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Tonal Harmony Chapters 13-14
THE DOMINANT 7th CHORD
Chapter
7
13: The V
Chord
п‚— We have seen seventh chords used earlier in the
semester; however, we have not dealt with the details of
how composers have used seventh chords in music
п‚— Five most common seventh chords
п‚— Major Seventh
 Major-Minor Seventh (Dominant Seventh) – Most Frequent
п‚— Minor Seventh
п‚— Half-Diminished Seventh
п‚— Fully-Diminished Seventh
Chapter
7
13: The V
Chord
п‚— Voice-Leading Considerations
п‚— For any seventh chord, the 7th of the chord almost
always resolves down by step
п‚—
Do not confuse with the seventh scale degree
п‚— Downward resolution of the 7th as a general principle is
extremely important
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
Originated in music as a downward-resolving suspension or
descending passing tone
The downward resolution was the only acceptable to the ear
EXAMPLE 13-2 (Up vs. Down)
Chapter
7
13: The V
Chord
п‚— Voice-Leading Considerations
п‚— One must also consider the leading tone of the scale
п‚— When it is in an outer part, the leading tone almost
always resolves up by step
п‚—
EXAMPLE 13-3
Chapter
7
13: The V
Chord
п‚— The V7 in Root Position
п‚— Resolution of Dominant 7th in Root Position to the Tonic
Chord in root position is more difficult than that of any
other combination
 Remember the following…
п‚—
п‚—
The 7th of the chord must resolve down by step
The 3rd of the chord (leading tone), when in the top part, must
resolve up by step to the tonic
Chapter
7
13: The V
Chord
п‚— The V7 in Root Position
п‚— When you resolve the V7 to the root position tonic triad,
the tonic triad may or may not be complete
п‚—
EXAMPLE 13-4
п‚— Strategies
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
Use an incomplete V7, omitting the 5th (or less commonly the 3rd)
and doubling the root
Use a complete V7, but put the leading tone (3rd of chord) in an
inner part and take it down a M3 to the 5th of the tonic triad
EXAMPLE 13-6, 13-7
Chapter
7
13: The V
Chord
п‚— Other Resolutions
п‚— The dominant seventh often moves deceptively to the
submediant triad
п‚— Voice-leading is the same as a V-vi progression
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
The leading tone resolves up by step to the tonic, and the other
upper voices move down to the nearest chord tone, resulting in a
doubled third in the vi chord.
Only exception is when the leading tone is in an inner voice in
the major mode
The V7 is always complete when moving to a submediant triad
EXAMPLE 13-14
Chapter
7
13: The V
Chord
п‚— Other Resolutions
п‚— Dominant seventh chords usually are followed by tonic or
submediant triads
Chapter
7
13: The V
Chord
п‚— Independent Practice (in class)
п‚— Complete Self-Test 13-1 (Part A #1-4), (Part C #3-4),
(Part D #1-2) in Tonal Harmony Textbook
п‚— Independent Practice (at home)
п‚— Complete Exercise 13-1 in Tonal Harmony Workbook
Tonal Harmony Chapters 13-14
THE II7 AND VII7 CHORDS
Chapter
7
14: II
7
and VII
Chord
п‚— Any diatonic triad may appear with a 7th added, but the
various diatonic seventh chords do not occur as frequent
as others
п‚— V7, ii7, viiГё7, IV7, vi7, I7, iii7
п‚— After the dominant seventh chord, the next two common
seventh chords are supertonic and leading-tone seventh
chords
Chapter
7
14: II
7
and VII
Chord
п‚— Voice-leading principles for writing these chords should
not be difficult
п‚— The 7th of the chord almost always resolves down by step
п‚— The 7th of the chord may be approached in various ways (as
suspension, passing tone, etc.)
п‚— Incomplete chords must contain at least the root and 7th
п‚— Doubled tones should NOT be the 7th of the chord or
leading tone
Chapter
7
14: II
7
and VII
Chord
п‚— The II7 Chord
п‚— In major, this chord is a minor seventh chord
п‚— In minor, this chord is a half-diminished seventh chord
п‚—
EXAMPLE 14-1
п‚— Like the supertonic triad, the supertonic seventh chord
moves to V, which may be delayed by a cadential six-four
chord
п‚—
п‚—
The V might also be represented by a viio6
EXAMPLE 14-2
Chapter
7
14: II
7
and VII
Chord
п‚— The II7 Chord
п‚— The most common bass position for this chord is first
inversion
п‚—
п‚—
EXAMPLE 14-3
EXAMPLE 14-4
п‚— A much less typical use of the supertonic seventh is as a
substitute for a IV chord in a plagal cadence
п‚—
EXAMPLE 14-5
Chapter
7
14: II
7
and VII
Chord
п‚— The VII7 Chord
п‚— In major, this chord is a half-diminished seventh chord,
possessing a dominant function
п‚— It normally resolves directly to the tonic, but it may first
move to the V7
п‚—
п‚—
EXAMPLE 14-6
Certain inversion must be handled carefully to avoid parallels
Chapter
7
14: II
7
and VII
Chord
п‚— The VII7 Chord
п‚— In minor, this chord is a fully-diminished seventh chord,
possessing a dominant function
п‚— It normally resolves directly to the tonic, but it may first
move to the V7
п‚— This chord contains 2 tritones, for which the tendency is to
resolve inward by step
п‚—
п‚—
If tendencies are followed, the tonic triad will have a doubled
third
EXAMPLE 14-10, 14-12, 14-14
Chapter
7
14: II
7
and VII
Chord
п‚— Independent Practice (in class)
п‚— Complete Self-Test 14-1 (Part A #1-4), (Part B #1-4)
in Tonal Harmony Textbook
п‚— Independent Practice (at home)
п‚— Complete Exercise 14-1 (Part C #1-2) in Tonal Harmony
Workbook
Tonal Harmony Chapters 16-20
SECONDARY FUNCTIONS 1
Chapter 16: Secondary Functions 1
п‚— Chromaticism and Altered Chords
п‚— Chromaticism: the use of pitches foreign to the key of
the passage
п‚—
п‚—
Also referred to as essential chromaticism
These chords as also known as altered chords
п‚— Only chromaticism we have discussed so far is chromatic
nonchord tones
п‚—
Referred to as nonessential chromaticism
Chapter 16: Secondary Functions 1
п‚— The most common sort of altered chord in tonal music is
the secondary function
п‚— Secondary Function: a chord whose function belongs
more closely to a key other than the main key of the
passage
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
EXAMPLE 16-2
Pay attention to the end of the passage. Does the F# in m. 7
sound like a nonchord tone?
What has happened hear?
Chapter 16: Secondary Functions 1
п‚— Secondary Dominant Chords
п‚— All diatonic chords (other than I) may be tonicized by
secondary V or V7 chords
п‚—
п‚—
EXAMPLE 16-3
Most of the accidentals create a leading tone to the root of the
chord being tonicized
п‚— Look at the V/IV. What chord is this really in the key of F
major?
п‚—
Most composers will use a V7/IV to make the secondary function
clear
Chapter 16: Secondary Functions 1
п‚— Spelling Secondary Dominants
п‚— Find the root of the chord that is to be tonicized
п‚— Go up a Perfect 5th
п‚— Using that note as the root, spell a major triad or a majorminor seventh
п‚— EXAMPLE 16-5
Chapter 16: Secondary Functions 1
п‚— Recognizing Secondary Dominants
п‚— If you encounter an altered chord in a passage, there is a
good chance it will be a secondary dominant
п‚— Is the altered chord a major triad or a major-minor seventh
chord? If not, it is not a secondary dominant.
п‚— Find the note a P5 below the root of the altered chord.
п‚— Would a major or minor triad built on that note be a
diatonic triad in this key? If not, it is not a secondary
dominant.
Captain Broccoli on Secondary
Dominants!
Chapter 16: Secondary Functions 1
п‚— Independent Practice (in class)
п‚— Complete Self-Test 16-1 (Part A #1-5), (Part B #1-5)
in Tonal Harmony Textbook
п‚— Independent Practice (at home)
п‚— Complete Exercise 16-1 in Tonal Harmony Workbook
Tonal Harmony Chapters 16-20
SECONDARY FUNCTIONS 2
Chapter 17: Secondary Functions 2
п‚— Secondary Leading-Tone Chords
п‚— Chords treated the same as secondary dominant chords
п‚— A small complication arises when a leading-tone seventh
chord is used as a secondary function.
п‚— Should it be a half or fully diminished seventh chord?
п‚— Use the following principles:
п‚—
п‚—
If the triad to be tonicized is minor, use viio7/
If the triad to be tonicized is major, use either viiГё7/ or viio7/,
although fully diminished appears to be used most often
Chapter 17: Secondary Functions 2
п‚— Secondary Leading-Tone Chords
п‚— Leading-tone chords of ii, IV, iv, V, and vi are more common
than others
п‚— EXAMPLE 17-1
п‚—
Two of these chords (viiГё7/III and viio7/III) produce diatonic triads.
These can only be made clear in context
Chapter 17: Secondary Functions 2
п‚— Spelling Secondary Leading-Tone Chord
п‚— Find the root of the chord that is to be tonicized
п‚— Go down a minor 2nd or up a major 7th
п‚— Using that note as the root, spell a diminished triad, a halfdiminished seventh chord, or a fully-diminished seventh
chord
Chapter 17: Secondary Functions 2
п‚— Recognizing Secondary Leading-Tone Chords
п‚— If you encounter an altered chord in a passage, there is a
good chance it will be a secondary leading-tone chord
п‚— Is the altered chord a diminished triad, a half-diminished
seventh chord, or a fully-diminished seventh chord? If not, it
is not a secondary leading-tone chord.
п‚— Find the note a minor 2nd above the root of the altered
chord.
п‚— Would a major or minor triad built on that note be a
diatonic triad in this key? If not, it is not a secondary
leading-tone chord.
Chapter 17: Secondary Functions 2
п‚— Independent Practice (in class)
п‚— Complete Self-Test 17-1 (Part A #1-5), (Part B #1-5)
in Tonal Harmony Textbook
п‚— Independent Practice (at home)
п‚— Complete Exercise 17-1 in Tonal Harmony Workbook
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