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Class X – History

Class X – History
Emergence & growth of modern
Understands its historical
Develops skills
of Public
urbanization in Human
speaking and
Determines the role of
Analyses the causes of
emergence of modern cities.
Correlates between: Agriculture
Enumerates the origin
and settled life, Industrial
and features of
Revolution, Urbanization and
ancient cities
Environment, Colonialism and
Evaluates the effects of
Case Study: London (Developed
Describes Industrial
Understands and explains
Develops skills
the factors responsible for
in social, economic and political
emergence of London as
growth of people and places.
modern city.
Defines Colonialism
Speaking &
Analyze the role of technology
Evaluates the impact of
migration in the development of
cities, their culture and
Recognizes the contrasts in city
life: luxury and poverty,
opportunity and disappointment,
Correlates lack of opportunities
and rise of slums and crime.
Correlate economic status and
public temperament.
Case Study:
Enumerates the
Explains the features of the
Delhi (Developing Country)
historical background
walled city and the new
rule on the geo-politics of the
of Delhi
capital area
and higher
order thinking
Describes the
Assesses the impact of colonial
Illustrates the relation between
aspirations of the colonized and
emergence of a
Discusses the role of the
interests/objectives of the
colonial city and
colonial rulers, Indigenous
making of a new
people and the marginal
groups in the development
industrialization colonialism and
of Delhi as a modern city.
Establishes a link between
Evaluates the impact of colonial
rule and of urbanization on the
city dwellers – rich as well as
Recognizes the contribution of
the city dwellers in development
and growth of the city.
Establishes correlation between
urbanization and multicultural
Urbanization and Environment
Explains the
Understands the laws made
environment and its
by various governments to
creative writing
control pollution and
environment, politics,
protect environment
environment and human greed.
Understands correlation between
industrialized urbanization and
Identifies problems challenging
contemporary and future
Emergence and Growth of Cities as a result of industrialization and other socio-economic process.
Impact of urbanization.
Case Study of any two cities-one from the developed and one from the developing countries.
The unit will enable learners to:
Understand the process of urbanization since the emergence of civilization in the ancient period.
Develop general awareness about emergence and characteristics of ancient and modern cities.
Develop a clear perspective on urbanization as one of the major consequences of the Industrial
Revolution in the modern times.
Understand the impact of urbanization on the life of city dwellers - rich as well as poor.
Conduct a case study on any two cities of the world after a careful analysis of the factors behind their
development as multicultural, modern day metropolises.
Compare and contrast the systems, conditions of both the cities with regard to - work, housing,
transport and leisure activities etc.
Reflect upon the impact of urbanization on the environment.
Work, life and leisure are interdependent. The need to work is an essential aspect of human life. The nature
of the work determines the life style. The leisure life reflects the values and character of a nation. This unit
will enable the students to understand what the conditions of people were and their life styles when the cities
were developing. Urbanization has been the result of continuous human development in different spheres of
life. The rich as well as the poor contributed to the development of cities. Urbanization had positive and
negative impacts on the natural and human environment. It would draw the attention of students towards the
impacts of urbanization on natural and human environment.
Development of agriculture enabled man to lead a settled life. Work, life and leisure became the need
and requirement of man that led to the emergence and development of urban centers of living in the ancient,
medieval as well as the modern times. These needs were of the similar nature worldwide and hence the
process, problems and consequences of urbanization have also been similar in most of the countries in
various parts of the world.
By taking up a case study of one city each, from the developed as well as the developing countries,
London and Delhi respectively, as discussed in this unit, one can develop keen interest and do a thorough
study in order to understand the factors that led to their emergence, the contrasts, contradictions, benefits of
urbanization and above all, the pressure that city life puts on people and the environment. One would also
get to understand and accept the fact that, not only the rich and influential contribute towards the growth of a
city; the poor, the slum dwellers and the marginal people also play an equally important role in this regard.
Hence, they deserve empathy, attention and a better treatment from all of us.
While focusing on the course of urbanization in general and its impact on the natural and human
environment, awareness and sensitivity needs to be developed towards this issue.
Urbanization, as a process, has a long history. Cities have been there in existence since the ancient times,
from the beginning of the civilization in different parts of the world. But, on the contrary, modern cities have
emerged worldwide only over the last two centuries.
Teaching of this unit will:
Help the students explore and understand the process of urbanization in the ancients well as the
modern time period.
Allow them to investigate the factors responsible for the rise of modern trends with multi ethnic
population in the modern cities.
Enable the students to travel back in time to the middle of the 18th century to get a complete and a
holistic view of the emergence and development of cities, which they know or live in today.
Enable the students to acknowledge the fact that most of the countries at that time were rural with
only a few urban centers which were small political, military or trading settlements. Each of these
townships later grew into a city or a metropolis due to a variety of reasons; industrialization, growth
of trade and commerce, migration, being some of the most important causes of them.
Allow the students to critically analyze the demographic information in order to understand that
when the cities took shape, things, situations, condition of people and their life style at that time
were totally different.
Appreciate the fact that urbanization was a result of the continual human development in different
spheres of life.
Explain that cities emerged in contrast to the village life, with roads, bridges, buildings, new modes
of transport, glittering shops and market places being their main attraction. They provided an array
of job opportunities, business possibilities and scope for industrial development. All these factors
led to massive migration and a sharp increase in the city population. Such a large population could
be an asset, liability or a problem in turn.
Facilitate the students to understand that city life also led to the loosening of social norms. Social
distinctions that used to appear natural and normal at one point of time now started fading away.
Explain that cross cutting of cultures and intermingling of people from diverse backgrounds
pertaining to different castes, regions, religions, colour and creed started taking place and resulted in
developing multicultural nature of the modern cities and metropolises.
Enable the students to recognize and acknowledge the glaring contrast within the city life itself as
everyone was not fortunate enough to get a job or work opportunity and had to face a lot of
disappointment. Hence, the city had two different sides or aspects to its existence. One was full of
beauty, splendor, luxury, wealth and opportunity while the other was filled with dirt, poverty,
disappointment, misery and crime.
Make the students realize that not only rich, resourceful and influential contributed to the growth of
the city but also the common people like the urban poor, factory workers, labourers, artisans,
servants, hawkers, street vendors played an equally important part in its development.
Make students and teachers understand that the respective governments of the cities or the national
authorities cannot ignore, discard or turn a blind eye towards the less fortunate or the marginal
groups, as these people not only form the industrial, public or domestic work force but their poor
living conditions have enough potential to create a variety of problems, crises and disasters like
outbreak of fires, spread of diseases and epidemics, riots, rise in crime rate and even outbreak of
rebellions or civic disturbances.
Make the students understand the damage and impact of urbanization on the natural environment
and the laws made at that time to protect and conserve it.
The case studies of London and Delhi, will allow the learners to draw a link between urbanization in one
part of the world with the other(developed v/s developing) and to conclude that the causes, process and
problems related to urbanization have been almost similar everywhere, world over, with only a few local
disparities. This will finally help the students to develop a global perspective towards human development.
Activity: 1
Brainstorming and Interactive Session:
Divide the class into 4-6 groups.
Write the term URBANIZATION in bold letters on the class board and ask the students to brainstorm
on this term for five to ten minutes.
Ask each group to come forward with their findings and discuss them in the class.
Explain the concept of Urbanization and its stages through a Power Point Presentation or a Slide
Show prepared beforehand.
Use a map to show ancient urban centers in Asia, Africa, Europe and Americas.
Invite response, comments and queries from the students and try to answer them.
Explain the factors that led to the emergence of early civilizations and cities with the help of a Power
Point Presentation or a Slide Show.
Put up a few open ended questions in the class based on the present day cities and their comparison
with the ancient ones to initiate interaction with the students.
Highlight the features of these ancient cities and explain them in detail with examples.
Build your own explanation on the said topic on the basis of the information given in the teachers’ as
well as the students’ manual.
Ask the students to build their explanation on urbanization on the basis of previous knowledge, class
discussion and sheer imagination and put it on a sheet of paper, group wise, in the form of articles,
pictures, cartoons, poems or riddles etc, in order to make the teaching-learning session more
interactive, lively and fruitful.
Refer Worksheet No: 2 and 3.
Urbanization has a long history, as the first cities of the world emerged around 3500 B.C. to 2500 B. C.,
though conditions required for their emergence started being set, as early as 8000 B.C. with the beginning
of the permanent settlements. It was by the fourth millennium B. C. that the urban revolution had all its
foundations laid and was now ready to arrive. This unit will discuss the entire process of urbanization in the
ancient and the modern ages from three perspectives – work, life and leisure.
During the Neolithic period the discovery of agriculture encouraged the humans, who were food gatherers
and hunters at this time, to settle down in order to look after their agricultural establishments. This is how
the nomads became the permanent settlers and added to the population of their respective areas. Denser
populations encouraged farming and resulted in a larger production of food grains, sufficient enough to feed
the entire community and to relieve it from the fear of hunger and starvation.
Division of labour was done and the agricultural activity was to be done by a few selected groups of people.
It was the freedom from the task of arranging food supplies, which gave some people the leisure time to
observe nature and think about climate, seasonal changes, hydrological cycle, ever changing skies and fury
of rivers etc and come out with possible solutions to the problems related to these phenomena.
Technological developments like mining and metallurgy, making tools and implements, use of plough,
potter’s wheel, handloom along with surplus production of food created the situation for further
development of a complex social and economic system in these areas. It was the work and efforts of these
ancient communities and their observations during the leisure time that led to enhancement of their life
styles and formation of human culture in the ancient period.
Historians have different views regarding the reasons that led to the emergence of these cities:
According to the traditional view agricultural activity
was an essential prerequisite for the cities to develop in a
particular area, as surplus food production created
scope for people to focus on other aspects of human
development in their free time, once the food
requirements for the village community were met.
(Source: )
Some other historians are of the opinion that it
was the availability of surplus raw materials
which encouraged trade and led to the
emergence of cities around markets, along the
trade routes.
As per another theory, the cities came up as political centers or capitals, for the purpose of
performing administrative functions, having seat of the government and its important offices.
A few scholars of history also hold the view that it was
religion which played a vital role in the development of a
city as they give examples of various cities of the ancient
and medieval times which grew around temples, sacred
places, cemeteries, shrines, monasteries and monumental
Whatever may have been the reasons behind their origin, once emerged, cities were here to stay, work and
develop. They were the living evidences of human toil and labour, expertise in variety of tasks, their
recreational and social activities which they had taken up in their leisure time to develop various arts, music,
writing etc.
Characteristics of old cities:
These urban centers were larger in size and population than the surrounding areas and were
comprised of the non food producing inhabitants. They were dependent upon the rural population for
supply of food and conducted administrative, military, economic or non agricultural activities.
These cities emerged in the natural form as well as in the planned manner and generally had complex
social and economic system based on division of labour.
Town planning in these urban centers involved construction of houses, roads, government buildings,
granaries and drainage system etc. and facilities like transportation, proper sanitation were made
available to the city dwellers along with a variety of means for recreation.
In a way cities created environment for the development of human culture which led to the
expression of talents, intermingling of people, growth and spread of religion, development of
customs and traditions.
They also provided foundational ground for the growth of various forms of art, scientific and
technological research, architectural innovation and other processes of progress and human
development. It is for all these reasons that the life in these ancient cities was called a civilization.
Activity – 2
Time Travelers’ Interview
Divide the class into three groups. Assign each of these groups with one ancient civilization to research and
work upon at home.
Ask the students to imagine themselves as the inhabitants of the civilization assigned to them and also to
prepare questions in order to interview the king of the respective area in an imaginary assembly meeting.
Organize the assembly meeting in the class and act yourself as the king in order to be interviewed. Ensure
that the students travel back in time and ask the questions from the perspective of a person living in that
period of history and you also answer these questions from the same perspective.
Allow students to be as creative and inquisitive as they can, while they conduct the interview.
As a teacher try to explain the origin and features of the assigned civilizations through your answers and ask
the students to prepare a small question bank on the said topic, including the ones they have already asked
during the time travelers’ interview.
Refer worksheet no. - 6.
It was probably the first stage of urbanization when man and his activities were totally dependent upon
nature and had to be in accordance with it.
At this point of time ancient civilizations developed in various parts of Asia, Africa, Europe and
Americas; Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Harappan and Chinese civilizations were some of the
prominent ones.
They emerged during the Bronze Age around 3500 B.C. and were all wet point settlements that grew
in balance and cooperation with nature, in the flood plains or the fertile river valleys.
Some of the important cities in these civilizations were Ur, Nippur, Sumer, Mohenjo-Daro and
Harappa etc.
All these first cities were temple towns dedicated to a local god and located on a comparatively
raised ground. They received a regular supply of food from the surrounding villages and had huge
granaries to store surplus grains.
These were not only the religious settlements but also the centers of political authority, trade and
local industry, military and cultural activity.
They had well organized governments, efficient administrators, well framed laws, rules and
regulations and some form of taxation to support a vast range of non food producing city dwellers.
Since division of labour was one of the important aspects of urbanization, people from all walks of
life and professions lived in these cities. Hence, urban population supported and absorbed various
social groups such as the artisans, craftsmen, metal workers, merchants and traders, priests and
scholars, musicians and performers etc.
Most of these urban centers of human habitation were planned. Citadel - a large elevated ground
dedicated to religious and state functions and a wall surrounding the city for its protection and
defense were two typical features of these ancient cities.
These dwellings witnessed construction of proper roads and streets with houses erected on their
sides. A well designed irrigation system was created in the surrounding agricultural lands to provide
an easy as well as a regular supply of water from the river.
In a few of these cities like Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, an efficient drainage system was created to
provide sanitation and to keep the dwellings clean. Public and governmental buildings like palaces,
assembly halls, collective baths, granaries, and dams were also constructed.
Development of a form of writing and symbolic art in order to maintain records of trade and
taxation, to write laws, agreements and to stamp trading items, send messages and signals, above all,
to express thoughts and emotions was also an important characteristic of these ancient cities.
It is evident that this second stage of urbanization had reduced the impact of nature and increased the
dominance of the mankind as people moved from living in fragile and temporary structures to much more
durable and stronger buildings in the cities, which were made up of stones or baked bricks and could
effectively protect the inhabitants from strong winds, harsh weather, fire and even from invasions for a long
period of time. They could collect water in reservoirs, dig canals to bring water supply to the cities. They
could create and hold a secure base for conducting administrative and economic tasks; could travel longer
and faster with the help of improved boats and ships. Storage facilities in these urban centers, canalization
and irrigation freed the community from aggression, irregularities and limitations of nature.
All this meant that now humans were no longer totally dependent on nature and could rather dominate it by
creating a strong manmade environment. They were now independent of weather and climatic conditions
and could challenge these forces of nature in order to engage in long distance activities. They could
specialize in agricultural activities and crops leading to specialization in trade and industry, form traders
guilds and could further create political specialization. They could now expand the city beyond its normal
boundaries. With the help of taxation, mining and road building, they could now organize and deploy
hundreds and thousands of people for transforming the city environment.
Activity: 3
A Gallery Walk
In the capacity of a teacher, research and take out important and interesting information and pictures
of modern industries, modern cities, infrastructure in a city, family in the past and present, new
trends, events, forms of art, means of transport, malls, market etc.
Use this material to make a few collages or posters of A-3 size with catchy captions in order to
explain urbanization in the modern period.
Put up these posters in a hall/ class/corridor or a gallery and ask the students to take a walk through
the area in the irrespective groups and try to read and infer information from these posters.
Give the students 10-15 minutes to observe and understand the issues put up on the posters and
handouts and to discuss the same among their group members.
Once the students have finished the walk, ask them to settle down in the class.
Ask each of the groups to share their inferences and ideas regarding those issues with the entire
Try to shape their ideas in the form of a graphic organizer or a flow chart on the class board while
continuing with the interaction in order to explain the process of urbanization in the modern times
in detail. State all the events mentioned in the posters in a proper chronological sequence so that the
students are able to understand the correct order of their occurrence.
In order to assess students’ understanding of the topic, distribute pre-prepared questionnaires
among the students and ask them to answer the questions in brief.
Refer work sheet No. – 4, 5, 7
Growth of population, expansion of trade and commerce, increased community interaction, intermixing of
people and cultures led to enhancement of knowledge and information. With the help of stable and
determined political power of the great empires, their military expeditions, complimented by their economic
well being, this knowledge and technical knowhow got promoted and spread to the newly conquered lands
and was synthesized with their learning and wisdom.
It was in the 15th century that Europe experienced the Age of Renaissance and enlightenment, when new
architectural styles, political philosophy, and modern science were born. People developed a spirit of
enquiry and started taking interest in making observations, conducting research and experiments in various
fields of knowledge. As a consequence, new discoveries and inventions took place. Great technological
changes and new inventions transformed the classic age of utilities into technologically advanced and a
complex machine age and paved the way for the emergence of the Industrial Revolution. So, it was the
continuous hard work of our ancient and medieval generations that had brought human civilization to this
stage of proficiency and expertise. These developments had a deep impact on the life and livelihoods of
people in Europe. Not only this, the society also underwent an overall change in order to sustain in the
modern times in the totally changed circumstances.
By the middle of the 18th century industries developed in
industrialized. In the 19th century various parts of Europe
experienced industrialization and it was then that the
modern cities took shape. It was now the third stage of
urbanization when all the limits, confines and restrictions
of nature were thrown off by the modern man.
It is not that the cities were not there before the industrial revolution; in fact there were thousands of cities
all over Europe by the 17th century, even before the invention of steam power. Growth of population had
played a significant role in the development of these cities. For an instance, London – one of the most
advanced cities of the world today, had more than 1 million of population by the year 1810, before it had
any industries or mechanical means of transportation. Instead of industrialization, it was indeed the pressure
of the enlarged population and its requirements which led to London’s urbanization.
So, one can easily conclude that industrialization did not actually create cities, it just changed their form in
the contemporary period, modernized them and increased the pace of urbanization from 19th century
onwards in order to meet the ever growing needs and demands of the increased population.
Urbanization was a result of continuous human development in various spheres of life since the ancient
times. Industrialization added technological advancement and modernization to it and city life became more
attractive, glaring, and full of opportunities. Advancements in the fields of transport and communication,
construction and engineering also played an important role in this regard. Industrial innovations, on one
hand, not only gave a boost to urbanization but also added quality of life, comfort and convenience to it. On
the other hand they raised serious environmental issues and also led to various problems of socio-economic
Modern urban centers emerged in contrast to the rural dwellings since nineteenth century, with
interconnecting roads, railway tracks, sturdy bridges and
magnificent buildings, new modes of transportation,
glittering shops, splendid markets, big factories and
industrial units, being their main attraction. All this was
possible because of industrialization and technological
Urbanization became swift and rapid as globalization
spread trade, industry and technology to every part of
the world.
Renaissance and the age of enlightenment led to technological developments in a variety of fields like
agriculture, textiles, locomotives etc but they also created conditions for political upheavals and revolutions
in Europe.
As a result of which, the feudal system, a major component of the European society in the medieval
times, now started declining and led to the breakup of rigid social hierarchy.
Criteria for power and political authority now shifted from the ownership of land to the ownership of
money as capital. This turned rich merchants and traders into big capitalists. They were the ones who
now sponsored various inventions, setting up of early factories and industries and even the voyages
to far away unknown lands in Asia, Africa and Americas.
Along with this, agriculture in England and other parts of Europe started being mechanized as a
result of industrial inventions and technological development as well as due to the increased demand
for raw material in the textile industry. Big farm owners wanted to make most of the profit from this
situation by increasing the quantity and quality of their produce. Hence, they mechanized their farms
and started enclosing them.
Lots of landless labourers now lost their jobs to these agricultural equipments as they were more
efficient one time investments which enhanced the quantity and quality of the agricultural produce.
Open fields of the country side, which could be used by the poor and jobless to sustain in these harsh
times were now being enclosed by the big farmers as a result of the Enclosure Movement. This led to
a large scale migration of the landless labourers and rural poor from villages to the towns and cities.
Huge mass of rural population now started migrating to
nearby urban centers in an unplanned manner, in search of
jobs and means to earn a livelihood. Migration was caused by
the push factors that forced the people to move out from the
country side as well as by the pull factors that attracted them
towards the cities. In most of the cases they were the surplus
farm labourers who were not required in the villages anymore
and in a few cases they were forced to migrate due to
political, ethnic or religious conflicts.
People migrated to the cities either by compulsion or by choice in order to not only get jobs and
improved housing but also to reach out to new means of entertainment and recreation, most
importantly to get rid of rural constraints and traditions. They hoped for a better future and living
conditions for themselves and their family in the cities.
Development of modern means of transport like roadways and specially the railways added to the
pace of migration.
Industrial Revolution in Europe increased production manifold. A severe need for markets was felt,
where these goods could be sold and from where raw materials to feed the industries could be
bought. This led to the rise of colonialism.
Colonial powers fulfilled their economic interests using the resources of their colonies. But in order
to do so, they had to create basic infrastructure and introduce modern means of transport in order to
move goods and raw material to and from the sea ports, move army and officials from one place to
another. They were required to construct buildings to have their settlements and administrative
offices in order to maintain a strong and long lasting control over their respective colonies.
Political control over the colony was required along with having seat of the government at a
particular place for economic reasons also. All these requirements made the colonizers establish
cities as a political capital, trading or military centers in their colonies especially in the countries of
Asia and Africa.
Activity - 4
Making an Interactive Bulletin Board
Make a few chits having one of the terms like - Modernization, Pollution, Multiculturalism, Hygiene
and Sanitation written on them.
Divide the class into 6 to 8 groups. Invite the leader of each of these groups to come and pick one of
the chits.
Assign one class bulletin boards to each of the groups. Ask the group members to gather information
from books, internet, newspapers and magazines to prepare articles on the topic assigned and prepare
a wall magazine on the bulletin board.
Ask each group to create very short but interesting questions on the given topic and put them up on
the board on daily basis till three to four days.
Invite the students of the opponent groups and ask them to find answers to these questions and put
them up on the same board on small chits of coloured paper to make the bulletin board interactive
and interesting.
In the capacity of a teacher discuss all these questions in the class and facilitate a healthy discussion
amongst the students.
Ensure that each group not only prepares the interactive board but also answers the questions which
are put up on the boards maintained by the other groups so that they communicate and discuss the
topics amongst each other through the chits and clippings on the bulletin board.
Ask them to continue with this activity at least for 3-4 days and prepare a small question bank of all
the questions put up on the bulletin boards every day.
Access and evaluate the bulletin boards maintained by each of the groups to judge their
understanding of the given topic and the quality as well as relevance of the material put up on the
board on the basis of a checklist or a rubric.
Refer Worksheet Number – 17, 18.
Cities created necessary infrastructure and provided better amenities and services, enhanced standard
of living, improved housing facilities and health consciousness to the inhabitants.
They created strong economies, large scale employment and provided a lot of business opportunities.
They became the centers of merit and quality which brought excellence in innovation,
entrepreneurship, economic projects and academic front for the benefit of people.
Intermingling of people led to intermixing of knowledge and cultures and resulted in knowledge
spillovers, exchange of ideas and spread of new information.
Multicultural cities promoted development of literature, music, visual and performing arts and
recreational activities and contributed to the quality of urban life.
New opportunities emerged in a variety of fields like architecture, banking, teaching, engineering etc
and provided lot many choices to the people with regard to selection of profession.
Trade unions and workers’ associations were formed which worked for the benefit and welfare of
these people and later on, even started movements to demand fixed working hours and improvement
in working conditions in the factories.
Urbanization resulted in loosening of social norms and rural customs and granted some freedom to
the city dwellers from traditional taboos. For example, women could move out of the domestic
sphere and work in the factories, could become writers or innovators even, though, they still had to
face lot of restrictions.
The entire landscape of an area being urbanized underwent a massive change as forests had to be
cleared off, hilly or elevated tracks had to be cut and leveled in order to make space for the
construction of residential, official and commercial buildings, factories, roads and railway tracks etc.
So, urbanization led to deforestation and environmental imbalance, which further had serious
Unplanned migration, population explosion and rapid urban growth due to industrial development
resulted in overcrowding of the cities and scarcity of living space. This further resulted in the
emergence of slums and tenements.
Urbanization led to a sharp increase in pollution of rivers, land and atmosphere, spread of diseases
and environmental degradation. For example, increased traffic created a lot of congestion, smoke
from industries along with soot it was a big environmental menace that led to the formation of smog
and resulted in suffocation and other respiratory problems, sewage released in rivers led to the spread
of diseases and epidemics.
Absence of a well laid sewerage system and lack of proper disposal of a large amount of industrial
and human waste led to problems related to hygiene and sanitation and created unhealthy conditions
of living. Maintenance of cleanliness in the city, especially in slums became a big challenge. This
also created problems regarding availability of clean drinking water for urban communities.
Huge population also resulted in inequitable and unfair distribution of wealth and resources. New
social classes of capitalists, factory owners, businessmen, servants, workers and labourers emerged
and created a class divide between the haves and have notes.
Due to scarcity of living space and shortage of other commodities, cost of living became very high,
forcing people to live in poverty and misery. Inequalities and gap between rich and the poor
Cities created huge contrasting experiences - between wealth, luxury and poverty; opportunities and
disappointment: clean splendid environments and filthy slums. This happened as everyone was not
fortunate enough to get a job and proper living space in the city. These factors led to an increase in
crime due to want of wealth and fulfillment of basic necessities. Many of the poor had to make a
living from crime.
Urbanization led to breaking up of the joint family system and paved way for the emergence of
nuclear families. Value system also deteriorated and individualism took the center stage. Children
started being considered a source of low cost labour.
Inhuman and unhealthy working conditions, long working hours, low wages, stressful life,
exploitation all put together created conditions for the outbreak of socialist revolution.
Activity: 5
Plus – Minus – Interesting
Divide the class into 3 groups.
Instruct group no. one to research upon the positive impact of urbanization on people, their lives,
governments, society and even on the environment. For example: Improved housing, advanced
technology, development in the means of communication, transportation, etc.
Ask the second group to research upon the negative aspect and impact of urbanization in the modern
times. For example: Rise in pollution, spread of diseases and epidemics, rise in corruption in politics,
rise in crime, increased traffic and congestion, etc.
Instruct the 3rd group to work on the interesting things/ events/ happenings which occurred due to
urbanization and modernization. For example: Emergence of cinema, beginning of television and
cartoon series like Tom and Jerry, Donald Duck, etc., emergence of pop music, printing of novels,
transformation of women attire (flared gowns to trousers), establishment of museums, etc.
Ask each of the groups to discuss their findings with the class and present a report (8-10 pages) or a
Power Point Presentation as well.
Refer work sheet No. – 8, 16 ,17
CASE STUDY OF LONDON - A Developed Country
Through this case study the students
will explore various aspects of growth
and development of London as a
modern city from 17th till 19th century.
Students will prepare a city profile on
the current state of London in the 21st
century taking into account the basic
explanation given in Students Manual.
As per many historians, by the year 1750, fifteen percent of the population in England lived in towns. A
century later, by the year 1850, it grew up to fifty percent and just thirty years later, in 1880 the urban
population had grown to approximately eighty percent. There are various theories to explain this pattern of
urban growth, but all of them directly or indirectly were linked to the industrialization of the nation, which
had changed the form of urbanization by this period, whereas, most of the countries of Europe by this time
were still, largely rural.
Britain was now transforming from being the
centre of international trade to the centre of the
manufacturing industries. Industrial revolution
led to mechanization of the textile industry and
the use of steam power instead of wind or water
power, this allowed the industries to more away
from the coast or the river side and settle in the
interiors of the cities. Development of rail and roadways was an added advantage. On the other hand, with
limited opportunities in the rural areas, landless agricultural laborers started migrating to the towns in large
numbers and led to their urbanization.
By mid 19th century Leeds and Manchester was two important industrial cities of England and London was
also in the process of growing into an urban center mainly due to migration. For an instance, before 1600
London was just a normal sized city of England. Its population growth from 17th to 19th century forced it to
expand outside the city walls. By the year 1750 its population was around 6,75,000 persons, a little more
than half a century later, by 1810 it reached the 1 million mark and by the year 1880, just 70 years later, it
grew four times and attained the marked 4 million people.
The Civil war, the spread of Great Plague and the Great Fire were the three devastating events of the 17th
century London as a result of which the old London was totally destroyed. The city had to be rebuilt after
the Great fire of 1666. Reconstruction and recovery was done on a remarkable speed – timber and wood
structures were replaced by the new ones made up of bricks and stones. City was reestablished in spite of the
disturbances like the Anglo-Dutch war, Glorious revolution and extreme winters. Most of the urban growth
was now beyond the walled city in the industrial centers of the Central and Northern London.
London had all its elites and aristocrats
living inside the walled city but now many
buildings and alleys were constructed towards the
East of the city which once had wide area covered
with wide open fields. Small workplaces, factories
and industrial units like glass making, metal work,
ivory work, silk weaving, paper making were
established here. Their spread beyond the city
limits was due to low costs, lesser rents and no trade restrictions of the trading guilds. Traditional and
conventional small scale manufacturing units like carpentry, tailoring, shoe-making, and printing houses
continued to function within the city walls. By the middle of the 17th century, the rich and the influential
started expanding towards the West London. The West End, Westminster and its neighboring areas were
now being dominated by the aristocrats and financially well off people who tried to get access to the Royal
Court and the Parliament. East end was considerably poorer. Despite the wide gap between the rich and the
poor, both the classes had to interact and collaborate with each other in day to day life for various purposes
and had to share the urban spaces. But, shifting of the government, finance, and service industries to the
western parts of London and manufacturing industries limiting themselves to the eastern parts created a clear
dividing line between the rich in the west and the poor in the east.
London was a port city with a huge dockyard which provided jobs to the city dwellers and migrants.
It was yet not industrialized, but still was remarkably modern and that is why, it was a powerful magnet for
the rural population and migrants. Its expansion in the 18th century was due to continuous migration on a
large scale as many of the migrants came from Home Counties. A large number also migrated from
Scotland, Ireland, and various other distant areas of England and slowly turned London into a metropolis, a
cosmopolitan city. Death rate in the city was very high as a result of infectious diseases due to poor
sanitation and lack of clean drinking water in the city. Population recorded a decline but it was again
balanced out by the huge mass of migrants. Urbanization of the city continued and intensified throughout the
19th century with the arrival of the Industrial Revolution.
In the 19th century London transformed into world’s largest city and became the capital of vast British
Empire as well as the center for global politics, finance, trade and commerce. It became wealthy because of
the expansion of Britain’s colonial holdings. Increase in Britain’s land and economic holdings brought huge
amount of trade and business to the city which was by now an undisputed cultural, religious and educational
center also. It was the city of the wealthy elite, rich merchants and professionals, administrators, government
officials, soldiers, shop keepers, skilled and semi-skilled workers, artisans, traders, casual labor, street
vendors and even beggars. Many of these people were actually migrants. All these people, rich or poor,
contributed to the development of the city.
Five major industries set up in London also provided a large number of jobs to the people, these were,
Clothing and Footwear, Wood and Furniture, Metals and Engineering, Printing and Stationary and Precision
products such as watches, surgical instruments etc. During 1914-18, the World War I was being fought and
the British economy had to be supported with regular production, hence, manufacturing of electrical goods
and motor cars was started in the city of London along with many other industries. More than 30% of the
urban population of London was now working in these factories and industrial units. Mass production of a
variety of items like uniforms, standardized goods, cotton cloth etc. But most of the industries were still
Though London was now technologically
advanced and attracted thousands of migrants
but all of them could not get adjusted in new
technologically advanced industries of the city.
Many of them were absorbed in the traditional
industries because technology could not replace
these conventional industries so easily. This
created a lot of scope for manual labor which
was accessible in abundance, in comparison to the number of jobs available. The industrialists, factory
owners and merchants could easily negotiate and fix low wages as there was no shortage of labor. It was
only in 20th century that the industries in London
accepted the use of technology on a large scale. Demand
for hand made goods was still on high, especially among
the aristocrats and elites as these goods were considered a
symbol of high status and class. Hand made goods were
custom made as per individual needs, had intricate
designs, and fine craftsmanship, better finish, and were
available in a variety of shapes, colors, and sizes. Hence,
London provided jobs to workers, laborers in both the
type of industries – traditional as well as technologically
London was Britain’s capital, its largest manufacturing centre and the largest trading port and thus was
also a center of all major professions, trade and commerce. It had a large population with diverse needs,
many new professions like in the fields of medicine, banking, finance, law, education, and engineering
developed strongly from the last decades of the 17th century in order to satisfy these needs. A number of
schools, colleges, hospitals, law courts, civil as well as criminal emerged along with already existing shops,
factories, and dock yards. East London became the home of textile mills, sugar processing industries,
breweries and distilleries and other manufacturing units. Furniture workshops, upholsters, glaziers, painters
were also found in the area. All these places of work and factories were unpleasant and dangerous. Working
conditions were bad with long working hours and with a very low salary. Whereas, the West London
became the hub of service sector with the emergence of finance companies, taverns and hotels, clubs and
theatres. Growing significance of London Season among the elites created greater job opportunities for
skilled craftsmen, community service workers, dance experts, coach makers, decorators etc. in the part of the
Most of the work available on the deck and even in the industry was lowly paid basically because of
the abundance of labor. Other jobs which were of casual or seasonal nature forced the workers to remain
unemployed for rest of the time of the year, which meant that they did not receive a regular income and had
to look for other alternatives. At times, these poor workers had to indulge in criminal activities; some of
them even resorted to begging, while others landed up in the work houses.
With the arrival of the Industrial Revolution, a large number of women were also employed in
factories and mines during late 18th and early 19th centuries. But with gradual technological advancement
and development, they had to lose these industrial jobs to the men folk and women were now largely
restricted to a small number of occupations, out of which domestic service was overwhelmingly dominant
with the tens and thousands of women working as domestic worker for the rich and bourgeoisie class.
According to the census of 1891, there were over 238,000 female domestic servants in London. The women
were forced to limit themselves to the household jobs like tailoring and needle work, washing and
laundering, spinning, matchbox making, street selling and casual labor. However in the 20th century, during
the war period, women again got opportunities to work in the industries and offices.
While London grew prosperous and wealthy with an increase in the number of colonies under the
control of Britain, the city in the 19th century was also a home to thousands of poor who lived in
overcrowded, unsanitary and clumsy slums. The poor were
burdened with the ever growing cost of food and clothing,
domestic goods, fuel and living accommodation as their
meager wages were not sufficient enough to bear this
burden. Moreover the factory owners or industrialists did
not make any provisions or take responsibility of housing
these workers. Hence, they had to live in the small, shabby
and unsafe rented tenements or slums. Though poverty was
noticeable in the villages and the country side also but it was
more prominent and starkly visible in the cities like London.
During 1886-1903, Charles Booth a successful ship owner from Liverpool conducted a detailed
research on the life of the poor in the eastern part of London. He used a very scientific and accurate method
of investigation and research in order to present his findings in the form of a book, “The life and labor of the
London poor”. During his research, he even went to the extent of living with the poor working-class families
in order to get firsthand experience of their living conditions and the miseries of the slum dwellers. He is
considered to have used the term ‘poverty line’ for the first time in his survey. He concluded that poverty
was a very serious problem in London which had to be addressed promptly. It was such an extensive
problem that could not be solved just by doing charity and philanthropy, immediate government attention
and action was required to contain it. He warned that inaction, ignorance or any delay in addressing this
problem could lead to the outbreak of a socialist revolution in London. He demonstrated that poverty was
caused by uncontrollable factors like unemployment, low wages, poor health and old age. He also found that
there were around a million Londoners who were poor and were expected to live up to the age of 29 only.
He divided the poor into different categories depending upon their wages and occupations and suggested
that these people were more likely to end up in a hospital, lunatic asylum or a work house in case their
condition was not taken care of.
Though London was stylishly modern, but till the middle of the 19th century it was preindustrial.
Most of the manufacturing was done in the domestic workshops, handmade items were high on demand, and
hence, were quite expensive. Cost of living increased. It was difficult for the poor to sustain and survive. In
these conditions, anyone could easily turn towards to crime for a quick respite. This is the reason probably
for which London by 1870’s, had as many as 20,000 criminals living in the city. The Metropolitan Police
Force, since its establishment in 1829, was worried about the situation of law and order in the city as the
criminal activities were on a sharp increase. Social reformers and philanthropists were worried about the
declining moral values. Industrialists were anxious about the unrest and indiscipline among the labor class
and wanted a disciplined work force.
Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, London had a population dominated by young men and
women, and the same was reflected in the field of crime. Most of the criminal convicts, especially the ones
related to the violent crimes were all young men, and in some cases young women. Since 1850’s it was
noted by the Old Bailey Court that the two-thirds of the criminals
were between the age of 14 to 30. Many juveniles were also pushed
in to crime by their own parents due to poverty. Instant income
through thefts and pick-pocketing also attracted children towards
crime as it was much easier and profitable than the entire week’s
hard work in the sweat shops, in the harsh working conditions that
too at a very low wage. Nature of crime also changed. Before
1850’s, crime involved petty thefts, pick-pocketing, and casual
stealing. But now, as the 19th century progressed, criminal activities
came to involve forgery, fraud, robberies, murders, and violent
assaults which accounted for 80% of the court’s business.
In the latter half of the nineteenth century, Henry Mayhew’s survey gave a true picture of 19 th
century London and focused on the lives of thieves, pick-pockets, laborers, sweat shop workers, street
vendors, street entertainers, prostitutes, shop lifters, beggars and tricksters etc. He had interviewed every one
of them and found that most of these people indulged in criminal activities in order to supplement their
meager income. They were petty thieves who stole articles like lead from the roofs, food from shops,
clothes, pots, pans, spoons, folks and even handkerchiefs as most of these items could be sold for a very
good price. Besides tricksters and petty cheats, there were others who were experts who were more skilled
like burglars, robbers and smugglers etc. who worked in groups with advanced planning and involved
complicated techniques as the safes and locks were now being used by the rich and the capitalists on a
regular basis and posed a greater challenge to the criminals. A whole new breed of skilled professional
criminals was now expanding with the expansion of capitalist industrial economy and was the learning the
art disguise, to melt into the crowd and to appear as normal respectable citizens in order to forge documents
and to break the locks and safes with greater ease and expertise. Existence of police undoubtedly helped in
controlling crime to some extent with the help of a well laid system of investigation, arrest and trial in the
courts of law.
Punishment for even smallest of the crimes were very harsh and penalties imposed were very high.
Machinery of law was uncompromising, rigid and brutal, for example, there were around 240 offences
which were punishable by death. Imprisonment was not the favored option as the authorities thought it to be
bringing criminals, new as well as old, in close contact with each other and encouraging criminal
partnerships. Transportation and deportation to distant colonies was considered a much better option. But the
condition of the society was that even such brutal punishments could not deter criminals from indulging in
unlawful acts.
Various steps were taken to control urban population from entering the world of crime. Number of
criminals in an area was counted, their names were registered and a strict eye was kept on their daily
activities and day-to-day routine. Skilled laborers and young people willing to work were considered as the
deserving poor, and were offered a variety of jobs.
Many acts were passed to control the situation for instance; the first Factory Act was passed in 1833 to
protect the workers, the Ten Hour act was passed in 1847 to limit the working powers for women and
children, employed in the factories. Reforms Acts were passed in 1832 and 1867 giving political rights to
secluded group of people. Compulsory Education act was passed in 1870 in order to send children to school
and to stop them from joining the league of criminals. The Elementary Education Act of 1880 made school
attendance compulsory to the age of ten. Factory Act of 1902 further tried to ensure that children were kept
out of industrial work.
London continued to develop at an exceptional rate – in geographical size, in the number of people in
housed and in its economic well being. But there were areas and districts of extreme poverty and squalor.
Living conditions and housing were drastically different in these areas from the ones reserved for the rich.
For an instance, the West End of London became the place of some of the most intricate, sophisticated and
stylish urban architecture in Europe, where new styles of living were designed, with open streets, huge
mansions, palatial and terraced houses, with separate entrance for the family, servants and the services, with
separate rooms for sleeping and entertainment, that too, on separate floors. These buildings were the
architectural expression of the new kind of thinking, imagination and desires of the Londoners of that time.
Whereas on the other hand, the eastern part of London housed the workers, laborers, and artisans. These
areas were too crowded, filthy and full of open sewage. Houses were very small, congested, and badly built
tenements, which were constructed using poor material and hence were quite weak and shabby structures
which used to collapse quite often. Large families of the workers rented small rooms in these houses and
lived in unhealthy and unsanitary conditions. These were the urban slums which were the breeding grounds
of diseases and epidemics. Overall, one can say that East London suffered with the poor housing along with
poor infrastructure.
Moreover, in the eyes of the rich, the poor appeared to be a different race, connected by certain
mutual requirements but separated by a massive cultural divide. The gap between the rich and the poor was
too wide and thus in the beginning, the rich and the wealthy city dwellers continued to rally for clearing
away and the outright removal of the slums. They simply felt that the large number of one room tenements
in these slums inhabited by the poor, were a grave threat to public health and safety. They were the potential
fire hazards which were waiting to strike anytime. Since these localities were overpopulated, badly lit and
badly ventilated, and lacked sanitation – they were not only the breeding grounds for the diseases but also
the foundational stones for mass discontent, social disorder, crime and civil unrest.
But later on, the rich and the elite realized that the poor were also an important and an inseparable
part of the society as they provided an army of workers for domestic and industrial purposes, and created a
strong support system for the very sustenance and enjoyment of the upper strata of the society. It was
because of their toil, hard work and labor that the rich could relish the pleasures of life. Hence the poor
could not be ignored or discarded. It was at this time that the need for construction of houses for the low
income group was realized. In 1774, the London Building Act was passed to control the haphazard and poor
construction of houses. Significant steps were taken in the field of sanitation, sewer construction, street and
housing improvement schemes with the emergence of Metropolitan Board of Works since 1885. According
to Charles Booth, London required rebuilding of at least 400,000 rooms to provide shelter to its poorest
citizens. Later on in the 20th century, it was under the authority of London Country Council that housing,
infrastructure, management and planning were taken care of. Mass housing schemes for workers were
planned to prevent the London poor from rising into a rebellion.
Efforts were taken to release the pressure
of population and congestion in the 19th century
industrial city of London. Metropolitan Board of
Works took responsibility of the reconstruction of
London’s infrastructure in order to clean up the
city, to control motorist, domestic, as well as
industrial pollution, and to provide fresh air to the city dwellers in an attempt to decongest localities and
create green open spaces. This facilitated the move to develop suburbs and the satellite towns. The people of
the suburbs preferred a low density housing, semi-detached from the crowded city, seeking more rural
lifestyle in order to which the gap between the city and the country side. They supported developments of
the Green Belts around the city in order to create clean and healthy environment with abundance of fresh air.
The idea of garden estates and villas came up when
the architect and the town planner Ebenezer put forward the
plan of a garden city – full of open spaces, with ample
amount of greenery around, having lost many plants and
trees in the vicinity, where people could work at the best of
their potential and live a peaceful and enjoyable life.
Stress-free and pollution less environment of the city was
considered to produce less anger, less number of cases of
public aggression, and finally produce a better quality, law abiding
and healthy citizens. Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker planned the garden city of New Ears Wick on the
footsteps of Ebenezer Howard. New types of open spaces and parks were created for the public in east as
well as western London like the Regent’s Park, Victoria Park, Fins bury Park, Black Heath, and Trafalgar
Square etc.
But at the end of the day, they were the rich and the elites only who could buy these expensive
houses. The workers and the laborers could not afford to buy these houses as they were beyond the workers
reach. Local authorities took the responsibility of constructing around a million houses, especially the single
family structures for the working class during the period between the two World Wars.
Despite being self-contained and self-sufficient areas in the West-End London with ever increasing
number of shops, arcades and markets, these localities wee still dependent upon a large number of services
to fulfill their daily needs. Thus, many a times, streets used to be crowded with hawkers, vendors and
peddlers selling a variety of house hold goods. Later on mobile vans used to take daily rounds of the
localities providing goods and services to the people residing in these areas, and hence adding to the
congestion of the already crowded city. A large number of smaller markets sprang up throughout the city in
order to sell commodities like grocery, meat and vegetables, household goods and clothing. The streets also
looked full of the makeshift stands and the stalls selling food which were later on replaced by more formal
eating joints, restaurants and cafes towards the latter half of the 19th century. Many people from the poor and
the working class purchased and consumed the three meals of a day from these street vending outlets only.
Even in the suburbs, in order to supply the demands and fulfill the daily needs of the newly housed
Londoners, new shops and market places emerged. Patterns of shopping became even more complex. Since
the 18th century, shops had started having glass windows in the front, interior decoration of the shop, and its
ornamentation had also become a fashion. Second half of the 19th century witnessed the evolution of the
departmental stores and brands of commodities. With the emergence of telephone, shopping became a
totally different experience after 1900’s. As current day online shopping, housewife and ladies in those days
got their personal accounts created at the departmental stores, and placed their monthly or weekly orders
over the phone. The doorstep delivery of the order was done within a few hours.
Extension of the city outside the walled area,
beyond the normal reach of the people could
simply walk to the places of their work and the
development of suburbs made the new forms of
public transport absolutely necessary. Unless
there were good means of travelling to and from
the city, people could not have been persuaded to
buy houses and properties in the suburbs. The
city could not have been decongested in the
absence of a well laid network of public
transport. London railways and roadways catered to this problem. The first railway line started operating
from the London Bridge to Greenwich in the year 1836, which was later on supported by the establishment
of Great Rail Terminal in order to link London with every corner of Britain. From 1863, the first section of
London underground railway, the first of its kind in the world was constructed. Its first line opened on 10
January 1863, between Paddington and Farrington Street in London. Around ten thousand passengers
travelled that day through the trains running at the interval of every 10 minutes. This was a revolutionary
development in the field of transportation which helped in relaxing as well as controlling the over ground
traffic and resulted in decongestion of the city.
By the end of the 19th century, underground railways were carrying 40 million passengers a year. But
this mode of transport had its own problems in the initial years and many people feared travelling
underground. Use of coal in the steam engines made the experience highly suffocating. Situation improved a
bit when in 1920’s and 1930’s, filtered and ionized air was injected into the system. Finally, the problems
were solved with the electrification of railways later on. But, till then the discomfort had to be tolerated by
the commuters.
Many people thought that these ‘Iron Monsters’ and modern devil rides created lot many problems,
chaos and unhealthiness to the city. A pamphlet entitled – “Observations on the Displacement of the Poor
by Metropolitan Railways and other Public Improvements” was published by William Danton, in 1861, in
which he argued that the investors of the project were indifferent and carefree because of the fact that “The
time will pass through only the inferior property, that is through a densely peopled district, and will destroy
the abode of the powerless and the poor, whilst it will
avoid the properties of those whose opposition is to be
dreaded – the great employers of labour”. Charles
Dickens also wrote in his novel – ‘Dombey and Son’
(1848), about the destruction that the construction of
underground railways had brought to the city and its
poor. For an instance, to construct approximately two
miles of railway, about 900 houses had to be destroyed
leading to displacement of London poor on massive
Railways simply brought indiscriminate destruction to
many communities of the poor.
Despite this criticism and drawbacks, London Tube Railway became a huge hit and allowed the city
population to be more dispersed. A good network of railways enabled a huge mass of people to reside in
better planned suburbs outside London and commute to their work places on daily basis. London was now a
metropolis which could not do without well functioning transport system.
A vast network of tramways was laid by the London County Council since 1901. Motorized buses also
started playing on the London roads since 1904. Private cars began to appear on London roads from 1890s
onwards. These new developments, privileges, and facilities of the modern cities led to a variety of social
changes. Old social distinctions of class and status were turned down and new social norms were set up. All
these developments changed the domestic and public life forever.
Industrialization, urbanization, and modernization brought immense changes in the institution of
family, its structure and functions underwent a massive transformation. Ideas about gender, family and
marriage in the 18th century were based on classical thought and mythology. Men and women were
considered to be different with respect to physical potential, emotional control and social responsibilities.
Expectations of male and female conduct were also governed by these thoughts. In the institution of
marriage, man had all the authority and they were expected to control all family property. They were the
decision makers as head of the family and were the primary wage earners or bread winners, while women
were expected to look after the domestic front, household chores and children.
With the arrival of the industrialization and urbanization, the situation changed as women got
employment in a few sectors where work was considered as the expansion of the family responsibilities –
like domestic service as maid, tailoring and laundering, nursing etc. At times, they got jobs in the factories
But, most of this work was limited to the women of low social classes only. Ladies of the upper and
the middle class were expected to stay at home while taking care of children and doing the household
chores. They employed maid servants who on one hand made their lives easy and comfortable but on the
other hand made them all the more isolated. This isolation made these women pick up the works like charity,
teaching and authorship etc.
As a result of urbanization, by the end of the 19th century, working class women got new jobs
available to them like that of the typist, clerk or a shop assistant etc. All this gave them financial
independence and confidence. They were no more dependent on their male counterparts, though their
salaries and wages were less than that of men. Women did not have any property or political rights which
they started demanding through feminist movements since 1870’s.
The urban centers no doubt encourage a new spirit of individualism among both men and women and
gave liberty from following traditional values of collective bonding which was the essence of rural families.
Emotional ties between the family members loosened and resulted in broken marriages amongst the working
class. Many reformers felt that economic freedom of women had come at the cost of the very existence of
the institutions of marriage and family. They wanted women to be pushed back to the home front in order to
save the institution of family from breaking down. This is why public space later on started becoming male
Since the 18th century, the family had been a unit of production as well as consumption and its
members had stayed and worked together in a joint system. Migration of some of the family members to the
cities for the purpose of seeking jobs was a big blow to the family structure and paved way for the formation
of much smaller units called as the nuclear families. By the 20th century, the urban family had been totally
transformed mainly because of the work done by women during the war years, which added to the family
income and increased its purchasing power. Women became the bread earners in certain families
during these years where the men folk had been involved in the wars.
As women worked out, they could not find much time to focus on the household chores, hence the
families started depending upon the market and their income allowed them o do so. This is how the era of
consumerism started, where goods, services, and even the ideas were available in the market. This is how
city not only created changes in the family system but also created opportunities for mass work, mass
production, and mass consumption.
Meanwhile, need for relaxation and a break from
the entire week’s hard work, enjoyment and recreation
during the free time was felt. This led to the new forms of
leisure, and entertainment, clubs, music, and theatre
performances, etc. These new institutions not only
relaxed the minds and the physical bodies of the London
working class as well as the elites, but also resulted in the
development, strengthening, and deepening of the popular
culture. During the late 18h century, a large number of
coffee houses came up in London, which was
the center of public activity. They were also the
hubs of literary, scientific and political debates
as the city London was a home to nation’s
intellectuals. Lectures, exhibitions, debates used
to be held frequently in the literary saloons and
taverns which emerged in large numbers in this time and became popular. Ability to read among the
working class made reading also a popular pass time. Novels became quite a rage among the people as some
of the first novels were published at this time in London. Circulating libraries became popular because
books and novels were still expensive. Free public libraries were set up since 1847. Popularity of
newspapers was even more dramatic as London had
no less than 52 newspapers by the first decade of the
19th century. ‘The Times’ was first published in 1785,
‘The Observer’ in 1791, ‘The Manchester Guardian’
in 1821, and ‘The Daily Telegraph’ in 1855. Galleries
and museums were also established in the 19th century
to create awareness about the British history and
achievements in the past. Traditional games like
Chess, Gambling, Card games and sports like Tennis,
Cricket, and Football were very popular amongst men. Industrial workers were increasingly encouraged by
the local authorities to take their families on the beach during summer holidays and spend time enjoying the
benefits of sunshine and cool breeze. Dock workers often took their children for a boat trip in the river
during the weekends.
Cinema became popular amongst the working class and
the dock workers in the early 20th century as it provided
complete entertainment to the individuals as well as the
families. Films, cartoons like ‘Tom and Jerry’ and news
reels were played at the cinema halls and audiences
watched the shows with deep interest. ‘Punch and Judy’ The Puppet Show also attracted large crowds. Theatre was
also extremely popular amongst the people. Plays and
dramas based on the works of prominent writers were performed and received a lot acclaim. Music halls also
became huge hits amongst the working classes. Pubs emerged as common places of drinking and public
interaction and exchange of ideas. Many a times, pub owners used to organize day long trips or city tours in
order to increase their clientele. For the rich and the wealthy, annual cultural festival known as the London
season used to be organized. A variety of cultural events like the opera, the theatre and the classical music
performances were for an elite group of 300-400 families. Wealthy young men, used to organize and embark
on sea voyages lasting a year or two. Boys of well off families attended grammar schools and girls used to
take lessons in music and embroidery etc. Sculpture and painting were also popular among the elites.
In the year 1707, ‘The Kingdom of Great Britain’ was formed by merging Scottish and English
parliaments. This development made London even more important politically. People from all direction
flocked into the megacity. Over-crowding poor housing conditions, lack of sanitation, harsh working
conditions, disease and poverty in the east end created a lot of unrest amongst the city dwellers. American
Revolution followed by the French Revolution and later on the Napoleonic wars resulted in the large scale
migration of people from various parts of Europe to London. Many of these migrants settled in the west end.
Large city population was an asset as it provided an army of workers for manufacturing, trade and
other economic activities, it consumed the goods produced and allowed the factories and industries to
continue production for economic benefits but at the same time, this population was a great labiality for the
local authorities to look after and take care of. In case of any failure in doing this, the enormous population
could turn into a serious threat for the local
authorities with immense potential to
shake their political status badly in the
form of violent riots, uprisings and
rebellions. Huge mass of people could
easily connect to the political causes and
issues in the city and result in the outbreak
of popular movements.
Throughout this period, city politics
remained ignorant and insensitive towards
the public problems and turned its back on the overcrowding masses. Later in the 19th century, people took
to streets, demanding reforms in politics in local governance. Long campaigns were organized by the urban
radicals for the grant of franchise. Movements and massive demonstrations demanding improvement in the
condition of the poor and the working class were organized, categorically in 1830’s and 1840’s, notably by
the Chartists to control the situation and to pick up with the improvements in infrastructure. The Municipal
Board of Works was established in 1855 and started with the construction of sewers in the city and
improvement schemes for street and housing in London. It was followed by the formation of – London
county council which picked up the work of establishing rail and road network in London. Journalists and
social reformers conducted surveys specifically in the East-end gave out shocking reports. Issues like
increasing level of crime, unemployment, and poverty, thus became matters of grave concern and created
fear of socialist rebellion. Extreme winters in 1886 transformed these fears into reality when the outdoor
work, especially on the streets, ports and dockyard came to a standstill. Severe cold and large scale
unemployment forced the London poor to burst in a riot asking for relief from such harsh conditions and
moreover form poverty. Another similar kind of a riot broke out in November 1887, which was brutally
crushed by the police and the incident became infamous as the bloody Sunday in the history of London.
Later in 1889, thousands of dock workers went on a 12 day strike and rallied through the city. The
strike was peaceful and ended with a grant of recognition to the dock workers’ union. Strong public action
had earlier also resulted in the passing of the factory laws for the benefit of the workers. Urbanization not
only brought masses to the city but also made them politically aware and active. Large population could
easily be motivated or provoked for a political cause. Hence, this huge urban population on one hand was an
opportunity and on the other a threat for the city politicians.
Urbanization occurred at the cost of
ecology and environment. Whether it was
London or any other city of the world, natural
landscape was leveled and flattened in order to
create space for houses, roads and railways,
industries and other institutions. Large amount of human and industrial waste created in the city led to the
pollution of atmosphere, land, river and water, Large scale use of coal in houses as well as in the industrial
units created grave problems for the environment at that point of time in the 19th century for instance,
factories in London used to emit black smoke in the city skies which was often accompanied by soot. City
dwellers often grumbled about the black fog that frequently occurred in their living areas and resulted in
smoke related respiratory problems, dirty clothes and increased irritability. Black smoke combined with the
fog of the city turned into heavy smog which created serious health problems. Example, ‘The Great Smog of
1952’ in Britain lasted for 5 days and killed over 4,000 people. In order to control easy and frequent
formation of smog, Smoke Nuisance Abatement (Metropolis) Acts were passed in 1853 and 1856. Efforts
were made to control pollution by implementation of the Public Health Act in 1891. Despite government
efforts, pollution could not be controlled effectively in London till late 19th century.’ Clean Air Act’ was
passed in 1956 to create clean smokeless zones. It was an attempt to shift industries and power stations away
from the city and also to increase the height of chimneys. Implementation of this act was a tough task as
factory owners and industrialists were in no mood to spend money on developing technology in order to
improve their machines or to shift their industrial units so as to control pollution.
Activity: 6 - Project
Case Study - Develop a City Profile
After discussing the emergence of modern cities along with advantages and drawbacks divide the class into
two groups.
Ask group number 1 to develop a city profile on London, a city from the developed world and group
number 2 on Delhi, a city from the developing category in the form of a Project file or a Reportbooklet.
Instruct the students to focus on the given aspects while doing their research on these cities:
 Historical background of the city
 Its demographic structure
 Built up area and architecture
 Housing, Health and Sanitation
 Politics and Government
 Society and culture
 Profession/ Occupations followed by the inhabitants.
 Recreation, entertainment and leisure activities taken up by the local communities
 Law and order
 Problems and possible solutions.
Help and facilitate the students during their research and guide them throughout making of the city
Ask them to use colorful pictures, new paper cuttings, cartoons and captions in order to enhance
the aesthetic value of the project.
You can even ask them to make small models of these cities showing various aspects of their
Once the profile is ready, put them on display and ask the students to share the information and
their experience of making the profile with the entire class.
Develop a rubric incorporating various criteria to assess the city profile.
Refer Work Sheet No. – 1,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,18
CASE STUDY OF DELHI – A Developing Country
This case study will explore various aspects of growth and development of Delhi as a modern city.
Students will prepare a city profile on the current state of Delhi in the 21st century on the basis of the
explanation given in their manual.
Delhi, the capital city of India, the largest democracy of the world, has a long history as it served to be the
capital to various kingdoms and empires from time to time. Though the human habitation in this part of the
nation dates back to millennia but there are no strong evidences to prove it. As per the ancient Indian
scripture of Mahabharata, Delhi is considered to be a 5000 years old city but most of that time period has
been lost in history and has no sufficient literary or archaeological records.
There are evidences which convince us that eight cities have been located in this area in different time
periods. But last three of them- the one built by Delhi Sultans, Shahjanabad built by the Mughal Emperor
Shahjahan and the one developed by Lutyen in the imperial era have been more imposing and impactful.
Present Delhi comprises of two parts- Walled city of Shahjanabad, currently referred to as the old Delhi;
New Delhi, the city developed by the British after shifting their capital from Calcutta in 1911. The two
worlds of this city, the new and the old, form a great amalgamation of totally different people and co-exist
with traditions, customs and modernity in an incredible and outstanding manner.
Hindustan Times
New Delhi, September 01, 2011
Article by Sidhartha Roy
In the 1930s and for most of 1940s, Delhi was a study in contrast. While the sparking New Delhi with
its grand buildings and wide vistas was mostly desolate, the old city was bursting at its seams. Earlier
plans to build the new capital envisaged a harmony between it and the existing city. The ideas, however,
were junked with the British determinedly cutting off the mingling of the two except for some buffer
areas like Paharganj and Daryaganj. What was the city before 1911 had become 'walled city' by 1931.
After becoming the capital, Delhi kept on growing even as New Delhi started taking shape. People
displaced from erstwhile villages like Madhoganj, Jaisingh Pura and Raja ka Bazaar to build Connaught
Place and nearby areas, were relocated in Karol Bagh, then a rocky area populated by trees and wild,
thorny bushes.
The residents of the badly congested shahar (city) too were reluctant to move to places like the Western
Expansion Area, built to decongest the old city. There were plans to break the wall between Ajmeri Gate
and Delhi Gate to allow natural expansion of the city but it was resisted by the authorities, who felt this
would expose the 'slums' of the area to New Delhi.
The issue of Delhi's congestion was raised repeatedly in the Legislative Assembly by freedom fighter
Asaf Ali. As a result, a Delhi Improvement Trust was formed in 1937, under the chairmanship of AP
Hume. "The trust developed plans like Jhandewalan scheme, Roshanara city extension, northern
extension etc.," said AK Jain, author of 'Lutyens' Delhi'. "Roop Nagar and Kamala Nagar in north and
Shahdara in trans-Yamuna area were developed. Daryaganj, which housed army barracks, was also
developed," he said.
The contours of New Delhi also changed with the advent of the Second World War in 1939. New
industries came up to cater to the needs of war and with it came migrant labourers. Hutments came up
near the Secretariat for war-time offices.
A few years later, housing for government employees also came up in the Lodhi Colony area.
Bungalows for senior officials were built in the nearby Lodhi Estate area.
Delhi Durbar, 12 December 1911, where announcement of Shifting of capital was done by King George V
In the year 1803, the British, under the East India Company, defeated the Marathas and captured Delhi.
They installed a British administrator for the purpose of governance and protection. The Mughal Emperor
Bahadurshah Zafar was put under British protection and his authority now remained limited within the Red
Fort area. He was now a pensioner of the British. Delhi was no more the capital of India but was indeed an
important commercial and trade centre After the decline of the Mughals in 1857, the control of the political
power in India passed on to the British Crown with Queens Proclamation of 1858. Calcutta served as the
capital for the British territories in India and it was after more than fifty years from then that Delhi became
the capital once again in the year 1911.
The British established the Delhi Municipality in the year 1863 by a notification of the Government of
Punjab under the Municipality Act in order to look after public health and conveniences. By 1881, Delhi
became a first class municipality and from the beginning of the 20th century had jurisdiction over the old
Shahjahanabad and suburbs like the Sadar Bazar, Paharganj, KarolBagh etc. The British population and
other Europeans lived in the Civil Lines area which was later in 1913 put under the administrative control of
a Notified Area Committee.
Construction of the new capital at Delhi, (source: New Delhi – Making of a capital, published by Roil books)
The British Government announced the transfer of capital of their Indian empire from Calcutta to Delhi in
1911 at Delhi Durbar presided over by the King George V and queen Marry as the Emperor and the Empress
of India. The contract of constructing the new city was given to architect Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker.
The city assumed its modern structure when the Imperial Capital of British India was shifted from Calcutta
in 1912.Construction started and continued till 1929 under the Delhi Town Planning Committee which
comprised of the chief architect Edwin L. Lutyens, G.S.Swinton, Chairman of London County Council and
John A Brodie, city engineer of Liverpool. New Delhi was to be developed as a garden city as it was a trend
in the British Town Planning at that point of time. It was to be made symbolic of the British imperial power
in India; hence vast stretches of lands were left undeveloped in the middle of the two cities in order to
separate the new city from the old one, which by now came to represent congestion, chaos and disease and
was the true example of political and administrative neglect. New Delhi, on the other hand was projected as
a highly controlled neat and clean urban area, well planned with large government buildings, palatial
bungalows, wide roads, open spaces and parks.
The British inaugurated this capital in 1931 and could rule from here till August 1947, when India became
independent from the imperial subjugation. The country had to undergo painful partition and Delhi as a city
had to accommodate migrants from West Punjab and East Bengal which were a part of Pakistan. Delhi’s
past and present have a lot of stories to tell to the current generations. This case study will help us to explore
Read the given source to understand their real plight and hardships which migrated people
Movers and Shakers:
Hindustan Times October 18, 2011
Several of those who arrived during the Partition left their mark on Delhi. They took up
jobs otherwise considered menial. While Delhi was happy to live in the past, these
immigrants didn’t fear the future. They grew wealthy and powerful.
How they broke new Ground?
For lakhs of refugees, Delhi was the first choice of destination. “Where else could we go?
Amritsar was sulking on the border. Ludhiana was not developed. Ambala had no water
supply. So, Delhi was the obvious choice as it was both the capital and the commercial
centre,” historian VN Dutta wrote in Delhi through Ages, quoting affluent Punjabi
Many made the most of adversity with sheer enterprise. Dharam Pal Gulati had left behind
a flourishing spice business in Sialkot. With virtually no capital to re-establish his business
in Delhi, he bought a horse cart from Chandni Chowk. “I ferried passengers for two annas
(1/16th of a rupee) per trip,” he told HT in an earlier interview. Having made some
money, Gulati bought a kiosk in Karol Bagh in 1948. With his trademark Degi Mirch (pot
chilli) he launched Mahashiya Di Hatti in Delhi. Starting with Rs 9,700 in 1948, MDH is a
Rupees 300 crore-plus company today. It is a market leader, selling 45 varieties of spices
and exporting them to more than 50 countries.
Several refugees have similar stories. The late HP Nanda and his brother, founders of the
Escorts Group, had to give up their flourishing business in Lahore. Their Escorts (Agents)
Limited boasted of a capital of R1 million, a significant amount in those days. In 1947, they
arrived penniless in Delhi. But they resurrected the business in no time and soon became
independent India’s leading trading houses, selling tractors, farm implements and later
Through the case study of this city, the students will research upon the making of New Delhi as the new
capital of colonial India. They will also look into the development of Delhi as the capital of independent
India since 1947. Moreover, the learners will also study the role and contribution of the inhabitants of Old
Delhi in the making and sustenance of the new division of this city. The students will ponder upon the
similarities and differences in both the areas regarding demographic composition, occupations, work, life
and leisure activities, conducted by the inhabitants of this city while contributing towards its growth and
1. URBANIZATION - Urbanization is a process by which large numbers of people become
permanently concentrated in relatively small areas forming cities. Cities keep on growing with
changing demographics and other factors.
2. METROPOLIS - A metropolis is a very large city or urban area which is a significant economic,
political and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or
international connections and communications. The term itself is derived from Greek, in which it
literally means "mother city,"
3. MARGINAL GROUPS – People living on the edge or existing outside the mainstream of society
due to certain reasons, such as poverty.
4. ASPHYXIATION - To undergo asphyxia; suffocate. Asphyxia is a condition in which an extreme
decrease in the concentration of oxygen in the body accompanied by an increase in the concentration
of carbon dioxide leads to suffocation and loss of consciousness or death.
5. INDIVIDUALISM - Belief in the primary importance of the individual and in the virtues of selfreliance and personal independence. A doctrine holding that the interests of the individual should
take precedence over the interests of the state or social group.
6. CONSUMERISM - Practice of an increasing consumption of goods from the market and also a
modern movement for the protection of the consumer against useless, inferior, or dangerous
products, misleading advertising, unfair pricing, etc.
1. History Of Cities And City Planning - By Cliff Ellis
2. The Natural History of Urbanization - Lewis Mumford
3. Urbanization During the Industrial Revolution
4. The Dawn of an Urban World
5. A population History of London: Old Bailey Proceedings from 1674 to 1913
6. Aspects of Industrial Revolution in Britain
7. Crime and Industrialization in England
8. England in 19th century: Impaction of Urbanization
9. London labour and the London poor: By Henry Mayhew
10. Material London
11. The Underground Railway in Victorian London
12. Social conditions in the 19th Century Port: London
13. Background of Delhi
14. Delhi, New Delhi, History of Delhi, Delhi Durbar, British Raj
15. Century of Delhi, Missed Opportunity
16. The Delhi show, on since 1930s
17. Story of Delhi
1. 17thCenturymapofLondon
2. IndustrialRevolution -
3. Ind Rev - httpwww.mtholyoke.educoursesrschwartind_revimagesIR36GR21x1.jpg
4. Mills–
5. Building-the-Royal-Victoria-Docks.html
6. London Mills -
7. MillChildreninLondon
8. Work house -
9. (source: New Delhi – Making of a capital, published by Roil books)
All assessment with regard to the Worksheets shall be done in marks and then to be converted into
To be selected by the teacher as per the nature of the worksheet.
(out of Five)
(out of 10)
3.1- 4.0
2.1- 3.0
Following assessment criteria to be applied for the worksheets number – 2,3,4,5,6,7,12,13,14,16,17
PARAMETER - If the student………
A/ Excellent
Answers all the questions correctly with the required detail/explanation/
content with examples/ evidences/ illustrations.
B/ V. Good
Attempts all the questions and does not provide required explanation for
any one of the answer.
C/ Good
Fairly attempts all the questions and does not provide necessary
D/ Fair
Attempts very few questions and does not furnish with necessary and
relevant information.
E/ Needs
Does not attempt any of the questions or answers all the questions
Following assessment criteria to be followed for worksheets number – 8, 9, 10, and 15
No. of
Parameter – If the child...
1 point
Relates the picture/paragraph/extract with the related topic of the concerned
2 points
Develops well-reasoned arguments to support his interpretation and
1 point
Presents his view point / explanation with suitable illustration/examples.
1 point
exhibits excellent writing skills with no grammatical skills
5 points
Total all the points and grade his performance as the above mentioned assessment criteria.
1. Which of the following statements is NOT correct with regard to urbanization?
a) It helps in creating large scale employment
b) It is a result of industrial revolution
c) It creates environmental balance
d) It develops scientific attitude among people
2. Henry Mayhew surveyed upon the condition of which of the following in London/
a) Shopkeepers and traders
b) Labourers and the poor
c) Soldiers and officers
d) Engineers and doctors
3. Which one of the following was not a major industry in 18th century London?
a) Printing and stationary
b) Clothing and footwear
c) Surgical implements
d) Computer software
4. Delhi does not have a Presidency college because –
a) It was not the capital initially
b) It was not a Presidency city
c) It did not have the resources
d) It already had many colleges
5. The novel Hard Times was written by which of the following writers?
a) Andrew Mearn
b) Charles Dickens
c) Henry Mayhew
d) Charles Booth
CALCUTTA—First capital of British in India.
EASTEND—Considerably a poorer area of London.
MIGRATION—Main cause behind the emergence of
open spaces and lot of greenery around.
modern cities.
CHARLES DICKENS—Author of the Novel 'Oliver
GARDEN CITY—New type of Estates and Villas with
EDWIN LUTYENS—Chief Architect Designer of New
METROPOLIS—A big City supporting a very large
Individual as more important than the society or the state.
SHAHJAHANABAD—The part of Delhi established by
a Mughal King.
CHARLES BOOTH—The person who used the concept
of Poverty Line for the first time.
PUNCH CARTOONS—Cartoons published in the
newspapers highlighting the bad condition of the River
URBANIZATION—Development of a city.
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