how much money is enough to live on).
(much / is / live / how / to / enough / money) (1 語補足)
2,故郷は心が残してあるところである。(故郷は遠きにありて思うもの)
(Home is where the heart is).
(is / is / the / where / home / heart)
3,喜びや悲しみを分かちあえる親友がいることはすばらしい。
It is wonderful to have a best friend (to share joys and sorrows with).
(joys / sorrows / share / to / and) (1 語補足)
4,答えがわかったときの「なるほど」という気分に勝るものはない。
(There is nothing like the feeling of) ‘Aha!’ when you finally get it.
(the / of / nothing / there / like / feeling / is)
5,グラスが半分空だと考えるより、半分も入っていると考えるほうが楽しい。
It’s nice to (think of the glass as half full) rather than half empty.
(as / the / half / of / glass / full / think)
6,真心は通じるもの。
(What comes from the heart) goes to the heart.
(comes / heart / the / what / from)
Put into English
1,アメリカの子供たちは高校を出るとすぐ親元を離れて自立したがる。
American children are eager to live independently away from their parents as soon as
(when) they (soon) graduate (leave) from high school.
2,私がこの大学に入学したい理由の 1 つは、自分の夢をかなえるのに必要な知識と技術を身につ
けることができると思うからである。
One of the reasons why I want to enter this university (college) is (that) I believe I can
learn the knowledge and skills which is needed to realize my dream.
3,車内で老人に席を譲るようにという車掌のアナウンスがあっても、それを無視する人が沢山い
る。
Even if there are announce (that hand over the seat to old people), there are quite a
few people who ignore the announcement that seats should be given up to the elderly.
4,「外見で人を判断してはいけない」というのは、道徳の決まり文句であるが、何を身につけて
いるかによって、意識するにせよ、無意識にせよ、我々は人を判断しているし、自らをも表現
しているのである。
There is a well-known (moral) cliché that you must (should) not judge a person (his or
her) by one’s appearance, but whether we are conscious or not (unconscious), we not
only judge others by their appearance but also express ourselves what we wear.
Brush up English! -Grammar No.19Edit by halef
Complete the sentences
1,いったん喫煙の習慣がつくとなかなか簡単にやめられない。
(Once) you get into the habit of smoking, you cannot give it up easily.
2,シェイプアップは口で言うほど簡単ではない。
Getting in shape is easier (said) than (done).
3,行間を読みとれば、作者の真意がわかる。
If you read (between) the lines, you’ll get the author’s real meaning.
4,出版社はその本がベストセラーになると信じて、一万部印刷した。
The publisher printed ten thousand (copies) of the book, believing that it would be a
bestseller.
5,医者は時に身体を治療し、また時に身体が自然治癒するのを手助けする。
Doctors sometimes heal the body and sometimes help the body heal (itself).
6,私たち人間は自然の多くを支配できるが、依然小さな病原菌に征服されうる。
We (humans), who can control much of nature, can still be conquered by tiny (germ).
7,その小さな征服者の最たる例がエイズウイルスだ。
A perfect example of a tiny (conqueror) is the AIDS (virus).
Rearrange the words
1,本をもとにして作られた映画で私が想像していたぐらい良いものはめったにない。
I (rarely find a movie made from) a book I have read that is as good as I had imagined
it.
(find / made / a / rarely / movie) (1 語補足)
2,食餌や栄養についての東洋的な考え方が、西洋で受け入れられつつある。
(Eastern ideas about diet and nutrition) are catching on in the West.
(nutrition / ideas / Eastern / about / and) (1 語補足)
3,本当に必要でなければ私は手術を受けたくない。
I (would rather not have the operation unless) it is absolutely necessary.
(not / rather / operation / have / the / unless / would)
4,ツアーバスのガイドがアイザック・シンガーの名前を出した時、それがだれなのかを知ってい
た私は良い気分だった。
Isaac Singer was mentioned by the tour-bus guide and I (felt good to know who he
was).
(good / was / know / he / felt / who / to)
5,必ずしも大金をかけなくても好感のもてる着こなしはできる。
One doesn’t (necessarily have to spend a fortune) to look well.
(necessarily / a / fortune / to / have / spend)
6,1 日にリンゴ 1 個で医者いらず。
An apple (a day keeps the doctor away).
(the / a / away / doctor / keeps / day)
Put into English
1,丁寧に手を洗うことが、ばい菌の広がりを食い止める最良の方法の1つである。
Washing your hands well (carefully) is one of the best (most effective) ways of
preventing the spread of germs (preventing germs from spreading).
2,あなたの魚料理の腕前には本当に驚きました。
I’m (truly) amazed at your fabulous fish dishes (at how beautifully you cut fish). (Your
cooking skills to cook fish dishes really made me surprise.)
3,わが家のトイレには小さな本棚があって、そこにはいつも、父の読みかけの本が入っていた。
There was small bookshelf in the toilet (bathroom) in my house, and there were
always my father’s books he was reading (where my father always kept books he had
not finished reading).
4,健康の維持にはきちんとした食生活、十分な睡眠、適度な運動が不可欠だと言われるが、これ
らをすべて満たすのは難しい。
It is said that we (you) should have regular meals, enough sleep and moderate
exercise are necessary to maintain our (your) health, but it is difficult (for us / you) to
do all of that.
Brush up English! -Grammar No.20 The LastEdit by halef
Complete the sentences
1,人は皆明けても暮れてもあまりにも多くの情報を得すぎるため良識を見失う。
-Gertrude Stein-
Everybody gets so much information all day long that they lose their (common)
(sense).
2,人は情報を知性に変えなければいけない。
-Grace Hopper-
A human must (turn) information (into) intelligence.
3,私はテレビが嫌いだ。ピーナッツと同じぐらい嫌いだ。でもピーナッツをやめられない。
-Orson Welles-
I hate television. I hate it (as) (much) (as) peanuts. But I can’t (stop) (eating) peanuts.
4,人がみな二台目のテレビの代わりに平和を求めたら、本当に平和が訪れるだろうに。
-John Lennon-
If everyone demanded peace (instead) (of) (another) television set, then there’d be
peace.
5,インターネット以前は多数の人に考えを伝えることは困難だったが、現代は情報を容易かつ迅
速に共有できる。
Before the Internet, it was difficult to (convey) idea to large audiences, but now
information can be (shared) easily and quickly.
6,コンピューターは、すごく便利かもしれないけれど、私のは、私の車と同じでよく壊れるのが
問題だ。
Computers may be very useful, but the problem is (that) (mine) breaks (down) as
often as my car does.
Rearrange the words
1,情報はすべてテレビに出るから新聞を買っても仕方ないという人もいる。
Some people say that since all the information is on television, (buying a newspaper is
hardly worth it / it is hardly worth buying a newspaper).
(newspaper / is / buying / hardly / a / it / worth)
2,電車の中で隣に座った人が携帯電話で話し始めると私は不快に感じる。
I feel uncomfortable (when someone sitting next to me) on the train starts talking on
a cell phone.
(sitting / when / to / next / someone / me)
3,強い必要性がない限り、このソフトをインストールしないよう推奨します。
We recommend that you (should) (not install this software) unless you (have a strong
need) for it.
(strong / this / a / install / software / need / not / have)
Put into English
1,インターネット上にどんなに多くの情報があっても、何の情報が信頼できるかを確実に知るこ
とはできない。
Though there is much information on the internet, we can’t know for sure (exactly)
which information is reliable (can be relied on).
2,書物や新聞などから、ラジオ、テレビ、そしてインターネット、携帯電話へと、私たちが情報
を得る手段は近年急速に多様化してきました。
Recently, the ways we get information is rapidly diversifying in recent years, from
books and newspapers, to (through) radio and TV, and (to) the Internet and cell
phone.
3,インターネット・ショッピングは便利だが、商品を目で見たり手で触ったりして気に入ったか
確かめることができないので、危険性もある。
Online shopping is convenient, but at the same time it is dangerous because we can’t
see or touch the goods to see (確認する、の意) if we really like them (there is a danger
that we can’t make sure of goods without any looking and touching it pleasingly).
4,インターネットは私たちのコミュニケーションのやり方に大きな変化を起こしてきています。
インターネットは、時間と距離の壁を克服してくれます。世界各地から好きな時に、いつでも
情報を入手できるのです。
The Internet is (has been) creating (causing / bringing) about great (drastic / big)
change in (of) the way we communicate (of our communication). The Internet (It)
enables us to conquer (overcomes) barriers of time and distance. We can get
information from all over the world whenever we want (We can obtain information
any time (whenever you like) from all around the world).
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