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* What Causes Cancer? * Corns * How to Choose a Doctor * Eye

58th YEAR OF
* What Causes Cancer?
* How to Choose a Doctor
* Artificial Teeth
* Corns
* Eye Troubles
* Why Your Body Needs Iron
It's a
Patriotic Duty
to Keep Healthy
SOY CHEESE, Soy curd (Tofu) seasoned for croquettes, salads, sandwich spreads, etc.: 5 oz. 10c; 14
or. 25c: 30 oz. 50c.
-Dr. P. A. Webber
in the Madison
NOT-MEAT, a meatless loaf for
cutlets, roasts, patties, croquettes,
salads. etc. 5 oz. 10c; 14 oz. 25c:
30 oz. 50c.
YUM, a mild bologna flavor. Contains soy beans, wheat gluten.
and seasonings. 5 oz. 10c; 14 oz.
25c; 30 oz. 50c.
KREME O'SOY for those allergic to
cow's milk and for special diets. A
liquid not concentrated. 15 oz. 15c:
29 oz. 25c,
7.0YBURGER, excellent for sandwich spreads or served like a steak
with onions. Recipes on the can.
14 oz. 25c: 30 oz. 50c.
YIGOROST, a vegetable steak to
be prepared like meat, also for
sandwiches and salads. 5 oz. 10c;
14 oz. 25c; 30 oz. 50c.
or in plain soy sauce. Prepared
by exclusive process. 30 oz. 30c.
ST A K E•L ET S, a combination of
gluten and soy beans. They are
already sliced in the can. Serve
in the place of a meat portion. 14
or. 25c: 30 oz. 50c.
AD $50l• ;C.;
WHEATASOY, an alkaline breaklast food, ready to eat. Contains
rich grain malt, whole wheat. and
soy-bean flour. 130 pkg.
Devoted to the
of Your Health
In replying to advertisements, please mention LIFE AND HEALTH.
ZOY-KOFF, not a trace of caffein.
No nerve stimulants. Two grinds
—regular and fine. Prepare like
coffee. 25c pkg.—makes 35 cups.
What Causes Cancer?
Warren G. Harding, M D.
Henry H. Hazen, M. D.
Why You Need Iron in Your Diet
James A. Tobey, Dr. P. H.,
LL. D.
Eye Troubles
J. E. Heald, M. D.
Diet Habits in the Forbidden Land
of Tibet
Harold E. James, M. D.
Those Artificial Teeth
D. S. Teters, D. D. S.
The Virtues of Lady Nicotine
Lieutenant Commander James
J. Short, M. D.
Cooking School Lessons, No. 4
Myrtle V. Barker, Dietitian
How to Choose a Doctor
W. W. Bauer, M. D.
is worth remembering if you
suffer from constipation
due to insufficient bulk
MILD IN ACTION — Nabisco 100% Bran brings gentle relief
to persons suffering from constipation caused by lack of
bulk in the diet. This is due in great part to double-milling
...a process which further breaks down bran fibers, making
them less likely to irritate intestinal membranes.
News in Small Doses
The Dietitian Says
Your Mental Attitude
The Housewife's Corner
The Family Physician
The Mother's Counselor
For Boys and Girls
The Health of Your Pets
Gardening for Health
"CAN my daughter safely marry that
Mr. B with the record his family has for
tuberculosis?" This and other questions
will be answered in the article, "Are Diseases Inherited?" . . . Ten Questions
asked to determine your health score.
. . "It must be my glands," says Mrs.
J. An explanation of the function of
the ductless glands. . . . We are all, at
times anyway, beset by fears, perhaps
especially in these days that demand high
courage. An article on how to banish
fears from your mind. . . . Breathing
exercises may be extremely beneficial.
An article tells why this is so, and gives
some deep-breathing exercises. . . . Are
you troubled with so-called heartburn or
sour stomach, and other little digestive
disturbances? An article warns what not
to do for these complaints, and advises
you what to do. . . . Another "Highway
of Life" article, this time, "Watch Your
Curves and Corners." Fat folk and thin
folk will read this. . . . Cooking Lesson
No. 5 gives more suggestions for good
things to eat. . . . Vegetarianism measured by the new yardstick of good nutrition.
Vol. 57, No. 9, September, 1942. Issued monthly.
Printed and published by Review and Herald Publishing Association, Takoma Park, Washington, D. C.
U. S. A. Subscription rate, $1.20. Canada and
Foreign higher. When change of address is desired,
both old and new addresses must be given. Entered
as second-class matter June 14, 1904, at the post office
at Washington, D. C., under act of Congress, March
3, 1879. Member Audit Bureau of Circulation.
tastes good. Even persons who never liked bran now enjoy
making Nabisco 100% Bran a regular part of their daily
HIGH IN FOOD VALUE —Nabisco 100% Bran contains sig-
Coming Next Month
DELICIOUS TO TASTE—Here, at last, is bran that really
nificant amounts of phosphorus and iron ... is also a good
source of Vitamin B1.
INEXPENSIVE BULK FOOD — Almost everyone can afford
moderately-priced Nabisco 100% Bran. It's one of the most
economical bulk foods available. Packed in both one pound
and half-pound sizes ... it is sold at food stores everywhere.
Eat Nabisco 100% Bran regularly. If your constipation is not
helped in this simple manner, consult a competent physician.
Accepted by the
Council on Foods
of the
American Medical
EN 10010 1.6.A.
t1tlwMlul fn./41110 FIVJAE
In replying to adrer!isements, please mention LIFE AND HEAL! II.
CANCER may have a variety of causes.
You'll want to read what has been found to
date on the question of cancer research.
Read "What Causes Cancer?" Page 6.
FAULTY footwear is the cause of corns.
What kind of shoes should we insist on when
buying shoes, and what can we do for corns
already formed? Page 8.
THE head of a pin could carry the amount
of iron that is contained in the human body,
and yet this infinitesimal amount is vital to
life and health. Why is iron so important,
and how can we get sufficient iron in our
diet? Page 9.
IN the article "Eye Troubles" the doctor
explains what is meant by such terms as farsightedness, nearsightedness, cross-eye, and
astigmatism, and what conditions may be
found in our bodily health when we suffer
from any of these defects of vision, or from
eyestrain. Page 10.
AVE take a peep into the forbidden land of
Tibet and study Tibetan diet, simple in
the extreme, perhaps not as tasty as our
American way of eating, but effective, and
holding perhaps in its very simplicity the
key to robust health. Page 12.
Muck' advancement has been made in the
making of dentures, so much so that no one
who must have his teeth extracted, need fear
that "store-teeth" look. Read "Those Artificial Teeth." Page 13.
DOES tobacco really give you a lift, or
does it let you down? A devotee of Lady
Nicotine came to her defense in one of
the picture magazines in answer to Lieutenant Commander Tunney's count against
her. In this issue we have the third round
in the fight that began with Gene Tunney's
article. See page 14.
You are a newcomer in a community. You
wish to choose your family doctor, the right
doctor for your family. How to do this and
also how and when to call him in an emergency are found in the article on page 18.
Francis D. Nichol
Harold M. Walton, M. D., F. A. C. P.
Robert A. Hare, M. D., F. A. C. P.
Arthur E. Coyne, M. D., L. R. C. P. & S. (Edin.),
F. A. C. S.
George K. Abbott, M. D., F. A. C. S.
John F. Brownsberger, M. D., F. A. C. S.
D. Lois Burnett, R. N.
Alton D. Butterfield, M. D.
Belle Wood-Comstock, M. D.
Leroy E. Coolidge, M. D., F. A. C. S.
George T. Harding, M. D., F. A. C. P.
Martin A. Hollister
Daniel H. Kress, M. D.
Carl J. Larsen, M. D.
J. Russell Mitchell, D. D. S., F. A. C. D.
Arlie L. Moon, M. D.
Clarence E. Nelson, M. D., F. A. C. S., L. R. C.
P. & S. (Edin.), F. R. C. S. (Edin.)
Alfred B. Olsen, M. D., L. R. C. P. (London),
M. R. C. S. (Eng.), D. P. H. (Cambridge)
Orlyn B. Pratt, M. D., F. A. G. P.
Charles C. Prince, M. D.
Wells A. Ruble, M. D., L. R. C. P. & S. (Edin.)
Edward A. Sutherland, M. D.
Archibald W. Truman, M. D., F. A. C. S.
Henry W. Vollmer, M. D., F. A. C. S.
Clearing Away the Smoke
OMETHING of a furore was created by Gene Tunney's article against tobacco
in the Reader's Digest some months ago. In the July issue of Click appeared
a reply to Tunney's article from the pen of a physician. We have often been
curious to know just how a doctor would proceed to give a general defense of
tobacco smoking. Up to the time of reading this article we do not recall having
read such a defense from the pen of an M. D. Our curiosity is now satisfied, even
The article opens thus: "Smoking has been maligned long enough! It's been
the whipping boy of health fanatics for years. It is high time somebody took up
cudgels in its defense!"
Our emotions are not stirred. We thought that movie stars and other celebrities
rhapsodized in "its defense" "long enough" at so much per testimonial until the
Federal Trade Commission put a ban on it. We do know as a current fact that
the tobacco companies are spending huge sums in advertising their wares—which
it is their lawful right to do—and thus providing a "defense."
Strange Situation Develops
But right here is where a strange situation develops. This Click contributor,
moving forward in the same tempo as his introduction, seeks to assure his readers
that there is really nothing at all to the charges against tobacco, even the longstanding charge against nicotine. Yet certain great tobacco companies of recent
years have been spending large sums to stress the claim that their respective brands
of cigarettes contain less nicotine than the average, or less of certain irritating
Now if only some poor, deluded "health fanatics" 'have been cruelly "whipping"
smoking through the years, and medical men can provide clear-cut proof that
tobacco is really a "boon," nicotine and all, then the advertising counselors to
some great tobacco companies have made a capital blunder. Since when has it
become good psychology to give billboard publicity, by inference, to the groundless
attacks of "fanatics"? Or since when did it become good strategy in an economic
fight to use a poor defensive weapon—there's less nicotine in our brand—if it is
possible to use a devastating offensive weapon-.-medical science proves smoking in
general and nicotine in particular are quite harmless, really a "boon"?
But advertising counselors are intelligent and astute, good students of human
nature, and as honest as the rest of us. They would not be guilty of committing
any such foolish blunder in strategy. They have simply done the best they could
in view of the facts. They have canvassed this subject more fully than most people,
and they know that medical and other scientific literature is replete with indictments
of tobacco on numerous counts. Hence the complete silence of tobacco advertisements about the sweet harmlessness of smoking, and the logical emphasis on the
relative amount of nicotine, etc., in the particular brand advertised.
A Humorous Touch
Incidentally, a humorous touch has just been given to this whole subject of
cigarette ads. In July the Reader's Digest published certain independently secured
laboratory findings on the relative amount of nicotine and other substances in
popular brands. These findings contradicted the much-advertised claims of a
great tobacco company. And as we write these lines there confronts us a very large
display ad of a competing company blazoning the heartening news to smokers
that it is their brand of cigarette that has the least nicotine and irritating tarry
This Click contributor is a Daniel come to judgment for the tobacco companies.
He should write their advertising copy on the "boon" theme, the happily harmless
theme he develops at length in his article. But will they discharge their present
copy writers and hire him? We think not! And until they do hire him, and so
long as they continue on the defensive theme of "less nicotine in our brand," we
hardly feel that we should be asked to give further consideration to this ecstatic
"defense" of smoking. But because many of our readers do not have access to
scientific literature and might be confused by certain dogmatic claims in the
Click article, we are publishing on page 14 of this issue a somewhat detailed reply
from the pen of Lieutenant Commander J. J. Short, Medical Corps, U. S. Naval
Reserve; and associate clinical professor of medicine, New York Post-Graduate
School of Medicine, Columbia University.
_)ma ll
в–є SACCHARIN, the coal-tar product with the
very sweet taste, cannot be used as a sweetening agent in canning foods, for when
heated it becomes bitter.
00 IN diet experiments with rats, wheat-germ
protein has been found to rival that of
casein, the main protein in milk and cheese,
for the maintenance of growth.
O' IF you or your children suffer from frequent colds, this tendency may be due to a
nasal allergy to food, and a different method
of treatment may be required.
IP. THE treatment for athlete's foot that consists of the phenol-camphor mixture, should
not be self-administered, but given under
the direction of a qualified physician.
O. EVER hear of "Carter spread"? This is a
dairy butter fortified with hydrogenated cottonseed-oil flakes to make it heat resistant.
The inventor is Lieutenant Colonel Robert
F. Carter of the Quartermaster Corps. The
new butter is being shipped to United States
troops stationed overseas.
0. Two Mayo physicians, after examining
the organs of thirty patients who had suffered from chronic infectious arthritis, believe there is evidence that this type of arthritis may have come about as a result of
rheumatic fever during childhood.
0. NEW support for the theory that cancer
is caused by a germ comes from research
conducted by Duke University scientists on
a type of virus-caused cancer in rabbits.
11. MELANIN is the dark pigment in the hair
that gives color to hair. It is produced in
the process of body oxidation and is deposited in the hair by the blood. As one grows
older and the fires of life burn lower, less
of this substance is formed; so the hair
gradually turns gray and may become pure
white. In view of this fact, Doctor Hrdlicka
of the Smithsonian Institution believes that
the vitamin treatment offers little hope for
those with gray hair.
A Law in One State
. . . A Good Rule Everywhere
Effective August 1, 1942, all white bread in South Carolina is
required by law to be enriched with vitamins (thiamine, niacin) and iron.
By this significant official action, to which local bakers interposed no objections, a legislative body has emphasized the great
importance of this "nutritionally modernized" bread to the
"health and well-being of the consumer."
By equally significant voluntary action, American bakers are
now enriching about two-thirds of all white bread produced
in this country. Six months ago only about one-third of our
bread was enriched.
The daily use of Enriched White Bread is a thrifty, satisfactory,
and simple way to add to the nutritive value of the diet.
As the scientific organization of the great American baking
industry, working closely with the national nutrition program,
we suggest• that you provide your family with this better, more
nourishing Enriched White Bread—and suggest it to mothers
who look to you for advice.
10. TRYВЈTOPHAN is one of the ten essential
amino acids, the building blocks of proteins.
A lack of this essential may cause baldness,
poor teeth, cataracts, and destruction of sex
10. A FIVE-DAY cure for gonorrhea, a disease
which affects several millions in this country, has been perfected and proved in largescale tests. This announcement comes from
Surgeon General Thomas Parran of the
United States Public Health Service.
0. PAUL D. WATSON, associate chemist of the
Bureau of Dairy Industry, has developed a
lacquer substitute from cow's milk and a
small amount of vegetable oil for the tin
coating on cans used for evaporated and condensed milk, as well as on those used for
shipping fluid milk and cream. Thus bossy
herself helps furnish the material needed for
packaging and transporting her products.
01. THE American Red Cross will not serve
beer to members of the armed forces. This
statement was given to the president of the
national Woman's Christian Temperance
Union by Chairman Norman H. Davis.
of Nutrition
Please send me
your new free
booklet entitled,
"Enriched Bread
—What Leading
Authorities Say
About It."
In replying to advertisements, please mention LIFE AND HEALTH.
`What Cce,e,a Caii,ce
HE most common question asked a
a medical practitioner by his patients is undoubtedly, "Doctor, just
what causes cancer?" The frequency
of this question is not its only claim
to fame, for it involves a problem of
fundamental interest and importance
both to the physician and to the educated layman. Without hesitation we
can assert that the hope of cancer
treatment today lies in an intelligent
co-operation between the medical profession and the general public. If this is to
be effective, the public must become reasonably informed upon the subject.
Once again we are forced to define our
terms. Just what do we mean by the
term, "cause of cancer"? The relationship of cause and effect may be either
simple or complex. For example, we
know that the organism of tuberculosis
excites a certain disease which we recognize by the wasting, emaciation, fever,
and coughing that .is so characteristic of
its advanced stage when it affects the
lungs. Rarely do we pause to ask how
the organism causes tuberculosis. Why
does it produce a rapidly progressive and
ulcerative lesion in young people, while
so often in the adult the lesion is of a
fibrous type? When the organism invades the body of primitive people such
as South Sea Islanders, it seems to spread
like the proverbial "prairie fire." While
we know much about the disease called
tuberculosis, yet there are many gaps in
our knowledge. We cannot alter the
course of the disease, but we give good
hygiene and food in an effort to build
up the resistance that the body is able
to offer.
When we consider cancer in its many
aspects we find a similar situation. The
relationship between the presence of
rough teeth and cancer of the tongue is
equally well known, but we cannot in our
present state of knowledge explain the
method by which the irritation of the
jagged tooth excites the covering cells
of the tongue to a new relentless and uncontrolled reproduction. The same perplexity faces us if we consider the curious
fact that a proportion of ulcers of the
stomach lead to cancer, whereas a similar
ulcer an inch farther down in the duodenum has never been known to produce
a new growth. Because of the deadly nature of cancer, we are inclined to demand
greater details in the elaboration of its
problems than we expect in the cases of
the so-called acute infectious diseases.
Part IV—What Science Knows About Cancer
There is much to be learned about the
cancer process, just as there is about all
other diseases; yet science has obtained
a magnificent array of facts from which
certain general concepts may be drawn.
The protean nature of tumors and the
variety of their known causes make it
highly improbable that any one specific
factor causes the disease. We have seen
cancer produced as a result of the irritation from rough teeth, from tar applied
locally, from an oversecretion of glandular principles, and from many other influences. If a bacterial organism were
discovered to be the exciting cause of
cancer, we would still be at a loss to fit
together all the known facts concerning
the disease.
In view of this situation, it is perhaps
easier to view cancer
in comparison with
the process of inflammation as a whole,
rather than to contrast it with some
specific infectious
disease such as tuberculosis or diphtheria.
The body's reaction
of inflammation may
be stimulated by
bacterial invasion or
by injury due to
heat, cold, electricity,
or chemical -action;
but in each case the
type of reaction on
the part of the tissues is the same.
Likewise, in cancer
the exciting cause
may be a parasite,
injury in the form
of chronic irritation,
abnormal secretions,
or lack of growth restraints; and still the
II . n. rr0 SRI? Tc
Modern Science Comes
to the Aid of the Doctor
in Making Diagnosis
reaction of the tissues which we call cancer
is similar in all of them. This does not in
any way deny the possibility of some underlying bacterial parasite, operating in
a manner wholly unknown to us at the
present stage, controlling the general
growth reaction of the body to the external forces which have been briefly mentioned. With these possibilities in mind,
it will be illuminating to review briefly
the various theories that have been advanced by competent students to explain
As a matter of historical interest, we
may refer to the Middle Ages, when cancer was attributed to a wide variety of
causes. Some souls of a religious nature
could see only the punishment for wick-
"Henry Has Cancer! What Causes Cancer Anyway?"
edness as its source. Others believed tumors to result from an accumulation of
bile or one of the body fluids. None of
the theories presented were satisfactory
until the results of microscopic investigations were brought into the picture.
Among the earlier hypotheses was one
promulgated by Cohnhem. As has been
mentioned previously, the tissues of the
body are constructed of tiny cells which
are related to the whole as bricks are
related to the wall of which they form
a part. These cells are so minute that
we require the magnification of the microscope to see them. Despite their size,
however, they have a characteristic appearance by which they can be identified.
In the study of tissue Cohnhem discovered groups of cells scattered in various tissues which did not belong to the
normal architecture of the region. These
cells had not developed to the adult
stage, and so he called them embryonal
cell rests which were misplaced. Since
these cells were out of their normal environment he conceived the idea that
they were probably out from under the
normal controls for cellular growth.
These abnormally placed cells would be
subject to injury and irritation to a much
greater extent than normal cells. Such
a structure would make a perfect site of
origin for cancer. Further careful study
of the anatomy of the body revealed abnormal cell nests in maldeveloped organs, atrophic organs, remnants of organs
which functioned in embryonic life, and
in other locations which at times furnished the origin for growths.
Although this theory explains the origin of many tumors, its scope is not universal. Unfortunately, it has distracted
attention from the easily proved fact that
normal tissue cells under the action of a
variety of irritants are capable of giving
rise to new growths.
This cell-rest theory was unable to ex•
plain why these misplaced cells began to
grow. To be sure, it assumed that irritation set the process in motion, but such
a stimulus in many locations merely resulted in some benign defensive reaction
and certainly not in the unrestrained
growth and spread of cancer. Some other
factor was called for. This agent was
called "growth restraint." The question
was asked, "Why do cells stop growing?"
Analysis of the process showed four
phases in the control of cellular growth.
First, was the problem of food or nutrition. If sufficient food was not present, the cells would cease growing. If
the food material were unequally distributed, the growth would be unequal. Such
a situation is seen in the rapid emaciation of the cancer patient while the tumor continues its rapid multiplication.
Second, tumor cells may be restrained
by mechanical pressure. The breaking
of a capsule or limiting membrane would
permit the rapid growth and dissemination of the tumor.
Third, cells grow because in the economy of the organism they have a function to accomplish. They have received
an impetus from the embryo which will
carry them to a certain stage of development, and when their work is finished
they gradually lose their activity. Some
students believe that when cells fail to do
their work the dynamic urge is transposed from work to growth, thus leading
to overgrowth without function.
The fourth and main factor in normal
growth restraint is the general organization pattern of the body tissues. We inherit a pattern from our forebears which
determines to a large extent the limits
of our body growth. The second theory
concerned itself with the removal of these
growth restraints, but helpful as it is in
understanding some phases of new
growths, it fails miserably to explain why
the cells should assume such an irregular
and abnormal method of growth.
The question of "growth restraint"
was so intimately bound up ,with the organization of the species that a third
theory which considered the hereditary
pattern soon gathered its advocates. The
inheritance of body form and size lent
itself to the theory that we inherited the
factor without which we developed cancer. This aspect of the problem will be
dealt with at length in a later article.
In the discussion thus far we have dealt
with inherent forces over which we have
little or no control. Certain researches
have thrown considerable light upon the
cause of cancer by means of the experimental production of cancer in animals.
This work has been limited to the lower
animals and does not rightly come into
the scope of this article, but will be discussed in detail in a subsequent chapter. We will now turn our attention to
some of the clinical and, for the most
part, preventable, causes of new growths.
(Continued on page 28)
When It's Corns, Faulty Footwear Is the
Culprit. Choose a Really Good Shoe
What Causes Them? How Shall We Treat Them?
O I: \ S are probably the most frequent continuous ailment known
to men and women. At the outset
it should be clearly understood that all
corns are due to faulty footwear—this
despite the fact that the author never yet
has seen a woman, who, according to her
own statement, ever wore tight shoes. If
time and space permitted, a goodly description could be given of the glaring
faults of footwear manufacturers and
salesmen. Briefly these faults may be
enumerated as follows: (1) faulty size or
faulty shape which cramps the toes; (2)
too little space "between decks," that is
between the inner sole and the top of
the shoe; (3) the hard, firm caps over the
toes; (4) too stiff and unyielding leather;
and (5) marking of shoes by sizes. Shoe
numbers should be in a code of some
kind, so that a woman does not know
whether she is getting a number three or
a number six shoe; this, to some extent,
would obviate the difficulty of the shoe
clerk in suggesting the proper size that
should be worn.
At this point it must be mentioned that
shoe salesmen usually follow the line of
least resistance and sell too small and
pointed a shoe because the customer
thinks it looks well.
In dealing further with the problem
of shoes, it should be noted that when a
man is inducted into the army he is always given a pair of shoes a size or two
larger than he is accustomed to wearing.
The moderately sensible shoes for children do not cause corns upon the tender
skin of their wearers. The woodsmen,
or others wearing moccasins (the oldfashioned type of moccasin which is not
nine tenths shoe) likewise do not have
corns. An illness of several months in
bed will cause any existing corns to disappear. These simple facts should be
proof that shoes are the cause of corns.
Corns begin from a combination of
pressure and friction. Pressure alone
will cause necrosis of the skin, and friction will produce a blister. A corn starts
with a small, thickened area upon the
exposed part of the toe, most commonly
on the little toes, but sometimes on top
of a so-called hammertoe where the joint
of the toe is at a level higher than that
of the surrounding digits. This thickened central area becomes covered with
another layer of thickened tissue that is
a little broader, and this process goes on
until eventually there is a peg-shaped
area, the centermost and lowest portion
of which is the hardest. Pressure from
above forces this hard portion into the
toe structures and gives rise to much pain.
A corn is always much more painful
in damp or hot weather than at other
times. Some believe that this is because
the feet swell with such weather, and
some believe that the leather of shoes
shrinks in such weather; the latter is the
more probable explanation. At all
events, many persons are sure that their
corns are very reliable barometers.
A corn is subject to certain complications; probably the commonest is the development of a wart upon the top of
it. This is often due to trimming with
a knife or razor blade that has at some
time been in contact with a wart on some
other portion of the body. Careful inspection will reveal a small growth of a
slightly different color from the rest of
the corn, and usually there are a number
of small dark spots in it. Pain is always
much increased by this complication.
Warts may also become infected; this is
usually due to too deep trimming with
an unclean instrument.
Treatment of corns is various. Chiropodists are very successful at trimming
out a corn so that it will give no pain
for several weeks. The disadvantage of
this method is that the little operation
must be performed very frequently. The
ordinary corn plaster, which consists of
(Continued on page 29)
Why You Need
in Your Diet
HE amount of iron in the human
body could be put on the head of
a pin, but this small quantity is of
vital importance to life and health. Although iron comprises only 0.004 per
cent of the human machine, any appreciable reduction in its amount causes
anemia and other serious ills.
Iron is a necessary part of every human cell, but most of our iron (about 70
per cent) is concentrated in the blood,
which in itself represents only about 7
per cent of the weight of the body. The
function of iron in the blood is to help
form hemoglobin, the principal solid part
of the red blood cells. This hemoglobin
not only acts as the carrier of oxygen to
our tissues, but also aids in the oxidation,
or burning up, of the foods which serve
as fuel for the human mechanism.
The great importance of iron in nutrition has been recognized for many centuries, although only recently has science
explained precisely how it acts. As early
as 1664 Doctor Sydenham, the celebrated
English physician, observed that a ruddy
glow could be restored to the pallid
cheeks of anemic persons merely by giving them salts of iron or by feeding them
hard waters rich in iron and calcium.
Somewhat later the ashes of certain plants
were employed for the same purpose. In
more recent years, many expensive "iron
tonics" were sold in bottles and vials to
gullible buyers.• Today it is recognized
that the best and most economical way to
get the daily iron needed by the body is
through the consumption of nourishing
Since the body is constantly using up
its store of iron, it must be replenished
with this necessary mineral every day.
[he average amount required daily 'has
been set by scientists at 0.4 milligrams
per 100 calories of food, or about 12 milligrams of iron a day as a minimum for
the normal person. Since a milligram
is one thousandth of a gram, and a gram
is about one thirtieth of an ounce, it is
obvious that an extremely small quantity of iron will suffice for the ordinary
needs of the body. Unless foods are selected with some care, however, this
amount may not be obtained.
When a person is deprived of sufficient
iron, the usual result is the malady known
as anemia, which means literally "without iron." This condition is generally
characterized by pallor, lassitude, disturbances of the heart, poor appetite and digestion, and other symptoms, which can
be readily diagnosed and treated by a
competent physician.
It should be pointed out, however, that
lack of iron in the diet is not the only
cause of anemia, which is really a symptom rather than a specific disease. The
anemic state may occur as the result of
hemorrhage or severe loss of blood, as the
consequence of infections and certain
wasting diseases, and also in some inEWING GALLOWAY
Though Milk Contains Little Iron, Yet All of It
Is Used by the Body
stances because of inability of the body
to manufacture its own red• blood cells.
This last condition, which fortunately is
somewhat rare, is known as pernicious'
anemia. Formerly it was cured or alleviated only with difficulty, but modern medical science has devised effective means
of coping with this malady.
Even if some types of anemia are not
due directly to lack of iron in the foods
we eat, all types can be relieved or helped
by the administration of foods or other
substances which are rich in the right
kind of iron. There is, furthermore, no
danger of getting too much iron in the
Most foods contain iron, but some are,
of course, much better sources of this necessary mineral than are others. The kind
of iron in a food is also as important as
the amount, and the nature of the remainder of the diet has an effect on the
utilization of iron by the body. Spinach,
for example, contains an abundance of
iron, but only a very small fraction of it
actually can be assimilated. Milk, on
the other hand, has very little iron, but
all of it is utilized to advantage in the
human system. The combination of
bread and milk is, moreover, an efficient
and economical source of food iron.
The best all-round food supplies of
the proper kind of iron are eggs, wholegrain breads and cereals, oatmeal, molasses, and certain vegetables, such as dried
beans and peas. Egg yolk is particularly
high in iron, being exceeded only by
dried beans. This yellow part of the
egg has about eighty times as much iron
as the white, a proportion about two
and a half times as great as that in the
whole egg. Mashed egg yolk is often
used in the feeding of infants, who are
born with a good store of iron, but who
may soon become iron depleted unless
they secure an adequate supply from appropriate foods other than milk.
Among other good food sources of iron
are dried fruits such as prunes, apricots,
currants, and raisins; most nuts; and
some of the green leafy vegetables, like
kale, chard, and parsley, the last being
properly a food rather than a garnish or
decoration. Because old-fashioned molasses is an excellent source of food iron,
it was this product in the famous mixture
of sulphur and molasses that actually
helped to overcome the so-called "spring
fever," for which this pungent combina(Continued on page 23)
'Vas a
"Oil" 15
ecl Ryes'
tieed Rest
HE term "strain," as applied to the
way our eyes adjust themselves to
the task at hand means simply the
unnatural effort or exertion which all the
tissues of the eyes undergo to perform a
natural, normal function. A series of acts
takes place in order to accomplish this:
first, the attempt to see a given object
perfectly; second, the placing or fixing of
that object satisfactorily on memory's
wall; third, the reproduction of that object from one's memory at a later date;
fourth, the reception of the stereoscopic
impression of height, width, and depth.
Kodaks or cameras furnish the nearest
comparison perhaps to the human eye.
They, however, usually must be adjusted
externally by hand to meet the conditions required of them. The associated
complex mechanism Of the eye is selfadjust:ng and self-accommodating under
normal conditions, and is able almost instantly to change the focusing point from
inches to as far as one can see. An individual who can do this and at the same
time be unaware of any discomfort or
imperfection in vision should be content
and very happy.
From actual experience 95 per cent of
the people hi every walk of life know
what eyestrain does for them; the other
5 per cent could truthfully boast that
there isn't such a thing because their eyes
are perfect and they can use them all
they wish without any trouble whatsoever.
A J. E. HEALD, M. D.
Eyestrain manifests itself in many different w4ys, several of which conditions
are more or less familiar to the general
Farsightedness (hyperopia) is a condition in which the eyeball may be too
short, or the refractive power may be deficient, or the crystalline lens may be absent. All of these are instances in which
the rays from any object in front of the
eye fall behind the retina (the seeing
part of the eye). They are corrected only
by convex or plus lenses, either spheres
or cylinders or combinations of the two.
Farsightedness is quite often hereditary, especially the high-grade types.
This condition makes it difficult to maintain a distinct image of small objects like
fine print for prolonged periods of time,
and if one persists in an effort to read,
his accommodation becomes exhausted
and eyestrain follows, with accompanying
eye ache, headache, redness of eyes, and
Sudden failure of accommodation, with
blurring of vision, is not uncommon, and
more often appears when one's vitality
is weakened, as following some illness.
Farsightedness sometimes gives rise to
"spasm of accommodation" and then may
simulate nearsightedness (myopia) in
which the distant vision would blur. In
such a case the refractionist would pre-
scribe concave lenses, much to the detriment of the patient if he did not resort
to the use of medicine (a mydriatic) commonly called "drops." This same condition may also occur in myopic eyes and
cause them to appear to be more myopic
than they really are. Some people may
tell us that the use of medicine or
"drops" is dangerous, unnecessary, or
even "old-fashioned," but this is absolutely false.
Cross-eye (convergent strabismus) is
often one of the first-recognized symptoms of farsightedness. Persons thus afflicted often acquire the bad habit of
squinting and holding their books too
close to their eyes in order to see better,
thus again simulating nearsightedness,
when in reality they are very farsighted.
If this condition is allowed to,go uncorrected too long, one or the other of the
eyes may have very. poor vision throughout life. Frequent complications, such as
inflammation of the coats of the eyes
sties, and even congestion of the retina
and chorioid may occur if this farsightedness is not corrected. Persistent headache, aggravated by using the eyes, and
various nervous symptoms, reflex in their
nature, as well as visual disturbances, are
common results of farsightedness. Children, or even older persons, with eyestrain will cast their books aside and seek
other things to do in which the use of
their eyes is unimportant. There are
intelligent children who may be backLIFE AND HEALTH
ward students and may bring home poor
grades on their report cards simply because of poor eyesight. Parents, usually
there is some good reason for these backward students, and you should make
every effort to find the cause as early as
Nearsightedness (myopia) is a condition just the opposite of farsightedness,
in which the eyeball is too long, and
the rays from an object in front of the
eye fall short of the retina. Distance
vision is always blurred, and a close-up
range is necessary to see well. Symptoms
of distress are more often absent in such
persons than in farsighted ones, unless
the trouble is accompanied by astigmatism. In this case "eyestrain" will
manifest itself in the form of eye ache,
headache, tired frontal feeling, redness
of eyeballs; and sandy feeling of lids, also
general tired and stupid feeling of entire
body, and other reflex disturbances such
as nausea and loss of appetite. Children
and young people with nearsightedness
often like to seek an occupation in which
they can see at close range, such as reading or drawing, rather than outdoor
sports, in which longer-range vision is
In the higher degrees of nearsightedness, which is usually progressive, we may
find definite changes in the framework
or supporting tissues of the eye, wherein
the eyeball becomes longer. The inner
parts of the eye called the retina and the
chorioid, which lie against the white part
of the eye, must also give way. Hence,
we get a stretching of the retina which
tears and pulls away from the nerve head,
just as a thin piece of gauze would tear
if stretched too tightly. These diseased
conditions of the eyeball are very serious
from the standpoint of loss of vision.
They more often occur in the "teen" or eye ache at night, which disturbs the
years of life, and hence may affect the sleep, along with visual disturbances, like
whole educational career of an individual flashes or rings of light, may be suggestive
of a serious disease, which eventually proand occasionally. produce blindness.
Astigmatism is a condition in which duces blindness, known as "glaucoma," or
the rays of light coming from an object stony eye.
Muscle unbalance often manifests itin front of the eye are unevenly focused
on the retina, which produces a blurring self early in life, first in children from
effect. The sources of this astigmatism one to ten years old, usually following
are principally from the cornea and the some illness, like whooping cough, meascrystalline lens. The cornea may be a les, scarlet fever, or pneumonia, when the
little flat or not quite perfect in contour child's resistance is lowered and there is
in all meridians; likewise the lens. Hence a basis for eyestrain in the form of a high
the poorly formed images in the eye. In degree of farsightedness. Then we get a
general, we may say that astigmatism is turning in of the eyes. The opposite of
due to the slight flattening of one side this condition is a turning out of the
of the eyeball compared to another side, eyeballs. These may be corrected largely
which makes it a little irregular in shape. by the use of glasses, if taken very early,
You may ask, "How can a little thing preferably between two and five years of
like that give one such a headache?" It age; otherwise the child may have one
is due to the action or work thrown upon poor eye the remainder of his life. This
the several muscles connected with the handicap, if taken in hand early, might
eye, both external and internal. There have been avoided.
are six external muscles of each eye. The
A muscle unbalance in the vertical
internal muscles of the eye are the ciliary meridian (hyperphoria) is very common
muscles controlling the iris or the little and very annoying. This is sometimes
curtain forming the pupil or window of overlooked and neglected when a refracthe eye, also the circular and vertical tion, or eye examination, is made for
muscles controlling the lens. In addition, glasses. A very small deviation from northere is the complex nerve supply of all mal prevents proper co-ordination of the
these muscles, which when brought into two eyes, and they are helpless to adjust
action is called the power of accommoda- themselves. Glasses may be correct in
tion. Under perfect conditions this every other respect, but if this condition
mechanism works automatically, unless remains uncorrected, the patient still has
some defect may be encountered in its a feeling that something is wrong, and
makeup. If so, the usual symptoms of rightly so. Fitting of glasses means much
eyestrain previously mentioned in this more than securing the best vision possiarticle will manifest themselves, and, in ble with each individual eye. The eyes
addition, one may have a drawing sensa- must work together in harmony, or the
tion in the back of the neck, as well as a results are not complete. Fully 25 per
feeling of pressure back of the eyeball.
cent of all people who need glasses reMorning headache may come especially quire this particular correction.
after using the eyes strenuously the day
At about forty-five years of age the
or evening before. Constant headache crystalline lens loses its elasticity. This
prevents the normal process of accommodation, making necessary assistance in
the form of glasses (usually bifocals), for
reading and seeing near objects. This
is a normal result of growing old, and is
known as presbyopia. This slow change
taking place in the lens of the eye lasts
for about five years and then becomes
more or less stationary. The reading
strength of our glasses remains about
the same, provided the distance vision
does not change. There are several
things, however, that may affect our
vision aside from these natural phenomena.
Contributory causes of eyestrain involve the type of work which calls
for artificial light that may be too
little or too great; or if in correct
amount, may be in the wrong poi ion in relation to the eye. A visit
to the movies, night driving where
one constantly looks at bright
(Continued on page 21)
In Case of Frequent Headaches, Have
Your Eyes Checked. You May Be
Surprised at the Relief in Store for
You. Bad Eyes Often Cause Severe
Doctor James Treating a Young
Tibetan Patient
The dietetic habits of these people are
simple in the extreme. The high altitude of the Tibetan plateau and the
long, severe winters make it impossible
to grow a variety of foodstuffs. The tremendous mountain ranges and lack of
any roads or transport facilities except
pack animals make importation impractical, indeed well-nigh impossible. Our
Tibetan friends, therefore, must content
themselves with those things which they
can obtain locally.
The Tibetan diet is built around a substance called tsampa, a flour made from
parched barley or oats. The natural, unprocessed grain is toasted and then
ground between stones to produce this
very palatable food. This is the staple
food, and with it the Tibetans consume
a so-called tea which is really nothing
more than an infusion made' from the
dried leaf of our well-known camellia
leaf. Tsampa and tea are mixed to form
a stiff mixture of about the consistency
of modeling clay, which is then rolled
into small balls and eaten.
In addition to this, they use some sour
cheese, considerable quantities of rancid
butter, and occasionally a bit of raw beef.
Sometimes there will be corn meal, from
which simple cakes will be made, and,
if the weather has been favorable, a few
tiny potatoes and perhaps a few turnips.
These products are all eaten in the nat-
HE quest for food is a universal
one. It has been rewarded in various ways. Diet and dietetic habits
and customs are necessarily guided by
the available food as well as by other
limiting factors. In our so-called civilized countries the development of transportation, processing, and preserving facilities have provided the inhabitants
with a tremendous variety of foodstuffs.
Modern methods of milling have produced cereal products which can be
stored, or shipped to any distance. The
processes of preserving and canning have
been elaborated to a point where foods
so processed have become universally
available. Commercial processing has
produced tinned foods which are very
reasonable in price, and American people have turned to the can as the source
of a large portion of their food supply.
The old jokes about America's living out
of a can seem almost justified. Fortunately for those of us who still prefer
our food in the fresh state, the process
of quick freezing, coupled with improved
transportation facilities, now makes it
possible for all of us to enjoy these fresh
foods, out of season as well as in. It is
in the Forbidden Land of
With a Moral A
for Americans
indeed interesting to note that quick
freezing promises to preserve for us those
essential food elements which were so
often destroyed, at least in part, by the
older processing methods.
The other peoples of the world are
not, however, so fortunate as are those
of us who live here in America. In spite
of the widespread adoption of modern
methods, there still remain a few places
where these facilities are not available
and where geographical barriers and climatic conditions have limited the available food supply. In these places the
diets of the inhabitants have necessarily
been reduced to very simple terms.
It has been my privilege to live for
some years in close contact with the primitive people of eastern Tibet and to observe their habits of living and eating.
ural, unrefined state. They are truly natural foods, unchanged by processing, with
no vital elements removed. It is interesting to note and compare the health conditions, both good and ill, of these people with similar conditions in our own
Generally speaking, the average Tibetan enjoys a buoyantly healthy existence. It is, of course, an exciting and
dangerous one, and he is regularly rubbing elbows with sudden death. Barring
fatal encounters, however, he is likely to
live out his years untouched by those degenerative diseases which are the scourge
of civilized middle life and old age.
Idle indeed would be the dentist who
depended upon these people for his
practice, for dental decay and pyorrhea
(Continued on page 32)
better colors, density, and strength than
rubber material, which, while it is still
in use and has its place in dentistry, is
rapidly being replaced by the acrylic materials in construction of artificial sets
of teeth.
Keeping step with acrylic manufacturers, the leading manufacturers of artificial teeth have developed in the last
three years new types of teeth to use,
which when properly selected for size,
By D. S. TETERS, D. D. S.
mold, and shade, and set up aesthetically
in the denture material, really defy detection as artificial teeth.
So, today, when the teeth nature gave
mateLOT of water has gone under the
dental bridge since George Wash- rials and teeth bent their energy to pro- us have reached the place where they are
ington rode into Boston in the lat- duce improved products in all lines, that no longer useful and their retention
ter part of the eighteenth century and the dentist might have something still might even bring systemic disease, we can
go to the dentist and have them removed
left an order with Paul Revere for a set better to offer his patients.
Improvements were made in celluloid with confidence that the new ones we
of artificial teeth; and as one looks at the
set, now on display after nearly one hun- materials used as bases for plates, but will get will give greater satisfaction than
dred seventy-five years, he will realize after five or ten years these were found artificial teeth gave in days gone by. We
that they were wonderfully and fearfully to be faulty, and in many mouths they can be glad that we are living in an age
made—with emphasis on the fearfully. did not hold up satisfactorily. Many in which inventive knowledge has inThe stern look on Washington's face in dentists began to feel that they still had creased along dental lines as well as in
Stuart's portrait of him was, no doubt, nothing better than the rubber plate. other fields of endeavor.
When a few teeth can be retained in
caused by his biting down on the teeth Rubber had been improved to keep pace
with other advancements in the arts, but the mouth in a healthy condition, they
held in articulation by springs.
Various improvements were made in all admitted that it was not the ideal often serve a useful purpose in helping
to hold dentures in place. This is especonstructing teeth of gold, silver, and dental-plate material.
true in the lower jaw, where denporcelain in the first sixty years of the
About ten years ago, American chemcentury just past. About the time of ical laboratories began extensive research tures are harder to hold in place. These
the Civil War the process of vulcanizing in materials first designed for commercial partial dentures, which are reinforced
rubber into a hard form was invented by use, such as paints, varnishes, and sub- and clasped to the remaining teeth with
Charles Goodyear. This was soon adapted stitutes for rubber, silk, celluloid, and gold and other metals, will probably cost
to plaster models of the mouth, and from cotton. We all know how thrilled we more and may not last indefinitely. But
then on there has been a steady improve- were when the first cellophane (for wrap- they are to be recommended in many
ment, both in the materials of which the ping purposes) came on the market, and cases, and the patient can be assured that
plates are made, and in the porcelain unbreakable watch crystals of a new ma- even though they last only a few years,
terial appeared; then the glass in auto- they are worth while.
teeth that are used on them.
When the time comes when you will
To secure aesthetic appearance, the mobiles received a hard, tough layer
porcelain teeth were fused in blocks, with between two glasses to make them shatter- need artificial teeth, select a dentist in
the pink gums fused to the teeth. These proof. From experiments like the above, whom you have confidence, follow his inwere held in place on the rubber with a new substance was developed which structions to the letter; in a 'short time
small platinum pins baked into the por- could be molded in plaster and stone you will be forgetting your dental worcelain. As time passed, the rubber was molds and cured under heat. When this ries.
Remember, there are four things to be
improved until a pink rubber was material was adapted to dentistry a new
brought out for the front part of the day opened in plate material for dental considered regarding the problem of
wearing new dentures:
plates. Then real advancement was use.
made by making the teeth separately,
The acrylic resins are still in the exFirst, your own mouth condition, which
which has enabled the dentist to set them perimental stages, but in the last few is always different from any other perso that they look more natural and also years a great step forward has been son's, as some mouths are easy to fit and
give greater masticating ability.
taken in this new material which has some are very difficult.
Various materials were brought
Second, the kind of teeth you get.
out to take the place of rubber, the
Your dentist will be in a position to
appearance of which, at the very
recommend to you the type of denbest, was none too good. Celluloid
tures that would be best for your
was used quite extensively about
mouth condition. A few additional
forty years ago, and while it made a
dollars can be well spent at this
beautiful plate when first compoint, and will ensure greater satispleted, it soon disintegrated under
faction in the future. You had
use in the mouth, the teeth dropbetter sacrifice somewhere else than
ping off and the color changing.
get too cheap dental work.
Thirty years ago the manufacThird are the plates the dentist
turers of the artificial teeth to be
builds for you. This is his respon-,
used on the plates began to carve
sibility, and a conscientious dentist
the teeth into more natural molds
will do everything he can to give
and gave greater care to shading
(Continued on page 27)
and blending the colors used in
them, until they began to defy
detection in the mouth.
Modern Dentistry Makes It Possible for One
Shortly after the World War.
to Obtain Really Natural-Looking Dentures
Those Artificial
THIRD ROUND in a Fight That Began With
Gene Tunney's Article in "Reader's Digest"
Gene Tunney, Lieutenant Commander, U. S.
N. R. His Article in "Reader's Digest" Started
the Fight
R. LOUIS E. BISCH, in the July,
1942, issue of Click magazine, lauds
tobacco as "one of the greatest
boons ever given to mankind." His article
is profusely illustrated with pictures of
him in every conceivable pose of the smoker's art! This "contribution" to public
health obviously was prepared in reply to
a well-written antitobacco article in the
Reader's Digest from the pen of Lieutenant Commander Gene Tunney. Tunney's
case is made to appear quite completely
demolished, and the erstwhile champion
is supposed to find himself down for the
Since Doctor Bisch speaks as a physician
than whom "no doctor is better fitted to
comment 'on Commander Tunney's stand
on smoking," it is only fair to ask whether
Doctor Bisch's views really do represent
the general concensus of opinion of the
medical profession. Is • he thoroughly
conversant with medicil literature and
research on tobacco? Has he the calm,
critical objective viewpoint of the scientific worker?
A careful reading of the article itself
betrays a highly emotional approach to
the problem, more in keeping with the
propagandist than with •the scientist.
Notice the language: "Smoking has been
maligned long enough! It's been the
whipping boy of health fanatics for
years. It is high time somebody took up
cudgels in its defense!" Evidently one
of his pet idols has been attacked, and he
forgets his psychiatric training so far as
to react like any other human being.
Nor are Doctor Bisch's statements
wholly consistent throughout. There is
much backing and filling with attempts
to detour stubborn facts by the well-known
process of rationalization. Like most
* Medical Corps, U. S. N. R., U. S. Naval Hospital, Parris Island, South Carolina, and Associate
Clinical Professor of Medicine, New York PostGraduate School of Medicine, Columbia University.
In the Armed Forces Today Physical as Well as Mental Vigor Is Needed. The Use of
Tobacco Serves Only to Reduce Vitality and Stamina
tobacco advertising, his promotion of
smoking takes a defensive turn. "If a person is fool enough to keep on when his
system warns him to go slow or stop—well,
that's his own lookout." So! "One of the
greatest boons ever given to mankind"
(sic) may prove to be a menace, after all!
But don't take my word for it. Let Doctor Bisch himself point the dangers.
He does not attempt to deny Tunney's
argument that smoking impairs athletic
form. "The facts are," he rationalizes,
"that the boys in uniform and in the
factories are not there to train for football, baseball, or the prize ring." Tobacco,
we may conclude from this, does impair
physical efficiency. In other words, it slows
you down. Round one to Mr. Tunney.
"In the last analysis," proceeds Doctor
Bisch, "what the fighting men of today
need even more than physical perfection
is an alert mentality.... The war will not
be won by physical supermen, but by the
preponderance and superiority of equipment and the brains to use it effectively.
. . . The biggest and bravest things are
often done, not by muscular 'giants, but
by small, or even weak, people."
Now if I can understand the English
language, what Doctor Bisch is trying to
tell Mr. Tunney and the world is that
tobacco sharpens the intellect while at
the same time it may weaken the body. If
that is not strongly implied, words have
no meaning. So, Mr. Tunney, your attempts to build sound physical conditioning into the marines is just so much wasted
effort, anyway. Your product is not essential to the war program. Let 'em smoke;
let 'em loaf. Wars are not won by brawn.
As to the inference that tobacco sharpens intellect, Doctor Bisch lets it go at
that. But I think that, too, should be
scrutinized. An extensive report bearing
directly upon this question is found in a
book entitled, "Tobacco and Mental EfLIFE AND HEALTH
ficiency," by M. V. O'Shea, professor of
education, University of Wisconsin, published in 1923. Professor O'Shea found so
much bias and prejudice in current literature that he decided to make an attempt
"to secure data on this subject which
would not be colored by prejudice or
His investigations are extensive and
well controlled, his conclusions fair to
both sides. Nevertheless, he is forced to
the conclusion that "it is significant that
in every one of the foregoing reports,
smokers are shown to be inferior to nonsmokers in the work of school and college"
and "tobacco in school and college . . . is
always associated with poor scholarship."
-Page 133.
Farther on he states that high-school
principals "could not overlook the fact
that the records of the smokers in their
schools were conclusive in showing that
the use of tobacco by pupils is detrimental
to intellectual effort, and in extreme instances it paralyzes mental activity."Page 147. "The smokers among highschool pupils were not as a rule inferior in
scholarship before they began smoking.
All the evidence indicates that tobacco
exerts a retarding and disturbing influence
upon the intellectual processes of highschool pupils."-Page 233.
As to mature persons, the results of
laboratory tests show "that tobacco tends
to retard and to disturb intellectual
processes . . . of the majority of them."
-Pages 220, 221. The direct testimony
of mature smokers in various walks of life
was conflicting, and Professor O'Shea felt
that no final conclusions could be drawn
from their opinions.
"Tobacco is habit forming-granted.
The habitual smoker feels ill at ease when
deprived of his weed," admits Doctor
Bisch. And then he cites the case of the
shell-shocked soldiers whose invariable
cry was, "Nurse! Please, nurse, give me
a cigarette," to prove the beneficial effect
of tobacco. However, the pattern is
typical not only of the tobacco addict, but
also of the opium smoker "when deprived
of his weed." No one has proved that the
smoker possesses greater fortitude than
the nonsmoker, however.
Doctor Bisch states that "no one could,
to be sure, criticize Doctor Pearl's findings
as such." But he rejects the conclusions
Mr. Tunney draws from them. Evidently
Doctor Bisch has never read the original
work of Dr. Raymond Pearl, late professor
of biology at Johns Hopkins University.
for he erroneously assumes that Doctor
Pearl's observations on smokers were not
scientifically controlled. I happen to
have a copy of Doctor Pearl's studies in
my files, and will outline briefly Pearl's
observations on smokers for Doctor Bisch's
Pearl decided to note. the effect of tobacco smoking on length of life by the
study of large groups of people. For this
purpose he selected 1,905 heavy smokers,
2,814 moderate smokers, and as a control
group 2,094 nonsmokers, a total of 6,813
men entirely unselected except on the
basis of their tobacco habits. This number is considered adequate for the actuarial studies of life-insurance mathematicians. From his studies he concluded
that survival rates for 100,000 men in
each category beginning at age thirty
would be as follows:
Nonusers Moderate Heavy
of Tobacco Smokers Smokers
Beginning at 30 years 100,000
Surviving at 35 years 95,883
" 40 "
" 45 "
" 50 "
" 55 "
" 60 "
4, 65
" 70 "
Study of this table will show that there
were fifty per cent more survivors at age
seventy among the nonsmokers than
among the heavy smokers. Since the
Aro Lava-wry
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This Graph Shows the Results of Dr. Raymond
Pearl's Statistical Study of Tobacco Smoking
and Longevity. These Lines Tell Their Own
groups were sufficiently large for statistical study, the influence of "other diseases," which Doctor Bisch would blame
for the difference in mortality, is eliminated. No, differences in mortality rates
in Doctor Pearl's studies are due to tobacco and to tobacco only, despite Doctor
Bisch's gallant attempts to prove otherwise.
Having disposed of Pearl's conclusions
to his satisfaction, Doctor Bisch delivers
himself of this gem: "Smoking results in
no apparent physical injury to any person who is in sound health." I like his
word "apparent." One of the outstanding characteristics of diseases induced by
tobacco smoking is that they are insidious
and not always "apparent" until well advanced. As to his statement quoted above,
it is like saying that disease germs don't
hurt you until you become diseased, or
perhaps he means- Well, I'll let you
figure it out. The statement is slightly
puzzling to me.
The following admission, which comes
from the candid pen of Doctor Bisch,
casts further aspersions on the fair name
of his mistress, the lovely Lady Nicotine:
"Smoking to excess produces .. . increased
heart and breathing rate, palpitation,
shortness of breath, indigestion," Other
mistresses have been known to produce
similar symptoms, but they are adverse
symptoms nevertheless. Doctor Bisch
does warn against overindulgence in the
next sentence. If I knew nothing more
of the subject than Doctor Bisch has so
freely admitted concerning the evil effects
of the unvirtuous lady, I should feel constrained to counsel a complete break with
Doctor Bisch further justifies the use of
tobacco by citing the fact that certain
prominent men, including many leaders
of the Allied Nations, are over sixty, and
yet they smoke. I can only respond that
in order to determine the possible detrimental effect of any agent we cannot deal
with exceptions or minorities, but with
averages. Pearl's figures in the foregoing
table provide us the scientifically secured
averages that reveal the strongly adverse
effect of tobacco on longevity. Even
though some people apparently are not
greatly affected by smoking, the fact remains that for huge groups smoking is a
life-shortening practice.
As to Doctor Bisch's attempt to absolve
tobacco from any adverse role in such
diseases as angina pectoris, peptic ulcers,
thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's
disease), disturbances of the peripheral
circulation, and general nervousness, I
wish to enter a flat contradiction. Tobacco's adverse influence in these conditions is too firmly established in medical
literature from the clinical and scientific
studies of the last twenty years to be
overthrown by the mere dictum of an
obviously prejudiced writer.
Space will not permit a detailed account
(Continued on page 20)
This department serves as an aid to our readers in their dietetic problems. For information regarding some particular food or diet, address: The Dietitian,
LIFE AND HEALTH, Takoma Park, Washington, D. C. Enclose stamped, addressed envelope for reply. This service is available only to subscribers.
Water With Meals
Is it good to drink water with your
Many physicians advise against drinking at mealtime, as liquids at meals slow
up the digestion. They are especially to
be avoided at the heavy meals, and by
those who are not vigorous. Persons who
have heart trouble are generally advised
to be careful about drinking at meals, as
it crowds the heart. A hot drink at breakfast or supper may increase vitality if
taken in connection with only two or
three simple foods. Cold drinks are quite
objectionable except when taken alone
and slowly. Usually the best time to
drink is from two or more hours after
eating until half an hour before the
next meal.
Evidence of Good Nutrition
How can I tell whether my family is
well nourished?
Some of the evidences of good nutrition are straight, sturdy bones, sound,
well-built teeth, a well-proportioned body,
the proper weight for the body build and
height, good posture, stable nerves, a
happy, cheerful disposition, self-control,
resistance to diseases, vigor, and the ability to work efficiently.
You may feel that you have done all
in your power to achieve these desired results for each member of the family if
you supply them with an adequate diet
every day. This means that each person
should have a pint to a quart of milk
a day; or egg at least three or four times
a week; citrus fruit such as oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and tangerines, or tomatoes; and frequent servings of other
fruits either fresh, canned, or dried.
Also, potatoes, which are best baked or
cooked in the skins; two other vegetables,
one a yellow or green colored, and the
other a raw vegetable; a protein food
such as cottage or cream cheese, eggs,
nuts, special meat substitutes, legumes—
such as the very valuable soybean or
black-eyed pea—cereal, and bread—one or
both at every meal unless the person is
The cereals and bread should be varied
for best nutrition, using whole wheat,
natural rice, whole corn, rye, and oats.
Fat is best supplied in the diet by using
cream, mayonnaise, ripe olives, avocadoes,
and nuts. Pure, sterilized sweet butter
and oil of the olive or soybean may be
used in moderate amounts. Some extra
energy-supplying dishes may be needed
for very active adults and children. These
may be in the form of simple desserts
such as dried fruits, honey-sweetened puddings, and molasses cookies. Water is
correctly part of the diet, as the body is
composed of about 70 per cent water.
It is sometimes necessary for the doctor
or dietitian to suggest changes in the
amounts of these foods to meet individual
needs, but for the average, healthy individual, these foods provide an economical and healthful diet. Dr. Thomas
Parran, Surgeon General of the United
States Public Health Service, recently expressed the importance of adequate diet
in this way:
"If we replace an average diet with an
adequate diet, we get a 10 per cent increase in the active virile life span. This
would mean more in terms of human longevity than to wipe out cancer as a cause
of death."
I read much about soybeans these days.
I would really like to know the truth.
Are soybeans actually superior to other
beans, or are they a sort of fad?
Dry soybeans contain about one and
one-half times as much protein and
twelve times as much fat as common varieties of beans. The composition of the
soybean as given by a recent publication
is, protein 34.9 per cent; fat, 18.1 per
cent; and carbohydrate 12 per cent. Varieties of soybeans differ somewhat in
composition. Doctor Hazel Munsell reports dry soybeans as higher in vitamin
content than the other dried beans. The
vitamin A content of three and one-half
ounces of soybeans is 100 international
units, and the thiamin chloride (vitamin
B,) is 400 international units. This is
more than double the amount in some
beans. The iron content is less in soybeans, but the calcium and phosphorus
are higher. The Government is finding
soybean oil very useful in many ways.
The cook may profitably make use of it.
The Consumer's Guide suggests our trying it for pan frying, deep-fat frying,
and as a substitute for olive oil in salad
dressings. A very tasty soybean butter is
available at many health-food stores.
There are over eight hundred varieties
of the soybean, ranging in color from
white to ebony. Some of the best edible
soybeans are Bansei, Imperial, Giant
Green, Easycook, Emperor, and Yellow
Mixed Vegetables
I would like to know if it is quite all
right to mix three or four vegetables in
one dish as in vegetable stew.
Yes, almost everyone finds a dish of
this kind easily digested and wholesome.
There are some persons who do not seem
to tolerate a mixture. For the very best
and quickest digestion, the simpler the
meal, the better. It is better to take more
of two or three varieties and have variety from meal to meal and from day to
Salt and Dandelions
Should salt be used in a hyperacidity
diet? Would you consider the use of the
juice from dandelion greens suitable?
Usually physicians advise against the
use of salt when there is too much acid
in the stomach, or what is called hyperacidity. They. do not as a rule say "No
salt," but have the patient avoid it as
much as possible. The reason is that salt
contains chloride and so does the hydrochloric acid, and it is thought that when
much salt is eaten it helps manufacture
more acid. The juice from either raw
or cooked green leafy vegetables is rich
in chlorophyll, which is very healing and
soothing to the delicate membranes of
the stomach lining. Some add cream to
the juice and heat it slightly. When the
vitality is low, heating the juice helps.
Some of the common foods which usually agree with those who have too much
acid in the stomach are strained cream
soups; sieved vegetables such as greens,
carrots, peas, baked potato; milk drinks;
rice pudding sweetened slightly with
honey; well-cooked cereals, strained and
made into gruel with milk; soft-cooked
eggs; cottage cheese; ripe olives soaked
to remove the excess of salt; avocado;
sweet apples; white cherries; Tokay
grapes; figs; dates; raisins; blueberries;
peaches; pears; melons; and bananas. Individuals differ, and it is very important
that the physician's orders be carefully
(Continued on page 27)
School Lessons No. 4
Medical Dietitian
There's Always Some New Delight Awaiting the
Adventurous Housewife
You must be having a great deal of
fun with all your canning this fall. I
shall look forward to seeing your wellfilled shelves.
You are right about canning some of
the tomato juice with celery and onion
flavor, with purГ©ed carrot and very finely
chopped parsley. I am sure that, with
all the diligent studying you have been
doing, you realize that you are adding
to the amount of vitamin A.
The juice will be good this winter, too,
for making molded tomato salad. If it
is rather thick, you can use the following
11. cups tomato juice—thick
3 bay leaves
1 teaspoon salt
cup lemon juice
ounce vegetable gelatin
1 cup boiling water
2 tablespoons sugar
Cook the bay leaves in the tomato
juice. Be sure there are DA cups after
it has boiled down. Add the salt and
sugar. Soak the vegetable gelatin in water—just warm—for a few minutes, and
boil after it has been drained, in the cup
of water. Add the tomato juice and the
lemon juice; mold individually. Serve
with mayonnaise, and garnish with a sprig
of parsley. If you want to vary this recipe, add diced vegetables to the juice
before it is put into the molds. Be sure
the vegetables are well drained, however,
before adding them.
You were asking about the luncheon
menu. Those attending the luncheon
are all girls who have office jobs, and I
want a lighter meal than I would plan
if there were some men in the group, or
if the girls expended more Thysical energy.
There are but six of us, and I will not
plan for any extra help. You know that
I like to plan those things that take as little unnecessary work and worry as possible, especially at the last minute. I intend to have as much in the refrigerator
ahead of time as I can.
Fruit cocktail
Toasted egg sandwiches
Salad plate
Mint sherbet
Hot Postum made with milk
The fruit cocktail will be made from
diced, sectioned grapefruit, fresh raspberries, and a little lime juice. This
will be in the cocktail dishes at least half
an hour before the meal, and in the refrigerator.
The salad plate will consist of a banana-split salad, stuffed prunes, and salted
almonds. Since it is an informal meal,
the sectioned glass plates will fit in nicely.
The banana-split salad is made by putting a whole banana cut lengthwise on
the large section of the plate, with the
flat surfaces up and close together. On
this are placed three slices of seedless or
seeded oranges, overlapping. Two fresh
or maraschino cherries are then placed on
the intersections of the orange.
It is better to use the large prunes for
stuffing. Soak them in cold water overnight; then simmer them slowly until
they are tender. They need no added
sugar. Drain thoroughly the ones to be
used for the luncheon. Pit them, and
stuff with cream cheese mixed to a soft
consistency with cream. I like to use the
pastry tube for this, for the cheese is
much more attractive if the prunes are
filled in this manner. Salted nuts always
give a festive air for me, probably because I use them so little and like them
so well. They are good food, too.
The egg sandwiches will be made by
mixing finely chopped, hard-boiled egg
with mayonnaise, salt, and lemon juice.
The whole-wheat bread will be buttered,
the cold egg filling put in, and the sandwiches ready to place in the electric
sandwich toasters. I am glad for the two
of them, but I can use the oven to toast
them in while the cocktail dishes are being removed and the salad plates served.
You remember that koa leaf tray that I
carved out last winter. It is large enough
for just this purpose, and I plan to use
it. The result of that eighteen hours of
woodwork has come in handy many
times, aside from my learning to use
band saws, chisels, sandpaper, and an
abundance of elbow grease.
You know that I keep my desserts to
a minimum, but this recipe for mint
sherbet is easy to make, if there is time,
and the food is easily digested and assimilated.
Mint Sherbet
1 quart water
7 good-sized sprigs of mint
cup lemon juice
Scant cup of water
Whites of 2 eggs
1 cups sugar
tablespoons powdered sugar
Boil sugar and one quart of water; add
mint, cover, and let stand for ten minutes;
strain and add gelatin previously boiled in
one cup of water. When this is cool, add
the lemon juice. Turn into the freezer and
chill thoroughly. Add whites of eggs, beaten
with powdered sugar, and finish freezing.
If desired, the vegetable gelatin may
be omitted, in which case five cups of
water instead of one quart should be
I shall use that handmade lace tablecloth that I found in San Francisco last
spring, and all glass dishes, the ones with
the black trimming on the crystal. There
is enough color in the food so that no
colored dishes will be necessary. The
decoration will be simply a red rose in
that bowl on the mirror I keep in the
center of the table. We all want to visit,
and do not want to be bothered by any
tall flowers that interfere with vision.
Tomorrow afternoon we are having an
organ recital. As is our custom, I have
asked the soloist and his wife to stay to
dinner. We will serve them:
(Continued on page 20)
Wow CAorrde
With Suggestions on
When and How to Call Him
At4i, W. W. BAUER, M. D.*
F was a beautiful summer afternoon
a few years ago. I lay on my bed
with the window open. Suddenly
there came a frantic call from the middle
of the next block. A little girl was running down the street and shouting to my
daughter, then eight years old:
"Nan, Nan, is your father a doctor?"
"No," my child responded, with the
devastating candor of youth, "he used to
be, but he doesn't know anything about
it any more."
She referred to the fact that a number
of years had elapsed since I had been in
private practice, and so, in her eyes, I
was not like the doctors who came to
see her when she was ill. As to the emergency, it could not have amounted to
much, because that was the last I heard
of it, and though I watched for a doctor's
car, none came to the home where the
emergency call originated.
Once, in my early days of country practice in southwestern Idaho, I received a
call from eighteen miles away, on the
other side of the swift and treacherous
Snake River, which could be crossed only
by ferry at that time. The ferry operator
lived on the other side of the river, and
could be reached when he slept too
soundly to hear the night bell, only by
one's paddling across in a skiff. When I
arrived, the house was dark, and the irate
relative who was finally induced to poke
his head out of an upper window, announced calmly that the patient felt better, and was asleep, and they were certainly not going to wake her, because I
had told them that sleep was the best
medicine a patient could have.
In that same community there was a
mother hen (human) with one "chick."
Every time the latter sneezed, the doctor
had to drive ten miles to console the
* Director, Bureau of Health Education, American
Medical Association.
mother. It was a strong temptation to
disregard these frequent and needless
calls, or at any rate to put them off until
more important matters had been attended to. It would have been disastrous, on one occasion, if I had done so,
because that call turned out to be a real
emergency—the boy had appendicitis, and
hours counted.
Of course, as long as the patient desires the service, and is willing to pay
for it, or if a jittery parent needs reassurance, the doctor should not complain.
Nor would he, if his own convenience
were the sole consideration. He would
appreciate a little more co-operation from
his patients mainly because he is often
greatly puzzled to decide which of several apparent emergency calls is most important. Even the chronic crier of
"Wolf!" may actually be in a situation
in which he should have first consideration, though if he does not get it, he can
blame no one but himself.
There are right ways and wrong ways
to call the doctor, as well as right times
and wrong times. But first, there must
be a doctor to call—the choice of a doctor
must be made. Many persons are puzzled regarding how to go about that.
Often they choose their medical adviser
with less care and intelligence than they
use in selecting a barber or a hairdresser.
Yet there are ways to do it wisely.
The first piece of advice is to take time
to make the selection. "How can I find
a doctor in an emergency?" is a frequent
question addressed to the American Medical Association. There is an answer,
and it will be given, but the best advice
is to choose your doctor before the emergency arrives. Then you will not have
to depend on him for something big like
a Caesarean'section or an appendectomy
the first time you ever see him. You and
he will have learned to know each other,
and there will be better mutual understanding and co-operation. In fact, if
you don't like him, you have a chance
to quit him and try someone else before
the big moment arrives when you want
to be absolutely sure of having the right
The right doctor for you may not be
the one whq was just right for someone
else, and the fact that he is not the right
doctor for you, casts no reflection upon
him, or for that matter, upon you. This
relationship between patient and doctor
is a delicate thing, easily injured.
The right doctor for you must have
certain qualifications, of which no single
one should be the determining factor.
Good schools and good hospitals have
turned out inferior doctors, and vice
versa. Not all members of organized ethical medical societies live up to their professions, and it sometimes takes a long
time for violators to be found out. But
it is true, nevertheless, that a doctor who
was graduated from an approved medical
school, served an internship in a good
hospital, and belongs to reputable medical societies, possesses three important
qualifications—good basic education, good
practical training, and good character.
If in addition, he is in the habit of attending medical meetings and reading
medical journals, or better still, if he contributes to the medical literature, you
know that he is keeping up with the
march of medicine. At this point somebody usually inquires: "That's all very
well, but how are you going to find these
things out?"
That's not much of a problem. You
can write to the. American Medical Association about him, but usually that is not
necessary. In his office you can see his
medical-school diploma, often his internship diploma, and his certificates of
membership in medical societies, or his
qualifications as a specialist and his membership in special medical societies. You
can get this information, as well as the
other points suggested, by asking, if you
cannot get it by looking. No physician
who has the right answers will resent the
question. As a matter of fact, so great a
percentage has them, that your chances
of going wrong are small. But there is
still the advantage, already described, of
choosing in anticipation of the emergency, instead of awaiting it and making
a choice in haste.
Suppose the emergency has arisen, and
no doctor has been chosen, or you are
overtaken by illness away from home.
There are three things you can do:
I. Call the secretary of the local medical society and ask for the name of a
doctor. In larger cities the society is
usually listed in the telephone book under the name of the county society or
academy of medicine, or possibly of the
2. Call one. of the local hospitals and
ask for names of staff physicians.
3. If there is time, wire or telephone
your own doctor and ask his advice.
Having decided whom to call, how
shall he be called, and when? Is there
a special way to call a doctor? Not exactly, but there are some suggestions
which help the doctor give better services to more patients more quickly. Here
are some do's and don'ts about calling
the doctor:
1. Don't ask him to come "as soon as
possible." Either there is an emergency,
in which case the call should be designated as "urgent" or "very urgent" and
the reason for urgency stated; or there
is no emergency, in which case the doctor
can take more urgent calls first. As a
matter of fact, there are few real medical
emergencies, and most of those are created by unwise delay in calling the doctor.
2. Give him a general idea what to ex-
pect when he comes. His bag contains
the requirements to meet most situations,
but he cannotsarry his whole office about.
3. Call him before he leaves home in
the morning, or during office hours if
possible. This helps him to plan his
calls, and all his patients get earlier
4. If parents or responsible persons are
at home only at certain hours because of
work or other obligations, it is quite
proper to request the doctor to call between certain hours, but this should be
done only when necessary. It is unfair
to call the doctor for little Egbert and
suggest an emergency so that the doctor
will come and go in time for mother to
get to the bridge club.
5. Both doctor and patient profit if
the doctor is consulted at his office whenever possible by patients who are in fit
physical condition to go there. This saves
the doctor's time and the patient's money,
and often forestalls a second visit at the
office later.
6. In case of doubt about the necessity
for a night visit, the welfre of the patient must govern. Better several useless
visits than one essential call omitted.
There are times when doubt arises regarding whether or not a doctor is
needed. Many of these doubts can be settled only by calling the doctor, and it is
foolish to try to settle them any other
way. The doctor's fee in such cases is
not wasted; the assurance of safety should
be worth the price. The following are
a few situations in which the doctor
should be called to settle any questions
that may arise:
1. In case of sudden and severe illness,
such as unconsciousness, convulsions,
great pain, collapse, injury, poisoning, or
other obvious emergencies, there is seldom doubt, unless the patient appears
to be improving. Even then, the course
of safety is to call the doctor to be sure
that apparent improvement is real.
2. Pain, especially abdominal pain, is
often very deceptive. To the inexperienced and excited lay observer a greenapple tummy-ache may seem more alarming than a ruptured appendix. It is a
safe rule that when pain, especially abdominal pain, persists for more than two
hours, or when it grows steadily worse,
the doctor should be called. Of course,
no medication should be given. That
simple bit of advice, if heeded, would
save many lives.
3. Difficulty in breathing may be due
to many causes; if sudden and severe, it
always calls for prompt medical care.
4. Fever may be due to so many causes
that a patient with an elevated temperature should always be kept in bed and
the doctor summoned.
5. Severe injuries obviously require the
doctor's presence, and so do apparently
minor injuries which do not recover
promptly. Redness, soreness, swelling.
fever, chills, or a feeling of being
"dopey," after an apparently minor injury, probably indicate infection.
6. Chills usually mean infection spreading, and call for prompt action.
7. Coughs and colds, if not definitely
on the road to improvement by the end
of the second twenty-four hours, or if
severe and progressive, or accompanied
by chills or fever, call for skilled treatment at once. If there is pain in the
chest, delay is dangerous.
8. Rashes may indicate many diseases.
some serious, and they are too deceptive
for the home diagnostician to recognize.
Call the doctor.
In Case of Doubt, Call the Doctor Anyway.
Better Several Useless Calls Than One Essential
Call Omitted
9. Sore throats, like rashes, may not be
what they seem.
10. Racing pulse or palpitating heart
or severe chest pains, demand prompt relief.
11. Bleeding, unless promptly controlled by simple pressure, calls for the
doctor's ministrations without delay.
12. Little symptoms, persistent and annoying, especially if they occur in middle
life, may be signs of something vital going wrong, or they may be amenable to
simple treatment which will end the nuisance. In either case, the doctor's call
will be worth while. Be especially watchful for sores that do not heal, lumps that
appear where they do not belong, moles
or warts that become changed in appearance, abnormal discharges or bleeding,
and digestive disturbances after middle
age—these are the warning signs of cancer.
Of course, if you are one of those rare
sensible souls who call the doctor, or
Call upon him, before they have emergencies, or even before they have symptoms, you don't have these problems to
anywhere near the extent to which most
persons have them. You then have your
regular physical checkup and health conference, minor abnormalities are attended
to before they grow into major ones, and
you spend your medical budget more for
prevention than for cure. While this
does not give you absolute assurance
against illness, it does help materially,
and it is economical.
What about asking your neighbor's advice in the choice of a doctor? By all
means—ask several friends and neighbors.
A good doctor, if he has been in the community long enough, will be well spoken
of by his patients, and by many who are
not his patients, but who know of him.
A good name in the community at large
is one indication of a good doctor. But
it is only one—don't forget the others.
Select your doctor on the basis of all of
them combined; select him before you
have urgent need of him, and you will
seldom make a mistake.
Cooking School Lessons
(Continued from page 17)
Tomato-and-avocado cocktail
Baked potatoes
Carrot loaf
Buttered fresh asparagus
Whole-wheat Parker House rolls
Hot Ovaltine
Fresh limeade
I am looking forward to your coming
up this week end; so please do not disappoint me. We will have at least one
lunch out in the mountains and some
good boating.
By William G. Wirth, Ph. D.
E was 'way, 'way down in the
dumps, that man I met the other
day; and I must confess he had
good reason to be gloomy. His point was
that we human beings as separate individuals do not amount to very much in
these days of conflict and slaughter. "A
man is getting to be the cheapest thing
on earth—nothing but cannon fodder.
Here I have spent thousands on the education of my boy, and now it seems to
be all a useless waste of money. As a
good American, I am glad he is in the
service of his country; but I cannot help
thinking about the vanity and futility of
the life of every one of us in these terrible times."
Yes, the value of the human individual
seems to be under a despairing blackout.
But it only seems so. The actual fact
that ought to and must be an encouragement to us all is that man is supreme.
All of his institutions, groupings, organizations—no matter how powerful at the
moment—are definitely secondary to himself. The declaration of the Old Testament psalmist centuries ago, in answering the challenge "What is man?" still
holds with pertinent force, "Thou hast
made him but a little lower than God
[so reads the Hebrew original], and
crowned him with glory and honor."
Ps. 8:4, 5.
Let us catch the profound lesson the
bard of Avon has given us in his tragedy
of Hamlet. You recall the pessimism and
despairing setting of the drama. Hamlet's father had been killed by the evil
contriving of his mother and her more
wicked husband. Plunged as he was in
the sea of sorrow, without confidence in
mankind, he yet saw the value of the individual human being, and left us this
exalted expression: "What a piece of
work is a man! How noble in reason!
how infinite in faculty! in form and moving, how express and admirable! in action how like an angel! in apprehension,
how like a god! the beauty of the world!
the paragon of animals!" Shakespeare's
wisdom here in causing the priceless person to triumph in spite of the hopelessness of people still stands. That ought
to cheer us in these evil days. We are
each one of us of great price.
Two thousand years ago the Founder
of Christianity drove home to us the
same lesson. Certainly no one has ever
lived in this world that with such penetrating vision knew the helplessness and
the perversity of mankind as did He.
And yet He thought so much of the individual man that He gave Himself as a
sacrifice of love for every single person.
What a lesson that should be to all of us
when we are inclined to despair and
hopelessness as we think of the future
and the destiny of mankind!
Jesus was the world's supreme individualist. We hear Him saying, "The very
hairs of your head are all numbered."
We see His soul going out after the one
dying thief on the cross. We listen to
His parables about the value of the one
lost coin, the one lost sheep, the one
prodigal son. How thrilling to our perplexed and troubled souls are those satisfying and hopeful words of His: "There
shall be more joy in heaven over one
sinner that repenteth, more than over
ninety and nine righteous persons, who
need no repentance"! It is small wonder
that the famed historian Adolf von Harnack tells us that "Jesus Christ was the
first to bring the value of every human
soul to light."
+ + +
The Virtues of Lady Nicotine
(Continued from page 15)
of just what all this evidence consists of,
but let me say that it is voluminous, highly
scientific, and well controlled, and it
proves conclusively that tobacco smoking
is associated with dangers far beyond anything formerly thought possible. This
information seldom gets through to the
public, and the reason for this fact is not
hard to find. Perhaps an incident known
at first hand will illustrate.
A few years ago Mr. George W. Gray,
brilliant author of "The Advancing Front
of Science" and "The Advancing Front
of Medicine," called upon me to inquire
respecting my researches in the field of
tobacco and public health. I was informed that he had been asked by the
editor of a leading magazine to "get the
facts" on this controversial subject. His
contribution, he said, was to be published
in a certain issue some months hence.
When the article failed to appear, I
called Mr. Gray to ask the reason. His
reply was that the findings of his inquiries
among leading scientific workers had been
so predominantly adverse to tobacco that
the editor had frankly informed him that
he could not publish it, since it would
affect his advertising accounts with the
tobacco interests. Tobacco companies
are heavy advertisers; hence, news adverse
to their interests must be played down, if
not suppressed altogether.
In view of this sorry situation, a contribution such as that from Mr. Tunney
comes as a brilliant beam on a dark path.
Much credit must also be given to the
editors of the Reader's Digest for having
the courage to publish it.
Eye Troubles
(Continued from page 11)
headlights and flickering illuminated
signs, gazing out of a car window at objects
when moving rapidly—all these force the
visual organs to make innumerable adjustments. The eye may be greatly disturbed at times, owing to infection of
some of the associated tissues in conditions such as sinus trouble, irregularities
of the nose, infected tonsils, abscessed or
devitalized teeth, and other focal troubles in remote parts of the body. Any
one of these may cause a severe conjunctivitis, ulceration of the cornea, or uveitis. It is a serious matter to neglect or
delay treatment for such disturbances.
In certain diseases, such as Bright's disease, diabetes, tumors of the brain, and
others, a study of the eyes is very valuable and necessary. The eye physician
often is the first to discover the presence
of such a condition.
Preschool children get less attention
so far as their eyes are concerned, than
older ones, but really, the time to check
and make needed corrections is before
they enter school. Students who are
given much reading material, and those
who are pushed a grade ahead of where
they really belong, must eventually be
given assistance in the form of glasses.
Refraction is a common term used by
the eye physician, oculist, or ophthalmologist, which means simply a complete eye
examination and proper fitting of glasses.
After this has been done and one has a
reliable and accurate prescription worked
out, then first-class material and workmanship in grinding the lenses and fitting the frames is just as essential as a
scientific prescription. Although most
lenses resemble one another in appearance, they are substantially different in
the way they function before the human
There are elderly people, usually beyond the age of sixty years, who cannot
be aided very much by the use of glasses,
because the substance of the crystalline
lens takes on a milky or frosty appearance. This can be efficiently remedied by
the removal of this frosty lens, or cataract, as it is properly called. False impressions exist regarding the nature, location, and composition of a cataract.
Some think it is something on the surface of the eye that can be taken off or
dissolved by the use of medicine drops,
but such is not the case. A cataract is
a normal part of the eye that has grown
and developed naturally since birth and
has served faithfully all through life until, first of all, there is noticed a gradual
dimness of vision, first in one eye and
then perhaps in the other. This dimness increases until one is unable to read,
or to recognize his neighbor.
The lens change, or cataract, is within
your eye, and when removed must be
(Continued on page 27)
THE LAMB: I did, ma'am. But, you
see, I'm a lamb with a purpose. I'm
here to tell you of a gentler way of
dealing with your little trouble.
MRS. R.: You must mean constipation!
THE LAMB: That's it, ma'am! If you
are one of those people with normal
intestines who are troubled with constipation due to lack of "bulk" in
the diet, this crisp, crunchy cereal,
KELLOGG'S ALL-BRAN, will get right at
the cause of your trouble. But more
than that, it will do it in a way that
is surprisingly pleasant and gentle, too.
MRS. R.: Gentle? Tell me more!
THE LAMB: With pleasure, ma'am.
You see, ALL-BRAN acts differently
from many medicinal laxatives. They
work by prodding the intestines into
action, or by drawing moisture into
them from other parts of the body. But
ALL-BRAN works principally on the
contents of the colon, helping you to
have easy and normal elimination.
MRS. R.: But tell me, lamb, this
ALL-BRAN—will I really enjoy it?
THE LAMB: You certainly will!
ALL-BRAN has now been improved; it's
golden-soft and doubly delicious! Eat
it often, and drink plenty of water.
efillIZE AS' LAM
For people with normal intestines who are troubled
with constipation due to lack of "bulk" in the diet
In replying to advertisements, please mention LIFE AND HEALTH,
Homemaking—A Career Packed Full of Adventure, Love, and Work
THIS is a problem that comes to every
one of us, especially during the hot summer days, with cooking, washing, ironing,
cleaning, canning, and taking care of our
Victory gardens, attending first-aid classes,
solving all the problems of a household.
Oftentimes, though, some little adjustment or correction of a condition will do
much to alleviate fatigue. For instance,
do you do your housework in suitable
shoes? I know many of you wear your
once "best" shoes for housework when
they have lost their original good looks.
You should have special housework shoes
—low, comfortable shoes with heels well
kept. And, too, you'll get an extra lift
if you keep your working shoes well
polished. It gives you an extra pride in
your work.
You'll find that a cooling bath, combing the hair, and freshening up in general, will do wonders to help you attack
that pile of work one more and do it
with a song and a swish.
Is your worktable high enough? your
sink? They should be, or you can't help
A little nap each day, even though it
irks your soul to take it, will revive your
weary spirit, and your family will appreciate it, too, for sometimes lack of rest,
you know, just makes us plain cranky
and spitfiery, if I may coin a new word.
Picking up just a bit at night when the
children have gone to bed, will help you
off to a good start in the morning, for
sometimes it just discourages you to get
up in the morning and cast an eye first
on disorder, disorder that could be out
of the way.
Summer Happenings
I'VE had a delightful summer at home.
I did so many things I've wanted to get
done for a long time. I repapered my
bedroom, as I told you I would. It is a
lovely soft green now, with small bouquets of white flowers with just a touch
of pink on their petals. New fluffy curtains for the bedroom, too.
I've tinkered a great deal about the
garden, in an endless battle on weeds. I
never saw anything grow so fast as weeds.
They pop up overnight where you left a
neat, clean row the day before. I've had
the fun of watching a mother hen bring
forth a family of soft, bright-eyed little
baby chicks that immediately went to
work at the business of growing and producing something worth while.
I've spent time talking to my flock of
New Hampshire Red pullets. They
seemed to understand my talk, for the
next day we found their first egg in the
hen coop. They run to meet me when
I feed them, squat down on the ground
for me to pick them up and stroke their
sleek heads. And how they do sing and
sing and sing! I think there's no more
musical sound than that of a flock of
happy hens. (We have contented cows;
so why not happy hens!)
We've gone berrying—blueberrying,
raspberrying, and blackberrying—and
known all the itching agonies of chigger
bites, but, oh, the delight of fresh berries from the garden! And incidentally,
berries have made very good desserts and
solved the sugar problem helpfully.
We've watched the chipping sparrows
and their little family in our young holly
tree, the sleek pair of catbirds that have
summered with us, and another bird that
I haven't quite identified yet, which had
a nest in the old stovepipe in my husband's workshop. She was a very sleek
bird, sort of olive green in color, with a
yellowish breast; at least in the brief
whizzing moment that I got a glimpse of
her that was my impression of her color.
She was a thrifty bird, using old snakeskins and almost anything in her nest.
Of course, we've been enchanted by the
fairy-winged hummingbirds that have
visited our gladioli and roses and delphiniums.
We've gathered up the old rubber, the
papers, and everything we could find that
our Government could use in the defense
We've had pleasure with our two young
ducks with their happy cavortings in the
puddles after a rain.
We've filled the house full of flowers,
and this year we actually had sweet peas.
But they grew in Johnnie's garden. The
sweet peas I planted happened to be near
a Juneberry tree that the children loved
to climb to pick the fruit, and the sweet
peas got walked on sometimes. The
roses, the tall stately glads, the colorful
nasturtiums, my dear old favorite zinnias
that never fail me, the feathery cosmos,
the starry-eyed daisies of the meadow,
and the wild roses and honeysuckle of our
Maryland countryside, have graced the
garden and our home.
Oh, yes, I forgot the bees. We ha% e
three hives of bees now. Now there's
something to watch, and, incidentally,
they wandered over the countryside
bringing in bits of this honeysuckle and
wild-rose sweetness. I was quite thrilled
over our first gallon of strained honey
from the middle hive. I had lots of fun
over my husband's appearance in his old
hat with a marquisette curtain brought
over it and tied about his neck, and his
putting on his leather, fur-lined gloves,
and getting all beeproof, and son John
dressing up in duplicate, sallying forth
to deal with the bees.
Miss CORNOR, chef at the Washington
Sanitarium, gave me some basil to try,
and I found great delight in its flavor.
It's something you have to try yourself
to know how really good it is. Sprinkle
a little on omelets, scrambled eggs, or
even on plain bread and butter. So I
planted some basil in my garden this
summer, and some summer savory. For
a new taste adventure, why don't you
try some herb seasonings, new ones, not
just the same sage and something else all
the time?
General Electric
GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY is circulating a booklet and seven small folders on
the use and care of appliances. The
booklet is entitled, "A Captain in
the Kitchen." Another booklet prepared
by General Electric in the interest of the
national nutrition program is "How to
Get the Most Out of the Food You Buy."
These may be secured through regular
G. E. distribution channels.
Sweet Corn
HOT buttered ears of corn, corn chowder, roasted corn—it makes your mouth
water just to think of these good things
from the garden. Here are two corn recipes you may enjoy:
Corn and Carrot Pudding.—Mix about
eight ounces of canned corn, eight ounces
of cooked carrots, two tablespoons
chopped green pepper, and one cup of
white sauce. Add two beaten eggs, and
pour into buttered casserole. Bake in
moderate oven until set, or until knife
comes out clean. Serves six.
Mexican Corn.—Sauté one medium onion, chopped, in two tablespoons butter
or vegetable shortening until golden
brown. Add one tablespoon flour, and
stir smooth. Add two cups canned tomatoes, two cups canned or cooked corn,
two canned pimientos cut into small
pieces, one teaspoon salt, one teaspoon
sage. Pour into buttered baking dish,
cover with buttered crumbs, and bake in
hot oven.
THERE IS no more beautiful vegetable
iron, but will provide him with other essential minerals, such as calcium and
phosphorus, and a full quota of the vitamins, proteins, and energy which are
requisite for buoyant health.
In these days when we must often be
steeled against disaster and discomfort
due to the war, everyone needs iron and
all the other essential nutrients. Food is
one of the principal factors in our fighting efficiency, and we should, therefore,
make the best use of it.
than a glossy purple eggplant, and if you
grow them, you feel just pride in producing anything quite so large and
beautiful. Try scalloping eggplant with to- 11111111011111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
matoes and adding green pepper and onion for extra flavor. Pare a two-pound
eggplant and cut into small, even pieces.
Melt two tablespoons of vegetable shortening in skillet, add chopped green
pepper and small onion, and cook
for a few minutes. Add eggplant, a
quart of chopped raw tomatoes, and
salt. Cook ten minutes more. Then
Cheese Cake
place mixture in shallow buttered pan
I package Ruskets
and alternate layers of eggplant mix1 cup raw sugar
ture with fine bread crumbs. Bake until
3. cup melted shortening or butter
tender and brown. This recipe is given
Crumble Ruskets, add sugar and butter,
by the Bureau of Home Economics.
and mix well. Press mixture except tivo
Favorite Recipes
+ + +
Why You Need Iron in
Your Diet
(Continued front page 9)
Lion was formerly administered with so
much zeal.
Iron is one of the nutrients included
in the new enriched white breads, which
contain vitamins and minerals natural to
whole wheat. According to the standards recommended for this "nutritionally
modernized" bread by the National Research Council, each pound of enriched
bread must contain from 4 to 16 milligrams of iron, which may be incorporated
in the loaf by the use of enriched flour
or enriched yeast, or by direct addition
of suitable iron salts.
Practically all the iron in a food such
as enriched bread is available for use by
the body, because white bread is also a
good source of the food mineral calcium
which is contributed largely by the milk
solids included in the bread formula.
The presence of plenty of calcium in the
diet always has a favorable action on the
utilization of iron. Copper, in much
smaller amounts, also aids in the retention of iron, but enough of this mineral
is generally supplied in a typical or average diet.
Anemia and attendant ills due to lack
of iron are easily avoided by constructing
the daily diet around liberal amounts of
such valuable protective foods as pasteurized milk, eggs, fruits, green leafy vegetables, yellow vegetables, whole-grain
products, and enriched bread. These
wholesome foods not only will assure the
eater an adequate intake of necessary
thirds cup for the top, on bottom and sides
of a greased eight or nine inch form mold.
Place in refrigerator.
4 eggs
1 cup raw sugar
4 tablespoons flour
I teaspoon salt
teaspoon vanilla
2 tablespoons lemon juice
1 teaspoon lemon rind
1 cup evaporated or soy milk
1 lb. American cream cheese, or 14 lbs.
cottage cheese
Beat eggs until thick and light; add sugar.
flour, salt, vanilla, lemon juice and rind.
Beat well. Combine evaporated milk and
cheese, mix thoroughly, and add to egg mixture. Pour into pan containing crumbs or
Ruskets, and sprinkle with two thirds cup
Ruskets saved' out. Bake in moderate oven
325В° F. for one to one and a half hours, or
until center is set. When cool, loosen edge of
cake with spatula and remove from pan.
Makes eight to ten servings.
Vegelona and Carrot Salad
cup diced Vegelona
11 cups grated carrots
cup sliced radishes
2 tablespoons mayonnaise or French
1 cup chopped peppers
1 tablespoon lemon juice
teaspoon salt
Brown Vegelona in broiler. Mix all ingredients.
GorhamВ° Loaf
1 can garbanzos
6 tablespoons tomato sauce
3 eggs
medium onion
cup toasted bread crumbs or Ruskets
1 tablespoon vegetable fat
Heat garbanzos, and run through colander.
Brown (golden) two beaten eggs in the fat,
stirring constantly to make fine particles.
Combine with garbanzos. Add the braised
onion and the raw egg slightly beaten, the
tomato sauce and the Ruskets or crumbs.
Salt to taste. Turn into a buttered baking
dish. Sprinkle top with buttered Ruskets.
Bake at a moderate temperature for thirty
minutes. Serve sliced, with any desired sauce.
Proteena Stuffed With Dressing
1 large can Proteena *
cup chopped celery
1 small onion
teaspoon salt
1 cup tomato pulp
Remove the center of the Proteena, making
a cavity lengthwise about two inches in
diameter. Chop the Proteena taken from
the center, and mix well all ingredients. Fill
and bake forty-five minutes, after covering
outside of Proteena with rest of the stuffing.
Serve with sauce.
Savory-Loaf Potpie
2 tablespoons butter or vegetable
3 potatoes
2 stalks celery
1 lb. Proteena *
1 onion chopped coarse
cup -tomatoes
3 cups water
Little parsley and thyme
Heat butter in saucepan. Add onion and
celery. Let cook until light brown; add two
tablespoons flour. Let cook few minutes
more; add tomatoes, water, parsley, thyme, 1
pound Proteena, and the potatoes cut in
small cubes. Salt to taste. Cover, and cook
until potatoes are done. Add more water if
needed. Serve as a stew, or put into baking
pans, cover with pie or biscuit dough, brush
top with milk or cream. and hake until
nicely browned.
Vitamized Macaroni Loaf
lb. iii:Rarotii
lb. \ uteena *
cup chopped celery
4 eggs
1 tablespoon chopped pepper
1 cup tomato sauce
2 tablespoons chopped onion
1 tablespoon chopped parsley
Cook macaroni until tender, and drain.
Mix all the ingredients together, and bake
in loaf. Serve with cream tomato sauce.Patties Stay-Mince Delights
1 cup Soy Mince Sandwich Spread *
4 tablespoons onion
1 cup bread crumbs or Ruskets
Salt to taste
cup tomato purГ©e
Mix all together, form into patties, and
either bake in oven or brown in skillet on
top of stove, using small amount of fat.
Vegetarian Fish Balls
Make "fish" balls of one cup hot mashed
potatoes, one and a half cups Nuteena
(mashed), celery salt, salt, and sage to taste.
Form into balls; then dip in slightly beaten
egg or roll in ground dry crackers or Ruskets,
and brown in deep fat. Drain, and set in
warm place until served. Serve with brown
sauce or tomato sauce. Serves six.
Carrot or Split-Pea Ring
14 cups cooked carrots or split peas
cup soft bread crumbs or Ruskets
3 egg yolks well beaten
1 cup milk
I small grated onion
I teaspoon salt
Mix the above thoroughly. Fold in stiffly
beaten egg whites. Bake in ring mold set in
pan of water.
...Similar trade names are: Protene, Proast, Pro.
teena, Protose, Vigorost—Nut-tene, Not-Meat, Nu•
mete, Nuteena, Nuttose—Soy Mince, Spread.
We do not diagnose or treat disease by mail. Enclose stamped, addressed reply envelope. The services of the Query Editor are restricted
to bona fide subscribers. Please be explicit and brief. Address The Query Editor, LIFE AND HEALTH, Takoma Park, Washington, D. C.
Ulcer Diet
"Please send a diet for gastric ulcer."
We are enclosing a suggestive outline
of a modified ulcer diet. In every case
there are individual questions that may
arise that prevent the following of such
an outline to the exact letter. In treating ulcer, the fundamental. principle to
keep in mind is that of using bland food,
with frequent feedings. Five or six feedings a day of food that is free from
coarse, rough residue, is usually found to
be a good working plan.
When food is eaten as often as this,
however, one must guard against an unwanted increase in weight. The regular
meal should be larger than the in-between
feeding. Only a glass of milk, or perhaps
a sandwich or other simple portion of
food, should be taken in midmorning,
midafternoon, and in the evening before
Chronic Myocarditis
"Kindly explain just what chronic
myocarditis is."
Chronic myocarditis is a form of muscle
weakening which follows infection or
poor nutrition of the heart muscles. It
is commonly observed in elderly persons,
and some of the changes in the muscle
may actually be those which result from
old age. These changes weaken the action
of the heart, sometimes making it irregular. When the arteries of the heart have
undergone a degree of change, so that they
are more rigid than normal, and consequently less blood is brought to the working muscles of the heart, we have another
situation that contributes to this general
state. The word "myocarditis" implies
inflammation of the heart muscles, but
it is used frequently when no actual inflammation is present, but only a deteriorating weakness and wasting.
"I am eighty-five years of age, and suffer
torture with itching eczema of the legs.
What can I do for this?"
There are many forms of eczema or
lesions of the skin that resemble eczema.
In one of your age this most likely would
be associated with the circulatory condition in the leg. If this is true, then treatment should be directed along this line,
in aiding both the heart and the circulation of the blood through the vessels.
We doubt whether any medication taken
by mouth or applied locally would have a
far-reaching effect. Local applications of
soothing ointment or powders may do a
great deal to relieve the present irritation
or itching. Zinc-oxide ointment with phenol added, which is a preparation that can
be obtained in any well-stocked drugstore,
frequently is of great aid in conditions
such as you mention. We recommend
that you see a physician.
Foods Rich in Iron
"My blood count is low, and I have
been advised to eat meat. What ironcontaining foods can I eat in place of
Vegetables, particularly the leafy ones,
fruit, including raisins and dates, and
lentils, beans, and wheat, are the foods
that contain the largest amount of iron.
Cheese and milk and cream do not contain very much of this ingredient. There
is a fair supply in egg yolk. In frequent
tests in which meat eaters and nonmeat
eaters have been compared, it has been
our observation that one who eats a wellbalanced vegetarian diet that includes
milk is as well supplied with iron as are
those who use meat, and very frequently
their blood hemoglobin readings are
We are enclosing a suggestive diet for
anemia, which places emphasis on iron
and other mineral foods.
Watery Eyes
I am sixty-four years of age, and have
watery eyes. Occasionally in the morning I have noticed tiny granules on my
eyelids. I bathe my eyes with warm water, and on retiring use a boric-acid solution, but the trouble continues.
The use of a saturate boric-acid solution probably is one of the best ways to
treat the condition you mention. You
should see also that your glasses are properly adjusted to your needs.
In addition to using a boric-acid solution, you may find help in using an ointment, such as one per cent yellow oxideof-mercury ointment (ophthalmic), which
you can purchase in practically any drugstore. A small thread of this should be
squeezed in behind the open lid, and
then the eye blinked several times to
spread the ointment over the eye and
along the edges of the lid. The condition is due to an infection of the glandular canals about the roots of the hairs.
If it continues, consult an oculist.
Kindly advise regarding the proper
treatment of pyorrhea. I have been told
by some that sometimes an operation is
It is true that severe cases of pyorrhea
are often treated best by operation.
Sometimes some of the teeth may have
to be removed, but by cutting the gums
back and scraping along the roots of the
teeth, often a healing can be brought
Various medicines have been applied
locally to the teeth with good results.
Some of these must be applied with great
care, as they are rather strong and corrosive in nature. Others are less destructive of tissue, and can be used freely.
A mouthwash of half-strength peroxide
of hydrogen is favored by some. In mild
cases careful attention to the teeth with
a toothbrush and a suitable toothpaste
or powder may be all that is needed.
Spitting Blood
An elderly woman had a bad cough
last winter and spit up blood. She feels
better now. She has leakage of the heart
and hardening of the arteries. Is this
spitting of blood liable to come back?
Quite likely the woman of whom you
speak, seventy years old, and who spat
up blood last year, is suffering from a
weakened circulation which results in
congestion of the lungs and consequent
coughing and spitting. Because of the
engorged condition of the blood vessels,
the sputum has a blood tinge. If she has
a cold, or becomes specially weakened
again in health, it is likely that the spitting of red mucus may recur.
In respect to the leakage of the heart,
this is most likely a damage that dates
from early life. The valves do not close
tightly, and when the heart contracts, it
allows some of the blood to flow backward instead of all flowing forward.
This portion that flows backward makes
a little rasping sound in flowing against
the valve, which can be heard by the
doctor when he examines the heart. If
the leakage is not extensive, it is not regarded as a serious ailment, because the
heart normally will strengthen itself so
as to offset this backward leak. However, in old age, when other ailments
develop, it is important to guard against
overloading the heart or exposing oneself
to colds and other illnesses.
Rapid Heartbeats
"Does a shortage of oxygen cause the
heart to beat faster?"
When there is a deficiency of oxygen in
the blood stream the natural mechanism
of the body frequently causes the heart to
beat faster so as to bring more blood in
contact with the air of the lung spaces.
However, it is not the only cause for increased heart rate. Frequently an injured
valve or injury to the lungs will cause a
rapid heart rate. In other cases the increase may have no apparent cause. One
who is afflicted with periods of rapid pulse
should consult his physician for a careful
examination before drawing final conclusions regarding the cause in his own individual case.
How to be sure
you'll do as the doctor ordered
Wheat Germ
"I take wheat germ for breakfast in
place of a laxative. Should it be cooked?"
Unless one has an extremely sensitive
digestive mechanism, we would suggest
using the wheat germ in the raw state.
Cooking or toasting seems to take from
the germ some of its value and changes
its chemical composition. After it is
treated by heat, rancidity occurs more
Oily Skin
"I have an oily skin, full of pimples and
blackheads. What should I do to help this
It is very desirable that you have a careful study made of your general health.
Sometimes an oily skin is due to other
conditions that seem rather far removed
from the surface of the body.
Avoid too free use of fats in your diet,
and see that the body weight is kept down
to normal.
Bathing the face in hot water and soap
of some nonirritating type, then applying
an alcoholic solution of about 67 per cent
strength, will be found very useful. Sometimes hot packs over the face will be
an aid.
"Is an ultraviolet-ray lamp really of help
in curing such diseases as rheumatism?"
Ultraviolet light is valuable in building
up one's natural vitamin D in the skin.
Sunlight will do the same thing. We
would not think of this as being a specific
cure for rheumatism, but as a general
tonic measure which would enable the
body to resist infections. Vitamin D,
whether taken in cod-liver oil or made in
one's own skin by the action of artificial
ultraviolet light or of the sun's violet rays,
aids in the proper metabolism of calcium
in the body. Ultraviolet lamps are rather
expensive. If one is going to undertake
the home use of them, it is important that
he should build up a tolerance for exposure slowly to avoid being burned.
down the verdict: "No more
coffee!" you might find his order a hard one to follow.
But it needn't be. If you're like millions of others, the
warmth and cheer and hearty flavor of Postum will make
it replace coffee in your beverage affections.
Postum contains no caffein . . . no stimulant of any kind.
It is simply whole wheat and bran roasted and slightly
sweetened. A product of General Foods.
P.S. On warm days, a frosty glass of iced Postum is especially delicious!
In replying to advertisements, please mention LIFE AND HEALTH.
14 5ouri5ELOR
Questions for this department should be addressed to the Mother's Counselor, LIFE AND HEALTH, Takoma Park, Washington, D. C.
Always enclose stamped, addressed reply envelope.
Our son is four years old, and during
the past two years he has suffered from
pinworms. What causes them? Can
anything besides too much sugar be the
cause? What can one do for them? Is
the treatment permanent, and are they
only in the lower bowel? Are they really
dangerous? By this, I mean do they cause
Your little son has in some way picked
these pinworms or the eggs on his
fingers, and from his fingers has introduced them into his digestive tract. Diet
has really nothing to do with it.
These worms tend to accumulate in
the lower bowel and anus. If they are
kept washed out regularly, they will
finally disappear. The best way to do
this is to give the child an enema every
night of a pint of cool water in which a
cup of Quassia chips has been steeped.
You can get these at any drugstore. The
reason the enema has to be repeated is
that the fresh worms will come down
and the enemas will have to be kept up
until they are eliminated, which will
probably be a week or two. Then the
child should be watched, and if there are
any signs of return, the treatment should
be repeated.
These worms cannot be said to be a
definite cause of convulsions. In a nervous child they might be a contributing
Diet Trouble of Eight-MonthOld Baby
My baby is eight months old and
weighs seventeen pounds. At birth he
weighed seven pounds one ounce. This
last month he hasn't gained any. He
takes thirteen ounces of canned milk and
twenty-two ounces of water, and three
tablespoons corn sirup. I also give him
two ounces of orange juice a day. He is
a very good baby and has two teeth. He
takes five drops of halibut-liver oil with
I started giving the baby cereals, Pablum and Cream of Wheat, at six months,
then a few weeks later, strained vegetables. After he had had these vegetables
for several days his bowels moved four
and five times a day and his buttocks became very red and sore. Every time his
bowels moved the condition became
worse. I stopped the vegetables, and he
healed up right away. I have tried twice
since then with the vegetables—carrots,
peas, string beans, celery, and green Lima
beans. It isn't quite so bad this time
because he is using a nursery chair, but
all around his rectum in little patches
the skin looks drawn or blistered, then
becomes very red as if it has peeled.
I gave him eggs twice, and he broke
out with red blotches like hives. Will
these go away as he becomes used to the
eggs, or shouldn't he eat them?
After six months a baby should be on
straight whole milk with nothing in the
way of sweetening added. There is no
reason why your baby should not be taking 'fresh cow's milk, preferably boiled
two to three minutes to ensure ease of
digestion and assimilation. He should
also have more orange juice. Give him
three to four ounces twice a day unless he
seems allergic to this; if he is, he may
have tomato juice.
It will be well for you to continue
giving the halibut oil as at present. He
should continue the cereals, such as Pablum, etc., once a day and his strained
vegetables once a day. I think with the
discontinuance of the corn sirup you will
have little if any trouble with his bowel
movements. Start with one vegetable,
and gradually add others. It is not necessary for him to have eggs, since he
doesn't seem to take them well. It would
be a good thing for him to learn to like
buttermilk and cottage cheese, and a little later he may be able to take hardboiled egg yolks occasionally. Do not
put sugar on his cereal, and do not add
fat to his vegetables. He may have
baked potato with a little canned milk
or a little of his boiled milk and moderate salt. He should gradually take more
fruit, as applesauce unsweetened, or he
may have dried fruits like dates, or
mashed banana.
He evidently has been on too concentrated a formula, and when this is adjusted, his bowels should be all right.
Diet for Twenty-two-MonthOld Baby
My baby, aged twenty-two months, has
suffered from constipation from the age
of three months. She has never had normal bowel action. It is necessary to resort to the use of purgatives. Sometimes
I try to avoid giving her a purgative,
and then she will be constipated for as
long as three days. Finally, I have to
resort to a purgative. On these occasions her movements are very painful
and the feces are quite dry.
I have had several doctors examine
her. They all say she is strong and
healthy, and they recommend purgatives
such as milk of magnesia, etc., but I do
not want this purgative habit formed.
I strongly believe that her diet needs
more roughage, for I tried whole wheat
in porridge form and her condition was
slightly improved during that time. She
has now grown tired of the whole-wheat
porridge and refuses to take any more.
She will never eat whole-wheat bread.
Her diet is as follows:
6:00 A. M. One cup Ovaltine.
8:00 A. is. One or two slices white
bread, one soft-boiled egg
11:00 A. M. Vegetable. soup, rice or macaroni with a little gravy,
spinach, etc.
3:00 P. M. Porridge
6:30 P. M. One slice white bread and
one cup Ovaltine
Oranges, bananas, prunes, and raisins
are also included in the diet at different
She drinks a sufficient quantity of water and passes urine frequently. At present she is teething, but is quite healthy
and strong.
I shall be very grateful if you will
kindly suggest what I should do to improve her condition. Should I change
her diet, and if so, -how may I prepare
the necessary foods to make them attractive and tasty?
Stop all purgatives or laxatives of any
kind. Do not even give your baby milk
of magnesia. Give her daily an injection
into the bowels of warm flaxseed tea,
made by cooking one tablespoon of whole
flaxseed in a pint' of water until it is
slimy. Strain off the seeds and introduce
the remaining liquid slowly into the
bowels. Use only a few ounces at a time.
This will take care of the bowel action
and will help to relax a tight bowel.
In the meantime her nutritional program should be such that she will tend
to have normal bowel movements. I
would suggest the following:
6 or 7 A. M. One half Dr two thirds
of a glass of orange juice.
8 A. at. One or one and a half slices
of whole-wheat bread or one-half cup
whole-grain cereal. Eight to ten ounces
milk. Some simple fruit like applesauce.
Use no butter or sugar.
One-half glass orange
9 or 10 A.
12:30 or 1 P. M. Vegetable soup or
tender vegetables. Egg or cottage cheese.
Eight to ten ounces milk. If her appetite calls for more food than this, you
may add whole-wheat bread or baked
potato or brown rice, or perhaps occasionally macaroni. If extra sweet is desired, she may have a little honey eaten
from a teaspoon at the close of the meal,
or her rice or cereal may be cooked with
raisins or shredded dates.
2, 3, or even 4 P. M. One-half or twothirds glass of fruit juice.
5 or 6 P. M. Dark bread, milk, fruit
freely of any kind. If stewed fruit is
used, it should be preferably that made
from fresh fruit and should not be very
On the diet she is taking at the present
time, she is very deficient in vitamin B
and no doubt other vitamins as well.
After a week or so of the diet I have
given you, discontinue the enemas. Give
them on alternate days for another week
or ten days, and then forget her bowels.
Nature will take care of them. If they
miss a day now and then, don't worry.
Those Artificial Teeth
(Continued f r ont page 13)
you the best service possible. Have confidence in the work he is giving you.
This brings us to the fourth and last
consideration—your own personal co-operation in learning to wear new teeth.
Of the four this is really the most important. Put them in with the determination that you are going to leave them
there all day, until you feel lost when you
take them out. Of course, your mouth
will feel full—it should, to start with—
and you are not going to be able to eat
until you learn how. There will probably be some sore spots that may cause
you to return to your dentist to be relieved. Don't put up with them if they
persist; continual irritations may cause
serious trouble in the mouth, but don't
lay the teeth out, even though sore places
appear. If you do, you may lose the battle in learning to wear them.
Some mouths are so deformed, naturally or from disease or accident, that
they are hard to fit. In these cases only
a limited amount of service can be expected. Your dentist can never foretell
your success after he has made the teeth
to fit your mouth; only your persistent
application to the new task will count.
Some people master their use in a few
weeks, others take months, and some never
learn. This is true sometimes in mouths
that are quite normal. Patients who begin the wearing of dentures unwillingly
or halfheartedly seldom make a success
of it.
Remember, your gums shrink for at
least two years after extractions. You
can expect your plate to loosen on this
account, and to get the best results, you
should have it reset when the shrinkage
has fully taken place. The shape of the
plate seldom changes in the mouth, and
the dentist cannot be held accountable
for gum shrinkage that causes loose
plates. Even after the two-year period
there are changes going on in most
mouths, and many of the best authorities
in dentistry recommend new dentures
every five or six years to give the maximum amount of service.
Many dentists today recommend immediate dentures that are made before the
last of the teeth are extracted, generally
extracting the teeth in the back of the
mouth first and letting them heal for a
few weeks or months before the final
extractions. These cases usually have to
be adjusted as the gums shrink.
A word regarding roofless dentures in
the upper mouth. In mouths in which
they are indicated, they often give good
service and can be recommended, but
only about one mouth in five hundred
has all the anatomical requirements to
make them a success.
Beware of the advertisements you read
in magazines and newspapers for teeth
made by taking your own impressions and
sending them to dental laboratories by
mail. - It takes real skill to take a good
impression and get the teeth to articulate properly. While there may b ^ some
cases that give some satisfaction, in the
majority that I have seen the patient has
been greatly disappointed, and generally
in the end has had to go to a dentist for
a new set. In the judgment of ethical
dentists, mail-order dentistry is quackery,
and in some States such laboratories are
entirely prohibited.
The Dietitian Says
(Continued front page 16)
Laxative Diet
My physician says, "Eat more of the
laxative foods." Please tell me which of
the common foods are laxative, and give
me a laxative menu.
Laxative foods differ with the individual to some extent, but usually the following foods are rather laxative: buttermilk and sauerkraut, because of the
lactic acid they contain; greens such as
turnip, beet, and spinach; bread made
from coarsely ground whole-wheat flour;
prunes, and most fruits, especially the
fibrous ones, including oranges and grapefruit; ripe olives, owing to the laxative
oil in them; and concentrated sweet
foods. such as molasses, honey, dates,
raisins, and figs. Foods that lack in fiber
tend to be constipating unless they are
combined with fibrous foods. Some of
these that lack fiber are: white bread,
white rice, eggs, sweet milk, and spaghetti. A laxative menu for the average
otherwise-healthy individual could be arranged this way:
A whole orange in place of orange juice
Dish of prunes
Whole-grain cereal with dates and cream
Cereal beverage with honey and cream
A large fruit or vegetable salad
Ripe olives
Whole-wheat toast with butter
Cottage cheese and ripe olives
A serving of beans with molasses
Baked potato—skin to be eaten
Greens with butter and lemon
Whole-grain bread
Dried fruits and nuts for dessert
Many physicians recommend bran, and
many people find it a very dependable
laxative. The food should be varied, as
variety alone will often help. Be sure
to eat slowly and chew thoroughly.
Milk and Gums
Would a full-milk diet of five quarts a
day tend to restore shrunken gums to
The writer has never heard of this being accomplished, but if your physician
or dentist approves, you might try it.
Since it has been demonstrated that vitamin C is very essential for hard, firm
gums, you might add to your diet each
day two or three glassfuls of citrus-fruit
juice, tomato juice, several servings of
other fruits, and a serving of greens.
This would assure you sufficient vitamin C.
Vitamin Spelling
How do you spell vitamin B1? Is it
"thiamine" or "thiamin"?
The American Medical Association is
spelling it "thiamine," and this will no
doubt become common usage, although
it is spelled both ways in authoritative
Eye Troubles
(Continued from page 21)
taken out, and not off. Nor can it be
dissolved by medicine as some think. It
is usually caused by an injury such as a
blow on the eyeball or, most commonly,
a slow injury from toxic or chemical
changes within the blood and lymph circulation that constantly bathes the lens
body, thus causing the milky appearance.
Proper care and living conditions
throughout one's life are the best preventive.
along without Parry Inty. And now it
is time to put the Inty family to bed,"
Alice concluded.
"Inty, Inty, go to bed; you are now a
sleepyhead," sang the Twins as they
kissed Big Sister and ran upstairs.
By Veda S. Marsh, R. N.
The Inty Family
LICE, will you tell us a story?"
asked the Little Jays one evening
in late summer. It was very pleasant to have Big Sister Alice home for her
vacation, and Alice enjoyed the Twins.
"You've studied so much about physiology this year, I shall tell you about the
Inty family."
"The Inty family!" laughed the Twins.
"Who are they?"
"In certain glands in the body there
are what we call internal secretions.
These secretions are absorbed into the
blood stream and carried to other parts
of the body, where they are very active.
We'll call them the Inty family."
"All right," said Joan. "I'm ready to
hear about the Inty family."
"There's a large family," said Alice.
"I'll tell you about a few of them. Notice first the location of the uppermost
part of your neck in the back under the
bulge 'of your head. Notice that it is
almost on a level with the lower part of
your nose. There is bone right through
the head on this level. 'Way inside the
head on this level along one of these
bones there is a little hollow place called
a Turk's saddle. - It holds a little gland
about the size of a pea, called the pituitary gland. Pituitary Inty lives there.
We shall call him Pinty Inty.
"Pinty Inty is very important. He is
the master of all the other glands and
can make them work hard or let them
get very lazy.
"Pinty Inty can also determine how
tall you can grow. If Pinty works too
hard, as he seldom does, a person may
become a giant. If Pinty Inty should be
very lazy—but he usually does not like
to be lazy—he might produce a dwarf.
Of course, a doctor can help Pinty to
work just right, and he usually does work
just right, so that you grow about as tall
as daddy or mother. Now I'll tell you
about some other members of the Inty
"In the pancreas, which is behind the
stomach, is another member of the Inty
family. This one we shall call Patty
Inty. Whenever you eat sugars or
starches like potatoes, bread, etc., Patty
Inty hurries around and carries the sugar
to the liver.
"Your body uses starches and sugar for
fuel. These are burned up in the body
to keep us warm. Patty Inty stores this
fuel in the liver for use in the body whenever needed, just as daddy stores coal or
oil in the cellar to keep you warm during
the long winter."
"Are there any more Intys?" asked
"Yes, many more," said Alice. "The
next one I'll tell you about lives in the
adrenal glands just above the kidneys.
We'll call her Addie Inty. She's called
the emergency Inty.
"Do you remember, John, when you
were a tiny boy, how frightened you
were one evening when you were lost,
and how fast you ran home when you
came to our street?"
"I should say I do," said John. "I believe that, as small as I was, I ran faster
than I could run now."
"Well, when a person gets frightened,
Addie Inty can make the muscles work
very, very fast, and sometimes a person
is much stronger when frightened than
at any other time. Addie Inty comes to
help us at such a time. That's why we
call Addie Inty an emergency secretion."
"Aren't we wonderfully made?" said
"We really are," answered Alice. "And
the more you study physiology, the more
you'll appreciate these wonderful bodies
of ours."
"Tell us about some more Intys," said
"In the throat is the thyroid Inty, located in the thyroid gland. We'll call
him Roidy Inty. Roidy Inty is supposed
to help to make you fat or thin. If Roidy
is very lazy, you may become very fat,
so that even dieting will not help to make
you thin. But a doctor can give you
something to help Roidy make you the
correct weight.
"If Roidy works too hard, he can make
you very thin, so that even if you eat
and eat, you'll not gain. Again a doctor
can help so that Roidy is not so industrious. Roidy eats iodine in very small
amounts, and he usually works just right.
"Living in four of the apartments of
Roidy Inty's house are four glands, the
parathyroid glands. In them live the
parathyroid Intys. We'll call them the
Parry Intys.
"Parry Inty helps to put calcium into
your bones, and he helps to keep the
messages running smoothly over the
nerve telegraph wires. We cannot get
What Causes Cancer?
(Continued from page 7)
Further detailed consideration will be
given in the sections dealing with the
individual types of growths.
Our knowledge in this field indudes a
vast variety of conditions without which
cancer does not arise, as well as a considerable amount of information regarding the exciting causes of new growths.
These facts have been amassed during
the centuries, but the last two or three
decades have added more in proportion
than all the preceding centuries of the
Christian Era. An understanding of
these items is the basis of modern diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.
We may first consider the problem presented by the skin. No other portion of
the body is exposed to external influences
to the same degree as is the skin. The
list of irritants which may produce cancer
is very long. Among the most important in sunny Australia, for example, is
the influence of ultraviolet rays in the
sunlight. The production of rodent ulcers on the face and the back of the hands
is of frequent occurrence in that land.
The condition is also frequent in sailors, another group who endure considerable exposure to the sunlight. This type
of reaction is not seen in the colored
races, probably because of the filtering
effect of the pigment found in the skin.
It is less common in the brunette, who
reacts by acquiring a "tan." One cannot
help wondering what the harvest will be
in years to come, from the present-day
fad for sun baking and tanning as seen on
most of the beaches each summer. We
must not fail to mention the pigmented
mole which is apparently a congenital
malformation of the cells of the sensory
organs in the skin. These cells show considerable instability, and if injured or irritated are liable to malignant transformation of the most dangerous type.
The occurrence of cancer in the neck
of the womb may be said to be unforgivable. It should be classed as a preventable disease. It is definitely a disease of
child-bearing women who have suffered
some laceration of the part. In this injured area a chronic infection becomes
established and leads to a chronic catarrhal condition which acts as a constant
irritant. From this background a malignant transformation occurs. Proper medical attention to this part should be included in every physical examination,
and, if it is treated, the predisposing
condition can be uniformly eradicated.
Malignant growths in the mouth are
closely associated with two tangible conditions. One is the disease known as
syphilis, which will be extensively discussed in a subsequent article. The other
is the problem of misfitting dentures and
jagged teeth. The constant mechanical
injury resulting from these conditions,
associated with the usual accompanying
infection, appears to act as the exciting
cause for cancer in this region. The
overindulgence in tobacco plays some
part, although the mode of action has not
been clearly worked out. These relationships are so constant that one authority,
Ewing, says that if they could be removed, cancer within the mouth would
Cancer of the esophagus and stomach
may frequently be traced to infections in
the mouth, the eating of hot or irritating
foods, to tobacco, and alcoholism. The
classic example of the effect of hot foods
is found in China. The men always eat
first and gulp the hot rice rapidly. The
women eat after the men, and their food
is consequently not as warm. The men
are particularly prone to cancer of the
esophagus, whereas the disease does not
show an increased incidence in Chinese
women as compared with the women of
other races.
Malignant growths in the breast and
upper part of the womb are usually attributed to some improper functioning
of the internal glands which have to do
with the sex characteristics. In the breast
these seem to be related to the presence
of stagnant secretions which appear to
act as an irritant. Cancer has been produced in the breasts of mice by closing
off the milk ducts and then rapidly breeding the mice. The side from which the
milk can be nursed remains normal, but
an appreciable number of the obstructed
breasts develop a cancer. In addition to
those exhibiting the stagnation element
is a smaller group in which hereditary influences seem to have a predominant
Two types of growths seem to show a
direct cause-effect relationship to injury.
The type of brain tumor known as a
glioma is frequently preceded by some
form of head injury. It is difficult to understand just how the force acts upon the
brain tissue, as it is apparently well protected by the skull. The observation
seems to be reliable, however, and is generally accepted. The malignant tumor
in bone seems to follow injuries with a
frequency which is too great to be coincidental.
One cannot close this discussion without pointing out the fact that benign, or
harmless, growths frequently lead to cancerous ones when acted upon by some
of the poorly understood changes which
take place in the body at the time of the
change of life. This development of malignancy is admittedly not limited to this
particular period, but it is sufficiently
By Thomas B. Bruce, II, D. V. M.
Fir HE 1, , Ilomng article niay not directly
applx to the health and welfare of pets;
nevertheless, it is interesting and worth
while to consider some of the medieval myths
concerning canine monsters of that era.
Cerberus is probably the best known of
the imaginary dogs. It is related that this,
a multiheaded animal, stood by the side of
Pluto as guardian of Hades, and that its
subjugation was one of the fabled labors of
Hercules. Some veterinarians, having been
present at the birth of many canine monsters. might challenge the idea that any
such dog had ever been born, and by further investigation of this myth, it is proved
to be impossible. The animal not only had
more than one head, he had the tail of a
serpent, and wore a necklace of snakes.
Ancient mythology has involved Hercules
with more nonexistent animals than any
other person, and credits him with encountering still another strange dog. This one,
owned by Eurytion, had but two heads, and
gave its life trying to prevent Hercules from —
stealing the oxen of Geryon.
The dogs that lived in the Middle Ages
must have been quite different from those
of earlier and later eras. It was commonly
believed of them that they required three
days to digest food; consequently it was unnecessary to feed them oftener. It was also
believed of the same dogs that they could
follow only the scent of their quarries'
breath, and that hares, learning this, taught
themselves to run with their noses in the
air. Thus, when the odor of their breath
did not touch the ground, the hounds were
thrown off the scent.
Still another peculiarity credited to the
medieval dog is that it was the only creature (not even excepting humans) that could
pull the dreaded mandrake from the ground
—a feat which always cost the unfortunate
animal's life. There were many curious
superstitions concerning the mandrake, the
most pertinent to this writing being that
involving the dog. It was said that the root
of this potent plant, having a remote resemblance to the human form, was all but worshiped as a fountain of good or evil.
Dressed in miniature regal clothes, it was
placed in a corner of the main room and
treated as a god.
The mandrake was also widely used in
treating wounds, and not infrequently was
given with murderous intent. This root,
in order to be potent, must have grown beneath a gallows from which a murderer had
swung. It could be dug only at great risk
of life, since its shrieks when pulled from the
ground would, if heard, strike one dead.
To prevent this, he who dared attempt this
extraction not only must cloSe his ears with
wax, but, while his dog did the evil' job,
must blow upon a horn to drown out the
screams of the plant-animal he was thus
destroying. The actual feat was accomplished by tying one end of a rope to the
root, and the other to a black dog, which
would oblige by pulling it out, and then
allegedly die on the spot.
This unusual bit of nonsense was actually
believed during the fifteenth and into the
sixteenth century.
common to justify the surgical removal
of all accessible benign growths as a step
in the campaign for the prevention of
From the foregoing discussion it is obvious that we cannot give a precise answer to the question, "What causes cancer?" Cancer must be looked upon as a
type of disease which may have a variety
of causes to excite it. We must always
remember, however, that as yet no definite experimental evidence has been produced to prove that it is impossible for
the condition to have some common denominator exerting its influence in some
manner as yet unfathomed.
+ + +
(Continued from page 8)
a strong salicylic-acid plaster, will take
off the upper portion of the corn, but
usually fails to remove the deep-seated
peg-shaped end, or lowest portion. Corns
can also be trimmed down at the top, or
treated with salicylic acid and collodion,
or filed down with pumice stone or emery paper. but all of these procedures
are temporary only. Corns can be completely removed with the X ray, but before corns come out they usually extrude
to a considerable extent and hence pressure on them is increased, so that they
are much more painful than is ordinarily
the case. In addition, the corns always
recur unless satisfactory shoes are obtained. Ordinary corn pads, properly
adjusted, can be bought or can be made
from either felt or moleskin. These are
not curative, but they can give a great
deal of comfort.
Soft corns occur between the toes, and
are undoubtedly due to too great pressure from shoes. They are much more
frequent in women than in men, and are
most likely to occur between the little
toe and the adjoining one. At times
there are two, one on each toe where
the toes touch, and in other cases only
one situated at the bottom of the fold.
Under each corn there is a small cyst,
and if one looks carefully at the corn, he
will usually find a slight central opening
from which a little serum will exude.
If corns are very small, they can often
be cured by putting a piece of rubber
bath sponge between the toes so as to
keep the surfaces apart; if large, they
can be treated with radium, a process
which is not always satisfactory, or they
can be cauterized, a means which usually
results in some disability over a period
of about two weeks. Again it should be
noted that prevention is a much more
satisfactory procedure than cure, although
perchance it may be a little more unsightly, inasmuch as it means wider shoes.
"Doctor Jones" Says—
"SEVERAL times lately, when I've been
up to the city on some business, I've had
my lunch at one of these cafeteria places
—you know, where everything's out in
sight. The place was full every time.
Well, there's one thing I kind of shy off
from when I go in there now, and that's
salad. There's a girl there that her job
is keeping the salads fixed up. I watched
her two or three days, and every time—
most of the stuff she handled with her
hands—she'd get some salad dressing or
something on her fingers and she'd lick
'em off, and then she'd pick up some lettuce leaves and put 'em on a plate.
"She was a nice-looking girl, this girl
was—looked clean and all that. I'd rather
it would be her than a lot of 'em I've
seen. But, just the same, being good looking don't keep 'em from having sore
throat and such things, and I don't suppose a disease germ would be any less a
disease germ just because the throat it
was parked in happened to be attached to
a good-looking young woman.
"They say, 'What you don't know won't
hurt you.' If that was so, I'd. be pretty
safe—but the fellow that said that was
talking through his hat. Yes, sir, I'm
convinced that a good many of these cases
of septic sore throat and other contagious
diseases that we can't tell where they
come from—that they come from germs
being put in our food and on our drinking glasses and so on by folks that don't
know it any more than we do.
"But this girl I was speaking of—if it
was down home here, I'd have called her
over and given her a little fatherly advice; but up there, if I'd tried it, they'd
probably have thrown me out. Just the
same, somebody ought to say something
to her."—New York State Dept. of Health.
How Clothes and Shoes
Affect Good Posture
POOR posture in children may be due
to overfatigue and poor nourishment,
but it may also be the result of wrong
clothing or shoes.
The baby's diaper should not be
pinned too tightly and should not be
so bulky as to force his legs apart. Hose
supporters should not be fastened so
tightly as to cause strain at waistline or
shoulders nor so far forward as to pull
the child's shoulders forward and down.
Shoes and stockings should fit properly.
Care should be taken that when shoes
are repaired they are not made narrower
or shorter or the shape changed. When
stockings are outgrown they should be
Night clothes should be loose, so as to
allow the child to turn and stretch in his
sleep.—Children's Bureau, U. S. Dept. of
By Merwin R. Thurber
ARDENING is simple—fortunately
for most of us. It is surprising
how many growing things can take
care of themselves if given half a chance.
As a matter of fact, the majority of the
plants in the world do just that, and
have been doing it for thousands of
years—ever since the good Lord "planted
a garden eastward in Eden." The principle of life implanted in the trees and
herbs by a beneficent Creator is persistent beyond our imagination. Drouth and
flood, heat and cold, wind and storm,
may work destruction, but immediately
life springs anew to repair the damage.
Most of our gardening, therefore, consists merely of placing seeds or plants in
the earth, and then letting nature do the
rest. Life stirs in the dormant seeds and
growth begins. Sprouts appear, a plant
develops, flowers bloom, and seeds or
fruit are produced—all without any effort on our part. That is not to say,
of course, that we may not help. We
must help in our modern world, and for
a variety of reasons. We must keep intruders from crowding our selected plants.
We must prepare the soil and cultivate
it during the growing season. And we
must combat plant enemies. But even
as we do all that—and it turns out to be
a great deal of work in most cases—we
really aren't making the plants grow.
They just grow anyway.
And speaking of simple things, may we
remind you of an old favorite, the humble coleus. Growing coleus is so simple
that it seems childish. You break a little branch from any coleus plant, set it
in a glass of water for a few days, and
soon you will see roots growing out of
the lower end. It doesn't seem to make
much difference how long you neglect
to set out the new plant in soil—it just
keeps on making roots. But set it out—
in the ground or in a pot—break off the
crown so that it will branch out, and in
a little while you can snip off some
branches to root and plant, and so on
ad infinitum.
Coleus makes a good house plant during the winter. If it grows too big, just
take a few of the branches, root them
in water, and start over again. Now is
a good time to start plants for the winter
months. If you have no coleus of your
own, your neighbors probably have some.
They can easily spare a few cuttings this
late in the season.
For variations in color and markings,
coleus has few rivals. Its foliage ranges
through maroon, crimson, yellow, and
green, with almost every imaginable combination. Its leaves are little and big,
smooth and crinkly, reasonably smoothedged and deeply serrated. For all that,
it is possible to secure as many plants
exactly alike as you might wish for a
bed. The secret is in the method of
propagation. Coleus grows from seed or
cuttings, as we have already described.
Seedlings vary. Cuttings are always identical. If you want a thousand plants
alike, start cuttings from one plant. If
you want a new variety, plant some seed.
Most gardeners have looked with envy
upon men like Luther Burbank, who
produced new varieties of fruits and flowers in a seemingly miraculous way. Here
is an opportunity for anyone to experiment—and to get results. You can create
a variety that no one else has, and you
may be surprised to find that you have
turned up something of unusual beauty.
You probably won't care to name your
plant after yourself, but you can nave
the pleasure of starting your neighbors
out with something different.
Pleasure is healthful—at least the right
kind is. The Good Book says, "A merry
heart doeth good like a medicine." And
gardening pleasure is the kind that really
is a tonic. It tans the skin, hardens
the muscles (not the arteries), promotes
digestion, clears the eye, and elevates
the mind.
[The broad subject of health involves many points
on which differences of opinion are held. A generally commendatory review of a book in the columns
of LIFE AND HEALTH does not mean, necessarily, that
this journal agrees with every position taken by the
Health in Schools. Published by American Association of School Administrators, 1201 16th St., N. W., Washington,
D. C. Cloth, 544 pages. $2. Illustrated.
Twentieth Yearbook. The place health
teaching should occupy in the school curriculum, the aims of health education
(to teach our children and youth to improve their own health, and to establish
right habits of living that will govern
them in later life, thus helping to engender healthful habits among parents
and to improve the community life), and
how health teaching is administered or
carried on—all this is covered comprehensively in this book. Charts, tests, observation guide; how to plan a program
of health teaching—how to work the plan;
how to detect physical defects in children; communicable disease and characteristics, are some of the topics covered.
Minerals in Nutrition, by Z. T. Wirtschafter, M. D. Published by Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 330 W.
42d Street, New York City. Cloth,
175 pages. $1.75.
What part do minerals play in body
nutrition and metabolism? What happens when there is a deficiency of mineral intake, in what foods are the various
minerals found, and what part do they fill
in pregnancy and lactation? All these
questions are answered in this volume.
Minerals discussed are salt, potassium,
calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulphur, iron, iodine, etc.
The Home Guide to Modern Nutrition,
by N. D. Phillips. Published by Longmans, Green, and Company, New York.
96 pages, 50 cents.
Menus for thirty breakfasts, thirty dinners, and thirty lunches, each printed on
its own ticket and hinged separately to
the wire-o binding, enables the user to
select any breakfast and match it with
a lunch and dinner to make up the meals
of a given day. A small volume containing charts on the different minerals, vitamins, the caloric content of foods, etc.
The menus are designed to give you adequate nourishment for the day. LIFE
AND HEALTH of course would not recommend the flesh foods listed in some of
the menus, or such drinks as coffee, but
its readers from time to time receive information on foods supplying nonflesh
protein and drinks that are described as
cereal beverages.
Modern Medicine; Its Progress and Opportunities, by Netta W. Wilson and
S. A. Weisman, M. D. Published by
George W. Stewart, Inc., 67 N. 44th
Street, New York City. Cloth, 218
pages. $2.
Here we have the fascinating story of
medicine, the discoveries that have contributed to modern medicine, the problems that medicine is today trying to
- solve. The progress of medicine is
traced. Through reading this very valuable book you will be more familiar with
terms used today and just what they signify. Here, too, you may find inspiration to take up a career in medicine,
bacteriology, etc., that may further contribute to medicine and the welfare of
Sex Guidance in Family Life Education,
by Mrs. Frances Bruce Strain. Published by the Macmillan Company, 60
Fifth Avenue, New York City. Cloth,
345 pages. $2.25.
A discussion of the sex problems of
children and youth, dealing with the incidental teaching of sex among kindergarten and primary children from the
time they ask their first questions regarding the facts of life. The subject is handled primarily as a way of life; of bettering family relationships; of helping
children, adolescents, and youth to live
fully and nobly and beautifully. Many
helpful suggestions are given for teaching this subject.
Defend Your Health With
Superior Children Through Modern Nutrition, by I. Newton Kugelmass, M. D.
Published by E. P. Dutton & Company,
Inc., 300 Fourth Avenue, New York
City. Cloth, 332 pages. $3.50.
While we would not agree with some
of the author's statements regarding the
beginning of man—that his circulatory
system was originally a bit of sea water
retained within a firm coating with which
primitive beings surrounded themselves—
and being a vegetarian journal, we would
not include meat in the diet, nor would
we agree with the author's statement that
tea and coffee "must not be condemned
as poisons to be shunned;" yet this volume is full of valuable information on
nutrition and feeding. Beginning with
the classification of foods and their use
in the body, the problem of the feeding
of children is discussed thoroughly from
the early eating habits of the newborn
babe to the dietary habits of the tenyear-old. Feeding to prevent constipation, feeding to reduce or gain weight
feeding in warm and cold weather, all
these questions are dealt with fully.
Rabies, by Leslie T. Webster, M. D. Published by the Macmillan Company, 60
Fifth Avenue, New York City. Cloth,
168 pages. $1.75.
Much of the horror has been taken
away from the cry of "Mad dog!" and yet
despite all the research, the lessened incidence of the disease, and the progress
made in its treatment, there is still much
uncertainty regarding the disease, and
public health officers will need to maintain constant vigilance. Doctor Webster
discusses this disease comprehensively.
Only when we are intelligent regarding
diagnostic procedures and the facts concerning rabies can we give intelligent
support to its control.
They Do Meet, by Bertha L. Selmon,
M. D. Published by Froben Press,
New York. Cloth, 254 pages. $2.50.
Doctor Selmon and her doctor husband spent a number of years in China
ministering to the physical needs of these
people, conquering disease with but
meager equipment and inadequate funds,
but with the needful equipment of love
for these brave people and an overwhelming desire to serve. In making their
home among the Chinese people, in
sharing their joys and sorrows, in meeting and defeating microbes, in dealing
with the many perplexities of living in
a country whose customs are quite different from our American ways, and in
making two Chinese children their own,
the Doctors Selmon discovered that while
America has much to share with that vast
country, China has much to .contribute
to our way of living. Her examples of
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bras cry and courtesy and respect can
well be emulated. Doctor Selmon shows
clearly that though East is East and West
is West. "They Do Meet."
Some Medical Terms
Inoculation: The introduction, either
accidentally or by intent, of the vim,
of a disease into the body. Done intentionally as a preventive measure, as
in the vaccination of persons to prevent
Isolation: Keeping a patient away from
other persons whom he might infect,
and allowing him to be attended only
by nurses or physicians or persons who
are immune to the disease. Also used
in the case of persons who have been
exposed to a disease, either for the
longest incubation period of that disease, or for that portion of it during
which they might transmit the infection.
-itis: A suffix used to indicate inflammation of the organ or tissue whose name
precedes it.
Media: The term used to denote the substances on or in which germs are artificially cultivated. They consist of
various broths or jellies containing appropriate foods and chemicals for each
kind of germ. They are sterilized before use to prevent the growth of undesired kinds.
In replying to advertisements, please mention LIFE AND HEALTH.
THE В°Mlle
ta eon3etve illealth,
The laws of health are simple, and nature
richly rewards those who live in harmony with them.
Without health all other treasures turn to dust and
TREATMENT, as well as facilities for diagnostic study
and surgery, if needed, may be found at—
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Tdental, Tuberculous, or Contagious Cases Not Accepted
You are
Throughout the United States, and in many
other countries, is found a distinctive chain
of medical institutions known as Sanitariums.
To the many thousands who have been guests
in these unique health institutions, the name
Sanitarium describes not merely a hospital,
though the best of medical care is given; nor
does it describe simply a rest home, though
many come primarily for rest. Rather, it
denotes a unique combination of both. The
word Sanitarium also carries with it the idea
of health education and disease prevention,
for those who come to these health centers
receive instruction in the principles of healthful living.
In addition to the Sanitariums whose announcements appear here, the following belong to this distinctive chain of health institutions:
Boulder-Colorado Sanitarium, Boulder, Colorado
Florida Sanitarium, Orlando, Florida
Glendale Sanitarium, Glendale, California
Iowa Sanitarium, Nevada, Iowa
Loma Linda Sanitarium, Loma Linda, California
Madison Rural Sanitarium, Madison College, Tennessee
Mount Vernon Sanitarium, Mount Vernon, Ohio
Paradise Valley Sanitarium, National City, California
Pisgah Sanitarium, Box 1331, Asheville, North Carolina
Porter Sanitarium, 2525 S. Downing Street, Denver,
Portland Sanitarium, 932 S. E. 60th Avenue, Portland, Oregon
Resthaven Sanitarium, Sidney, British Columbia,
St. Helena Sanitarium, Sanitarium, California
Walla Walla Sanitarium, Walla Walla, Washington
White Memorial Hospital, 312 N. Boyle Avenue, Los
Angeles, California
Diet Habits in the Forbidden
Land of Tibet
(Continued from page 12)
are almost unknown. There was no den-
Overlooking Beautiful Spot Pond, the
Sanitarium Is Eight Miles From Boston
forty -three V•2ati o
ilealth Stadiny
tist in all the length and breadth of the
borderland; so all dental work fell to the
doctor. Rare indeed were the Tibetan
patients who required dental attention.
Never shall I forget the family who
worked for us there—children and parents with perfect teeth and old grandma,
stooped, withered, and worn, but still
with all her teeth and never a cavity
in the lot of them. Unknown and unneeded is the, to us, familiar toothbrush.
Nature, unhampered by sweets and refined foods, but with the assistance of a
coarse, simple, natural diet, produces and
maintains in cleanliness and perfect condition, teeth which are unexcelled.
Stomach and intestinal disorders are
also rare. Appendicitis I have never seen
in a Tibetan, and peptic ulcers are as
scarce as the proverbial hen's teeth. Cancer of the stomach, disease of the colon,
and constipation are also unknown. Nor
did we ever see a case of diabetes. The
only important stomach and intestinal
disease common to our own people and
these Tibetans is gall-bladder disease.
COME and join those who
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and HOSPITAL is a medical
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An elevation of from 925
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Route 4, Box 290, Atlanta, Ga.
This is apparently best explained by the
fact that the Tibetan eats such a large
quantity of butter. These observations
concerning the infrequency of stomach
and intestinal disease, coincide with those
of medical observers working in other
areas in which natural diets are eaten.
They may lend emphasis to the growing
opinion that appendicitis, stomach ulcers,
and cancer of the stomach are diseases of
civilization related closely in cause to the
highly refined, deficient diet of our modern day.
Heart disease and high blood pressure
do 'not bulk large among. Tibetan maladies. As a matter of fact, our heart
cases were nearly all Chinese who lived
not simply and wisely, but too well.
After we had lived and worked with our
Tibetan friends for a time, it became apparent that we were not seeing a great
deal of high blood pressure. Focusing
our attention more carefully, we discovered that high blood pressure was apparently to be found again only among
our Chinese patients. So, just to be sun
we were not neglecting the matter and
overlooking something, we started a s�,tematic campaign to determine the blood
pressure of every Tibetan who visited
our clinic and of any friends or relatives
who might accompany the patient. Inasmuch as there were usually plenty of
friends or relatives, or both, we thus
checked a fairly good cross section of the
group. During the years we worked
with these people, nearly seven in all, we
discovered not one whose blood pressure
exceeded normal limits. The highest
pressure recorded was 132. Score again
for the simple life and the simple diet.
for, though there may be other factors
involved in this problem, it seems obvious that these are outstanding.
There are doubtless several factors to
be considered when studying the ability
of the Tibetan to resist infection. His
marvelous ability to ward off bacterial
invaders of the more common sorts is
almost unbelievable. There was the man
who in the course of an argument with
his brother was struck over the head with
a heavy knife, suffering in consequence
a great split in his skull. A handful of
dirt from the floor was used to stop the
bleeding, and next day the brothers appeared at the clinic to have the wound
dressed. Careful cleansing disclosed the
coverings of the brain pulsating in the
depths of the wound. The patient, after
such attention as could be given, was
put to bed with the expectation that
meningitis would rapidly ensue. He refused to stay in bed, and after a few days
declared that he had business at home
which demanded his attention, and left
our hospital. He walked five days to
reach his home. A few months later his
brother said he had entirely recovered.
During his stay with us he developed
neither fever nor pus in the wound, in
spite of a contamination which ordinarily
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The Takoma Hospital, with its
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for medical and surgical cases.
Special attention to diet and
physical therapy. Beautiful natural surroundings in the hills of
East Tennessee near the Carolina
line, seventy miles from Knoxville.
Mental and tubercular patients
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"A" describing the institution,
write to—
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Graduate nursing care, graduate dietetic service, steam baths, massage, physical therapy, colonics.
1119 Peachtree Street, N. E., Atlanta, Ga.
Telephone VErnon 0311
c_A Pleasant Place
The Hinsdale Sanitarium provides for those
who are tired or worn out physically, an
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mechanotherapy, etc. Nourishing diet, sci.
entifically prescribed by a graduate dietitian,
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Quiet rest assisted by nature's remedies.
Chronic invalids welcome.
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"The Common Complaint"
If you are one of the many
thousands of people who suffer
from constipation because of
lack of sufficient bulk in the
diet, do not delay another day
before trying E-Z-Lax. E-Z-Lax
is a combination of Psyllium
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might be expected to produce early infection and probably death. Frequent
repetition of similar experiences has persuaded us that these people have a tremendous resistance to infection.
This ability to resist infection is probably due in part to the fact that the Tibetan and his ancestors have lived with
numberless bacteria for so long that they
have become immune. That this is not
the only factor, however, is shown by the
fact that when our Tibetan friend is removed from his own environment and his
diet is changed he becomes subject to infection. In his own land he can travel
far in all sorts of weather, and so long
as he has his own simple food and a bit
of sunshine, he fears few ills. Should he
make a trip down into China, however,
and try to eat from the tables there and
live as the Chinese do, he would fall an
easy prey to infection. Tuberculosis frequently follows such an attempt. The
common cold, a thing unknown to the
average Tibetan, seizes upon him only
when he forsakes his simple habits of living and eating.
But, someone says, where do these Tibetans get their vitamins,• of which we
hear so much these days? You have told
us the things they eat, but never a word
about the fresh fruit and the fresh vegetables which are supposed to be so essential in maintaining a proper diet that
contains adequate supplies of these lifegiving substances. True it is that our
Tibetan friend rarely sees any fresh vegetables; and fresh fruits are a luxury indeed. He may not see them for months,
perhaps years, at a time. Then where
does he get these necessary food elements?
Requirements of vitamin A are supplied,
of course, in the quantities of rich• butter he consumes. No problem there.
The various vitamin B factors are acquired from the tsampa which we mentioned. Being a whole-grain food, unprocessed and unaltered, it gives hint the
very essential vitamin B group and vitamin E. Vitamin D comes also in the
butter and in the abundant sunshine.
The source of vitamin C is not yet completely explained. It is apparently obtained in the camellia-leaf tea, which is
consumed in great quantities.
True enough, Charley Tibetan may
have some illness or disability. The
chances are, however, that it will be due
to accident or one of the so-called communicable diseases such as smallpox or
the venereal diseases. Living as he does,
the chances of getting kicked by a mule,
shot or stabbed by bandits, or clawed by
a bear are rather great, but his chances
of survival are very good, for his excellent health usually carries him through.
His greatest danger from illness lies in
relapsing fever, the "scourge of the border," for which there is no remedy except the white man's medicine. Yet even
this fearful malady carries a much lower
mortality rate than we would expect to
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find elsewhere. Again, our Tibetan
friend can thank his excellent health for
a reprieve.
It may be that you and I, while musing
of these distant lands, think only of the
hardships there—squalor, dirt, and lack
of variety of food. We think of the comfort and plenty that we ourselves enjoy.
But don't pity the poor Tibetan, eating
his simple fare. He is expecting to live
a long, happy life, free from dentist's
bills, pills for stomach-ache, a jittery
heart, or a balky colon, and what is more,
he really enjoys his simple food.
In replying to advertisements, please mention LIFE AND HEALTH.
Table Service Courtesy Bullock's-Downtown, Los Angeles.
Salads made with Loma Linda vegemeats offer all the
tempting refreshment of cool, crisp fruits and vegetables
—plus balanced nourishment. They are rich in vital
proteins, as well as vitamins and minerals. Their distinctive meat-like flavors give main-dish
taste-appeal, too. Vegemeat salad-enGLUTEN STEAKS
trees suggest so many delightful warmGLUTEN-BURGER
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swer to the "meat problem."
1 cup green peas 8 Gluten Steaks
1 tbsp. minced onion
1 cup carrots
12 stuffed olives
1 cup potatoes
Cook vegetables. Dice carrots, potatoes. Mix with minced onion, salt,
mayonnaise. Chill. Place browned
Gluten Steak on lettuce leaf. Roll another Gluten Steak like a cornucopia,
and stuff with above mixture. Fasten
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Serve with buttered beets; Ruskets
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Breakfast Cup (a good hot drink, caffeine free) made with milk; dessert.
Contains vegemeat salad recipes and tells you what to serve
with them. Seven complete meals. Ask your
dealer or send postcard.
bubbling away over a hot
fire, lifting its cover in rhythm to
the power of the imprisoned steam,
gave an idea to a young lad watching. near by, an idea that has established new frontiers and turned
the wheels of progress. The world
will not forget young Watt and his
invention of the steam engine.
�71' Ilea/ /Rawly.
Mental and
contagious cases
not accepted
vadAnd other great discoveries
have been made that affect your
health and happiness. In laboratories small and obscure secrets
have sometimes revealed themselves to men with a vision, a
vision and a dream of alleviating
the woe and suffering of mankind. Today these discoveries
are seen in the medical miracles
being performed in the modern
sanitarium and hospital.
Send for free illustrated booklet "A"
WRSHMGTOH SIMITARIUM and-Hospital - Takoma Park, 011T;1:111Ildi D.C.
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