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Chapter 9 True-False Questions

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Chapter 9
True-False Questions
1.
T F
Clear organization is usually less important in speaking than in writing.
2.
T F
Audiences find well-organized speakers to be more credible than poorly
organized speakers.
3.
T F
How well a speech is organized affects how listeners view the speaker’s
competence and trustworthiness.
4.
T F
Research suggests that using a clear, specific method of speech organization can
enhance your ability to deliver a speech fluently.
5.
T F
The introduction of a speech usually should be prepared before the body.
6.
T F
According to your textbook, it is usually best to prepare the body of the speech
before the introduction.
7.
T F
Once you know the main points of your speech, you should then formulate your
specific purpose.
8.
T F
Most speeches should contain from two to five main points.
9.
T F
According to your textbook, most speeches should contain from five to eight main
points.
10.
T F
If a speech is 45 minutes long, an audience can be expected to keep track of as
many as a dozen main points.
11.
T F
Strategic organization means putting a speech together in a particular way to
achieve a particular result with a particular audience.
12.
T F
The most effective order for the main points of a speech depends upon the topic,
the specific purpose, and the audience.
13.
T F
Speeches arranged in chronological order follow a time pattern.
14.
T F
Chronological organization is used primarily for informative speeches.
15.
T F
Speeches arranged in spatial order follow a time sequence.
16.
T F
Spatial organization is used primarily for informative speeches.
17.
T F
A speech explaining the steps involved in making bread from beginning to end
would be arranged in spatial order.
18.
T F
Speeches arranged in causal order usually have three main points.
19.
T F
When arranging a speech in causal order, you must deal first with the causes of
an event and then explain its effects.
20.
T F
Speeches arranged in causal order usually have three or four main points.
21.
T F
Problem-solution order is used most often in persuasive speeches.
22.
T F
Speeches arranged in problem-solution order are divided into four main parts.
23.
T F
In topical order, the main points proceed from top to bottom, left to right, front
to back, east to west, or some similar route.
24.
T F
When arranged in topical order, the main points of a speech usually follow a time
sequence.
25.
T F
The topical pattern of organization divides the topic of the speech into logical and
consistent subtopics.
26.
T F
Topical organization is used more often than any other method of speech
organization.
27.
T F
Although using a consistent pattern of wording for main points is common
practice among writers, it is less important in public speaking.
28.
T F
The time given to each main point in the body of a speech should be exactly the
same.
29.
T F
When developing a speech, you should try to roughly balance the amount of time
devoted to each main point.
30.
T F
Like the main points of a speech, subpoints and supporting materials also should
be strategically organized.
31.
T F
A connective is a word or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates
the relationship between them.
32.
T F
Unlike writers, good speakers seldom use connectives between main points.
33.
T F
Transitions state both the idea the speaker is leaving and the one the speaker is
coming to.
34.
T F
As your textbook explains, each main point in a speech should contain an internal
preview.
35.
T F
Signposts state both the idea the speaker has finished and the one the speaker is
about to begin.
36.
T F
Questions are particularly effective as signposts because they invite subliminal
answers and thereby get the audience more involved in the speech.
37.
T F
A public speaker should avoid using transitions and internal summaries together.
38.
T F
“Now that we have explored the problem, let’s turn to the solution” is an example
of an internal preview.
39.
T F
According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of a transition:
“Now that we’ve seen how binge drinking is a serious problem for many students,
let’s look at some ways to help curb the problem.”
40.
T F
According to your textbook, the following connective is an example of a signpost:
“How can we make our roads safer for cyclists?”
41.
T F
According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of a transition:
“So much for the present; now let’s turn our attention to the future.”
42.
T F
According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of an internal
summary: “So much for the present; what about the future?”
43.
T F
According to your textbook, an internal summary must be used after every main
point in a speech.
44.
T F
“The most important point to remember about . . .” is an example of a signpost.
45.
T F
“Above all, you need to know . . .” is an example of a signpost.
Multiple-Choice Questions
(Students are to indicate the best answer for each
question by circling the correct letter.)
1. According to your textbook, how well a speech is organized likely will influence
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
how clearly the audience understands the speech.
how the audience views the competence of the speaker.
how confident the speaker feels about his or her delivery.
all of the above.
a and b only.
2. The __________ is the longest and most important part of the speech.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
body
blueprint
introduction
conclusion
frame
3. According to your textbook, what is the most important reason for limiting the number of
main points in a speech?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
It is hard to maintain parallel wording if there are too many main points.
It is hard to phrase the central idea if a speech has too many main points.
It is hard to organize supporting materials if there are too many main points.
It is hard to deliver a speech extemporaneously if it has too many main points.
It is hard for the audience to keep track of too many main points.
4. The most effective order of main points in a speech depends above all on your topic,
purpose, and
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
audience.
research.
visual aids.
credibility.
delivery.
5. When the main points of a speech follow a time pattern, they are organized in
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
problem-solution order.
spatial order.
topical order.
causal order.
chronological order.
6. When main ideas follow a directional pattern, they are organized in
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
geographical order.
topical order.
spatial order.
causal order.
chronological order.
7. Which of the following organizational patterns is used more than any other method of
speech organization because of its applicability to almost any subject?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
chronological
spatial
problem-solution
topical
causal
8. Problem-solution order is most appropriate for organizing __________ speeches.
a.
b.
c.
d.
acceptance
persuasive
after-dinner
commemorative
e. informative
9. Here are the main points for an informative speech about the process of drying and storing
garden herbs.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
The first step is to rinse the herbs.
The second step is to dry the herbs.
The third step is to strip the dried leaves.
The fourth step is to store the herbs properly.
These main points are arranged in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
topical
chronological
descriptive
practical
spatial
10. Here are the main points for an informative speech about the history of chocolate:
I.
II.
III.
IV.
Chocolate was originally used in Mexico as a drink by the Aztecs.
Chocolate was introduced to Europe after the Spanish conquered the Aztecs.
Chocolate was first made into candy during the 1800s.
Chocolate’s popularity and uses continue to expand today.
These main points are arranged in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
causal
analytical
descriptive
chronological
spatial
11. Here are the main points for a speech about the history of golf.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
The game we know as golf originated in Scotland during the 15th century.
Most of golf’s rules and traditions developed during the 19th century.
Professional golf tours for men and women emerged during the 20th century.
Today golf continues to evolve in response to changes in equipment.
According to your textbook, these main points are arranged in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
chronological
ascending
process
descending
historical
12. Here are the main points for an informative speech about the civil rights movement.
I. The 1954, the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education helped spark
the modern civil rights movement.
II. In 1963, nonviolent protests in Birmingham, Alabama, dramatically increased
support for the civil rights movement.
III. In 1965, the Voting Rights Act was passed, marking the major legislative achievement
of the civil rights movement.
These main points are arranged in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
spatial
historical
descriptive
chronological
topical
13. Jackson had been a rodeo fan since childhood. In his informative speech, he gave a
presentation with the following main points. Jackson’s points were arranged in
__________ order.
I. Rodeos began in the Old West as contests of skill among cowboys during cattle
roundups.
II. By 1920, rodeos had become a popular spectator sport for the general public.
III. Today, rodeos combine traditional western events with a circuslike atmosphere and
the marketing techniques of big business.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
topical
formal
chronological
analytical
spatial
14. Sheila had been making pottery for several years. In her informative speech, she gave a
presentation with the following main points.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
The first step in making pottery is preparing the clay.
The second step in making pottery is shaping the clay.
The third step in making pottery is decorating and glazing the clay.
The fourth step in making pottery is firing the finished product.
Sheila’s points were arranged in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
ascending
process
chronological
descending
topical
15. Which organizational pattern would be most effective for arranging the main points of a
speech with the specific purpose “To inform my audience about the major steps in setting
up a home aquarium”?
a. chronological
b. causal
c. problem-solution
d. informative
e. Monroe’s motivated sequence
16. Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main
points of a speech with the specific purpose “To inform my audience of the steps involved
in starting an online business”?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
spatial
technical
causal
comparative-advantages
chronological
17. A speech with the specific purpose “To inform my audience of the steps involved in the
process of making ice cream” would most likely be arranged in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
formal
causal
chronological
progressive
spatial
18. Here are the main points for an informative speech about the anatomy of the human ear.
I. The outer ear includes the ear flap and the ear canal.
II. The middle ear includes the eardrum and three tiny, interconnected bones.
III. The inner ear includes the cochlea, the semicircular canals, and the auditory nerve.
These main points are arranged in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
spatial
descending
chronological
ascending
topical
19. If the following connective were used between the last two main points in an informative
speech, the speech would most likely be organized in __________ order.
So far we have seen that the earliest roller coasters were developed in Russia and by the
mid-1920s were very popular throughout the United States. Today, U.S. amusement parks
attract millions of visitors because of their adventurous roller coasters. Let’s take a look
now at what the future holds for roller coasters.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
spatial
chronological
analytical
formal
topical
20. Which method of organization is used in the following main points?
I. The outer layer of the skin, the epidermis, is about as thick as a sheet of paper.
II. The middle layer of the skin, the dermis, is 15 to 40 times thicker than the epidermis.
III. The innermost layer of the skin, the subcutaneous tissue, is by far the thickest layer.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
topical
visual
scientific
ascending
spatial
21. Here are the main points for a speech about the components of a medieval coat of armor.
I. The head was protected by a helmet.
II. The torso was protected by shoulder pieces, palates, a breastplate, a skirt of tasses,
and a tuille.
III. The arms and hands were protected by brassards, elbow pieces, and gauntlets.
IV. The legs and feet were protected by cuisses, knee pieces, jambeaux, and sollerets.
These main points are arranged in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
topical
informative
chronological
structural
spatial
22. Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main
points of a speech with the specific purpose “To inform my audience about the major
geographical regions of Mexico?”
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
causal
chronological
topical
problem-solution
spatial
23. Adriana’s informative speech about different kinds of coffee had the following main points.
I. Coffees grown in South America are known for their acidic taste.
II. Coffees grown in Africa are known for their earthy taste.
III. Coffees grown in Asia are known for their well-balanced taste.
What method of organization did Adriana use for her main points?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
causal
economic
objective
analytical
spatial
24. According to your textbook, what organizational method is used in a speech with the
following main points?
I.
II.
III.
IV.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The outermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the entrance passage.
The next section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the antechamber.
The third section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the treasury.
The innermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the burial chamber.
spatial
descriptive
chronological
progressive
logical
25. Here are the main points for a speech about the impact of climate change:
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
Climate change has had a major impact in North America.
Climate change has had a major impact in South America.
Climate change has had a major impact in Europe.
Climate change has had a major impact in Asia.
Climate change has had a major impact in Africa.
These main points are arranged in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
directional
spatial
chronological
causal
problem-solution
26. A speech with the specific purpose “To inform my audience how outbreaks of bird flu move
from region to region” would most likely be organized in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
natural
analytical
progressive
scientific
spatial
27. Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main
points of a speech with the specific purpose “To inform my audience about the major
geographical regions of the Philippines”?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
historical
spatial
developmental
descriptive
visual
28. If the following internal summary were used in an informative speech, the speech would
most likely be organized in __________ order.
On our tour of campus thus far, we have moved from the student union on the east side of
campus and around the perimeter. We’ve taken in the engineering campus on the north,
the design college on the west side, and the school of education on the south.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
causal
formal
analytical
spatial
topical
29. Which organizational method is used in a speech with the following main points.
I. Caused by the bite of infected mosquitoes, West Nile virus has spread throughout the
United States.
II. The effects of West Nile virus include flu-like symptoms, convulsions, swelling of the
brain, and, in some cases, death.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
topical
causal
scientific
analytical
spatial
30. Because of his family’s medical history, Alan decided to give his informative speech on
sickle-cell anemia. When he finished work on the speech, it had the following main points.
I. Sickle-cell anemia is a hereditary blood disease caused by abnormal blood cells.
II. The effects of sickle-cell anemia include liver damage, blindness, paralysis, and early
death.
Alan’s main points were arranged in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
topical
medical
analytical
formal
causal
31. Here are the main points for a speech on the subject of hearing loss.
I. Hearing loss can be caused by genetic and environmental factors.
II. Hearing loss can lead to significant changes in a person’s daily life.
These main points are arranged in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
logical
scientific
analytical
topical
e. causal
32. A speech with the specific purpose “To inform my audience about the causes of domestic
violence and its effects on society” would most likely be arranged in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
legal
causal
informative
problem-solution
chronological
33. Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main
points of a speech with the specific purpose “To inform my audience of the causes and
effects of the erosion of America’s seacoasts”?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
spatial
environmental
chronological
analytical
causal
34. Which organizational method is used in a speech with the following main points?
I. Many citizens are victimized every year by incompetent lawyers.
II. A bill requiring lawyers to stand for recertification every 10 years will do much to help
solve the problem.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
legal
topical
chronological
problem-solution
analytical
35. Which organizational method is used in a speech with the following main points?
I. Beijing and other major Chinese cities are plagued by massive traffic jams.
II. To combat the problem, officials have reduced the number of days a car can be driven
each week.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
objective
persuasive
problem-solution
analytical
spatial
36. Here are the main points for a persuasive speech about the environmental hazards created
by discarded computers.
I. Discarded computers have become a major source of lead and radiation pollution in
landfills.
II. Solving this problem requires government regulation and personal action by
consumers and businesses.
These main points are arranged in ____________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
spatial
ascending
chronological
problem-solution
descending
37. A soccer player herself, Jenine is very concerned about the growing number of serious
injuries at all levels of the sport. When the time came for her persuasive speech, she
presented a speech with the following main points:
I. In the past ten years serious soccer injuries have risen dramatically among players of
all ages and skill levels.
II. The best way to control this problem is through changes in rules and training.
Jenine’s main points were arranged in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
problem-solution
chronological
problem-cause-solution
topical
motivated sequence
38. Here are the main points for a persuasive speech on adult illiteracy.
I. Adult illiteracy has reached crisis proportions in the United States.
II. Solving the problem requires action by government and individual citizens alike.
These main points are arranged in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
spatial
topical
problem-solution
comparative-advantage
causal
39. Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main
points of a speech with the specific purpose “To persuade my audience that our state
legislature should enact tougher laws to deal with the problem of motorists who run red
lights.”
a.
b.
c.
d.
topical
persuasive
problem-solution
analytical
e. spatial
40. Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main points
of a speech with the specific purpose “To persuade my audience to support stricter drug
testing for college athletes”?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
chronological
problem-solution
thematic
spatial
causal
41. Which pattern of organization would probably be most effective for arranging the main
points of a speech with the specific purpose “To persuade my audience that high school and
college football programs should act now to reduce the incidents of serious injuries in their
sport.”
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
spatial
causal
problem-solution
chronological
topical
42. If the following transition were used in a persuasive speech, the speech would most likely be
organized in __________ order.
Now that I’ve told you about declining voter involvement in this country, let’s look at what
we can do about it.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
causal
spatial
comparative-advantages
problem-solution
topical
43. If the following connective were used between the two main points of a persuasive speech,
the speech would most likely be organized in __________ order.
We’ve seen the costs to our economy of dependence on foreign oil; now let’s look at some
solutions.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
causal
analytical
problem-solution
consecutive
topical
44. If the following connective were used between the two main points of a persuasive speech,
the speech would most likely be organized in __________ order.
Now that we have seen how the U.S. is facing a shortage of qualified teachers, let’s turn to
steps that should be taken to remedy the situation.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
causal
analytical
problem-solution
consecutive
topical
45. Here are the main points for an informative speech about the major kinds of fireworks:
I. Skyrockets explode high in the air, producing the most dramatic effects of all
fireworks.
II. Roman candles shoot out separate groups of sparks and colored flames with a series
of booming noises.
III. Pinwheels throw off sparks and flames as they whirl on the end of a stick.
IV. Lances are thin, colorful fireworks used in ground displays.
These points are organized in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
spatial
descriptive
chronological
illustrative
topical
46. Here are the main points for an informative speech about the accomplishments of
Leonardo da Vinci.
I. As a painter, da Vinci produced the Mona Lisa and other masterpieces.
II. As an inventor, da Vinci drew plans for a parachute and a flying machine.
III. As an astronomer, da Vinci concluded that the earth revolves around the sun.
These main points are arranged in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
topical
objective
descriptive
career
spatial
47. Here are the main points for a speech persuading the audience to become literacy tutors.
I. You should volunteer as a literacy tutor because it helps children.
II. You should volunteer as a literacy tutor because it strengthens the community.
III. You should volunteer as a literacy tutor because it is personally rewarding.
These main points are arranged in __________ order.
a. topical
b. argumentative
c. problem-solution
d. psychological
e. analytical
48. Which organizational method is used in a speech with the following main points?
I. As a social worker, Jane Addams founded the settlement house movement in Chicago.
II. As a reformer, Jane Addams campaigned for child-labor laws, unemployment
compensation, and better public sanitation.
III. As a suffragist, Jane Addams fought to give women the vote.
IV. As a writer, Jane Addams is best known for her autobiographical Twenty Years at Hull
House.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
topical
spatial
chronological
descriptive
formal
49. Which organizational pattern is used in a speech with the following the main points?
I. Soda lime glass is used in almost all ordinary glass products.
II. Lead crystal glass is used mostly for luxury glass products.
III. Heat resistant glass is used for cooking and scientific products.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
causal
informative
chronological
topical
descriptive
50. Here are the main points for a speech about the methods used by Feng shui consultants.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
Feng shui consultants use light cures to redirect energy.
Feng shui consultants use sound cures to generate new energy.
Feng shui consultants use weight cures to bring feelings of stability.
Feng shui consultants use living cures to nourish life and growth.
These main points are arranged in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
formal
professional
problem-solution
topical
causal
51. Here are the main points for an informative speech about the major categories of dog
breeds:
I. The working dogs do rescue, police, herding, and guide jobs.
II. The hound dogs are hunters that specialize in small animals.
III. The terrier dogs make good watchdogs.
IV. The toy dogs are primarily house pets.
These points are organized in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
spatial
descriptive
chronological
illustrative
topical
52. If the following connective were used before the third main point of an informative speech
about charter schools, the speech would most likely be organized in __________ order.
Now that we have looked at the origins and the philosophy of charter schools, let’s look at
what they are accomplishing.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
analytical
technical
developmental
consecutive
topical
53. Here are the main points for a speech explaining the reasons for the current shortage of
teachers.
I. Teachers are leaving the profession because of low pay.
II. Teachers are leaving the profession because of excessive bureaucracy.
III. Teachers are leaving the profession because of inadequate facilities.
These main points are arranged in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
ascending
consecutive
chronological
descending
topical
54. Here are the main points for an informative speech about the book To Kill a Mockingbird.
I. To Kill a Mockingbird was the first, and only, novel written by Harper Lee.
II. To Kill a Mockingbird won a Pulitzer Prize for literature and became a modern
classic.
III. To Kill a Mockingbird has been banned by some public schools because of its themes.
According to your textbook, these main points are arranged in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
literary
procedural
ascending
analytical
topical
55. Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main
points of a speech with the specific purpose “To inform my audience about the three major
kinds of drone aircraft used by the U.S. military”?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
analytical
topical
causal
spatial
chronological
56. Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main
points of a speech with the specific purpose “To inform my audience about the three major
principles of Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy of nonviolence”?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
topical
logistical
chronological
technical
analytical
57. A speech about the equipment used in the sport of ice hockey should probably use a(n)
__________ organizational pattern.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
analogical
chronological
topical
problem-solution
causal
58. What organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main
points of a speech with the central idea “Estate taxes should be retained because they
preserve opportunity for all, because they help reduce the U.S. budget deficit, and because
they are consistent with American values of fairness and justice”?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
causal
formal
problem-solution
topical
economic
59. Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main
points of a speech with the specific purpose “To inform my audience of the four factors that
make a classic car collectible”?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
analogical
spatial
problem-solution
topical
causal
60. Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main
points of a speech with the central idea “There are five basic positions of the feet in
ballet”?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
visual
chronological
problem-solution
causal
topical
61. A speech with the specific purpose “To inform my audience how to take pictures like a
professional” would most likely be arranged in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
causal or chronological
topical or causal
spatial or topical
chronological or spatial
topical or chronological
62. A speech with the specific purpose “To inform my audience of the major features of the
Empire State Building” would most likely be organized in __________ order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
chronological or spatial
causal or topical
topical or spatial
chronological or causal
causal or spatial
63. Which of the following does your textbook recommend for preparing main points?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Balance the amount of time given to each main point.
Try to use the same pattern of wording for each main point.
Keep main points clearly separate from one another.
all of the above
a and c only
64. Which of the following does your textbook recommend for preparing main points?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Try to divide your topic into five or more main points.
Try to use the same pattern of wording for each main point.
Keep main points clearly separate from one another.
all of the above
b and c only
65. Which of the following does your textbook recommend for preparing main points?
a. Devote each main point to a separate aspect of the topic.
b. Limit the number of main points to between two and five.
c. Be sure to use a visual aid with each main point.
d. all of the above
e. b and c only
66. Your textbook recommends each of the following for preparing main points except
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Keep main points clearly separate from one another.
Use a different pattern of wording for each main point.
Limit the number of main points to between two and five.
Balance the amount of time devoted to each main point.
Organize main points strategically.
67. How do the following main points for a speech about the major steps involved in a
successful job interview violate the guidelines for main points presented in your textbook?
I. The first step is preparing for the interview before it takes place.
II. Presenting yourself well during the interview is also important.
III. After the interview, you need to follow up.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The main points don’t follow any method of organization.
The main points don’t use a similar pattern of wording.
The main points aren’t clearly separate from one another.
all of the above
b and c only
68. How do the following main points for a speech about the achievements of Ida Wells-
Barnett violate the guidelines presented in your textbook for organizing main points?
I. As a teacher, Wells-Barnett spoke out against inferior school facilities for AfricanAmerican children.
II. As a journalist, Wells-Barnett campaigned against lynching.
III. In the early 20th century, Wells-Barnett expanded her activities.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The main points should have been arranged in causal order.
The main points don’t each deal with a separate aspect of the topic.
The main points don’t divide the topic consistently.
all of the above
a and c only
69. How do the following main points for a speech about how to determine the value of a
baseball card violate the guidelines presented in your textbook for organizing main points?
I. The first factor determining the value of a baseball card is the fame of the player.
II. The second factor determining the value of a baseball card is the age of the card.
III. The third factor determining the value of a baseball card is the rarity of the card and
the physical condition of the card.
a.
b.
c.
d.
The main points don’t each deal with a separate aspect of the topic.
The main points should have been organized in causal order.
The main points are too concrete in their language.
all of the above
e. b and c only
70. As your textbook explains, signposts are especially useful for
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
focusing attention on key ideas.
indicating exactly where you are in a speech.
supporting your main points.
all of the above.
a and b only.
71. According to your textbook, brief statements that help listeners follow your ideas by
indicating exactly where you are in the speech are called
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
markers.
signposts.
transitions.
bridges.
links.
72. According to your textbook, a phrase such as “Be sure to keep this in mind . . .” that focuses
attention on a key idea in a speech is called a(n)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
signpost.
indicator.
transition.
highlight.
marker.
73. According to your textbook, if the following statement occurred in the body of a speech, it
would be an example of what kind of connective?
So, first, to what extent will you be protected by wearing a seatbelt?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
transition
signpost
rhetorical question
internal preview
bridge
74. According to your textbook, “My second point is . . .” is an example of a(n)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
transition.
bridge
signpost.
enumeration.
marker.
75. According to your textbook, transitions, internal previews, internal summaries, and
signposts are examples of
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
metaphors.
attention-getters.
supporting materials.
connectives.
closings.
76. Words or phrases that indicate when a speaker has completed one thought and is moving
on to another are called
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
transfers.
internal summaries.
speech bridges.
transitions.
signposts.
77. According to your textbook, if the following statement occurred in the body of a speech, it
would be an example of what kind of connective?
In addition to helping people in need, working as a hospital volunteer provides you with
valuable job experience.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
link
signpost
marker
transition
bridge
78. After discussing the first main point in his speech on sustainable agriculture, Rasheed said:
So far, I have explained the problems associated with our present agricultural system.
Next, I will explain what sustainable agriculture is and why it is superior to the current
system.
According to your textbook, what type(s) of connective(s) did Rasheed use?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
bridge
internal summary
transition
all of the above
b and c only
79. Having worked in the personnel department of a local retailer, Violet decided to give her
informative speech on how to have a successful job interview. In moving from one of her
main points to another, she said:
Now that we’ve seen how important the handshake is in creating a first impression, let’s
move to the way eye contact can make or break your interview.
What kind of connective did Violet use in this statement?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
spotlight
internal preview
transition
internal summary
bridge
80. According to your textbook, if the following statement occurred in the body of a speech, it
would be an example of what kind of connective?
We have spent a lot of time talking about the problem of computer viruses. Now let’s look
at some solutions.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
transition
internal preview
internal summary
all of the above
a and c only
81. “Now that we have seen the causes of unrest in central Africa, we shall turn to their effects .
. .” is an example of a(n)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
internal preview.
transition.
internal summary.
signpost.
main point.
82. According to your textbook, if the following statement occurred in the body of a speech, it
would be an example of what kind of connective?
Now that we have learned about the history of Mormonism, let’s consider its major beliefs.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
marker
signpost
transition
bridge
link
83. According to your textbook, if the following statement occurred in the body of a speech, it
would be an example of what kind of connective?
In discussing solutions to the problem, we will look in turn at what can be done by our
state, by our local communities, and by each of us in this room.
a.
b.
c.
d.
transition
foreshadowing
internal summary
internal preview
e. bridge
84. According to your textbook, if the following statement occurred in the body of a speech, it
would be an example of what kind of connective?
In discussing the problem of childhood asthma, we shall look at the symptoms of the
disease, its causes, and current treatments.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
signpost
internal preview
transition
internal summary
bridge
85. While working on the body of your speech, you see the need to let the audience know what
the upcoming subpoints will be. You decide to add a(n)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
transition.
internal preview.
organizational bridge.
internal summary.
structural link.
86. According to your textbook, if the following statement occurred in the body of a speech, it
would be an example of what kind of connective?
In order to get a better understanding of how the proposed copper mine will harm the
environment, we shall consider its effects on the land, its effects on the water, and its
effects on wildlife.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
signpost
internal preview
transition
internal summary
bridge
87. According to your textbook, if the following statement occurred in the body of a speech, it
would be an example of which kind of connective?
As we have seen so far, ignorance about the disease and how it spreads, cultural norms that
make it nearly impossible for women to protect themselves, and rampant poverty all
contribute to the rapid growth of AIDS among women in Africa.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
repetition
internal checkpoint
transitional marker
internal summary
signpost
88. According to your textbook, if the following statement occurred in the body of the speech, it
would be an example of what kind of connective?
Let’s pause for a moment to see what we have found thus far. First we have seen that
America’s criminal justice system does not effectively deter crime. Second we have seen
that prison programs to rehabilitate criminals have failed.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
internal summary
transition
bridge
internal preview
enumeration
89. While working on the body of your speech, you realize that the steps of the process you just
explained are fairly complex. You decide that you need to review those steps before moving
on to the next main point. To accomplish this task, you would probably add a(n)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
transition.
checkpoint.
internal summary.
supplement.
signpost.
90. After discussing the first main point of her speech on the exploration of Mars, Jeanne said:
Let’s take a moment to recap. To this point we have seen that scientists have made
important discoveries about the terrain of Mars, including its channels, basins, and polar
caps. Now let’s move on from the terrain of Mars and look at the planet’s atmosphere.
According to your textbook, what type(s) of connective(s) did Jeanne use?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
internal summary
transition
bridge
all of the above
a and b only
Short-Answer Questions
1. A speech narrating a series of historical events will usually be arranged in
_______________ order.
chronological
2. A speech demonstrating how to create a business Web site step by step will probably be
arranged in _______________ order.
chronological
3. Speeches arranged in _______________ order follow a directional pattern from top to
bottom, east to west, or some other route.
spatial
4. A speech whose specific purpose is to show a cause-effect relationship is usually organized
in _______________ order.
causal
5. Because it is adaptable to such a wide variety of topics and purposes, _______________
order is used more than any other pattern of speech organization.
topical
6. A speech with the specific purpose “To inform my audience of the causes, symptoms, and
treatment of diabetes” will probably be arranged in _______________ order.
topical
7. A speech with the specific purpose “To inform my audience of three serious consequences
of not getting enough sleep” would most likely be arranged in _______________ order.
topical
8. The following main points are arranged in _______________ order.
I. The rise of the American film industry started with the age of silent movies from 1910
to 1930.
II. The American film industry was at its peak during the Golden Age of Hollywood from
1930 to 1950.
III. Since 1950 the American film industry has withstood the rise of television and the
development of home video systems.
chronological
9. The following main points are arranged in _______________ order.
I. The first step in geocaching is going online to find and select a cache.
II. The second step in geocaching is recording clues and entering coordinates on your
GPS system.
III. The third step in geocaching is using the clues and GPS directions to find the cache.
IV. The fourth step in geocaching is to replace the cache for the next players to find.
chronological
10. The following main points are arranged in _______________ order.
I. The innermost layer of the sun’s surface, the photosphere, is 500 kilometers thick.
II. The middle layer of the sun’s surface, the chromosphere, is 2,000 kilometers thick.
III. The outermost layer of the sun’s surface, the corona, is millions of kilometers thick.
spatial
11. The following main points are arranged in _______________ order.
I. The raised right arm and torch of the Statue of Liberty symbolize America’s role as a
beacon light of liberty to people the world over.
II. The body of the Statue of Liberty is lined with staircases, which give a good view of the
inside contours.
III. The base of the Statue of Liberty contains a plaque with the poignant lines beginning
“Give me your tired, your poor . . . .”
spatial
12. The following main points are arranged in _______________ order.
I. The major causes of airborne pollution are industrial and automobile contaminants.
II. The effects of airborne pollution are felt in cities and villages around the world.
causal
13. The following main points are arranged in _______________ order.
I. Ritalin is widely prescribed for young children who suffer attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder.
II. Widespread use of Ritalin is causing serious side effects such as liver damage, heart
disease, depression, and stunted growth.
causal
14. The following main points are arranged in _______________ order.
I. Gambling addiction is an increasingly serious problem throughout the United States.
II. The problem of gambling addiction can best be solved by a combination of education
and rehabilitation.
problem-solution
15. The following main points are organized in _______________ order.
I. Childhood obesity has reached crisis proportions in the United States.
II. Solving the problem will require changes in attitudes, eating habits, and exercise.
problem-solution
16. The following main points are arranged in _______________ order.
I. The cause of rabies in humans is the bite or scratch of an infected animal.
II. The symptoms of rabies include drooling, changes in temperament, sudden changes
in voice, and abnormal positioning of the limbs.
III. The treatment for possible exposure to rabies is a prompt series of injections.
topical
17. The following main points are arranged in _______________ order.
I. High-protein diets are high in protein and low in carbohydrates.
II. High carbohydrate diets are high in carbohydrates and low in protein.
III. Fasting diets involve total abstention from food for a long period of time.
topical
18. The following main points are arranged in _______________ order.
I. As a painter, Picasso tested the limits of abstraction.
II. As a sculptor, Picasso often incorporated “found” objects.
III. As a printmaker, Picasso gave vent to his whimsy and eroticism.
topical
19. The following main points are arranged in _______________ order.
I. The first major type of environmental pollution is land pollution.
II. The second major type of environmental pollution is air pollution.
III. The third major type of environmental pollution is water pollution.
topical
20. _______________ are words or phrases that join one thought to another and indicate
the relationship between them.
Connectives
21. Technically, _______________ state both the idea the speaker is leaving and the one
she or he is coming to.
transitions
22. A(n) _______________ works just like the preview statement in the introduction,
except that it comes in the body of the speech.
internal preview
23. “The final point I’d like to present . . . ” is an example of a(n) _______________ .
signpost
Essay Questions
1. Explain each of the following guidelines for main points in a speech. Why is it important to
follow each guideline?
a. Limit the number of main points.
b. Balance the amount of time devoted to main points.
c. Keep main points separate.
d. Try to use the same pattern of wording for all main points.
2. What is wrong with the following set of main points for a speech about different kinds of
pianos? Explain the problem and then rewrite the main points to solve it.
I. Grand pianos are the largest and most expensive pianos.
II. Upright pianos take up less floor space and have poorer tone quality than grand
pianos.
III. Electronic pianos are often used in jazz and rock music, while player pianos, which
produce music automatically, were popular in the late 1800s.
3. What is wrong with the following set of main points for a speech about preventive
medicine? Explain the problem and then rewrite the main points to solve it.
I. The first basic step in preventive medicine is maintaining a well-balanced diet.
II. Learning how to cope with stress is another basic step in preventive medicine.
III. The third basic step in preventive medicine is keeping a regular exercise program.
4. What is wrong with the following set of main points for a speech about Mount Kilimanjaro?
Explain the problem and then rewrite the main points to solve it.
I. The peak of Mount Kilimanjaro has an arctic climate with snow, ice, and violent
winds.
II. The middle of Mount Kilimanjaro has a rain forest climate with lush vegetation and
diverse animal species.
III. A bushland climate with grassy pastures and farming communities is found at the
base of Mount Kilimanjaro.
5. Write an essay in which you (a) identify the four kinds of speech connectives explained in
your textbook, (b) give an example of each, and (c) discuss the role of each in a speech.
6. For speeches with the following specific purpose statements, what organizational pattern of
main points would be most appropriate? Explain your choice in each case.
a. To inform my audience of the major stages in the development of professional baseball.
b. To inform my audience about the interior design of a medieval castle.
c. To persuade my audience that consumer fraud in America is a serious problem that
requires action at both the state and federal levels.
d. To inform my audience about the three basic moves in karate.
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