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Cognitive Development in Infancy & Toddlerhood (Birth to …

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Cognitive Development
in Infancy & Toddlerhood
(Birth to 2 years old)
Chapter 6
(pgs. 201-205, 212-242)
(Infants & Children)
3 Perspectives on
Early Cognitive Development
1.
_________’s cognitive-development theory
 believed that a child’s mind forms & modifies
________________ so they achieve a better fit with
_________________
2.
Information Processing
 focuses on many aspects of thinking, from ________,
_________, and ____________ skills to complex
_________________
3.
______________’s sociocultural theory
 emphasizes that children live in rich _____ & _______
contexts that affect the way their cognitive world is
structured
Piaget’s Cognitive-Development
Theory

Remember from Ch 1: Piaget’s Stages of
Cognitive Development??
◦
◦
◦
◦

Sensorimotor (birth-2 yrs)
Preoperational (2-7 yrs)
Concrete operational (7-11 yrs)
Formal operational (11+ yrs)
__________________ stage-infants &
toddlers “think” with their eyes, ears, hands,
and mouth
Piaget’s Ideas…
___________-an organized way of making
sense of experience
 2 processes that account for change in
schemes:

1. ___________-building schemes
2. ____________-internal rearranging and
linking schemes once new ones are formed
Piaget’s Sensorimotor Substages
(Table 6.1, pg 203)
_____________-suck, grasp & look
_________ circular reaction-infants try to repeat
a “chance event” (accident) caused by their own
motor activity
1)
2)
1 month old
 motivated by their basic needs
 babies suck fist/thumb (revolves around _________)

_____________ circular reaction-try to repeat
interesting events caused by their own actions
3)
4-8 months old
 Caitlin accidently knocked a toy hung in front of her, causing
it to swing. She then tried to repeat this over the next few
days.

Piaget’s Sensorimotor Substages
4)Coordination of secondary circular motionsintentional/goal directed behavior
• 8-12 months
• object permanence emerges
• pulling a cloth off a hidden toy & grasping it
5) ____________ circular reactions-repeat behaviors
with variation
• 12-18 months
• putting a shape into a shape sorter toy by twisting &
turning the shape until it fits
6) __________________________
• 18-24 months
• images (mental pictures of objects/pictures) & concepts
Information Processing
(pg. 214)

Focuses on many aspects of thinking:
Structure of the
Information Processing System
(see Table 6.4, pg 214)

Information is held in 3 parts of the mental
system:
1. ____________ register

sights/sounds are stored briefly before they
decay/transferred
2. ______________________ memory



holds a _________ amount of info
apply mental strategies to retain info
the longer info is held here, the better chances for it to
transfer to long-term memory
3. ________________ memory


stores information permanently
_______________
Attention
(pg 216)

During the first year, infants pay attention to
__________________ events

During toddlerhood, children become capable
of ___________ behavior and sustained
___________ improves, especially when
__________________

As activities become more _________, the
duration of the attention ___________
Memory
(pg 217)

research shows that infants’ memories:
 _______ dramatically during infancy and toddlerhood
 confirms that infants do not need to be physically active
to acquire and retain new information; they
_____________ objects & events


1 yr olds can retain short instances of adultmodeled behaviors for up to _______
1 ½ yr olds can retain information for as long
as _______
Categorization
(pg 219)

Earliest categories are _________ (based on
similar overall appearance, i.e. everything that has wheels), but by
the second half of the first year, more
categories are ___________ (based on common
function & behavior, i.e. animals vs. vehicles)

16 months=can group objects into a single
category (“all trucks go here”)

18 months=group objects into 2 categories
(“trucks go here and blocks go there”)
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
(pg .222)
children master
activities & think in
ways that have
meaning in their
________ when
they engage in joint
activities with more
mature members of
their society
emphasizes that
children live in rich
_______ &
_______ contexts
that affect the way
their cognitive
world is structured
(Bodrova & Leong, 2007;
Rogoff, 2003)
complex mental activities
have origins in _______
interaction
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
(pg .222)


So…basically,Vygotsky believes that aspects of cognitive
development are socially prompted & encouraged
A “special” Vygotskian concept=zone of ____________
______________ (range of tasks child cannot do alone but can learn to do
with help)
 the adult guides & supports, adjusting the level of support to fit the
child’s current level of performance
 as the child’s competency increases, the adult steps back and gives
less support
(this form of teaching is known as ______________)
Interesting “findings” regarding early
environment & mental development
The extent to which parents _____ to their child
contributes strongly to early language progress,
which in turn, predicts intelligence & academic
achievement in elementary school (Hart & Risley, 1995)
 Hypothesis=parents who are genetically more
intelligent may give birth to genetically brighter
children & provide better experiences for them,
evoking more parental stimulation (Berk, 2008)
 Young children exposed to poor-quality child care
score lower on measures of cognitive & language
skills…no matter their SES group

(Hausfather et al., 1997; Kohen et al.,
2000; NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, 2000b, 2001, 2003b, 2006)
Early Intervention
(pg. 229)

Early intervention is available for _________ infants &
toddlers who display a _________________ in a
particular area of development
◦ _________________ early intervention
 attend organized child care/preschool & receive educational (SI, SLP, OT, PT, VS),
nutritional, & health services; parents receive child-rearing & other social supports
◦ ______________ early intervention
 a skilled professional visits the home & works w/parents to provide social supports
& teach them how to stimulate their child’s development
◦ ________________
 provides educational experiences for infants/toddlers, parenting education,
family social support, health care, child care
◦ ________________
 provides educational experiences for preschool age children along with
nutritional & health services
 designed for economically disadvantaged children, but 10% of children
must have a developmental delay
Early Intervention
Result=warmer, more_________
________, a reduction in harsh
discipline,___________________
_________, and lessening of child
aggression
Language Development
(pg 231)
_______ months=say 1st word
1 ½ to 2 years=combine ____ words
6 years=_________ words & elaborate
sentences
Beginning Language
(pg 235; Table 6.3 Milestones of Language Development pg 235)

First speech sounds
◦ ____________ (2 mths)
◦ ____________ (6 mths)

Becoming a communicator
◦ _______ attention (3-4 mths, 10-11 mths accurately)attends to the same object or event as the caregiver
◦ ____________________ (3 mths)
◦ ____________________ such as pat-a-cake & peek-aboo (4-6 mths)
◦ Preverbal _________=pointing (12 mths)
First Words (12 mths)
 Two-Word Utterances (18-24 mths)

Types of
Language
____________
a.k.a
comprehension
___________
a.k.a
production
Individual and Cultural Differences
(pg 239)

many studies show that girls are ___________ of boys in early
vocabulary growth (Fenson et al., 1994)
◦ most common explanation=girls’ faster rate of physical maturation which is
believed to promote earlier development of the left cerebral hemisphere

the surrounding _______________________
◦ the more words caregivers use, the more children learn (Weizman & Snow, 2001)
◦ mothers talk much more to toddler girls than to boys
◦ parents converse less often with shy children than with sociable ones (Leaper,
Anderson, & Sanders, 1998; Patterson & Fisher, 2002)
◦ __________ children usually have _________________ because they
receive ________________________in their homes
 limited parent-child book reading is a major factor
 middle-SES child is read to for 1,000 hrs between 1-5 yrs old; low-SES child for only 25 hrs
(Neuman, 2003)

________________ are also _______________
◦ English-speaking toddlers=object words (nouns)
◦ Chinese, Japanese, Korean toddlers=action words & social routines
Research of Language
Development
________________
_________ strongly
predicts language
development & later
academic success
dialogues about
_______ _______ are
particularly effective
____ ____________
with a responsive adult is
far better suited to
encouraging early
language development
than_____ _______
children who experience regular
adult-child book reading are
substantially ahead of their agemates in language skills (Karrass &
Braungart-Reiker, 2005)
media viewers younger than 3 yrs old
are ____________________ from
TV or video alone—even from
program specially designed for them
(Roseberry et al., 2009)
What Can I Do
to Facilitate Language??
(pg 240)
Create a rich social
environment
______________
Engage in
conversations with
children
______________
Respond to
children’s attempts
at sounds & words
_______________
Establish joint
attention and make
comments
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