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B, symbol for the element boron.
B. See oxalic acid.
B, вђ¤. See beta.
B6 bronchus sign, an artifact in a lung radiograph in
which an air bronchogram appears in the lower lobe as a result of consolidation of atelectasis.
B19 virus, a strain of human parvovirus associated with a
number of diseases, including hemolytic anemia, erythema
infectiosum, fifth disease, and symptoms of arthritis and arthralgia. B19 infects only humans. Approximately 50% of
adults have been infected some time during childhood or
adolescence. Children infected with erythema infectiosum,
the most common illness caused by B19, develop a mild
rash, usually across the face, which usually resolves in 7 to
10 days. Postinfection children develop lasting immunity.
Infection in adults not previously infected with B19 is usually more severe, involving joint aches and swelling, most
often resolving in 2 to 3 weeks.
Ba, symbol for the element barium.
BA, 1. abbreviation for Bachelor of Arts. 2. abbreviation
for blood alcohol.
babbling, a stage in speech development characterized by
the production of strings of speech sounds in vocal play,
such as “ba-ba-ba.”
Babcock’s operation [William W. Babcock, American surgeon, 1872–1963], the removal of a varicosed saphenous
vein by insertion of an acorn-tipped sound, tying the vein to
the sound, and drawing it out.
babesiosis /bYbe¯Јse¯·o¯؅sis/ [Victor Babe´s, Romanian bacteriologist, 1854–1926], a potentially severe and sometimes
fatal disease caused by infection with protozoa of the genus
Babesia. The parasite is introduced into the host through the
bite of ticks of the species Ixodes dammini and infects red
blood cells. In the United States, incidence of the disease is
highest in the Northeast and North Central regions. Symptoms include headache, fever, chills, vomiting, hepatosplenomegaly, hemolytic anemia, fatigue, myalgia, and hemolysis. Treatment is clindamycin or quinone. Most patients with
babesiosis are asymptomatic. Approximately 25% of patients with babesiosis are also infected with Lyme disease.
Also called babesiasis /babР€YsД±ВЇР€Ysis/.
Babinski’s reflex /bYbin؅ske¯z/ [Joseph F.F. Babinski, French
neurologist, 1857–1932], dorsiflexion of the big toe with
extension and fanning of the other toes elicited by firmly
stroking the lateral aspect of the sole of the foot. The reflex is
normal in newborns and abnormal in children and adults, in
whom it may indicate a lesion in the pyramidal tract or other
neurologic insult.
Babinski’s sign [Joseph Babinski], a series of partial responses that are pathognomonic of different degrees of upper
motor neuron disease, including (1) absence of an ankle jerk
in sciatica; (2) an extensor plantar response, with an extension of the great toe and adduction of the other toes; (3) a
more pronounced concentration of platysma on the unaffected side during blowing or whistling; (4) pronation that
occurs when an arm affected by paralysis is placed in supination; and (5) when a patient in a supine position with arms
Babesiosis (Carr and Rodak, 2009)
Babinski’s reflex in an adult
(Seidel et al, 2006)
crossed over the chest attempts to assume a sitting position,
the thigh on the affected side is flexed, and the heel is raised,
while the leg on the unaffected side remains flat.
baby [ME, babe], 1. an infant or young child, especially
one who is not yet able to walk or talk. 2. to treat gently or
with special care.
baby bottle caries. See early childhood caries.
baby bottle tooth decay, a dental condition that occurs in
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Baby Jane Doe regulations
children between 12 months and 3 years of age as a result of
being given a bottle at bedtime, resulting in prolonged exposure of the teeth to milk or juice. Caries are formed because
pools of milk or juice in the mouth break down to lactic acid
and other decay-causing substances. Preventive measures include elimination of the bedtime feeding or substitution of
water for milk or juice in the nighttime bottle. Formerly
called nursing bottle caries.
Baby bottle tooth decay
(Seidel et al, 2006/Courtesy Drs. Abelson and Cameron)
Baby Jane Doe regulations,
rules established in 1984 by
the U.S. Health and Human Services Department requiring
state governments to investigate complaints about parental
decisions involving the treatment of handicapped infants.
The rules also allowed the federal government to have access to children’s medical records and required hospitals to
post notices urging physicians and nurses to report any suspected cases of denial of proper medical care to infants. The
controversial regulations have been found illegal by a federal court. The popular name for the federal rules was taken
from the name “Jane Doe” given to an infant born in New
York with an open spinal column and other defects who became the object of a campaign to force lifesaving surgery for
the child over parental objections. Also called Baby Doe
baby talk, 1. the speech patterns and sounds of young
children learning to talk, characterized by mispronunciation,
imperfect syntax, repetition, and phonetic modifications,
such as lisping or stuttering. See also lallation. 2. the intentionally oversimplified manner of speech, imitative of young
children learning to talk, used by adults in addressing children or pets. 3. the speech patterns characteristic of regressive stages of various mental disorders, especially schizophrenia.
BAC, abbreviation for bronchoalveolar carcinoma.
bacampicillin hydrochloride, a semisynthetic penicillin.
в…ў INDICATIONS: It is prescribed in the treatment of respiratory
tract, urinary tract, skin, and gonococcal infections.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Known sensitivity to this drug or
other penicillins prohibits its use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the most serious adverse reactions are hypersensitivity reactions, gastritis, enterocolitis,
and transient blood disorders.
Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) /bachШ…YlYr/,
an academic degree awarded on satisfactory completion of a
4-year course of study in a college or university. The recipient is eligible to take the national certifying examination to
become a registered nurse. A BSN degree is a prerequisite to
advancement in nursing education and advancement in many
bacille Calmette-GueВґrin
systems and institutions that employ nurses. Compare Associate Degree in Nursing, diploma program in nursing.
Bach remedies, a set of 38 flower essences, developed as
a milder alternative to homeopathic remedies, that produce
mental or emotional but not physical symptoms upon proving. They are used to treat mental and emotional complaints
and have no direct effect on physical symptoms.
bacill-, combining form meaning “rod-shaped bacterium”:
bacillemia, bacillosis.
Bacillaceae /basР€YlaВЇШ…siВ·eВЇ/ [L, bacillum, small rod], a family
of Bacilli of the order Bacillales, consisting of grampositive, rod-shaped cells that can produce cylindric,
ellipsoid, or spheric endospores situated terminally,
subterminally, or centrally. These cells are chemoheterotrophic and mostly saprophytic, commonly appearing in soil.
Some are parasitic on insects and animals and are pathogenic. The family includes the genus Bacillus, which is aerobic, and the genus Clostridium, which is facultatively
bacillary angiomatosis /basШ…YlerР€eВЇ/, a condition of multiple angiomata caused by an infection of Bartonella. The
infectious agent is associated with contact with young cats
infected with fleas and is also the cause of cat-scratch fever.
It is manifested in persons with cellular immunodeficiency
such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients as small hemangioma-like lesions of the skin but may
also involve the lymph nodes and viscera. The skin lesions
are often mistaken for Kaposi’s sarcoma. Infection is curable
but can be fatal if untreated. Treatments include oral erythromycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sufamethoxazole, and
Bacillary angiomatosis
(Stone and Gorbach, 2000)
bacillary dysentery. See shigellosis.
bacillary white diarrhea, pullorum disease.
bacille Calmette-GueВґrin (BCG) /kalmetШ…gaВЇranШ…/ [LeВґon
C.A. Calmette, French bacteriologist, 1863–1933; Camille
Gue´rin, French bacteriologist, 1872–1961], The bacillus
of Calmette and GueВґrin (BCG) is an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis that is given as a live bacterial vaccine to
prevent the development of TB. An attenuated strain of tubercle bacilli, used in many countries as a vaccine against tuberculosis, most often administered intradermally, with a
multiple-puncture disk. When administered to infants in
high-prevalence areas, there is some evidence that it prevents the more serious forms of tuberculosis. It may have
some efficacy against leprosy. BCG is also instilled into the
bladder as a treatment for bladder cancer to stimulate the immune response in people who have certain kinds of malignancy. It induces a positive tuberculin reaction and may
mask early, active infection by removing the diagnostic sign
of conversion from the negative to the positive skin reaction.
See also tuberculin test, tuberculosis.
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bacille Calmette-GueВґrin vaccine
bacille Calmette-GueВґrin vaccine,
an active immunizing
agent prepared from an attenuated bacille Calmette-GueВґrin
strain of Mycobacterium bovis.
в…ў INDICATION: It is prescribed most commonly for immunization against tuberculosis. It is instilled intravesically to
treat carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder in certain
situations. It is seldom administered in the United States as
an immunizing agent, but is often given in many countries
to infants, caregivers, etc., who are at high risk for intimate and prolonged exposure to people with active
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Hypogammaglobulinemia, immunosuppression, or concomitant use of corticosteroids or isoniazid prohibits its use. It is not given after a vaccination for
smallpox, nor is it given to patients with a positive tuberculin
reaction or a burn.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the most serious adverse reactions are anaphylaxis and disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis. Pain, inflammation, and granuloma may develop at the
site of injection.
bacillemia /basР€YleВЇШ…meВЇВ·Y/, a condition in which bacilli are
circulating in the blood. See also bacteremia, sepsis,
bacilli /bYsilШ…Д±ВЇ/ sing. bacillum [L, bacillum, small rod],
any rod-shaped bacteria. See Bacillus.
bacilliform /bYsil؅ifoˆrm/, rod-shaped, like a bacillus.
bacillosis /basР€YloВЇШ…sis/, a condition in which bacilli have
invaded tissues, inducing symptoms of an infection.
bacillum. See bacilli.
bacilluria /basР€Yloo
Л� rШ…eВЇВ·Y/ [L, bacillum П© Gk, ouron, urine],
the presence of bacilli in the urine.
Bacillus /bYsilШ…Ys/, 1. a genus of aerobic, gram-positive, or
facultatively anaerobic, spore-forming, rod-shaped microorganism of the family Bacillaceae, order Eubacteriales. The
genus includes 34 species, 3 of which are pathogenic and the
rest saprophytic soil forms; 25 species are considered medically important. Some species are nonpathogenic, but others
cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from anthrax
(caused by B. anthracis) to tuberculosis. Many microorganisms formerly classified as Bacillus are now classified in
other genera. See also acid-fast bacillus, Bacillaceae.
2. any rod-shaped bacteria.
Bacillus anthracis, a species of gram-positive, facultative
anaerobe that causes anthrax, a disease primarily of cattle
and sheep. The spores of this organism, if inhaled, can cause
a pulmonary form of anthrax. Spores can live for many years
in animal products, such as hides and wool, and in soil. See
also anthrax, woolsorter’s disease.
Bacillus cereus, a species of bacilli found in the soil. It
causes food poisoning (an emetic type and a diarrheal type)
by the formation of an enterotoxin in contaminated foods.
The symptoms are similar to those of Staphylococcus food
poisoning. It can also cause infections, such as ocular infections.
bacitracin /basР€itraВЇШ…sin/ [L, bacillum П© Tracy, surname of
patient in whom toxin-producing bacillus species was isolated], an antibacterial.
в…ў INDICATION: A common component of topical antibiotic
ointments used for treating skin infections.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATION: Known hypersensitivity to this drug
prohibits its use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Skin rash.
back [AS, baec], the posterior or dorsal portion of the
trunk of the body between the neck and the pelvis. The back
is divided by a middle furrow that lies over the tips of the
spinous processes of the vertebrae. The skeletal portion of
the back includes the thoracic and the lumbar vertebrae and
both scapulae. The nerves that innervate the various muscles
of the back arise from the segmental spinal nerves.
backache /bakШ…aВЇk/ [AS, baec П© ME, aken], a pain in the
lumbar, lumbosacral, or cervical region of the back, varying
in sharpness and intensity. Causes may include muscle strain
or other muscular disorders or pressure on the root of a
nerve, such as the sciatic nerve, caused in turn by a variety of
factors, including a herniated vertebral disk. Treatment may
include heat, ultrasound, and devices to provide support for
the affected area while the individual is in bed or standing or
sitting, bed rest, surgical intervention, and medications to relieve pain and relax spasm of the muscle of the affected area.
back-action condenser, an instrument for compacting
dental amalgams that has a U-shaped shank, which develops
the condensing force from a pulling motion rather than from
the more common pushing motions.
backboard, a long, flat, rigid piece of wood or other material that is placed under an accident victim with possible
spinal injury. It is used to transport the patient to a hospital or
as a firm surface for CPR.
Patient on a backboard (Shade et al, 2007)
backbone, the vertebral column.
backcross [AS, baec П© cruc, cross],
1. a mating (cross)
between a heterozygote and a homozygote. 2. an organism
or strain produced by such a cross. See also testcross.
background level, the usual intensity of a chemical or
other stimulus in the environment.
background radiation [AS, baec П© OE, grund, ground],
naturally occurring radiation emitted by soil, groundwater,
building materials, radioactive substances in the body (especially potassium 40), and cosmic rays from outer space.
Each year the average person is exposed to 44 millirad
(mrad) of external terrestrial radiation, 18 mrad of naturally
occurring internal radioaction, and 44 mrad of cosmic radiation. Background radiation levels may vary in different locales.
backing /bakР€ing/ [AS, baec], in dentistry, the piece of
metal that supports a porcelain or resin facing on a fixed or
removable partial denture.
back knee. See genu recurvatum.
back pressure [AS, baec П© L, premere, to press], pressure
that builds in a vessel or a cavity as fluid accumulates. The
pressure increases and extends backward if the normal
mechanism for egress or passage of the fluid is not restored.
backscatter radiation. See scattered radiation.
backup, 1. a duplicate computer, data file, equipment, or
procedure for use in the event of equipment failure.
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2. The act of creating another copy of a file, group of files,
or an entire computer hard drive.
baclofen, an antispastic agent.
в…ў INDICATION: It is prescribed to reduce the spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis, cerebal palsy, and spinal cord
injury; not effective against spasticity caused by stroke.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATION: Known hypersensitivity to this drug
prohibits its use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the more serious adverse reactions are confusion, hypotension, dyspnea, impotence, nausea, and transient drowsiness.
-bactam, combining form designating a beta-lactamase inhibitor.
bacter-. See bacterio-.
bacteremia /bakР€tireВЇШ…meВЇВ·Y/ [Gk, bakterion, small staff,
haima, blood], the presence of bacteria in the blood. Undocumented bacteremias occur frequently and usually abate
spontaneously. Bacteremia is demonstrated by blood culture.
Antibiotic treatment, if given, is specific for the organism
found and appropriate to the locus of infection. If untreated,
bacteremia can be fatal. Also spelled bacteriemia. Also
spelled bacteraemia. Compare septicemia. See also septic
shock. —bacteremic, adj.
bacteremic shock, septic shock caused by the release of
toxins by bacteria, usually gram-negative bacteria, in the
bacteria /baktirШ…eВЇВ·Y/ sing. bacterium [Gk, bakterion, small
staff], a domain of life existing as small unicellular microorganisms. The genera vary morphologically, being spheric
(cocci), rod-shaped (bacilli), spiral (spirochetes), or commashaped (vibrios). The nature, severity, and outcome of any
infection caused by a bacterium are characteristic of that
-bacteria, suffix meaning “genus of microscopic plants
forming the class Schizomycetes”: lysobacteria,
bacterial adherence /baktirШ…eВЇYl/, the process whereby
bacteria attach themselves to cells or other surfaces before
bacterial aneurysm, a localized dilation in the wall of a
blood vessel caused by the growth of bacteria. It often follows septicemia or bacteremia and usually occurs in peripheral vessels. See also mycotic aneurysm.
bacterial cholangitis, the most common type of cholangitis, caused by bacterial infection. If bacteria invade the liver
they can enter the bloodstream and cause septicemia that can
be fatal.
bacterial count. See count.
bacterial endocarditis, an acute or subacute bacterial infection of the endocardium or the heart valves or both. The
condition is characterized by heart murmur, prolonged fever,
bacteremia, splenomegaly, and embolic phenomena. The
acute variety progresses rapidly and is usually caused by
staphylococci. The subacute variety is usually caused by
lodging of Streptococcus viridans in heart valves damaged
by rheumatic fever. Prompt treatment of both types with antibiotics, such as penicillin, cephalosporin, or gentamicin
given intravenously, is essential to prevent destruction of the
valves and cardiac failure. See also endocarditis, subacute
bacterial endocarditis.
bacterial enteritis, inflammation of the intestine caused
by bacterial infection; the most common types in humans are
Campylobacter enteritis, Salmonella enteritis, Shigella enteritis, and Yersinia enteritis.
bacterial enzyme, an enzyme produced by a bacterium.
bacterial food poisoning, a toxic condition resulting
bacterial protein
Bacterial endocarditis (Kumar et al, 2007)
from the ingestion of food contaminated by certain bacteria.
Acute infectious gastroenteritis caused by various species of
Salmonella is characterized by fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and general discomfort beginning 8 to 48
hours after ingestion and continuing for several days. Similar
symptoms caused by Staphylococcus, usually S. aureus, appear much sooner and rarely last more than a few hours.
Food poisoning caused by the neurotoxin of Clostridium
botulinum is characterized by GI symptoms, disturbances of
vision, weakness or paralysis of muscles, and, in severe
cases, respiratory failure. See also botulism.
bacterial inflammation [L, bacterium П© inflammare, to set
afire], any inflammation that is part of a body’s response to
a bacterial infection.
bacterial kinase, 1. a kinase of bacterial origin.
2. a bacterial enzyme that activates plasminogen, the precursor of plasmin.
bacterial laryngitis, a form of laryngitis caused by a bacterial infection and usually associated with rhinosinusitis or
laryngotracheal bronchitis. Signs of a bacterial infection are
a cough and purulent rhinorrhea. The infection is treated
with any of several antibiotics. See also laryngitis.
bacterial meningitis. See meningitis.
bacterial overgrowth syndrome. See stasis syndrome.
bacterial plaque, a dense, nonmineralized complex composed primarily of colonies of bacteria embedded in a gelatinous matrix. It contains amino acids, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and salts from saliva and gingival fluid; soluble
food substances; shed leukocytes and epithelial cells; and
products of bacterial metabolism. Plaque is the major causative factor in most dental diseases, including dental caries
and inflammatory periodontal diseases. Also called dental
bacterial pneumonia, pneumonia caused by bacteria,
such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae,
Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and others.
bacterial prostatitis, a bacterial infection of the prostate.
Acute bacterial infections usually involve gram-negative bacilli, such as Escherichia coli. Most cases are treated with a
prolonged course (greater than 1 month) of broad-spectrum
antimicrobial drugs. Abscesses may be associated with
anaerobic bacteria. Chronic bacterial prostatitis is usually
caused by gram-negative bacilli. It is less common and characterized by low back pain, dysuria, and perineal discomfort.
See also prostatitis.
bacterial protein, a protein produced by a bacterium.
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bacterial resistance
bacterial resistance,
the ability of certain strains of bacteria to develop a tolerance to specific antibiotics to which
they once were susceptible.
bacterial toxin [Gk, bakterion, small staff, toxikon, poison],
any poisonous substance produced by a bacterium. Kinds of
bacterial toxins include endotoxins and exotoxins.
bacterial vaccine, a saline solution suspension of a strain
of attenuated or killed bacteria prepared for injection into a
patient to stimulate development of active immunity to that
strain and against similar bacteria.
bacterial vaginosis [Gk, bakterion, small staff; L, vagina,
sheath; Gk, osis, condition], a chronic inflammation of the
vagina caused by bacterial imbalance (e.g., an overgrowth of
the normal bacterial flora of the vagina). Vaginal flora commonly includes lactobacilli, streptococci, Gardnerella vaginalis, strains of enterobacteriaceae, and anaerobes. Also
called vulvovaginitis.
Bacterial vaginosis (Zitelli and Davis, 2007)
bacterial virus,
a virus with the ability to infect and/or destroy bacteria. It is usually species-specific. See also
bactericidal antibiotic [Gk, bakterion П© caedere, to kill;
Gk, anti, against, bios, life], an antibiotic drug that kills
bactericide /baktirШ…YsД±ВЇd/ [GK, bakterion П© L, caedere, to
kill], any drug or other agent that kills bacteria. Also
spelled bacteriocide. Compare bacteriostasis. —bactericidal, adj.
bactericidin [Gk, bakterion П© L, caedere, to kill], an antibody that kills bacteria in the presence of complement.
Also called bacteriocidin.
bacteriemia. See bacteremia.
bacterio-, bacter-, bacteri-, combining form meaning
“bacterial microorganism”: bacteriogenic, bacteriod, bactericide.
bacteriocidal. See bactericidal.
bacteriocidal antibiotic. See bactericide.
bacteriocidin. See bactericidin.
bacteriocin /baktirШ…eВЇВ·Ysin/, protein produced by certain
species of bacteria that, by inducing metabolic block, are
toxic to related strains of those bacteria. Also called protein
bacteriocinogenic /baktirР€eВЇВ·YsinР€YjenШ…ik/, pertaining to an
organism capable of producing bacteriocins.
bacteriogenic /baktirР€eВЇВ·YjenШ…ik/, 1. capable of producing
bacteria. 2. derived from or originating in bacteria.3. caused
by bacteria.
bacterioidal. See bacteroid.
bacteriologic /baktirР€eВЇВ·YlojШ…ik/ [Gk, bakterion], pertaining
to bacteriology. Also bacteriological.
bacteriologic sputum examination, a laboratory procedure to determine the presence or absence of bacteria in a
sputum specimen. Part of the specimen is stained and examined microscopically on a glass slide, and part is inoculated
on a culture medium and allowed to incubate for more spe-
cific examination later. Also called a sputum culture and
sensitivity test and smear.
bacteriologist /baktirР€eВЇВ·olШ…Yjist/, a specialist in the scientific study of bacteria.
bacteriology /-olШ…YjeВЇ/ [Gk, bakterion П© logos, science],
the scientific study of bacteria.
bacteriolysin /baktirР€eВЇВ·YlД±ВЇШ…sin/ [Gk, bakterion П© lyein, to
loosen], an antibody that causes the breakdown of a particular species of bacterial cell. Complement is usually also
necessary for this reaction. See also bacteriolysis.
bacteriolysis /baktirР€eВЇВ·olШ…Ysis/, the intracellular or extracellular breakdown of bacteria, resulting in the release of the
cell’s contents. See also bacteriolysin. —bacteriolytic, adj.
bacteriophage /baktirШ…eВЇВ·YfaВЇjР€/ [Gk, bakterion П© phagein, to
eat], any virus that infects host bacteria, including the
blue-green algae. Bacteriophages resemble other viruses in
that each is composed of either ribonucleic acid (RNA) or
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). They vary in structure from
simple fibrous bodies to complex forms with contractile
“tails.” Bacteriophages associated with temperate bacteria
may be genetically intimate with the host and are named for
the bacterial strain for which they are specific, such as
coliphage and corynebacteriophage. —bacteriophagic, adj.,
bacteriophagy /-ofР€YjeВЇ/, n.
bacteriophage typing, the process of identifying a species of bacterium according to the type of virus that attacks it.
bacteriophagic, bacteriphagy. See bacteriophage.
bacteriospermia /baktirР€eВЇYspurШ…meВЇВ·Y/, the presence of
bacteria in semen or ejaculate.
bacteriostasis /baktirЈe¯·os؅tYsis/ [Gk, bakterion ϩ Gk, stasis, standing still], a state of suspended growth and/or reproduction of bacteria. Compare bactericide. —bacteriostatic, adj.
bacterium. See bacteria.
bacteriuria /baktirР€eВЇyoo
Л� rШ…eВЇВ·Y/, the presence of bacteria in
the urine. The presence of more than 100,000 pathogenic
bacteria per milliliter of urine is usually considered significant and diagnostic of urinary tract infection. Bacteriuria
may be asymptomatic. See also urinary tract infection.
bacteroid /bak؅tYroid/, 1. pertaining to or resembling bacteria. 2. a structure that resembles a bacterium. Also bacterioid /baktirЈe¯·oid/, —bacteroidal, bacterioidal, adj.
Bacteroides /bakР€tYroiШ…deВЇz/ [Gk, bakterion, small staff,
eidos, form], a genus of obligate anaerobic bacilli normally found in the colon, mouth, genital tract, and upper respiratory system. Severe infection may result from the invasion of the bacillus through a break in the mucous membrane
into the venous circulation, where thrombosis and bacteremia may occur. Foul-smelling abscesses, gas, and putrefaction are characteristic of infection with this organism. Of the
30 species, Bacteroides fragilis is the most common and
most virulent.
Bactrim, trademark for a fixed-combination drug containing two antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim)
commonly prescribed to treat urinary tract infection.
BAER, abbreviation for brainstem auditory evoked response.
baffling, the process of removing large water particles
from suspension in a jet nebulizer so that the particles entering the patient’s airways are of a uniform therapeutic size.
The function may be performed in part by a perforated plate
against which liquid particles impinge and fracture and are
reflected into the vapor chamber of the nebulizer.
bag [AS, baelg], a flexible or dilatable sac or pouch designed to contain gas, fluid, or semisolid material such as
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crushed ice. An Ambu bag or breathing bag is used to control
the flow of respiratory gases entering the lungs of a patient.
Several types of bags are used in medical or surgical procedures to dilate the anus, vagina, or other body openings.
bagasse /bYgasШ…/ [Fr, cane trash], the crushed fibers or the
residue of sugarcane, a source of the thermophilic actinomycetes antigen that is a cause of bagassosis hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
bagassosis /bagР€YsoВЇШ…sis/, a self-limited lung disease caused
by an allergic response to bagasse, the fungi-laden, dusty debris left after the syrup has been extracted from sugarcane. It
is characterized by fever, dyspnea, and malaise.
bagging informal. the artificial ventilation performed with
a respirator bag, such as an Ambu bag or the reservoir bag on
an anesthesia machine. The bag is squeezed to deliver air to
the patient’s lungs through a mask, an endotracheal tube, or
another breathing device. During general anesthesia the
anesthetist may use this technique to assist or control the respiration of an unconscious patient.
bag lady/man, a homeless indigent woman or man who
carries all personal possessions in a portable container.
bag of waters, the membranous sac of amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus in the uterus of a pregnant woman. See
bag-valve-mask resuscitator, a device consisting of a
manually compressible container with a plastic bag of oxygen at one end and at the other a one-way valve and mask
that fit over the mouth and nose of the person to be resuscitated. See also Ambu bag.
Bag-valve-mask resuscitators
(Sanders et al, 2007)
Bainbridge reflex [Francis A. Bainbridge, English physiologist, 1874–1921], a cardiac reflex in which stimulation of
stretch receptors in the wall of the left atrium causes an increased pulse rate. It may be triggered by the infusion of
large amounts of IV fluids or by backflow of blood in congestive heart failure.
Baker’s cyst [William M. Baker, British surgeon, 1839–
1896], a synovial cyst that forms at the back of the knee. It
is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and may appear
only when the leg is straightened.
baker’s itch [AS, giccan, to bake], a rash that may develop on the hands and forearms of bakery workers, probably as an allergic reaction to flours or other ingredients in
bakery products.
BAL, 1. abbreviation for British antilewisite. See
dimercaprol. 2. abbreviation for bronchoalveolar lavage.
balance1 [L, bilanx, having two scales], 1. an instrument
balanced traction
Baker’s cyst (Moll, 1997)
for weighing. 2. a normal state of physiologic equilibrium.
3. a state of mental or emotional equilibrium. 4. to bring
into equilibrium.
a nursing outcome from the Nursing Outcomes
Classification (NOC) defined as ability to maintain body
equilibrium. See also Nursing Outcomes Classification.
balanced anesthesia, a highly variable technique of general anesthesia using narcotic analgesics, muscle relaxation,
and minimal inhalation agent and nitrous oxide to render the
patient unconscious.
balanced articulation, simultaneous contact between the
upper and lower teeth as they glide over each other when the
mandible is moved laterally. See also balanced occlusion.
balanced diet, a diet containing adequate energy and all of
the essential nutrients that cannot be synthesized in adequate
quantities by the body, in amounts adequate for growth, energy needs, nitrogen equilibrium, repair, and maintenance of
normal health.
balanced forearm orthosis (BFO). See mobile arm
balanced occlusion, simultaneous contact between the
upper and lower teeth on both sides and in the anterior and
posterior occlusal areas of the jaws. An appropriate dental
prosthesis develops, such as an occlusion, to prevent the
denture base from tipping or rotating in relation to the supporting structures. This term is primarily associated with intraoral assessment of occlusal harmony but may also be used
in the process of pretesting the occlusion while the dentures
are mounted on casts attached to an anatomic articulator. See
also balanced articulation.
balanced polymorphism, in a population, the occurrence
of a certain proportion of homozygotes and heterozygotes
for specific genetic traits, which is maintained from generation to generation by the forces of natural selection. Compare genetic polymorphism.
balanced suspension, a system of splints, ropes, slings,
pulleys, and weights for suspending the lower extremities of
the body, used as an aid to realignment and healing from
fractures or from surgical intervention. See also lower extremity suspension, upper extremity suspension.
balanced traction, a system of balanced suspension that
supplements traction in the treatment of fractures of the
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balanced translocation
Balint’s syndrome
Thomas splint
Balanitis (Callen et al, 2000)
Balanced suspension
(Elkin, Perry, and Potter, 2007)
lower extremities or after various operations affecting the
lower parts of the body that require traction.
balanced translocation, the transfer of segments between
nonhomologous chromosomes in such a way that the configuration and total number of chromosomes change but
each cell contains the normal amount of diploid or haploid
genetic material. Usually the long arm of an acrocentric
chromosome is transferred to another chromosome, and the
small fragment containing the centromere is lost, leaving
only 45 chromosomes. A person with a balanced translocation is phenotypically normal but may produce children with
trisomies. Compare reciprocal translocation, robertsonian
balancing side, the side of the mouth opposite the
working side (predominant chewing side) of dentition or a
balanic /bYlanШ…ik/ [Gk, balanos, acorn], pertaining to the
glans penis or the glans clitoridis.
balanic hypospadias. See glandular hypospadias.
balanitis /balР€YnД±ВЇШ…tis/ [Gk, balanos П© itis], inflammation
of the glans penis.
balanitis diabetica, an inflammation of the glans penis or
glans clitoridis caused by the sugar content of the urine and
commonly seen in persons with diabetes.
balanitis xerotica obliterans /zirotШ…ikY oblitШ…Yrans/ [Gk,
balanos П© itis П© xeros, dry, tokos, labor; L, obliterare, to efface], a chronic skin disease (lichen sclerosis et
atrophicus) of the glans penis, characterized by a white indurated area surrounding the meatus, that may result in urethral
stenosis. Local antibacterial and antiinflammatory agents are
used to treat it.
balano-, balan-, combining form meaning “the head of
the penis in males; may also mean the glans clitoris in females”: balanoplasty, balanitis.
balanoplasty /balШ…YnoВЇplasР€teВЇ/ [Gk, balanos П© plassein, to
mold], an operation involving plastic surgery of the glans
penis to correct a congenital defect or to serve an aesthetic
balanoposthitis /balР€YnoВЇposthД±ВЇШ…tis/ [Gk, balanos П© posthe,
penis, foreskin, itis], a generalized inflammation of the
glans penis and prepuce in uncircumcised males, usually
caused by poorly retractile foreskin and poor hygiene. It is
characterized by soreness, irritation, and discharge, which
occur as a complication of bacterial or fungal infection.
Smear and culture can determine the causative agent—often
a common venereal disease—so that specific antimicrobial
therapy can then be instituted. Circumcision may be considered in severe cases. To relieve discomfort, the inflamed area
can be irrigated with a warm saline solution several times
a day.
balanopreputial /balР€YnoВЇpripyoo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇШ…shYl/ [Gk, balanos П© L,
praeputium, foreskin], pertaining to the glans penis and
the prepuce.
balanorrhagia /balР€YnoВЇraВЇШ…jeВЇВ·Y/ [Gk, balanos П© rhegnynai,
to burst forth], balanitis in which pus is discharged copiously from the penis.
balantidiasis /balР€YntidД±ВЇШ…Ysis/, an infection caused by ingestion of cysts of the protozoan Balantidium coli, the largest human protozoan. Pigs are the animal reservoir. In some
cases the organism is a harmless inhabitant of the large intestine, but infection with B. coli usually causes diarrhea. Infrequently the infection progresses, and the protozoan invades
the intestinal wall and produces ulcers or abscesses, which
may cause dysentery and death. The majority of infections in
immunocompromised patients are asymptomatic. Diagnosis
is made by identification of trophozoites in the stool or in
sampled colonic tissue. Tetracycline, iodoquinol, or metronidazole is usually prescribed to treat the infection.
Balantidium coli /balР€YntidШ…eВЇВ·Ym/ [Gk, balantidion, little
bag, kolon, colon], the largest and the only ciliated protozoan species that is pathogenic to humans, causing balantidiasis. The organism is seen in two life stages: the motile trophozoite and the encysted cercaria. It is a normal inhabitant
of the domestic hog and is transmitted to humans by the ingestion of cysts excreted in hog feces), occurring either during direct contact with pigs, handling of fertilizer that contains pig excrement, or contact with a water supply
contaminated with excrement.
baldness [ME, balled], absence of hair, especially from the
scalp. See also alopecia.
BAL in Oil, trademark for a heavy metal antagonist
Balint’s syndrome [Rudolph Balint, Hungarian neurologist,
1874 –1929], a group of visual symptoms characterized by
simultaneous anagnosia and optic ataxia. The patient experiences nystagmus, or loss of control of eye movements, and
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Balkan traction frame
the inability to perceive all parts of a scene simultaneously.
The patient may begin to follow a moving object but lose
it. The cause is bilateral disease of the parietotemporal areas
of the brain.
Balkan traction frame, an overhead, rectangular frame
attached to the bed and used for attaching splints, suspending
or changing the position of immobilized limbs, or providing
continuous traction with weights and pulleys.
Balkan tubulointerstitial nephritis /too
ВЇВЇВЇВЇР€byYloВЇВ·inР€tYrstishШ…-Yl/, a chronic kidney disorder marked by renal insufficiency, proteinuria, tubulointerstitial nephritis, and anemia.
The onset is gradual, but end-stage disease occurs within 5
years after the first signs. About one third of the patients also
suffer from urinary tract cancers. The disease is endemic in
the Balkans but is not hereditary.
ball [ME, bal], spherical object, such as one of the collagen
balls embedded in hyaline cartilage.
Ballance’s sign [Charles A. Ballance, English surgeon,
1856–1936], a dull percussion resonance sound heard on
the right flank of a patient lying in the left decubitus position,
an indication of a ruptured spleen. The sound is caused by an
accumulation of liquid blood on the right side and coagulated blood on the left.
ball-and-socket joint, a synovial or multiaxial joint in
which the globular (ball-shaped) head of an articulating bone
is received into a cuplike cavity, allowing the distal bone to
move around an indefinite number of axes with a common
center, such as in hip and shoulder joints. Also called enarthrosis, spheroidea. Compare condyloid joint, pivot joint,
saddle joint. See also joint.
ball-bearing feeder. See mobile arm support.
ball-catcher position, a position of the hands used in
making a radiograph to diagnose rheumatoid arthritis. The
hands are held with the palms upward and the fingers
cupped, as if to catch a ball.
Baller-Gerold syndrome /baВЁР€lYr gaР€roВЇlt/ [Friedrich Baller,
German physician, 20th century; M. Gerold, German physician, 20th century], an autosomal recessive syndrome
characterized by craniosynostosis and absence of the radius.
ballism. See ballismus.
ballismus /boˆl؅izЈmYs/ [Gk, ballismo, dancing], an abnormal neuromuscular condition characterized by uncoordinated swinging of the limbs and jerky movements. Ballism is
associated with extrapyramidal disorders such as Sydenham’s chorea. The condition may occur in a unilateral form
as hemiballismus. Also called ballism.
ballistic movement /bYlisШ…tik/, a high-velocity musculoskeletal movement, such as a tennis serve or boxing punch,
requiring reciprocal coordination of agonistic and antagonistic muscles.
ballistics /bYlisШ…tiks/ [Gk, ballein, to throw], the study of
the motion, trajectory, and impact of projectiles, including
bullets and rockets.
ballistocardiograph [Gk, ballein, to throw, kardia, heart,
graphein, to record], an apparatus for recording body
movements caused by the thrust of the heart during systolic
ejection of the blood into the aorta and the pulmonary arteries. It has been used in measuring cardiac output and the
force of contraction of the heart.
ballistocardiography /balisР€toВЇkaВЁrР€deВЇВ·ogШ…rYfeВЇ/, the recording of body movements in reaction to the beating of the heart
and the circulation of the blood.
ball of the foot, the part of the foot composed of the distal
heads of the metatarsals and their surrounding fatty fibrous
tissue pad.
balloon angioplasty /bYloo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇnШ…/, a method of dilating or
opening an obstructed blood vessel by threading a small,
ball-valve action
balloon-tipped catheter into the vessel. The balloon is inflated to compress arteriosclerotic lesions against the walls
of the vessel, leaving a larger lumen, through which blood
can pass. It is used in treating arteriosclerotic heart disease.
Balloon angioplasty
(Thibodeau and Patton, 2007)
balloon compression,
a percutaneous therapy for trigeminal neuralgia. A balloon is inflated to compress the gasserian
ganglion and produce trigeminal injury.
ballooning degeneration hydropic degeneration. See
granular degeneration.
balloon septostomy. See Rashkind procedure.
balloon tamponade [Fr, tamponnade], a procedure in
which a device consisting of a flexible tube and two balloons
is inserted into a passageway and the balloons are expanded
to restrict the flow of blood or to force open a stenosis. See
also balloon angioplasty.
balloon-tip catheter, a catheter bearing a nonporous inflatable sac around its far end. After insertion of the catheter
the sac can be inflated with air or sterile water, introduced
via injection into a special port at the near end of the catheter. The inflated sac secures the catheter in the correct position. See also Foley catheter, Swan-Ganz catheter.
ballottable /bYlotШ…YbYl/ [Fr, balloter, a shaking about],
pertaining to a use of palpation to detect movement of objects suspended in fluid, such as a fetus in amniotic fluid, or
the patella bumping against the femur. See also ballottement.
ballottable head [Fr, ballotage, shaking up], a floating
fetal head; a fetal head that has not descended and has not
become fixed in the maternal bony pelvis.
ballottement /ba¨Јloˆtma¨N؅, bYlot؅ment/ [Fr, tossing],
a technique of palpating an organ or floating structure by
bouncing it gently and feeling it rebound. Ballottement of a
fetus within a uterus is a probable objective sign of pregnancy. In late pregnancy a fetal head that can be ballotted is
said to be floating or unengaged, as differentiated from a
fixed or an engaged head, which cannot be easily dislodged
from the pelvis.
ball thrombus, a relatively round, coagulated mass of
blood, containing platelets, fibrin, and cellular fragments,
that may obstruct a blood vessel or an orifice, usually the mitral valve of the heart.
ball-valve action, the intermittent opening and closing of
an orifice by a buoyant, ball-shaped mass, which acts as a
valve. Some kinds of objects that may act in this manner are
kidney stones, gallstones, and blood clots.
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Banti’s syndrome
balm /baВЁm/ [Gk, balsamon, balsam],
1. a healing or a
soothing substance, such as any of various medicinal ointments. 2. an aromatic plant of the genus Melissa that relieves pain. Also called balsam.
balneology /balР€neВЇВ·olШ…YjeВЇ/ [L, balneum, bath; Gk, logos, science], a field of medicine that deals with the chemical
compositions of various mineral waters and their healing
characteristics, especially in baths. —balneologic, adj.
balneotherapy /balР€neВЇВ·oВЇtherШ…YpeВЇ/ [L, balneum П© Gk,
therapeia, treatment], use of baths in the treatment of
many diseases and conditions.
balneum pneumaticum. See air bath.
balsalazide /bal-salР€ah-zД±ВЇd/, a prodrug of the antiinflammatory mesalamine, to which it is converted in the colon; administered orally as the disodium salt in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.
balsam /boˆl؅sYm/ [Gk, balsamon], 1. any of a variety of
resinous saps, generally from evergreens, usually containing
benzoic or cinnamic acid. Balsam is sometimes used in rectal suppositories and dermatologic agents as a counterirritant. 2. See balm.
Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA),
a long-range examination of interrelations between multiple
correlates of aging. Although men of varied backgrounds
were selected for the original study (1955) in order to explore uncontrolled factors that might lead to new knowledge
regarding aging, the BLSA now includes both men and
-bamate, combining form designating a propanediol or
pentanediol derivative.
Bamberger’s sign [Heinrich Bamberger, Austrian physician, 1822–1888], 1. a neural disorder characterized by
the feeling of a tactile stimulation at a corresponding point
on the opposite side of the body (known as allochiria).
2. pericardial effusion signs at the level of the scapula that
disappear when the patient leans forward.
bamboo spine /bamboo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇШ…/ [Malay, bambu], (in radiology)
the appearance of the thoracic or lumbar spine with rigid
characteristics of advanced ankylosing spondylitis. Also
called poker spine. See also ankylosing spondylitis.
band [ME, bande, strip], 1. (in anatomy) a bundle of fibers, as seen in tendon or striated muscle, that encircles a
structure or binds one part of the body to another. 2. (in dentistry) a strip of metal that fits around a tooth and serves as
an attachment for orthodontic components. Also called stab
form. 3. informal. the immature form of a segmented granulocyte characterized by a sausage-shaped nucleus. It is the
only immature leukocyte normally found in the peripheral
circulation. Bands represent 3% to 5% of the total white cell
number. An increase in the relative number of bands indicates bacterial infection or acute stress to the bone marrow.
band adapter, an instrument for aiding in the fitting of a
circumferential orthodontic band to a tooth.
bandage /banШ…dij/ [ME, bande, strip], 1. a strip or roll of
cloth or other material that may be wound around a part of
the body in a variety of ways to secure a dressing, maintain
pressure over a compress, or immobilize a limb or other
part of the body. See also cravat bandage. 2. to apply a
bandage shears, a sturdy pair of scissors used to cut
through bandages. The blades of most bandage shears are
angled to the shaft of the instrument, and the lower blade is
rounded and blunt to facilitate insertion under the bandage
without harming the patient’s skin. Also called bandage
band cell, a developing granular (immature) leukocyte in
circulating blood, characterized by a curved or indented
Figure-eight bandage for the ankle
(Young and Proctor, 2007)
nucleus. Band cells are intermediate leukocytic forms between metamyelocytes and adult leukocytes with segmented
band heterotopia, an anomaly of the cerebral cortex in
which a heterotopic band of gray matter is found between
the lateral ventricles and the cortex; affected patients may
have mental retardation or epilepsy.
banding [ME, bande, strip], any of several techniques of
staining chromosomes with fluorescent stains or chemical
dyes that produce a series of transverse light and dark areas
whose intensity and position are characteristic of each chromosome. Banding patterns are identified as C-banding,
G-banding, Q-banding, or R-banding according to the staining technique used. Also called chromosome banding.
Bandl’s ring. See pathologic retraction ring.
bandpass, (in radiology) a measure of the number of times
per second an electron beam can be modulated, expressed as
Hertz (Hz). It is a factor that influences horizontal resolution
on a cathode-ray tube. The higher the bandpass, the greater
the horizontal resolution. Also called bandwidth.
band pusher, an instrument used for seating metal circumferential orthodontic bands into correct position on a tooth.
band remover, an instrument used to help take circumferential orthodontic bands off teeth.
bandwidth, 1. the range of frequencies that can be satisfactorily transmitted or processed by a system. 2. See
bang. See bhang.
Bangkok hemorrhagic fever. See dengue fever.
bank blood [It, banca, bench; AS, blod], anticoagulated
preserved blood collected from donors usually in units of
500 mL and stored under refrigeration for future use. Dated
and identified as to blood type, it is stored for a usual maximum period of 21 days. Bank blood may be used in transfusion after crossmatching against the recipient’s blood or for
the extraction and preparation of any of its components. See
also packed cells, pooled plasma, whole blood.
Banting, Sir Frederick G. [Canadian physician, 1891–
1941], co-winner, with John J. Macleod, of the 1923
Nobel prize for medicine and physiology for their research,
with the Canadian physiologist Charles H. Best, showing the
link between the pancreas and insulin in the control of diabetes. See also Macleod, John J.
Banti’s syndrome /ban؅te¯z/ [Guido Banti, Italian pathologist, 1852–1925], a chronic, progressive disorder involving several organ systems, characterized by portal hypertension, splenomegaly, anemia, leukopenia, GI tract bleeding,
and cirrhosis of the liver. Obstruction of the blood vessels
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that lie between the intestines and the liver leads to venous
congestion, enlargement of the spleen, and abnormal destruction of red and white blood cells. Early symptoms are
weakness, fatigue, and anemia. Surgical removal of the
spleen and creation of a portacaval shunt to improve portal
circulation are sometimes necessary. Since the syndrome is
often a complication of alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver, medical treatment includes prescribing improved nutrition, vitamins, abstinence from alcohol, and rest. Also called Banti’s
syndrome. See also congestive splenomegalia, cirrhosis,
portacaval shunt, portal hypertension.
BAO, abbreviation for basal acid output.
bar, (in physical science) a measure of air pressure. It is
equal to 1000 millibars, or 106 dyne/cm2, or approximately 1
standard atmosphere (1 atm). Also called barye.
bar-. See baro-.
Baraclude, a trademark for entecavir.
baralyme /berШ…YlД±ВЇm/ [Gk, barys, heavy; AS, lim, lime],
a mixture of calcium and barium compounds used to absorb
exhaled carbon dioxide in an anesthesia rebreathing system.
Ba´ra´ny’s test. See caloric test.
-barb, combining form designating a barbituric acid derivative.
Barbados cherry. See acerola.
barber’s itch. See sycosis barbae.
barbiturate /baВЁrbichШ…oo
Л� raВЇt, -Yrit/ [Saint Barbara, drug discovered on day of the saint, 1864], a derivative of barbituric acid that acts as a sedative or hypnotic. These derivatives
act by depressing the respiratory rate, blood pressure, temperature, and central nervous system. They have great addiction potential. Some barbiturates are used in anesthesia and
in treatment of seizures.
barbiturate coma [Ger, Saint Barbara’s Day, Gk, koma,
deep sleep], an effect of barbituric acid or its derivatives,
which may be rapid-acting sedatives, hypnotics, and respiratory depressants. Barbiturate coma may be intentionally induced for the treatment of some neurologic conditions.
Death may result from intentional or accidental overdosage.
barbiturate poisoning. See barbiturism.
-barbituric, combining form used to designate compounds derived from barbituric acid: dibromobarbituric,
barbiturism /baВЁrbichШ…YrizР€Ym/, 1. acute or chronic poisoning by any of the derivatives of barbituric acid. Ingestion
of such preparations in excess of therapeutic quantities may
be fatal or may produce physiologic, pathologic, and psychologic changes, such as depressed respiration, cyanosis,
disorientation, and coma. Also called barbiturate poisoning. 2. addiction to a barbiturate.
bar clasp arm, (in prosthetic dentistry) a clasp arm that
originates from a denture base and serves as an extracoronal
Bardeleben’s bone. See os trigonum.
Bard-Pic syndrome /ba¨rd؅pik؅/ [Louis Bard, French anatomist, 1857–1930; Adrian Pic, French physician, b. 1863],
a condition characterized by progressive jaundice, enlarged
gallbladder, and cachexia, associated with advanced pancreatic cancer.
Bard’s sign [Louis Bard], the increased oscillations of the
eyeball in organic nystagmus when the patient tries to visually follow a target moved from side to side across the line of
sight. Such oscillations usually cease during the same test if
the patient has congenital nystagmus.
bare lymphocyte syndrome, an immune deficiency condition caused by defective beta-2 microglobulin, one of the
major histocompatibility antigens on cell surfaces. It is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. The deficiency causes
Barker, Phil
a severe combined immunodeficiency resulting from the
lack of antigen presentation by type I and/or type II major
histocompatibility complex.
baresthesia /baВЁrР€estheВЇШ…zhY/, sensitivity to weight or
bar graph [OF, barre], a graph in which frequencies are
represented by bars extending from the ordinate or the abscissa, allowing the distribution of the entire sample to be
seen at once.
bariatrics /berР€eВЇВ·atШ…riks/ [Gk, baros, weight, iatros, physician], the field of medicine that focuses on the treatment
and control of obesity and diseases associated with obesity.
bariatric surgery, surgery on part of the GI tract as a
treatment for morbid obesity.
baritosis /berР€YtoВЇШ…sis/, a benign form of pneumoconiosis
caused by an accumulation of barium dust in the lungs.
Barium does not cause fibrosis and is not a common cause of
functional impairment. The condition is most likely to affect
persons involved in the mining and processing of barite, a
barium-containing compound used in the manufacture of
barium (Ba) /berШ…eВЇВ·Ym/ [Gk, barys, heavy], a pale yellow,
metallic element classified with the alkaline earths. Its
atomic number is 56; its atomic mass is 137.36. The acidsoluble salts of barium are poisonous. Barium carbonate,
formerly used in medicine, is now used to prepare the cardiac stimulant barium chloride; fine, milky barium sulfate is
used as a contrast medium in radiographic imaging of the digestive tract.
barium enema, a rectal infusion of barium sulfate, a radiopaque contrast medium, which is retained in the lower intestinal tract during roentgenographic studies for diagnosis
of obstruction, tumors, or other abnormalities, such as ulcerative colitis. The procedure is used therapeutically in children to reduce nonstrangulated intussusception. Also called
contrast enema.
barium enema with air contrast. See double-contrast
barium enema.
barium meal, the ingestion of barium sulfate, a radiopaque contrast medium, for the radiographic examination
of the esophagus, stomach, and intestinal tract in the diagnosis of such conditions as dysphagia, peptic ulcer, and fistulas.
The movement of the barium through the GI tract is followed by fluoroscopy, x-ray studies, or both. Before the test,
the patient receives nothing by mouth for at least 8 hours.
See also barium swallow.
barium poisoning, a condition characterized by a severe,
rapid decrease in plasma potassium levels and a shift of potassium into cells caused by the ingestion of soluble barium
salts. The patient may experience nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, dizziness, arrhythmias, ringing
in the ears, cardiac arrest, and respiratory failure.
barium sulfate, a radiopaque medium used as a diagnostic
aid in radiology.
в…ў INDICATION: It is prescribed for x-ray examination of the
GI tract.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATION: Known hypersensitivity to this drug
prohibits its use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the more serious complications
is severe constipation.
barium swallow [Gk, barys, heavy; AS, swelgan, to swallow], the oral administration of a radiopaque barium sulfate suspension given to radiographically demonstrate possible defects in the esophagus and abnormal borders of the
posterior aspects of the heart. See also barium meal.
Barker, Phil, a nursing theorist who developed the Tidal
Model of Health Recovery for psychiatric and mental health
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Barlow’s disease
Barium enema
(Kowalczyk and Mace, 2009/Courtesy Ohio State University Medical
nursing. Psychiatric patients often feel that they are drowning in the flux of constant change and need rescue. Their life
stories, or experiences, must be carefully evaluated to determine what resources they have for recovery and what kind of
support is needed from and for the nurses who are caring for
the patients.
Barlow’s disease. See infantile scurvy.
Barlow’s syndrome [John B. Barlow, South African cardiologist, b. 1924], an abnormal cardiac condition characterized by an apical systolic murmur, a systolic click, and an
electrocardiogram indicating inferior ischemia. These signs
are associated with mitral regurgitation caused by prolapse
of the mitral valve. Also called floppy-valve syndrome. See
also mitral valve prolapse.
Barnard, Kathryn E. [b. 1938], a nursing theorist who
developed the Child Health Assessment Interaction Model.
Her model and theory were the outcome of the Nursing
Child Assessment Project (1976–1979). Barnard believes
that the parent-infant system is influenced by individual
characteristics of each member. Those characteristics are
modified to meet the needs of the system by adaptive behavior. The interaction between parent (or caregiver) and child
is shown in Barnard’s model to take place with five cues and
activities: (1) the infant’s clarity in sending cues; (2) the infant’s responsiveness to the parent; (3) the parent’s sensitivity to the child’s cues; (4) the parent’s ability to recognize
and alleviate the infant’s distress; and (5) the parent’s social,
emotional, and cognitive growth-fostering activities. A
major issue in Barnard’s theoretic assertions is that the nurse
gives support to the mother’s sensitivity and response to her
infant’s cues rather than trying to change her characteristics
or mothering style.
baro-, bar-, bari-, combining form meaning “pressure,
heaviness, weight”: baresthesia, barognosis, bariatrics.
barognosis /berР€YgnoВЇШ…sis/ pl. barognoses [Gk, baros,
weight, gnosis, knowledge], the ability to perceive and
evaluate weight, especially that held in the hand.
barograph /berШ…YgrafР€/ [Gk, baros П© graphein, to record],
barrel chest
an instrument that continually monitors barometric pressure
and records pressure changes on paper.
barometer /bYromШ…YtYr/ [Gk, baros П© metron, measure],
an instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure, commonly consisting of a slender tube filled with mercury,
sealed at one end, and inverted into a reservoir of mercury.
At sea level the normal height of mercury in the tube is 760
mm. At higher elevations the mercury column height (barometric pressure) is less. Fluctuations in barometric pressure
may precede major changes in weather, making a barometer
useful in meteorologic forecasting. —barometric, adj.
barometric pressure. See atmospheric pressure.
baroreceptor /berР€oВЇrisepШ…tYr/ [Gk, baros П© L, recipere, to
receive], one of the pressure-sensitive nerve endings in the
walls of the atria of the heart, the aortic arch, and the carotid
sinuses. Baroreceptors stimulate central reflex mechanisms
that allow physiologic adjustment and adaptation to changes
in blood pressure via changes in heart rate, vasodilation, or
vasoconstriction. Baroreceptors are essential for homeostasis. Also called pressoreceptor.
barosinusitis. See aerosinusitis.
Barosperse, trademark for a radiopaque medium (barium
barotitis. See aerotitis.
barotitis media. See aerotitis media.
barotrauma /berЈo¯troˆ؅mY, -trou؅mY/ [Gk, baros ϩ trauma,
wound], physical injury sustained as a result of exposure
to changing air pressure, or rupture of the tympanic membranes, as may occur among scuba divers or caisson workers
or anyone near nuclear or atomic blasts. Barotrauma may be
iatrogenic as in the case of excessive ventilator pressures
leading to lung injury. Compare decompression sickness.
Barr body. See sex chromatin.
barrel chest, a large, rounded thorax, as in the inspiratory
phase, considered normal in some stocky individuals and
certain others who live in high-altitude areas and consequently have increased vital capacity. Barrel chest may also
be a sign of pulmonary emphysema. Also called emphysematous chest.
Barrel chest (Swartz, 2006)
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barrel distortion
barrel distortion,
outward bowing of gridded straight
lines in an image, resulting from lens distortion such that the
lateral magnification at the center of the image is greater
than that at the edges.
Barr-Epstein virus. See Epstein-Barr virus.
Barre´’s pyramidal sign /ba¨ra¯z؅/ [Jean A. Barre´, French
neurologist, 1880–1971], a diagnostic sign indicating a
disease of the pyramidal tracts. The patient lies face down
and the legs are flexed at the knee. The patient is unable to
maintain this position.
Barrett’s esophagus [Norman R. Barrett, English surgeon,
1903–1979], a disorder of the lower esophagus marked by
a benign ulcerlike lesion in columnar epithelium, resulting
most often from chronic irritation of the esophagus by gastric reflux of acidic digestive juices. Major symptoms include dysphagia, decreased lower esophageal (LES) pressure, and heartburn. Symptoms may be relieved by eating
frequent small meals, avoiding foods that produce gas, taking antacid medication, and elevating the head of the bed to
prevent passive reflux when lying down. Treatment consists
of proton pump inhibitors and H2 blockers. The lesion is
considered premalignant, and surveillance endoscopy is performed to screen for esophageal cancer. Also called Barrett’s syndrome.
Barrett’s syndrome [Norman R. Barrett, English surgeon,
1903–1979]. See Barrett’s esophagus.
Bartholin’s cyst
barrier creams,
ointments, lotions, and similar preparations applied to exposed areas of the skin to protect skin cells
from exposure to various allergens, irritants, and carcinogens, including sunlight.
barrier-free design [AS, freo, barreres; L, designare, to
mark out], the design of homes, workplaces, and public
buildings that allows physically challenged individuals to
make regular use of such structures.
barrier methods, contraceptive methods, such as
condoms and diaphragms, in which a plastic or rubber barrier blocks passage of spermatozoa through the vagina or
cervix. See discussion under contraception.
Barsony-Koppenstein method, a procedure for making
radiographic images of the cervical intervertebral foramina.
Barthel Index (BI) [D.W. Barthel, twentieth century American psychiatrist], a disability profile scale developed by
D.W. Barthel in 1965 to evaluate a patient’s self-care abilities in 10 areas, including bowel and bladder control. The patient is scored from 0 to 15 points in various categories, depending on his or her need for help, such as in feeding,
bathing, dressing, and walking.
bartholinian abscess. See Bartholin’s abscess.
bartholinitis /baВЁrР€tYlinД±ВЇШ…tis/ [Caspar T. Bartholin, Danish
anatomist, 1655–1738; Gk, itis], an inflammatory condition of one or both Bartholin’s glands, caused by bacterial
infection. Usually the causative microorganism is a species
of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, or Escherichia coli, or a
strain of gonococcus. The condition is characterized by
swelling of one or both glands, pain, and development of an
abscess in the infected gland. A fistula may develop from the
gland to the vagina, anus, or perineum. Treatment includes
local application of heat, often by soaking in hot water; antibiotics; or, if necessary, incision of the gland and drainage
of the purulent material or excision of the entire gland and
its duct.
Bartholin’s abscess /ba¨r؅tYlinz/ [Caspar T. Bartholin; L,
abscedere, to go away], an abscess of the greater vestibular gland of the vagina. Also called bartholinian abscess.
Bartholin’s cyst [Caspar T. Bartholin], a cyst that arises
from one of the vestibular glands or from its ducts and fills
with clear fluid that replaces the suppurative exudate characteristic of chronic inflammation.
Barrett’s syndrome (Goldman et al, 2008)
barrier /berШ…eВЇВ·Yr/ [ME, barrere],
1. a wall or other obstacle that can restrain or block the passage of substances.
Barrier methods of contraception, such as the condom or cervical diaphragm, prevent the passage of spermatozoa into the
uterus. Membranes and cell walls of body tissues function as
screenlike barriers to permit the movement of water or certain other molecules from one side to the other while preventing the passage of other substances. Skin is an important
barrier that protects against the entry of microorganisms and
the exit of body fluids. Barriers in kidney tissues adjust automatically to regulate the retention or excretion of water
and other substances according to the needs of organ systems elsewhere in the body. 2. something nonphysical that
obstructs or separates, such as barriers to communication or
compliance. 3. (in radiography) any device that intercepts
beams of x-rays. A primary barrier is one that blocks the passage of the useful x-ray beam, such as the walls and floor. A
secondary barrier is one that intercepts only leakage and
scattered x-ray emissions. An example is the ceiling.
Bartholin’s cyst (Greer et al, 2001)
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Bartholin’s duct
Bartholin’s duct [Caspar T. Bartholin],
the major duct of
the sublingual salivary gland.
Bartholin’s gland [Caspar T. Bartholin], one of two small
mucus-secreting glands located on the posterior and lateral
aspect of the vestibule of the vagina. Also called greater
vestibular gland.
Bartholin’s gland carcinoma [Caspar T. Bartholin],
a rare malignancy that occurs deep in the labia majora. The
tumor has overlying skin and some normal glandular tissue.
The treatment and prognosis are the same as for squamous
cell cancer of the vulva.
Barton, Clara, (1821–1912), an American philanthropist,
humanitarian, and founder of the American National Red
Cross. During the U.S. Civil War, she was a volunteer nurse,
often on the battlefield, and at its end she organized a bureau
of records to help in the search for missing men. When the
Franco-Prussian War erupted, she assisted in the organization of military hospitals in Europe in association with the
International Red Cross. This experience led to her advocacy
of the establishment of an American Red Cross organization,
of which she became the first president.
Bartonella /ba¨rЈtYnel؅Y/ [Alberto Barton, Peruvian bacteriologist, 1871–1950], a genus of small gram-negative flagellated pleomorphic coccobacilli, some of which are opportunistic pathogens. Members of the genus infect red blood
cells and the epithelial cells of the lymph nodes, liver, and
spleen. They are transmitted at night by the bite of a sandfly
of the genus Phlebotomus. Three species are considered important in human disease. B. bacilliformis, causes bartonellosis. Because of its distinctive appearance, it is easily identified on microscopic examination of a smear of blood
stained with Wright’s stain. B. henselae is the causative
agent of cat-scratch fever and bacillary angiomatosis. B.
quintana causes trench fever and may cause peliosis of the
Bartonella henselae, the etiologic agent of cat-scratch
fever. Feline infection results in chronic asymptomatic bacteremia, which may last up to 17 months. Approximately
40% of cats are infected with the organism. Most human infections occur between September and February and follow
a cat bite or scratch.
bartonellosis /baВЁrР€tYnYloВЇШ…sis/, an acute infection caused by
Bartonella bacilliformis, transmitted by the bite of a sandfly.
It is characterized by fever, severe anemia, bone pain, and,
several weeks after the first symptoms are observed, multiple
nodular or verrucous skin lesions. The disease is endemic in
the valleys of the Andes in Peru, Colombia, and Ecuador.
The treatment usually includes chloramphenicol, penicillin,
streptomycin, or tetracycline. Untreated, the infection is
often fatal. Also called Carrio´n’s disease, Oroya fever,
verruga peruana.
Barton forceps. See obstetric forceps.
Barton’s fracture [John R. Barton, American surgeon,
1794–1871], a break in the distal articular surface of the
radius, which may be accompanied by the dorsal dislocation
of the carpus on the radius.
Bartter’s syndrome /ba¨r؅tYrz/ [Frederick C. Bartter, American physiologist, 1914–1983], a rare hereditary disorder,
characterized by hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular area and
secondary hyperaldosteronism. Renin and angiotensin levels
may be elevated, but blood pressure usually remains normal.
Early signs in childhood are abnormal physical growth
(dwarfism) and mental retardation, often accompanied by
chronic hypokalemia and alkalosis.
bary-, combining form meaning “heavy or difficult”:
barye. See bar.
basal cell carcinoma
basal /baВЇШ…sYl/ [Gk, basis, foundation],
pertaining to the
fundamental or the basic, as basal anesthesia, which produces the first stage of unconsciousness, and the basal metabolic rate, which indicates the lowest metabolic rate; basal
basal acid output (BAO), the minimum amount of gastric hydrochloric acid produced by an individual in a given
period. Normal adult volume is 2 to 5 mEq/hr. It is used infrequently in the diagnosis of various diseases of the stomach and intestines, such as gastric ulcers and ZollingerEllison syndrome.
basal anesthesia [Gk, basis, foundation, anaisthesia, lack of
feeling], 1. a state of unconsciousness just short of complete surgical anesthesia in depth, in which the patient does
not respond to words but reacts to pinprick or other noxious
stimuli. 2. narcosis produced by injection or infusion of potent sedatives alone, without added narcotics or anesthetic
agents. 3. also called narcoanesthesia. Any form of anesthesia in which the patient is completely unconscious, in contrast to awake anesthesia.
basal body temperature, the temperature of the body
under conditions of absolute rest, taken orally or rectally,
after sleep and before the patient does anything, including
getting out of bed, smoking a cigarette, moving around, talking, eating, or drinking.
basal body temperature method of family planning,
a natural method of family planning that relies on identification of the fertile period of the menstrual cycle by noting the
rise in basal body temperature that occurs with ovulation.
The progesterone-mediated rise is 0.5В° to 1В° F; rate and pattern vary greatly from woman to woman, and to some extent
from cycle to cycle in any one woman. The woman keeps
careful records over several cycles, taking her temperature at
the same time every morning, before getting out of bed or
doing anything else. She may take her temperature orally or
rectally in the same way every day. Talking, getting up,
smoking a cigarette, eating, or even moving about in bed
may change the temperature. Many other factors may also
affect the reading, including infection, stress, a bad night’s
sleep, medication, or environmental temperature. If any of
these factors is present, the woman notes them on her record.
Abstinence is required to avoid pregnancy from 6 days before the earliest day that ovulation was noted to occur during
the preceding 6 months until the third day after the rise in
temperature in the current cycle. The days after that period
are considered “safe” infertile days. Another way of calculating the possible beginning of the fertile days is to subtract 19
days from the shortest complete menstrual cycle of the preceding 6 months. The basal body temperature method is
more effective when used with the ovulation method than is
either method used alone. The combination of these methods
is called the symptothermal method of family planning.
Compare calendar method of family planning, ovulation
method of family planning.
basal bone, 1. (in prosthodontics) the osseous tissue of the
mandible and the maxilla, except for the rami and the processes, which provides support for artificial dentures.
2. (in orthodontics) the fixed osseous structure that limits the
movement of teeth in the creation of a stable occlusion.
basal cell, any one of the cells in the deepest layer of stratified epithelium; the base.
basal cell acanthoma. See basal cell papilloma.
basal cell carcinoma [Gk, basis П© L, cella, storeroom; Gk,
karkinos, crab, oma, tumor], a malignant epithelial cell
tumor that begins as a papule and enlarges peripherally, developing a central crater that erodes, crusts, and bleeds. Metastasis is rare, but local invasion destroys underlying and
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basal cell papilloma
adjacent tissue. It occurs most frequently in sun-exposed
areas of the body, such as the face, ears, neck, scalp, shoulders, and back. The primary known cause of the cancer is excessive exposure to the sun or to radiation. Treatment is
eradication of the lesion, often by electrodesiccation, laser,
or cryotherapy. Lesions may also be treated with topical or
injection chemotherapy or radiation. Also called basal cell
epithelioma, basaloma, basiloma, carcinoma basocellulare, hair matrix carcinoma. See also rodent ulcer.
Basal cell carcinoma (Swartz, 2006)
basal cell papilloma. See seborrheic keratosis.
basal energy expenditure (BEE). See basal metabolic rate.
basal ganglia [Gk, basis П© ganglion, knot],
the islands of
gray matter, largely composed of cell bodies, within each cerebral hemisphere. The most important are the caudate
nucleus, the putamen, the substantia nigra, the subthalamic
nucleus, and the pallidum. The basal ganglia are surrounded
by the rings of the limbic system and lie between the thalamus of the diencephalon and the white matter of the hemisphere.
Basaljel, trademark for an antacid (aluminum carbonate gel).
basal lamina [Gk, basis П© L, lamina, plate], a thin, noncellular layer of ground substance lying just under epithelial
surfaces. Constituting the amorphous portion of the basement membrane, it can be examined with an electron microscope. Also called basement lamina.
basal layer. See stratum basale.
basal layer of endometrium, the deepest layer of the endometrium, which contains the blind ends of the uterine
glands; the cells of this layer undergo minimal change during the sexual cycle.
basal layer of epidermis. See stratum basale.
basal membrane, a sheet of tissue that forms the outer
layer of the choroid and lies just under the pigmented layer
of the retina. It is composed of elastic fibers in an otherwise
thin homogenous layer.
basal metabolic rate (BMR), the amount of energy used
in a unit of time by a fasting, resting subject to maintain vital
functions. The rate, determined by the amount of oxygen
used, is expressed in Calories consumed per hour per square
meter of body surface area or per kilogram of body weight.
base-forming food
Also called basal energy expenditure (BEE). See also
basal metabolism [Gk, basis П© metabole, change],
the amount of energy needed to maintain essential body
functions, such as respiration, circulation, temperature, peristalsis, and muscle tone. Basal metabolism is measured
when the subject is awake and at complete rest, has not eaten
for 14 to 18 hours, and is in a comfortable, warm environment. It is expressed as a basal metabolic rate, according to
Calories per hour per square meter of body surface. See also
basal narcosis [Gk, basis, foundation, narkosis, a benumbing], a narcosis induced with sedatives in a surgical patient
before general anesthetic is administered. It is less profound
than that of general anesthesia. The patient is unresponsive
to verbal stimuli but may respond to noxious stimuli. Also
called basis narcosis.
basaloid carcinoma /baВЇШ…sYloid/ [Gk, basis П© eidos, form,
karkinos, crab, oma, tumor], a rare transitional malignant
neoplasm of the anal canal containing areas that resemble
basal cell carcinoma of the skin. Basaloid carcinoma is rapidly invasive. Tumor may spread to the skin of the perineum.
basaloma. See basal cell carcinoma.
basal seat, (in dentistry) the oral structures that support a
denture. See also basal seat outline.
basal seat area. See stress-bearing area.
basal seat outline, a profile on the oral mucous membrane
or on a cast of the entire oral area to be covered by a denture.
See also basal seat.
basal temperature. See basal body temperature.
basal temperature chart [Gk, basis, foundation; L,
temperatura П© charta, paper], a daily temperature chart,
usually including the temperature on awakening. A basal
temperature chart is sometimes used by women to establish a
date of ovulation, when the temperature may show a sudden
basal tidal volume, the amount of air inhaled and exhaled
by a healthy person at complete rest, with all bodily functions at a minimal level of activity, adjusted for age, weight,
and sex. See also tidal volume (TV).
base [Gk, basis, foundation], 1. a chemical compound that
increases the concentration of hydroxide ions in aqueous solution. See also acid, alkali. 2. a molecule or radical that
takes up or accepts hydrogen ions. 3. an electron pair donor.
4. the major ingredient of a compounded material, particularly one that is used as a medication. Petroleum jelly is frequently used as a base for ointments. 5. (in radiology) the
rigid but flexible foundation of a sheet of x-ray film. The
base is essentially transparent but is given a bluish tint during manufacture to reduce eyestrain of the radiologist viewing x-ray films.
base analog [Gk, basis П© analogos, proportionate],
a chemical analog of one of the purine or the pyrimidine
bases normally found in RNA or DNA.
Basedow’s goiter /ba¨؅sYdo¯z/ [Karl A. von Basedow, German
physician, 1799–1854], a name for colloid goiter, which is
an enlargement of the thyroid gland, characterized by the hypersecretion of thyroid hormone after iodine therapy. The
condition causes increased basal metabolic rate, insomnia,
and fine motor tremor.
base excess, a measure of metabolic alkalosis or metabolic
acidosis (negative value of base excess) expressed as the
amount of acid or alkali needed to titrate 1 L of fully oxygenated blood to a pH of 7.40, the temperature being held at a
constant 37В° C and the PCO2 at 40 mm Hg.
base-forming food, a food that increases the pH of the
urine. Base-forming foods mainly are fruits, vegetables, and
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Temperature (В°F)
base ratio
Day of Cycle
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
Biphasic pattern
Monophasic pattern
= Menstruation
= Intercourse
Restless sleep or other possible
interference with temperature
Basal temperature rise during ovulation
(McKinney et al, 2005)
dairy products, which are sources of sodium and potassium.
Some foods that are acidic in their natural state may be converted to alkaline metabolites.
baseline /baВЇsШ…lД±ВЇn/ [Gk, basis П© L, linea], 1. a known value
or quantity with which an unknown is compared when measured or assessed (e.g., baseline vital signs). 2. the patient�s
initial information at diagnosis or assessment against which
later tests will be compared. 3. (in radiology) any of several
basic anatomic planes or locations used for positioning purposes. They include the orbitomeatal, infraorbitomeatal,
acanthomeatal, and glabellomeatal lines.
baseline behavior, a specified frequency and form of a
particular behavior during preexperimental or pretherapeutic
baseline condition, an environmental condition during
which a particular behavior reflects a stable rate of response
before the introduction of experimental or therapeutic conditions.
baseline fetal heart rate, the fetal heart rate pattern between uterine contractions. An electronic fetal monitor is
used to detect abnormally rapid or slow rates (less than 110
or more than 160 beats/min) at term.
baseline pain, the average intensity of pain experienced
for 12 or more hours in a 24-hour period.
Basel Nomina Anatomica (BNA), an international system of anatomic terminology adopted at Basel, Switzerland.
basement lamina. See basal lamina.
basement membrane [Fr, soubassement, under base],
the fragile noncellular layer that secures the overlying epithelium to the underlying tissue. It is the deepest layer, may
contain reticular fibers, and can be selectively stained with
silver stains. Also called basal lamina, basement lamina.
base of gastric gland, the main part of a gastric gland interior to the neck.
base of renal pyramid,
the part of a renal pyramid that is
directed away from the renal sinus.
base of the heart, the portion of the heart opposite the
apex. It is superior and medially located. It forms the upper
border of the heart, lies just below the second rib, and primarily involves the left atrium, part of the right atrium, and
the proximal portions of the great vessels.
base of the skull, the floor of the skull, containing the anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossae and numerous foramina, such as the optic foramen, foramen ovale, foramen
lacerum, and foramen magnum.
base pair, a pair of nucleotides in the complementary
strands of a DNA molecule that interact through hydrogen
bonding across the axis of the helix. One of the nucleotides
in each pair is a purine (either adenine or guanine), and the
other is a pyrimidine (either thymine or cytosine). Because
of their spatial configuration, adenine always pairs with
thymine, and guanine always pairs with cytosine.
base pairing, the formation of base pairs in DNA.
baseplate [Gk, basis П© ME, plate], a temporary form that
represents the base of a denture, used for making records of
maxillomandibular relationships, for evaluating lip line and
lip fullness, for arranging artificial teeth, or for ensuring a
precise fit of a denture by trial placement in the mouth. Also
called record base, temporary base.
baseplate wax, a dental wax containing about 75% paraffin or ceresin with additions of beeswax and other waxes
and resins; used chiefly to establish the initial arch form in
making trial plates for the construction of complete dentures.
base plus fog, the optical density of a processed film in the
absence of any radiation exposure.
base ratio, the ratio of the molar quantities of purine and
pyrimidine bases in DNA and RNA.
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(palatine process)
Zygomatic process
of maxilla
Alveolar process
(horizontal plate)
Mandibular fossa
Styloid process
Occipital condyle
Foramen magnum
Foramen ovale
Foramen lacerum
Carotid canal
Jugular foramen
Mastoid process
Base of the skull (Applegate, 2006)
bas-fond /ba¨foˆN؅/ [Fr, bottom],
the bottom or fundus of
any structure, especially the fundus of the urinary bladder.
basi-, basio-, bas-, baso-, prefix meaning “a foundation
or a base”: basicranial, basiotribe, basal, basophil.
-basia /ba¯؅zhY/, suffix meaning “ability to walk”:
brachybasia, dysbasia.
-basic, suffix meaning “relating to or containing alkaline
compounds”: ammonobasic, polybasic.
BASIC /ba¯؅sik/, abbreviation for beginner’s all-purpose
symbolic instruction code, a computer programming language.
basic aluminum carbonate gel, an aluminum hydroxide
aluminum carbonate gel, used as an antacid, for treatment of
hyperphosphatemia in renal insufficiency and to prevent
phosphate urinary calculi.
basic amino acid, an amino acid that has a positive electric charge in solution at a pH of 7. The basic amino acids are
arginine, histidine, and lysine.
basic group identity, (in psychiatry) the shared social
characteristics, such as world view, language, values, and
ideologic system, that evolve from membership in an ethnic
basic health services, the minimum degree of health care
considered to be necessary to maintain adequate health and
protection from disease.
basic human needs, the elements required for survival
and normal mental and physical health, such as food, water,
shelter, protection from environmental threats, and love.
basic life support (BLS) [Gk, basis, foundation; AS, lif П©
L, supportare, to bring up to], emergency treatment of a
victim of cardiac or respiratory arrest through cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiac care.
basic salt, a salt that contains an unreplaced hydroxide ion
from the base generating it, such as Ca(OH)Cl.
Basidiobolus /bYsidЈЈe¯·obЈYlYs/ [Gk., basis, foundation ϩ
bolos, a throw], a mainly saprobic genus of fungi of the
family Basidiobolaceae. The species B. ranarum causes
entomophthoromycosis in humans and horses.
basifacial /baВЇР€sifaВЇШ…shYl/ [Gk, basis П© L, facies, face],
pertaining to the lower portion of the face.
basilar /basШ…ilYr/ [Gk, basis, foundation], pertaining to a
base or a basal area.
basilar artery, the single posterior arterial trunk formed
by the junction of the two vertebral arteries at the base of the
skull. It extends from the inferior to the superior border of
the pons before dividing into the left and right posterior cerebral arteries. It supplies the internal ear and parts of the
brain. Its branches are the pontine, labyrinthine, anterior inferior cerebellar, superior cerebellar, and posterior cerebral.
basilar artery insufficiency syndrome, the composite of
clinical indicators associated with insufficient blood flow
through the basilar artery, a condition that may be caused by
arterial occlusion. Common signs of this syndrome include
dizziness, blindness, numbness, depression, dysarthria, dysphagia, and weakness on one side of the body.
basilar artery occlusion, an obstruction of the basilar artery, resulting in dysfunction involving cranial nerves III
through XII, cerebellar dysfunction, hemiplegia or tetraplegia, and loss of proprioception.
basilar membrane, the cellular structure that forms the
floor of the cochlear duct and is supported by bony and fibrous projections from the cochlear wall. It provides a fibrous base for the spiral organ of Corti.
basilar plexus [Gk, basis П© L, braided], the venous network interlaced between the layers of the dura mater over
the basilar portion of the occipital bone. It connects the two
petrosal sinuses and communicates with the anterior vertebral venous plexus.
basilar sulcus [Gk, basis П© L, furrow], the sulcus that
cradles the basilar artery in the midline of the pons.
basilar vertebra, the lowest or last of the lumbar vertebrae.
basilic vein /bYsilШ…ik/, one of the four superficial veins of
the arm, beginning in the ulnar part of the dorsal venous network and running proximally on the posterior surface of the
ulnar side of the forearm. It is often chosen for blood testing.
Compare dorsal digital vein, median antebrachial vein.
basiliximab, a monoclonal antibody used for immunosuppression.
в…ў INDICATIONS: This drug is used in combination with cyclosporine and corticosteroids to treat acute allograft rejection
in renal transplant patients.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Known hypersensitivity to this drug
contraindicates its use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Life-threatening effects of this drug include pulmonary edema and cardiac failure. Other adverse
effects include hypotension, headache, constipation, abdominal pain, infection, and moniliasis. Common side effects include pyrexia, chills, tremors, dyspnea, wheezing, chest
pain, vomiting, nausea, and diarrhea.
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basiloma. See basal cell carcinoma.
basiloma terebrans /terШ…YbrYnz/ [Gk, basis П© oma П© L,
terebare, to bore], an invasive basal cell epithelioma.
basin, 1. a receptacle for collecting or holding fluids. A
kidney-shaped basin is commonly used as an emesis receptacle. 2. term used to describe the shape of the pelvis.
basio-. See basi-.
basioccipital /baВЇР€siВ·oksipШ…YtYl/ [Gk, basis П© L, occiput, back
of the head], pertaining to the basilar process of the occipital bone.
basion /baВЇШ…seВЇВ·on/ [Gk, basis, foundation], the midpoint on
the anterior margin of the foramen magnum of the occipital bone.
basis, the lower part, designating the base of an organ or
other structure, such as the base of the cerebrum.
basis narcosis. See basal narcosis.
basis pedunculi cerebri. See crus cerebri.
basket /basВ·ket/, a container made of material woven together, or something resembling such a container.
basket cell [L, bascauda, dishpan], 1. deep stellate cells
(neurons) of the cerebral cortex with a horizontal axon that
sends out branches. Each axon branch or collateral breaks up
into a basketlike mesh that surrounds a Purkinje cell.
2. myoepithelial cells of mammary glands stimulated by
basolateral membrane, the layer of plasma membrane of
epithelial cells that is adjacent to the basement membrane
and separated from the apical membrane by the zonula
basophil /baВЇШ…sYfil/ [Gk, basis П© philein, to love], a granulocytic white blood cell characterized by cytoplasmic granules that stain blue when exposed to a basic dye. Basophils
represent 1% or less of the total white blood cell count. The
relative number of basophils increases in myeloproliferative
diseases and decreases in severe allergic reactions. An increase in number is seen during the healing phase of inflammation. Basophils produce histamine during inflammatory
reactions. Also called basophilic erythrocyte. Compare
eosinophil, neutrophil. See also agranulocyte, differential
white blood cell count, granulocyte, leukocyte,
polymorphonuclear leukocyte. —basophilic, adj.
Basophil (Carr and Rodak, 2009)
basophilic adenoma [Gk, basis П© philein, to love, aden,
gland, oma], a tumor of the pituitary gland composed of
cells that can be stained with basic dyes. Compare acidophilic adenoma, chromophobic adenoma.
basophilic erythrocyte. See basophil.
basophilic leukemia [Gk, basis П© philein, to love, leukos,
white, haima, blood], an acute or chronic malignant neoplasm of blood-forming tissues, characterized by large numbers of immature basophilic granulocytes in peripheral circulation and in tissues. See also acute myelocytic leukemia.
basophilic stippling [Gk, basis П© philein, to love; D,
stippen, to prick], the presence of punctate blue nucleic
acid remnants in red blood cells, observed under the microscope on a Wright-Giemsa-Gram-stained blood smear. Stippling is characteristic of lead poisoning. See also basophil,
lead poisoning.
basosquamous cell carcinoma /baВЇР€soВЇskwaВЇШ…mYs/ [Gk, basis
П© L, squamosus, scaly], a malignant epidermal tumor
composed of basal and squamous cells.
syndrome. See
batch processing [ME, baten, to bake], a processing mode
used with computers in which accumulated similar programs
and input data are processed simultaneously.
bath [AS, baeth], (in the hospital) a cleansing procedure
performed by or for patients, as needed for hygienic or therapeutic purposes, to help prevent infection, preserve the unbroken condition of the skin, stimulate circulation, promote
oxygen intake, maintain muscle tone and joint mobility, and
provide comfort.
в…ў METHOD: The bath may be a bed or tub bath, a shower, or
a partial bath, depending on the patient’s condition and preference and the room temperature. The bath period may be
used to instruct the patient on hygienic measures, range of
motion exercises, and general measures to promote skin
health. Observations are made of the general cleanliness and
odor of the patient’s body; the color, dryness, turgor, and
elasticity and integrity of the skin; and the condition of the
hair, hands, joints, feet, fingernails, and toenails. Any discoloration, abrasion, rash, discharge, perineal or rectal irritation, clubbing of the digits, hair loss, or evidence of lice infestation is carefully noted. Mild soap and warm water are
used for the bath, and a lanolin-based lotion may be used for
an after-bath massage. The patient’s hair is combed daily
and shampooed as needed; fingernails and toenails are
cleaned and trimmed whenever required. The diabetic client
may require specialized care of the nails.
в…ў INTERVENTIONS: The nurse gives the bed bath in a setting
that provides privacy for the patient. Firm, gentle strokes are
used to wash, dry, and massage the person; vigorous rubbing
is avoided. The partial bath is given with the patient seated in
or on the side of the bed or in a chair. Self-help is encouraged, and the procedure is completed as quickly as possible
to prevent chilling. In preparation for a tub bath, the nurse
checks the safety strips in the bottom of the tub and the water
temperature and assists the patient into the tub. Precautions
are taken to prevent chilling, and on completion of the bath
the nurse may help the patient out of the tub. In preparation
for a shower, the nurse explains the operation of the dials
regulating water temperature and provides a bath mat.
в…ў OUTCOME CRITERIA: A bath provides an opportunity to assess external signs of disease, effects of therapy, and signs of
pressure ulcer development and supports the patient’s sense
of well-being and self-esteem.
bath blanket, a thin, lightweight cloth used to cover a patient during a bath. It absorbs moisture while keeping the patient warm. See also blanket bath.
bathesthesia /bathШ…YstheВЇШ…zhY/ [Gk, bathys, deep, aisthesia,
feeling], sensitivity to deep structures in the body. Also
called bathyesthesia. /batheВЇВ·Ys-/.
bathing, a nursing intervention from the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as cleaning of the body for
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bathmic evolution
the purposes of relaxation, cleanliness, and healing. See also
Nursing Interventions Classification.
bathmic evolution. See orthogenic evolution.
bathy-, batho-, prefix meaning “depth, deep”:
bathycentesis, bathomorphic.
bathyanesthesia /bathР€eВЇanР€estheВЇШ…zhY/ [Gk, bathys, deep,
anaisthesia, loss of feeling], a loss of deep feeling, such as
that associated with organs or structures beneath the body
surface, or muscles and joints; a loss of sensitivity to deep
structures in the body.
bathycardia /bathР€eВЇkaВЁrШ…deВЇВ·Y/ [Gk, bathys, deep, kardia,
heart], a condition in which the heart is located at an abnormally low site in the thorax.
bathyesthesia. See bathesthesia.
Batten disease /batР€en/, 1. Vogt-Spielmeyer disease.
2. more generally, any or all of the group of disorders constituting neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.
Batten’s disease [Frederick E. Batten, English ophthalmologist neurologist, 1865–1918], a progressive childhood encephalopathy characterized by disturbed metabolism of
polyunsaturated fatty acids. It occurs in children between 5
and 10 years of age. The child experiences sudden blindness
and progressive mental deterioration. Also called neuronal
ceroid lipofuscinosis.
battered baby syndrome. See child abuse.
battered woman syndrome (BWS), repeated episodes
of physical assault on a woman by the person with whom she
lives or with whom she has a relationship, often resulting in
serious physical and psychologic damage to the woman.
Such violence tends to follow a predictable pattern. The violent episodes usually follow verbal argument and accusation
and are accompanied by verbal abuse. Almost any subject—
housekeeping, money, childrearing—may begin the episode.
Over time, the violent episodes escalate in frequency and severity. Most battered women report that they thought that the
assaults would stop; unfortunately, studies show that the
longer the women stay in the relationship the more likely
they are to be seriously injured. Less and less provocation
seems to be enough to trigger an attack once the syndrome
has begun. The use of alcohol may increase the severity of
the assault. The man is more likely to be abusive as the alcohol wears off. Battering occurs in cycles of violence. In
the first phase the man acts increasingly irritable, edgy, and
tense. Verbal abuse, insults, and criticism increase, and
shoves or slaps begin. The second phase is the time of the
acute, violent activity. As the tension mounts, the woman becomes unable to placate the man, and she may argue or defend herself. The man uses this as the justification for his
anger and assaults her, often saying that he is “teaching her a
lesson.” The third stage is characterized by apology and remorse on the part of the man, with promises of change. The
calm continues until tension builds again. Battered woman
syndrome occurs at all socioeconomic levels, and one half to
three quarters of female assault victims are the victims of an
attack by a partner. It is estimated that in the United States
between 1 and 2 million women a year are beaten by their
husbands. Men who grew up in homes in which the father
abused the mother are more likely to beat their wives than
are men who lived in nonviolent homes. Personal and cultural attitudes also affect the incidence of battering. Aggressive behavior is a normal part of male socialization in most
cultures; physical aggression may be condoned as a means
of resolving a conflict. A personality profile obtained by psychologic testing reveals the typical battered woman to be reserved, withdrawn, depressed, and anxious, with low selfesteem, a poorly integrated self-image, and a general
inability to cope with life’s demands. The parents of such
Bayes’ theorem
women encouraged compliance, were not physically affectionate, and socially restricted their daughters’ independence, preventing the widening of social contact that normally occurs in adolescence. Victims of the battered woman
syndrome are often afraid to leave the man and the situation;
change, loneliness, and the unknown are perceived as more
painful than the beatings. Nurses are in an excellent position
to offer assistance to battered women in several ways, because encouraging a woman to talk about the battering and
the injuries may help her to admit what she may have been
too embarrassed to reveal even to her parents. A realistic appraisal of the situation is then possible; the woman wants to
hear that the nurse thinks the battering will not recur, but the
nurse can tell her only that the usual pattern is for the abuse
to continue and to become more severe. The woman may be
referred to the social service department or given directions
for contacting community agencies such as a battered women’s shelter or a hotline to a counseling service. Caring for
and counseling a battered woman often require great patience because she is usually ambivalent about her situation
and may be confused to the point of believing that she deserves the assaults she has suffered. Written, photographic,
and videotaped records are maintained to document the extent of the problem, including the form of abuse reported, the
injuries sustained, and a summary of similar incidents and
previous admissions.
battery [Fr, batterie], 1. a device of two or more electrolytic cells connected to form a single source providing direct
current or voltage. 2. a series or a combination of tests to determine the cause of a particular illness or the degree of proficiency in a particular skill or discipline. 3. the unlawful use
of force on a person. See assault.
Battey bacillus /batШ…eВЇ/ [Battey Hospital, in Rome, Georgia,
where bacteria strain was first isolated], A bacillus, later
renamed Mycobacterium intracellulare, that causes a
chronic pulmonary disease resembling tuberculosis. It is
considered an opportunistic pathogen and does not commonly infect healthy individuals. The organism is resistant
to most of the common bacteriostatic and antibiotic medications but may be treated with multiple drug regimens. Surgical resection of involved lung tissue may be necessary and
may improve the outcome in serious cases. Rest, good nutrition, and general supportive care are usually recommended.
Compare tuberculosis.
battledore placenta /bat؅YldoˆrЈ/ [ME, batyldoure, a beating
instrument; L, placenta, flat cake], a condition in which
the umbilical cord is attached at the margin of the placenta. It
rarely occurs and does not affect placental functioning. Also
called placenta battledore.
Battle’s sign [William H. Battle, English surgeon, 1855–
1936], a palpable bogginess of the area behind the ear that
may indicate a fracture of a bone of the lower skull.
batyl alcohol /batШ…Yl/, an alcohol found in fish liver oil that
is used to treat bracken poisoning in cattle.
baud /boˆd/ [J.M.E. Baudot, French inventor, b. 1845],
a measure of data flow or the speed with which a computer
device transmits information.
Baudelocque’s diameter. See external conjugate.
bay, an anatomic depression or recess, usually containing
fluid, such as the lacrimal bay of the eye.
Bayes’ theorem /ba¯z؅/ [Thomas Bayes, British mathematician, 1702–1761], a mathematic statement of the relationships of test sensitivity, specificity, and the predictive value
of a positive test result. The predictive value of the test is the
number that is useful to the clinician. A positive result demonstrates the conditional probability of the presence of a
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Bayetta, a trademark for exenatide.
Bayley Scales of Infant Development [Nancy Bayley,
twentieth century American psychologist], a three-part
scale for assessing the development of children between the
ages of 2 months and 21вЃ„2 years. Infants are tested for perception, memory, and vocalization on the mental scale; sitting, stair climbing, and manual manipulation on the motor
scale; and attention span, social behavior, and persistence on
the behavioral scale.
Baylisascaris /baВЇР€lisВ·asР€kaВЁВ·ris/, a genus of ascarid nematodes found in the intestines of mammals, particularly raccoons. B. columnaris infests the central nervous system of
dogs. B. procyonis is usually found in raccoons and rodents,
but fecal contamination from those animals can cause spread
to domestic animals and humans, resulting in larva migrans
or eosinophilic encephalitis, which is often fatal.
bayonet angle former. See angle former.
bayonet condenser [Fr, baionette], an instrument used in
dentistry for compacting restorative material. It has an offset nib and a shank with right-angle bends, used primarily
for varying the line of force in the compaction of gold. There
are many variations in angle, length, and diameter of the nib.
BBB, 1. abbreviation for bundle branch block.
2. abbreviation for blood-brain barrier.
BBT, abbreviation for basal body temperature.
BCAA, abbreviation for branched-chain amino acids.
B cell, a type of lymphocyte that originates in the bone
marrow and produces antibodies. A precursor of the plasma
cell, it is one of the two lymphocytes that play a major role in
the body’s immune response. Also called B lymphocyte.
Compare T cell. See also plasma cell.
B cell–growth/differentiation factor, one of several substances, such as interleukins IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6, that are
derived from T-cell cultures and are necessary for the differentiation, growth, and maturation of plasma cells and B
memory cells.
B-cell lymphoma, any in a large group of non-Hodgkin’s
lymphomas characterized by malignant transformation of
the B cells. See also non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
B-cell lymphoma
(White and Cox, 2006/Courtesy Dr. L. Barco)
B cell–mediated immunity,
the ability to produce an immune response induced by B lymphocytes. Contact with a
foreign antigen stimulates B cells to differentiate into plasma
cells, which release antibodies. Plasma cells also generate
memory cells, which provide a rapid response if the same
antigen is encountered again.
B cell stimulating factor-1. See interleukin-4.
BCG, abbreviation for bacille Calmette-GueВґrin.
BCG solution, an aqueous suspension of bacille Calmette-
beam hardening
GueВґrin for instillation into the bladder to activate the immune system in treatment of superficial bladder cancers. It
reduces the risk of a subsequent bladder cancer developing,
although the exact mechanism of action is unknown.
BCG vaccine. See bacille Calmette-GueВґrin vaccine.
BCHC diet, abbreviation for Bristol Cancer Help Center
BCLS, abbreviation for basic cardiac life support.
BCNU. See carmustine.
B complex vitamins, a large group of water-soluble nutrients that includes thiamine (vitamin B1), cyanocobalamin
(vitamin B12), niacin (vitamin B3), pyridoxine (vitamin B6),
riboflavin (vitamin B2), biotin, folic acid, and pantothenic
acid. The B complex vitamins are essential, for example, for
the conversion of simple carbohydrates like glucose and the
carbon skeletons of amino acids into energy, and for the metabolism of fats and proteins. Good sources include brewer’s
yeast, liver, whole grain cereals, nuts, eggs, meats, fish, and
vegetables. Because some B complex vitamins are produced
by intestinal bacteria, taking antibiotics may destroy these
bacteria. Symptoms of vitamin B deficiency include nervousness, depression, insomnia, neuritis, anemia, alopecia,
acne or other skin disorders, and hypercholesterolemia. See
also specific vitamins.
b.d. See b.i.d.
BDI, abbreviation for Beck’s depression inventory.
B-DNA, a long, thin form of deoxyribonucleic acid in
which the helix is right-handed.
Be, symbol for the element beryllium.
beaded /beВЇШ…did/ [ME, bede], 1. having a resemblance to a
row of beads. 2. pertaining to bacterial colonies that develop
along the inoculation line in various stab cultures. 3. pertaining to stained bacteria that develop more deeply stained
beadlike granules.
beak, 1. any pointed anatomic structure, such as the beak
of the sphenoid bone. 2. a pair of dental pincers used in
shaping prostheses. 3. a radiographic image of a bony protuberance adjacent to a degenerative intervertebral disk.
beaker cell. See goblet cell.
beak sign, the appearance of abnormal structures on radiographic images of the GI tract: of the distal esophagus in
achalasia and of the proximal pyloric canal in pyloric stenosis.
Beals’ syndrome /be¯lz/ [Rodney Kenneth Beals, American
orthopedic surgeon, b. 1931], a congenital type of bone
dysplasia with contractures and arachnodactyly. An autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by long thin extremities with arachnodactyly, multiple joint contractures, kyphoscoliosis, and malformed auricles of the ears; it is a form
of hereditary bone dysplasia.
beam [ME, beem, tree], 1. a bedframe fitting for pulleys
and weights, used in the treatment of patients requiring
weight traction. See Balkan traction frame. 2. (in radiology) the primary beam of radiation emitted from the
x-ray tube.
BEAM /beВЇm, beВЇШ…eВЇР€aВЇР€emШ…/, abbreviation for brain electric
activity map.
beam alignment, in radiography, the process of positioning the radiographic tube head so that it is aligned properly
with the x-ray film.
beam collimation, the restriction of x-radiation to the area
being examined or treated by confining the beam with metal
diaphragms or shutters with high radiation-absorption
power. In addition to protecting the patient and others from
scatter radiation, beam collimation reduces radiographic
beam hardening, the process of increasing the average
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BE amputation
energy level of an x-ray beam by filtering out the low-energy
BE amputation, abbreviation for below-elbow amputation.
beam quality, the energy of an x-ray beam.
beam restrictor, a device that reduces the size of the beam
of radiation from x-ray equipment. Three basic types of
restrictors are variable-aperture collimators, cones or cylinders, and aperture diaphragms.
beam splitter, a device that reflects light from the output
phosphor of an image intensifier to a photographic recording. Also called image distributor.
beam-splitting mirror, a device that allows a radiologist
to view a fluoroscopic examination of a patient while the
same view is being recorded on film. The mirror can be adjusted to reflect from 10% to 90% of the x-ray beam to the
fluorescent screen while the rest is directed to the film.
beam therapy. See chromotherapy, external beam
bean [ME, bene], the pod-enclosed flattened seed of numerous leguminous plants. Beans used in pharmacologic
preparations are alphabetized by specific name.
bearing down /berШ…ing/ [OE, beran, to bear, adune, down],
a voluntary effort by a woman in the second stage of labor to
aid in the expulsion of a fetus. By applying the Valsalva maneuver, the mother increases intraabdominal pressure.
bearing down pains [OE, beran, to bear, adune, down; L,
poena, penalty], the pains experienced by a woman during
the second stage of labor while performing the Valsalva maneuver to help expel the fetus.
beat, the mechanical contraction or electrical activity of the
heart muscle, which may be detected and recorded as the
pulse or on the electrocardiogram, respectively.
Beau’s lines /bo¯z؅/ [Joseph H.S. Beau, French physician,
1806–1865], transverse depressions that appear as white
lines across the fingernails as a sign of an acute severe illness
such as malnutrition, systemic disease, thyroid dysfunction,
trauma, or coronary occlusion.
Beau’s lines (Graham-Brown and Bourke, 2007)
becaplermin /be�-kapЈler-min/,
a recombinant plateletderived growth factor used in treatment of chronic severe
dermal ulcers of the lower limbs in diabetes mellitus.
Beck, Cheryl Tatano, a nursing theorist whose Postpartum Depression Theory asserts that postpartum depression
results from a combination of physiologic, psychologic, and
environmental stressors and that symptoms are varied and
likely to be multiple.
Becker’s muscular dystrophy [Peter E. Becker, German
geneticist, b. 1908], a chronic degenerative disease of the
muscles, characterized by progressive weakness. It occurs in
bed cradle
childhood between 8 and 20 years of age. It occurs less frequently, progresses more slowly, and has a better prognosis
than the more common pseudohypertrophic form of muscular dystrophy. The pathophysiologic characteristics of the
disease are not understood; it is transmitted genetically as an
autosomal recessive trait. Also called benign pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy. Compare Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy.
Beck’s depression inventory (BDI) [Aaron T. Beck,
American psychiatrist, b. 1921], a system of classifying a
total of 18 criteria of depressive illness. It was developed by
Aaron T. Beck in the 1960s as a diagnostic and therapeutic
tool for the treatment of childhood affective disorders. The
BDI is similar to the 21-criteria DSM-IV diagnostic system
of the 1980s except that the DSM-IV scale includes loss of
interest, restlessness, and sulkiness, which are missing from
the BDI; the Beck inventory lists somatic complaints and
loneliness, which are criteria not included in the DSM-III inventory. See also DSM.
Beck’s triad [Claude Schaeffer Beck, American surgeon,
1894–1971], a combination of three symptoms that characterize cardiac tamponade: high central venous pressure as
evidenced, for example, by jugular venous distention; low
arterial pressure; and a small, quiet heart.
Beckwith’s syndrome [John B. Beckwith, American pathologist, b. 1933], a hereditary disorder of unknown
cause associated with neonatal hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinism. Clinical manifestations include gigantism, macroglossia, omphalocele or umbilical hernia, visceromegaly, hyperplasia of the kidney and pancreas, and extreme
enlargement of the cells of the adrenal cortex. Treatment
consists of adequate glucose, diazoxide, and glucocorticoid
therapy. Subtotal pancreatectomy is often necessary in cases
of beta cell hyperplasia, nesidioblastosis, or beta cell tumor
of the pancreas.
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. See EMG syndrome.
beclomethasone dipropionate, a glucocorticoid.
в…ў INDICATIONS: It is prescribed in a metered-dose inhaler in
the maintenance treatment of bronchial asthma as prophylactic therapy and as an aerosol for inhalation to treat chronic
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Status asthmaticus, acute asthma, or
known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the more serious adverse reactions of systemic administration are the symptoms of adrenal
insufficiency. Hoarseness, sore throat, and fungal infections
of the oropharynx and larynx may occur. Good oral and dental hygiene after each use is requisite.
becquerel (Bq) /bekrelШ…, bekР€YrelШ…/ [Antoine H. Becquerel,
French physicist, 1852–1908], the SI unit of radioactivity,
equal to one radioactive decay per second. See also curie.
bed [AS, bedd], (in anatomy) a supporting matrix of tissue,
such as the nailbeds of modified epidermis over which the
fingernails and the toenails move as they grow.
bed board, a board that is placed under a mattress to give
added support to a patient with back problems.
bedbug [AS, bedd П© ME, bugge, hobgoblin], a bloodsucking wingless arthropod of the species Cimex lectularius
or the species C. hemipterus that feeds on humans and other
animals. The bedbug can be removed after covering it with
petrolatum. The bite, which causes itching, pain, and redness, can be treated with a lotion or cream containing a corticosteroid or other topical antiinflammatory or analgesic
bed cradle, a frame placed over a bed to prevent sheets or
blankets from touching the patient. See also footboard.
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Bedford finger stall
behavioral science
beef tapeworm. See Taenia saginata.
beef tapeworm infection [OF, buef, cow; AS, taeppe,
Bedbug bites (White and Cox, 2006)
Bedford finger stall,
a removable finger splint that holds
the injured and an adjacent finger in a brace or cast. It can be
worn for prolonged periods.
Bednar’s aphthae /bed؅na¨rz/ [Alois Bednar, Austrian pediatrician, 1816–1888], the small, yellowish, slightly elevated
ulcerated patches that occur on the posterior portion of the
hard palate of infants who place infected objects in their
mouths. It is also associated with marasmus. Compare
Epstein’s pearls, thrush.
bed pan, a vessel, made of metal or plastic, used to collect
feces and urine of bedridden patients.
wyrm], an infection caused by the tapeworm Taenia
saginata, transmitted to humans when they eat contaminated
beef. The adult worm can live for years in the intestine of humans without causing any symptoms. The infection is rarely
found in North America and Western Europe, where beef is
carefully inspected before being made available and is often
thoroughly cooked before eating, but it is common in other
parts of the world. See tapeworm infection.
bee sting [AS, beo П© stingan], an injury caused by the
venom of bees, usually accompanied by pain and swelling.
The stinger of the honeybee usually remains implanted and
should be removed. Pain may be alleviated by application of
an ice pack or a paste of sodium bicarbonate and water. Serious reactions may result from multiple stings, stings on
some areas of the head, or the injection of venom directly
into the circulatory system. In a hypersensitive person, a
single bee sting may result in death through anaphylactic
shock and airway obstruction. Hypersensitive individuals
are encouraged to carry emergency treatment supplies, including epinephrine, with them when the possibility of bee
sting exists. Compare wasp, yellow jacket venom.
Bee sting (Zitelli and Davis, 2007)
Bed pans (Potter and Perry, 2007)
bed rest,
the restriction of a patient to bed for therapeutic
reasons for a prescribed period.
bed rest care, a nursing intervention from the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as promotion of
comfort and safety and prevention of complications for a patient unable to get out of bed. See also Nursing Interventions Classification.
bedridden, describing a person who is unable or unwilling
to leave the bed because of illness or injury.
bedside laboratory testing, a nursing intervention from
the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as
performance of laboratory tests at the bedside or point of
care. See also Nursing Interventions Classification.
bedside manner, the behavior of a nurse or doctor as perceived by a patient or peers.
bedside thermometer. See clinical thermometer.
bedsore. See pressure ulcer.
bedwetting. See enuresis.
BEE, abbreviation for basal energy expenditure.
bee cell pessary. See pessary.
beet sugar, sucrose from sugar beets.
behavior /bihaВЇШ…vyYr/ [ME, behaven], 1. the manner in
which a person acts or performs. 2. any or all of the activities of a person, including physical actions, which are observed directly, and mental activity, which is inferred and interpreted. Kinds of behavior include abnormal behavior,
automatic behavior, invariable behavior, and variable
behavioral isolation /behaВЇШ…vyYrYl/, social isolation that
results from a person’s socially unacceptable behavior.
behavioral marital therapy, a form of marital therapy
using principles and techniques from behavior therapy; it attempts to alleviate marital distress by increasing positive,
pleasant interactions between the couple.
behavioral medicine, a segment of psychosomatic medicine focused on psychologic means of influencing physical
symptoms, such as biofeedback or relaxation.
behavioral objective, a goal in therapy or research that
concerns an act or a specific behavior or pattern of behavior.
behavioral science, any of the various interrelated disciplines, such as psychiatry, psychology, sociology, and anthropology, that observe and study human activity, including
psychologic and emotional development, interpersonal relationships, values, and mores.
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behavioral systems model
behavioral systems model,
a conceptual framework describing factors that may affect the stability of a person’s behavior. The model examines systems of behavior, not the behavior of an individual at any particular time. In one model,
behavior is defined as an integrated response to stimuli. Several subsystems of behavior form the eight human
microsystems, which are ingestion, elimination, dependency,
sex, achievement, affiliation, aggression, and restoration.
Each subsystem comprises several structural components
called imperatives, which are goal, set, choice, action, and
support. The goal of nursing care is to attain, maintain, or restore balance of the subsystems of behavior for the stability
of the patient.
behavior disorder, any of a group of antisocial behavior
patterns occurring primarily in children and adolescents,
such as overaggressiveness, overactivity, destructiveness,
cruelty, truancy, lying, disobedience, perverse sexual activity, criminality, alcoholism, and drug addiction. Treatment
may include psychotherapy, milieu therapy, medication, and
family counseling. See also antisocial personality disorder.
behavior, health, risk-prone, a nursing diagnosis accepted by the Seventh National Conference on the Classification of Nursing Diagnoses (revised 2007). Impaired adjustment is the inability to modify lifestyle or behaviors in a
manner consistent with a change in health status. See also
nursing diagnosis.
в…ў DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS: The defining characteristics include a minimization of health status change, a failure to
achieve optimal sense of control, a failure to take actions that
would prevent further health problems, and a demonstration
of nonacceptance of health status change.
в…ў RELATED FACTORS: Related factors include inadequate
comprehension or social support, low self-efficacy, low socioeconomic status, multiple stressors, and a negative attitude toward health care.
behaviorism, a school of psychology founded by John B.
Watson that studies and interprets behavior by observing
measurable responses to stimuli without reference to consciousness, mental states, or subjective phenomena, such as
ideas and emotions. See also neobehaviorism.
behaviorist, an advocate of the school of behaviorism.
behavioristic psychology. See behaviorism.
behavior management, a nursing intervention from the
Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as helping a patient to manage negative behavior. See also Nursing
Interventions Classification.
behavior management: overactivity/inattention, a nursing intervention from the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as provision of a therapeutic milieu that
safely accommodates the patient’s attention deficit and/or
overactivity while promoting optimal function. See also
Nursing Interventions Classification.
behavior management: self-harm, a nursing intervention from the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as assisting the patient to decrease or eliminate selfmutilating or self-abusive behaviors. See also Nursing
Interventions Classification.
behavior management: sexual, a nursing intervention
from the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined
as delineation and prevention of socially unacceptable
sexual behaviors. See also Nursing Interventions Classification.
behavior modification1. See behavior therapy.
behavior modification2, a nursing intervention from the
Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as promotion of a behavior change. See also Nursing Interventions Classification.
behavior modification: social skills,
a nursing intervention from the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as assisting the patient to develop or improve interpersonal social skills. See also Nursing Interventions
behavior reflex. See conditioned response.
behavior therapy, a kind of psychotherapy that attempts
to modify observable maladjusted patterns of behavior by
substituting a new response or set of responses to a given
stimulus. The treatment techniques involve the methods,
concepts, and procedures derived from experimental psychology; they include assertiveness training, aversion therapy, contingency management, flooding, modeling, operant
conditioning, and systemic desensitization. Also called behavior modification. See also biofeedback.
behaviour. See behavior.
Behc¸et’s disease /ba¯؅sets/ [Hulusi Behc¸et, Turkish dermatologist, 1889–1948], a severe chronic, multisystem inflammatory illness of unknown cause, mostly affecting
young males and characterized by severe uveitis and retinal
vasculitis. Some other signs are optic atrophy and aphthous
lesions of the mouth and the genitals, indicating diffuse vasculitis. It may involve all organs and affect the central nervous system. Immunosuppressive therapy may be considered. The disease is common in Japan, Turkey, and Israel,
but rare in the United States. Also called Behc¸et’s syndrome.
Behc¸et’s disease conjunctivitis
(Regezi, Sciubba, and Jordan, 2008)
Behla’s bodies. See Plimmer’s bodies.
BEI, abbreviation for butanol-extractable iodine.
bejel /bejШ…Yl/ [Ar, bajal], a nonvenereal form of endemic
syphilis prevalent among children in the Middle East and
North Africa, caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum
subsp. endemicum. It is transmitted by person-to-person contact and by the sharing of drinking and eating utensils. The
primary lesion is usually on or near the mouth, appearing as
a mucus patch, followed by the development of pimplelike
sores on the trunk, arms, and legs. Chronic ulceration of the
nose and soft palate occurs in the advanced stages of the infection. Destructive changes in the tissues of the heart, central nervous system, and mouth, often associated with the venereal form of syphilis, rarely develop. Intramuscular
injection of penicillin is effective in curing the infection, but
if extensive tissue destruction has occurred, scar tissue forms
and may be permanently disfiguring. Also called dichuchwa, endemic syphilis, frenga, siti.
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BeВґkeВґsy audiometry
BeВґkeВґsy audiometry /bekШ…YseВЇ/ [George von BeВґkeВґsy,
Hungarian-American physicist and Nobel laureate, 1899–
1972], a type of hearing test in which the subject controls
the intensity of the stimulus by pressing a button while listening to a pure tone whose frequency slowly moves through
the entire audible range. The intensity diminishes as long as
the button is pressed. When the intensity is too low for the
subject to hear the tone, the button is released and the intensity begins to increase. When the subject again hears the
tone, the button is again pressed, yielding a zigzag tracing.
Continuous and interrupted tones are used, and the tracings
of the two are compared. The test may be used to differentiate between hearing losses of cochlear and neural origins.
Bekhterev-Mendel reflex. See Mendel’s reflex.
bel [Alexander G. Bell, Canadian inventor, 1847–1922],
a unit that expresses intensity of sound. It is the logarithm (to
the base 10) of the ratio of the power of any specific sound to
the power of a reference sound. The most common reference
sound has a power of 10ПЄ16 watts per square centimeter, or
the approximate minimum intensity of sound at 1000 cycles
per second that is perceptible to the human ear. An increase
of 1 bel approximately doubles the intensity or loudness of
most sounds. See also decibel.
belching. See eructation.
belladonna /belЈYdon؅Y, bela¨doˆn؅a¨/ [It, fair lady], the dried
leaves, roots, and flowering or fruiting tops of Atropa belladonna, a common perennial called deadly nightshade, containing the alkaloids hyoscine and hyoscyamine. Hyoscyamine has anticholinergic and antispasmodic properties.
belladonna alkaloids, a group of anticholinergic alkaloids occurring in belladonna (Atropa belladonna).
belladonna and atropine poisons [It, belladonna, fair
lady; Gk, Atropos, one of three Fates; L, potio, drink],
two powerful poisons obtained from solanaceous plants. Atropine, derived from Atropa belladonna, blocks the effects
of acetylcholine in effector organs supplied by postganglionic cholinergic nerves. Belladonna is obtained from the
dried leaves of Atropa belladonna, also known as deadly
nightshade, or of Atropa acuminata, a source of alkaloids
that are converted to atropine. Atropine sulfate is commonly
used in ophthalmologic applications and as an antispasmodic.
Bell-Magendie law. See Bell’s law.
bellows murmur /belШ…oo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇz/ [AS, belg, bag; L, humming],
a blowing sound, such as that of air moving in and out of a
bellows ventilator, a respiratory care device in which oxygen and other gases are mixed in a mechanism that contracts
and expands. The system pressure is increased or decreased
in the chamber surrounding the bellows. The gases are
moved into the patient circuit when the system pressure increases. As the patient exhales, the bellows contracts and
fills again with gases from air and oxygen intakes.
bell-shaped curve, the curve of the probability density
function of the normal distribution, resembling the outline of
a bell. Also called normal curve.
Bell’s law [Charles Bell, Scottish surgeon, 1774–1842],
an axiom stating that the anterior spinal nerve roots (and spinal cord and medulla) contain only motor and the posterior
spinal nerve roots (and spinal cord and medulla) are sensory.
Also called Bell-Magendie law, Magendie’s law.
Bell’s palsy [Charles Bell, Scottish Surgeon, 1774-1842],
a unilateral paralysis of the facial nerve, thought to result
from trauma to the nerve, compression of the nerve, or infection, of which herpes simplex virus is thought to be the most
common. Any or all branches of the nerve may be affected.
The person may not be able to close an eye or control sali-
Bence Jones protein test
vation on the affected side. It usually resolves over weeks
but can leave some permanent damage, including decreased
taste and hypersensitivity to noise on the affected side. Also
called Bell’s paralysis.
Bell’s palsy (Chabner, 2007)
Bell’s phenomenon [Charles Bell],
a sign of peripheral
facial paralysis, manifested by the upward and outward rolling of the eyeball when the affected individual tries to close
the eyelid. It occurs on the affected side in peripheral facial
Bell’s spasm [Charles Bell], a convulsive facial tic.
belly [AS, beig, bag], 1. the fleshy central bulging portion
of a muscle. 2. Informal term for abdomen.
belly button. See umbilicus.
belonephobia /belР€YnYfoВЇШ…beВЇВ·Y/ [Gk, belone, needle, phobos,
fear], a morbid fear of sharp-pointed objects, especially
needles and pins.
below-elbow (BE) amputation, an amputation of the
arm below the elbow.
below-knee (BK) amputation, See long below-knee
amputation and short below-knee amputation.
belt restraint, a device used around the waist to secure a
patient on a stretcher or in a chair.
Benadryl, trademark for a first-generation antihistamine
(diphenhydramine hydrochloride).
Benassi method /bYnasШ…eВЇ/, a positioning procedure for
producing x-ray images of the liver. With the patient in a
prone position so that the liver is closer to the x-ray film, two
radiographs are made from the angles of 25 degrees caudad
and 10 degrees cephalad.
Bence Jones protein /bens/ [Henry Bence Jones, English
physician, 1814–1873], a protein found almost exclusively
in the urine of patients with multiple myeloma. The protein
constitutes the light chain component of myeloma globulin;
it coagulates at temperatures of 45В° to 55В° C and redissolves
completely or partially on boiling. See also multiple myeloma, protein.
Bence Jones protein test, a urine test whose positive result most commonly indicates multiple myeloma. The test is
used to detect and monitor the treatment and clinical course
of multiple myeloma and similar diseases.
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bench research
benign mesenchymoma
bench research informal,
any research done in a controlled laboratory setting using nonhuman subjects. The
focus is on understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie a disease or disease process.
-bendazole, combining form designating a tibendazoletype anthelmintic.
Bender’s Visual Motor Gestalt test [Lauretta Bender,
American psychiatrist, 1897–1987; L, visus, vision, movere,
to move; Ger, Gestalt, form; L, testum, crucible], a standard psychologic test in which the subject copies a series of
bending fracture, a fracture indirectly caused by the
bending of an extremity, such as the foot or the big toe.
bendrofluazide. See bendroflumethiazide.
bendroflumethiazide /benР€droВЇfloo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇР€mYthД±ВЇШ…YzД±ВЇd/, a diuretic
and antihypertensive.
в…ў INDICATIONS: It is prescribed in the treatment of hypertension and edema.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Anuria or known hypersensitivity to
this drug, to other thiazide medication, or to sulfonamide derivatives prohibits its use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the more serious are hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, and hypersensitivity
bends. See decompression sickness.
Benedict’s qualitative test [Stanley R. Benedict, American
biochemist, 1884–1936], a test for sugar in the urine based
on the reduction by glucose of cupric ions. Formation of an
orange or red precipitate indicates more than 2% sugar
(called 4П©), yellow indicates 1% to 2% sugar (called 3П©),
olive green indicates 0.5% to 1% sugar (called 2П©), and
green indicates less than 0.5% sugar (called 1П©). It is not in
common use. Also called Benedict’s method.
Benedict’s solution [Stanley R. Benedict], a term referring to two reagents (a qualitative and a quantitative) used in
the examination of urine specimens. Both solutions contain
cupric sulfate dissolved in a solution of sodium sulfate and
sodium citrate in two different concentrations. When the solution is heated, the color of the resulting mixture depends
on the concentration of glucose in the urine. See also Benedict’s qualitative test.
beneficiary /benР€YfishШ…YreВЇ/, a person or group designated
to receive certain profits, benefits, or advantages, as the recipient of a will or insurance policy.
beneficiary member. See enrollee.
benefit. See covered benefit.
Benemid, trademark for a uricosuric (probenecid).
benign /binД±ВЇnШ…/ [L, benignus, kind], (of a tumor) noncancerous and therefore not a direct threat to life, even though
treatment eventually may be required for health or cosmetic
reasons. See also benign neoplasm. Compare malignant.
benign congenital hypotonia, a condition marked by
signs of weakness and floppiness in babies, resulting from
nonprogressive weakness of skeletal muscles from birth.
benign cystic nephroma, multilocular cyst of kidney.
benign essential tremor. See essential tremor.
benign familial chronic pemphigus [L, benedicere, to
bless, familia, household; Gk, pemphix, bubble], a hereditary condition of the skin characterized in the early stages by
blisters that break, leaving red, eroded areas followed by
crusts. It most commonly occurs on the neck, groin, and axillary regions. It presents in late adolescence or early adulthood. Also called Hailey-Hailey disease.
benign familial hematuria, a rare, usually benign disorder characterized by abnormally thin basement membranes
of the glomerular capillaries and persistent hematuria. Autosomal dominant inheritance is suspected.
Benign familial chronic pemphigus
(Callen et al, 2000)
benign forgetfulness,
a temporary memory block in
which some fact from the recent or remote past is forgotten
but later recalled.
benign giant lymph node hyperplasia. See Castleman’s disease.
benign hypertension, a misnomer implying a harmless
elevation of blood pressure. Because any sustained elevation
of blood pressure may adversely affect health, it is incorrect
to refer to the condition as “benign.” See also essential
benign intracranial hypertension. See pseudotumor
benign juvenile melanoma, a noncancerous pink or
fuchsia raised papule with a scaly surface, usually on a
cheek. Occurring most commonly in children between 9 and
13 years of age, it may be mistaken for a malignant melanoma. Also called compound melanocytoma, spindle cell
nevus, Spitz nevus.
Benign juvenile melanoma
(Callen et al, 2000)
benign lymphocytic meningitis. See sterile meningitis.
benign lymphoreticulosis. See cat-scratch fever.
benign mesenchymoma [L, benignare П© Gk, meso, middle,
egchyma, infusion, oma, tumor],
a benign neoplasm that
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benign migratory glossitis
has two or more definitely recognizable mesenchymal elements in addition to fibrous tissue.
benign migratory glossitis. See geographic tongue.
benign mucosal pemphigoid. See cicatricial pemphigoid.
benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. See postviral fatigue syndrome.
benign neoplasm [L, benignare П© Gk, neos, new, plasma,
formation], a localized tumor that has a fibrous capsule,
limited potential for growth, a regular shape, and cells that
are well differentiated. A benign neoplasm does not invade
surrounding tissue or metastasize to distant sites. Some kinds
of benign neoplasms are adenoma, fibroma, hemangioma,
and lipoma. Also called benign tumor. Compare malignant
benign nephrosclerosis, a renal disorder marked by
arteriolosclerotic (arteriosclerosis affecting mainly the arterioles) lesions in the kidney. It is associated with hypertension.
benign paroxysmal peritonitis. See familial Mediterranean fever.
benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, recurrent vertigo
and nystagmus occurring when the head is placed in certain
positions. It can be debilitating and can cause difficulty in
walking straight. It is usually not associated with central nervous system lesions.
в…ў OBSERVATIONS: Patients may experience the sensation of
disorientation in space combined with a sensation of motion
accompanied by nystagmus, nausea and/or vomiting, perspiration, pallor, increased salivation, and general malaise. Diagnosis is made by history and clinical exam in conjunction
with ENG and positional testing. Audiology, ABR, CT, or
MRI may be used to rule out other causes of vertigo.
в…ў INTERVENTIONS: Treatment is focused on a series of vestibular exercises, including gait training, sets of visual vestibular head and eye movements, Epley maneuvers, and BrandtDaroff maneuvers. If exercises provoke nausea, premedication with antiemetics may be necessary. Surgical
plugging of the posterior semicircular canal may be done in
individuals with an intractable recurrent pattern of vertigo
attacks that are unresponsive to exercise therapy.
в…ў NURSING CONSIDERATIONS: Nursing care focuses on
demonstration and return demonstration of prescribed
benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a histologic diagnosis associated with nonmalignant, noninflammatory enlargement of the prostate, most common among men over 50
years of age. BPH diagnosis can only be made after biopsy
or resection; otherwise the diagnosis is benign prostatic enlargement. BPH is usually progressive and may lead to urethral obstruction and to interference with urine flow, urinary
frequency, nocturia, dysuria, and urinary tract infections.
Treatment may include medication, localized application of
heat, balloon dilation, laser vaporization, and microwave hyperthermia. Surgical resection of the enlarged prostate is
sometimes necessary. Compare prostatitis. See also
benign prostatic hypertrophy. See benign prostatic
benign pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy. See
Becker’s muscular dystrophy.
benign stupor, a state of apathy or lethargy, such as occurs
in severe depression.
benign thrombocytosis. See thrombocytosis.
benign tumor. See benign neoplasm.
benne oil. See sesame oil.
Benner, Patricia, a nursing theorist who confirmed the
levels of skill acquisition in nursing practice in From Novice to Expert: Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing
Practice (1984). Benner used systematic descriptions of five
stages: novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient,
and expert. Thirty-one competencies emerged from an
analysis of actual patient care episodes. From this work
seven areas of nursing practice having a number of competencies with similar intents, functions, and meanings developed. They are identified as (1) the helping role, (2) the
teaching-coaching function, (3) the diagnostic and patientmonitoring function, (4) effective management of rapidly
changing situations, (5) administering and monitoring therapeutic interventions and regimens, (6) monitoring and ensuring the quality of health care practices, and (7) organizational work-role competencies. Benner’s work describes
nursing practice in the context of what nursing actually is
and does rather than from context-free theoretic descriptions.
Bennet’s small corpuscle. See Drysdale’s corpuscle.
Bennett angle [Norman G. Bennett, English dentist, 1870–
1947], the angle formed by the sagittal plane and the path
of the advancing condyle during lateral mandibular movement, as viewed in the horizontal plane.
Bennett hand tool test, a test used in occupational therapy and prevocational testing to measure hand function, coordination, and speed in performance.
Bennett’s fracture [Edward H. Bennett, Irish surgeon,
1837–1907], a fracture that runs obliquely through the
base of the first metacarpal bone and into the carpometacarpal joint, detaching the greater part of the articular facet.
Bennett’s fracture may be associated with dorsal subluxation
or with dislocation of the first metacarpal.
Benoquin, trademark for a depigmenting agent (monobenzone).
benserazide /ben-serР€ah-zД±ВЇd/, an inhibitor of the decarboxylation of peripheral levodopa to dopamine, having actions similar to those of carbidopa. When given with levodopa, benserazide produces higher brain concentrations of
dopamine with lower doses of levodopa, thus lessening the
side effects seen with higher doses. It is used orally in conjunction with levodopa as an antiparkinsonian agent.
bent fracture. See greenstick fracture.
bentiromide test, (for pancreatic function) bentiromide is
administered orally, and its cleavage into benzoyl-tyrosyl
and p-aminobenzoic acid is monitored as a measure of pancreatic production of chymotrypsin.
bentonite [Fort Benton, Montana], colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that, when added to water, swells to approximately 12 times its dry size. It is used as a bulk laxative and
as a base for skin care preparations. Also called mineral soap.
bentonite test, a flocculation test for the presence of rheumatoid factor in patient blood samples. After sensitized bentonite particles are added to the serum, the test result is considered positive for rheumatoid arthritis if adsorption has
occurred with 50% of the particles.
bentoquatam /benР€to-kwahШ…tam/, a topical skin protectant used to prevent or reduce allergic contact dermatitis
from contact with poison ivy, oak, and sumac.
Bentyl, trademark for an anticholinergic antispasmodic
(dicyclomine hydrochloride).
benz, abbreviation for a benzoate carboxylate anion.
benzalkonium chloride, a disinfectant and fungicide prepared in an aqueous solution in various strengths.
benzathine penicillin G. See penicillin G benzathine.
benzene /benШ…zeВЇn/, a colorless, highly flammable liquid
hydrocarbon (C6H6) originally derived by fractional distillation of coal tar. It is now derived by catalytic reforming during petroleum refining. The prototypical aromatic compound, it is used in the production of various organic
compounds, including pharmaceuticals.
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benzene poisoning
benzene poisoning,
a toxic condition caused by ingestion
of benzene, inhalation of benzene fumes, or exposure to
benzene-related products such as toluene or xylene, characterized by blurred vision, nausea, headache, dizziness, and
incoordination. In acute cases, respiratory failure, convulsions, or ventricular fibrillation may cause death. Chronic
exposure may result in aplastic anemia (a form of leukemia).
See also nitrobenzene poisoning.
benzethonium chloride /benР€zYthoВЇШ…neВЇВ·Ym/, a topical
antiinfective used for disinfecting the skin and for treating
some infections of the eye, nose, and throat. It is also used as
a preservative in some pharmaceutical preparations.
benzhexol hydrochloride. See trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride.
benzo[a]pyrene dihydrodiol epoxide (BPDE-I), a carcinogenic derivative of benzo[a]pyrene associated with tobacco smoke.
benzocaine /benШ…zYkaВЇn/, an ester-type, local anesthetic
agent derived from aminobenzoic acid that is most useful
when applied topically. It is used in many over-the-counter
compounds for pruritus and pain. Benzocaine has a low incidence of toxicity, but sensitization to it may result from
prolonged or frequent use. Topical application of benzocaine
may cause methemoglobinemia in infants and small children. A minimum of 5% benzocaine is required in a compound to be effective.
benzodiazepine derivative /benР€zoВЇdД±ВЇВ·azШ…Ypin/, one of a
group of psychotropic agents, including the tranquilizers
chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, oxazepam, lorazepam, and
chlorazepate, prescribed to alleviate anxiety, and the hypnotics flurazepam and triazolam, prescribed in the treatment of
insomnia. Tolerance and physical dependence occur with
prolonged high dosage. Withdrawal symptoms, including
seizures, may follow abrupt discontinuation. Adverse reactions to the benzodiazepines include drowsiness, ataxia, and
a paradoxic increase in aggression and hostility. These reactions are not common with the usual recommended dosage.
benzoic acid /benzoВЇШ…ik/, a keratolytic agent, usually used
with salicylic acid as an ointment in the treatment of athlete’s foot and ringworm of the scalp. It has little antifungal
action but makes deep infections accessible to more potent
preparation. Mild irritation may occur at the site of application.
benzonatate /benzoВЇШ…nYtaВЇt/, a nonopiate antitussive.
в…ў INDICATION: It is prescribed to suppress the cough reflex.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATION: Known hypersensitivity to this drug
prohibits its use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Hypersensitivity reactions, such as
bronchospasm, laryngospasm, and cardiovascular collapse,
may occur and may be serious. Vertigo, sedation, headache,
and constipation may sometimes occur.
benzoyl peroxide /benzoВЇШ…il/, an antibacterial, keratolytic
drying agent.
в…ў INDICATION: It is prescribed in the treatment of acne.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Known hypersensitivity to this drug
prohibits its use. It is not used in the eye, on inflamed skin, or
on mucous membranes.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the more serious adverse reactions are excessive drying and allergic contact sensitization.
benzquinamide /benzkwinШ…YmД±ВЇd/, an antiemetic.
в…ў INDICATIONS: It is prescribed in the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Known hypersensitivity to this drug
prohibits its use. It is not usually administered to children or
to pregnant women.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the most serious adverse reactions are sudden increase in blood pressure and cardiac ar-
BergonieВґ-Tribondeau law
rhythmia. Drowsiness, chills, and shivering are commonly
benzthiazide /benzthД±ВЇШ…Yzid/, a diuretic and antihypertensive.
в…ў INDICATIONS: It is prescribed in the treatment of hypertension and edema.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Anuria or known hypersensitivity to
this drug, to other thiazide medication, or to sulfonamide derivatives prohibits its use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the more serious adverse effects
are hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, and hypersensitivity reactions.
benztropine mesylate /benztroВЇШ…peВЇn/, an anticholinergic
and antihistaminic agent.
в…ў INDICATIONS: It may be prescribed as adjunctive therapy in
the treatment of drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms and
all forms of parkinsonism.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Known sensitivity to this drug prohibits its use, and it is not administered to children less than 3
years of age.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the most serious adverse reactions are blurred vision, xerostomia, nausea and vomiting,
constipation, depression, and skin rash.
benzyl alcohol /benШ…zil/, a clear, colorless, oily liquid, derived from certain balsams, used as a topical anesthetic and
as a bacteriostatic agent in solutions for injection. Also
called phenyl carbinol, phenyl methanol.
benzyl benzoate /benzoВЇШ…aВЇt/, a clear, oily liquid with a
pleasant, pervasive aroma. It is used as an agent to destroy
lice and scabies, as a solvent, and as a flavor for gum.
benzyl carbinol. See phenylethyl alcohol.
bepridil /bepР€r-dil/, a calcium channel blocking agent used
orally as the hydrochloride salt in treatment of chronic angina pectoris.
beractant /ber-akР€tant/, a substance obtained from bovine
lungs, containing mostly phospholipids. It mimics the action
of human pulmonary surfactant and is used in prevention
and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn. Administered by endotracheal intubation.
Berdon’s syndrome, megacystis-microcolon-intestinal
bereavement /bYreВЇvШ…mYnt/ [ME, bereven, to rob], a form
of grief with anxiety symptoms that is a common reaction to
the loss of a loved one. It may be accompanied by insomnia,
hyperactivity, and other effects. Although bereavement does
not necessarily lead to depressive illness, it may be a triggering factor in a person who is otherwise vulnerable to depression. See also grief, mourning.
Berger’s disease [Jean Berger, twentieth century French
nephrologist], a kidney disorder characterized by recurrent
episodes of macroscopic hematuria, proteinuria, and a granular deposition of immunoglobulin A (IgA) from the glomerular mesangium. The condition may or may not progress to
renal failure over a period of many years. A spontaneous remission occurs in some cases. The onset of disease is usually
in childhood or early adulthood, and males are affected twice
as often as females. Treatment is similar to that of other renal
diseases. Also called mesangial IgA nephropathy
Berger’s paresthesia [Oskar Berger, nineteenth century
German neurologist; Gk, para, near, aisthesia, sensation],
a condition of tingling, prickliness, or weakness and a loss of
feeling in the legs without evidence of organic disease. The
condition affects young people.
Berger wave. See alpha wave.
Bergonie´-Tribondeau law /berЈgoˆne¯؅triboˆdo¯؅/ [Jean A.
Bergonie´, French radiologist, 1857–1925; Louis F.A.
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 27 SESS: 42 OUTPUT: Fri Jun 13 09:07:36 2008
Tribondeau, French physician, 1872–1918], a rule stating
that the radiosensitivity of a tissue depends on the number of
undifferentiated cells in the tissue, their mitotic activity, and
the length of time they are actively proliferating.
beriberi /berР€eВЇberШ…eВЇ/ [Sinhalese, beri, weakness], a disease
of the peripheral nerves caused by a deficiency of or an inability to assimilate thiamine. It frequently results from a
diet limited to polished white rice, and it occurs in endemic
form in eastern and southern Asia. Rare cases in the United
States are associated with stressful conditions, such as hypothyroidism, infections, pregnancy, lactation, and chronic
alcoholism. Symptoms are fatigue, diarrhea, appetite and
weight loss, disturbed nerve function causing paralysis and
wasting of limbs, edema, and heart failure. Kinds of beriberi
include alcoholic beriberi, atrophic beriberi, cardiac beriberi,
and cerebral beriberi. Administration of thiamine prevents
and cures most cases of the disease. Also called
athiaminosis. See also thiamine.
Cardiac beriberi (McLaren, 1992)
(Bk) /burkШ…leВЇВ·Ym/ [Berkeley, California],
an artificial radioactive transuranic element. Its atomic number is 97; the atomic mass of its longest-lived isotope is 247.
berlock dermatitis [Fr, breloque, bracelet charm], a temporary skin condition, characterized by hyperpigmentation
and skin lesions. It is caused by a unique reaction to
psoralen-type photosynthesizers, commonly used in perfumes, colognes, and pomades, such as oil of bergamot. Also
spelled berloque dermatitis.
в…ў OBSERVATIONS: Berlock dermatitis commonly produces an
acute erythematous reaction, similar to that associated with
sunburn. The area affected becomes hyperpigmented and
surrounded by darker pigmentation. Areas of the neck where
perfume containing oil of bergamot is applied often become
affected by pendantlike lesions. Diagnosis is based on the
appearance of such signs and on patient history, which may
include recent exposure to psoralens.
в…ў INTERVENTIONS: Treatment seeks to identify and eliminate
the cause of the condition. Topical steroids may be administered to relieve discomfort.
в…ў NURSING CONSIDERATIONS: Patients benefit from advice
about the complications of prolonged exposure to sunlight
and ultraviolet light. They also appreciate the reassurance
that the lesions will vanish within a few months.
Bernard-Soulier syndrome /bernaВЁrШ…soo
Л� lyaВЇШ…/ [Jean A. Bernard, French hematologist, b. 1907; Jean-Pierre Soulier,
French hematologist, b. 1915], an autosomal-recessive co-
berry aneurysm
Berlock dermatitis (Callen et al, 2000)
agulation disorder characterized by an absence of or a deficiency in the ability of the platelets to aggregate because of
the relative lack of an essential glycoprotein in their membranes. On microscopic examination the platelets appear
large and dispersed. The use of aspirin may provoke hemorrhage. After trauma or surgery, loss of blood may be greater
than normal and a transfusion may be required.
Bernoulli’s principle /bYrnoo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇШ…leВЇz/ [Daniel Bernoulli, Swiss
scientist, 1700–1782], (in physics) the principle stating
that the sum of the velocity and the kinetic energy of a fluid
flowing through a tube is constant. The greater the velocity,
the less the lateral pressure on the wall of the tube. Thus, if
an artery is narrowed by atherosclerotic plaque, the flow of
blood through the constriction increases in velocity and decreases in lateral pressure. Also called Bernoulli’s law.
Bernoulli theorem /bYrВ·noo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇР€leВЇ/, in an experiment involving probability, the larger the number of trials, the closer the
observed probability of an event approaches its theoretical
berry aneurysm [ME, berye П© Gk, aneurysma, widening],
a small, saccular dilation of the wall of a cerebral artery. It
occurs most frequently at the junctures of vessels in the
circle of Willis. A berry aneurysm may be the result of a congenital developmental defect and may rupture without warning, causing intracranial hemorrhage. Smoking and hypertension increase the likelihood of rupture.
Anterior cerebral
Anterior communicating
Middle cerebral
Internal carotid
Posterior cerebral
Posterior communicating
Basilar artery
Common sites of berry aneurysms
(Kumar et al, 2007)
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Bertel method
Bertel method /burШ…tYl/,
a positioning procedure for producing x-ray images of the inferior orbital fissures. The central x-ray beam is directed through the nasion at an angle of
20 to 25 degrees cephalad.
Bertin’s column hypertrophy, congenital enlargement
of renal columns (columns of Bertin), a benign condition
sometimes mistaken for a renal tumor. Also called renal column h.
berylliosis /bYrilР€eВЇВ·oВЇШ…sis/, poisoning that results from the
inhalation of dusts or vapors containing beryllium or beryllium compounds. The substance also may enter the body
through or under the skin. It is characterized by granulomas
throughout the body and by diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, resulting in a dry cough, shortness of breath, and chest pain.
Symptoms may not appear for several years after exposure.
See also inorganic dust.
beryllium (Be), a steel-gray, lightweight metallic element.
Its atomic number is 4; its atomic mass is 9.012. Beryllium
occurs naturally as beryl and is used in metallic alloys and in
fluorescent powders. Inhalation of beryllium fumes or particles may cause the formation of granulomas in the lungs,
skin, and subcutaneous tissues. See also berylliosis.
bestiality /besР€cheВЇВ·alШ…iteВЇ/ [L, bestia, beast], 1. a brutal or
animal-like character or nature. 2. conduct or behavior characterized by beastlike appetites or instincts. 3. also called
zooerastia. Sexual relations between a human being and an
animal. 4. sodomy. See also zoophilia.
besylate, a contraction for benzenesulfonate.
beta /beВЇШ…tY, baВЇШ…tY/, B, вђ¤, the second letter of the Greek alphabet, used in scientific notation to denote position of a carbon atom in a molecule, a type of protein configuration, or
identification of a type of activity, as beta blocker, beta particle, or beta rhythm. It is used in statistics to define an error
in the interpretation of study results.
beta-adrenergic antagonist, beta-adrenergic blocking
beta-adrenergic blocking agent. See antiadrenergic.
beta-adrenergic receptor. See beta receptor.
beta-adrenergic stimulating agent. See adrenergic.
beta-alaninemia /-alР€YnineВЇШ…meВЇВ·Y/, an inherited metabolic
disorder marked by a deficiency of an enzyme, beta-alaninealpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase. The clinical signs include seizures, drowsiness, and, if uncorrected, death. The
condition is sometimes treated with vitamin B6 (pyridoxine).
beta blocker, a popular term for a beta-adrenergic blocking (or beta receptor antagonist) agent. See antiadrenergic.
beta-carotene [Gk, beta; L, carota, carrot], a vitamin A
precursor and ultraviolet screening agent.
в…ў INDICATION: It is prescribed to ameliorate photosensitivity
in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: It is used with caution in patients with
impaired renal or hepatic function. Known hypersensitivity
to this drug prohibits its use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: No serious adverse reactions have been
observed. Diarrhea may occur.
beta cells, 1. insulin-producing cells situated in the islets
of Langerhans. Their insulin-producing function tends to accelerate the movement of glucose, amino acids, and fatty
acids out of the blood and into the cellular cytoplasm, countering glucagon function of alpha cells. 2. the basophilic
cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
beta decay, a type of radioactivity that results in the emission of beta particles, either electrons or positrons. See beta
Betadine, trademark for a topical antiinfective (povidoneiodine).
beta error. See type II error.
beta2-microglobulin test
a protein found in fetal liver and in
some adults with liver disease. It is now known to be identical with normal liver ferritin. See also alpha-fetoprotein,
ferritin, fetoprotein.
beta-galactosidase. See lactase.
Betagan, trademark for a topical glaucoma drug
(levobunolol hydrochloride); same brand name is also used
for povidone-iodine germicidal solutions.
beta hemolysis, the development of a clear zone around a
bacterial colony growing on blood agar, characteristic of certain pathogenic bacteria. Compare alpha hemolysis.
beta-hemolytic streptococci, the pyogenic streptococci
of groups A, B, C, E, F, G, H, K, L, M, and O that cause hemolysis of red blood cells in blood agar in the laboratory.
These organisms cause most of the acute streptococcal infections seen in humans, including scarlet fever, many cases of
pneumonia and sepsis syndrome, and streptococcal sore
throat. Penicillin is usually prescribed to treat these infections when they are suspected, even before the results of the
bacteriologic culture are available, because it is known that
these organisms as a group are usually sensitive to the effects
of penicillin and because the sequelae of untreated streptococcal infection may include glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever.
betahistine /baШ…tah-hisР€teВЇn/, a histamine analogue used as
the hydrochloride salt and as a vasodilator to reduce the frequency of attacks of vertigo in Meniere’s disease, especially
in patients having a high frequency of such attacks; administered orally.
17вђ¤-hydroxycorticosterone, cortisol.
beta-hydroxyisovaleric aciduria, an inherited metabolic
disease caused by a deficiency of an enzyme needed to metabolize the amino acid leucine. The condition results in an
accumulation of leucine in the tissues, causing maple sugar
odor in the urine, ketoacidosis, retardation, and muscle atrophy. See also maple syrup urine disease.
beta2-interferon. See interleukin-6.
beta-ketobutyric acid. See acetoacetic acid.
beta-lactam antibiotic, any of a group of antibiotics, including the cephalosporins and the penicillins, whose chemical structure contains a beta-lactam ring.
beta-lactamase /-lakШ…tYmaВЇz/ [lactam, a cyclic amide, ase,
enzyme], a bacterial enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis
of the beta-lactam ring of some penicillins and cephalosporins, producing penicilloic acid and rendering the antibiotic
ineffective. Also called cephalosporinase, penicillinase.
beta-lactamase resistance. See beta-lactamase-resistant antibiotics.
beta-lactamase-resistant antibiotics, antibiotics that are
resistant to the enzymatic effects of beta-lactamase.
beta-lactamase-resistant penicillin. See beta-lactamase-resistant antibiotics.
betamethasone, a glucocorticoid.
в…ў INDICATION: It is prescribed for topical corticosteroidresponsive dermatoses and injected directly into lesions
(bursitis, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.) to help control pain and
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Systemic fungal infections, dermatologic viral and fungal infections, impaired circulation, or
known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the more serious adverse reactions associated with prolonged use of the drug are GI, endocrine, neurologic, and fluid and electrolyte disturbances.
beta2-microglobulin (B2M) test, a test that analyzes
blood, urine, or fluid for increased levels of B2M, a protein
found on the surface of all cells. Increased levels in the urine
indicate renal tubule disease; drug-induced renal toxicity;
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heavy metal–induced renal disease; lymphomas, leukemia,
or myeloma; or AIDS. Increased serum levels indicate lymphomas, leukemia, or myeloma; glomerular renal disease;
renal transplant rejection; viral infections, especially HIV
and cytomegalovirus; or chronic inflammatory processes.
beta-naphthylamine /-nafthilШ…YmeВЇn/, an aromatic amine
used in aniline dyes and linked to the development of bladder cancer in humans.
beta-oxidation, a catabolic process in which fatty acids
are used by the body as a source of energy. The fatty acid
molecules are converted through a series of intermediates
into acetylcoenzyme A molecules, which then enter the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle along with metabolites of carbohydrates and proteins.
Betapar, trademark for a glucocorticoid (meprednisone).
beta particle, an electron emitted from the nucleus of an
atom during radioactive decay of the atom. Beta particles
have a range of 10 m in air and 1 mm in soft tissue. Also
called beta ray.
Betapen-VK, trademark for an antibiotic (penicillin V potassium).
beta phase, the period immediately following the alpha, or
redistribution, phase of drug administration. During the beta
phase the blood level of the drug falls more slowly as it is
metabolized and excreted from the body.
beta rays, a stream of beta particles, as emitted from atoms
of disintegrating radioactive elements. Normally, the element is a nuclide with a high ratio of neutrons to protons.
beta receptor, any one of the postulated adrenergic (sympathetic fibers of autonomic nervous system) components of
receptor tissues that respond to epinephrine and such blocking agents as propranolol. Activation of beta receptors
causes various physiologic reactions such as relaxation of
the bronchial muscles and an increase in the rate and force of
cardiac contraction. Also called beta-adrenergic receptor.
Compare alpha receptor.
beta rhythm. See beta wave.
beta-thalassemia, an anemia that is caused by diminished
synthesis of beta chains of hemoglobin. The homozygous
form is known as thalassemia major and the heterozygous
form is known as thalassemia minor. See thalassemia.
betatron /baВЇШ…tYtron/, a cyclic accelerator that produces
high-energy electrons for radiotherapy. The magnetic field of
the betatron deflects electrons into a circular orbit, and an increasing magnetic orbital flux produces an induced circumferential electric field that accelerates them.
beta wave, one of several types of brain waves, characterized by relatively low voltage and a frequency of more than
13 Hz. Beta waves are the “busy waves” of the brain, recorded by electroencephalograph from the frontal and the
central areas of the cerebrum when the patient is awake and
alert with eyes open. Also called beta rhythm. Compare
alpha wave, delta wave, theta wave.
betaxolol hydrochloride /betakШ…sYlol/, a topical drug for
open-angle glaucoma (Betoptic). An oral preparation
(Kerlone) is indicated for the management of hypertension.
в…ў INDICATIONS: It is prescribed for the relief of ocular hypertension and chronic open-angle glaucoma (ophthalmic) and
for the management of hypertension (oral).
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Betaxolol hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients with sinus bradycardia, greater than firstdegree atrioventricular (AV) block, cardiogenic shock, and
overt heart failure. The ophthalmic preparation is used with
caution by patients who are also receiving oral betaadrenergic blocking drugs.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Adverse reactions include stinging and
tearing of the eyes. Systemic effects are rare. Adverse effects
Bg blood group
of the oral preparation are bradycardia, fatigue, dyspnea, and
bethanechol chloride /bethanШ…Ykol/, a cholinergic.
в…ў INDICATIONS: It is prescribed in the treatment of fecal and
urinary retention and neurogenic atony of the bladder.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Uncertain strength of the bladder, obstruction of the GI or urinary tract, hyperthyroidism, peptic
ulcer, bronchial asthma, cardiovascular disease, epilepsy,
Parkinson’s disease, hypotension, or known hypersensitivity
to this drug prohibits its use. It is not given during pregnancy. It is never given intramuscularly or intravenously.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the more serious adverse reactions are flushing, headache, GI distress, diarrhea, excessive
salivation, sweating, and hypotension.
Betopic, trademark for a topical glaucoma medication (betaxolol hydrochloride).
Betz cells [Vladimir A. Betz, Russian anatomist, 1834–1894;
L, cella, storeroom], 1. large pyramidal neurons of the
motor cortex with axons that form part of the pyramidal
tract associated with voluntary movements. 2. upper motor
bevacizumab, a DNA-derived monoclonal antibody that
selectively binds to and inhibits activity of human vascular
endothelial growth factor to reduce microvascular growth
and inhibition of metastatic disease progression.
в…ў INDICATIONS: This drug is used to treat metastatic carcinoma of the colon or rectum in combination with 5-FU IV. It
is also being investigated for use as an adjunctive in breast
and renal cancer.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Known hypersensitivity to this drug
prohibits its use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Adverse effects of this drug include hypertension, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain, anorexia, colitis, stomatitis, proteinuria, urinary frequency and urgency, bilirubinemia, hypokalemia, dyspnea, and upper respiratory
tract infection. Life-threatening side effects include deep
vein thrombosis, hypertensive crisis, GI hemorrhage, nephritic syndrome, leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, exfoliative dermatitis, and hemorrhage. Common side
effects include asthenia and dizziness.
bevel /bevШ…Yl/ [OFr, baif, open mouth angle], 1. any angle,
other than a right angle, between two planes or surfaces.
2. (in dentistry) any angle other than 90 degrees between a
tooth cut and a cavity wall in the preparation of a tooth cavity. Compare cavosurface bevel, contra bevel.
bexarotene, a second-generation retinoid.
в…ў INDICATIONS: This drug is prescribed for cutaneous T-cell
lymphoma. Investigational uses include treatment of breast
Ⅲ CONTRAINDICATIONS: Pregnancy and known hypersensitivity to retinoids prohibit bexarotene’s use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Life-threatening adverse reactions include acute pancreatitis, leukopenia, and neutropenia. Other
serious side effects include asthenia, infection, anemia, and
hypothyroidism. Among the drug’s common side effects are
headache, nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
bezoar /be¯؅zoˆr/ [Ar, bazahr, protection against poison],
a hard ball of hair or vegetable fiber that may develop within
the stomach of humans. More often it is found in the stomachs of ruminants. In some societies it was formerly considered a useful medicine and possessed of certain magical
properties. It is apparently still used as a therapeutic and
mystical device by some, especially in the Far East.
Bg blood group, a blood group consisting of the erythrocytic HLA antigens Bga, Bgb, Bgc, DBG, Ho, Ho-like, Ot,
and Sto.
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Bezoar (Kumar, Abbas, and Fausto, 2005)
Bh, symbol for the element Bohrium.
bhang /bang/ [Hindi, bag], an Asian Indian hallucinogenic,
composed of dried leaves and the young stems of uncultivated Cannabis sativa. It is usually ingested as a boiled mixture with milk, sugar, or water. It produces euphoria. It also
may be smoked or chewed. Also spelled bang. See also
BHC, benzene hexachloride.
Bi, symbol for the element bismuth.
bi-, prefix meaning “twice, two”: biarticular, bicaudal.
BIA, abbreviation for bioelectric impedance analysis.
-bia, suffix meaning “creature possessing a mode of life”:
biarticular. See diarticular.
bias /bД±ВЇШ…Ys/ [MFr, biais], 1. an oblique or a diagonal line.
2. a prejudiced or subjective attitude. 3. (in statistics) the
distortion of statistical findings from the true value. There
can be many kinds of bias; some may be caused by the sampling process, but bias can be caused by other factors.
4. (in electronics) a voltage applied to an electronic device,
such as a vacuum tube or a transistor, to control operating
limits. See also detection bias.
biased sample /bД±ВЇШ…Yst/ [OFr, biais, slant; L, exemplum,
sample], (in research) a sample of a group in which all factors or participants are not equally balanced or objectively
biasing /bД±ВЇШ…Ysing/, a method of treating neuromuscular
dysfunction by contracting a muscle against resistance, causing the muscle spindles to readjust to the shorter length and
the muscle tissue to be more responsive and sensitive to
biauricular /bД±ВЇР€awВ·rikР€yoo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇВ·lYr/ [L, bis, twice П© auriculus,
little ear], pertaining to the two auricles of the ears. Also
called binauricular.
Biavax, trademark for a rubella and mumps vaccine.
bibliotherapy1, a type of group therapy in which books,
poems, and newspaper articles are read in the group to help
stimulate thinking about events in the real world and to foster relations among group members.
bibliotherapy2, a nursing intervention from the Nursing
Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as the therapeutic
use of literature to enhance expression of feelings, active
problem solving, coping, or insight. See also Nursing Interventions Classification.
bicalutamide, an anticancer chemotherapy agent.
в…ў INDICATIONS: It is prescribed in the treatment of metastatic
prostate cancer. The drug acts by binding to androgen receptors within target cells, preventing androgens from binding
to them.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: The drug should not be given to patients who have an allergic reaction to it. Bicalutamide
biceps brachii
should be used with caution in patients with moderate to severe liver dysfunction.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: The side effects most often reported include hot flashes, general body pain, asthenia, constipation,
nausea, and diarrhea.
bicameral /bД±ВЇВ·kamР€YrВ·Yl/ [L, bis, twice П© camera, vaulted
chamber], having two chambers.
bicameral abscess /bД±ВЇkamШ…YrYl/, an abscess with two separate cavities or chambers.
bicapsular /bД±ВЇВ·kapР€syoo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇВ·lYr/ [L, bis, twice П© capsula, little
box], having two capsules, as an articular capsule.
bicarbonate (HCO3 ) /bД±ВЇkaВЁrШ…bYnaВЇt/ [L, bis, twice, carbo,
coal], an anion of carbonic acid in which only one of the
hydrogen atoms has been removed, as in sodium bicarbonate
(NaHCO3). It is also called hydrogencarbonate.
bicarbonate of soda. See sodium bicarbonate.
bicarbonate precursor, an injection of sodium lactate
used in the treatment of metabolic acidosis. It is metabolized
in the body to sodium bicarbonate.
bicarbonate therapy, a procedure to increase a patient’s
stores of bicarbonate when there are signs of severe acidosis.
It is usually performed only in certain cases and as a stopgap
measure to neutralize acidosis partially when the patient’s
blood pH has fallen to levels that may be hazardous to the
survival of vital tissues.
bicarbonate transport, the route by which most of the
carbon dioxide is carried in the bloodstream. Once dissolved
in the blood plasma, carbon dioxide combines with water to
form carbonic acid, which immediately ionizes into hydrogen and bicarbonate ions. The bicarbonate ions serve as part
of the alkaline reserve.
bicellular /bД±ВЇВ·selР€yoo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇВ·lYr/ [L, bis, twice П© cella, storeroom],
made up of two cells, or having two cells.
biceps brachii /bД±ВЇШ…seps braВЇШ…keВЇВ·Д±ВЇ/ [L, bis, twice, caput, head,
bracchii, arm], the long fusiform muscle of the upper arm
on the anterior surface of the humerus, arising in two heads
from the scapula. It flexes the arm and the forearm and supinates the hand. Also called biceps, biceps flexor cubiti.
Compare brachialis, triceps brachii.
Teres major
Biceps brachii
Triceps brachii
Pronator teres
Biceps brachii (Thibodeau and Patton, 2007)
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biceps femoris
biceps femoris [L, bis, twice, caput, head, femoris, thigh],
one of the posterior femoral muscles. It has two heads at its
origin. The biceps femoris flexes the leg and rotates it laterally and extends the thigh, rotating it laterally. It is one of the
hamstring muscle group and lies on the posterior, lateral
side of the thigh.
Short head
Long head
Biceps femoris
biceps flexor cubiti. See biceps brachii.
biceps reflex, a contraction of a biceps muscle produced
when the tendon is tapped with a percussor in testing deep
tendon reflexes. See also deep tendon reflex.
with deep fascia covering the anterior compartment of the
bicipital groove /bД±ВЇsipШ…YtYl/ [L, bis, twice, caput, head; D,
groeve], a groove between the greater and lesser tubercles
of the humerus for passage of the tendon of the long head of
the biceps muscle.
Bickerdyke, Mary Ann /bik؅Yrdı¯k/, (1817–1901), an
American nurse who, after taking a short course in homeopathy, cared for the sick and wounded on battlefields during
the U.S. Civil War. She insisted on cleanliness, good food,
and the best of medical care for her patients. At night she
searched the battlefield with a lantern for survivors.
biclor /bı¯؅kloˆr/, abbreviation for two chloride anions in
a salt.
biconcave /bД±ВЇkonШ…kaВЇv/ [L, bis, twice, concavare, to make
hollow], concave on both sides, especially as applied to a
lens. —biconcavity, n.
biconvex /bД±ВЇkonШ…veks/ [L, bis П© convexus, vaulted],
convex on both sides, especially as applied to a lens.
—biconvexity, n.
bicornate /bı¯koˆr؅na¯t/ [L, bis ϩ cornu, horn], having two
horns or processes.
bicornate uterus, an abnormal uterus that may be either a
single or a double organ with two horns, or branches. The
anomaly is believed to result from an embryonic development error and is associated with a high incidence of preterm
birth, spontaneous abortion, and infertility.
bicornuate. See bicornate.
bicuspid /bД±ВЇkusШ…pid/ [L, bis П© cuspis, point], 1. having
two cusps or points. 2. See premolar.
bicuspid valve. See mitral valve.
bicycle ergometer [L, bis, twice; Gk, kyklos, circle, ergon,
work, metron, measure], a stationary bicycle dynamometer that measures the strength of an individual’s muscle contraction.
b.i.d., (in prescriptions) abbreviation for bis in die /deВЇР€aВЇ/, a
Latin phrase meaning �twice a day.’
bidactyly /bД±ВЇdakШ…tileВЇ/ [L, bis П© Gk, daktylos, finger],
an abnormal condition in which the second, third, and fourth
digits on a hand are missing and only the first and fifth are
present. Also called lobster claw deformity. —bidactylous, adj.
Biceps reflex testing (Seidel et al, 2006)
Bichat’s membrane /bisha¨z/ [Marie F.X. Bichat, French
anatomist, 1771–1802], an elastic lining beneath the endothelium of an arterial wall.
Bicillin C-R /bi-silР€in/, trademark for combination preparations of the antibiotics penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine.
bicipital aponeurosis, a flat sheet of connective tissue
that fans out from the medial side of the tendon to blend
(Zitelli and Davis, 2007/Courtesy Dr. Christine L. Williams, New York
Medical College)
bidermoma /bД±ВЇР€dYrmoВЇШ…mY/ pl. bidermomas, bidermomata
[L, bis П© Gk, derma, skin, oma, tumor], a teratoid neoplasm composed of cells and tissues originating in two germ
bidet /bidaВЇШ…/ [Fr, pony], a fixture resembling a toilet bowl,
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biduotertian fever
with a rim to sit on and usually equipped with plumbing
implements for cleaning the genital and rectal areas.
biduotertian fever /bД±ВЇР€doo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇВ·YturШ…shYn/ [L, bis П© dies, day,
tertius, three], a form of malaria characterized by overlapping paroxysms of chills, fever, and other symptoms. It is
caused by infection with two strains of Plasmodium, each
having its own cycle of symptoms, such as in quartan and
tertian malaria. Compare double quartan fever. See also
Bier block /be¯r blok/ [August Karl Gustav Bier, German surgeon, 1861–1949], regional anesthesia accomplished after
IV injection of a dilute local anesthetic such as lidocaine.
Used for surgical procedures on the arm below the elbow or
the leg below the knee, it is performed by wrapping the affected extremity with an eschmarch bandage to exsanguinate
the affected extremity before inflation of a pneumatic tourniquet to prevent the anesthetic from entering the systemic circulation. It is limited to procedures of short duration (less
than 1 hour). See also anesthesia, regional anesthesia.
bifid /bД±ВЇШ…fid/ [L, bis П© findere to cleave], cleft, or split into
two parts, as in the spinous processes of the cervical vertebrae.
bifid scrotum, separation of the two halves of the scrotum,
as in penoscrotal transposition.
bifid tongue [L, bis П© findere, to cleave; AS, tunge],
a tongue divided by a longitudinal furrow. Also called cleft
bifid ureter, one in which proximal segments come from
two different collecting systems but join to form one ureter
before reaching the bladder.
bifid uvula, bifurcation of the uvula, an incomplete form
of cleft palate, commonly seen in Native Americans.
bifocal /bД±ВЇfoВЇШ…kYl/ [L, bis П© focus, hearth], 1. pertaining to
the characteristic of having two foci. 2. (of a lens) having
two areas of different focal lengths.
bifocal contact lens, a contact lens that contains corrections for both near and far vision.
bifocal glasses [L, bis, twice, focus, hearth; AS, glaes],
eyeglasses in which each lens is made up of two segments of
different refractive powers or strength. Generally, the upper
part of the lens is used for ordinary or distant vision, and the
smaller, lower section for near vision for close work, such as
reading or sewing. Bifocal eyeglasses may be prescribed for
presbyopia, which often occurs with aging.
biforate /bı¯foˆr؅a¯t/ [L, bis ϩ forare, to pierce twice],
having two perforations or foramina.
bifrontal suture /bД±ВЇfronШ…tYl/ [L, bis П© frons, front, sutura],
the interlocking lines of fusion between the frontal and parietal bones of the skull.
bifurcate /bД±ВЇfurШ…kaВЇt/ [L, bis, twice, furca, fork], pertaining
to the division or branching of an object into two branches,
such as the branching of blood vessels or bronchi.
—bifurcated, adj.
bifurcate ligament, a V-shaped ligament in the foot that
connects the anterior process of the calcaneus to the cuboid
and navicular bones.
bifurcation /bД±ВЇР€fYrkaВЇШ…shYn/ [L, bis П© furca, fork], a splitting into two branches, such as the trachea, which branches
into the two bronchi.
Bigelow’s lithotrite /big؅Ylo¯z/ [Henry J. Bigelow, American
surgeon, 1818–1890; Gk, lithos, stone; L, terere, to rub],
a long-jawed instrument, passed through the urethra, for
crushing a calculus in the bladder.
bigeminal /bД±ВЇjemШ…inYl/ [L, bis, twice, geminus, twin],
pertaining to pairs, twins, or dual events, as a bigeminal
pulse, which is characterized by two beats in rapid succession. See also bigeminy.
bigeminal pregnancy, a twin pregnancy.
bigeminal pulse, an abnormal pulse in which two beats in
close succession are followed by a pause during which no
pulse is felt. See also trigeminal pulse, trigeminy.
bigeminal rhythm [L, bis П© geminus, twin; Gk, rhythmos],
an abnormal heartbeat in which ectopic ventricular or atrial
beats alternate with and are precisely coupled to sinus beats,
or in which ventricular ectopic beats occur in pairs, as in
ventricular tachycardia with 3:2 exit block. Also called bigeminy, coupled rhythm.
bigeminy /bı¯jem؅ine¯/ [L, bis ϩ geminus, twin], 1. an association in pairs. 2. See bigeminal rhythm. —bigeminal, adj.
bilabe /bД±ВЇШ…laВЇb/ [L, bis П© labium, lip], a narrow forceps used
to remove small calculi from the bladder by way of the urethra.
bilabial /bД±ВЇВ·laВЇР€beВЇВ·Yl/, a consonantal speech sound produced
by using the two lips, such as b, p, or m. Also called labial.
bilaminar /bД±ВЇlamШ…YnYr/ [L, bis П© lamina, plate], pertaining
to or having two layers, such as the ectoderm and endoderm
of the blastula, and the basal lamina interspersed with reticular fibers to form the basement membrane of the epithelium.
bilaminar blastoderm, the stage of embryonic development before mesoderm formation in which only the ectoderm and endoderm primary germ layers have formed. Compare trilaminar blastoderm.
bilateral /bilatШ…YrYl/ [L, bis П© lateralis, side], 1. having
two sides. 2. occurring or appearing on two sides. A patient
with bilateral hearing loss may have partial or total hearing
loss in both ears. 3. having two layers.
bilateral carotid artery [L, bis, twice, latus, side; Gk,
karos, heavy sleep], a main artery to the head and neck
that divides into left and right branches and again into external and internal branches.
bilateral lithotomy [L, bis, twice, latus, side; Gk, lithos,
stone, temnein, to cut], a surgical procedure for removing
urinary tract stones from the bladder by making an incision
across the peritoneum.
bilateral long-leg spica cast, an orthopedic device of
plaster of paris, fiberglass, or other casting material that encases and immobilizes the trunk cranially as far as the nipple
line and both legs caudally as far as the toes. A horizontal
crossbar to improve immobilization connects the parts of the
cast encasing both legs at ankle level. It is used to aid the
healing of fractures of the hip, the femur, the acetabulum,
and the pelvis and to correct hip deformities. Compare oneand-a-half spica cast, unilateral long-leg spica cast.
bilateral strabismus [L, bis П© latus, side; Gk, strabismos],
an eye disorder, characterized by bilateral squint, which is
caused by a failure of ocular accommodation.
bilateral symmetry [L, bis П© latus, side; Gk, syn, together,
metron, measure], similar structure of the halves of an organism.
Bilbao tube /bilboВЇШ…Y/, a long, thin, flexible tube that is used
to inject barium into the small intestine. The tube is guided
with a stiff wire from the mouth to the end of the duodenum
under fluoroscopic control.
bilberry, an herb found in the central, Northern, and
Southeastern regions of Europe.
в…ў USES: This herb is used for diabetic retinopathy, macular
degeneration, glaucoma, cataract, capillary fragility, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, and mild diarrhea; possibly effective for some indications but controlled clinical trials do not
support its use for improving vision.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Bilberry should not be used during
pregnancy and lactation or in children until more research is
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bile /bД±ВЇl/ [L, bilis],
a bitter, yellow-green, viscid alkaline
fluid secreted by the liver. Stored in the gallbladder, bile receives its color from the presence of bile pigments such as
bilirubin. Bile passes from the gallbladder through the common bile duct in response to the cholecystokinin (CCK) produced in the duodenum in the presence of a fatty meal. Bile
emulsifies these fats (breaks them into smaller particles and
lowers the surface tension), preparing them for further digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Any interference in
the flow of bile will result in the presence of unabsorbed fat
in the feces and in jaundice. Also called gall. See also biliary obstruction, jaundice. —biliary, adj.
bile acid, a steroid acid of the bile, produced during the
metabolism of cholesterol. On hydrolysis, bile acid yields
glycine and choleic acid.
bile acid breath test, a breath test for overgrowth of bacteria in the intestine: the patient is given a dose of a conjugated bile acid labeled with carbon 14, and the amount of radioactively labeled carbon dioxide in the breath is measured
at hourly intervals. Excessive labeled carbon dioxide in the
breath indicates excessive bacteria in the intestine breaking
down the bile acids.
bile acid therapy, administration of bile acids for treatment of hyperliposis.
bile duct. See biliary duct.
bile duct abscess, a cavity containing pus and surrounded
by inflamed tissue in the bile duct.
bile pigments, a group of substances that contribute to the
colors of bile, which may range from a yellowish green to
brown. A common bile pigment is bilirubin, which contains
a reddish iron pigment derived from the breakdown of old
red blood cells.
bile salts [L, bilis, bile; AS, sealt], a mixture of sodium
salts of the bile acids and cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids
synthesized in the liver as a derivative of cholesterol. Their
low surface tension contributes to the emulsification of fats
in the intestine and their absorption from the GI tract.
bile solubility test, a bacteriologic test used in the differential diagnosis of pneumococcal and streptococcal infection. A broth culture of each organism is placed into two
tubes. Ox bile is added to one and salt to the other. Pneumococci dissolve in ox bile, producing a clear solution. Because
streptococci do not dissolve, the resulting solution is cloudy.
The tube with salt is used for comparative purposes.
Bilharzia. See Schistosoma.
bilharziasis. See schistosomiasis.
bili-, prefix meaning “bile”: biliary, bilifuscin.
biliary /bilШ…eВЇВ·erР€eВЇ/, pertaining to bile or to the gallbladder
and bile ducts, which transport bile. These are often called
the biliary tract or the biliary system. Also bilious. See
also bile, biliary calculus.
biliary abscess, an abscess of the gallbladder or liver.
biliary atresia, congenital absence or underdevelopment
of one or more of the biliary structures, causing jaundice and
early liver damage. As the condition worsens, the child’s
growth may be retarded, and portal hypertension may develop. Surgery can correct the defective ducts in only a small
percentage of cases. Liver transplantation is an option. Most
infants die in early childhood from biliary cirrhosis. It is essential to distinguish between this condition and neonatal
hepatitis, which is treatable. See also biliary cirrhosis.
biliary calculus [L, bilis, bile, calculus, pebble], a stone
formed in the biliary tract, consisting of cholesterol or bile
pigments and calcium salts. Biliary calculi may cause jaundice, right upper quadrant pain, obstruction, and inflammation of the gallbladder. If stones cannot pass spontaneously
biliary colic
into the duodenum, cholangiography or similar processes
will reveal their location, and they can be removed surgically. Also called choledocholithiasis, gallstones. See also
cholangitis, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis.
Small bile
Hepatic duct
Common bile duct
Greater duodenal
Common sites of biliary calculi
(Monahan et al, 2007)
biliary cirrhosis [L, bilis П© kirrhos, yellow-orange, osis,
condition], an inflammatory condition in which the flow of
bile through the ductules of the liver is obstructed. Primary
biliary cirrhosis most commonly affects women in their middle years and is often associated with antimitochondrial antibodies. Its cause is unknown. It is characterized by itching,
jaundice, steatorrhea, and enlargement of the liver and
spleen. The disease is slowly progressive. Treatment includes ursodeoxycholic acid. Care must be taken to rule out
secondary biliary cirrhosis caused by obstruction of the biliary structures outside the liver, because the latter condition
can be treated more successfully. Compare biliary calculus,
biliary obstruction.
Biliary cirrhosis (Kumar et al, 2007)
biliary colic [L, bilis П© kolikos, colon pain],
a type of
smooth muscle or visceral pain specifically associated with
the passing of stones through the bile ducts. Also called
cholecystalgia. See also biliary calculus.
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biliary duct
bilirubin diglucuronide
biliary duct,
one of the muscular ducts through which bile
passes from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. See
also common bile duct.
biliary dyskinesia, pain or discomfort in the epigastric region resulting from spasm, especially of the sphincter of
Oddi, following cholecystectomy. It interferes with bile
biliary dyspepsia, a digestive upset caused by an inadequate flow of bile into the duodenum.
biliary fistula, an abnormal passage from the gallbladder,
a bile duct, or the liver to an internal organ or the surface of
the body. Biliary fistulae into the duodenum may complicate
cholelithiasis; a gallstone may become impacted, usually in
the ileocecal valve, and cause intestinal obstruction.
biliary glands. See glands of bile duct.
biliary obstruction, blockage of the common or cystic
bile duct, usually caused by one or more gallstones. It impedes bile drainage and produces an inflammatory reaction.
Less common causes of biliary obstruction include choledochal cysts, pancreatic and duodenal tumors, Crohn’s disease, pancreatitis, echinococcosis, ascariasis, and sclerosing
cholangitis. Stones, consisting chiefly of cholesterol, bile
pigment, and calcium, may form in the gallbladder and in the
hepatic duct in persons of either sex at any age but are more
common in middle-aged women. Increased amounts of
serum cholesterol in the blood, such as occurs in obesity, diabetes, hypothyroidism, biliary stasis, and inflammation of
the biliary system, promote gallstone formation. Cholelithiasis may be asymptomatic until a stone lodges in a biliary
duct, but the patient usually has a history of indigestion and
discomfort after eating fatty foods. A calculus biliary obstruction should be considered cancerous until proven
в…ў OBSERVATIONS: Biliary obstruction is characterized by severe epigastric pain, often radiating to the back and shoulder,
nausea, vomiting, and profuse diaphoresis. The dehydrated
patient may have chills; fever; jaundice; clay-colored stools;
dark, concentrated urine; an electrolyte imbalance; and a tendency to bleed because the absence of bile prevents the synthesis and absorption of fat-soluble vitamin K.
Ⅲ INTERVENTIONS: The patient is placed in bed in a semiFowler’s position and is usually administered intermittent
nasogastric suctioning, parenteral fluids with electrolytes
and fat-soluble vitamins, and medication for pain. Antibiotics, anticholinergic and antispasmodic drugs, and a cholecystogram or ultrasound scan may be ordered. The blood
pressure, temperature, pulse, and respirations are monitored,
and the patient is helped to turn, cough, and deep breathe
every 2 to 4 hours. Fluid intake and output are measured, and
the color and character of urine and stools are noted. When
the nasogastric tube is removed, the patient initially receives
a low-fat liquid diet and progresses to a soft or normal diet,
as tolerated; up to 2500 mL of fluids a day are encouraged or
administered intravenously, unless contraindicated. Cholecystectomy is usually the definitive treatment, but in most
cases surgery is delayed until the patient’s condition is stabilized and any prothrombin deficiency (caused by vitamin
K malabsorption) is corrected.
biliary pseudolithiasis, pain in the bile ducts with symptoms resembling those of cholelithiasis but in the absence of
biliary system. See biliary.
biliary tract [L, bilis, bile, tractus], the pathway for bile
flow from the canaliculi in the liver to the opening of the bile
duct into the duodenum.
biliary tract cancer, a rare adenocarcinoma in a bile duct
often causing jaundice, pruritus, and weight loss. The lesion
Stents in place to correct biliary obstruction
(Feldman, Friedman, and Brandt, 2006)
may be papillary or flat and ulcerated. The tumor is often unresectable at diagnosis.
biligenesis /bilР€ijenШ…Ysis/, the process by which bile is produced.
bilingulate /bД±ВЇlingШ…gyYlit/ [L, bis, twice, lingula, little
tongue], having two tongues or two tonguelike structures.
biliopancreatic diversion, a surgical treatment for morbid obesity consisting of resection of the distal two thirds of
the stomach and attachment of the ileum to the proximal
stomach. The duodenum and jejunum are bypassed and
empty their secretions into the distal ileum through a new
anastomosis. Also called biliopancreatic bypass.
bilious /bilШ…yYs/ [L, bilis, bile], 1. pertaining to bile.
2. characterized or affected by disordered liver function and
especially excessive secretion of bile.
bilious vomiting, the vomiting of bile. Also called cholemesis.
bilirubin /bilР€iroo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇШ…bin/ [L, bilis П© ruber, red], the orangeyellow pigment of bile, formed principally by the breakdown
of hemoglobin in red blood cells after termination of their
normal lifespan. Water-insoluble unconjugated bilirubin normally travels in the bloodstream to the liver, where it is converted to a water-soluble, conjugated form and excreted into
the bile. In a healthy person, about 250 mg of bilirubin is
produced daily. The majority of bilirubin is excreted in the
stool. The characteristic yellow pallor of jaundice is caused
by the accumulation of bilirubin in the blood and in the tissues of the skin. Testing for bilirubin in the blood provides
information for diagnosis and evaluation of liver disease, biliary obstruction, and hemolytic anemia. Normal levels of
total bilirubin are 0.1 to 1 mg/dl or 5.1 to 17 Вµmol/L. See
also jaundice, van den Bergh’s test.
bilirubin blood test, a blood test performed in cases of
jaundice to help determine whether the jaundice is caused by
hepatocellular dysfunction (as in hepatitis) or extrahepatic
obstruction of the bile ducts (as with gallstones or tumor
blocking the bile ducts). Total serum bilirubin is made up of
conjugated (direct) and unconjungated (indirect) bilirubin,
with varying ratios of each characterizing different diseases.
bilirubin cast, a cast containing bilirubin, giving it a
yellow-brown color, as seen with obstructive jaundice.
bilirubin diglucuronide, a conjugated water-soluble
form of bilirubin, formed in the liver by esterification of two
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molecules of glucuronide to the bilirubin molecule; this is
the usual form in which bilirubin is found in the bile.
bilirubinemia /-eВЇШ…meВЇВ·Y/ [L, bilis, bile, ruber, red; Gk, haima,
blood], the presence of bilirubin in the blood.
bilirubinuria /-oo
Л� rШ…eВЇВ·Y/, the presence of bilirubin in urine.
biliuria /bilР€iyoo
Л� rШ…eВЇВ·Y/ [L, bilis П© Gk, ouron, urine],
the presence of bile pigments in the urine.
biliverdin /bilР€ivurШ…din/ [L, bilis П© virdis, green], a greenish bile pigment formed in the breakdown of hemoglobin
and converted to bilirubin. See also bile, bilirubin.
billing limit. See limiting charge.
Billings method, a way of estimating ovulation time by
changes in the cervical mucus that occur during the menstrual cycle. See also ovulation method of family planning.
Billroth’s operation I [Christian A. Billroth, Austrian surgeon, 1829–1894], the surgical removal of the pylorus in
the treatment of gastric cancer or peptic ulcer disease. The
proximal end of the duodenum is anastomosed to the
bimolecular reaction
Bill’s maneuver [Arthur H. Bill, American obstetrician,
1877–1961], an obstetric procedure in which a forceps is
used to rotate the fetal head at midpelvis before extraction of
the head during birth.
bilobate /bД±ВЇloВЇШ…baВЇt/ [L, bis, twice, lobus, lobe], having two
bilobate placenta [L, bis, twice, lobus, lobe, placenta, flat
cake], a placenta with two connected lobes. Also called bilobed placenta, placenta bipartitia.
Vagus nerve
of stomach
Bilobate placenta (Carlson, 2004)
bilobulate /bД±ВЇlobШ…yYlaВЇt/,
having two lobules. Also bi-
bilocular /bД±ВЇlokШ…yYlYr/ [L, bis П© loculus, compartment],
Billroth’s operation I (Lewis et al, 2007)
Billroth’s operation II [Christian A. Billroth],
the surgical removal of the pylorus and the first part of the duodenum.
The cut end of the stomach is anastomosed to the jejunum,
which is pulled through the transverse mesocolon from the
lower abdomen. The remaining duodenum carrying biliary
and pancreatic secretions drains into the ileum through a
new anastamosis in the lower abdomen. Also called
Vagus nerve
of stomach
Stomach sutured
to jejunum
Billroth’s operation II (Lewis et al, 2007)
1. divided into two cells. 2. containing two cells. Also
Biltricide, trademark for an anthelmintic (praziquantel).
bimanual /bД±ВЇmanШ…yoo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇВ·Yl/ [L, bis П© manus, hand], with
both hands.
bimanual examination [L, bis П© manos, hand], an examination, usually vaginal, that requires the use of both of the
examiner’s hands.
bimanual palpation, the examination of a woman’s pelvic organs in which the examiner places one hand on the abdomen and one or two fingers of the other hand in the vagina. The size, shape, and consistency of the cervix, uterus,
and adnexa are then assessed and noted.
bimanual percussion [L, bis, twice, manus, hand,
percutere, to strike through], a diagnostic technique of
producing sound vibrations in body cavities by the use of
two hands, one serving as the plexor, or “hammer,” and the
other as the pleximeter, or striking plate. See also
bimastoid /bД±ВЇmasШ…toid/, pertaining to the two mastoid processes of the temporal bone.
bimatoprost /b-matР€o-prost/, a synthetic prostaglandin
analogue that acts as an ocular hypotensive; applied topically to the conjunctiva in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.
bimaxillary /bД±ВЇmakШ…silerР€eВЇ/ [L, bis П© maxilla, jawbone],
pertaining to both the upper and lower jaws.
bimodal distribution /bД±ВЇmoШ…dYl/ [L, bis П© modus, measure], the distribution of quantitative data into two clusters. It is suggestive of two separate normally distributed
populations from which the data are drawn.
bimolecular reaction (E2, SN2) /bД±ВЇР€molekШ…yYlYr/, a reac-
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Abdominal binder
Bimanual palpation (Swartz, 2006)
(Harkreader and Hogan, 2007)
tion in which more than one molecule is involved in the slow
step. An enzyme-catalyzed reaction usually consists of a series of bimolecular reactions. It may follow second-order, or
more complicated, chemical kinetics.
bin-, prefix meaning “twice, two”: binocular, binovular.
binangle /binШ…angВ·gYl/ [L, bini, twofold, angulus, angle],
a double-ended surgical or operative instrument that has a
shank with two offsetting angles to keep the cutting edge of
the instrument within 3 mm of the shaft axis.
binary fission /bД±ВЇШ…nYreВЇ/ [L, bini, twofold, fissionis, splitting],
the division of a cell or nucleus into two equal parts. It is the
common form of asexual reproduction among bacteria, protozoa, and other unicellular organisms. Also called simple
fission. Compare multiple fission.
binary number, a number in base 2 represented by 0s and
1s. For example, the number 2 in the decimal form is written
as 10 in the binary form, the decimal number 3 is written as
11, the decimal number 4 is written as 100 in the binary
form, and so on.
binaural /bД±ВЇВ·nawР€rYl/ [L, bis, twice П© auris, ear], pertaining to both ears.
binaural stethoscope. See diaphragm stethoscope.
binauricular. See biauricular.
bind [AS, binden], 1. to bandage or wrap in a band.
2. to join together with a band or with a ligature. 3. (in
chemistry) to combine or unite molecules by using reactive
groups within the molecules or by using a binding chemical.
Binding is especially associated with chemical bonds that
are fairly easily broken, such as in the bonds between toxins
and antitoxins.
binder, a bandage made of a large piece of material to fit
and support a specific body part.
binding energy, 1. the amount of energy required to separate a nucleus into its individual nucleons. 2. the energy released as the nucleus forms from nucleons.
binding site [ME, binden П© L, situs], the location on the
surface of a cell or a molecule where other cell fragments or
molecules attach to initiate a chemical or physiologic action.
Binet age /bina¯؅/ [Alfred Binet, French psychologist, 1857–
1911], the mental age of an individual, especially a child,
as determined by the Binet-Simon tests, which are evaluated
on the basis of tested intelligence of the “normal” individual
at any given age. The Binet age corresponding to “profoundly retarded” is 1 to 2 years; to “severely retarded,” 3 to
7 years; and to “mildly retarded,” 8 to 12 years.
binge eating. See bulimia.
binocular /bД±ВЇnokШ…yYlYr, bin-/ [L, bini П© oculus, eye],
1. pertaining to both eyes, especially regarding vision.
2. a microscope, telescope, or field glass that can accommo-
date viewing by both eyes.
the process of having both eyes directed at the same object at the same time, which is essential
for good depth perception.
binocular ophthalmoscope, an ophthalmoscope having
two eyepieces used for stereoscopic examination of the eye.
binocular parallax /perШ…Ylaks/ [L, bini П© oculus П© Gk, parallax, in turn], the difference in the angles formed by the
sight lines to two objects situated at different distances from
the eyes. Binocular parallax is a major factor in depth perception. Also called stereoscopic parallax.
binocular perception, the visual ability to judge depth or
distance by virtue of having two eyes.
binocular vision, the simultaneous use of both eyes so
that the images perceived by each eye are combined to appear as a single image. Compare diplopia.
binomial /bД±ВЇnoВЇШ…meВЇВ·Yl/, 1. containing two names or terms.
2. the unique, two-part scientific name used to identify a
plant. The first name is the genus; the second, the species. A
designation of the variety may also follow to further differentiate the plant. Use of the binomial is the only reliable way to
accurately specify a particular herb, since common names differ from region to region and a single common name may
often denote several herbs that differ widely from one another.
binomial nomenclature [L, bis, twice; Gk, nomos, law; L,
nomenclatio, calling by name], a system of classification
of animals, plants, and other life forms (developed by Carl
LinneВґ) that assigns a two-part Latinized name to each species, such as Homo sapiens for humans.
binovular /bД±ВЇnovШ…yYlYr/ [L, bini П© ovum, egg], developing
from two distinct ova, as in dizygotic twins. Also diovular.
Compare uniovular.
binovular twins. See dizygotic twins.
Binswanger’s disease /binЈswa¨ng·Yrz/ [Otto Binswanger,
German neurologist, 1852–1929], a degenerative dementia of presenile onset caused by thinning of the subcortical
white matter of the brain; some have attributed it to sclerotic
changes of blood vessels. Associated with multiple subcortical strokes.
binuclear /bД±ВЇnoo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇШ…kleВЇВ·Yr/ [L, bis, twice, nucleus, nut kernel],
having two nuclei, as in the example of a heterokaryon or binucleate hybrid cell. Also binucleate /bД±ВЇnoo
bio- /bı¯Јo¯-/, prefix meaning “life”: bioassay, biopsy.
bioactive [Gk, bios, life; L, activus, with energy], having
an effect on or causing a reaction in living tissue.
binocular fixation,
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bioactivity /-aktivШ…iteВЇ/,
any response from or reaction in
living tissue. —bioactive, adj.
bioassay /bД±ВЇР€oВЇВ·asШ…aВЇ, -YsaВЇШ…/ [Gk, bios П© Fr, assayer, to try],
the laboratory determination of the concentration of a drug
or other substance in a specimen by comparing its effect on
an organism, an animal, or an isolated tissue with that of a
standard preparation. Also called biologic assay.
bioastronautics /-asЈtro¯noˆt؅iks/, the science dealing with
the biologic aspects of space travel.
bioavailability /-YvaВЇР€libilШ…iteВЇ/ [Gk, bios П© ME, availen, to
serve], the degree of activity or amount of an administered
drug or other substance that becomes available for activity in
the target tissue.
biocenosis /-sYnoВЇШ…sis/ [Fk, bios, life, koinos, common],
an ecologic community.
biochemical genetics. See molecular genetics.
biochemical marker /-kemШ…ikYl/ [Gk, bios П© chemeia, alchemy], any hormone, enzyme, antibody, or other substance that is detected in the urine, blood, or other body fluids or tissues that may serve as a sign of a disease or other
abnormality. An example is the Bence Jones protein that
appears in the urine of multiple myeloma patients.
biochemistry /-kemШ…istreВЇ/, the chemistry of organisms and
life processes. Also called biologic chemistry, physiologic
chemistry. —biochemical, adj.
biochemorphics /-kemoˆr؅fiks/, the study of the relationship between chemical structure and biologic function.
biochromatic analysis /-kroВЇmatШ…ik/ [Gk, bios П© chroma,
color], the spectrophotometric monitoring of a reaction at
two wavelengths. It is used to correct for background color.
bioclimatology /-klД±ВЇР€mYtolШ…YjeВЇ/, the study of the relationship and interactions between climate and organisms.
biocybernetics /-sД±ВЇР€bYrnetШ…iks/, the science of communication and control within and among organisms and of the interaction between organisms and mechanical or electronic
biodegradable /-digraВЇШ…dYbYl/ [Gk, bios, life; L, de, away,
gradus, step], the natural ability of a chemical substance to
be broken down into less complex compounds or compounds having fewer carbon atoms by bacteria or other microorganisms.
biodynamics /-dД±ВЇnamШ…iks/, the study of the effects of dynamic processes, such as radiation, on organisms.
bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) /-ilekШ…trik/,
a method of measuring the fat composition of the body, compared to other tissues, by its resistance to electricity. Fat tissue does not conduct electricity. Muscle and bone are poor
conductors. The method is reported to be 95% accurate, depending on body water content, which may fluctuate with
exercise, diet, sweating, and use of alcohol or drugs. See also
total body electric conductivity (TOBEC).
bioelectricity /-ilektrisШ…iteВЇ/ [Gk, bios П© elektron, amber],
electrical current that is generated by living tissues, such as
nerves and muscles. The electrical potentials of human tissues, recorded by electrocardiograph, electroencephalograph, and similar sensitive devices, are used in diagnosing
the condition of various vital organs.
bioenergetics /-enЈYrjet؅iks/ [Gk, bios ϩ energein, to be active], a system of exercises based on the concept that natural healing will be enhanced by bringing the patient’s body
rhythms and the natural environment into harmony.
bioequivalent /bД±ВЇР€oВЇВ·ikwivШ…YlYnt/ [Gk, bios П© L, aequus,
equal, valere, to be strong], 1. (in pharmacology) pertaining to a drug that has the same effect on the body as another
drug, usually one nearly identical in its chemical formulation
but possibly requiring a different amount to see the same ef-
biologic activity
fect. 2. going in and out of the body at the same rate.
—bioequivalence, n.
bioethics /bД±ВЇР€oВЇВ·ethР€iks/ [Gk, bios, life П© ethos, the habits of
humans or animals], obligations of a moral nature relating
to biological research and its applications.
biofeedback1 /-feВЇdШ…bak/ [Gk, bios П© AS, faedan, food, baec,
back], a process providing a person with visual or auditory
information about the autonomic physiologic functions of
his or her body, such as blood pressure, muscle tension, and
brain wave activity, usually through use of instruments. By
trial and error, the person learns consciously to control these
processes, which were previously regarded as involuntary.
Biofeedback may be used clinically to treat many conditions,
such as pain, anxiety, hypertension, insomnia, and migraine
biofeedback2, a nursing intervention from the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as assisting the patient to gain voluntary control over physiologic responses
using feedback from electronic equipment that monitor
physiologic processes. See also Nursing Interventions
biofilm /biР€o-filmШ…/, a thin layer of microorganisms adhering to the surface of a structure, which may be organic or inorganic, together with the polymers that they secrete.
bioflavonoid /bД±ВЇР€oВЇflaВЇШ…vYnoid/ [Gk, bios П© L, flavus, yellow;
Gk, eidos, form], a generic term for any of a group of colored flavones found in many fruits. Once believed to reduce
capillary bleeding, bioflavonoids are now considered nonessential nutrients. Several are being investigated as possible
low-calorie sweeteners.
biogenesis /bД±ВЇР€oВЇjenШ…Ysis/ [Gk, bios П© genein, to produce],
1. also called biogeny /bı¯·oj’Yne¯/, the doctrine that living
material can originate only from preexisting life and not
from inanimate matter. 2. the origin of life; ontogeny and
phylogeny. Compare abiogenesis. —biogenetic, adj.
biogenetic law. See recapitulation concept.
biogenic /bД±ВЇР€oВЇjenШ…ik/, 1. produced by the action of a living
organism, such as fermentation. 2. essential to life and the
maintenance of health, such as food, water, and proper rest.
biogenic amine, one of a large group of naturally occurring biologically active compounds, most of which act as
neurotransmitters. The most dominant, norepinephrine, is involved in such physiologic functions as emotional reactions,
memory, sleep, and arousal from sleep. Other biochemicals
of the group include three catecholamines: histamine, serotonin, and dopamine. These substances are active in regulating blood pressure, elimination, body temperature, and many
other centrally mediated body functions.
biogenous /bД±ВЇВ·ojШ…YnYs/, 1. biogenetic. 2. biogenic.
biogeny. See biogenesis.
biogravics /-gravШ…iks/, the study of the effects of gravity,
including reduced and increased gravitational forces, on organisms.
biohazard /-hazР€Yrd/ [Gk, bios, life; OFr, hasard], anything that is a risk to organisms, such as ionizing radiation or
harmful bacteria or viruses.
bioimpedance analysis, a method for analyzing the water
content of the body through variations in bioimpedance between different types of tissue.
bioinstrument, a sensor or other device implanted into or
attached to a living organism for the purpose of recording
physiologic data, such as brain activity or heart function.
biokinetics /-kinetШ…iks/ [Gk, bios, life, kinetikos, moving],
the study of the movements within developing organisms.
biologic activity, the inherent capacity of a substance,
such as a drug or toxin, to alter one or more chemical or
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biologic armature
Biohazard label (Bonewit-West, 2008)
physiologic functions of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism.
The biologic activity of a substance is determined not only
by the substance’s physical and chemical nature but also by
its concentration and the duration of cellular exposure to it.
Biologic activity may reflect a “domino effect,” in which the
alteration of one function disrupts the normal activity of one
or more other functions.
biologic armature, the connective tissue-rich aggregate
of larger ducts, vessels, and autonomic nerves that in many
mammalian exocrine glands serves as an internal framework
whose function of support, and often anchorage, resembles
that of the armature within a clay sculpture.
biologic assay. See bioassay.
biologic chemistry. See biochemistry.
biologic death, death attributed to natural causes. In CPR
terms, biologic death refers to permanent cellular damage,
resulting from lack of oxygen, that is not reversible.
biologic dressing, a dressing for burn injuries that is made
from pigskin or synthetic materials with characteristics like
those of human skin. The dressing is most effective in treating burns that are of uniform depth and of superficial partial
thickness. It should be applied as soon as possible after the
injury and should adhere to the wound during healing. Once
adherence is established the wound can be left open and the
patient can bathe and wear clothing over it.
biologic half-life, the time required for the body to eliminate half of an administered dose of any substance by regular
physiologic processes. The biologic half-life is approximately the same for stable and radioactive isotopes of a specific element. Also called metabolic half-life. See also effective half-life, half-life.
biologic monitoring, 1. a process of measuring the levels
of various physiologic substances, drugs, or metabolites
within a patient during diagnosis or therapy. 2. the measurement of toxic substances in the environment and the identification of health risks to the population. Biologic monitoring often uses indirect methods of identifying and measuring
substances, such as analyses of samples of blood, urine,
feces, hair, nails, sweat, saliva, or exhaled air and extrapolation from metabolic effects.
biologic plausibility, a method of reasoning used to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between a biologic factor
and a particular disease.
biologic psychiatry, a school of psychiatric thought that
stresses the physical, chemical, and neurologic causes of and
treatments for mental and emotional disorders.
biologic rhythm [Gk, bios, life, logos, science, rhythmos],
the periodic recurrence of a biologic phenomenon, such as
the respiratory cycle, the sleep cycle, or the menstrual cycle.
Also called biorhythm.
biologic vector. See vector.
biologist /bД±ВЇВ·olШ…Yjist/ [Gk, bios, life, logos, science], a person who studies life sciences.
biology /bД±ВЇВ·olШ…Yje/, the scientific study of life. Some
branches of biology are biometry, cytology, ecology, evolution, genetics, molecular biology, paleontology, and
biolysis /bД±ВЇВ·olШ…isis/ [Gk, bios, life, lysis, loosening], the disintegration or dissolution of organic matter resulting from
the activity of organisms, such as bacterial action on living
biome /bД±ВЇШ…oВЇm/ [Gk, bios П© oma, tumor, mass], the collection of biologic communities existing in and characteristic of
a broad geographic region, such as desert, tropical forest,
or savanna. A biome includes all organisms of a particular
biomechanic. See biomechanics.
biomechanic adaptation, a process in which a patient
with a physical disability adjusts to the use of an orthotic device, such as an ankle-foot brace or a patellar-tendon-bearing
prosthesis. Adaptation requires the central nervous system
input received during therapeutic exercises with the orthotic
biomechanics [Gk, bios П© mechane, machine], the study
of mechanical laws and their application to living organisms,
especially the human body and its locomotor system.
—biomechanic, biomechanical, adj.
biomedical, pertaining to the biologic aspects of medicine.
biomedical engineering /-medШ…ikYl/ [Gk, bios П© L, medicare, to heal], a system of scientific techniques that is applied to biologic processes to solve practical medical problems or answer questions in biomedical research.
biometry /bД±ВЇВ·omШ…YtreВЇ/, the application of statistical methods in analyzing data obtained in biologic or anthropologic
research. See also biology.
biomicroscopy /-mД±ВЇkrosШ…kYpeВЇ/, 1. microscopic examination of living tissue in the body. 2. ophthalmic examination
of the eye by use of a slit lamp and a magnifying lens. See
also slit lamp, slit-lamp microscope.
bionics /bД±ВЇВ·onШ…iks/, the science of applying electronic principles and devices, such as computers and solid-state miniaturized circuitry, to medical problems. An example of the application of bionics is the development of artificial
pacemakers to correct abnormal heart rhythms. —bionic, adj.
biopharmaceutics /-faВЁrР€mYsoo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇШ…tiks/, the study of the
chemical and physical properties of drugs, their components,
and their activities in living organisms.
biophore /bı¯؅YfoˆrЈ/ [Gk, bios ϩ phora, bearer], according
to the German biologist A.F.L. Weismann (1834-1914), the
basic hereditary unit contained in the germ plasm from
which all living cells develop and all inherited characteristics are transmitted. Compare gemma.
biophysics, the application of physical laws to life processes of organisms.
biopotentials /-pYtenШ…shYls/, a voltage produced by a tissue
of the body, particularly muscle tissue during a contraction.
Electrocardiography depends on measurement of changing
potentials in contracting heart muscle. Electromyography
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and electroencephalography function similarly in the diagnosis of neuromuscular and brain disorders, respectively.
biopsy /bД±ВЇШ…opseВЇ/ [Gk, bios П© opsis, view], 1. the removal
of a small piece of living tissue from an organ or other part
of the body for microscopic examination to confirm or establish a diagnosis, estimate prognosis, or follow the course of a
disease. 2. the tissue excised for examination. 3. informal.
to excise tissue for examination. Kinds of biopsy include aspiration biopsy, needle biopsy, punch biopsy, and surface
biopsy. —bioptic /bı¯·opЈtik/, adj.
biopsychic /bД±ВЇР€oВЇsД±ВЇШ…kik/ [Gk, bios П© psyche, mind], pertaining to mental factors as they relate to living organisms.
biopsychology. See psychobiology.
biopsychosocial /bД±ВЇР€oВЇsД±ВЇР€koВЇsoВЇШ…shYl/ [Gk, bios П© psyche,
mind; L, socius, companion], pertaining to the complex of
biologic, psychologic, and social aspects of life.
biopsychosocial diagnosis, a holistic approach to diagnosis that takes into consideration the medical, developmental,
psychologic, spiritual, and social conditions and symptoms
that are present, and how they interact to produce a particular
patient’s condition.
bioptic. See biopsy.
bioptome tip catheter /bД±ВЇВ·opШ…toВЇm/, a catheter with a special end designed for obtaining endomyocardial biopsy
samples. It is threaded through a guiding catheter to the right
ventricle, where it snips small tissue samples from the septal
wall for pathologic examination. The bioptome tip device is
used to monitor heart transplantation patients for early signs
of tissue rejection.
biorhythm. See biologic rhythm.
biosafety, a system for the safe handling of toxic and dangerous biologic and chemical substances. Guidance in biosafety is offered by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, Occupational Safety and Health Administration,
and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
-biosis, suffix meaning “a specific way of living”:
macrobiosis, otobiosis.
biostatistics /-stYtisШ…tiks/, numeric data on births, deaths,
diseases, injuries, and other factors affecting the general
health and condition of human populations. Also called vital
biosynthesis /-sinШ…thYsis/ [Gk, bios П© synthesis, putting together], any one of thousands of chemical processes continually occurring throughout the body in which less complex molecules form more complex biomolecules, especially
the carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleotides, and nucleic
acids. Biosynthetic reactions constitute the anabolism of the
body. —biosynthetic, adj.
biosystem, any organism or complex system of organisms.
biotaxis /bД±ВЇР€oВЇtakШ…sis/ [Gk, bios П© taxis, arrangement],
the ability of cells to develop into certain forms and arrangements. See also cytoclesis. —biotactic, adj.
biotaxy /bД±ВЇШ…oВЇtakР€seВЇ/, 1. biotaxis. 2. the systematic classification of organisms according to their phenotypic characteristics; taxonomy.
biotechnology /-teknolШ…YjeВЇ/ [Gk, bios П© techne, art, logos,
science], 1. the study of the relationships between humans
or other living organisms and machinery, such as the health
effects of computer equipment on office workers or the ability of airplane pilots to perform tasks when traveling at supersonic speeds. 2. the industrial application of the results of
biologic research, particularly in fields such as recombinant
deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) or gene splicing, which permits the production of synthetic hormones or enzymes by
combining genetic material from different species. See recombinant DNA.
biotelemetry /-tYlemШ…YtreВЇ/,
the transmission of physiologic
data, such as electrocardiographic (ECG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, heart rate, and body temperature by radio or telephone systems. Transmission of such
data uses sophisticated electronic devices developed for the
study of the effects of space travel on animals and humans; it
has progressed to the use of communication satellites for relaying such data from one part of the world to another.
bioterrorism, the calculated use, or threatened use, of biologic agents against civilian populations in order to attain
political or ideologic goals by intimidation or coercion.
bioterrorism infectious agents testing, testing for infectious agents used in bioterrorism, including botulism, anthrax, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis. Testing
may include blood tests, urine tests, stool tests, tissue cultures, sputum cultures, lymph node biopsies, and skin tests.
bioterrorism preparedness, a nursing intervention from
the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as
preparing for an effective response to bioterrorism events or
disaster. See also Nursing Interventions Classification.
biotherapy, a type of cancer therapy that uses agents to
stimulate the body’s own immune system to kill cancer. Examples include interleukins, interferons, and hematopoietic
growth factors. The term is sometimes used interchangeably
with targeted therapy. See also immunotherapy.
-biotic, suffix meaning “life”: anabiotic, microbiotic; also,
meaning “possessing a (specified) mode of life”: endobiotic,
biotic factor /bД±ВЇВ·otШ…ik/, an environmental influence on
living things, as distinguished from climatic or geologic
biotic potential, the possible growth rate of a population
of organisms under ideal conditions, which include an absence of predators and an unlimited availability of nutrients
and space for expansion.
biotin /bД±ВЇШ…Ytin/ [Gk, bios, life], a colorless, crystalline,
water-soluble B complex vitamin that acts as a coenzyme in
fatty acid production and in the oxidation of fatty acids and
carbohydrates. It also aids in the use of protein, folic acid,
pantothenic acid, and vitamin B12. Rich sources are egg
yolk, beef liver, kidney, unpolished rice, brewer’s yeast, peanuts, cauliflower, and mushrooms. Formerly called vitamin
H. See also avidin.
biotin deficiency syndrome, an abnormal condition
caused by a deficiency of biotin, a B complex vitamin. It is
characterized by dermatitis, hyperesthesia, muscle pain, anorexia, slight anemia, and changes in electrocardiographic
activity of the heart. The average daily requirement of biotin
for an adult is 100 to 200 Вµg; the average American diet provides 100 to 300 Вµg of the vitamin. Because biotin is synthesized by intestinal bacteria, naturally occurring deficiency in
adults is unknown, although it can be induced by large quantities of raw egg whites in the diet. Symptoms include scaly
dermatitis, grayish pallor, extreme lassitude, anorexia, muscle pains, insomnia, some precordial distress, and slight anemia. Some authorities consider seborrheic dermatitis in infants a form of biotin deficiency.
biotope /bД±ВЇШ…YtoВЇp/ [Gk, bios П© topos, place], a specific biologic habitat or site.
biotoxin /bД±ВЇР€YtokШ…in/, poison produced by and derived from
plants and animals. Biotoxins include abrin, from the jequirity bean or rosary pea (Abrus precatorius); ricin, from castor
beans; and strychnine, from Strychnos nux-vomica. Biotoxins can be absorbed by ingesting or inhaling the toxin. Inhalation of ricin or abrin causes severe respiratory distress,
and ingestion of these agents causes nausea and vomiting.
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Multisystem organ failure and death may occur. Strychnine
attacks communication between the nerves and muscles and
may lead to death from respiratory failure as the respiratory
muscles tire. Treatment consists of removal of the toxin from
the body and supportive care.
biotransformation /-transЈfoˆrma¯؅shYn/ [Gk, bios ϩ L,
trans, across, formare, to form], the chemical changes a
substance undergoes in the body, such as by the action of enzymes. See also metabolic.
Biot’s respiration /be¯·o¯z؅/ [Camille Biot, French physician,
b. 1878], an abnormal respiratory pattern, characterized by
short episodes of rapid, uniformly deep inspirations followed
by 10 to 30 seconds of apnea. Biot’s respiration is symptomatic of meningitis or increased intracranial pressure.
biovular twins. See dizygotic twins.
bipalatinoid /bД±ВЇР€palatШ…inoid, -palШ…-/, describing a twocompartment capsule with different medications in each
side. It is designed so that the two substances become mixed
and activated as the gelatin capsule dissolves.
bipara /bipШ…YrY/, a woman who has given birth twice in
separate pregnancies.
biparental inheritance. See amphigenous inheritance.
biparietal /bД±ВЇpYrД±ВЇШ…YtYl/ [L, bis, twice, paries, wall], pertaining to the two parietal bones of the head, such as the biparietal diameter.
biparietal diameter (BPD), the transverse distance between the protuberances of the two parietal bones of the
biparietal suture [L, bis П© paries, wall, sutura], the interlocking lines of fusion between the two parietal bones of
the skull.
biparous /bipШ…YrYs/ [L, bis, twice, parere, to produce],
pertaining to the birth of two infants in separate pregnancies.
bipartite /bД±ВЇpaВЁrШ…tД±ВЇt/, having two parts.
biped /bД±ВЇШ…ped/, 1. having two feet. 2. any animal with only
two feet.
bipedal /bД±ВЇpeВЇШ…dYl, -pedШ…Yl/ [L, bis, twice, pes, foot], capable of locomotion on two feet.
bipenniform /bı¯pen؅ifoˆrmЈ/ [L, bis ϩ penna, feather, forma,
form], (of body structure) having the bilateral symmetry of
a feather, such as the pattern formed by the fasciculi that
converge on both sides of a muscle tendon in the rectus
femoris. Compare multipenniform, penniform, radiate.
biperforate /bД±ВЇВ·pYrР€fYВ·raВЇt/ [L, bis, twice П© perforatus, bored
through], having two perforations.
biperiden hydrochloride /bД±ВЇperШ…idYn/, a synthetic anticholinergic agent.
Ⅲ INDICATIONS: It may be prescribed in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and drug-induced extrapyramidal disorders.
Biperiden hydrochloride is administered orally, and biperiden lactate is administered intramuscularly or intravenously.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Narrow-angle glaucoma, asthma, obstruction of the genitourinary or GI tract, or known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the more serious adverse reactions are blurred vision, central nervous system effects, urinary retention, postural hypotension, tachycardia, dry
mouth, decreased sweating, and hypersensitivity reactions.
biphasic /bД±ВЇfaВЇШ…zik/ [L, bis П© Gk, phasis, appearance],
having two phases, parts, aspects, or stages.
bipolar /bД±ВЇpoВЇШ…lYr/ [L, bis П© polus, pole], 1. having two
poles, such as in certain electrotherapeutic treatments using
two poles or in certain types of bacterial staining that affects
only the two poles of the microorganism under study.
2. (of a nerve cell) having an afferent and an efferent
bipolar cell,
birthing chair
a cell, such as a retinal neuron, with two main
processes arising from the cell body.
bipolar disorder, a major mental disorder characterized
by episodes of mania, depression, or mixed mood. One or
the other phase may be predominant at any given time, one
phase may appear alternately with the other, or elements of
both phases may be present simultaneously. Characteristics
of the manic phase are excessive emotional displays, such as
excitement, elation, euphoria, or in some cases irritability accompanied by hyperactivity, boisterousness, impaired ability
to concentrate, decreased need for sleep, and seemingly unbounded energy. In extreme mania, a sense of omnipotence
and delusions of grandeur may occur. In the depressive
phase, marked apathy and underactivity are accompanied by
feelings of profound sadness, loneliness, guilt, and lowered
self-esteem. Causes of the disorder are multiple and complex, often involving biologic, psychologic, interpersonal,
and social and cultural factors. The disorder is a biologic illness that can be precipitated or exacerbated by psychosocial
stressors. See also major depressive disorder.
bipolar electrocautery, an electrocautery in which both
active and return electrodes are incorporated into a single
handheld instrument, so that the current passes between the
tips of the two electrodes and affects only a small amount of
bipolar lead /leВЇd/, 1. an electrocardiographic conductor
having two electrodes placed on different body regions, with
each electrode contributing to the record. 2. informal. a tracing produced by such a lead on an electrocardiograph.
bipolar version, a method for changing the position of a
fetus in which one hand is placed on the abdomen of the
mother and two fingers of the other hand are inserted into the
bipotentiality /bД±ВЇР€pYtenР€sheВЇВ·alШ…iteВЇ/ [L, bis П© potentia,
power], the characteristic of acting or reacting according
to either of two possible states.
bird breeder’s lung. See pigeon breeder’s lung.
bird face retrognathism. See retrognathism.
birth [ME, burth], 1. the event of being born, the entry of
a new person out of its mother into the world. Kinds of birth
are breech birth, live birth, and stillbirth. See also effacement, labor. 2. the childbearing event, the bringing forth by
a mother of a baby. 3. a medical event, the delivery of a
fetus by an obstetric attendant.
birth canal informal. the passage that extends from the
inlet of the true pelvis to the vaginal orifice through which an
infant passes during vaginal birth. See also clinical
birth center, a health facility with services limited to maternity care for women judged to be at minimum risk for obstetric complications that would require hospitalization.
birth certificate, a legal document recording information
about a birth, including, among other details, the date, time,
and location of the event; identity of the mother and father;
and identity of the attending physician or licensed midwife.
birth control. See contraception.
birth defect. See congenital anomaly.
birthing, a nursing intervention from the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as delivery of a baby.
See also Nursing Interventions Classification.
birthing chair, a special seat used in labor and delivery to
promote the comfort of the mother and facilitate the birthing
process. The chair may be specially designed, having many
technical features, or it may be a simple three-legged stool
with a high, slanted back and a circular seat with a large central hole in it. The newer birthing chairs allow women to sit
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birth injury
straight up or to recline. The chair has a lower section that
may be removed or folded out of the way. Lights, mirrors,
and basins may be attached. The upright position appears to
shorten the time in labor, particularly the second or expulsive stage of labor, probably because of gravity and increased participation of the mother. The chair is not suitable
for use with anesthesia.
birth injury, trauma suffered by a baby while being born.
Some kinds of birth injury are Bell’s palsy, cerebral palsy,
and Erb’s palsy.
birthmark. See nevus.
birth mother, the biologic mother or woman who bears a
child. The child may have been conceived in a surrogate
mother with sperm of the biologic father.
birth palsy [ME, burth П© Gk, paralyein, to be palsied],
a loss of motor or sensory nerve function in some body part
caused by a nerve injury during the birth process. Also called
birth paralysis.
birth paralysis. See birth palsy.
birth parent, one of an individual’s two biologic parents.
birth rate, the proportion of the number of live births in a
specific area during a given period to the total population of
that area, usually expressed as the number of births per 1000
of population. Compare crude birth rate, refined birth
rate, true birth rate.
birth trauma, 1. any physical injury suffered by an infant
during the process of delivery. 2. the supposed psychic
shock, according to some psychiatric theories, that an infant
suffers during delivery.
birth weight, the measured heaviness of a baby when
born, usually about 3500 g (7.5 pounds). In the United
States, 97% of newborns weigh between 2500 g (5.5
pounds) and 4500 g (10 pounds). Babies weighing less than
2500 g at term are considered small for gestational age. Babies weighing more than 4500 g are considered large for
gestational age and are often infants of mothers with diabetes.
bis-, prefix meaning “twice, two”: bisacromial, bisferious.
bisacodyl /bisakШ…oВЇdil/, a cathartic.
в…ў INDICATIONS: It is prescribed in the treatment of acute or
chronic constipation or for emptying of the bowel before or
after surgery or before diagnostic radiographic procedures.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting,
rectal fissures, ulcerated hemorrhoids, or known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the more serious adverse reactions are colic, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
bisacromial /bД±ВЇsYkroВЇШ…meВЇВ·Yl/, pertaining to both acromions,
the triangular, flat, bony plates at the end of the scapula.
bisalbuminemia /bisР€albyoo
Л� mР€ineВЇШ…meВЇВ·Y/, a condition in
which two types of albumin exist in an individual. The two
types are expressed by heterozygous alleles of the albumin
gene and are detected by differences in the mobility of the
types on electrophoretic gels.
bisect /bД±ВЇsektШ…/ [L, bis П© secare, to cut], to divide into two
equal lengths or parts.
bisexual /bД±ВЇsekШ…shoo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇВ·Yl/ [L, bis П© sexus, male or female],
1. hermaphroditic; having gonads of both sexes. 2. possessing physical or psychologic characteristics of both sexes.
3. engaging in both heterosexual and homosexual activity.
4. desiring sexual contact with persons of both sexes.
bisexual libido, (in psychoanalysis) the tendency in a person to seek sexual gratification with people of either sex.
bisferious pulse /bisferШ…eВЇВ·Ys/ [L, bis П© ferire, to beat],
an arterial pulse that has two palpable peaks, the second of
which is slightly weaker than the first. It may be detected in
bitemporal hemianopia
cases of aortic regurgitation and obstructive cardiomyopathy. Compare dicrotic pulse.
bishydroxycoumarin. See dicumarol.
bis in die (b.i.d.) /de¯؅a¯/, a Latin phrase, used in prescriptions, meaning “twice a day.” It is more commonly used in
its abbreviated form.
bismuth (Bi) /bizШ…mYth, bisШ…-/ [Ger, wismut, white mass],
a reddish, crystalline, trivalent metallic element. Its atomic
number is 83. Its atomic mass is 208.98. It is combined with
various other elements, such as oxygen, to produce numerous salts used in the manufacture of many pharmaceutic substances.
bismuth gingivitis, a dark bluish line along the gingival
margin caused by bismuth administered in the treatment of
systemic disease. See also bismuth stomatitis, gingivitis.
bismuth stomatitis, an abnormal oral condition caused by
the systemic use of bismuth compounds over prolonged periods. It is characterized by a blue-black line on the inner aspect of the gingival sulcus or dark pigmentation of the buccal mucosa, sore tongue, metallic taste, and burning
sensation in the mouth. Compare arsenic stomatitis,
Atabrine stomatitis.
bismuth subsalicylate, a bismuth salt of salicylic acid,
administered orally in the treatment of diarrhea and gastric
distress, including nausea, indigestion, and heartburn.
bisoprolol /bisШ…o-proР€lol/, a synthetic beta-adrenergic
blocking agent, used as the fumarate salt; administered
orally as an antihypertensive agent.
bisphosphonate /bis-fosР€fo-naВЇt/, diphosphonate.
bit /bit/, abbreviation for binary digit, the smallest unit of
information in a computer. Bits are the building blocks for
all information processing in digital electronics and computers. Eight bits equals one byte. See also byte.
bitart, abbreviation for a bitartrate carboxylate anion.
bitartrate /bД±ВЇtaВЁrШ…traВЇt/, the monoanion of tartaric acid,
bitartrate carboxylate anion, an ionotropic agent used
in the treatment of cardiovascular patients.
bite [AS, bitan], 1. the act of cutting, tearing, holding,
grinding, crushing, or gripping with the teeth. 2. the lingual
portion of an artificial tooth between its shoulder and its
incisal edge. 3. an occlusal record or relationship between
the upper and lower teeth or jaws. Compare closed bite,
open bite.
bite block. See occlusion rim.
bitegauge /bД±ВЇtШ…gaВЇjР€/ [AS, bitan П© OFr, gauge, measure],
a prosthetic dental device that helps attain proper occlusion
of the upper and lower teeth.
biteguard [AS, bitan П© OFr, garder, to defend], a resin or
rubber appliance that covers the occlusal and incisal surfaces
of the teeth. It is used to stabilize the teeth, to provide a platform for the excursive glides of the mandible, and to eliminate the effects of nocturnal grinding of the teeth. Also called
biteplane, night guard. Compare mouth guard.
biteguard splint, a device, usually made of resin or rubber, for covering the occlusal and incisal surfaces of the teeth
and for protecting them from traumatic occlusal forces during immobilization and stabilization processes. See also
Gunning’s splint.
bitelock /bД±ВЇtШ…lokР€/, a dental device for retaining occlusion
rims in the same relation outside and inside the mouth.
bitemporal /bД±ВЇtemШ…pYrYl/ [L, bis, twice, tempora, temples],
pertaining to both temples or both temporal bones.
bitemporal hemianopia [L, bis, twice, tempora, temples;
Gk, hemi, half, opsis, vision], a loss of the temporal half of
the vision in each eye, usually resulting from a lesion in the
chiasmal area such as a pituitary tumor.
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biteplane /bД±ВЇtШ…plaВЇn/,
1. See occlusal plane. 2. a metal
sheet laid across the biting surfaces of the upper or lower
teeth to determine the relationship of the teeth to the occlusal
plane. 3. an orthodontic appliance of acrylic resin worn over
the maxillary occlusal surfaces and used to treat pain of the
temporomandibular joint and adjacent muscles. Although removable, the device is kept in place by labial wires and
wrought wire clasps. 4. See biteguard.
biteplate /bД±ВЇtШ…plaВЇt/, a device used in dentistry as a diagnostic or therapeutic aid for prosthodontics or orthodontics. It is
made of wire and plastic and worn in the palate. It may also
be used in the correction of temporomandibular joint problems or as a splint in restoring the full mouth.
bite reflex, a swift, involuntary biting action that may be
triggered by stimulation of the oral cavity. The bite can be
difficult to release in some cases, such as when a spoon or
tongue depressor is placed in a patient’s mouth.
bite wing film [AS, bitan П© ME, winge], a dental radiographic film on which a tab is placed so that the teeth can
hold the film in position during exposure, used to view the
interproximal area of posterior teeth. Also called interproximal film. See also bite wing radiograph.
bite wing radiograph, a dental radiograph that reveals
the coronal portions of maxillary and mandibular teeth and
portions of the interdental septa on the same film. See also
bite wing film.
bivalent chromosome
their surroundings. Toddlers and older children often use biting for expressing aggression toward their parents and other
children, especially during play or as a means of gaining
attention. Most children normally outgrow the tendency
unless they have severe maladaptive or emotional problems. See also psychosexual development, psychosocial
bitolterol /bi-tolР€ter-ol/, a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist
used as a bronchodilator; administered by inhalation as the
mesylate salt in the treatment of bronchospasm associated
with asthma and the treatment and prophylaxis of bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive airway disease,
including bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema.
bitolterol mesylate /bitolШ…tYrol mesШ…ilaВЇt/, an orally inhaled
в…ў INDICATIONS: It is used in the treatment of bronchial
asthma and reversible bronchospasm.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATION: This product is contraindicated in patients who are known to be hypersensitive to it.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among adverse reactions reported are
tremor, nervousness, headache, dizziness, palpitations, chest
discomfort, tachycardia, coughing, and throat irritation.
Bitot’s spots /bito¯z؅/ [Pierre Bitot, French surgeon, 1822–
1888], white or gray triangular deposits on the bulbar conjunctiva adjacent to the lateral margin of the cornea, a clinical sign of vitamin A deficiency. Also called Bitot’s patches.
Bitot’s spots (Spalton et al, 2005)
bitrochanteric lipodystrophy /bД±ВЇР€troВЇkYnterШ…ik/ [L, bis П©
Bite wing radiograph
(Bird and Robinson, 2005)
Bithynia /bYthinР€eВЇВ·Y/,
a genus of snails, species of which
act as intermediate hosts to Opisthorchis.
biting in childhood, a natural behavior trait and reflex action in infants, acquired at about 5 to 6 months of age in response to the introduction of solid foods in the diet and the
beginning of the teething process. The activity represents a
significant modality in the psychosocial development of the
child, because it is the first aggressive action the infant
learns, and through it the infant learns to control the environment. The behavior also confronts the infant with one of the
first inner conflicts, because biting can produce both pleasing
and displeasing results. Biting during breastfeeding causes
withdrawal of the nipple and anxiety in the mother, yet it
also serves as a means of soothing teething discomfort. Infants continue to use biting as a mechanism for exploring
Gk, trochanter, runner; lipos, fat, dys, bad, trophe, nourishment], an abnormal and excessive deposition of fat on the
buttocks and the outer aspect of the upper thighs, occurring
most commonly in women. See also lipodystrophy.
biuret test /bД±ВЇШ…yoo
Л� ret/ [L, bis П© Gk, ouron, urine], a
method for detecting proteins in serum. In alkaline solution,
copper sulfate ions react with the peptide bonds of proteins
to produce a pink to purple color, called the biuret reaction.
The amount of serum protein in a sample solution is estimated by comparing its color with that of a standard solution
whose protein concentration is known.
bivalent /bД±ВЇvaВЇШ…lYnt/ [L, bis П© valere, to be powerful],
1. See divalent. (in genetics) a pair of synapsed homologous chromosomes that are attached to each other by chiasmata during the early first meiotic prophase of gametogenesis. The structure serves as the basis for the tetrads from
which gametes are produced during the two meiotic divisions. 2. See valence, def. 1. —bivalence, n.
bivalent antibody, an antibody that has two or more binding sites that can cross-link one antigen to another.
bivalent chromosome, a pair of synapsed homologous
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chromosomes during the early stages of gametogenesis. See
also bivalent.
bivalirudin /bi-valР€roo-din/, an inhibitor of the clotpromoting activity of thrombin, used in conjunction with aspirin as an anticoagulant in patients with unstable angina
pectoris who are undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; administered intravenously.
bivalved cast [L, bis П© valva, valve], a cast that is cut in
half to detect or relieve pressure underneath, especially when
a patient has decreased or no sensation in the portion of the
body surrounded by the cast. “Windows” are often cut out of
the cast over the pressure areas to assess circulation or open
wounds under the cast.
bivalve speculum, one with two blades that are adjustable.
biventricular pacing, that in which a lead is used to deliver current directly to the left ventricle, in addition to those
used to deliver current to the right atrium and ventricle, so
that the ventricles can be induced to pump in synchrony.
bizarre leiomyoma. See epithelioid leiomyoma.
Bjo¨rnstad’s syndrome /byoˆrnЈsta¨dz/ [R. Bjo¨rnstad, Swedish dermatologist, 20th century], an autosomal recessive
disorder characterized by congenital sensorineural deafness
and kinky hair.
Bk, symbol for the element berkelium.
BK, abbreviation for below knee.
BK amputation, abbreviation for below-knee amputation.
See long below-knee amputation and short below-knee
black beauties. See amphetamines.
black cohosh, a perennial herb that grows throughout the
United States and in parts of Canada.
в…ў USES: This herb is used to treat the symptoms of menopause (hot flashes and nervous conditions associated with
menopause) and dysmenorrhea (menstrual cramps, pain, inflammation); generally considered to be effective against
mild symptoms but not a substitute for estrogen-containing
prescriptions needed to control more severe vasomotor
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Black cohosh should not be used during pregnancy, since uterine stimulation can occur. It also
should not be used during lactation or in children.
Black Creek Canal virus, a virus of the genus
Hantavirus that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.
black damp. See damp.
black death. See bubonic plague.
Blackett-Healy method, a positioning procedure for producing x-ray images of the subscapularis area. The patient is
placed in a supine position with the affected shoulder joint
centered on the midline of the film, the arm abducted, and
the elbow flexed. The opposite shoulder is raised about 15
degrees and supported with a sandbag.
black eye, contusion around the eye with bruising, discoloration, and swelling. It is usually treated for the first 24
hours with ice packs to reduce swelling, then with hot compresses to aid in resorption of blood from the hematoma.
Also called periorbital ecchymosis.
Blackfan-Diamond anemia. See Diamond-Blackfan
black fever. See kala-azar.
black hairy tongue. See parasitic glossitis.
black haw, an herb found in the Eastern United States.
в…ў USES: This herb is used for dysmenorrhea, menstrual
cramps and pain, menopausal metrorrhagia, hysteria,
asthma, and heart palpitations. It is also used to lower blood
pressure. It is possibly effective at relieving uterine spasms,
but effectiveness in other instances has not been verified.
black widow spider antivenin
в…ў CONTRAINDICATION: Black haw should be used with
caution in people with kidney stones since it contains oxalic acid.
blackhead. See comedo.
black light. See Wood’s light.
black lung disease. See anthracosis.
black measles [AS, blac П© OHG, masala], an acute
tickborne illness caused by the bacterium Rickettsia
rickettsii. The disease is characterized by a sudden onset of
headache, chills, and fever, which can persist for 2 to 3
weeks. A characteristic rash appears on the extremities and
trunk about the fourth day of illness. Also called hemorrhagic measles.
blackout informal. a temporary loss of vision or consciousness.
black plague. See bubonic plague.
Black’s Classification of Caries. See classification of
black spots film fault, a defect in a radiograph, seen as
dark spots throughout the image area. It is caused by dust
particles or developer on the x-ray film before development
or by outdated film.
blackwater fever, a rare, serious complication of chronic
falciparum malaria, characterized by jaundice, hemoglobinuria, acute renal failure, and passage of bloody dark red or
black urine caused by massive intravascular hemolysis.
Death occurs in 20% to 30% of all cases; the mortality rate is
particularly high among Europeans. See also falciparum
malaria, malaria, Plasmodium.
Blackwell, Elizabeth, (1821–1910), a British-born American physician, the first woman to be awarded a medical
degree. She established the New York Infirmary, a 40-bed
hospital staffed entirely by women, in which she trained
nurses in a 4-month course. Her influence helped others establish nursing schools to improve patient care.
black widow spider [AS, blac П© widewe; ME, spithre],
Latrodectus mactans, a species of spider found in the United
States, whose bite causes pain and sometimes death.
Black widow spider with fresh egg case
(Auerbach, 2007/Courtesy Michael Cardwell & Associates)
black widow spider antivenin,
a passive immunizing
в…ў INDICATION: It is prescribed in the treatment of black
widow spider bite.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Known hypersensitivity to this drug
or to horse serum prohibits its use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the more serious adverse effects
are allergic reactions.
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black widow spider bite
black widow spider bite [AS, blac П© widewe; ME, spithre
П© AS, bitan], the bite of the spider species Latrodectus
mactans, a poisonous arachnid found in many parts of the
world. Black widow venom contains some enzymatic proteins, including a peptide that affects neuromuscular transmission. The bite is perceived as a sharp pinprick pain, followed by a dull pain in the area of the bite; restlessness;
anxiety; sweating; weakness; and drooping eyelids. Muscular rigidity starts at the location of the bite and moves in peripherally to the chest. Small children, elderly adults, or persons with heart disorders are most severely affected and may
require hospitalization and the administration of an antivenin. Immediate treatment includes keeping the victim
quiet and immobilizing the bite area at the level of the heart.
bladder [AS, blaedre], 1. a membranous sac serving as a
receptacle for secretions, such as the gallbladder. 2. the urinary bladder.
bladder outlet obstruction
usually performed if the tumor is at the dome or in a lateral
wall of the bladder. Total cystectomy may be performed for
an invasive lesion of the trigone and necessitates the creation
of a urinary diversion. Radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy may be valuable under certain circumstances, such as
unresectable tumor growth. Internal irradiation, the introduction of radioisotopes via a balloon of a catheter, or the implantation of radon seeds may be used in treating small localized tumors on the bladder wall. Medications that are
often used as palliatives are BCG, 5-fluorouracil, thiotepa,
and adriamycin. Patients may have a recurrence up to 10
years after successful treatment. See also cystectomy.
Opening of ureters
Transitional cell carcinoma of bladder cancer
(Fletcher, 2007)
bladder cancer markers test,
Internal urethral
Bladder (Drake, Vogl, and Mitchell, 2005)
bladder augmentation,
augmentation cystoplasty, often
achieved with the addition of a flap of bowel or stomach to
the bladder to increase bladder volume.
bladder calculus. See vesical calculus.
bladder cancer, the most common malignancy of the urinary tract, characterized by multiple growths that tend to
recur in a more aggressive form. Bladder cancer occurs more
often in men than in women and is more prevalent in urban
than in rural areas. The risk of bladder cancer increases with
cigarette smoking and exposure to aniline dyes, betanaphthylamine, mixtures of aromatic hydrocarbons, or benzidine and its salts, used in chemical, paint, plastics, rubber,
textile, petroleum, and wood industries and in medical laboratories. Other predisposing factors are chronic urinary tract
infections, calculous disease, and schistosomiasis. Symptoms of bladder cancer include painless hematuria, frequent
urination, and dysuria. Irritation from the tumor may mimic
cystitis. Urinalysis, excretory urography, cystoscopy, or
transurethral biopsy is performed for diagnosis. The majority of bladder malignancies are transitional cell carcinomas;
a small percentage are squamous cell carcinomas or adenocarcinomas. Superficial or multiple lesions may be treated by
fulguration or open loop resection. A segmental resection is
a urine test used to dianose
recurrent bladder cancer.
bladder flap informal. the vesicouterine fold of peritoneum incised during low cervical cesarean section so the
bladder can be separated from the uterus to expose the lower
uterine segment for incision. The flap is reapproximated with
sutures during closure to cover the uterine incision. See also
cesarean section.
bladder hernia, a protrusion of the bladder through an
opening in the abdominal wall.
bladder irrigation1 [AS, blaedre П© L, irrigare, to conduct
water], the washing out of the bladder by a continuous or
intermittent flow of saline or a medicated solution. The bladder also may be irrigated by an oral intake of fluid.
bladder irrigation2, a nursing intervention from the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as instillation
of a solution into the bladder to provide cleansing or medication. See also Nursing Interventions Classification.
bladder neck dyssynergia, incomplete opening of the
bladder neck during urination resulting in partial obstruction
of urinary flow. Also called smooth sphincter dyssynergia.
bladder neck incision, surgical incision of the bladder
neck, an operation similar to but less extensive than bladder
neck resection.
bladder neck resection, surgical removal of tissue from
the bladder neck to treat obstruction.
bladder neck suspension, any of various methods of surgical fixation of the urethrovesical junction area and the
bladder neck to restore the neck to a high retropubic position
for relief of stress incontinence. The group includes the
Marshall-Marchetti-Krantz operation and the Burch,
Pereyra, and Stamey procedures. Also called colposuspension.
bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), obstruction of the
outflow of urine from the bladder resulting from various etiologies; causes include benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate
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bladder retraining
cancer, bladder neck contracture, stricture, and a variety of
other conditions.
bladder retraining [AS, blaedre П© L, trahere, to draw],
a system of therapy for urinary incontinence in which a patient practices withholding urine while maintaining a normal
intake of fluid. The interval between urination is increased
from about 1 hour to 3 to 4 hours over a period of 10 days.
The patient also learns to recognize and react to the urge to
bladder sphincter [AS, blaedre П© Gk, sphingein, to bind],
a circular muscle surrounding the opening of the urinary
bladder into the urethra.
bladder stone. See vesicle calculus.
bladder wall, the surrounding structure of the urinary
bladder, consisting of the serous coat, subserous layer, muscular coat, submucus layer, and mucus coat.
tube. See
SengstakenBlakemore tube.
Blalock-Taussig procedure /bla¯؅loktoˆ؅sig/ [Alfred Blalock,
American surgeon, 1899–1964; Helen B. Taussig, American
physician, 1898–1986], surgical construction of a shunt
between the right subclavian artery and the right pulmonary
artery as a temporary measure to overcome congenital heart
malformations, such as tetralogy of Fallot, in which there is
insufficient pulmonary blood flow. Echocardiography is used
to assess the malformation. General anesthesia and a cardiac
bypass machine are used for the operation. The subclavian
artery is joined end to side with the pulmonary artery, directing blood from the systemic circulation to the lungs. Thrombosis of the shunt is the major postoperative complication.
Permanent surgical correction is performed in early childhood. See also heart surgery.
blame placing, the process of placing responsibility for
one’s behavior on others.
blanch /blanch, blaВЁnch/ [Fr, blanchir, to become white],
1. to cause to become pale, as a nailbed may be blanched by
using digital pressure. 2. to press blood away and wait for
return, such as blanching of fingernails and return of blood.
3. to become white or pale, as from vasoconstriction accompanying fear or anger.
blanch test [Fr, blanchir, to become white; L, testum, crucible], a test of blood circulation in the fingers or toes.
Pressure is applied to a fingernail or toenail until normal
color is lost. The pressure is then removed, and, if the circulation is normal, color should return almost immediately,
within about 2 seconds. The time may be prolonged by dehydration; a compromise of circulation, such as arterial occlusion; hypovolemic shock; or hypothermia. Also called
blanching test, capillary refill.
bland [L, blandus], mild or having a soothing effect.
bland aerosols, aerosols that consist of water, saline solutions, or similar substances that do not have important pharmacologic action. They are primarily used for humidification
and liquefaction of secretions.
bland diet, a diet that is mechanically, chemically, physiologically, and sometimes thermally nonirritating to the GI
tract. It is often prescribed in the treatment of peptic ulcer,
ulcerative colitis, gallbladder disease, diverticulitis, gastritis,
idiopathic spastic constipation, and mucous colitis and after
abdominal surgery. Historically, it was first called the “white
diet” (or Sippy diet, after Dr. Sippy, who developed it). This
allowed the use of only white foods, such as milk, cream,
mashed potatoes, and hot cereal (Cream of Wheat). It has
progressed to what has been called the “liberal bland diet,”
which allows all foods except caffeine, alcohol, black pepper, spices, or any other food that could be considered irritating. The clinical value of the traditional bland diet has never
Blanch test (Chapleau, 2004)
been proven, and thus its use as a treatment for GI problems
is questionable.
blank, a solution containing all of the reagents needed for
analysis of a substance except the substance tested.
blanket bath [OFr, blanchet, a white garment], the procedure of wrapping the patient in a wet pack and then in
blast, 1. a primitive cell, such as an embryonic germ cell.
2. a cell capable of building tissue, such as an osteoblast in
growing bone.
-blast, suffix meaning an “embryonic state of development”: megaloblast, osteoblast.
blast cell [Gk, blastos, germ], any immature cell, such as
an erythroblast, lymphoblast, or neuroblast.
blastema /blasteВЇШ…mY/ pl. blastemas, blastemata [Gk, bud],
1. any mass of cells capable of growth and differentiation,
specifically the primordial, undifferentiated cellular material
from which a particular organ or tissue develops. 2. in certain animals, a group of cells capable of regenerating a lost
or damaged part or creating a complete organism in asexual
reproduction. 3. the budding or sprouting area of a plant.
See also primordium. —blastemal, blastematic, blastemic, adj.
-blastema /-blas؅tYmY/, suffix meaning a “beginning substance or foundation for new growth”: epiblastema,
blastemata, blastemal, blastematic, blastemic. See
blastic transformation, a late stage in the progress of
chronic granulocytic leukemia. The leukemic cells become
more undifferentiated and morphologically and genetically
more abnormal, with more aggressive growth patterns. Signs
of anemia and blood platelet deficiency are present, and half
of the blood cells in the bone marrow are immature forms.
Blastic transformation indicates that resistance to therapy
has developed in the patient who has entered a terminal stage
of leukemia.
blastid /blasР€tid/ [Gk, blastos, germ], the site in the fertilized ovum where the pronuclei fuse and the nucleus forms.
Also called blastide.
blastin /blasШ…tin/ [Gk, blastanein, to grow], any substance
that provides nourishment for or stimulates the growth or
proliferation of cells, such as allantoin.
blasto-, blast-, combining form meaning “an early embryonic or developing stage”: blastocoele, blastema.
blastocoele /blasШ…tYseВЇlР€/ [Gk, blastos, germ, koilos, hollow],
the fluid-filled cavity of the blastocyst in mammals and the
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blastula or discoblastula of lower animals. The cavity increases the surface area of the developing embryo to allow
better absorption of nutrients and oxygen. Also spelled blastocoel, blastocele. Also called cleavage cavity, segmentation cavity, subgerminal cavity.
blastocyst /blasШ…tYsist/ [Gk, blastos П© kystis, bag], the embryonic form that follows the morula in human development.
Implantation in the wall of the uterus usually occurs during
this stage, approximately 8 to 13 days after fertilization. The
blastocyst consists of an outer layer (trophoblast) which is
attached to the inner cell mast.
(inner cell mass)
zona pellucida
Early blastocyst (Moore and Persaud, 2008)
blastocyst cavity,
the fluid-filled cavity developing in the
morula as it becomes a blastocyst.
blastocyte /blas؅tYsı¯t/ [Gk, blastos ϩ kytos, cell], an undifferentiated embryonic cell that precedes germ layer formation. —blastocytic, adj.
blastocytoma. See blastoma.
blastoderm /blasШ…tYdurmР€/ [Gk, blastos П© derma, skin],
the layer of cells forming the wall of the blastocyst in mammals and the blastula in lower animals during the early
stages of embryonic development. It is produced by the
cleavage of the fertilized ovum and gives rise to the primary
germ layers, the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm, from
which the embryo and all of its membranes are derived.
Kinds of blastoderm are bilaminar blastoderm, embryonic
blastoderm, extraembryonic blastoderm, and trilaminar
blastoderm. Also called germinal membrane. —blastodermal, blastodermic, adj.
blastodisk /blasШ…tYdisk/, the disklike, yolk-free area of cytoplasm surrounding the animal pole in a yolk-rich ovum,
such as that of birds and reptiles. The blastodisk is the site
where cleavage occurs after fertilization. As cleavage continues, the blastodisk develops into the embryo. Also spelled
blastogenesis /blasР€toВЇjenШ…Ysis/ [Gk, blastos П© genein, to produce], 1. asexual reproduction by budding. 2. the transmission of hereditary characteristics by the germ plasm.
Compare pangenesis. 3. the early development of an embryo during cleavage and formation of the germ layers.
4. the process of transforming small lymphocytes in tissue
culture into large, blastlike cells by exposure to phytohemagglutinin or other substances, often for the purpose of inducing mitosis. —blastogenetic, adj.
blastogenic /-jenШ…ik/, 1. originating in the germ plasm.
2. initiating tissue proliferation. 3. relating to or characterized by blastogenesis.
blastogenic factor, lymphocyte-transforming factor.
blastogeny /blastojШ…YneВЇ/, the early stages in ontogeny. The
germ plasm history of an organism or species, which traces
the history of inherited characteristics.
blastokinin /blasР€tYkД±ВЇШ…nin/ [Gk, blastos П© kinein, to move],
a globulin, secreted by the uterus in many mammals, that
may stimulate and regulate the implantation process of the
blastocyst in the uterine wall. Also called uteroglobulin.
blastolysis /blastolШ…isis/ [Gk, blastos П© lysis, loosening],
destruction of a germ cell or blastoderm. —blastolytic, adj.
blastoma /blastoВЇШ…mY/ pl. blastomas, blastomata [Gk,
blastos П© oma, tumor], a neoplasm of embryonic tissue
that develops from the blastema of an organ or tissue. A blastoma derived from a number of scattered cells is pluricentric; one arising from a single cell or group of cells is unicentric. Also called blastocytoma. —blastomatous
/blastomР€YtYs/, adj.
blastomatosis /blastР€toВЇmYtoВЇШ…sis/ [Gk, blastos П© oma, tumor,
osis, condition], the development of many tumors from
embryonic tissue.
blastomatous. See blastoma.
blastomere /blasШ…tYmeВЇr/ [Gk, blastos П© meros, part],
any of the cells formed from the first mitotic division of a
fertilized ovum (zygote). The blastomeres further divide and
subdivide to form a multicellular morula in the first several
days of pregnancy. Also called segmentation cell. See also
blastula. —blastomeric, adj.
blastomere biopsy, a technique for preimplantation genetic diagnosis, in which a blastomere is removed from a 6or 8-cell embryo and tested for genetic abnormalities.
blastomerotomy /-merotШ…YmeВЇ/ [Gk, blastos П© meros, part,
tome, cut], destruction of blastomere. Also called blastotomy /blastotЈYme¯/. —blastomerotomic, adj.
Blastomyces /blasР€toВЇmД±ВЇШ…seВЇz/ [Gk, blastos П© mykes, fungus],
a genus of yeastlike fungi, usually including the species
Blastomyces dermatitidis, which causes North American
blastomycosis, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, which
causes South American blastomycosis.
Blastomyces dermatitidis
(Forbes, Sahm, and Weissfeld, 2007)
blastomycosis /blasР€toВЇmД±ВЇkoВЇШ…sis/ [Gk, blastos П© mykes, fungus, osis, condition], an infectious disease caused by a
yeastlike fungus, Blastomyces dermatitidis. It usually affects
only the skin but may cause acute pneumonitis or disseminated disease and may invade the lungs, kidneys, central nervous system, and bones. The disease is most common in
river valleys of North America, particularly the southeastern
United States, but outbreaks have occurred in Africa and
Latin America. Skin infections are almost always a result of
hematogeneous seeding from a primary infection and often
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begin as small papules on the hand, face, neck, or other exposed areas where there has been a cut, bruise, or other injury. The infection may spread gradually and irregularly into
surrounding areas. Lung infection is caused by inhalation of
airborne conidia. When the lungs are involved, mucous
membrane lesions resemble squamous cell carcinoma. The
person usually has a cough, dyspnea, chest pain, chills, and a
fever with heavy sweating. Diagnosis is made by identification of the disease organism in a culture of specimens from
lesions. Treatment usually involves the administration of
amphotericin B in pulmonary disease or intraconazole or ketoconazole. Recovery usually begins within the first week of
treatment. The mortality rate is approximately 5%. Also
called Gilchrist’s disease. See also fungus, mycosis, North
American blastomycosis.
Blastomycosis (Callen et al, 2000)
blastopore /blas؅tYpoˆr/ [Gk, blastos ϩ poros, opening],
(in embryology) the opening into the archenteron made by
invagination of the blastula.
blastoporic canal. See neurenteric canal.
blastosphere. See blastula.
blastotomy. See blastomerotomy.
blastula /blasШ…tyYlY/ [Gk, blastos, germ], an early stage of
the process through which a zygote develops into an embryo,
characterized by a fluid-filled sphere formed by a single
layer of cells. The spheric layer of cells is called a blastoderm; the fluid-filled cavity is the blastocoele. The blastula
develops from the morula stage and is usually the form in
which the embryo becomes implanted in the wall of the
uterus. Also called blastosphere.
-blastula, suffix meaning an “early embryonic stage in the
development of a fertilized egg”: coeloblastula, stereoblastula.
blastulation, the transformation of the morula into a blastocyst or blastula by the development of a central cavity, the
BLB mask, abbreviation for Boothby-LovelaceBulbulian mask.
bleaching /bleВЇchР€ing/ [ME, blechen], the act or process of
removing stains or color by chemical means.
bleaching agents, medications and over-the-counter
preparations used to depigment the skin. The products may
be used by persons whose skin has become hyperpigmented
through exposure to sunlight and particularly for melasma
associated with pregnancy, the use of oral contraceptives, or
blended family
hormone replacement therapy. Most agents are sold as
creams or lotions and contain hydroquinone.
bleach poisoning, an adverse reaction to ingestion of hypochlorite salts commonly found in household and commercial bleaches. Symptoms include pain and inflammation of
the mouth, throat, and esophagus; vomiting; shock; and circulatory collapse.
bleb /bleb/ [ME, blob], an accumulation of fluid under
the skin.
bleed [AS, blod, blood], 1. to lose blood from the blood
vessels of the body. The blood may flow externally through
an orifice or a break in the skin or flow internally into a cavity, into an organ, or between tissues. 2. to cause blood to
flow from a vein or an artery.
bleeder informal. 1. a person who has hemophilia or any
other vascular or hematologic condition associated with a
tendency to hemorrhage. 2. a blood vessel that bleeds, especially one cut during a surgical procedure.
bleeding, the release of blood from the vascular system as
a result of damage to a blood vessel. See also blood clotting.
bleeding diathesis, a predisposition to abnormal blood
bleeding precautions, a nursing intervention from the
Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as reduction of stimuli that may induce bleeding or hemorrhage in
at-risk patients. See also Nursing Interventions Classification.
bleeding reduction, a nursing intervention from the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as limitation
of the loss of blood volume during an episode of bleeding.
See also Nursing Interventions Classification.
bleeding reduction: antepartum uterus, a nursing intervention from the Nursing Interventions Classification
(NIC) defined as limitation of the amount of blood loss from
the pregnant uterus during third trimester of pregnancy. See
also Nursing Interventions Classification.
bleeding reduction: gastrointestinal, a nursing intervention from the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC)
defined as limitation of the amount of blood loss from the
upper and lower gastrointestinal tract and related complications. See also Nursing Interventions Classification.
bleeding reduction: nasal, a nursing intervention from
the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as
limitation of the amount of blood loss from the nasal cavity.
See also Nursing Interventions Classification.
bleeding reduction: postpartum uterus, a nursing intervention from the Nursing Interventions Classification
(NIC) defined as limitation of the amount of blood loss from
the postpartum uterus. See also Nursing Interventions
bleeding reduction: wound, a nursing intervention from
the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as
limitation of the blood loss from a wound that may be a result of trauma, incisions, or placement of a tube or catheter.
See also Nursing Interventions Classification.
bleeding time, the time required for blood to stop flowing
from a tiny wound. A test of bleeding time is the Ivy
method. See also hemostasis, simplate bleeding time.
bleeding time test, a blood test used to evaluate the vascular and platelet factors associated with hemostasis. This
test is occasionally performed preoperatively to ensure adequate hemostasis.
blemish [OFr, bleme, to deface], a skin stain, alteration,
defect, or flaw.
blended family [ME, blenden, to mix], a family formed
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blending inheritance
when parents bring together children from previous marriages.
blending inheritance, the apparent fusion in offspring of
distinct, dissimilar characteristics of the parents. Blended
characteristics are usually of a quantitative nature, such as
height, and fail to segregate in successive generations. The
phenomenon is the result of multiple pairs of genes that have
a cumulative effect. See also polygene.
blenno-, blenn-, combining form meaning “mucus”:
blennemesis, blennothorax.
blennorrhea /blenР€YreВЇШ…Y/ [Gk, blennos, mucus, rhoia, flow],
excessive discharge of mucus. See also pharyngoconjunctival fever. Also called blennorrhoea, blennorrhagia /blenЈoˆra¯Јje¯·Y/.
Blenoxane, trademark for an antineoplastic (bleomycin
bleomycin sulfate /bleВЇВ·YmД±ВЇШ…sin/, an antineoplastic antibiotic.
в…ў INDICATIONS: It is prescribed in the treatment of a variety
of neoplasms.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATION: Hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits
its use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the most serious adverse reactions are pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, and a syndrome
of hyperpyrexia and circulatory collapse. Rashes and skin reactions commonly occur.
blephar-. See blepharo-.
blepharal /blefШ…YrYl/ [Gk, blepharon, eyelid], pertaining to
the eyelids.
blepharedema /blefР€YrideВЇШ…mY/, a fluid accumulation in the
eyelid, causing a swollen appearance.
-blepharia, suffix meaning “(condition of the) eyelid”:
atretoblepharia, macroblepharia.
blepharitis /blefР€YrД±ВЇШ…tis/ [Gk, blepharon П© itis], an inflammatory condition of the lash follicles and meibomian glands
of the eyelids, characterized by swelling, redness, and crusts
of dried mucus on the lids. Ulcerative blepharitis is caused
by bacterial infection. Nonulcerative blepharitis may be
caused by psoriasis, seborrhea, or an allergic response.
в…ў OBSERVATIONS: Individuals report a foreign-body sensation
of the eye. There are red eyelid margins, flaking and scaling
around lashes, an itching and burning sensation, and loss of
lashes. Light sensitivity, conjunctivitis, and possible corneal
inflammation may also occur. In ulcerative blepharitis there
are crusts on the eyelids, which bleed when removed. Small
pustules develop in lash follicles, and eyelids become
“glued” together by dried drainage during sleep. Lid margins
thicken over time with misdirected growth and/or loss of
eyelashes. Corneal pannus, ulcerative keratitis, and lid ectropion can occur in severe cases. Diagnosis is made by clinical
examination, and lab tests may be run to isolate the causative
agent. Individuals with chronic diseases, such as diabetes,
gout, anemia, and rosacea, or a history of sties, chalazia,
or chronic infections of the mouth and/or throat are at
greater risk.
в…ў INTERVENTION: Blepharitis is stubborn to treat and is often
resistant to various therapies. Topical antiinfective ointments
and drops are used, but the mainstay of treatment is the use
of eyelid scrubs. Resistant cases may require oral antibiotic
в…ў NURSING CONSIDERATIONS: Nurses need to provide individuals with detailed instructions in scrubbing and washing techniques. Eyelid hygiene consists of scrubbing the lid margins
and lashes on closed eyelids daily and massaging lid margins
to stimulate flow of secretions then cleansing with a cotton
swab dipped in a diluted solution of baby shampoo. Careful
instructions are needed for the application of antibiotic oint-
ments to lid margins and drops to ocular surfaces. Individuals should also be instructed to use seborrheic dermatitis
medicated shampoos and to apply hot compresses for 5 to 10
minutes to closed eyelids to loosen lid debris.
Blepharitis (Zitelli and Davis, 2007)
blepharo-, blephar-,
combining form meaning “eyelid or
eyelash”: blepharochalasis, blepharelosis.
blepharoadenoma /-adР€inoВЇШ…mY/, pl. blepharoadenomas,
blepharoadenomata, a glandular epithelial tumor of the
blepharoatheroma /-athР€YroВЇШ…mY/, pl. blepharoatheromas,
blepharoatheromata, a tumor of the eyelid.
blepharochalasis /blefР€YВ·roВЇВ·kalР€YВ·sis/ [Gk, blepharon, eyelid
П© chalasis, relaxation], relaxation of the skin of the eyelid
because of atrophy of the intercellular tissue.
blepharoclonus /blefР€YrokШ…loВЇnYs/, a condition characterized by muscle spasms of the eyelid, appearing as increased
blepharoncus /blefР€YronШ…kYs/ [Gk, blepharon П© onkos,
swelling], a tumor of the eyelid.
blepharophimosis /blefР€YВ·roВЇВ·fiВ·moВЇР€sis/ [Gk, blepharon, eyelid П© phimoВЇsis, a muzzling], abnormal narrowness of the
palpebral fissure in the horizontal direction, caused by lateral
displacement of the medial canthus.
blepharoplasty /blefШ…YroplasР€teВЇ/ [Gk, blepharon, eyelid,
plassein, to mold], the use of plastic surgery to restore or
repair the eyelid and eyebrow. Also called brow lift.
Excision of fat during a blepharoplasty
(Tyers and Collin, 2008)
blepharoplegia /-pleВЇШ…jeВЇВ·Y/ [Gk, blepharon П© plege, stroke],
paralysis of muscles of the eyelid.
blepharospasm /blefШ…YroВЇspazР€Ym/ [Gk, blepharon, eyelid,
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blessed thistle
spasmos, spasm], the involuntary contraction of eyelid
muscles. The condition may be caused by a local lesion of
the eye, a neurologic irritation, or psychologic stress.
blessed thistle, an annual herb found in Europe and Asia.
в…ў USES: This herb is used for loss of appetite, indigestion,
and intestinal gas. Probably safe when used as recommended
but evidence of effectiveness is lacking.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Blessed thistle should not be used
during pregnancy, in children, or in those with known hypersensitivity to the herb.
Bleuler, Eugen /bloi؅lYr/ [Swiss psychiatrist, 1857–1939],
a pioneer investigator in the fields of autism and schizophrenia. Bleuler introduced the term schizophrenia to replace dementia praecox and identified four primary symptoms of
schizophrenia, known as Bleuler’s “4 As”: ambivalence, associative disturbance, autistic thinking, and affective incongruity.
blighted ovum /blД±ВЇШ…tid/, a fertilized ovum that fails to develop. On x-ray or ultrasonic visualization it appears to be a
fluid-filled cyst attached to the wall of the uterus. It may be
empty, or it may contain amorphous parts. Many first trimester spontaneous abortions represent the expulsion of a
blighted ovum. Suction curettage may be necessary if the
blighted ovum is retained.
blind. See blindness.
blind fistula [AS, blind П© L, pipe], an abnormal passage
with only one open end; the opening may be on the body surface or on or within an internal organ or structure. Also
called incomplete fistula.
blindgut. See cecum.
blind intubation. See intubation.
blind loop [AS, blind П© ME, loupe], a redundant segment
of intestine. Bacterial overgrowth occurs and may lead to
malabsorption, obstruction, and necrosis. Blind loops may
be created inadvertently by surgical procedures, such as a
side-to-side ileotransverse colostomy. See also blind spot.
blind loop syndrome. See stasis syndrome.
blindness [AS, blind], the absence of sight. The term may
indicate a total loss of vision or may be applied in a modified
manner to describe certain visual limitations, as in yellow
color blindness (tritanopia) or word blindness (dyslexia).
Legal blindness is defined as best corrected visual acuity less
than 20/200 in the better eye or marked constriction of the
visual fields.
blind spot, 1. a normal gap in the visual field occurring
when an image is focused on the space in the retina occupied
by the optic disc. 2. an abnormal gap in the visual field
caused by a lesion on the retina or in the optic pathways or
resulting from hemorrhage or choroiditis, often perceived as
light spots or flashes.
blink reflex [ME, blenken П© L, reflectere, to bend back],
the automatic closure of the eyelid when an object is perceived to be rapidly approaching the eye.
blister, a vesicle or bulla of the skin, containing watery
matter or serum.
blister agents/vesicants, chemicals that cause blistering
of the skin or mucous membranes on contact. These agents
include phosgene oxime, lewisite, distilled mustard, mustard
gas, nitrogen mustard, sesqui mustard, and sulfur mustard.
Exposure is mainly by inhalation or by contact with the skin
or eyes. Inhalation causes shortness of breath, tachypnea,
and hemoptysis, and death may result from the accumulation
of fluid in the lungs; contact with the skin causes blistering
and necrosis; and ocular contact causes swelling of the eyelids and corneal damage and can lead to blindness. Exposure
to high doses affects the cardiovascular and nervous systems
and may lead to cardiac arrest, convulsions, and coma. If
these agents are ingested, nausea, vomiting, hematemesis,
and diarrhea result. No antidote exists for most blister agents
and treatment consists of removal of clothing, washing of the
exposed areas, and supportive care. Lewisite can be neutralized by the application of British antilewisite if it is done
soon after exposure.
bloat [ME, blout], a swelling or filling with gas, such as
distension of the abdomen that results from swallowed air or
from intestinal gas. The stomach on percussion will have a
tympanic sound.
Blocadren, trademark for a beta-adrenergic receptor
blocking agent (timolol maleate).
Bloch-Sulzberger incontinentia pigmenti, BlochSulzberger syndrome. See incontinentia pigmenti.
block [OFr, bloc], 1. a disruption in the conduction of a
nerve impulse. The term may apply to stoppage of nerve
conduction as produced by local anesthetics, inhibition of
beta receptors by beta-blocker drugs, or prevention of neuromuscular transmission by blockade of nicotinic receptors by
muscle-relaxant drugs. 2. a device to maintain separation of
the teeth, such as a bite block.
blockade /blokaВЇdШ…/, an agent that interferes with or prevents a specific action in an organ or tissue, such as a cholinergic blockade that inhibits transmission of acetylcholinestimulated nerve impulses along fibers of the autonomic
nervous system.
blockage. See obstruction.
block anesthesia. See conduction anesthesia.
blocked communication, a situation in which communication with a patient is made difficult because of incongruent
verbal and nonverbal messages and messages that contain
discrepancies and inconsistencies. To clarify blocked communication, therapists may record meetings with patients on
videotapes that can be studied for eye contact and other clues
to the patient’s thinking processes. See also blocking.
blocked pleurisy, circumscribed pleurisy, encysted
blocker. See blocking agent.
blocking [ME, blok], 1. preventing the transmission of an
impulse, such as by an antiadrenergic agent or by the injection of an anesthetic. 2. interrupting an intracellular biosynthetic process, such as by the injection of actinomycin D or
the action of an antivitamin. 3. an interruption in the spontaneous flow of speech or thought. 4. repressing an idea or
emotion to prevent it from obtruding into the consciousness.
blocking agent, an agent that inhibits a biologic action,
such as movement of an ion across the cell membrane, passage of a neural impulse, or interaction with a specific receptor.
blocking antibody, an antibody that fails to cross-link and
cause agglutination. When such antibodies are present in
high concentration, they interfere with the action of other antibodies by occupying all the antigenic sites. See also
antigen-antibody reaction, hapten.
blockout /blokР€out/ [OFr, bloc П© AS, uВЇt], in dentistry,
elimination in a cast of undesirable undercut areas by filling
them in with a suitable material; this includes all areas that
would offer interference to placement of the denture framework and those not crossed by a rigid part of the denture. A
blockout creates a common path of insertion.
blood [AS, blod], the liquid pumped by the heart through
all the arteries, veins, and capillaries. The blood is composed
of a clear yellow fluid, called plasma, and the formed elements, and a series of cell types with different functions. The
major function of the blood is to transport oxygen and nutrients to the cells and to remove carbon dioxide and other
waste products from the cells for detoxification and elimina-
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blood agar
tion. Adults normally have a total blood volume of 7% to 8%
of body weight, or 70 mL/kg of body weight for men and
about 65 mL/kg for women. Blood is pumped through the
body at a speed of about 30 cm/second, with a complete circulation time of 20 seconds. Compare lymph. See also
blood cell, erythrocyte, leukocyte, plasma, platelet.
Blood (Carr and Rodak, 2009)
blood agar,
a culture medium consisting of blood (usually
sheep’s blood) and nutrient agar, used in bacteriology to cultivate certain microorganisms, including Staphylococcus
epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Clostridium
blood agents, poisons that affect the body by being absorbed into the blood. Blood agents include arsine and cyanide. Exposure to both may occur by inhalation, and cyanide
exposure may also occur by ingestion and absorption
through the skin and eyes. Arsine causes hemolysis, resulting in generalized weakness, jaundice, delirium, and renal
failure; high doses may result in death. There is no antidote
and treatment is supportive. Cyanide prevents cells from
using oxygen, leading to cell death, and poisoning especially
affects the cardiovascular and nervous systems and can lead
to heart and brain damage and death from respiratory failure.
Treatment consists of the administration of an antidote and
supportive care.
blood albumin [AS, blod П© L, albus], the plasma protein
circulating in blood serum. Also called serum albumin.
blood and urine cortisol, a blood or urine test that assists
in the evaluation of adrenal activity. Adrenal hyperfunction
may indicate Cushing’s disease, adrenal adenoma or carcinoma, ectopic ACTH-producing tumors, or hyperthyroidism, while hypofunction may indicate congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Addison’s disease, hypopituitarism, hypothyroidism, or liver disease.
blood and urine uric acid, a blood/urine test that detects
levels of uric acid in order to determine the presence of hyperuricemia (elevated uric acid in the blood) and uricosuria
(elevated uric acid in the urine). Causes of abnormal uric
acid levels may include gout, kidney failure, alcoholism, leukemias, metastatic cancer, multiple myeloma, hyperlipoproteinemia, diabetes mellitus, stress, lead poisoning, and
blood bank, an organizational unit responsible for collecting, processing, and storing blood for transfusion and other
purposes. The blood bank is usually a subdivision of a laboratory in a hospital and is often charged with the responsibility for serologic testing. See also bank blood, component
therapy, transfusion.
blood bank technology specialist, an allied health professional who performs both routine and specialized immu-
blood buffers
nohematologic tests in technical areas of the modern blood
bank and who performs transfusion services using methodology that conforms to the Standards for Blood Banks and
Transfusion Services of the American Association of Blood
Banks. The individual may be responsible for testing for
blood group antigens, compatibility, and antibody identification; investigating abnormalities such as hemolytic diseases
of the newborn, hemolytic anemias, and adverse responses
to transfusions; supporting physicians and nurses in transfusion therapy, including that for homologous organ transplantation; collecting and processing blood, including selecting
donors, drawing and typing blood, and performing
pretransfusion tests to ensure patient safety.
blood bilirubin test, a blood test performed in cases of
jaundice to help determine whether the jaundice is caused by
prehepatic causes (as with hemolytic anemia), hepatocellular
dysfunction (as in hepatitis), or extrahepatic obstruction of
the bile ducts (as with gallstones or tumor blocking the bile
ducts). Total serum bilirubin is made up of conjugated (direct) and unconjungated (indirect) bilirubin, with varying ratios of each characterizing different diseases.
blood blister, a blister containing blood. It may be caused
by a pinch, a bruise, or persistent friction.
blood-borne pathogens, pathogenic microorganisms that
are transmitted via human blood and cause disease in humans. They include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B virus
(HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although
a number of pathogens can be transmitted percutaneously,
HIV-1 remains the most common.
blood-brain barrier (BBB) [AS, blod П© bragen П© ME,
barrere], an anatomic-physiologic feature of the brain
thought to consist of walls of capillaries in the central nervous system and surrounding astrocytic glial membranes.
The barrier separates the parenchyma of the central nervous
system from blood. The blood-brain barrier prevents or
slows the passage of some drugs and other chemical compounds, radioactive ions, and disease-causing organisms
such as viruses from the blood into the central nervous
Blood-brain barrier
blood buffers [AS, blod П© ME, buffe, to cushion],
a system of buffers, composed primarily of dissolved carbon di-
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blood capillaries
oxide and bicarbonate ions, that functions in maintaining the
proper pH of the blood. See also buffer, arterial pH.
blood capillaries [AS, blod П© L, capillaris, hairlike],
the tiny vessels that convey blood between the arterioles and
the venules and allow for internal respiration and nourishment of tissues. The capillary wall generally has a thickness
of one cell, permitting easy diffusion of gas molecules; occasional tiny openings permit diapedesis of leukocytes, distribution of nutrients to the tissues supplied by the capillary
network, and collection of waste products released by the
blood cell, any of the formed elements of the blood, including red cells (erythrocytes) and white cells (leukocytes).
Blood cells constitute about 50% of the total volume of the
blood. See also erythrocyte, leukocyte, platelet.
blood cell casts [AS, blod П© L, cella, storeroom; ONorse,
kasta], a mass of blood debris released from a diseased
body surface or excreted in the urine.
blood chloride test, a blood test performed as part of
multiphasic testing of electrolytes. It is performed along with
other electrolyte tests to indicate the patient’s acid-base balance and hydrational status.
blood circulation [AS, blod П© L, circulare, to go around],
the circuit of blood through the body, from the heart through
the arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins and
back to the heart.
blood clot [AS, blod П© clott, lump], a semisolid, gelatinous mass, the final result of the clotting process in blood.
Red cells, white cells, and platelets are enmeshed in an insoluble fibrin network of the blood clot. Compare embolus,
thrombus. See also blood clotting, fibrinogen.
blood clotting, the conversion of blood from a freeflowing liquid to a semisolid gel. Although clotting can
occur within an intact blood vessel, the process usually starts
with tissue damage. Within seconds of injury to the vessel
wall, platelets clump at the site. If normal amounts of calcium, platelets, and tissue factors are present, prothrombin is
converted to thrombin. Thrombin acts as a catalyst for the
conversion of fibrinogen to a mesh of insoluble fibrin, in
which all the formed elements are immobilized. Different
pharmacologic agents may interact throughout this process.
Also called blood coagulation. Compare hemostasis. See
also anticoagulant, coagulation.
blood coagulation, a nursing outcome from the Nursing
Outcomes Classification (NOC) defined as the extent to
which blood clots within a normal period of time. See also
Nursing Outcomes Classification.
blood component therapy, transfusion of one or more of
the components of whole blood.
blood corpuscle [AS, blod П© L, corpusculum, little body],
an old term for a blood cell, an erythrocyte, a leukocyte, and
sometimes a thrombocyte.
blood count. See complete blood count.
blood creatinine test, a blood test that measures the
amount of creatinine in the blood, in order to diagnose impaired renal function. Elevated creatinine levels suggest a
chronic disease process. This test’s results are interpreted in
conjunction with those for blood urea nitrogen, as part of a
renal function study.
blood crossmatching, the direct matching of donor and
recipient blood to prevent the transfusion of incompatible
blood types. Crossmatching tests for agglutination of
(1) donor red blood cells (RBCs) by recipient serum and
(2) recipient RBCs by donor serum.
blood culture and sensitivity test, a blood culture obtained to detect the presence of bacteria in the blood (bacter-
blood gas determination
activator (PTA)
Injured vessel
Fibrin fibers
Trapped red blood
cells (RBCs)
Blood clot
C Coumadin H Heparin
Blood clotting (Herlihy, 2007)
emia). Bacteria present are identified and tested for resistance to antibiotics.
blood culture medium, a liquid enrichment medium for
the growth of bacteria in the diagnosis of blood infections
(bacteremia and septicemia). It contains a suspension of
brain tissue in meat broth with dextrose, peptone, and citrate
and has a pH of 7.4.
blood donor, anyone who donates blood or blood components. See also blood bank, transfusion.
blood doping, the administration of blood, red blood cells,
or related blood products to an athlete to enhance performance, often preceded by the withdrawal of blood so that
training continues in a blood-depleted state.
blood dyscrasia [AS, blod П© Gk, dys, bad, krasis, mingling], a pathologic condition in which any of the constituents of the blood are abnormal in structure, function, or quality, as in leukemia or hemophilia.
blood fluke, a parasitic flatworm of the class Trematoda,
genus Schistosoma, including the species S. haematobium, S.
japonicum, and S. mansoni. See also Schistosoma,
blood gas, 1. gas dissolved in the liquid part of the blood.
Blood gases include oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen.
2. a laboratory test to determine the amount of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen in blood.
blood gas analysis, the determination of oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations and pressures with the pH of the
blood by laboratory tests; the following measurements may
be made: PO2, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood;
PCO2, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood;
SO2, percent saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen in arterial blood; total CO2 content of (venous) plasma; and pH.
blood gas determination, an analysis of the pH of the
blood and the concentration and pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. It can be performed as an emergency procedure to assess acid-base balance and ventilatory
status. Blood gas determination is often important in the
evaluation of cardiac failure, hemorrhage, kidney failure,
drug overdose, shock, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, or any
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blood gas tension
other condition of severe stress. The blood for examination
is drawn from an artery, as ordered in a heparinized syringe,
sealed from air, placed on ice, and immediately transported
for analysis. Normal adult arterial blood gas values are pH
7.35 to 7.45; PCO2 35 to 45 mm Hg; HCO3ПЄ 21 to 28 mEq/L;
PO2 80 to 100 mm Hg; O2 saturation 95% to 100%. See also
acid-base balance, acidosis, alkalosis, oxygenation,
PaCO2, pH, PO2.
blood gas tension, the partial pressure of a gas in the
blood glucose [AS, blod П© OFr, livel П© Gk, glykys, sweet],
the concentration of glucose in the blood, represented in milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood. Home monitoring
devices make blood glucose measurement both efficient and
accurate. Normal adult blood glucose levels range from 70 to
115 mg/dL (4 to 6 mmol/L), with generally higher levels
after 50 years of age. A fasting serum glucose of 126 mg/dL
on two or more occasions signifies diabetes mellitus. See
also hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia.
blood glucose level, a nursing outcome from the Nursing
Outcomes Classification (NOC) defined as the extent to
which glucose levels in plasma and urine are maintained in
normal range. See also Nursing Outcomes Classification.
blood glucose test, a blood test used to detect hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. This test must be performed frequently in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus,
in order to assist in monitoring and adjusting the insulin
dose. See also fasting plasma glucose.
Blood glucose meter (Sanders et al, 2007)
blood group,
the classification of blood based on the presence or absence of genetically determined antigens on the
surface of the red cell. Several different grouping systems
have been described. These include ABO, Duffy, highfrequency antigens, I, Kell, Kidd, Lewis, low-frequency antigens, Lutheran, MNS, P, Rh, and Xg. Their relative importance depends on their clinical significance in transfusion
therapy, organ transplantation, maternal-fetal compatibility,
and genetic studies. See also ABO blood group.
blood island, one of the clusters of mesodermal cells that
blood pressure
proliferate, on the outer surface of the embryonic yolk sac
and gives it a lumpy appearance.
blood lactate, lactic acid that appears in the blood as a result of anaerobic metabolism when oxygen delivery to the
tissues is insufficient to support normal metabolic demands.
blood lavage [AS, blod П© L, lavere, to wash], the removal
of toxic elements from the blood by the injection of serum
into the veins.
bloodless, 1. any organ or body part that lacks blood or appears to lack blood. 2. a surgical field in which the normal
local blood supply has been shunted to other areas.
bloodless phlebotomy [AS, blod П© ME, les П© Gk, phleps,
vein, tomos, cutting], a technique of trapping blood in a
body region by the application of tourniquet pressure that is
less than the pressure needed to interrupt arterial blood flow.
bloodletting, the therapeutic opening of an artery or vein
to withdraw blood from a particular area. It is sometimes
performed to treat polycythemia and congestive heart failure. See also phlebotomy.
blood level, the concentration of a drug or other substance
in a measured amount of plasma, serum, or whole blood.
blood loss severity, a nursing outcome from the Nursing
Outcomes Classification (NOC) defined as the severity of internal or external bleeding/hemorrhage. See also Nursing
Outcomes Classification.
blood osmolality [AS, blod П© Gk, oВЇsmos, impulsion],
the osmotic pressure of blood. It measures the amount of solute concentration per unit of total volume of a particular solution. The normal values in serum are 280 to 295 mOsm/L.
See also osmolality.
blood osmolality test, a blood test that measures the concentration of dissolved particles in the blood. It is useful in
evaluating patients with fluid and electrolyte imbalance, seizures, coma, and ascites; and in monitoring and evaluating
hydration status, acid-base balance, and suspected antidiuretic hormone (ADH) abnormalities.
blood patch. See epidural blood patch.
blood pH, the hydrogen ion concentration of the blood, a
measure of blood acidity or alkalinity. The normal pH values
for arterial whole blood are 7.35 to 7.454; for venous whole
blood, 7.36 to 7.41; for venous serum or plasma, 7.35
to 7.45.
blood plasma [AS, blod П© Gk, plassein, to mold], the liquid portion of the blood, free of its formed elements and particles. Plasma represents approximately 50% of the total volume of blood and contains glucose, proteins, amino acids,
and other nutritive materials; urea and other excretory products; and hormones, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals. Compare serum. See also blood, plasma protein, pooled
blood platelet. See platelet, thrombocyte.
blood poisoning. See septicemia.
blood potassium (KП©) test, a blood test that detects the
serum concentration of potassium, the major cation within
cells. Potassium levels are followed carefully in patients
with uremia, Addison’s disease, or vomiting and diarrhea; in
those on steroid therapy; in those taking potassium-depleting
diuretics; and in those taking digitalis-like drugs.
blood pressure (BP) [AS, blod П© L, premere, to press],
the pressure exerted by the circulating volume of blood on
the walls of the arteries and veins and on the chambers of the
heart. Blood pressure is regulated by the homeostatic mechanisms of the body by the volume of the blood, the lumen of
the arteries and arterioles, and the force of cardiac contraction. In the aorta and large arteries of a healthy young adult,
blood pressure is approximately 120 mm Hg during systole
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blood pressure monitor
and 70 mm Hg during diastole. See also hypertension,
в…ў METHOD: The indirect blood pressure is most often measured by auscultation, using an aneroid or mercury sphygmomanometer, a stethoscope, and a blood pressure cuff.
With the upper arm at the level of the heart, the cuff is placed
around the upper arm and inflated to a pressure greater than
the systolic pressure, occluding the brachial artery. The diaphragm of the stethoscope is placed over the artery in the antecubital space, and the pressure in the cuff is slowly released. No sound is heard until the cuff pressure falls below
the systolic pressure in the artery; at that point a pulse is
heard. As the cuff pressure continues to fall slowly, the pulse
continues, first becoming louder, then dull and muffled.
These sounds, called sounds of Korotkoff, are produced by
turbulence of the blood flowing through a vessel that is partially occluded as the arterial pressure falls to the low pressure of diastole. When the cuff pressure is less than the diastolic pressure, no pulse is heard. Thus the cuff pressure at
which the first sound is heard is the systolic blood pressure,
indicative of the pressure in the large arteries during systole;
the cuff pressure at which the sounds stop is the diastolic
blood pressure, indicative of the pressure in the arteries during diastole. A variation of this method involves the use of
palpation in place of auscultation in the antecubital space to
determine the systolic pressure (the pressure at which a pulse
is first palpated). Another variation uses a transducer in the
cuff to translate changes in ultrasound frequency caused by
blood movement within the artery to audible sounds. Blood
pressure may be monitored directly by means of a strain
gauge or mercury manometer after a cannula has been
placed in an artery. The flush method is used when blood
pressure is difficult to measure by other methods. The cuff is
applied, and complete capillary emptying is performed, usually with an elastic bandage. The cuff is inflated, the elastic
bandage is removed, and the earliest discernible flush is observed as the cuff is deflated. This method measures mean
blood pressure.
Ⅲ INTERVENTIONS: The intervals at which the patient’s blood
pressure is to be taken are specified. The pressure in both
arms is taken the first time the procedure is performed; persistent major differences between the two readings is indicative of a vascular occlusion. Alternatively, the blood pressure
may be taken using the thigh and the popliteal space when
the leg is at the level of the heart. The width of the cuff
should be one third to one half the circumference of the limb
blood protein test
used. Thus, a larger cuff is required for a large patient or for
any patient if the pressure is taken at the thigh.
в…ў OUTCOME CRITERIA: Any factor that increases peripheral resistance or cardiac output increases the blood pressure.
Therefore, it is important to obtain a blood pressure reading
when the patient is at rest. Increased peripheral resistance
usually increases the diastolic pressure, and increased cardiac output tends to increase the systolic pressure. Blood
pressure increases with age, primarily as a result of the decreased distensibility of the veins. As a person grows older,
an increase in systolic pressure precedes an increase in diastolic pressure.
Classification of blood pressure for adults
Blood pressure
Stage 1 hypertension
Stage 2 hypertension
Systolic blood
blood pressure
blood pressure monitor [AS, blod П© L, premere, to press,
monere, to warn], a device that automatically measures
blood pressure and records the information continuously.
Automatic monitoring of blood pressure is often used in surgery or in an intensive care unit where frequent monitoring
is required.
blood products administration, a nursing intervention
from the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined
as administration of blood or blood products and monitoring
of patient’s response. See also Nursing Interventions
blood protein [AS, blod П© Gk, proteios, of first rank],
any of the large variety of proteins normally found in the
blood, such as albumin, globulin, hemoglobin, and proteins
bound to hormones or other compounds. See also plasma
protein, serum protein.
blood protein test (blood albumin), a blood test that
measures levels of albumin, a protein that makes up approximately 60% of the total protein and whose major effect is to
maintain colloidal osmotic pressure. Serum protein electrophoresis may assist in diagnosing diseases such as myocardial infarction, chronic infection, granulomatous diseases,
Measurement of blood pressure
(Bonewit-West, 2008)
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blood pump
cirrhosis, rheumatoid-collagen diseases, nephrotic syndrome, advanced cirrhosis, tuberculosis, endocarditis, and
myeloma, among others.
blood pump, 1. a device for regulating the flow of blood
into a blood vessel during transfusion. 2. a component of a
heart-lung machine that pumps the blood through the machine for oxygenation and then through the peripheral circulatory system of the body. Also called mechanical
heart-lung. See also cardiopulmonary bypass, oxygenation.
blood relative, a related person who shares some of the
same genetic material through a common ancestry.
blood serum. See serum.
bloodshot, a redness of the conjunctiva or sclera of the eye
caused by dilation of blood vessels in the tissues.
blood smear, a blood test used to provide information concerning drugs and diseases that affect the morphology of red
and white blood cells and to help diagnose certain congenital
and acquired diseases. A properly performed and analyzed
blood smear is the most informative of all hematologic tests,
allowing examination of erythrocytes, platelets, and leukocytes.
blood sodium test (Na+), a blood test used to determine
the presence of hypo- or hypernatremia by measuring levels
of sodium, the major cation in the extracellular space.
bloodstream, the blood that flows freely through the circulatory system.
blood substitute, a substance used for a replacement or
volume expansion for circulating blood. Plasma, human
serum albumin, packed red cells, platelets, leukocytes, and
concentrates of clotting factors are often administered in
place of whole blood transfusions in the treatment of various
disorders. Substances that are sometimes used to expand
blood volume include dextran, hetastarch, albumin solutions, or plasma protein fraction. Perfluorocarbon emulsions,
although potentially toxic, have been tested as blood substitutes; they are able to carry oxygen to tissues, have a long
shelf life without refrigeration, and do not induce antigenantibody reactions.
blood sugar, one of a group of closely related substances,
such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, that are normal constituents of the blood and are essential for cellular metabolism. See also blood glucose.
blood test, any test that yields information about the characteristics or properties of the blood.
blood transfusion [AS, blod П© L transfundere, to pour
through], the administration of whole blood or a component, such as packed red cells, to replace blood lost through
trauma, surgery, or disease.
в…ў METHOD: Needed equipment is gathered; physician order
is reviewed; transfusion consent completed; and blood component obtained, verified, and inspected per institution protocol. It is extremely important that the blood component to
be transfused is compatible with the individual receiving the
transfusion and that the correct individual is receiving the
transfusion. Once verification of product and individual is
confirmed, the blood component is hung using the appropriate tubing and setup and infused. A piggybacked 0.9% normal saline solution is set up to follow the infusion or to flush
the line in event of a transfusion reaction. Infusion must be
completed in under 4 hours to prevent bacterial growth. Individuals must be carefully monitored for a transfusion reaction during infusion. Vital signs should be checked every 5
minutes along with checks for signs and symptoms such as
fever, facial flushing, rapid thready pulse, cold clammy skin,
itching, swelling at infusion site, dizziness, dyspnea, and low
back or chest pain. (Stop infusion immediately at any sign of
blood urea nitrogen
transfusion reaction.) After infusion, IV tubing is cleared
with saline solution and the blood bag discarded according
to institution policy.
в…ў OUTCOME CRITERIA: No signs of transfusion reaction. (See
transfusion reaction for appropriate interventions if reaction occurs.) Laboratory values show positive response to
administration of blood component.
Blood bag
Expiration date
Rh neg
ABO group
Rh type
Roller clamps
Drip chamber
Roller clamp
to client
Setup for blood administration
(Harkreader and Hogan, 2007)
blood transfusion reaction,
a nursing outcome from the
Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) is defined as the severity of complications with blood transfusion reaction. See
also Nursing Outcomes Classification.
blood typing, a blood test used to determine the character
of the blood of prospective blood donors and of expectant
mothers and newborns on the basis of agglutinogens in the
erythrocytes. The test detects the presence of ABO antigens
as well as the Rh factor. See also blood group.
blood urea nitrogen (BUN) [AS, blod П© Gk, ouron, urine,
nitron, soda, genein, to produce], a measure of the amount
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blood vessel
of urea in the blood. Urea forms in the liver as the end product of protein metabolism, circulates in the blood, and is excreted through the kidney in urine. The BUN, determined by
a blood test, is directly related to the metabolic function of
the liver and the excretory function of the kidney. Normal
findings (in mg/dL) are 10 to 20 for adults, 5 to 18 for children and infants, 3 to 12 for newborns, and 21 to 40 for cord
blood. In the elderly, the BUN may be slightly higher than
the normal adult range. A critical value of 100 mg/dL indicates serious impairment of renal function. Also called urea
nitrogen, serum urea nitrogen. See also azotemia.
Compare creatinine.
blood vessel, any one of the network of muscular tubes
that carry blood. Kinds of blood vessels are arteries, arterioles, capillaries, veins, and venules.
blood warming coil, a device constructed of coiled plastic
tubing used for the warming of reserve blood before massive
transfusions, such as those often required for patients who
experience extensive bleeding. Administration of cold blood
in such transfusions may cause the patient to go into a state
of shock. The blood warming coil is a prepackaged sterile
single-use device. Compare electric blood warmer.
bloody show. See vaginal bleeding.
bloody sputum [AS, blod П© L, sputum, spittle], bloodtinged material expelled from the respiratory passages. The
amount and color of blood in sputum expelled by coughing
or clearing the throat may indicate the cause and location of
the bleeding. Swallowed blood regurgitated from the stomach most often loses its vital coloring, however, thus eliminating the opportunity to judge the origin.
blooming, an increase in x-ray focal spot size due to electrostatic repulsion.
Bloom’s syndrome [David Bloom, American physician,
b. 1892], a rare genetic disease occurring mainly in
Ashkenazi Jews. It is transmitted as an autosomal recessive
trait and is characterized by growth retardation, dilated capillaries of the face and arms, sensitivity to sunlight, and an
increased risk of malignancy.
blot, 1. a technique transferring electrophoretically separated components from a gel onto a nitrocellulose membrane, chemically treated paper, or filter for analysis. It is
frequently used to analyze genetic material. 2. the substrate
containing the transferred material. See also Northern blot
test, Southern blot test, Western blot test.
blotch, a skin discoloration that may vary in severity from
an area of pigmentation to large pustules or blisters.
blow-out fracture, a break in the floor of the orbit caused
by a blow that suddenly increases the intraocular pressure.
blowpipe /bloВЇР€pД±ВЇp/ [AS, blaВЇwan П© pД±ВЇpe], a tube through
which a current of air or other gas is forced on a flame to
concentrate and intensify the heat.
BLS, abbreviation for basic life support.
blue asphyxia. See asphyxia livida.
blue baby [OFr, blou П© ME, babe], an infant born with
cyanosis caused by a congenital heart lesion that results in a
right-to-left shunt, most commonly tetralogy of Fallot. Other
causative lesions include transposition of the great vessels,
and incomplete expansion of the lungs (congenital atelectasis). Congenital cyanotic heart lesions are diagnosed by cardiac catheterization, angiography, or echocardiography and
are corrected surgically, preferably in early childhood. See
also congenital cardiac anomaly, tetralogy of Fallot,
transposition of the great vessels.
blue cohosh, a perennial herb found in the midwest and
eastern regions of the United States.
в…ў USES: This herb is used to treat menopausal symptoms
and uterine and ovarian pain, to improve the flow of men-
blue phlebitis
strual blood, and as an antiinflammatory and antirheumatic.
It is also a popular remedy in African American ethnic
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Should not be used for any of these
indications since it has caused serious toxicities.
Blue Cross, an independent nonprofit U.S. corporation
that functions as a health insurance agency, providing protection for an enrolled patient by covering all or part of the
person’s hospital expenses. Blue Cross programs vary in different communities because of state laws regulating them.
See also Blue Shield.
blue diaper syndrome [OFr, blou; ME, diapre, patterned
fabric], a defect of tryptophan absorption in which, because of intestinal bacterial action on the tryptophan, the
urine contains abnormal indoles, giving it a blue color. It is
similar to Hartnup’s disease.
blue dome cyst, a spherical dilation of a mammary duct in
which bleeding has occurred.
Blue dome cyst
(Kumar et al, 2007/Courtesy Dr. Kyle Molberg, Department of Pathology,
University of Texas Southwestern Medical School)
blue dot sign,
a tender blue or black spot beneath the skin
of the testis or epididymis, a sign of testicular torsion of the
appendix testis or, less commonly, appendix epididymis.
blue fever informal. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, so
named for the dark cyanotic discoloration of the skin after
the initial rickettsial infection. The disease is characterized
by headache, chills, and fever, as well as a rash. See also
rickettsiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus.
blue-green algae, misnomer formerly applied to the group
now called the cyanobacteria.
blue-green algae poisoning. See cyanobacteria poisoning.
blue line, a bluish discoloration sometimes observed on
the gingival side of the mouth in cases of gingivitis. It is a
sign of chronic lead or bismuth poisoning.
blue nevus [OFr, blou П© L, naevus, mole], a sharply circumscribed, usually benign, steel blue skin nodule with a diameter between 2 and 7 mm. It is found on the face or upper
extremities, grows very slowly, and persists throughout life.
The dark color is caused by large, densely packed melanocytes deep in the dermis of the nevus. Nodular blue nevi
found on the buttocks or in the sacrococcygeal region occasionally become malignant. Any sudden change in the size of
such a lesion demands surgical attention and biopsy. Compare melanoma.
blue phlebitis, a severe form of thrombosis of a deep vein,
usually the femoral vein. The condition is acute and fulminating and is usually accompanied by vast edema and cyano-
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blue rubber bleb nevus
sis of the limb distal to the occluding thrombus. It can lead to
venous gangrene. Also called phlegmasia cerulea dolens.
blue rubber bleb nevus [OFR, blou, blue; П© ME, rubben,
to scrape; П© ME, bleb, blob; П© L, naevus, mole], a type of
congenital nevus, transmitted as an autosomal dominant
trait, characterized by blue hemangiomas with soft elevated
nipple-like centers, found on the skin surface, in the GI tract,
and sometimes on mucous membranes; it may be accompanied by pain, regional hyperhidrosis, or GI bleeding.
Blue rubber bleb nevus (Callen et al, 2000)
blues informal.
1. a designation for Blue Cross (an insurance system that pays the costs of treatment by a hospital or
clinic) and Blue Shield. 2. informal. mild depression.
Blue Shield, an independent nonprofit U.S. corporation
that offers patient protection for costs of surgery and other
medical services. Although Blue Cross and Blue Shield are
technically separate organizations, they generally coordinate
their functions in providing benefits covering both hospital
costs and physician fees.
blue spot, 1. one of a number of small grayish blue spots
that may appear near the armpits or around the groins of individuals infested with lice, such as in pediculosis corporis
and pediculosis pubis. These spots are usually less than 1 cm
in diameter and are caused by a substance in the saliva of
lice that converts bilirubin to biliverdin. Also called macula
cerulea /seroo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇР€leВЇВ·Y/. 2. one of a number of dark blue round
or oval spots that may appear as a congenital condition in the
sacral regions of certain children less than 4 or 5 years of
age. They usually disappear spontaneously as the affected individual matures. Also called mongolian spot.
blunt dissection [ME, blunt П© L, dissecare, to cut apart],
a dissection performed by separating tissues along natural
lines of cleavage without cutting.
blunt-ended DNA, a segment of DNA in which the ends
of both strands are even with each other.
blunthook /bluntШ…hoo
Л� k/ [ME, blunt П© AS, hoc], 1. a
sturdy hook-shaped bar used in obstetrics for traction between the abdomen and the thigh in cases of difficult breech
deliveries. 2. a hook-shaped device with a blunt end used in
blunting, a decrease in the intensity of emotional expression from the level one would normally expect as a reaction
to a specific situation. It is the opposite of overreaction and
may be marked by apathy, minimal response, or indifference.
blurred film fault /blurdШ…/, a defect in a photograph or radiograph that appears as an indistinct or blurred image. It is
Bodansky unit
caused by film movement during exposure, bending of film
during exposure, double exposure, or film emulsion flow
during processing in excessively warm solutions.
blush [ME, blusshen, to redden], a brief, diffuse erythema
of the face and neck, commonly the result of dilation of superficial small blood vessels in response to heat or sudden
BLV-HTLV retroviruses, a genus similar in morphology
and replication to the type C retroviruses. Organisms have a
long latency and cause B and T cell leukemia and lymphoma
and neurologic disease. Included in this genus are human
T-lymphotropic viruses 1 and 2.
B lymphocyte. See B cell.
B/M, abbreviation for black male, often used in the initial
identifying statement in a patient record.
B2M, abbreviation for beta2-microglobulin.
BMA, abbreviation for British Medical Association.
BMD, abbreviation for Bureau of Medical Devices. See
National Center for Devices and Radiological Health.
BMI, abbreviation for body mass index.
B-mode, brightness modulation in diagnostic ultrasonography. Bright dots on an oscilloscope screen represent echoes,
and the intensity of the brightness indicates the strength of
the echo. See also A-mode, M-mode.
BMR, abbreviation for basal metabolic rate.
BNA, abbreviation for Basel Nomina Anatomica.
BOA, abbreviation for born out of asepsis.
board. See custodial care.
board and care, nonmedical, community-based residential care for individuals who can care for themselves; meals
and supervision are provided.
board certification, a process by which physicians are
certified in a given medical specialty or subspecialty. Certification is awarded by the 23-member boards of the American Board of Medical Specialties on completion of accredited training and examinations and fulfillment of individual
requirements of the board.
board certified, denoting a physician who has completed
the certification requirements established by a medical specialty board and has been certified as a specialist in a particular field of medicine.
board eligible, denoting a physician who has completed
all of the requirements for admission to a medical specialty
boarder baby, 1. an infant abandoned to a hospital because the mother is unable to care for him or her. Many infants born with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or to a
mother with HIV infection or infants delivered to mothers
who are drug users are boarder babies. 2. in some hospitals,
any infant still in the nursery after the mother’s discharge for
any reason (even if only temporarily).
board of health, an administrative body acting on a municipal, county, state, provincial, or national level. The functions, powers, and responsibilities of boards of health vary
with the locales. Each board is generally concerned with the
recognition of the health needs of the people and the coordination of projects and resources to meet and identify these
needs. Among the tasks of most boards of health are disease
prevention, health education, and implementation of laws
pertaining to health.
bobbing, the act of moving up and down, usually with a
jerking motion.
Bochdalek’s hernia, a hernia through the defect in the left
posterior pleuroperitoneal canal of the diaphragm.
Bodansky unit /bo¯da�n؅ske¯/ [Aaron Bodansky, American
biochemist, 1887–1961], the quantity of alkaline phosphatase that liberates 1 mg of phosphate ion from glycerol
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 57 SESS: 49 OUTPUT: Fri Jun 13 09:07:36 2008
2-phosphate in 1 hour at 37В° C and under other standardized
body [AS, bodig], 1. the whole structure of an individual
with all the organs. 2. a cadaver (corpse). 3. the largest or
the main part of any structure, such as the body of the stomach. Also called corpus, soma.
body burden, 1. the state of activity of a radioactive
chemical in the body at a specified time after administration.
2. chemicals stored in the body that may be detected by
body cast [AS, bodig, body; ONorse, kasta], a molded cast
that may extend from the chest to the groin to immobilize the
body cavity, any of the spaces in the human body that contain organs. One major cavity, the thoracic cavity, is subdivided into a pericardial and two pleural cavities.
Dorsal body cavity
Ventral body cavity
Major body cavities
(Thibodeau and Patton, 2007)
body mechanics
autotopagnosia; by a physical disability, such as the loss of a
limb; or by psychologic and emotional disturbances, as in
anorexia nervosa.
body image2, a nursing outcome from the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) defined as perception of own
appearance and body functions. See also Nursing Outcomes
body image agnosia. See autotopagnosia.
body image, disturbed, a nursing diagnosis accepted by
the Seventh National Conference on the Classification of
Nursing Diagnoses. The condition is defined as a disruption
in the way one perceives one’s body. See also nursing
в…ў DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS: Objective characteristics of the
deficit include verbal or nonverbal responses to a real or perceived change in structure or function, a missing body part,
trauma to a nonfunctioning part, and a change in the ability
to estimate spatial relationship of the body to the environment. Subjective characteristics include personalization of
the missing part by giving it a name, refusal to look at a part
of the body, negative feelings about the body, a change in
general social involvement or life-style, and a fear of rejection by others.
в…ў RELATED FACTORS: Related factors include biophysical,
cognitive, perceptual, psychosocial, cultural, and spiritual
body image enhancement, a nursing intervention from
the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as
improving a patient’s conscious and unconscious perceptions and attitudes toward his/her body. See also Nursing Interventions Classification.
body jacket, an orthopedic cast that encases the trunk of
the body but does not extend over the cervical area; it may
be equipped with shoulder straps. The cast is used to help
position and immobilize the trunk for the healing of spinal
injuries and scoliosis and after spinal surgery. Compare
Risser cast. See also thoracolumbosacral orthosis.
body language [AS, bodig П© L, lingua, tongue], a set of
nonverbal signals, including body movements, postures,
gestures, spatial positions, facial expressions, and body
adornment, that give expression to various physical, mental,
and emotional states. See also kinesics.
body louse. See lice, Pediculus humanus corporis.
body mass index (BMI), a formula for determining obesity. It is calculated by dividing a person’s weight in kilograms by the square of the person’s height in meters. An
adult with a BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight. A
BMI of 30 or greater indicates obesity.
body composition,
the relative proportions of protein, fat,
water, and mineral components in the body. It varies among
individuals as a result of differences in body density and degree of obesity.
body fluid [AS, bodig П© L, fluere, to flow], fluid contained
in the three fluid compartments of the body: the plasma of
the circulating blood, the interstitial fluid between the cells,
and the cell fluid within the cells. See also blood plasma, interstitial fluid, extracellular fluid (ECF), intracellular
body image1 [AS, bodig ϩ L, imago, likeness], a person’s
concept of his or her physical appearance. The mental representation, which may be realistic or unrealistic, is constructed from self-observation, the reactions of others, and a
complex interaction of attitudes, emotions, memories, fantasies, and experiences, both conscious and unconscious. A
marked inability to conceptualize one’s personal body characteristics may be caused by organic brain damage, as in
Body mass index calculation
Underweight = <18.5
Normal weight = 18.5-24.9
Overweight = 25-29.9
Obese = Х†30
Calculation of BMI
BMI = Weight (lb) x 705
Height (inches)2
BMI = Weight (kg)
Height (m2)
From Mosby: Mosby’s PDQ for RN, ed 2, St Louis, 2008, Mosby.
body mechanics,
the field of physiology that studies muscular actions and the function of muscles in maintaining
body posture. Knowledge gained from such studies is espe-
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body mechanics performance
cially important in the prevention of injury during the performance of tasks that require the body to lift and move.
body mechanics performance, a nursing outcome from
the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) defined as personal actions to maintain proper body alignment and to prevent muscular skeletal strain or injury. See also Nursing
Outcomes Classification.
body mechanics promotion, a nursing intervention from
the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as facilitating the use of posture and movement in daily activities
to prevent fatigue and musculoskeletal strain or injury. See
also Nursing Interventions Classification.
body movement, motion of all or part of the body, especially at a joint or joints. Body movements include abduction, adduction, extension, flexion, rotation, and circumduction.
body odor, a fetid smell associated with stale perspiration.
Freshly secreted perspiration is odorless, but after exposure
to the atmosphere and bacterial activity at the surface of the
skin, chemical changes occur to produce the odor. Common
body odor usually can be eliminated by bathing with soap
and water. Body odors can also be the result of discharges
from a variety of skin conditions, including cancer, fungus,
hemorrhoids, leukemia, and ulcers. See also bromhidrosis.
body of Retzius /retШ…seВЇВ·Ys/ [Magnus G. Retzius, Swedish
anatomist, 1842–1919], any one of the masses of protoplasm containing pigment granules at the lower end of a hair
cell of the organ of Corti in the internal ear.
body plethysmograph [AS, bodig П© Gk, plethynein, to increase, graphein, to record], a device for studying alveolar
pressures, lung volumes, and airway resistance. The patient
sits or reclines in an airtight compartment and breathes normally. The pressure changes in the alveoli are reciprocated in
the compartment and are recorded automatically.
body position, attitude or posture of the body. See anatomic position, decubitus position, Fowler’s position,
prone, supine, and Trendelenburg position.
body positioning: self-initiated, a nursing outcome from
the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) defined as ability to change one’s own body position independently with or
without assistive device(s). See also Nursing Outcomes
body righting reflex. See righting reflex.
body scheme, a piagetian term for a cognitive structure
that develops in infants in the sensorimotor period during the
first 2 years of life as they learn to differentiate between
themselves and the world around them.
body-scheme disorder. See autotopagnosia.
body-section radiography, a radiographic technique in
which the film and x-ray tube are moved in opposite directions to produce a more distinct image of a selected body
plane. The process has the effect of blurring adjacent body
structures during exposure. Also called tomography.
body stalk, the elongated part of the embryo that is connected to the chorion. See also allantois.
body surface area. See surface area.
body systems model, (in nursing education) a conceptual
framework in which illness is studied in relation to the functional systems of the body, such as the circulatory, nervous,
GI, and reproductive. In this model, nursing care is directed
to manipulating the patient’s environment in such a way that
the signs and symptoms of the health problem are alleviated.
As the body systems model traditionally focuses on the disease rather than the patient, current educational programs
tend to integrate it with other concepts that allow the nurse to
approach the patient in a more holistic framework. Also
called medical model.
body temperature, imbalanced, risk for
body temperature,
the level of heat produced and sustained by the body processes. Variations and changes in body
temperature are major indicators of disease and other abnormalities. Heat is generated within the body through metabolism of nutrients and lost from the body surface through radiation, convection, and evaporation of perspiration. Heat
production and loss are regulated and controlled in the hypothalamus and brainstem. Fever is usually a function of an
increase in heat generation; however, some abnormal conditions, such as congestive heart failure, produce slight elevations of body temperature through impairment of the heat
loss function. Contributing to the failure to dissipate heat
are reduced activity of the heart, lower rate of blood flow to
the skin, and the insulating effect of edema. Diseases of the
hypothalamus or interference with the other regulatory centers may produce abnormally low body temperatures. Normal adult body temperature, as measured orally, is 98.6В° F
(37В° C). Oral temperatures ranging from 96.5В° F to 99В° F are
consistent with good health, depending on the person’s physical activity, the environmental temperature, and that person’s usual body temperature. Axillary temperature is usually from 0.5° F to 1° F lower than the oral temperature.
Rectal temperatures may be 0.5В° F to 1В° F higher than oral
readings. Body temperature appears to vary 1В° F to 2В° F
throughout the day, with lows recorded early in the morning
and peaks between 6 PM and 10 PM. This diurnal variation
may increase in range during a fever. Whereas adult body
temperature, normal and abnormal, tends to vary within a
relatively narrow range, children’s temperatures respond
more dramatically and rapidly to disease, changes in environmental temperature, and levels of physical activity.
50 122 Irreversible cell
heat stress
Motion, moderate
exercise, hot
Usual range in
awake adults
During sleep,
cold exposure
45 113 ceases
40 104
Range of
normal values
35 95
regulation impaired
30 86 Temperature
regulation ceases
25 77 dysrhythmias
movements stop
20 68 Cardiac arrest
Cells still viable
Normal and abnormal body temperatures
(Thibodeau and Patton, 2003)
body temperature, imbalanced, risk for,
a nursing diagnosis accepted by the Seventh National Conference on the
Classification of Nursing Diagnoses. The condition is a state
in which the individual is at risk for failure to maintain body
temperature within a normal range. See also nursing
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body type
в…ў RISK FACTORS: Risk factors are extremes of age; extremes
of weight; exposure to cool-to-cold or warm-to-hot environments; dehydration; inactivity or vigorous activity;
medications causing vasoconstriction or vasodilation; altered metabolic rate; sedation; clothing inappropriate for environmental temperature; and illness or trauma affecting
temperature regulations.
body type, the general physical appearance of an individual human body. Three commonly used terms for body types
are ectomorph, describing a thin, fragile physique; endomorph, denoting a round, soft body; and mesomorph, indicating a muscular, athletic body of average size. See also asthenic habitus, athletic habitus, ectomorph, endomorph,
mesomorph, pyknic.
body-weight ratio, a relation expressed by dividing the
body weight in grams by the height in centimeters.
Boeck’s disease, Boeck’s sarcoid. See sarcoidosis.
Boerhaave’s syndrome /boˆr؅ha¨vz/ [Hermann Boerhaave,
Dutch physician, 1668–1738], a condition marked by
spontaneous rupture of the esophagus, usually preceded by
severe vomiting, leading to mediastinitis and pleural effusion. Clinical manifestations are violent retching or vomiting. Emergency care with surgery and drainage is needed to
save the life of the patient.
Bohr effect [Christian Bohr, Danish physiologist, 1855–
1911], the effect of CO2 and HП© on the affinity of hemoglobin for molecular O2. Increasing PCO2 and HП© decrease
oxyhemoglobin saturation, whereas decreasing concentrations have the opposite effect. In humans a decrease of pH
from 7.4 to 7.3 at 40 mm Hg PO2 decreases oxyhemoglobin
saturation by 6%. The Bohr effect is particularly significant
in the capillaries of working muscles and the myocardium
and in maternal and fetal exchange vessels of the placenta.
bohrium (Bh). See element 107.
boil [AS, byle, sore], a skin abscess. A tender, swollen area
that forms around a hair follicle. See furuncle.
boiling point [ME, boilen, to make bubbles; L, pungere, to
prick], 1. the temperature at which a substance passes
from the liquid to the gaseous state at a particular atmospheric pressure. 2. the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the external pressure. See also
-bol, combining form designating an anabolic steroid.
bole /boВЇl/, any of a variety of soft, friable clays of various
colors, although usually red from iron oxide. They consist of
hydrous silicate of aluminum, are used as pigments, and
were once commonly used as absorbents and astringents.
Bolivian hemorrhagic fever /bYlivШ…eВЇВ·Yn/, a febrile illness
caused by an arenavirus, generally transmitted by contact
with or inhalation of aerosolized rodent urine. Person-toperson infection has been documented, but it is very rare.
After an incubation period of 1 to 2 weeks, the patient experiences chills, fever, headache, muscle ache, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. As the disease progresses, hypotension,
dehydration, bradycardia, pulmonary edema, and internal
hemorrhage may occur. The mortality rate may reach 30%;
pulmonary edema is the most common cause of death. There
is no specific therapy. Peritoneal dialysis is sometimes performed. Also called Machupo. See also Arenavirus, Argentine hemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever.
bolus /boВЇШ…lYs/ [Gk, bolos, lump], 1. also called alimentary bolus, a round mass, specifically a masticated lump of
food ready to be swallowed. 2. a large round preparation of
medicinal material for oral ingestion, usually soft and not
prepackaged. 3. a dose of a medication or a contrast material, radioactive isotope, or other pharmaceutic preparation
injected all at once intravenously. 4. (in radiotherapy) mate-
rial used to fill in irregular body surfaces to improve dose
distribution for hyperthermia or to increase the dose to the
skin when high-energy photon beams are used. 5. a clumping in the stomach of ingested foreign material, often the result of habitual behavior.
bolus dose, an amount of IV medication administered rapidly to decrease the response time or to be used as a loading
dose prior to an infusion. See also bolus.
bombard /bombaВЁrdШ…/, to shower a drug or tissue sample
with radioactive particles from a nuclear isotope source.
Bombay phenotype /bombaВЇШ…/ [Bombay, India, where first
reported], a rare genetic trait involving the phenotypic expression of the ABO blood groups. The gene for the H antigen, which in the usual dominant form of HH or Hh is responsible for the precursor necessary for the production of
the A and B antigens, is homozygous recessive in individuals
with this trait so that the expression of the A, B, and H antigens is suppressed. Cells of such individuals are phenotypically of blood type O, and the serum contains anti-A, anti-B,
and anti-H antigens. In such cases the offspring from two
phenotypic O blood type parents may be blood type AB. The
phenomenon is an example of the intricate interaction of
linked genes in which one gene on a chromosome controls
the expression or suppression of another gene that is not its
allele. See also ABO blood group.
bombesin /bomР€bYВ·sin/, a neurohormone and pressor substance found in small amounts in brain and intestinal tissue
under normal conditions and in increased amounts in certain
pulmonary and thyroid tumors. It is a potent mitogen and its
effects on gastrin and other hormones are attributed to increased cell numbers.
bond, a strong coulombic force between atoms in a substance due to attraction of ions of opposite charge for each
other or of the nuclei for shared electrons. See also coulomb,
Coulomb’s law.
bonding [ME, band, to bind], 1. (in dentistry) a technique
of joining orthodontic brackets or other attachments directly
to the enamel surface of a tooth, using orthodontic adhesives. 2. the reciprocal attachment process that occurs between an infant and the parents, especially the mother. Bonding is significant in the formation of affectionate ties that
later influence both the physical and psychologic development of the child. It is usually initiated immediately after
birth by placing the nude infant on the mother’s abdomen so
that both the parents and the child can see and touch one another and begin to interact. The newborn is in an alert, reactive state for about 30 minutes to 1 hour after birth and displays such behaviors as crying, sucking, clinging, grasping,
and following with the eyes, which in turn stimulate the expression of parenting instincts. By about the second to third
week of the infant’s life, a definite, reciprocal pattern of interacting behavior that involves an attention-nonattention
cycle occurs during each encounter of parents and child. At
the peak of the attention phase, the infant reaches out toward
the parent and is very attentive. This peak is followed in a
short time by deceleration of excitement in the infant and a
turning away from the parent. This nonattentive phase prevents the infant from being overwhelmed by excessive
stimuli, and no visual or verbal attempt will regain the infant’s attention. Recognizing that the nonattention phase
does not represent rejection helps the mother and father develop competence in parenting. Assessment of the attachment process is an important nursing function and requires
skillful observation and interviewing. The nurse observes the
mother’s reactions, especially while feeding, bathing, and
comforting her infant, for potential signs of inadequate or
delayed mothering. Among the most important actions for
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bond specificity
bonding are eye contact in the en face position and embracing of the infant close to the body. Many variables determine
the development of bonding and parenting, including the
parents’ fantasies about the child, the conditions surrounding
the pregnancy, the arrangements that have been made concerning changes in life-style with the addition of a dependent
family member, and the type of parenting the mother and father received as children. Bonding is also seen in adoptive
situations and is not limited to the newborn period. Although
bonding is considered primarily an emotional response, it is
hypothesized that some biochemical and hormonal interaction in the mother may stimulate the response; results of
studies testing this hypothesis are inconclusive. Also called
maternal-child attachment. See also maternal deprivation syndrome, maternal-infant bonding.
bond specificity, the nature of enzyme action that causes
the disruption of only certain bonds between atoms.
bone [AS, ban], 1. the dense, hard, and somewhat flexible
connective tissue constituting the framework of the human
skeleton. It is composed of compact osseous tissue surrounding spongy cancellous tissue permeated by many blood vessels and nerves and enclosed in membranous periosteum.
2. any single element of the skeleton, such as a rib, the sternum, or the femur. Also called (Latin) os. See also connective tissue.
bone densitometry
Flat bone
Short bones
Long bone
Irregular bone
Types of bones (Herlihy, 2007)
Epiphyseal disks
Articular cartilage
Spongy bone
Space containing
red marrow
Medullary cavity
Compact bone
Yellow marrow
Structure of a long bone (Muscolino, 2006)
bone age [AS, ban П© L, aetas],
the stage of development
or decline of the skeleton or its segments, as seen in radiographic examination, when compared with x-ray views of
the bone structures of other individuals of the same
chronologic age.
bone-anchored hearing aid, a hearing aid that allows direct bone conduction of sound to the cochlea by means of a
sound processing device attached to an osseointegrated titanium fixture implanted posterior to the ear.
bone cancer [AS, ban П© Gk, karkinos, crab], a skeletal
malignancy occurring as a sarcoma or in an area of rapid
growth or as metastasis from cancer elsewhere in the body.
Primary bone tumors are rare. The incidence peaks during
adolescence, decreases, and then rises slowly after 35 years
of age. In adults, bone cancer is linked to exposure to ionizing radiation. Paget’s disease, hyperparathyroidism, chronic
osteomyelitis, old bone infarcts, and fracture callosities increase the risk of many bone tumors. Most osseous malignancies are metastatic lesions found most often in the spine
or pelvis and less often in sites away from the trunk. These
are referred to as cancers of the primary site and not bone
cancer. Bone cancers progress rapidly but are often difficult
to detect. Alkaline phosphatase levels are elevated in osteoblastic tumors, and serum calcium and urinary calcium levels are increased in highly destructive lesions. X-ray films,
radioisotopic scanning, arteriography, and biopsy are diagnostic. Surgical treatment consists of local resection of slowgrowing tumors or amputation, including the joint above the
tumor, if the lesion is aggressive. Radiotherapy may be given
preoperatively or as the primary form of treatment. See also
chondrosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, fibrosarcoma, multiple myeloma, osteosarcoma.
bone cell [AS, ban П© L, cella, storeroom], an osteocyte,
osteoblast, or osteoclast, a cell with myriad spidery processes embedded in the matrix of bone. See also osteoblast.
bone cutting forceps, a type of forceps that has long
handles, single or double joints, and heavy blades for cutting
bone cyst [AS, ban П© Gk, kytis, cyst], 1. a dilation in the
wall of a blood vessel in a bone, usually eccentrically placed.
2. a sac in bone tissue in the parathyroid disorder osteitis fibrosa.
bone densitometry, any of several methods of determining bone mass by measuring radiation absorption by the
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bone graft
skeleton. Common techniques include single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the forearm and heel, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry
(DXA) of the spine and hip, quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the spine and forearm, radiographic
absorptiometry (RA) of the hand, and quantitative ultrasound (QU).
bone graft, the transplantation of a piece of bone from one
part of the body to another to repair a skeletal defect.
bone healing, a nursing outcome from the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) defined as the extent of regeneration of cells and tissue following bone injury. See also
Nursing Outcomes Classification.
bone lamella [AS, ban, bone, lamella, plate], a thin plate
of bone matrix, a basic structural unit of mature bone.
bone loss. See bone recession.
bone marrow [AS, ban П© ME, marowe], the soft, organic,
spongelike material in the cavities of bones; also called medulla ossium. It is a network of blood vessels and special
connective tissue fibers that hold together a composite of fat
and blood-producing cells. Its chief function is to manufacture erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. These blood
cells normally do not enter the bloodstream until they are
fully developed, so that the marrow contains cells in all
stages of growth. If the body’s demand for leukocytes is increased because of infection, the marrow responds immediately by stepping up production. The same is true if more
erythrocytes are necessary, as in hemorrhage or anemia. Red
marrow is found in many bones of infants and children and
in the spongy (cancellous) bone of the proximal epiphyses of
the humerus and femur and the sternum, ribs, and vertebral
bodies of adults. Fatty yellow marrow is found in the medullary cavity of most adult long bones.
bone turnover biochemical markers test
cavity of a long bone. The substance is absorbed into the
general circulation almost immediately.
bone marrow reserve, a storage pool of mature neutrophils in the bone marrow, which can be released as necessary.
bone marrow suppression, suppression of bone marrow
activity, resulting in reduction in the number of platelets, red
cells, and white cells, such as in aplastic anemia. Also called
bone marrow transplantation, the transplantation of
bone marrow from a healthy donor to stimulate production
of normal blood cells. The marrow may be autologous (from
a previously harvested and stored self-donation) or allogeneic (from a living related donor or a living unrelated donor).
The bone marrow is removed from the donor by aspiration
and infused intravenously into the recipient. Used to treat
malignancies, such as leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, and
selected solid tumors; and nonmalignant conditions, such as
aplastic anemia, immunologic deficiencies, and inborn errors
of metabolism. Transplantation is usually preceded by chemotherapy and total body radiation of the recipient.
bone plate [AS, ban, bone; OFr, plate], a metal plate used
to reconstruct a bone that has been fractured. The plate is designed to hold bone fragments in apposition.
bone recession [AS, ban П© L, recedere, to recede],
apical progression of the level of the alveolar crest, resulting
in decreased bone support for the teeth. The condition,
which may be horizontal or vertical, is associated with inflammatory or dystrophic periodontal disease. Also called
bone resorption, bone loss.
bone resorption. See bone recession.
bone scan, the injection of a radioactive substance to enable visualization of a bone via the image produced by emission of radioactive particles.
bone tissue [AS, ban П© OFr, tissu], a hard form of connective tissue composed of osteocytes and a calcified collagenous intercellular substance arranged in thin plates. See
connective tissue. Also called bony tissue.
(Haversian systems)
Bone marrow
(В© Ed Reschke; Used with permission)
bone marrow biopsy,
a microscopic tissue examination
used to help evaluate patients with hematologic diseases.
The biopsy may be done to confirm a diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia, to diagnose leukemia or myeloma, to determine the cause of reduced red blood cells in the peripheral
bloodstream, to document deficient iron stores, to document
bone marrow infiltrative diseases such as neoplasm or fibrosis, to identify tumors, and to diagnose a variety of other
bone marrow failure, failure of the hematopoietic function of the bone marrow. See also hematopoietic system.
bone marrow infusion, a method of injecting a fluid substance through an aspiration needle directly into the marrow
Compact bone
(spongy bone)
marrow cavity
Bone tissue (Thibodeau and Patton, 2007)
bone turnover biochemical markers test,
a blood or
urine test to identify small changes in bone metabolism. This
test is used primarily to determine the effectiveness of treat-
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bone x-ray
ment for osteoporosis, Paget’s disease, hyperparathyroidism,
and bone tumors.
bone x-ray, radiographic studies to detect abnormalities of
the bones or joints.
Bonine, trademark for an antiemetic (meclizine hydrochloride).
Bonnevie-Ullrich syndrome. See Turner’s syndrome.
Bonnie Pruden myotherapy, a method of applying
manual pressure on muscles with the fingers, knuckles, and
elbows to defuse trigger points and relax muscle spasm, improve circulation, and alleviate pain.
Bonwill’s triangle [William G.A. Bonwill, American dentist, 1833–1899], an equilateral triangle formed by lines
from the contact points of the lower central incisors (or the
median line of the residual ridge of the mandible) to the
mandibular condyle on each side and from one condyle to
the other.
bony labyrinth, a series of bony cavities in the inner ear.
See also membranous labyrinth.
bony landmark [AS, ban П© AS, land, mearc], a groove or
prominence on a bone that serves as a guide to the location
of other body structures. An example is the posterior, superior iliac crest.
bony palate. See hard palate.
bony thorax [AS, ban П© Gk, thorax, chest], the skeletal
part of the chest, including the thoracic vertebrae, ribs, and
bony tissue. See bone tissue.
BOO, abbreviation for bladder outlet obstruction.
book retinoscopy, a measure of accommodation in which
retinoscopy is performed while the patient focuses on reading a book. It is commonly used with children.
booster injection, the administration of an additional dose
of antigen within a defined period of time, such as a vaccine
or toxoid, usually in a smaller amount than the original immunization. It is given to maintain the immune response at
an appropriate level.
booster phenomenon /boВЇoВЇsР€ter/, on a tuberculin test, an
initial false-negative result caused by a diminished amnestic
response that becomes positive on subsequent testing.
booster response. See secondary antibody response.
boot, 1. a shoelike prosthetic device for holding a leg or
arm during treatment. 2. a basketweave bandage that covers
the foot and lower leg. 3. an airtight device in which the arm
or leg can be inserted and the air pumped out, creating a partial vacuum to divert blood flow from the surrounding area.
Boothby-Lovelace-Bulbulian (BLB) mask, an apparatus for the administration of oxygen consisting of a mask fitted with an inspiratory-expiratory valve and a rebreathing bag.
boracic acid. See boric acid.
borage, an annual herb found in North America and
Ⅲ USES: This herb is used as an antiinflammatory for premenstrual syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, Raynaud’s disease, and other inflammatory conditions. It is also used to
treat atopic dermatitis, infant cradle cap, cystic fibrosis, high
blood pressure, and diabetes; effectiveness is not proven.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Should not be used since it is likely
unsafe when used in amounts ingested for medicinal
borage oil, the oil extracted from the seeds of borage
(Borago offД±cinalis). It is used for the treatment of neurodermatitis and as a food supplement.
borate /boˆr؅a¯t/, any salt of boric acid. Borate salts and
boric acid, although formerly used as mild antiseptic irrigant
born out of asepsis
solutions, especially for ophthalmic conditions, are highly
poisonous when taken internally or absorbed through a cut,
abrasion, or other wound in the skin. Because of the potential for fatal poisoning, such solutions are rarely used now.
See also boric acid.
borax bath [Ar, bauraq П© AS, baeth], a medicated bath in
which borax and glycerin are added to the water.
borborygmos /boˆrЈbYrig؅mYs/ pl., borborygmi [Gk,
borborygmos, bowel rumbling], an audible abdominal
sound produced by hyperactive intestinal peristalsis. Borborygmi are audible abdominal sounds produced by hyperactive intestinal peristalsis. Borborygmi are very loud rumbling, gurgling, and tinkling noises heard in auscultation,
often without a stethoscope. The increased intestinal activity
noted at times in cases of gastroenteritis and diarrhea result
in borborygmi that do not have the intensity or the episodic
character of “normal borborygmi.” Borborygmi that are
high-pitched and accompanied by vomiting, distension, and
intestinal cramps suggest a mechanical obstruction of the
small intestine and often precede complete bowel obstruction.
border [OFr, bordure], an edge or boundary of a body
borderline [OFr, bordure П© L, linea], pertaining to a state
of health in which the patient has some of the signs and
symptoms of a disease but not enough to justify a definite diagnosis.
borderline personality [OFr, bordure П© L, linea П© personalis], a disorder in which there is a pervasive pattern of instability of self-image, interpersonal relationships, and
mood. There is almost always a marked, persistent disturbance of identity, which is frequently manifested by uncertainty about more than one important personal issue. The
hallmark of borderline personality is the defense mechanism
of “splitting” in which the person views people or situations
as being either all good or all bad and acts accordingly. Five
or more traits are required to meet the criteria for borderline
Bordetella /boˆrЈditel؅Y/ [Jules J.B.V. Bordet, Belgian bacteriologist, 1870–1961], a genus of gram-negative coccobacilli, some species of which are pathogens of the respiratory
tract of humans, including Bordetella bronchiseptica,
B. parapertussis, which causes mild pharyngitis, and B. pertussis, the causative agent of pertussis. See also parapertussis, pertussis.
boric acid /boˆr؅ik/, a white, odorless powder or crystalline
substance used as a buffer (H3BO3) and formerly used as a
topical antiseptic and eyewash. Also called boracic acid,
orthoboric acid.
boric acid poisoning, an adverse reaction to the ingestion
or absorption through the skin of boric acid, a mild but potentially lethal antiseptic. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rash, convulsions, and shock. Absorption of
boric acid from diapers is a threat to infants.
Bornholm disease. See epidemic pleurodynia.
born out of asepsis (BOA), (in a hospital) denoting a
newborn who was not delivered in the usual place in an obstetric unit. Depending on the policy of the institution, a
BOA-designated infant may have been born on the way to
the hospital or in the hospital, on the way to the delivery
suite, or in a labor room.
в…ў OBSERVATIONS: Initial assessment in the admitting unit includes evaluation of respiration, quality of cry, skin color,
apical pulse rate, muscle tone, reflexes, temperature, condition of umbilical cord or cord stump, ability to suck, presence of meconium, congenital defect, skin eruption, or signs
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 63 SESS: 50 OUTPUT: Fri Jun 13 09:07:36 2008
of sepsis, including jaundice, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea,
irritability or lethargy, high-pitched cry, and hypothermia or
в…ў INTERVENTIONS: The usual steps in caring for a newborn
are performed. Head and chest circumferences are measured,
weight is taken, and the baby is placed in a warmer until the
axillary temperature is 36.5В° C. Vitamin K and silver nitrate
are usually given, and a bath is given when the body temperature is over 36.5В° C and stable. In many hospitals, BOA infants are placed in a special nursery and isolated from other
infants to prevent contagion if they are infected.
в…ў NURSING CONSIDERATIONS: Daily care for the BOA infant is
the same as that given to other newborns, but, in addition,
the BOA baby is closely observed for signs of sepsis. The
parents are involved in the care of the infant as soon as possible, and the usual instructions are given at discharge for
home care of the baby.
boron (B) /boˆr؅on/, a nonmetallic element, whose atomic
number is 5; its atomic mass is 10.81. Elemental boron occurs in the form of dark crystals and as a greenish yellow
amorphous mass. Certain concentrations of this element are
toxic to plant and animal life, but plants need traces of boron
for normal growth. It is the characteristic element of boric
acid, which is used chiefly as a dusting powder and ointment
for minor skin disorders. Boric acid in solution was formerly
extensively used as an antiinfective and eyewash, but the
high incidence of toxic reactions and fatalities associated
with these preparations has greatly reduced their use.
Borrelia /bYrelШ…eВЇВ·Y/ [AmeВґdeВґe Borrel, French bacteriologist,
1867–1936], a genus of coarse, unevenly coiled helical
spirochetes, several species of which cause tickborne and
louseborne relapsing fever. The organism is spread to offspring from generation to generation. This does not occur in
lice. Many animals serve as reservoirs and hosts for Borrelia. The spirochete may be identified by microscopic examination of a smear of blood stained with Wright’s stain; it is
also easily inoculated onto culture media for bacterial culture and identification.
Borrelia burgdorferi /burgЈdoˆrfer؅ı¯/, the causative agent
in Lyme disease. The organism is transmitted to humans by
tick vectors, primarily Ixodes dammini. In the United States
the disease is found primarily in the Northeast, NorthCentral, and Northwest.
bortezomib, a miscellaneous antineoplastic.
в…ў INDICATIONS: This drug is used to treat multiple myeloma
when at least two other treatments have failed.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Pregnancy and known hypersensitivity to this drug, boron, or Mannitol prohibit its use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Adverse effects of this drug include hypotension, edema, anemia, fatigue, malaise, weakness, arthralgia, bone pain, muscle cramps, myalgia, back pain, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, dyspepsia, nausea,
vomiting, anorexia, anxiety, insomnia, dizziness, headache,
peripheral neuropathy, rigors, paresthesia, cough, pneumonia, dyspnea, upper respiratory infection, dehydration,
weight loss, herpes zoster, rash, pruritus, and blurred vision.
Life-threatening side effects include neutropenia and
bosentan, a vasodilator used to treat pulmonary arterial
boss [ME, boce], a swelling, eminence, or protuberance on
an organ, such as a tumor or overgrowth on a bone surface or
a tooth. For example, on the forehead it is often a sign of
Boston exanthema [Boston; Gk, ex, out, anthema, blossoming], an epidemic disease characterized by scattered, pale
red maculopapules on the face, chest, and back, occasionally
accompanied by small ulcerations on the tonsils and soft palate. There is little or no adenopathy, and the rash disappears
spontaneously in 2 or 3 weeks. It is caused by echovirus 16
and requires no treatment. Compare herpangina.
Botox, trademark for a preparation of botulinum toxin,
type A. See botulinum toxin.
bottle feeding1 [OFr, bouteille П© AS, faeden], feeding an
infant or young child from a bottle with a rubber nipple on
the end as a substitute for or supplement to breastfeeding.
в…ў METHOD: The infant is held on one arm close to the body
of the mother or nurse during feeding. The bottle is held at
an angle to ensure that the nipple is always filled with liquid
so that the infant does not ingest air while feeding. For a
newborn, rest periods may be given every several minutes.
At least once in the course of the feeding and again at the
end, the infant is encouraged to burp by being held upright
on the mother’s or nurse’s shoulder or on its stomach on the
feeder’s lap. Gentle rubbing or patting on the back and pressure on the stomach often help induce burping.
в…ў INTERVENTIONS: The formula contains protein, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals in amounts similar to those
in breast milk. The formula may be warmed before feeding
by immersing the bottle in warm water for several minutes
(although this is not necessary if the formula is kept at room
temperature), and the size of the nipple hole is adjusted to
the needs of the infant. Smaller infants need larger nipple
holes, which require less sucking. Premature or weak infants
may be fed by using a long, soft nipple through which it is
very easy for the infant to feed.
в…ў OUTCOME CRITERIA: Bottle feeding is used as a substitute
for breastfeeding when the mother is unable or unwilling to
breastfeed. Bottle feeding can also be substituted for breastfeeding occasionally, once lactation has been established.
Bottle feeding is recommended if the mother has active tuberculosis or other active, acute contagious disease; if she
has a serious chronic disease, such as cancer or cardiac disease; or if she has recently undergone extensive surgery. Severe mastitis, narcotic addiction, or concurrent use of medication that is secreted in the breast milk usually requires the
mother to bottle feed.
bottle feeding2, a nursing intervention from the Nursing
Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as preparation and
administration of fluids to an infant via a bottle. See also
Nursing Interventions Classification.
bottle mouth caries, early childhood caries.
botulinum toxin /bochР€YlД±ВЇШ…nYm/ [L, botulus, sausage; Gk,
toxikon, poison], any of a group of potent bacterial toxins
produced by different strains of Clostridium botulinum. It
may be used therapeutically for blepharospasm or cosmetically to relax facial wrinkles. The strains are sometimes
identified by letters of the alphabet, such as A, B, or C. Also
called Botox, botulinus toxin.
botulism /bochШ…YlizР€Ym/ [L, botulus, sausage], an often
fatal form of food poisoning caused by an endotoxin produced by the bacillus Clostridium botulinum. In the United
States, approximately 25% of cases are food-borne botulism,
72% are infant botulism, and the rest are wound botulism. In
food-borne botulism, the toxin is ingested in food contaminated by C. botulinum, although it is not necessary for the
live bacillus to be present if the toxin has been produced. In
infant botulism, which is associated with eating unpasteurized honey, infants may consume pores that produce the
toxin. In wound botulism, the toxin may be introduced into
the human body through a wound contaminated by the organism. Botulism differs from most other types of food poisoning in that it develops without gastric distress and occurs
18 hours up to 1 week after the contaminated food has
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been ingested. Botulism is characterized by lassitude, fatigue, and visual disturbances, such as double vision, difficulty in focusing the eyes, and loss of ability of the pupil to
accommodate to light. Muscles may become weak, and dysphagia often develops. Nausea and vomiting occur in fewer
than half the cases. Affected infants are lethargic, feed
poorly, are constipated, and have a weak cry and poor muscle tone. Hospitalization is required, and antitoxins are administered. Sedatives are given, mainly to relieve anxiety.
Approximately 8% of the cases of botulism are fatal, usually
as a result of delayed diagnosis and respiratory complications. Most botulism occurs after eating improperly canned
or cooked foods. Reporting botulism to public health authorities is mandatory. See also Clostridium.
в…ў OBSERVATIONS: Symptoms usually appear 18 to 36 hours
after ingestion of a contaminated food substance. Severity of
symptoms is related to the quantity of the botulinum toxin
that was ingested and include dry mouth, diplopia, loss of
pupillary light reflex; nausea, vomiting, cramps, and diarrhea, which precede dysphagia, dysarthria, and progressive
descending muscular paralysis. Botulism is fatal in about 8%
of cases, usually because of respiratory paralysis or circulatory failure. Serum may be positive for botulinal toxins, and
cultures may be taken of stomach contents, feces, or suspected food to confirm the causative organism.
в…ў INTERVENTIONS: The trivalent botulinal antitoxin is administered as soon as possible after onset and clinical diagnosis.
The GI tract is purged using laxatives, gastric lavage, and
high colonic enemas to dilute and decrease absorption of the
toxin. Tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation may be instituted if necessary. Care is supportive with a long recovery
period and the need for rehabilitation to regain muscle tone,
strength, and function.
в…ў NURSING CONSIDERATIONS: Nurses should be alert to signs
and symptoms of serum sickness that frequently occur after
the administration of the antitoxin, including fever, arthralgia, lymphadenopathy, skin eruption, pain, pruritus, and erythematous swelling at the injection site. Individuals may
also report joint and muscle aches, chest pain, and difficulty
breathing. Nursing care for acute illness is largely supportive
and involves airway management, prevention of aspiration,
fluid and electrolyte management, pain management, nutrition management, prevention of skin breakdown and
contractures during paralysis, minimization of stimuli, precise communication because of altered vision and loss of
speech, and allaying anxiety about paralysis and treatment.
Primary prevention targets education of consumers in the
safe handling, storage, and preparation of food. Nurses
should also be prepared for an effective response should
botulinum toxin be used in a bioterrorism event. This includes familiarization with institution policies, procedures,
and protocols and maintenance of current knowledge regarding bioterrorism threats.
bouba. See yaws.
Bouchard’s node /boo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇshaВЁrzШ…/ [Charles J. Bouchard, French
physician, 1837–1915], an abnormal cartilaginous or bony
enlargement of a proximal interphalangeal joint of a finger,
usually occurring in diseases of the joints, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Compare Heberden’s node.
Bouchut’s tubes /boo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇz/ [Jean E.W. Bouchut, French
physician, 1818–1891], a set of short cylindric devices
used for intubation of the larynx.
bougie /boo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇzheВЇШ…/ [Fr, candle], a thin cylindric instrument made of rubber, waxed silk, or other flexible material for insertion into canals of the body in order to dilate, examine, or measure them.
-boulia. See -bulia.
bound carbon dioxide
Bouchard nodes
Bouchard’s node (Huether and McCance, 2008)
Balloon in
cardiac sphincter
of esophagus
Passage of a bougie (Black and Hawks, 2005)
boundary /bounШ…dYreВЇ/,
(in psychology) an aspect of family
health in which the generations are clearly defined and issues
are dealt with by the appropriate generation. There are also
limits between the family “turf ” and the larger society. This
term can also apply to the roles of patient and therapist in
boundary lubrication, a coating of a thin layer of molecules on each weight-bearing surface of a joint to facilitate
a sliding action by the opposing bone surfaces.
boundary maintenance mechanisms, (in psychology)
behavior and practices that exclude members of some groups
from the customs and values of another group.
bound carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide that is transported
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bounding pulse
in the bloodstream as part of a sodium bicarbonate molecule,
as distinguished from dissolved carbon dioxide or bicarbonate ion.
bounding pulse [OFr, bondir, to leap; L, pulsare, to beat],
a pulse that feels full and springlike on palpation as a result
of an increased thrust of cardiac contraction or an increased
volume of circulating blood within the elastic structures of
the vascular system.
bound water, water in the tissue of the body bound to
macromolecules or organelles.
bouquet fever. See dengue fever.
Bourdon regulator, a commonly used adjustable device
with an attached pressure gauge for controlling the flow of
oxygen or other gases from cylinders in medical applications.
Bourneville’s disease. See tuberous sclerosis.
bouton /boo
¯¯¯¯toˆN؅, boo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇШ…ton/ [Fr, button], 1. a button, pustule, or knoblike swelling, such as the expanded end of an
axon at a synapse (terminaux) which comes into contact with
cell bodies of other neurons. 2. a lesion associated with cutaneous leishmaniasis. 3. a small abscess of the intestinal
mucosa in amebic dysentery.
boutonneuse fever /boo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇzР€/ [Fr, bouton, button; L,
febris], a febrile disease of the Mediterranean area, the
Crimea, Africa, and India caused by infection with Rickettsia
conorii, transmitted to humans through the bite of a tick. The
onset of the disease is characterized by a lesion called a
tache noire /taВЁshnoВ·aВЁrР€/, or black spot, at the site of the infection; fever lasting from a few days to 2 weeks; and a papular
erythematous rash that spreads over the body to include the
skin of the palms and soles. The disease is usually a mild
form of rickettsial disease, but severe complications occur in
approximately 10% of patients. Usually, mild forms only are
observed in children. Treatment usually involves administration of antibiotics. There is no prophylactic medication
available, and prevention depends primarily on avoiding
ticks. See also rickettsiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted
boutonnie`re deformity /boo
¯¯¯¯Јtoˆnyer؅/ [Fr, buttonhole],
an abnormality of a finger marked by fixed flexion of the
proximal interphalangeal joint and hyperextension of the
distal interphalangeal joint. The condition occurs in rheumatoid arthritis.
` re deformity (Zitelli and Davis, 2007)
bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE),
an infection of cattle characterized by degenerative, clumsy, apprehensive behavior, and death. The BSE brain tissue is perforated and spongy in appearance. The disease was first
observed in cattle by veterinarians in 1883. It has been associated with other spongiform encephalopathies such as
scrapie in sheep and goats and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
(CJD) in humans. In European “mad cow” disease, it is believed the disease was transmitted to cattle through livestock
bowel training1
feed that contained remains of scrapie-infected sheep. The
disease was then transmitted to humans who ate BSEinfected beef.
bovine tuberculosis /boВЇШ…vД±ВЇn/ [L, bos, ox, tuber, swelling;
Gk, osis, condition], a form of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects cattle but is
occasionally found in deer. Mastitis and pulmonary symptoms can occur.
Bowditch’s law. See all-or-none law.
bowel. See intestine.
bowel bypass syndrome, a series of adverse effects that
may follow bowel bypass surgery, which include chills,
fever, joint pain, and skin inflammation on the arms, legs,
and thorax.
bowel continence, a nursing outcome from the Nursing
Outcomes Classification (NOC) defined as control of passage of stool from the bowel. See also Nursing Outcomes
bowel elimination, a nursing outcome from the Nursing
Outcomes Classification (NOC) defined as the formation
and evacuation of stool. See also Nursing Outcomes
bowel incontinence. See incontinence, bowel.
bowel incontinence care, a nursing intervention from the
Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as promotion of bowel continence and maintenance of perianal
skin integrity. See also Nursing Interventions Classification.
bowel incontinence care: encopresis, a nursing intervention from the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC)
defined as promotion of bowel continence in children. See
also Nursing Interventions Classification.
bowel irrigation, a nursing intervention from the Nursing
Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as instillation of a
substance into the lower GI tract. See also Nursing Interventions Classification.
bowel management, a nursing intervention from the
Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as establishment and maintenance of a regular pattern of bowel
elimination. See also Nursing Interventions Classification.
bowel resection, an excision of a diseased or injured section of the small or large intestine through a laparoscope or
an abdominal incision to treat obstruction, inflammatory
bowel disease, cancer, ruptured diverticulum, ischemia, or
traumatic injury. After excision, the bowel is reanastomosed.
bowel training1 [OFr, boel], a method of establishing
regular evacuation by reflex conditioning used in the treatment of fecal incontinence, impaction, chronic diarrhea, and
autonomic hyperreflexia. In patients with autonomic hyperreflexia, distension of the rectum and bladder causes paroxysmal hypertension, restlessness, chills, diaphoresis, headache, elevated temperature, and bradycardia.
Ⅲ METHOD: The patient’s previous bowel habits are assessed, and the necessity of developing a program to induce
an evacuation at the same time each day or every other day is
explained. Exercises to strengthen abdominal muscles, such
as pushing up, bearing down, and contracting the musculature, are demonstrated. The patient is instructed to recognize
and respond promptly to signals indicating a full bowel, such
as goose pimples, perspiration, and piloerection on arms or
legs, and to develop cues to stimulate the urge to defecate,
such as drinking coffee or massaging the abdomen. Fluids to
3000 mL daily are encouraged; exercise is increased as able,
and the importance of eating well-balanced meals that include bulk and roughage and of avoiding constipating or
gas-producing foods, such as bananas, beans, and cabbage,
is discussed. Depending on the patient and the problem, the
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Bowen technique,
a system of gentle but powerful soft
tissue mobilizations using the thumbs and fingers over
muscles, tendons, nerves, and fascia to restore the selfhealing mechanism of the body. This technique has been
used for conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system, including back, neck, hip, and shoulder pain.
bowleg. See genu varum.
Bowman’s capsule /bo¯؅manz/ [William Bowman, English
anatomist, 1816–1892], the cup-shaped end of a renal tu-
Afferent renal
Efferent renal
at e
Bowen’s disease (White and Cox, 2006)
bule or nephron enclosing a glomerulus. With the glomerulus, it is the site of filtration in the kidney. Also called glomerular capsule.
training program may involve drinking warm fluid, ensuring
privacy, and inserting a lubricated glycerin suppository before the set time. The patient is told that no formed stools for
3 days, semiliquid feces, restlessness, and discomfort are
signs of impending impaction and that the condition may be
treated with a laxative suppository or with a tap water or oil
retention enema. The importance of reporting symptoms of
autonomic hyperreflexia to the physician is stressed. The
possibility that emotional stress or illness may cause accidental incontinence after the program has been established is
discussed. Many clients require weeks or months of training
to achieve success.
в…ў INTERVENTIONS: The nurse provides instruction, encourages the patient to establish a program of regular evacuation,
and offers positive reinforcement frequently.
в…ў OUTCOME CRITERIA: Reflex conditioning is often an effective method of developing regular bowel habits for incontinent patients, especially those who are highly motivated and
are given good instruction and understanding support. Young
persons with spinal cord lesions are able to develop automatic defecation when adequately trained, but some elderly
incontinent people may not be able to learn the program.
bowel training2, a nursing intervention from the Nursing
Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as assisting the
patient to train the bowel to evacuate at specific intervals.
See also Nursing Interventions Classification.
bowel urgency, the sudden, almost uncontrollable, need to
bowenoid papulosis. See Bowen’s disease.
Bowen’s disease [John T. Bowen, American dermatologist,
1857–1941], a form of intraepidermal carcinoma (squamous cell). It is characterized by red-brown scaly or crusted
lesions that resemble a patch of psoriasis or dermatitis.
Treatment includes curettage and electrodesiccation. A corresponding lesion found on the glans penis is called erythroplasia of Queyrat. Also called Bowen’s precancerous
bowel training2
Urea &
Renal tubule
Bowman’s capsule (Chabner, 2007)
Bowman’s glands [William Bowman; L, glans, acorn],
branched tubuloalveolar glands in mucous membranes of the
mouth. They keep the mouth surfaces moist.
Bowman’s lamina [William Bowman; L, lamina, plate],
a tough membrane beneath the corneal epithelium. Also
called anterior elastic lamina, Bowman’s layer, Bowman’s membrane.
bowtie filter /boВЇШ…tД±ВЇ/, a filter shaped like a bowtie that may
be used in computed tomography to compensate for the
shape of the patient’s head or body. It is used with fanshaped x-ray beams to equalize the amount of radiation
reaching the film.
boxer’s ear. See pachyotia.
boxer’s fracture [Dan, bask, a blow; L, fractura, break],
a break in one or more metacarpal bones, usually the fourth
or the fifth, caused by punching a hard object. Such a fracture is often distal, angulated, and impacted.
boxing, the forming of vertical walls, most commonly
made of wax, to produce the desired shape and size of the
base of a dental cast.
boxing wax [L, buxis, box; AS, weax], (in dentistry) a thin
sheet of flexible wax used for boxing.
Boyd’s amputation, amputation at the ankle with removal of the talus and fusion of the tibia and calcaneus.
Boykin, Anne, a nursing theorist who, with Savina O.
Schoenhofer, wrote Nursing as Caring: A Model for Transforming Practice, which postulates that caring is the end, not
the means, of nursing.
Boyle’s law /boilz/ [Robert Boyle, English scientist, 1627–
1691], (in physics) the law stating that the product of the
volume and pressure of a gas contained at a constant temperature remains constant.
BP, abbreviation for blood pressure.
BPD, 1. abbreviation for biparietal diameter, 2. abbreviation for bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
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abbreviation for benzopyrene dihydrodiol
BPH, abbreviation for benign prostatic hyperplasia.
bpm, abbreviation for beats per minute.
Br, symbol for the element bromine.
brace [OFr, bracier, to embrace], an orthotic device, sometimes jointed, used to support and hold any part of the body
in the correct position to allow function and healing, such as
a leg brace that permits walking and standing. Compare
brachi- /bra¯؅ke¯-/, prefix meaning “arm”: brachiation,
-brachia /-bra¯؅ke¯·Y/, suffix meaning an “anatomic condition involving an arm”: acephalobrachia, monobrachia.
brachial /braВЇР€keВЇВ·Yl/ [Gk, brachion, arm], pertaining to
the arm.
brachial artery, the principal artery of the upper arm that
is the continuation of the axillary artery. It has three branches
and terminates at the bifurcation of its main trunk into the radial artery and the ulnar artery.
brachialgia /-alШ…jeВЇВ·Y/ [L, brachium, arm; Gk, algos, pain],
a severe pain in the arm, often related to a disorder involving
the brachial plexus.
brachialis /braВЇР€keВЇВ·alШ…is/ [Gk, brachion, arm], a muscle of
the upper arm, covering the distal half of the humerus and
the anterior part of the elbow joint. It functions to flex the
forearm. Compare biceps brachii, triceps brachii.
brachial region
Brachial plexus
Dorsoscapular nerve
Suprascapular nerve
Subclavian nerve
Axillary nerve
Radial nerve
Long thoracic
Medial and lateral
pectoral nerves
Median nerve
Ulnar nerve
Medial brachial
cutaneous nerve
Ventral rami
Anterior divisions
Posterior divisions
Brachial plexus (Thibodeau and Patton, 2007)
brachial plexus anesthesia,
brachial paralysis [L, brachium, arm; Gk, paralyein, to be
palsied], paralysis of an arm or a hand as a result of a lesion of the brachial plexus. See also Erb’s palsy.
brachial plexus [Gk, brachion П© L, braided], the plexus
that innervates the upper limb, formed by the anterior rami
of cervical spinal nerves C5 to C8 and T1. It is initially
formed in the neck and continues through the axillary inlet
into the axilla. See also plexus.
an anesthetic block of the
upper extremity, performed by injecting local anesthetic near
the plexus formed by the last four cervical and first two thoracic spinal nerves. The plexus extends from the transverse
processes of the spine to the apex of the axilla, where the terminal nerves are formed. Because of the anatomy of this
area, many approaches are possible. Approaches include the
axillary (in the armpit), supraclavicular and infraclavicular
(above and below the collarbone), and interscalene (between
the muscles of the neck). Various approaches may result in
Horner’s syndrome, phrenic nerve block, pneumothorax, recurrent laryngeal paralysis, persistent sensory deficits, venous or arterial puncture, subarachnoid injection, paresthesias, or hematoma. Also called brachial plexus block.
See also regional anesthesia.
brachial plexus block. See brachial plexus anesthesia.
brachial plexus paralysis. See Erb palsy.
brachial pulse [Gk, brachion П© L, pulsare, to beat],
the pulse of the brachial artery, palpated in the antecubital
space. See also pulse.
brachial region, an anatomic term used to refer to the
arm (shoulder to elbow), divided into anterior and posterior
brachial regions.
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brachial vein
Bradford frame
brachioradialis reflex [Gk, brachion П© L, radial,
reflectare, to bend backward], a deep tendon reflex elicited
by striking the lateral surface of the forearm proximal to the
distal head of the radius, characterized by normal slight
elbow flexion and forearm supination. It is accentuated by
disease of the pyramidal tract above the level of the fifth cervical vertebra. See also deep tendon reflex.
Assessment of brachial pulse
(Wilson and Giddens, 2005)
brachial vein,
a vein in the arm that accompanies the brachial artery and drains into the axillary vein.
brachiocephalic, relating to the arm and head.
brachiocephalic arteritis. See Takayasu’s arteritis.
brachiocephalic artery, first branch of the aortic arch.
See also innominate artery.
brachiocephalic trunk. See innominate artery.
brachiocephalic vein, the vein feeding the superior vena
cava, collecting blood from the subclavian and jugular veins.
See also innominate vein.
brachiocubital /-kyoo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇШ…bitYl/ [Gk, brachion П© L, cubitus,
elbow], pertaining to the arm and forearm.
brachioplasty, a surgical procedure to lift and tighten skin
of the upper arm.
brachioradialis /-raВЇР€deВЇВ·alШ…is/, the most superficial muscle
on the radial side of the forearm. It functions to flex the
Brachioradialis (Thibodeau and Patton, 2007)
Brachioradialis reflex testing
(Seidel et al, 2006)
-brachium /-braВЇШ…keВЇВ·Ym/,
1. suffix meaning “the upper arm
from shoulder to elbow.” 2. suffix meaning “an arm or
armlike growth”: prebrachium, pontibrachium.
brachy- /brakЈe¯-/, prefix meaning “short”: brachycheilia,
brachybasia /-baВЇШ…zhY/, abnormally slow walking, with a
short, shuffling gait. The condition is associated with cerebral hemorrhage or pyramidal tract disease, or Parkinson’s
brachycardia. See bradycardia.
brachycephaly /-sefШ…YleВЇ/ [Gk, brachys, short, kephale,
head], a congenital malformation of the skull in which premature closure of the coronal suture results in excessive lateral growth of the head, giving it a short, broad appearance.
Also called brachycephalia /-sYfaВЇР€leВЇВ·Y/, brachycephalism
/-sefЈYlizYm/. See also craniostenosis. —brachycephalic
/-sYfalР€ik/, brachycephalous /-sefР€YlYs/, adj.
brachydactyly /-dakШ…tYleВЇ/, a condition in which fingers or
toes are abnormally short.
brachygnathia. See micrognathia.
brachytherapy [Gk, brachys, short, therapeia, treatment],
the placement of radioactive sources, such as seeds, needles,
or catheters, in contact with or implanted into the tumor tissues to be treated for a specific period. Sources can be temporary or permanent. The rationale for this treatment is to
provide a high absorbed dose of radiation in the tumor tissues and a very limited absorbed low dose in the surrounding
normal tissues. Traditional brachytherapy implants deliver
low doses of radiation; the newest variations deliver high
doses. Compare teletherapy.
bracket /brakР€Yt/ [Fr, braguette, codpiece], a support projecting from the main structure. An orthodontic bracket is a
small metal attachment soldered or welded to an orthodontic
band or cemented directly to the teeth, serving to fasten the
arch wire to the band or tooth. Also called orthodontic
attachment. See also orthodontic appliance, orthodontic
Bradford frame [Edward H. Bradford, American surgeon,
1848–1926], a rectangular orthopedic frame made of pipes
to which heavy movable straps of canvas are attached. The
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Bradford solid frame
straps run from side to side to support a patient in a prone or
supine position. They can be removed to permit the patient
to urinate or defecate while remaining immobile.
Bradford solid frame, a rectangular metal orthopedic device that provides support for the entire body and is especially appropriate for patients who are less than 5 years of
age, hyperactive, or mentally retarded. The main purpose of
the device is to assist in maintaining proper immobilization,
positioning, and alignment by controlling movement. To facilitate nursing care, the Bradford solid frame is not placed
directly on a bed but is elevated at both ends by plywood
blocks or other suitable devices. It is most often used with
Bryant traction but never with balanced suspension traction,
cervical traction, cervical tongs, or certain other kinds of
Bradford split frame, a rectangular metal orthopedic device covered with two separate pieces of canvas fastened at
both ends of the frame. Used especially in pediatrics to aid in
the immobilization of children in traction, it is divided in the
middle by a large opening designed to accommodate the excretory functions of an incontinent patient in a hip spica cast.
The division also allows the upper and lower extremities of
the patient to be elevated separately and the cast to be kept
clean and dry.
Bradley method [Robert Bradley, twentieth century American physician], a method of psychophysical preparation
for childbirth, comprising education about the physiologic
characteristics of childbirth, exercise, and nutrition during
pregnancy, and techniques of breathing and relaxation for
control and comfort during labor and delivery. The father is
extensively involved in the classes and acts as the mother’s
“coach” during labor. Among the advantages of the method
are its simplicity, the father’s involvement, and the realistic
approach to the efforts and discomfort of labor. Also called
husband-coached childbirth. Compare Lamaze method,
Read method.
brady- /bradЈe¯-/, prefix meaning “slow, dull”: bradycardia, bradydiastalsis, bradyphagia.
bradyarrhythmia /-YrithШ…meВЇВ·Y/ [Gk, bradys, slow, a П©
rhythmos, without rhythm], any disturbance of cardiac
rhythm in which the heart rate is less than 60 beats/min.
bradycardia /-kaВЁrШ…deВЇВ·Y/ [Gk, bradys, slow, kardia, heart],
a condition in which the heart rate is less than 60/min.
Bradycardia takes the form of sinus bradycardia, sinus arrhythmia, and second- or third-degree atrioventricular block.
Sinus bradycardia may be caused by excessive vagal tone,
decreased sympathetic tone, or anatomic changes. It is common in athletes and is relatively benign. It may even be beneficial in acute myocardial infarction (especially inferior).
Pathologic bradycardia may be symptomatic of a brain
tumor, digitalis toxicity, heart block, or vagotonus. Cardiac
output is decreased, causing faintness, dizziness, chest pain,
and eventually syncope and circulatory collapse. Treatment
may include administration of atropine, implantation of a
pacemaker, or change in medical treatment. Also called
bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome [Gk, bradys П©
kardia, П© tachys, fast, kardia П© syn, together, dromos,
course], a disorder characterized by a heart rate that alternates between being abnormally low (less than 60 beats/min)
and abnormally high (greater than 100 beats/min). Also
called bradytachycardia, tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome. See also sick sinus syndrome, sinus nodal
bradyesthesia /-estheВЇШ…zhY/ [Gk, bradys, slow, aisthesis, feeling], a slowness in perception.
bradykinesia /-kineВЇШ…zhY, -kД±ВЇneВЇШ…zhY/ [Gk, bradys П© kinesis,
brain abscess
motion], an abnormal condition characterized by slowness
of all voluntary movement and speech, such as caused by
parkinsonism, other extrapyramidal disorders, and certain
bradykinin /-kД±ВЇШ…nin/ [Gk, bradys П© kinein, to move],
a peptide containing nine amino acid residues produced from
вђЈ2-globulin by the enzyme kallikrein. Bradykinin is a potent
bradylalia. See bradyphasia.
bradyphagia /-faВЇШ…jY/, a habit of eating very slowly.
bradyphasia /-faВЇШ…zhY/, an abnormally slow manner of
speech, often associated with mental illness. Also called
bradypnea /-pneВЇШ…Y/ [Gk, bradys П© pnein, to breath],
an abnormally low rate of breathing (lower than 12 breaths/
min). Compare hypopnea. See also respiration rate.
bradyspermatism /-spurШ…mYtizР€Ym/, ejaculation that lacks
normal force so that semen trickles slowly from the penis.
bradytachycardia. See bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome.
bradyuria /bradР€eВЇyoo
Л� rШ…eВЇВ·Y/, slow micturation.
Bragg curve [William H. Bragg, English physicist, 1862–
1942], the path followed by ionizing particles used in a radiation treatment. Because certain particles reach a peak of
potential near the end of their path, the Bragg curve can be
used to direct the radiation to deep-seated tumors while significantly sparing normal overlying tissues.
Braille /braВЇl, braВЁШ…yY/ [Louis Braille, French teacher of the
blind, 1809–1852], a system of printing for the blind consisting of raised dots or points that can be read by touch.
brain [AS, bragen], the portion of the central nervous system contained within the cranium. It consists principally of
the cerebrum, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, midbrain, pons, and medulla. Specialized cells in its mass of
convoluted, soft gray or white tissue coordinate and regulate
the functions of the central nervous system, integrating the
functions of the body as a whole.
Corpus callosum
Pineal body
(part of
Spinal cord
Major structures of the brain
(Monahan et al, 2007)
brain abscess [AS, bragen П© L, abscedere, to go away],
a pocket of infection in a part of the brain. It is usually a result of the spread of an infection from another source, such
as the skull, sinuses, or other structures in the head. The in-
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brain airway
fection also may be secondary to a disease in the bones, the
nervous system outside the brain, or the heart. Also called
cerebral abscess, intracranial abscess.
Brain abscess (Damjanov and Linder, 2000)
brain airway. See laryngeal mask airway.
brain attack, term signifying that a stroke is in progress
and an emergency situation exists. So-called to draw attention to the situation as in heart attack by the American Stroke
Association. See cerebrovascular insult.
brain compression. See cerebral compression.
brain concussion [AS, bragen П© L, concussus, a shaking],
a bruising to cerebral tissues caused by a violent jarring or
shaking or other blunt, nonpenetrating injury to the brain resulting in a sudden change in momentum of the head. Characteristically, after a mild concussion there may be a transient loss of consciousness followed, on awakening, by a
headache. Severe concussion may cause prolonged unconsciousness and disruption of certain vital functions of the
brainstem, such as respiration and vasomotor stability. The
treatment for a person recovering from a concussion consists
principally of observation for signs of intracranial bleeding
and increased intracranial pressure. Also called concussion.
brain death [AS, bragen П© death], an irreversible form of
unconsciousness characterized by a complete loss of brain
function while the heart continues to beat. The legal definition of this condition varies from state to state. The usual
clinical criteria for brain death include the absence of reflex
activity, movements, and spontaneous respiration requiring
mechanical ventilation or life support to continue any cardiac function. The pupils are dilated and fixed. Because hypothermia, anesthesia, poisoning, or drug intoxication may
cause deep physiologic depression that resembles brain
death these parameters must be within normal limits prior to
testing. Diagnosis of brain death may require evaluating and
demonstrating that electrical activity of the brain is absent on
two electroencephalograms performed 12 to 24 hours apart.
Brain death can be confirmed with electroencephalograms
showing a complete lack of electrical activity (a flat line) or
vascular perfusion studies showing a lack of blood flow to
brain tumor
the brain. Also called irreversible coma. Compare coma,
sleep, stupor.
brain edema. See cerebral edema.
brain electric activity map (BEAM), a topographic map
of the brain created by a computer that is able to respond to
the electric potentials evoked in the brain by a flash of light.
Potentials recorded at 4-msec intervals are converted into a
many-colored map of the brain, showing them to be positive
or negative. The waves may be observed traveling through
the brain. If the wave is disordered, blocked, too small, or
too large, a tumor or other lesion may be causing the abnormal pattern.
brain fever, informal. any inflammation of the brain or
meninges. See also encephalitis.
brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), a hormone, originally
isolated from porcine brain tissue, having biologic effects
similar to those of atrial natriuretic peptide and stored
mainly in the myocardium of the cardiac ventricles. Blood
levels of BNP are elevated in hypervolemic states, such as
congestive heart failure and hypertension.
brain scan [AS, bragen П© L, scandere, to climb], a diagnostic procedure used to image the brain. Common modalities include CT, MRI, and PET. Imaging can be done with a
radioisotope used to localize and identify intracranial
masses, lesions, tumors, or infarcts. Intravenously injected
radioisotopes accumulate in abnormal brain tissue and are
traced and photographed by a scintillator or scanner. The nature and rate of accumulation of radioisotopes in pathologic
tissue are diagnostic of some lesions. Compare computed
tomography. See also isotope, radioisotope.
Brain’s reflex [Walter R. Brain, English physician, 1895–
1966; L, reflectere, to bend back], the reflexive extension
of the flexed paralyzed arm of a hemiplegia patient when assuming a quadrupedal posture. Also called quadrupedal extensor reflex.
brainstem [AS, bragen П© stemm], the portion of the brain
comprising the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the mesencephalon. It performs motor, sensory, and reflex functions
and contains the corticospinal and reticulospinal tracts. The
12 pairs of cranial nerves from the brain arise mostly from
the brainstem. Compare medulla oblongata, mesencephalon, pons.
brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER), the
electric activity that may be recorded from the brainstem in
the first 10 msec after presentation of an auditory stimulus.
In a subject with normal brainstem functioning, seven peaks
are observed. A delayed, normally shaped waveform may indicate a hearing loss caused by a middle or inner ear disorder; one or more missing peaks may indicate a neural disorder.
brain swelling. See cerebral edema.
brain syndrome, a group of symptoms resulting from impaired function of the brain. It may be acute and reversible,
or chronic and irreversible. An organic mental disorder is a
specific organic mental syndrome in which the cause is
known or presumed. An organic mental syndrome is a temporary or permanent brain dysfunction of any cause.
brain tumor, an invasive neoplasm of the intracranial portion of the central nervous system. Brain tumors cause significant rates of morbidity and mortality but are occasionally
treated successfully. In adults 20% to 40% of malignancies
in the brain are metastatic lesions from cancers in the breast,
lung, GI tract, or kidney or a malignant melanoma. These are
referred to as secondary tumors. The origin of primary brain
tumors is not known, but the risk is increased in individuals
exposed to vinyl chloride, in the siblings of cancer patients,
and in recipients of renal transplantation being treated with
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immunosuppressant medication. Causes under investigation
are genetic changes, heredity, ionizing radiation, environmental hazards, viruses, and injury. Symptoms of a brain
tumor are often those of increased intracranial pressure, such
as headache, nausea, vomiting, papilledema, lethargy, and
disorientation, but vary depending on the site of a tumor. Localizing signs, such as loss of vision on the side of an occipital neoplasm, may occur. Diagnostic measures include visual
field and funduscopic examinations, skull x-ray examinations, electroencephalography, brain scanning, magnetic
resonance imaging, computed tomography, and spinal fluid
studies. Cerebral angiography is used for information about
vascular supply. Gliomas, chiefly astrocytomas, are the most
common malignancies. Medulloblastomas occur often in
children. Surgery is the initial treatment for most primary tumors of the brain. Radiotherapy is indicated for inoperable
lesions, medulloblastomas, and tumors with multiple foci
and is used in postoperative treatment of residual tumor tissue. The blood-brain barrier impedes the effect of some antineoplastic agents, but the administration of disk-shaped
drug wafers is an emerging practice. Postoperative nursing
care includes assessment of the patient to detect elevation in
intracranial pressure. Compare spinal cord tumor.
Brain tumor
(Kowalczyk and Mace, 2009/Courtesy Riverside Methodist Hospitals)
intensive indoctrination, usually of a political or religious nature, applied to individuals to develop in
their minds a specific belief and motivation.
brain wave [AS, bragen П© wafian], any of a number of
patterns of rhythmic electric impulses produced in different
parts of the brain. Most patterns, identified by the Greek letters alpha, beta, delta, gamma, kappa, and theta, are similar
for all normal persons and are relatively stable for each individual. Brain waves help in the diagnosis of certain neurologic disorders, such as epilepsy or brain tumors. See also
alpha wave, beta wave, delta wave, theta wave.
bran, a coarse outer covering or coat (seed husk) of cereal
grain, such as wheat or rye. Bran provides a source of dietary
fiber, B vitamins, iron, magnesium, and zinc. When separated from the meal or flour portion of a grain, it is less nutritious.
Braxton Hicks version
bran bath [OFr, bren П© AS, baeth],
a bath in which bran
has been boiled in the water. It is used for the relief of skin
branch, (in anatomy) an offshoot arising from the main
trunk of a nerve or blood vessel.
branched-chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, and
valine; they are incorporated into proteins or catabolized for
branched chain ketoaciduria. See maple syrup urine
branched tubular gland [OFr, branche], one of the many
multicellular glands with one excretory duct from two or
more tube-shaped secretory branches, such as some of the
gastric glands.
brancher glycogen storage disease. See Andersen’s
branchial /brangШ…keВЇВ·Yl/ [Gk, branchia, gills], pertaining to
body structures of the face, neck, and throat area, particularly the muscles.
branchial arches [Gk, branchia, gills; L, arcus, bow],
arched structures in the embryonic pharynx.
branchial cleft [Gk, branchia, gills; ME, clift], a linear
depression in the pharynx of the early embryo opposite a
branchial or pharyngeal pouch.
branchial cyst [Gk, branchia, gills, kystis, bag], a cyst derived from a branchial remnant in the neck.
branchial fistula, a congenital abnormal passage from the
pharynx to the external surface of the neck, resulting from
the failure of a branchial cleft to close during fetal development. Also called cervical fistula.
branching canal. See collateral pulp canal.
branchiogenic /brangР€keВЇВ·oВЇjenШ…ik/ [Gk, branchia, gills,
genein, to produce], pertaining to any tissues originating in the branchial cleft or arch. —branchiogenous
/-keВЇВ·ojР€Ynes/, adj.
branchio-oto-renal syndrome /brangР€keВЇВ·oВЇВ·oВЇР€toВЇВ·reВЇР€nYl/
[Gk, branchia, gills П© ous, ear П© L, ren, kidney], branchial arch anomalies (preauricular pits, branchial fistulas or
pits) associated with congenital deafness resulting from dysgenesis of the organ of Corti, and with renal dysplasia; inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and
variable expression.
brand name. See trademark.
Brandt-Andrews maneuver [Thure Brandt, Swedish obstetrician, 1819–1895; Henry R. Andrews, English obstetrician, 1871–1942], a method of expressing the placenta
from the uterus in the third stage of labor. One hand grasps
the umbilical cord while the other is placed on the mother’s
abdomen with the fingers over the anterior surface of the
uterus. While the hand on the abdomen is pressed backward
and slightly upward, the other applies gentle traction on
the cord.
Braschi valve, a one-way valve put into the inspiratory
limb of a ventilator circuit to measure the intrinsic positive
end-expiratory pressure.
brass founder’s ague. See metal fume fever.
brassy cough [AS, brase, brassy, cohhetan, to cough],
a high-pitched cough caused by irritation of the recurrent
pharyngeal nerve or by pressure on the trachea.
brassy eye. See chalkitis.
Braun’s canal. See neurenteric canal.
brawny arm, a swollen arm caused by lymphedema, usually after a mastectomy.
Braxton Hicks contractions. See preterm contractions.
Braxton Hicks version /brakШ…stYn hiksШ…/ [John Braxton
Hicks, English physician, 1823–1897], one of several
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Brazelton assessment
breast cancer
major muscle
of Cooper
Breast (Seidel et al, 2006)
types of maneuvers sometimes used to turn the fetus from an
undesirable position to one that is more likely to facilitate
delivery. See also version.
Brazelton assessment. See Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale.
Brazilian trypanosomiasis. See Chagas’ disease.
BRCA1, symbol for a breast cancer gene. A healthy
BRCA1 gene produces a protein that protects against unwanted cell growth. The protein is packaged by the cell’s
Golgi apparatus into secretory vesicles, which release their
contents on the cell’s surface. The protein circulates in the
intracellular space, attaching itself to neighboring cell receptors. The receptors signal the cell nuclei to stop growing.
When the gene is defective, it produces a faulty protein that
is unable to prevent proliferation of abnormal cells as they
evolve into potentially deadly breast cancer. BRCA1 may
also normally inhibit ovarian cancer.
BRCA2, symbol for a breast cancer gene with activity
similar to that of BRCA1.
BRCA3, symbol for a breast cancer gene.
breach of contract, the failure to perform as promised or
agreed in a contract. The breach may be complete or partial
and may entail repudiation, failure to recognize the contract,
or prevention or hindrance of performance.
breach of duty, 1. the failure to perform an act required
by law. 2. the performance of an act in an unlawful way.
breakbone fever. See dengue fever.
break test, a test of a person’s muscle strength by application of resistance after the person has reached the end of a
range of motion. Resistance is applied gradually in a direction opposite to the line of pull of the muscle or muscle
group being tested. The resistance is released immediately if
there is any sign of pain or discomfort.
breakthrough, (in psychiatry) a sudden new insight into a
problem and its solution after a period of little or no
breakthrough analgesia, analgesia administered for the
relief of breakthrough pain.
breakthrough bleeding, the escape of uterine blood between menstrual periods, a possible side effect of fibroids or
oral contraceptive use.
breakthrough dose, the dose of an analgesic required for
the relief of breakthrough pain. Also called rescue dose.
breakthrough pain,
a transient increase in pain intensity
that occurs in patients with stable, baseline persistent pain.
breast [AS, breast], 1. the anterior aspect of the surface of
the chest. 2. a mammary gland.
breast abscess, an abscess of a mammary gland, usually
during lactation or weaning.
Breast abscess (Zitelli and Davis, 2007)
breast augmentation,
popular name for augmentation
breast cancer,
a malignant neoplastic disease of breast tissue, a common malignancy in women in the United States.
The incidence increases with age from the third to the fifth
decade and reaches a second peak at age 65. Risk factors include certain genetic abnormalities, a family history of
breast cancer, nulliparity, exposure to ionizing radiation,
early menarche, late menopause, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, chronic cystic disease of the breast, and, possibly, postmenopausal estrogen therapy. Women who are older than 30
years of age when they bear their first child and individuals
who have malignancies in other body sites also have an increased risk of development of breast cancer. Initial symptoms, detected in most cases by self-examination, include a
small painless lump, thick or dimpled skin, or nipple retraction. As the lesion progresses, there may be nipple discharge,
pain, ulceration, and enlarged axillary glands. The diagnosis
may be established by a careful physical examination, mammography, and cytologic examination of tumor cells obtained by biopsy. Infiltrating ductal carcinomas are found in
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breast cancer genetic screening test
about 75% of cases, and infiltrating lobular, infiltrating medullary, colloid, comedo, or papillary carcinomas in the others. Inflammatory carcinomas account for approximately 1%
of cases. Tumors are more common in the left than in the
right breast and in the upper and outer quadrant than in the
other quadrants. Metastasis through the lymphatic system to
axillary lymph nodes and to bone, lung, brain, and liver is
common, but there is evidence that primary carcinomas of
the breast may exist in multiple sites and that tumor cells
may enter the bloodstream directly without passing through
lymph nodes. Surgical treatment may consist of a mastectomy or a lumpectomy, with dissection of axillary nodes, or
sentinel lymph node biopsy for women without palpable
lymph nodes. Postoperative radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or
both is often prescribed. Chemotherapeutic agents frequently
administered in various combinations are cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, phenylalanine mustard
(L-PAM), thiotepa, DOXOrubicin, vinCRIStine, paclitaxel,
methotrexate, and predniSONE. The presence of estrogen
receptors in breast tumors is considered an indication for
hormonal manipulation such as the administration of antiestrogens. Implantation of a prosthesis after mastectomy is
optional and does not appear to decrease survival probability. Reconstructive surgery is now common, with few complications. Males account for 17% of all breast cancer cases;
those with Klinefelter’s syndrome are at much greater risk
than other men. See also lumpectomy, mastectomy, scirrhous carcinoma.
в…ў OBSERVATIONS: Increasing numbers of breast cancers are
found on mammogram. The most common presenting sign is
a lump in the breast. About 50% of all lumps are found in the
upper outer quadrant. Nipple discharge may also be present.
A mass detected by breast self-examination, physical examination, or mammogram requires follow-up. Ultrasonography helps distinguish cysts from a solid mass. Definitive diagnosis is made by incisional, excisional, fine needle, or
stereotactic core biopsy of the mass. Pain, tenderness,
changes in breast shape, dimpling, and nipple retraction
rarely occur until the disease reaches an advanced stage.
Prognosis dims markedly as the number of involved lymph
nodes increases. Pleural effusion, ascites, pathologic fracture, and spinal compression can occur with advanced
в…ў INTERVENTIONS: The treatment of choice is resection of the
lump with removal of varying amounts of surrounding
healthy tissue, ranging from a margin of breast tissue to the
entire breast, axillary lymph nodes, mammary lymphatic
chain, and pectoral muscles. Adjunct systemic multidrug
chemotherapy is used primarily for premenopausal nodepositive women. Adjunct hormone therapy (estrogens, androgens, and progestins) is used primarily for postmenopausal node-positive or receptor-positive women. Antiestrogen therapy (Tamoxifen and Femara) is used as first line
therapy; biologic therapy with trastuzumab (Herceptin) is
used in select patients for treatment of metastatic disease.
Bone marrow/stem cell transplants are under investigation
for advanced metastatic disease. Radiation may be used as
an adjunct after surgery and for palliation in advanced
в…ў NURSING CONSIDERATIONS: Nurses have responsibilities for
patient care at all levels of the care continuum, from primary
care and screening to acute and long-term follow-through
after diagnosis and medical treatment for breast cancer.
Nurses play a large role in early detection and should educate and instruct women age 40 and older and women at increased risk (e.g., family history, genetic tendency, past
breast cancer) to get an annual mammogram and clinical
breast cancer genetic screening test
breast exam. Women under 40 and at high risk should be encouraged to get a clinical breast exam every 3 years. All
women should perform regular breast self-exams. Nurses
work with women who are diagnosed with breast cancer to
better understand and cope with treatment options. Acute
care management is dictated in part by the treatment intervention. Physical care after surgery includes prevention of
infection, incision site care, pain management, and prevention of loss of function or feeling on affected side. Management of radiation side effects, such as erythema, ulceration,
edema, and peeling, are necessary. Chemotherapy and radiation protocols and side effects need to be reviewed. Psychosocial support is paramount to recovery. Emotional needs,
such as fear over a cancer diagnosis, grieving over loss of a
breast, and altered body image must be addressed. Counseling may be needed. Referrals can be made for age-specific
recovery support groups. Referral may also be made for fitting and construction of a breast prosthesis or surgical reconstruction of the breast. The need for long-term follow-up of
physical and emotional sequelae is stressed.
Breast cancer: invasive ductal carcinoma
(Kumar et al, 2007)
Breast cancer (Swartz, 2006)
breast cancer genetic screening test (BRCA genetic
testing), a blood test used to detect the presence of breast
cancer genes, which indicates an increased susceptibility for
development of breast cancer. One breast cancer gene also
confers an increased susceptibility for ovarian cancer.
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breast cancer tumor analysis
breast cancer tumor analysis,
a microscopic examination of breast cancer tissue to predict the probability of cancer recurrence.
breast ductal lavage, a fluid analysis of exfoliated cells
from breast ducts to assess breast cancer risk. There is no
statistical support for the accuracy of this test.
breast examination1, a process in which the breasts and
their accessory structures are observed and palpated in assessing the presence of changes or abnormalities that could
indicate malignant disease. See also self-breast examination.
в…ў METHOD: The breasts are observed with the patient sitting
with her arms at her sides; sitting with her arms over her
head, back straight, then leaning forward; and, finally, sitting
upright as she contracts the pectoral muscles by placing
hands on hips. The breasts are observed for symmetry of
shape and size and for surface characteristics, including
moles or nevi, hyperpigmentation, retraction or dimpling,
edema, abnormal distribution of hair, focal vascularity, or lesions. With the patient still sitting, the axillary nodes and the
supraclavicular and subclavicular areas are palpated. With
the patient lying on her back, each breast is shifted medially,
and the glandular area in each is palpated with the flat of the
fingers of a hand in concentric circles or in a pattern like the
spokes of a wheel, from the periphery inward. The areolar
areas, the nipples, and the axillary tail of Spence in the upper
outer quadrant extending toward the axilla are then palpated.
The nipple is squeezed to check for discharge.
в…ў INTERVENTIONS: The patient should be taught to perform a
self-breast examination and encouraged to do it monthly.
The American Cancer Society recommends starting at about
age 18. Premenopausal women should examine breasts approximately 1 week past the menstrual period, when breasts
are less tender and less swollen. Postmenopausal women
should choose a specific time each month, such as the first
day of the month. Many women find it helpful to check their
breasts every time they shower for the first few months after
being taught the procedure to practice and to become very
familiar with their own breasts.
в…ў OUTCOME CRITERIA: Early diagnosis greatly improves the
rate of cure in cancer of the breast.
Palpation of glandular area
Palpation of areolar area
Compression of nipple
Breast examination
breast examination2,
a nursing intervention from the
Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as in-
breastfeeding, ineffective
spection and palpation of the breasts and related areas. See
also Nursing Interventions Classification.
breastfeeding [AS, braest П© ME, feden], 1. suckling or
nursing, giving a baby milk from the breast. Breastfeeding
encourages postpartum uterine involution and slows the
natural return of the menses. Also called nursing. 2. taking
milk from the breast. See also breast milk, lactation.
breastfeeding assistance, a nursing intervention from the
Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as preparing a new mother to breastfeed her infant. See also Nursing Interventions Classification.
breastfeeding, effective, a nursing diagnosis accepted by
the Ninth National Conference on the Classification of Nursing Diagnoses. Effective breastfeeding is a state in which a
mother-infant dyad/family exhibits adequate proficiency and
satisfaction with the breastfeeding process. See also nursing
в…ў DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS: The defining characteristics are
the mother’s ability to position the infant at the breast to promote a successful latch-on response, regular and sustained
suckling/swallowing at the breast, infant content after feeding, appropriate infant weight patterns for age, effective
mother-infant communication patterns, signs and/or symptoms of oxytocin release, adequate infant elimination patterns for age, eagerness of the infant to nurse, and maternal
verbalization of satisfaction with the breastfeeding process.
в…ў RELATED FACTORS: Related factors include basic breastfeeding knowledge, normal breast structure, normal infant
oral structure, infant gestational age greater than 34 weeks,
support sources, and maternal confidence.
breastfeeding establishment: infant, a nursing outcome
from the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) defined as
proper attachment of an infant to and sucking from the mother’s breast for nourishment during the first 2 to 3 weeks. See
also Nursing Outcomes Classification.
breastfeeding establishment: maternal, a nursing outcome from the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) defined as maternal establishment of proper attachment of an
infant to and sucking from the breast for nourishment during
the first 3 weeks of breastfeeding. See also Nursing Outcomes Classification.
breastfeeding, ineffective, a nursing diagnosis accepted
by the Eighth National Conference on the Classification of
Nursing Diagnoses. Ineffective breastfeeding is a state in
which a mother, infant, and/or family experiences dissatisfaction or difficulty with the breastfeeding process. See also
nursing diagnosis.
в…ў DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS: The major defining characteristic is the unsatisfactory breastfeeding process. Other characteristics include an actual or perceived inadequate milk supply, no observable signs of oxytocin release, persistence of
sore nipples beyond the infant’s first week of life, and maternal reluctance to put the infant to breast as necessary. The infant may be unable to attach to the maternal nipple correctly
or may resist latching on, with arching and crying at the
breast. Within the first hour after breastfeeding the infant
may exhibit fussiness or crying and be unresponsive to other
comfort measures. There may also be observable signs of an
inadequate infant intake, nonsustained suckling at the breast,
suckling at only one breast per feeding, and nursing fewer
than seven times in 24 hours.
в…ў RELATED FACTORS: Related factors in the diagnosis of ineffective breastfeeding are prematurity, infant anomaly, maternal breast anomaly, previous breast surgery, previous history
of breastfeeding failure, supplemental feeding of the infant
with an artificial nipple, poor infant sucking reflex, non-
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breastfeeding, interrupted
supportive partner or family, knowledge deficit, and interruption in breastfeeding.
breastfeeding, interrupted, a nursing diagnosis accepted
by the Tenth National Conference on the Classification of
Nursing Diagnoses. Interrupted breastfeeding is a break in
the continuity of the breastfeeding process as a result of inability or inadvisability of putting the baby to the breast for
feeding. See also nursing diagnosis.
в…ў DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS: The major defining characteristic is insufficient nourishment by the infant at the breast for
some or all feedings. Minor defining characteristics are a
maternal desire to maintain lactation and provide her breast
milk for her infant’s nutritional needs, separation of mother
and infant, and lack of knowledge about expression and storage of breast milk.
в…ў RELATED FACTORS: Related factors include maternal or infant illness, prematurity, maternal employment, contraindications to breastfeeding (e.g., drugs, true breast milk jaundice), or a need to wean the infant abruptly.
breastfeeding maintenance, a nursing outcome from the
Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) defined as the continuation of breastfeeding from establishment to weaning for
nourishment of an infant/toddler. See also Nursing Outcomes Classification.
breastfeeding: weaning, a nursing outcome from the
Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) defined as the progressive discontinuation of breastfeeding of an infant/
toddler. See also Nursing Outcomes Classification.
breast implant, the surgical placement of prosthetic material in a breast, either to increase the breast’s size or for reconstruction after a mastectomy.
breast milk [AS, braest П© meoluc], human milk, nursing
considerations: The nurse should counsel mothers that it is
easily digested, clean, and warm and that it confers some immunities (bronchiolitis and gastroenteritis are rare in
breastfed babies). Infants fed breast milk are less likely to
become obese, become constipated, and to have dental malocclusion. See also breastfeeding. Compare colostrum.
breast milk jaundice, jaundice and hyperbilirubinemia in
breastfed infants that occur in the first weeks of life as a result of a metabolite in the mother’s milk that inhibits the infant’s ability to conjugate bilirubin to glucuronide for excretion. See also hyperbilirubinemia of the newborn.
в…ў OBSERVATIONS: Breast milk jaundice usually peaks around
the tenth day of life. Serum bilirubin levels usually exceed
5 mg/100 mL but rarely reach dangerous levels of 20 mg/
100 mL, at which point kernicterus may develop. The infant
seems normal and healthy, but the skin, the whites of the
eyes, and the serum are jaundiced (yellow).
в…ў INTERVENTIONS: If serum bilirubin exceeds acceptable levels, breastfeeding should continue frequently to enhance
stooling and decrease the chance for enterohepatic circulation. Phototherapy may be used to accelerate excretion of
bilirubin through the skin. The use of oral supplementation
with glucose water or water alone is not recommended.
в…ў NURSING CONSIDERATIONS: The primary concerns of the
nurse are to observe for signs of increasing jaundice, to
monitor serum bilirubin levels, and usually to reassure the
mother that her child is well and that the jaundice resolves
slowly but completely in time.
breast pump, a mechanical or electronic device for withdrawing milk from the breast.
breast scintigraphy, a nuclear scan used to identify breast
cancer in patients whose dense breast tissue precludes accurate evaluation by conventional mammography. It is also
used as a second-line imaging modality in patients with an indeterminate mammogram and in women with lumpy breasts.
breathing pattern, ineffective
breast self-examination (BSE).
See self-breast exam-
breast shadows,
artifacts caused by breast tissue that appear on chest radiographs of women. The shadows accentuate the underlying tissue and may cause the appearance of an
interstitial disease process. Breast nipples may also appear
on the radiograph as “coin lesions,” requiring that a second
radiograph with special markers attached to the nipples be
made so that the two films can be compared.
breast sonogram, an ultrasound test that is used primarily
to determine if a mammographic abnormality or a palpable
lump is a cyst (fluid-filled) or a solid tumor (benign or malignant). It is also used to examine symptomatic women who
should not be exposed to mammographic radiation, such as
pregnant women and women under the age of 25.
breast transillumination [AS, braest П© L trans, through,
illuminare, to light up], a method of examining the inner
structures of the breast by directing light through the outer
wall. See also diaphanography.
breath, the air inhaled and exhaled during ventilation of
the lungs.
Breathalyzer /brethШ…YlД±ВЇР€zYr/, trademark for a device that
analyzes exhaled air. It is commonly used to test for blood
alcohol levels; the test is based on the relationship between
alcohol in the breath and alcohol in the blood circulating
through the lungs. Also spelled Breathalyser.
breath-holding /breth-/ [AS, braeth П© ME, holden],
a form of voluntary apnea that is usually but not necessarily
performed with a closed glottis. Although breath-holding
may be prolonged for several minutes, it is invariably terminated either voluntarily or when the person or child loses
breathing. See respiration.
breathing biofeedback, the monitoring of breathing rate,
volume, rhythm, and location by sensors placed on the chest
and abdomen, used in the treatment of asthma, hyperventilation, and anxiety. The feedback is displayed to the patient visually and is used by the patient to learn to breathe more
slowly, deeply, and rhythmically using the abdominal
breathing cycle /breВЇШ…thing/, a ventilatory cycle consisting
of an inspiration followed by the expiration of a volume of
gas called the tidal volume. The duration or total cycle time
of a breathing cycle is the breathing or ventilatory period.
Also called respiratory cycle.
breathing frequency (f). See respiration rate.
breathing nomogram [AS, braeth П© Gk, nomos, law,
gramma, a record], a chart that presents scales of data for
body weight, breathing frequency, and predicted basal tidal
volume arranged so that one can find an unknown value on
one scale by drawing a line that connects known values on
the other two scales.
breathing pattern, ineffective, a nursing diagnosis accepted by the Fourth National Conference on the Classification of Nursing Diagnoses (revised 1998). An ineffective
breathing pattern is a state in which inspiration and/or expiration do not provide adequate ventilation for the individual.
See also nursing diagnosis.
в…ў DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS: Defining characteristics are
dyspnea, shortness of breath; respiratory rate (adults [14
years of age or more], 11 or 24; infants, 25 or 60; ages 1 to 4,
20 or 30; ages 5 to 14, 15 or 25); depth of breathing (adults,
tidal volume 500 mL at rest; infants, 6 to 8); timing ratio;
nasal flaring (infants); use of accessory muscles; altered
chest excursion; assumption of three-point position, pursed
lip breathing, prolonged expiratory phases, increased anteroposterior diameter; orthopnea; decreased vital capacity; de-
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breathing-related sleep disorder
creased minute ventilation; and decreased inspiratory/
expiratory pressure.
в…ў RELATED FACTORS: Related factors are neuromuscular dysfunction, pain, musculoskeletal impairment, perception/
cognitive impairment, anxiety, hyper/hypoventilation, bone
deformity, pain, chest wall deformity, obesity, spinal cord injury, body position, neurologic immaturity, respiratory muscle fatigue, and decreased energy/fatigue.
breathing-related sleep disorder, any of several disorders characterized by sleep disruption caused by some sleeprelated breathing problem, resulting in excessive sleepiness
or insomnia. Included are central sleep apnea, obstructive
sleep apnea, and primary alveolar hypoventilation (Ondine’s
breathing tube. See endotracheal tube, nasotracheal tube.
breathing work, the energy required for breathing movements. It is the cumulative product of the instantaneous pressure developed by the respiratory muscles and the volume of
air moved during a breathing cycle.
breathlessness. See dyspnea.
breath odor, an odor usually produced by substances or
diseases in the lungs or mouth. Certain specific odors are associated with some diseases, such as diabetes, liver failure,
uremia, or a lung abscess.
breath sound [AS, braeth П© L, sonus], the sound of air
passing in and out of the lungs, as heard with a stethoscope.
Vesicular, bronchovesicular, and bronchial breath sounds are
normal. Decreased breath sounds may indicate an obstruction of an airway, collapse of a portion or all of a lung, thickening of the pleurae of the lungs, emphysema, or other
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Also occur with frail
clients who are not physically able to breathe deeply.
Rhonchi: coarse,
low-pitched; may clear
with cough
bremsstrahlung radiation
amount of hydrogen excreted in the breath. If lactose absorption is impaired in the small intestine, colonic bacteria ferment the lactose, releasing hydrogen, which is excreted in
the breath. Bacterial overgrowth is tested with 14Ccholylglycine, which is normally absorbed by the ileum and
recycled via the enterohepatic circulation. In cases of bacterial overgrowth the labeled glycine is removed by conjugation in the small intestine, absorbed, and metabolized, resulting in an increase of 14CO2 in the breath. Breath tests are
also used to test for the presence of Helicobacter pylori.
Breckinridge, Mary, (1881–1965), the American nurse
who founded the Frontier Nursing Service in Kentucky to
improve the obstetric care of women living in remote mountainous areas. The nurses in the service had training in midwifery and reached their patients on horseback and on foot,
often encountering personal danger. The service began training midwives and stimulated the establishment of other midwifery schools.
breech birth [ME, brech П© burth], parturition in which
the infant emerges feet, knees, or buttocks first. Breech birth
is often hazardous. The body may deliver easily, but the
aftercoming head may become trapped by an incompletely
dilated cervix because infants’ heads are usually larger than
their bodies. See also assisted breech, breech presentation,
complete breech, footling breech, frank breech, version
and extraction.
breech extraction [ME, brech П© L, ex, out, trahere, to pull],
an obstetric operation in which an infant being born feet or
buttocks first is grasped before any part of the trunk is born
and delivered by traction. Compare assisted breech.
breech presentation [ME, brech П© L, praesentare, to
show], intrauterine position of the fetus in which the buttocks or feet present. It occurs in approximately 3% of labors. Kinds of breech presentation are complete breech,
footling breech, and frank breech. Compare vertex
presentation. See also breech birth.
and vesicular,
normal in some
Bronchial: coarse,
loud; heard with
Rub: scratchy,
Crackles: fine crackling, high-pitched
Breath sounds in the ill and well patient
(Seidel et al, 2006)
breath test,
any of various tests in which a person’s breath
is analyzed for presence of something abnormal. Subgroups
called the 13C breath tests and 14C breath tests involve administration of organic compounds labeled with carbon 13
(heavy carbon) or carbon 14 (radioactive carbon) and measuring the subsequent levels of labeled carbon dioxide in the
patient’s breath; the labeled compound may be found to be
metabolized normally, too fast, or too slow in the GI tract.
breath tests, diagnostic tests for intestinal disorders such
as bacterial overgrowth, ileal disease, lactase deficiency, and
steatorrhea. Lactose malabsorption is treated by giving the
patient 12.5 to 25.0 grams of lactose and measuring the
Frank breech
Full breech
Single footling
Breech presentation (McKinney et al, 2000)
bregma /bregШ…mY/ [Gk, the front of the head],
the junction
of the coronal and sagittal sutures on the top of the skull.
—bregmatic, adj.
bregmacardiac reflex /bregР€mYkaВЁrШ…deВЇВ·Yk/ [Gk, bregma,
front of the head], a phenomenon in which pressure on the
anterior fontanel of an infant’s skull causes the heart to slow.
bremsstrahlung radiation /bremsШ…shtraВЁШ…loo
Л� ng/ [Ger, braking radiation], a type of radiation produced by the interac-
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Brenner tumor
tion between projectile electrons and the nuclei of target
Brenner tumor [Fritz Brenner, German pathologist,
b. 1877], an uncommon benign ovarian neoplasm consisting of nests or cords of epithelial cells containing glycogen
that are enclosed in fibrous connective tissue. The tumor
may be solid or cystic and is sometimes difficult to distinguish from certain granulosa-theca cell neoplasms.
Brenner tumor (Fletcher, 2007)
trademark for a beta2 receptor agonist agent (terbutaline sulfate).
bretylium tosylate /britilШ…eВЇВ·Ym/, an antiarrhythmic agent.
в…ў INDICATION: It is prescribed in the treatment of selected
life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias when other measures have not been effective.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATION: Known hypersensitivity to this drug
prohibits its use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the more serious adverse reactions are hypotension, nausea and vomiting, anginal pain,
and nasal stuffiness.
brevi- /brevЈe¯-/, prefix meaning “short”: brevicollis,
Brevicon, trademark for a norethindrone-ethinyl estradiol
oral contraceptive.
Brevital Sodium, trademark for a barbiturate (methohexital sodium).
brewer’s yeast /broo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇШ…Yrz/ [ME, brewen, to boil, yest, foam],
a preparation containing the dried pulverized cells of a yeast,
such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, that is used as a leavening agent and as a dietary supplement. It is one of the best
sources of the B complex vitamins and a rich source of many
minerals and a high grade of protein.
Bricanyl, trademark for a beta2 receptor agonist agent (terbutaline sulfate).
brick dust urine, a reddish discoloration signaling precipitated urates in acidic urine.
bridge. See bridgework.
bridge of Varolius. See pons.
bridgework, a fixed partial denture that is cemented permanently to abutment teeth. Also called bridge. See also
abutment, pontic, retainer.
bridging [AS, brycg], 1. a nursing technique of positioning a patient so that bony prominences are free of pressure
on the mattress by using pads, bolsters of foam rubber, or
pillows to distribute body weight over a larger surface.
2. a nursing technique for supporting a part of the body, such
as the testicles in treating orchitis, using a Bellevue bridge
made of a towel or other material. 3. a physical rehabilitation technique that strengthens abdominal and leg muscles.
Reclining with knees bent, the patient plants the feet on a
firm surface and lifts the buttocks off the surface.
British Medical Association
Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS),
a rating scale
for assessing psychopathology on the basis of a small number of items, usually 16 to 24, encompassing psychosis, depression, and anxiety symptoms.
brief psychotherapy, (in psychiatry) treatment directed to
the active resolution of personality or behavioral problems
rather than to the speculative analysis of the unconscious. It
usually concentrates on a specific problem or symptom
and is limited to a specified number of sessions with the
brief psychotic disorder, an episode of psychotic symptoms (incoherence, loosening of associations, delusions, hallucinations, disorganized or catatonic behavior) with sudden
onset, lasting less than 1 month. If it occurs in response to
a stressful life event, it may be called brief reactive psychosis.
brief reactive psychosis, a short episode, usually less
than 2 weeks, of psychotic behavior that occurs in response
to a significant psychosocial stressor.
brightness gain /brД±ВЇtШ…nes/, the increase in illumination
level of a radiograph produced by an image intensifier. It is
calculated as the minification gain multiplied by the flux
gain. The product is the ratio of the number of photons at the
output phosphor to the number at the input phosphor.
Brill-Symmers disease. See giant follicular lymphoma.
Brill-Zinsser disease /bril؅zin؅sYr/ [Nathan E. Brill, American physician, 1860–1925; Hans Zinsser, American bacteriologist, 1878–1940], a mild form of epidemic typhus that
recurs in a person who appears to have completely recovered
from a severe case of the disease years earlier. Some rickettsiae remain in the body after the symptoms of the disease
abate, causing the recurrence of symptoms, especially when
stress, illness, or malnutrition weakens the person. Treatment
with antibiotics may eradicate the organism. See also epidemic typhus, murine typhus, rickettsiosis, typhus.
brim, 1. edge or margin. 2. the edge of the upper border of
the true pelvis, or the pelvic inlet. See also pelvis.
brim of true pelvic cavity. See iliopectineal line.
brimonidine /bri-moВЇР€ni-deВЇn/, an alpha-adrenergic receptor agonist used as the tartrate salt in treatment of open-angle
glaucoma and ocular hypertension. It is administered topically to the conjunctiva.
Brinnell hardness test [Johann A. Brinnell, Swedish engineer, 1849–1925], a means of determining the surface
hardness of a material by measuring the resistance the material offers to the impact of a steel ball. The test result is recorded as the Brinnell hardness number (BHN); harder materials have higher BHNs. The Brinnell hardness test is
commonly used to measure abrasion resistance in materials
used in dental restorations, such as amalgams, cements, and
porcelains. Compare Knoop hardness test.
brinzolamide /brin-zoР€lah-mД±ВЇd/, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used in treatment of open-angle glaucoma and ocular
Briquet’s syndrome. See somatization disorder.
Brissaud’s dwarf /briso¯z؅/ [Edouard Brissaud, French physician, 1852–1909], a person affected with infantile myxedema in which short stature is associated with hypothyroidism.
Bristol Cancer Help Center (BCHC) diet, a stringent
diet of raw and partly cooked vegetables with proteins from
soy. It is claimed to enhance the quality of life and attitude
toward illness in cancer patients.
British antilewisite. See dimercaprol.
British Medical Association (BMA), a voluntary professional organization of physicians and medical students in the
United Kingdom.
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British Pharmacopoeia
British Pharmacopoeia (BP),
the official British reference work setting forth standards of strength and purity of
medications and containing directions for their preparation
to ensure that the same prescription written by different doctors and filled by different pharmacists will contain exactly
the same ingredients in the same proportions. The first British Pharmacopoeia was published in 1864 by the General
Medical Council; it superseded the London Pharmacopoeia,
which had been published since 1618. See also British Medical Association, United States Pharmacopeia (USP).
British thermal unit (BTU), a unit of heat energy. The
amount of thermal energy that must be absorbed by 1 lb of
water to raise its temperature by 1В° at 39.2В° F. It is also
equivalent to 1055 joules or 252 Calories.
brittle bones. See osteogenesis imperfecta.
brittle diabetes, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus in
which blood glucose levels are unstable. See also type 1 diabetes mellitus.
broach, an elongated, tapering dental instrument that contains multiple projecting sharp barbs, used in removing pulpal material.
broad beta disease, type III familial hyperlipoproteinemia in which a lipoprotein, high in cholesterol and triglycerides, accumulates in the blood. The condition, which
affects males in their twenties and females in their thirties
and forties, is characterized by yellowish nodules (xanthomas) on the elbows and knees, peripheral vascular disease,
and elevated serum cholesterol levels. Persons with this disease are at risk of development of early coronary disease.
Therapy includes dietary measures to reduce weight and levels of serum lipids. Also called dysbetalipoproteinemia,
hyperlipidemia type III. See also hyperlipidemia, hyperlipoproteinemia.
broad ligament [ME, brood П© L, ligare, to tie], a folded
sheet of peritoneum draped over the uterine tubes, the uterus,
and the ovaries. It extends from the sides of the uterus to the
sidewalls of the pelvis, dividing the pelvis from side to side
and creating the vesicouterine fossa and pouch in front of the
uterus and the rectouterine fossa and pouch behind it. See
also cardinal ligament.
broad ligament of the liver [ME, brod П© L, ligare, to bind;
AS, lifer], a crescent-shaped fold of peritoneum attached
to the lower surface of the diaphragm, connecting with the
liver and the anterior abdominal wall. Also called falciform
ligament of the liver.
broad-spectrum antibiotic, an antibiotic that is effective
against a wide range of infectious microorganisms.
Broca’s aphasia /bro¯؅kYz/ [Pierre P. Broca, French neurologist, 1824–1880], a type of aphasia consisting of nonfluent
speech, with a laconic and hesitant, telegraphic quality
caused by a large dominant hemisphere frontal lesion extending to the central sulcus. The patient’s agrammatic
speech is characterized by abundant nouns and verbs but few
articles and prepositions, the resulting speech is economic
but lacking in syntax. Compare Wernicke’s aphasia.
Broca’s area [Pierre P. Broca], an area involved in speech
production situated on the inferior frontal gyrus of the brain.
See also aphasia, Broca’s aphasia, motor speech areas,
speech centers.
Broca’s fissure [Pierre P. Broca], a cleft or groove encircling Broca’s area in the left frontal area of the brain.
Broca’s plane [Pierre P. Broca], a plane that includes the
tip of the interalveolar septum between the upper central incisors and the lowest point of the left and right occipital
Bro¨del’s bloodless line, a longitudinal light-colored zone
on the anterior surface of the kidney near the convex border, considered to be less vascularized than other areas be-
bromocriptine mesylate
cause it is the border between two areas of arterial distribution.
Brodie’s abscess [Benjamin Brodie, English surgeon, 1783–
1862], 1. a subacute form of osteomyelitis consisting of
an indolent staphylococcal infection of bone, usually in the
metaphysis of a long bone of a child, characterized by a necrotic cavity surrounded by dense granulation tissue. See
also osteomyelitis. Also called circumscribed abscess of
bone. 2. a chronic abscess of bone surrounded by dense fibrous tissue and sclerotic bone.
Brodmann’s areas /brod؅manz, bro¯t؅mons/ [Korbinian
Brodmann, German anatomist, 1868–1918], the 47 different areas of the cerebral cortex that are associated with specific neurologic functions and distinguished by different cellular components. They control movements of the lips and
vocal cords as well as motor speech. Compare motor area.
See also cerebral cortex.
broken cell preparation. See homogenate.
brom, abbreviation for a bromide anion.
bromazepam /bro-mazЈe�-pam/, a benzodiazepine used as
an antianxiety agent and as a sedative and hypnotic. It is administered orally.
brom-, bromo-, prefix meaning a compound containing
bromine or meaning “odor, stench”: bromhidrosis,
bromelain /broВЇР€mYlaВЇn/, any of several enzymes that catalyze cleavage of proteins on the carboxyl side of alanine,
glycine, lysine, and tyrosine bonds. Differing forms are derived from the fruit (fruit bromelain) and stem (stem bromelain) of the pineapple plant. The enzyme is administered
orally as an antiinflammatory agent (especially to relieve
swelling in the nasal and paranasal sinuses) and is also used
in immunology to render red cells agglutinable by incomplete antibody.
Bromfed, trademark for a fixed-combination decongestant
containing brompheniramine maleate and pseudoephedrine
bromhidrosis /broВЇР€midroВЇШ…sis/ [Gk, bromos, stench, hidros,
sweat], an abnormal condition in which the apocrine sweat
has an unpleasant odor. The odor is usually caused by bacterial decomposition of perspiration on the skin. Treatment
includes frequent bathing, changing of socks and underclothes, and use of deodorants, antibacterial soaps, and dusting powders. Also called body odor.
bromide /broВЇШ…mД±ВЇd/ [Gk, bromos, stench], an anion of bromine. Bromide salts, once widely prescribed as sedatives,
are now seldom used for that purpose because they may
cause serious mental disturbances as side effects.
bromide poisoning, an adverse reaction to ingested bromide. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, an acnelike rash,
slurred speech, ataxia, psychotic behavior, and coma.
bromine (Br) /broВЇШ…meВЇn/, a corrosive, toxic red-brown liquid element of the halogen group. Its atomic number is 35;
its atomic mass is 79.904. It exists naturally as a diatomic
molecule, Br2. Bromine is used in industry, in photography,
in the manufacture of organic chemicals and fuels, and in
medications. Bromine gives off a red vapor that is extremely
irritating to the eyes and the respiratory tract. Liquid bromine causes serious skin burns. Compounds of bromine have
been used as sedatives, hypnotics, and analgesics and are
still used in some nonprescription, over-the-counter preparations. Prolonged use of these products may cause brominism, a toxic condition characterized by acneiform eruptions, headache, loss of libido, drowsiness, and fatigue. See
also bromide.
bromo-. See brom-.
bromocriptine mesylate /broВЇР€moВЇkripШ…teВЇn/, a dopamine
receptor agonist.
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в…ў INDICATIONS: It is prescribed for the treatment of amenorrhea and galactorrhea associated with hyperprolactinemia,
female infertility, and Parkinson’s disease.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Sensitivity to any ergot alkaloid prohibits its use. The drug was disqualified for use in suppressing postpartum lactation by the FDA in 1994 because of a
previously unrecognized increase in intracranial hemorrhages.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the more severe adverse reactions are palpitations, hypotension, bradycardia, hallucinations, syncope, nausea, ataxia, dyspnea, dysphagia, and
bromoderma /broВЇР€moВЇdurШ…mY/ [Gk, bromos, stench, derma
skin], an acneiform, bullous, or nodular skin rash occurring as a hypersensitivity reaction to ingested bromides.
brompheniramine maleate /bromР€fYnirШ…Ymin/, an antihistamine.
в…ў INDICATIONS: It is prescribed in the treatment of allergic reactions, including rhinitis, skin reactions, and itching.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Asthma or known hypersensitivity to
this drug prohibits its use. It is not given to newborns, lactating mothers, or other people for whom anticholinergic medications are contraindicated.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Drowsiness, skin rash, hypersensitivity
reactions, dry mouth, and tachycardia commonly occur.
Brompton’s cocktail, an analgesic solution containing alcohol, morphine or heroin, and, in some cases, a phenothiazine. Formulations vary, and recently cocaine has generally
been eliminated from the mixture. The cocktail is administered in the control of pain in the terminally ill patient. Given
frequently at the lowest effective dose, it may relieve pain
for many months. It was developed at the Brompton Hospital
in England. Also called Brompton’s mixture.
bronch-, broncho-, combining form meaning “bronchus”:
bronchiectasis, bronchodilation.
bronchi(o)-, prefix meaning relationship to a bronchus.
See also bronch(o)-.
bronchial /brongШ…keВЇВ·Yl/ [Gk, bronchos, windpipe], pertaining to the bronchi or bronchioles.
bronchial artery, the nutritive vascular system of the pulmonary tissues, originating from the thoracic aorta or one of
its branches. They interconnect within the lung with
branches of the pulmonary arteries and veins.
bronchial asthma. See asthma.
bronchial atresia, occlusion or obstruction of a lobar or
segmental bronchus, usually in the left upper lobe; the affected lung segment is often hyperinflated because of leakage of air through the alveolar pores.
bronchial breath sound [Gk, bronchos, windpipe],
a normal sound heard with a stethoscope over the main airways of the lungs, especially the trachea. Expiration and inspiration produce noise of equal loudness and duration,
sounding like blowing through a hollow tube. The expiratory
sound is heard during the greater part of expiration, whereas
the inspiratory sound stops abruptly at the height of inspiration, with a pause before the sound of expiration is heard.
Also called tracheal breath sound.
bronchial cast, a cylindrical solid or semisolid plug that
blocks a bronchus and is sometimes expectorated.
bronchial challenge, bronchial challenge test, a challenge test in which a nonspecific agent such as histamine or
methacholine is applied to the bronchi and they are assessed
for a bronchoconstriction reaction. Also called bronchial
provocation. See inhalational challenge.
bronchial cough, a cough associated with bronchiectasis
and heard in early stages as hacking and irritating, becoming
looser in later stages.
bronchial drainage. See postural drainage.
bronchial fremitus, a vibration that can be palpated on
the chest wall (usually the posterior thorax) over a bronchus.
It results from congestion by secretions that rattle as air
passes during respiration. See also fremitus.
bronchial hyperreactivity [Gk, bronchos П© hyper, excess;
L, re, again, agere, to act], an abnormal respiratory condition characterized by reflex bronchospasm in response to
histamine or a cholinergic drug, such as methacholine. It is a
universal feature of asthma and is used in the differential diagnosis of asthma and heart disease.
bronchial murmur, a murmur heard as a blowing sound,
caused by air flowing in and out of the bronchial tubes.
bronchial pneumonia. See bronchopneumonia.
bronchial provocation. See bronchial challenge.
bronchial secretion, a substance produced in the bronchial tree that consists of mucus secreted by the goblet cells
and mucous glands of the bronchi, protein salts released
from disintegrating cells, plasma fluid, and proteins, including fibrinogen, that have escaped from pulmonary capillaries.
bronchial spasm. See bronchospasm.
bronchial toilet, special care that is given to patients with
tracheostomies and respiratory disorders, including stimulation of coughing, deep breathing, and suctioning of the respiratory tract with a tracheobronchial aspiration pump.
bronchial tree, an anatomic complex of the trachea and
bronchi. The bronchi branch from the trachea. The right
bronchus is wider and shorter than the left bronchus and
branches into three secondary bronchi, one passing to each
of the three lobes of the right lung. The left bronchus is
smaller in diameter and about twice as long as the right bronchus. It is also more horizontal and more susceptible to obstruction. It branches into the secondary bronchi for the inferior and the superior lobes of the left lung. The bronchus is
sometimes described as a bronchial tube.
bronchial tube. See bronchus.
bronchial washing [Gk, bronchos, windpipe; ME, wasshen,
to wash], irrigation of the bronchi and bronchioles performed during bronchoscopy to cleanse the tubes and to collect specimens for laboratory examination.
bronchiectasis /brongР€keВЇВ·ekШ…tYsis/ [Gk, bronchos П© ektasis,
stretching], an abnormal condition of the bronchial tree
characterized by irreversible dilation and destruction of the
bronchial walls. The condition is sometimes congenital but
is more often a result of bronchial infection or of obstruction
by a tumor or an aspirated foreign body. Symptoms include a
constant cough producing copious purulent sputum; hemoptysis; chronic sinusitis; clubbing of fingers; and persistent
moist, coarse crackles. Some of the complications of bronchiectasis are pneumonia, lung abscess, empyema, brain abscess, and amyloidosis. Treatment includes frequent postural
drainage, expectorants, antibiotics, and, rarely, surgical resection of the affected part of the lungs.
в…ў OBSERVATIONS: The individual is often asymptomatic early
in the disease. A chronic cough with sputum production is
the most common presenting sign. Hemoptysis, recurrent
pneumonia, dyspnea, wheezing, and fatigue are also frequently seen. Fever, night sweats, weight loss, fetid breath,
and hemoptysis may also be present. Moist crackles in lung
bases may be heard on auscultation. Sputum appears purulent and foamy with sediment and has a large number of
WBCs. Sputum cultures and Gram’s stain are used to identify microorganisms. Chest x-rays reveal increased markings, honeycombing, and tram tracking. Pulmonary function
studies show a decrease in vital capacity and expiratory flow.
CT scans are used to detect cystic lesions and rule out neo-
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bronchioalveolar adenocarcinoma
plastic obstruction. Bronchography may be used when surgery is contemplated to visualize bronchiectatic areas.
Clubbed fingers, pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular
failure, and cor pulmonale are complications associated with
long-standing disease.
в…ў INTERVENTIONS: Acute treatment includes medications,
such as mucolytics to clear secretions; antibiotics to treat
bacterial infection; and bronchodilators to reduce dyspnea.
Chest physiotherapy, with postural drainage, is used to clear
secretions. Adequate hydration and a vaporizer help liquefy
secretions. Supplemental oxygen is administered for hypoxemia. Bronchial resection is used to treat confined disease,
which is unresponsive to conservative therapy.
в…ў NURSING CONSIDERATIONS: The focus of nursing care during
acute episodes is to promote airway clearance and effective
breathing patterns through respiratory monitoring, cough enhancement, anxiety reduction, and rest. Preventive and
chronic care focuses on avoidance of air pollution and contact with individuals with respiratory infections; prompt
identification and treatment of respiratory infection; maintenance of adequate nutrition and hydration; smoking cessation as applicable; and use of influenza and pneumonia vaccines for prophylaxis.
Bronchiectasis (Wilson and Giddens, 2005)
bronchioalveolar adenocarcinoma, bronchioalveolar
carcinoma. See bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.
bronchiolar. See bronchiole.
bronchiolar adenocarcinoma, carcinoma. See bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.
bronchiolar collapse /brongШ…kyYlYr/ [L, bronchiolus, little
windpipe, conlabi, to fall], a condition in which bronchioles, which are pliable and lack cartilaginous support, become compressed by surrounding structures in the absence
of inflowing air needed to keep them inflated. The condition
occurs in disorders such as emphysema, cystic fibrosis, and
bronchiole /brongШ…keВЇВ·oВЇl/ [L, bronchiolus, little windpipe],
a small airway of the respiratory system extending from
the bronchi into the lobes of the lung. There are two divisions of bronchioles: The terminal bronchioles passively
conduct inspired air from the bronchi to the respiratory bronchioles and expired air from the respiratory bronchioles to
the bronchi. The respiratory bronchioles function similarly,
allowing the exchange of air and waste gases between the alveolar ducts and the terminal bronchioles. —bronchiolar
/brongkeВЇР€YlYr/, adj.
(leading to pulmonary
veins and heart)
Arteriole (coming from
pulmonary artery)
Capillaries (carbon dioxide leaves; oxygen enters)
Bronchioles (Chabner, 2004)
bronchiolitis /brongР€keВЇВ·oВЇlД±ВЇШ…tis/ [L, bronchiolus, little windpipe; Gk, itis, inflammation], an acute viral infection of the
lower respiratory tract that occurs primarily in infants less
than 12 months of age. It begins as a mild upper respiratory
tract infection and over a period of 2 to 3 days develops into
more severe respiratory distress. It is characterized by expiratory wheezing, inflammation, and obstruction at the level
of the bronchioles. The most common causative agents are
the respiratory syncytial viruses (RSVs) and the parainfluenza viruses. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, rhinoviruses, enteroviruses, and measles virus are less common causative
agents. Transmission occurs by infection with airborne particles or by contact with infected secretions. The diagnosis
consists of evidence of hyperinflation of the lungs through
percussion or chest x-ray.
в…ў OBSERVATIONS: The condition typically begins as an upper
respiratory tract infection with serious nasal discharge and
often with low-grade fever. Increasing respiratory distress
follows, characterized by tachypnea, tachycardia, intercostal
and subcostal retractions, a paroxysmal cough, an expiratory
wheeze, and often an elevated temperature. The chest may
appear barrel-shaped; x-ray films show hyperinflated lungs
and a depressed diaphragm. Respiration becomes more shallow, causing increased alveolar oxygen tension and leading
to respiratory acidosis. Complete obstruction and absorption
of trapped air may lead to atelectasis and respiratory failure.
Blood gas determinations indicate the degree of carbon dioxide retention.
в…ў INTERVENTIONS: Routine treatment includes administering
humidity and mist, generally combined with oxygen; ensuring an adequate fluid intake, usually given intravenously because of tachypnea, weakness, and fatigue; suctioning the
airways to remove secretions; and promoting rest. Endotracheal intubation is indicated when carbon dioxide retention
occurs, when bronchial secretions do not loosen and clear, or
when oxygen therapy does not alleviate hypoxia. Such medications as antibiotics, bronchodilators, corticosteroids,
cough suppressants, and expectorants are not routinely used.
Ribavarin may be used when RSV is the causative agent but
is generally used only in the high-risk population. Sedatives
are contraindicated because of their suppressant effect on the
respiratory tract. The infection typically runs its course in 7
to 10 days, with good prognosis. A major complication is
bacterial infection, most commonly after prolonged use of a
mist tent. The disorder is often confused with asthma. A family history of allergy, the presence of other allergic manifes-
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 81 SESS: 55 OUTPUT: Fri Jun 13 09:07:36 2008
bronchiolitis obliterans
tations, and improvement with epinephrine injection are usually indicative of asthma, not bronchiolitis. Cystic fibrosis,
pertussis, the bronchopneumonias, and foreign body obstruction of the trachea are other disorders that may be confused with bronchiolitis.
в…ў NURSING CONSIDERATIONS: The focus of nursing care is to
promote rest and to conserve the child’s energy by reducing
anxiety and apprehension; to increase the ease of breathing
with humidity and oxygen as needed; to aid in changing position for comfort; and to induce drainage of secretions or to
suction when necessary. Fever is usually controlled by the
cool atmosphere of the mist tent and by administration of
antipyretics as needed. Frequent changing of clothing and
bed linen is often necessary in a mist environment to reduce
chilling. Vital signs and chest and breath sounds are continuously monitored to detect early signs of respiratory distress.
bronchiolitis obliterans, a form of bronchiolitis in which
the exudate is not expectorated but becomes organized and
obliterates the bronchial tubes, causing collapse of the affected part of the lungs.
bronchioloalveolar carcinoma /brongР€keВЇВ·oВЇР€loВЇВ·alВ·veВЇР€YВ·lYr/,
the less common variant of the two types of adenocarcinoma
of the lung, with columnar to cuboidal epithelial cells lining
the alveolar septa and projecting into alveolar spaces in
branching papillary formations. Also called alveolar
adenocarcinoma, alveolar carcinoma, alveolar cell
carcinoma, bronchioalveolar adenocarcinoma, bronchioalveolar carcinoma, bronchiolar adenocarcinoma,
bronchiolar carcinoma, bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma, bronchoalveolar carcinoma. See also adenocarcinoma of the lung. Compare bronchogenic adenocarcinoma.
bronchiospasm. See bronchospasm.
bronchitis /brongkД±ВЇШ…tis/ [Gk, bronchos, windpipe, itis, inflammation], acute or chronic inflammation of the mucous
membranes of the tracheobronchial tree. Caused by the
spread of upper respiratory viral or sometimes bacterial infections to the bronchi, it is often observed with or after
childhood infections, such as measles, whooping cough,
diphtheria, and typhoid fever. See also chronic bronchitis,
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory syncytial virus.
в…ў OBSERVATIONS: Acute bronchitis is frequently preceded
by an upper respiratory infection. The most common presenting sign is a dry, hacking cough that increasingly produces viscous mucus. Other symptoms include low-grade
fever, substernal pain, and fatigue. Rhonchi and occasional
wheezing may be heard when auscultating lungs. Diagnosis
is usually made from the type of cough and sputum. Chest
x-rays are taken to rule out other disorders. Arterial blood
gases are monitored when the underlying chronic disease is
present, and sputum is cultured for evidence of superimposed infection. Pneumonia is the most common complication. Acute respiratory failure occurs in some individuals
with underlying pulmonary disease. Chronic bronchitis
may be asymptomatic for years. A productive cough with copious mucopurulent sputum, peripheral cyanosis, and variable dyspnea are typical presenting signs. The cough becomes increasingly progressive and the sputum production
more copious. Wheezing, tachypnea, and tachycardia may
also be present. Several attacks per year are common. Chest
x-rays reveal cardiac enlargement, congested lung fields, and
thickened bronchial markings. Pulmonary function studies
show increased residual volume, and decreases in forced
vital capacity and forced expiratory volume. PaO2 is decreased and PaCO2 increased on arterial blood gas results.
Sputum cultures show presence of multiple microorganisms
bronchoalveolar lavage
and neutrophils. Cor pulmonale, pulmonary hypertension,
right ventricular hypertrophy, and respiratory failure are
common complications seen in chronic bronchitis.
в…ў INTERVENTIONS: Treatment for acute episodes include medications, such as inhaled bronchodilators for wheezing, expectorants for cough, and antipyretics for fever. Antiinfective drugs are used only with concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or a superimposed infection. Adequate hydration and a vaporizer help liquefy
secretions. Treatment for chronic bronchitis includes
antiinfective drugs for infection, bronchodilators to reduce
dyspnea, and corticosteroids to reduce inflammation. Chest
physiotherapy is used to loosen secretions. A vaporizer and
hydration help liquefy secretions. Oxygenation is used for
hypoxia. Health promotion in individuals with chronic disease include a consistent exercise program to improve ventilatory and cardiac function; smoking cessation programs
and use of flu and pneumonia vaccines for prophylaxis.
в…ў NURSING CONSIDERATIONS: The focus of nursing care during
acute episodes is supportive and includes rest, increased fluids, and steam vaporizer. Education plays a large role for
those suffering from chronic bronchitis and includes information on the disease process; instruction on medication administration (schedule and use of spacer), home use of oxygen, chest physiotherapy program, effective coughing,
exercise program, nutrition plan to decrease weight if indicated, smoking cessation if indicated, and proper use of respirators in work place if exposed to respiratory irritants. Importance of long-term and consistent follow-up should be
submucosal gland
Air tubes narrow as
a result of swollen
tissues and excessive
mucus production.
of epithelium
of alveoli
Chronic Bronchitis
Chronic bronchitis
(Thibodeau and Patton, 2007)
prefix meaning relationship to a bronchus. See
also bronchi(o)-.
bronchoalveolar /-alveВЇШ…YlYr/ [Gk, bronchos, windpipe; L,
alveolus, little hollow], pertaining to the terminal air sacs
at the ends of the bronchioles.
bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma, bronchoalveolar
carcinoma (BAC). See bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.
bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), a diagnostic procedure
in which small amounts of physiologic solution are injected
through a fiberoptic bronchoscope into a specific area of the
lung, while the rest of the lung is sequestered by an inflated
balloon. The fluid is then aspirated and inspected for pathogens, malignant cells, and mineral bodies.
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bronchoaortic constriction
bronchoaortic constriction,
thoracic constriction of
[Gk, bronchos, windpipe; L,
constringere, to draw tight], a narrowing of the lumen of
the bronchi, restricting airflow to and from the lungs.
bronchodilation /-diР€laВЇШ…shYn/ [Gk, bronchos, windpipe; L,
dilatare, to widen], a widening of the lumen of the bronchi, allowing increased airflow to and from the lungs.
bronchodilator /-dilaВЇШ…tYr/, a substance, especially a drug,
that relaxes contractions of the smooth muscle of the bronchioles to improve ventilation to the lungs. Pharmacologic
bronchodilators are prescribed to improve aeration in
asthma, bronchiectasis, bronchitis, and emphysema. Commonly used bronchodilators include albuterol, terbutaline,
and various derivatives and combinations of these drugs.
The adverse effects vary, depending on the particular class of
the bronchodilating drug. In general, bronchodilators are
given with caution to people with impaired cardiac function.
Nervousness, irritability, gastritis, or palpitations of the heart
may occur.
bronchofibroscopy, the visual examination of the tracheobronchial tree through a fiberoptic bronchoscope. It is
also used for diagnosing/treating hemoptysis. See also
fiberoptic bronchoscopy.
bronchogenic /-jenШ…ik/ [Gk, bronchos П© genein, to produce],
originating in the bronchi.
bronchogenic adenocarcinoma, the more common type
of adenocarcinoma of the lung. See also adenocarcinoma of
the lung. Compare bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.
bronchogenic carcinoma, one of the more than 90% of
malignant lung tumors that originate in bronchi. Lesions,
usually resulting from cigarette smoking, may cause coughing and wheezing, fatigue, chest tightness, and aching joints.
In the late stages, bloody sputum, clubbing of the fingers,
weight loss, and pleural effusion may be present. Diagnosis
is made by bronchoscopy, sputum cytologic examination,
lymph node biopsy, radioisotope scanning procedures, or exploratory surgery. Surgery is the most effective treatment,
but well over 50% of cases are unresectable when first detected. Palliative treatment includes radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
Bronchogenic carcinoma (Kumar et al, 2007)
bronchogenic cyst,
a cyst that develops in the lungs or
mediastinum. It may be asymptomatic or cause cough, stridor, wheezing, or dyspnea. It may also become infected or
malignant, requiring surgical removal.
bronchopulmonary hygiene
bronchogram /brongР€koВЇВ·gram/ [Gk, bronchos, windpipe П©
gramma, something drawn or written], the radiogram obtained by bronchography.
bronchography /brongkogШ…rYfeВЇ/, an x-ray examination of
the bronchi after they have been coated with a radiopaque
broncholithiasis /-lithД±ВЇШ…Ysis/, inflammation of the bronchi
caused by an accumulation of hard concretions or stones on
their lining.
bronchomediastinal trunk, one of the two lymphatic
vessels, right and left, that drain the lung and bronchi, mediastinal structures, and thoracic wall.
bronchomotor tone, the state of contraction or relaxation
of the smooth muscle in the bronchial walls that regulates
the caliber of the airways.
bronchophony /brongkofШ…YneВЇ/ [Gk, bronchos П© phone,
voice], an increase in the intensity and clarity of vocal
resonance that may result from an increase in lung tissue
density, such as in the consolidation of pneumonia. Assessed
by having the patient repeat a phrase such as 99 during auscultation.
bronchopleural fistula /-ploo
Л� rШ…Yl/, an abnormal passageway between a bronchus and the pleural cavity.
bronchopneumonia [Gk, bronchos П© pneumon, lung],
an acute inflammation of the lungs and bronchioles, characterized by chills, fever, high pulse and respiratory rates,
bronchial breathing, cough with purulent bloody sputum, severe chest pain, and abdominal distension. The disease is
usually a result of the spread of infection from the upper to
the lower respiratory tract, most common caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Staphylococcus pyogenes,
or Streptococcus pneumoniae. Atypical forms of bronchopneumonia may occur in viral and rickettsial infections. The
most common cause in infancy is the respiratory syncytial
virus. Bronchopneumonia may lead to pleural effusion, empyema, lung abscess, peripheral thrombophlebitis, respiratory failure, congestive heart failure, and jaundice. Treatment includes administration of an antibiotic, oxygen
therapy, supportive measures to keep the bronchi clear of secretions, and relief of pleural pain. Also called bronchial
pneumonia, catarrhal pneumonia. Compare aspiration
pneumonia, eosinophilic pneumonia, interstitial pneumonia. See also lobar pneumonia, respiratory syncytial
bronchoprovocation inhalation test, a pulmonary function test performed on patients with a history of asthma who
have normal pulmonary function at rest. In a specific test, the
patient inhales a particular antigen while the forced expiratory volume (FEV) is measured. In a nonspecific test, the patient inhales a substance such as histamine periodically at increasing concentrations while the FEV is measured.
bronchopulmonary /-pulШ…moВЇnerР€eВЇ/ [Gk, bronchos П© L,
pulmonis, lung], pertaining to the bronchi and the lungs.
bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) /-poo
Л� lШ…mYnerР€eВЇ/,
a chronic respiratory disorder characterized by scarring of
lung tissue, thickened pulmonary arterial walls, and mismatch between lung ventilation and perfusion. It often occurs in infants who have been dependent on long-term artificial ventilation.
bronchopulmonary hygiene, the care and cleanliness of
the respiratory tract and of ventilatory/respiratory therapy.
Hygienic care may include providing assistance with postural drainage and controlled coughing techniques, percussion, vibration, nasotracheal or endotracheal suctioning, and
rib shaking. Respiratory care equipment is a potential source
and reservoir of infectious organisms and must be cleaned
and sterilized periodically.
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bronchopulmonary lavage
bronchoscopy /brongkosШ…kYpeВЇ/,
the visual examination of
the tracheobronchial tree, using the standard rigid, tubular
metal bronchoscope or the narrower, flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope. The procedure also may be used for suctioning,
for obtaining a biopsy specimen and fluid or sputum for examination, for removing foreign bodies, and for diagnosing
such conditions as localized atelectasis, bronchial obstruction, lung abscess, and tracheal extubation. See also bronchial washing, bronchoscope.
To remote viewer
Open channel
Fiberoptic tube
connected to
cold light source
(Kumar, Abbas, and Fausto, 2005)
bronchopulmonary lavage [Gk, bronchos, windpipe; L,
pulmonis, lung; Fr, lavage, washing out], the irrigation or
washing out of the bronchi and bronchioles to remove pulmonary secretions.
bronchopulmonary segment, the area of lung supplied
by a segmental bronchus and its accompanying pulmonary
artery branch. Each segment is shaped like an irregular cone
with the apex at the origin of the segmental bronchus and the
base projected peripherally onto the surface of the lung.
bronchoscope /brongШ…kYskoВЇpР€/, a curved, flexible tube for
visual examination of the bronchi. It contains fibers that
carry light down the tube and project an enlarged image up
the tube to the viewer. The bronchoscope is used to examine
the bronchi, to secure a specimen for biopsy or culture, or to
aspirate secretions or a foreign body from the respiratory
tract. See also fiberoptic bronchoscopy. —bronchoscopic, adj.
Bronchoscopy (Elkin, Perry, and Potter, 2007)
bronchospasm /-spazР€Ym/,
Fiberoptic bronchoscope
(Lewis et al, 2007/Courtesy Olympus America, Inc.)
an excessive and prolonged
contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi and bronchioles, resulting in an acute narrowing and obstruction of
the respiratory airway. The contractions may be localized or
general and may be caused by irritation or injury to the respiratory mucosa, infections, or allergies. A cough with generalized wheezing usually indicates the condition. Bronchospasm is a chief characteristic of asthma. Treatment includes
the use of active bronchodilators, catecholamines, corticosteroids, or methylxanthines and preventive drugs such as
cromolyn sodium. Also called bronchial spasm, bronchiospasm. See also asthma, bronchitis.
bronchospirometry /-spД±ВЇromШ…YtreВЇ/, a technique for the
study of the ventilation and gas exchange of each lung separately by the introduction of a catheter into either the left or
the right mainstem bronchus. A double-lumen tube permits
simultaneous but separate sampling of the gas from both
bronchotomogram /-tomШ…Ygram/, an image of the respiratory system from the trachea to the lower bronchi produced
by tomography. The procedure is used to detect tumors or
other causes of obstruction of the respiratory tract.
bronchotracheal. See tracheobronchial.
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bronchovesicular /-vesikШ…yYlYr/,
pertaining to the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.
bronchovesicular sounds [Gk, bronchos, windpipe; L, vesicula, small bladder, sonus, sound], one of three normal
breath sounds that occur between the sounds of the bronchial
tubes and those of the alveoli, or a combination of the two
bronchus /brongШ…kYs/ pl. bronchi /-kД±ВЇ/ [L; Gk, bronchos,
windpipe], any one of several large air passages in the
lungs through which pass inhaled air and exhaled air. Each
bronchus has a wall consisting of three layers. The outermost
is made of dense fibrous tissue, reinforced with cartilage.
The middle layer is a network of smooth muscle. The innermost layer consists of ciliated mucous membrane. Kinds of
bronchi are lobar bronchus (secondary bronchus), primary bronchus, and segmental bronchus (tertiary bronchus). Also called bronchial tube. See also bronchiole.
—bronchial, adj.
Bronkodyl, trademark for a smooth muscle relaxant (theophylline).
Bronkosol, trademark for a bronchodilator (isoetharine
BrГёnsted acid [Johannes N. BrГёnsted, Danish physical
chemist, 1879–1947], a molecule or an ion that acts as a
hydrogen ion donor.
BrГёnsted base [Johannes N. BrГёnsted], a molecule or an
ion that acts as a hydrogen ion acceptor.
brontophobia. See tonitrophobia.
bronze diabetes. See exogenous hemochromatosis.
broth, 1. a fluid culture medium, such as a solution of lactose or thioglycollate, used to support the growth of bacteria
for laboratory analysis. 2. a beverage or other clear fluid
made with meat extract and water, such as chicken bouillon.
Brovana, a trademark for arformoterol.
brow, the forehead, particularly the eyebrow or ridge
above the eye.
brow lift, forehead lift. It is the removal or alteration of
muscles and tissues of forehead to raise the eyebrows and
minimize frown lines. Compare blepharoplasty.
brown fat [ME, broun П© AS, faett, filled], a type of fat
present in newborns and rarely found in adults. Brown fat is
a unique source of heat energy for the infant because it has
greater thermogenic activity than ordinary fat. Brown fat deposits occur around the kidneys, neck, and upper chest.
brownian motion /brouШ…nyYn/ [Robert Brown, Scottish
botanist, 1773–1858], a random movement of microscopic
particles suspended in a liquid or gas, such as the continuing
erratic behavior of dust particles in still water. The movement is produced by the natural kinetic activity of molecules
of the fluid that strike the foreign particles. Also called
brownian movement.
brownian movement. See brownian motion.
brown recluse spider, a small poisonous arachnid,
Loxosceles reclusa, also known as the brown or violin spider, found in both North and South America. The bite produces a characteristic necrotic lesion. The venom from its
bite usually creates a blister surrounded by concentric white
and red circles. This so-called bull’s-eye appearance is helpful in distinguishing it from other spider bites. There is little
or no initial pain, but localized pain develops in about an
hour. The patient may experience systemic symptoms; nausea, fever, and chills are common, but the reaction is usually
self-limited. Immediate treatment includes keeping the victim quiet and immobilizing the bite area at the level of the
heart. A bleb forms, sometimes in a target or bull’s-eye pattern. The blood-filled bleb increases in size and eventually
ruptures, leaving a black scar. Antivenin is not available in
the United States.
Brown recluse spider
(Auerbach, 2007/Courtesy Indiana University Medical Center)
Brown recluse spider bite after 48 hours
(Auerbach, 2007)
Brown-Se´quard’s syndrome /broun؅sa¯ka¨rz؅/ [Charles E.
Brown-Se´quard, French physiologist, 1817–1894], a traumatic neurologic disorder resulting from compression or
transection of one side of the spinal cord, above the tenth
thoracic vertebrae, characterized by spastic paralysis and
loss of postural sense (proprioception) on the body’s injured
side, and loss of the senses of pain and heat on the other side
of the body.
Brown-Se´quard’s treatment. See organotherapy.
brown spider. See brown recluse spider.
brow presentation, an obstetric situation in which the
brow, or forehead, of the fetus is the first part of the body to
enter the birth canal. Because the diameter of the fetal head
at this angle may be greater than that of the mother’s pelvic
outlet, a cesarean section may be recommended. However,
the fetus usually converts to a vertex presentation.
Brucella abortus. See abortus fever.
brucellosis /broo
¯¯¯¯ЈsYlo¯؅sis/ [David Bruce, English pathologist, 1855–1931], a disease caused by any of several species of the gram-negative coccobacillus Brucella: Brucella
melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, and B. canis, the latter of
which is very rare and causes only mild illness. Brucellosis
is most prevalent in rural areas among farmers, veterinarians, meat packers, slaughterhouse workers, and livestock
producers. Laboratory workers are also at risk. It is primarily
a disease of animals (including cattle, pigs, sheep, camels,
goats, and dogs); humans usually acquire it by ingestion of
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Bruch’s disease
contaminated milk or milk products or raw meat or marrow,
through a break in the skin, through contact with an infected
animal, or through inhalation of dust from contaminated soil.
It is characterized by fever, chills, sweating, malaise, and
weakness. The fever often occurs in waves, rising in the
evening and subsiding during the day, at intervals separated
by periods of remission. Other signs and symptoms may include anorexia and weight loss, headache, muscle and joint
pain, and an enlarged spleen, and orchiepididymitis in young
men. In some victims the disease is acute; more often it is
chronic, recurring over a period of months or years. Although brucellosis itself is rarely fatal, treatment is important
because serious complications such as pneumonia, endocarditis, meningitis, and encephalitis can develop. Tetracycline
plus streptomycin is the treatment of choice; bed rest is also
important. A vaccine is available outside the United States.
This organism is considered a potential agent of bioterrorism
due to its low infectious dose (10-100 organisms) and
method of infection by way of aerosol, allowing distribution
over a large area. Also called Cyprus fever, dust fever,
Gibraltar fever, Malta fever, Mediterranean fever, rock
fever, undulant fever. See also abortus fever.
Bruch’s disease. See Marseilles fever.
Brudzinski’s sign /broo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇdzinШ…skeВЇz/ [Josef Brudzinski, Polish
physician, 1874–1917], an involuntary flexion of the hip
and knee when the neck is passively flexed. It can occur in
patients with meningitis.
Brudzinski’s sign (Seidel et al, 2006)
Brueghel’s syndrome. See Meige’s syndrome (def. 1).
Brugia /brujР€Y/ [S.L. Brug, Dutch parasitologist in Indonesia,
1879–1946], a genus of nematodes of the superfamily Filarioidea that parasitize humans and other mammals. See
also filariasis.
bruise. See contusion, ecchymosis.
bruit /broo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇШ…eВЇ/ [Fr, noise], an abnormal blowing or swishing
sound or murmur heard while auscultating a carotid artery,
the aorta, an organ, or a gland, such as the liver or thyroid,
and resulting from blood flowing through a narrow or partially occluded artery. The specific character of the bruit, its
location, and the time of its occurrence in a cycle of other
sounds are all of diagnostic importance. Bruits are usually of
low frequency and are heard best with the bell of a stethoscope.
Brunnstrom hemiplegia classification, an evaluation
procedure that assesses muscle tone and voluntary control of
movement patterns in a stroke patient. Results indicate the
patient’s progress through stages of recovery.
brush biopsy, the use of a catheter with bristles that is inserted into the body to collect cells from tissues.
brush border, microvilli on the free surfaces of certain
bubonic plague
epithelial cells, particularly the absorptive surfaces of the intestine and the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney.
Brushfield’s spots [Thomas Brushfield, English physician,
1858–1937; ME, spotte, stain], pinpoint white or light yellow spots on the iris of a child with Down syndrome. Occasionally, they are seen in normal infants.
Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia [Ogden C. Bruton, American physician, b. 1908], a sex-linked, inherited condition
characterized by the absence of gamma globulin in the
blood. Those (usually children) affected by the syndrome are
deficient in antibodies and susceptible to repeated infections.
Compare agammaglobulinemia.
bruxism /brukШ…sizYm/ [Gk, brychein, to gnash the teeth],
the compulsive, unconscious grinding or clenching of the
teeth, especially during sleep or as a mechanism for releasing tension during periods of extreme stress in the waking
hours. Also called bruxomania. See also attrition.
bruxomania. See bruxism.
bry-, prefix meaning “tree moss”: bryocyte, bryocytole.
Bryant’s traction [Thomas Bryant, English physician,
1828–1914; L, trahere, to pull], an orthopedic mechanism
used to immobilize both lower extremities in the treatment
of a fractured femur or in the correction of a congenital hip
dislocation. The mechanism consists of a traction frame supporting weights, which are connected by ropes that run
through pulleys to traction foot plates. The traction pull elevates the lower extremities to a vertical position with the
patient supine, the trunk and the lower extremities forming a
right angle. The weight applied to the traction mechanism is
usually less than 35 pounds. Compare Buck’s traction.
BSA, 1. abbreviation for body surface area. See surface
area. 2. abbreviation for bovine serum albumin.
BSE, abbreviation for breast self-examination.
BSE, 1. abbreviation for breast self-examination. See
self-breast examination. 2. Abbreviation for bovine
spongiform encephalopathy.
BSN, abbreviation for Bachelor of Science in Nursing.
BSP, abbreviation for Bromsulphalein.
BT, abbreviation for bleeding time.
BTPD, abbreviation for body temperature, ambient
pressure, dry.
BTPS, abbreviation for body temperature, ambient pressure, saturated (with water vapor). See also volume BTPS.
BTU, abbreviation for British thermal unit.
buba. See yaws.
bubble-diffusion humidifier, a device that provides humidified oxygen or other therapeutic gases by allowing the
gas to bubble through a reservoir of water.
bubble goniometer, a device used for measuring joint
angles, consisting of a spirit level and a pendulum.
bubble oxygenator, a heart-lung device that oxygenates
the blood while it is diverted outside the patient’s body.
bubo /byoo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇШ…boВЇ/ pl. buboes [Gk, boubon, groin], a greatly
enlarged, tender, inflamed lymph node usually in the groin
that is associated with diseases such as chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and syphilis. Treatment includes
specific antibiotic therapy, application of moist heat, and
sometimes incision and drainage.
bubonic plague /byoo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇbonШ…ik/ [Gk, boubon, groin; L, plaga,
stroke], the most common form of plague. It is characterized by painful buboes in the axilla, groin, or neck; fever
often rising to 106В° F (41.11В° C); prostration with a rapid,
thready pulse; hypotension; delirium; and bleeding into the
skin from the superficial blood vessels. The symptoms are
caused by an endotoxin released by a bacillus, Yersinia pestis, usually introduced into the body by the bite of a rat flea
that has bitten an infected rat. Inoculation with plague vac-
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Bubble diffusion humidifiers
(Harkreader and Hogan, 2007/Courtesy Allied Health Care)
cine confers partial immunity; infection provides lifetime
immunity. Treatment includes antibiotics, supportive nursing
care, surgical drainage of buboes, isolation, and stringent
precautions against spread of the disease. Conditions favor a
plague epidemic when a large infected rodent population
lives with a large nonimmune human population in a damp,
warm climate. Improved sanitary conditions and eradication
of rats and other rodent reservoirs of Y. pestis may prevent
outbreaks of the disease. Killing the infected rodents, which
may include ground squirrels and rabbits, and not the fleas
allows a continued threat of human infection. It is a possible
agent of bioterrorism if the bacilli are aerosolized and has
the highest potential for negative public health. Also called
(informal) black death, black plague. Compare pneumonic
plague, septicemic plague. See also bubo, plague, Yersinia
bucardia /boo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇkaВЁrШ…deВЇВ·Y/, extreme enlargement of the heart.
bucca-. See bucco-.
buccal /bukШ…Yl/ pl. bucca [L, bucca, cheek], pertaining to
the inside of the cheek, the surface of a tooth, or the gum beside the cheek.
buccal administration of medication, oral administration of a drug, usually in the form of a tablet, by placing it
between the cheek and the teeth or gum until it dissolves.
buccal artery, a branch of the maxillary artery that supplies the buccinator muscle, the skin, and mucous membrane
of the cheek. See also buccinator.
buccal bar, a portion of an orthodontic appliance consisting of a rigid metal wire that extends anteriorly from the
buccal side of a molar band. See also arch bar, labial bar,
lingual bar.
buccal cavity, the vestibule of the mouth, specifically the
area lying between the teeth and cheeks.
buccal contour [L, bucca П© cum, together with, tornare, to
turn], the shape of the buccal side of a posterior tooth. It is
usually characterized by a slight occlusocervical convexity
that has its largest prominence at the gingival third of the
clinical buccal surface.
buccal fat pad, a fat pad in the cheek under the subcutaneous layer of the skin, over the buccinator. It is particularly
prominent in infants and is often called a sucking pad.
buccal fentanyl, an opioid analgesic.
в…ў INDICATIONS: This drug is used to treat breakthrough pain
in cancer patients who are taking regularly scheduled doses
of another opiate pain medication and who are tolerant to
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Known intolerance or hypersensitivity to this drug or its components prohibits its use. This drug
must not be used in the management of acute or postoperative pain.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Adverse effects of this drug include dizziness, delirium, euphoria, lightheadedness, sedation, dysphoria, agitation, anxiety, confusion, headache, depression,
bradycardia, hypotension, hypertension, facial flushing,
chills, chest pain, dysrhythmias, blurred vision, miosis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cramps, anorexia, constipation, dyspepsia, urinary retention, urgency, dysuria, frequency, oliguria, sweating, pruritus, rash, erythema, papules, asthenia,
depressed cough, hypoventilation, dyspnea, hiccups, and
apnea. Life-threatening side effects include cardiac arrest,
respiratory depression, laryngospasm, and bronchospasm.
buccal flange [L, bucca П© OFr, flanche, flank], the portion
of a denture base that occupies the cheek side of the mouth
and extends distally from the buccal notch. Compare labial
flange, lingual flange. See also flange.
buccal frenum, a fold or band of mucous membrane connecting the alveolar ridge to the cheek and separating the labial vestibule from the buccal vestibule.
buccal glands [L, bucca, cheek, glans, acorn], small salivary glands located between the buccinator muscle and the
mucous membranes in the vestibule of the mouth.
buccal mucosa, the mucous membranes lining the inside
of the mouth.
buccal nerve, a branch of the anterior trunk of the mandibular nerve that supplies general sensory nerves to the skin
of the cheek, oral mucosa, and buccal gingivae of the lower
molars. It may also carry the motor innervations to the lateral
pterygoid muscle and to part of the temporalis muscle.
buccal notch, a depression in a denture flange that accommodates the buccal frenum. See also labial notch.
buccal smear, a sample of cells removed from the buccal
mucosa for purposes of obtaining a karyotype to determine
the genetic sex of an individual.
buccal splint, material, usually plaster, that is placed on
the buccal surfaces of fixed partial denture units to hold the
units in position for assembly.
buccal vestibule, that portion of the vestibule of the
mouth that lies between the cheeks and the teeth and gingivae or residual alveolar ridges.
bucci-. See bucco-.
buccinator /bukШ…sinaВЇР€tYr/ [L, buccina, trumpet], the main
muscle of the cheek, one of the 12 muscles of the mouth. It
is pierced by the duct of the parotid gland opposite the second molar tooth. The buccinator, innervated by buccal
branches of the facial nerve, compresses the cheek, acting as
an important accessory muscle of mastication by holding
food under the teeth.
bucco-, bucc-, bucca-, bucci-, combining form meaning
“cheek”: buccodistal, buccal, buccinator.
buccoclusion /bukР€YВ·kloo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇР€zhYn/ [L, bucca, cheek П©
occludere, to close up], a malocclusion in which the dental
arch or the quadrant of a dental arch or group of teeth is positioned closer to the cheek than normal.
buccogingival /bukР€oВЇjinjД±ВЇШ…vYl/, pertaining to the internal
mouth structures, particularly the cheeks and gums.
buccolinguomasticatory triad /bukЈo¯lingЈwo¯mas؅tYkYtoˆrЈe/ [L, bucca, cheek, lingua, tongue, masticare, to gnash
the teeth], a complex of involuntary lip, tongue, jaw, and
head movements seen in tardive dyskinesia.
buccopharyngeal /bukР€oВЇfYrinШ…jeВЇВ·Yl/, pertaining to the
cheek and the pharynx or to the mouth and the pharynx.
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buccopharyngeal fascia
duct (cut)
Buccinator muscle
Pterygomandibular raphe
Superior pharyngeal
constrictor muscle
buddy splint
in patients with hip fractures until reduction of the hip can be
performed. This type of traction may be unilateral, involving
one leg, or bilateral, involving both legs.
Buck’s traction [Gurdon Buck; L, trahere, to pull],
one of the most common orthopedic mechanisms by which
pull is exerted on the lower extremity with a system of ropes,
weights, and pulleys. Buck’s traction, which may be unilateral or bilateral, is used to immobilize, position, and align
the lower extremity in the treatment of contractures and diseases of the hip and knee. The mechanism commonly consists of a metal bar extending from a frame at the foot of the
patient’s bed, supporting traction weights connected by a
rope passing through a pulley to a cast or a splint around the
affected body structure. Compare Bryant’s traction.
buckwheat allergy, an allergic reaction to buckwheat
Fagopyrum esculentum, characterized primarily by photosensitivity. It is seen in susceptible humans who eat grain
and in ruminants that eat excessive numbers of buckwheat
plants. Also called fagopyrism.
Bucky diaphragm [Gustav P. Bucky, American radiologist,
1880–1963; Gk, diaphragma, partition], a moving grid
that limits the amount of scattered radiation reaching a radiographic film, thereby increasing the film contrast. Also
called Bucky grid.
buclizine hydrochloride /boo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇШ…klYzeВЇn/, an antiemetic/
antivertigo drug derived from piperazine that has anticholinergic and antihistaminic properties. It is used to treat nausea,
vomiting, and dizziness of motion sickness.
bud [ME, budde], any small outgrowth that is the beginning stage of a living structure, as a limb bud from which an
upper or lower limb develops.
Budd-Chiari syndrome /bud؅ke¯·a¨r؅e¯/ [George Budd, English physician, 1808–1882; Hans Chiari, Czech-French pathologist, 1851–1916], a disorder of hepatic circulation,
marked by occlusion of the hepatic veins, that leads to liver
enlargement, ascites, extensive development of collateral
vessels, and severe portal hypertension. It may be congenital. Also called Chiari’s syndrome, Rokitansky’s disease.
Buccinator (Drake, Vogl, and Mitchell, 2005)
buccopharyngeal fascia,
a thin layer of fascia that coats
the outside of the muscular part of the pharyngeal wall.
buccopharyngeal membrane. See pharyngeal membrane.
buccula /bukШ…yYlY/ [L, bucca, cheek], a fold of fatty tissue,
literally a “little cheek” beneath the chin. Also called double chin.
bucket handle fracture [OFr, buket, tub; ME, handel, part
grasped; L, fractura, break], a fracture that produces a tear
in a semilunar cartilage along the medial side of the knee
bucking informal. 1. gagging, coughing. 2. involuntarily
resisting positive pressure ventilation in a patient with an endotracheal tube in place.
buck knife, a periodontal surgical knife with a spearshaped cutting point, used to make an interdental incision associated with a gingivectomy.
Buck’s fascia [Gurdon Buck, American surgeon, 1807–
1877], the deep fascia encasing the erectile tissue of the
Buck’s skin traction [Gurdon Buck], an orthopedic procedure that applies traction to the lower extremity with the
hips and the knees extended. It is used in the treatment of hip
and knee contractures, in postoperative positioning and immobilization, and in disease processes of the hip and the
knee. It is also used to maintain alignment of the hip and leg
Budd-Chiari syndrome (Kumar et al, 2007)
budding [ME, budde],
a type of asexual reproduction in
which an organism produces a budlike projection containing
chromatin that eventually detaches and develops into an independent organism. It is common in simple organisms, such
as sponges, yeasts, and molds.
buddy splint, a splinting technique commonly used after a
finger or toe injury requiring immobilization. The injured
and an adjacent digit are typically taped together to limit the
range of motion of the affected digit. Also called buddy tape.
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buddy tape
Budding (Forbes, Sahm, and Weissfeld, 2007)
buddy tape.
See buddy splint.
a nasal corticosteroid antiinflammatory agent.
It is available under the brand name Pulmicort as a
turboinhaler (used in the mouth) and for use in nebulizers.
в…ў INDICATIONS: It is prescribed in the management of symptoms of seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis or perennial
nonallergic rhinitis. Neublizer solutions are used for the
treatment of asthma in children.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: The drug should not be given to patients who have an allergic reaction to the drug or to any of
its components or to patients with an untreated infection of
the mucous membranes.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: The side effects most often reported include nasal or throat irritation, stinging, burning, or dryness
in the respiratory system, nosebleeds, sneezing, and congestion.
Buerger’s disease. See thromboangiitis obliterans.
Buerger’s postural exercises [Leo Buerger, American physician, 1879–1943; L, ponere, to place, exercere, to continue
working], exercises designed to maintain circulation in
a limb.
buffalo hump, an accumulation of fat on the back of the
neck associated with the prolonged use of large doses of glucocorticoids or the hypersecretion of cortisol caused by
Cushing’s syndrome.
to the system and releasing hydrogen ions to a base added to
the system. Buffers minimize significant changes of pH in a
chemical system. Among the functions carried out by buffer
systems in the body is maintenance of the acid-base balance
of the blood and of the proper pH in kidney tubules. See also
blood buffers, pH.
buffer anions, the negatively charged bicarbonate, protein, and phosphate ions that comprise the buffer systems of
the body.
buffer cations, the positively charged ions associated with
the buffering anions of the body’s electrolytes, mainly protein cations.
buffered insulin human, human insulin buffered with
phosphate. It is used particularly in continuous infusion
pumps but is also administered subcutaneously, intramuscularly, or intravenously.
buffer solution [ME, buffet П© L, solutus, dissolved],
a solution that will minimize changes in pH value despite dilution or addition of a small amount of base or acid.
buffy coat [ME, buffet П© Fr, cote], a grayish white layer of
white blood cells and platelets that accumulates on the surface of sedimented erythrocytes when blood is allowed to
stand or is centrifuged.
buffy coat transfusion, light stratum of a blood clot seen
when the blood is centrifuged or allowed to stand in a test
tube. See also granulocyte transfusion.
bug, an error in a computer program (software bug) or a
design flaw in computer hardware (hardware bug), usually
resulting in an inability to process data correctly.
bulb [L, bulbus, swollen root], any rounded structure, such
as the eyeball, hair roots, and certain sensory nerve endings.
bulbar /bulШ…bYr/ [L, bulbus], 1. pertaining to a bulb.
2. pertaining to the medulla oblongata of the brain and the
cranial nerves.
bulbar ataxia [L, bulbus, swollen root; Gk, ataxia, without
order], a loss of motor coordination caused by a lesion in
the medulla oblongata or pons.
bulbar conjunctiva. See conjunctiva.
bulbar myelitis [L, bulbus, swollen root; Gk, myelos, marrow, itis, inflammation], an inflammation of the central
nervous system involving the medulla oblongata.
bulbar palsy [L, bulbus, swollen root; Gk, paralyein, to be
palsied], a form of paralysis resulting from a defect in the
motor centers of the medulla oblongata. See also bulbar
bulbar paralysis, a degenerative neurologic condition
characterized by progressive paralysis of cranial nerves and
involving the lips, tongue, mouth, pharynx, and larynx. The
condition occurs most commonly in people over 50 years of
age, in multiple sclerosis, and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
bulbar poliomyelitis [L, bulbus, swollen root; Gk, polios,
gray, myelos, marrow, itis, inflammation], a form of poliomyelitis that involves the medulla oblongata and gradually
progresses to bulbar paralysis, with respiratory and circulatory failure.
bulbiform /bul؅bifoˆrm/, shaped like a bulb.
bulbocavernosus /bulР€boВЇkavР€YrnoВЇШ…sYs/ [L, bulbus, swollen
root, cavernosum, full of hollows]. See bulbospongiosus.
Buffalo hump (Zitelli and Davis, 2007)
buffer [ME, buffe, to cushion],
a substance or group of substances that tends to control the hydrogen ion concentration
in a solution by reacting with hydrogen ions of an acid added
the contraction of the bulbospongiosus muscle when the dorsum of the penis is tapped or the glans penis is compressed.
Also called penile reflex.
bulbospongiosus, a muscle that covers the bulb of the
penis in the male and the bulbus vestibuli in the female. Also
called accelerator urinae, ejaculator urinae. Formerly
called bulbocavernosus.
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bulbourethral gland
bulbourethral gland /-yoo
one of two small
glands located on each side of the prostate, draining to the
wall of the urethra. Bulbourethral glands secrete a fluid component of the seminal fluid. Also called Cowper’s gland.
bulbous [L, bulbus, swollen root], pertaining to a structure
that resembles a bulb or that originates in a bulb.
bulb syringe, a device with a flexible bulb that replaces
the plunger for instillation or aspiration. Bulb syringes can
be used to irrigate an external orifice, such as the auditory
canal. See also syringe.
bulbus oculi. See eye.
-bulia, -boulia, suffix meaning “(condition of the) will”:
abulia, hyperbulia.
bulimia /boo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇlimШ…eВЇВ·Y/ [Gk, bous, ox, limos, hunger], a disorder characterized by an insatiable craving for food, often
resulting in episodes of continuous eating and often followed
by purging, depression, and self-deprivation. Also called
binge eating. See also anorexia nervosa.
bulimic /boo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇlimШ…ik/, pertaining to bulimia.
bulk. See dietary fiber.
bulk cathartic [ME, bulke, heap; Gk, kathartikos, evacuation of bowels], a cathartic (laxative) that acts by softening
and increasing the mass of fecal material in the bowel. Bulk
cathartics contain a hydrophilic agent such as methylcellulose or psyllium seed.
bulla /boo
Л� lШ…Y, bulШ…Y/ pl. bullae [L, bubble], a thin-walled
blister of the skin or mucous membranes greater than 1 cm in
diameter containing clear, serous fluid. Compare vesical.
—bullous, adj.
bundle branch
painful fluid-filled vesicles on the tympanic membrane and
the sudden onset of severe pain in the ear. The condition
often occurs with bacterial otitis media. Treatment includes
administration of antibiotics and analgesics and surgical
draining of the vesicles. See also otitis media.
Bullous myringitis (Swartz, 2006)
bullous pemphigoid [L, bulla, bubble; Gk, pemphix,
bubble, eidos, form], a rare, relatively benign subepidermal autoimmune blistering disease of the elderly. It is of unknown origin.
Bulla (du Vivier, 1993)
Bullous pemphigoid (Callen et al, 2000)
bulldog forceps,
short spring forceps for clamping an artery or vein for hemostasis. The jaws may be padded to prevent injury to vascular tissue.
bullet forceps, a kind of forceps that has thin, curved, serrated blades that are designed for extracting a foreign object,
such as a bullet, from the base of a puncture wound.
bullous. See bulla.
bullous disease /boo
Л� lШ…Ys/, any disease marked by eruptions
of blisters, or bullae, filled with fluid, on the skin or mucous
membranes. An example is pemphigus.
bullous emphysema, single or multiple large cystic alveolar dilations of lung tissue. Also called cystic
bullous impetigo, a form of impetigo in which the skin lesions are bullae instead of vesicles. The crusts are thin and
greenish yellow. Infection is treated with oral antistaphylococcal antibiotics.
bullous myringitis [L, bulla П© myringa, eardrum],
an inflammatory condition of the eardrum, characterized by
bullseye rash. See erythema migrans.
bumetanide /boo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇmetР€YnД±ВЇd/, a loop (high ceiling) diuretic
related to furosemide.
в…ў INDICATIONS: It is prescribed for edema caused by cardiac,
hepatic, or renal disease.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Anuria, electrolyte depletion, or
known sensitivity to this drug prohibits its use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the most serious adverse reactions are hypokalemia, hyperuricemia, and azotemia.
Bumex, trademark for a diuretic (bumetanide).
Buminate, trademark for a blood volume expander
(human albumin).
BUN, abbreviation for blood urea nitrogen.
-bund, suffix meaning “prone to” something specified:
bundle, a group of nerve fibers or other threadlike structures running in the same direction. See also fasciculus.
bundle branch [Dan, bondel П© Fr, branche], a segment of
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bundle branch block
the network of specialized conducting fibers that transmits
electrical impulses within the ventricles of the heart. Bundle
branches are a continuation of the atrioventricular (AV)
bundle, which extends from the upper part of the intraventricular septum. The AV bundle divides into a left and a right
branch, each going to its respective ventricle by passing
down the septum and beneath the endocardium. Within the
ventricles the bundle branches subdivide and terminate in
the Purkinje fibers.
bundle branch block (BBB), an inability of cardiac impulses to be conducted down the bundle branches, causing a
broad and abnormally shaped QRS complex. BBB is commonly seen in high-risk, acute, anterior wall myocardial infarction. It may be caused by ischemia or necrosis of the
bundle branches, trauma (as in surgical manipulation), or
mechanical compression of the branches by a tumor. A pacemaker may be inserted if further deterioration of conduction
is anticipated. See also left bundle branch block, right
bundle branch block.
bundle of His. See atrioventricular (AV) bundle.
bunion /bunШ…yYn/ [Gk, bounion, turnip], an abnormal, medial enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe. It is
caused by inflammation of the bursa, usually as a result of
heredity, degenerative joint disease, or chronic irritation and
pressure from poorly fitted shoes. It is characterized by soreness, swelling, thickening of the skin, and lateral displacement of the great toe.
Bunion (du Vivier, 1993)
bunionectomy /bunР€yYnekШ…tYmeВЇ/, excision of a bunion.
bunionette /bunР€yYnetШ…/, an abnormal enlargement and inflammation of the joint at the base of the small toe. Also
called tailor’s bunion.
Bunnell block, trademark for a small wooden block used
in exercise of the fingers after surgery. The exercises with the
block allow each joint to be exercised individually with full
tendon excursion while the other joints are held extended.
Bunsen burner /boo
Л� nШ…sYn, bunШ…sYn/ [Robert E.W. Bunsen,
German chemist, 1811–1899], a standard laboratory gas
burner designed to produce nearly complete combustion in a
smokeless flame.
Bunyamwera virus infection /bunР€yYmwirШ…Y/ [Bunyamwera, town in Uganda where the type species was isolated], one of a group of arthropod-borne viruses of the
genus Bunyavirus, composed of over 150 virus types in the
family Bunyaviridae, that infect humans and are carried by
mosquitoes from rodent hosts. Related viruses cause California encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, and other diseases characterized by headache, weakness, low-grade fever, myalgia,
and a rash. Convalescence is prolonged. Outbreaks have occurred in North America, South America, Africa, and Europe.
buoyant density,
the thickness or compactness of a substance that allows it to float in a standard fluid.
buphthalmos. See congenital glaucoma.
bupivacaine hydrochloride /byoo
Л� pivШ…YkaВЇn/, a local anesthetic.
в…ў INDICATIONS: It is prescribed for caudal, epidural, peripheral, or sympathetic anesthetic block.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Known hypersensitivity to this drug
or to any of the amide class of local anesthetics prohibits
its use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the more serious adverse reactions are central nervous system disturbances, cardiovascular
depression, respiratory arrest, cardiac arrest, and hypersensitivity reactions.
Buprenex, trademark for a parenteral analgesic (buprenorphine hydrochloride).
buprenorphine /bu؅pre�-norЈfe¯n/, a synthetic opioid
agonist-antagonist derived from thebaine, used in the form
of the hydrochloride salt as an analgesic for moderate to severe pain and as an anesthesia adjunct. Administered sublingually or by intramuscular or IV injection.
в…ў INDICATIONS: It is administered parenterally for the relief
of moderate to severe pain and is used in tablet form to treat
opioid dependence.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATION: This Schedule V controlled substance
is contraindicated for patients who may be opioid dependent.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the reported adverse effects are
respiratory depression, sedation, nausea, dizziness, vertigo,
headache, vomiting, miosis, diaphoresis, and hypotension.
buPROPion /boo
Л� proВЇШ…peВЇВ·on/, a heterocyclic moodelevating drug used to treat some types of depression (trademark: Wellbutrin) and also to promote smoking cessation
(trademark: Zyban).
bur. See burr.
Burch procedure /berch/, a type of bladder neck suspension for stress incontinence, consisting of fixation of the lateral vaginal fornices to the iliopectineal ligaments.
burden, 1. load. 2. a heavy, oppressive load, as a disabling clinical load.
burdock root, a perennial herb found in the United States,
China, and Europe.
в…ў USES: This herb is used for skin diseases, inflammation,
rashes, colds and fever, cancer, gout, and arthritis; insufficient data to know if it is effective.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Burdock is probably safe except in
those who are hypersensitive to this plant. Burdock also
should be used cautiously in people with diabetes or cardiac
Bureau of Medical Devices (BMD). See National Center for Devices and Radiological Health.
buret, burette /byoo
Л� retШ…/ [Fr, small jug], a laboratory utensil used to deliver a wide range of volumes accurately.
buried penis, concealed penis.
buried suture [L, sutura], a suture, often absorbable, that
is inserted to draw together soft tissues between the viscus
and the skin.
Burke, Mary Lermann, a nursing theorist who, with
Georgene Gaskill Eakes and Margaret A. Hainsworth, developed the Theory of Chronic Sorrow to describe the ongoing feelings of loss that arise from illness, debilitation, or
Burkholderia /bYrkР€holdeВЇrШ…eВЇY/, a genus of gram-negative,
aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that includes several species
formerly classified in the genus Pseudomonas, including the
agents of glanders and melioidosis. The bacteria are both
human and plant pathogens. Their role in the biodegradation
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Burkholderia cepacia
burning mouth syndrome
of polychlorinated biphenols also makes them important environmental bacteria.
Burkholderia cepacia, formerly Pseudomonas cepacia. A
group of bacteria found in the environment that is often resistant to common antibiotics. Immunocompromised persons or those with chronic lung disease, especially cystic fibrosis, are susceptible to infection. In patients without cystic
fibrosis, B. cepacia infections are almost all nosocomial or
related to IV drug abuse. Outbreaks have been related to
intra-aortic balloon pumps, contaminated water sources, respiratory therapy equipment such as reusable electronic ventilator probes or contaminated disinfectants. A variety of approaches including strict segregation of cystic fibrosis
patients based on the presence of this organism have been
tried in order to reduce nosocomial transmission. Even a
single significant nosocomial infection with B. cepacia may
warrant investigation.
Burkholderia mallei, a nonmotile species that causes
glanders. It is primarily a disease of horses, mules, and donkeys but may also infect humans and other animals. It is a
potential agent for bioterrorism.
Burkholderia pickettii, formerly called Pseudomonas
pickettii. B. pickettii has been responsible for epidemics of
bloodstream infections associated with contaminated distilled or sterile water.
Burkholderia pseudomallei, a species that inhabits water
and soil and causes melioidosis. Infection is spread via contact with a contaminated source and is a predominant disease
of tropical climates. The species is a potential agent for bioterrorism. See also melioidosis.
Burkitt’s lymphoma /bur؅kits/ [Denis P. Burkitt, English
surgeon in Africa, b. 1911], a malignant neoplasm composed of undifferentiated lymphoreticular cells that form a
large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or, in children, an abdominal mass. The tumor, which is seen chiefly in Central Africa,
is characteristically a gray-white mass sometimes containing areas of hemorrhage and necrosis. Central nervous system involvement often occurs, and other organs may be affected. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a herpesvirus, is associated with this lymphoma. Chemotherapy can often cure
the disease. Also called African lymphoma, Burkitt’s
burn [AS, baernan], any injury to tissues of the body
caused by hot objects or flames, electricity, chemicals, radiation, or gases in which the extent of the injury is determined
by the nature of the agent, length of time exposed, body part
involved, and depth of burn. The treatment of burns includes
pain relief, careful asepsis, prevention of infection, regulation of body temperature, maintenance of the balance in the
body of fluids and electrolytes, and good nutrition. First priority with burns of the airway is airway control. Severe
burns of any origin may cause shock, which is treated before
the wound. Burns are sometimes classified as first, second,
third, and fourth degree. First-degree burns involve only a
superficial layer of epidermal cells. Second-degree burns
may be divided into superficial partial-thickness and deep
partial-thickness wounds. Damage in second-degree burns
extends through the epidermis to the dermis but is usually
not sufficient to prevent skin regeneration. In third-degree
burns the entire thickness of the epidermis and dermis is destroyed. Fourth-degree burns are full-thickness injuries that
penetrate the subcutaneous tissue, muscle, and periosteum or
bone. See also chemical burn, electrocution, thermal
burn center, a health care facility that is designed to care
for patients who have been severely burned. A number of
burn centers has been established throughout the United
States and Canada to provide sophisticated advanced techniques of care for burn victims.
burner syndrome, a condition of burning pain, especially
in the upper extremities, and sometimes accompanied by
shoulder girdle weakness. It may be experienced during contact sports, such as football, as a result of a blow to the head
or shoulder. It is attributed to an upper trunk neuropathy of
the brachial plexus.
Burnett’s syndrome. See milk-alkali syndrome.
burn healing, a nursing outcome from the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) defined as the extent of healing
of a burn site. See also Nursing Outcomes Classification.
burning drops sign, a sensation of hot liquid dripping
into the abdominal cavity caused by a perforated stomach
burning feet syndrome, a neurologic disorder characterized by symptoms of a burning sensation in the sole of the
foot. The burning tends to be more intense at night and may
also involve the hands. Possible causes include causalgia
from injury to the sciatic nerve, degeneration of the spinal
cord, and polyneuropathy. The condition is also associated
with diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, and a B vitamin deficiency. Also known as Gopalan’s syndrome.
burning mouth syndrome, a burning sensation in the
mouth that is often associated with menopause.
First-degree burn (Sanders et al, 2007)
First-degree burn: damaged epidermis and edema
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burning pain
burning pain
Superficial partial-thickness second-degree burn
(Sanders et al, 2007/Courtesy St. John’s Mercy Medical Center)
Superficial partial-thickness second-degree burn
Deep partial-thickness second-degree burn
(Sanders et al, 2007/Courtesy St. John’s Mercy Medical Center)
Deep partial-thickness second-degree burn
Third-degree burn
(Sanders et al, 2007/Courtesy St. John’s Mercy Medical Center)
Third-degree burn
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burning pain
burning pain [AS, baernan, to burn; L, poena, penalty],
the pain experienced as a result of a thermal burn. The term
is also used sometimes to describe heartburn or myocardial pain.
burnisher /burШ…nishYr/ [ME, burnischen, to make brown],
a dental instrument shaped with rounded smooth edges of
the nib, used to closely adapt, polish, or work-harden a metallic material to an underlying object, usually the margin of
a gold restoration.
burnishing /burР€nishВ·ing/ [ME, burnischen, to make brown],
1. (in dentistry) the process of adapting, polishing, and/or
work-hardening a metal restoration under the sliding pressure of a smooth hard instrument, as in finishing the surface
of a gold filling. 2. (in dentistry) smoothing and adapting the
margins of a thin, annealed sheet of platinum to form a band
about a tooth as a matrix for a porcelain restoration.
burnout, a popular term for a mental or physical energy
depletion after a period of chronic, unrelieved job-related
stress characterized sometimes by physical illness. The person suffering from burnout may lose concern or respect for
other people and often has cynical, dehumanized perceptions
of people, labeling them in a derogatory manner. Causes of
burnout peculiar to the nursing profession often include
stressful, even dangerous, work environments; lack of support; lack of respectful relationships within the health care
team; low pay scales compared with physicians’ salaries;
shift changes and long work hours; understaffing of hospitals; pressure from the responsibility of providing continuous high levels of care over long periods; and frustration and
disillusionment resulting from the difference between job realities and job expectations.
burn recovery, a nursing outcome from the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) defined as the extent of overall
physical and psychological healing following major burn injury. See also Nursing Outcomes Classification.
burn therapy, the management of a patient burned by
flames, hot liquids, explosives, chemicals, or electric current.
Partial-thickness burns may be first degree, involving only
the epidermis, or second degree, involving the epidermis and
dermis, whereas full-thickness or third-degree burns involve
all skin layers. Second-degree burns covering more than
30% of the body and third-degree burns on the face and extremities, or more than 10% of the body surface, are critical.
In the first 48 hours of a severe burn, vascular fluid, sodium
chloride, and protein rapidly pass into the affected area,
causing local edema, blister formation, hypovolemia, hypoproteinemia, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypotension, and
oliguria. The initial hypovolemic stage is followed by a shift
of fluid in the opposite direction, resulting in diuresis, increased blood volume, and decreased serum electrolyte
level. Potential complications in serious burns include circulatory collapse, renal damage, gastric atony, paralytic ileus,
infections, septic shock, pneumonia, and stress ulcer (Curling’s ulcer), characterized by hematemesis and peritonitis.
Ⅲ METHOD: The extent of the burn; its cause; its time of occurrence; and the patient’s age, weight, allergies, and any
preexisting illness are recorded. If respiratory distress is
present, endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy may be
performed. Specimens are obtained for urinalysis; blood
type; blood urea nitrogen level; hematocrit; prothrombin
time; electrolyte levels; blood gases; and cultures of nasal,
throat, wound, and stool organisms. Parenteral fluids and
electrolytes, antibiotics, tetanus prophylaxis, and pain medication are administered as ordered; large doses of analgesics
and sedatives are avoided when possible to prevent depression of respiration and masking of symptoms. An indwelling
urinary catheter is inserted, and a nasogastric tube and cath-
Burow’s solution
eter for monitoring central venous pressure may be indicated. Local treatment of the burn may use the closed
method or the more frequently used open method, in which
the injured area is cleaned and exposed to air and the patient
is kept warm by a blanket or linen over a bed cradle or by a
heater or lamp. In the closed method, a germicidal or bacteriostatic cream, ointment, or solution is applied to the burn,
and the wound is covered with a dressing. A porcine heterograft may be used to cover the wound temporarily. This technique prevents fluid loss and reduces the risk of infection,
but the graft dries in 1 or 2 days and may pull and cause pain.
Newly developed artificial skin holds great promise for treating severe burns. During the acute stage of a burn, the patient’s blood pressure, pulse, respiration, and cerebrovascular pressure are checked every 30 to 60 minutes, and the
rectal temperature every 2 to 4 hours. Oral hygiene and assistance in turning, coughing, and deep breathing are provided every 2 hours, and the patient’s sensorium is evaluated
hourly. If oral fluids are ordered, juices and carbonated
drinks are offered, but plain water and ice chips are avoided.
Fluid intake and output are measured hourly; if a child excretes less than 1 mL/kg of urine or an adult less than
0.5 mL/kg, a diuretic or an increase in IV infusion of fluid
may be necessary. Blood transfusions, steroid therapy, and
antipyretics may be ordered; aspirin is contraindicated. Excessive chilling and exposure to upper respiratory and
wound infections are carefully prevented. Burned extremities are elevated, and contractures are prevented by using
firm supports to keep affected areas properly aligned. The
patient is weighed daily at the same time on the same scale,
and, after the initial acute period, an adequate intake of a
high-calorie, high-protein diet is encouraged. To stimulate
appetite, the patient is offered frequent small meals of preferred foods and beverages that are high in potassium. Vitamins may be required. Tranquilizers may be given before
wound care, but narcotics for pain usually are not needed
after the acute phase. The patient is encouraged to stand for
a few minutes every hour or every second hour and is generally able to walk in 7 to 10 days, but convalescence may be
prolonged. Burn patients often are frightened, withdrawn,
and disoriented initially, but after a few days they may become angry, depressed, or rebellious and need emotional
support to help them cooperate with their treatment and rehabilitation. Extensive plastic surgery and repeated skin
grafts may be required to restore function and the physical
appearance of burn patients.
в…ў INTERVENTIONS: The burn patient requires intensive, prolonged care to prevent complications and disfiguring
contractures. The nurse administers parenteral fluids and
medication, implements wound care, closely monitors the
patient’s condition, limits physical discomfort, provides
emotional support and diversion, and encourages the family
to visit regularly and become involved in the patient’s care.
в…ў OUTCOME CRITERIA: The outcome for the severely burned
patient depends greatly on the detailed, near-constant care
required during the acute phase of treatment. Scarring may
cause residual dysfunction and discouragement. Encouragement to participate fully in physical therapy and to continue
treatments may be helpful. Although protection from infection is essential, the nurse does not isolate the patient unless
Burow’s solution /byoo
� r؅o¯z/ [Karl A. Burow, German physician, 1809–1874], a liquid preparation containing aluminum sulfate, acetic acid, precipitated calcium carbonate, and
water, used as a topical astringent, antiseptic, and antipyretic
for a wide variety of skin disorders. Also called aluminum
acetate solution.
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burp informal.
1. to belch, or eructate; to expel gas from
the stomach through the mouth. 2. a belch, or eructation.
burr, a rotary instrument fitted into a handpiece and used to
cut teeth or bone. Also spelled bur.
burr cell [ME, burre П© L, cella, storeroom], a form of mature erythrocyte in which the cells or cell fragments have
spicules, or tiny projections, on the surface.
burr holes, holes drilled in the skull during surgery to
drain and irrigate an abscess.
Burr hole
Burr hole
Bone removed
Burr holes for craniotomy (Phillips, 2007)
burrowing flea. See chigoe.
bursa /burШ…sY/ pl. bursae [Gk, byrsa, wineskin],
1. a fibrous sac between certain tendons and the bones beneath
them. Lined with a synovial membrane that secretes synovial
fluid, the bursa acts as a small cushion that allows the tendon
to move over the bone as it contracts and relaxes. See also
adventitious bursa, bursa of Achilles, olecranon bursa,
prepatellar bursa. 2. a sac or closed cavity. See also omental bursa, pharyngeal bursa. —bursal, adj.
bursa-equivalent tissue, bursal equivalent tissue,
a hypothesized lymphoid tissue in nonavian vertebrates, including human beings, equivalent to the bursa of Fabricius in
Burst fracture of the third lumbar vertebra
(Kowalczyk and Mace, 2009/Courtesy Ohio State University
Medical Center)
birds: the site of B lymphocyte maturation. It now appears
that B lymphocyte maturation occurs primarily in the bone
bursal abscess /burШ…sYl/, a collection of pus in the cavity
of a bursa.
bursa of Achilles, bursa separating the tendon of Achilles
and the calcaneus.
bursectomy /bYrsekШ…tYmeВЇ/ [Gk, byrsa, wineskin, ektomeВЇ,
cutting out], the excision of a bursa.
bursitis /bYrsД±ВЇШ…tis/, inflammation of the bursa, the connective tissue structure surrounding a joint. Bursitis may be precipitated by arthritis, infection, injury, or excessive or traumatic exercise or effort. The chief symptom is severe pain of
the affected joint, particularly on movement. Treatment
goals include the control of pain and the maintenance of
joint motion. Acute pain is often treated with an intrabursal
injection of an adrenocorticosteroid. Other common treatments are analgesics, antiinflammatory agents, cold, and immobilization of the inflamed site. After the inflammation has
subsided, heat may be helpful. In chronic cases, surgery may
be required to remove calcium deposits. Kinds of bursitis include housemaid’s knee, miner’s elbow, and weaver’s
bottom. See also rheumatism.
burst, to break suddenly while under tension or expansion.
burst fracture [ME, bersten + L, fractura, break], any
fracture that disperses multiple bone fragments, usually at or
near the end of a bone. It frequently occurs in a vertebra.
Burton’s line [Henry Burton, English physician, 1799–
1849], a dark blue stippled line along the gingival margin,
which is a sign of lead poisoning. See also blue line.
Buruli ulcer /boo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇР€rYВ·le/ [Buruli, district in Uganda],
an ulcer of the skin with widespread necrosis of subcutaneous fat, caused by a species of Mycobacterium ulcerans,
manifested by a small, firm, painless, movable subcutaneous
nodule that enlarges and ulcerates. It occurs principally in
Central Africa (the Nile river banks), but has also been seen
in other tropical areas.
bus, a set of parallel wires in a computer to which the central processing unit and all input-output units are connected.
Each separate wire carries the electric current representing
1 bit. Buses interconnect the parts of the computer that communicate with each other, such as a video card or modem.
Buschke’s disease. See cryptococcosis.
bushy chorion, the region of the chorion that bears villi.
BuSpar, trademark for an oral antianxiety drug (buspirone
busPIRone hydrochloride /boo
Л� spirШ…oВЇn/, an antianxiety
agent not related chemically to others. Administered orally
as the hydrochloride salt. Unlike benzodiazepines, does
cause sedation, has low abuse potential, takes several days to
weeks to exert its effect, and does not intensify the effects of
other CNS depressants.
в…ў INDICATIONS: It is prescribed for generalized anxiety
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: This drug is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic or renal impairment. Patients taking a benzodiazepine drug should be gradually withdrawn
from that medication before starting therapy with buspirone.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among adverse reactions reported are
dizziness, headache, lightheadedness, excitement, and
busulfan /boo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇsulШ…fYn/, an alkylating agent.
в…ў INDICATION: It is prescribed in the treatment of chronic
myelocytic leukemia.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Radiation therapy, depressed neutrophil or platelet counts, concurrent administration of neoplas-
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butabarbital sodium
tic medication, or known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its use.
в…ў ADVERSE REACTIONS: Among the more serious adverse reactions are alveolar hyperplasia (busulfan lung), depression
of the bone marrow, and severe nausea and diarrhea. Amenorrhea commonly occurs.
butabarbital sodium /byoo
¯¯¯¯ЈtYba¨r؅bitoˆl/, a sedative;
intermediate-acting barbiturate.
в…ў INDICATIONS: It is prescribed for the relief of anxiety, nervous tension, and insomnia.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Porphyria, seizure disorders, or
known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its use.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Among the more serious adverse reactions are jaundice, skin rash, and paradoxical excitement.
butamben picrate /byoo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇtamШ…bYn pikШ…raВЇt/, a topical local
anesthetic for the temporary relief of pain from minor burns.
butanamide. See acebutolol.
butane (C4H10), a colorless petroleum-based gas. It is the
fourth member of the paraffin series of hydrocarbons.
butanoic acid. See butyric acid.
butanol. See butyl alcohol.
Butazolidin, trademark for an antirheumatic (phenylbutazone).
butenafine /bu-tenР€ah-feВЇn/, a topical antifungal agent used
as the hydrochloride salt in the treatment of athlete’s foot,
jock itch, and ringworm.
Butisol Sodium, trademark for a sedative (butabarbital sodium).
Butler-Albright syndrome, a type of distal renal tubular
acidosis occurring later than infancy and having autosomal
dominant inheritance.
butoconazole nitrate /byoo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇР€tYkoВЇШ…nYzoВЇl/, an intravaginal
antifungal cream.
в…ў INDICATIONS: It is prescribed for the treatment of vulvovaginal fungal infections caused by Candida species.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Its use is contraindicated during the
first trimester of a pregnancy.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Adverse reactions include vulvar and
vaginal burning and itching.
butorphanol tartrate /byoo
¯¯¯¯toˆr؅fYnoˆl/, an agonist/
antagonist opioid of the phenanthrene family.
в…ў INDICATIONS: It is administered parentally for surgical premedication, as an analgesic component of balanced anesthesia, for prompt relief of moderate to severe pain associated
with surgical procedures, and as a nasal spray for the relief
of migraine pain.
в…ў CONTRAINDICATIONS: Butorphanol tartrate is not given to
patients known to be sensitive to phenanthrenes or to persons dependent on opioids because it may provoke withdrawal symptoms.
в…ў ADVERSE EFFECTS: Toxicity may result from the use of
butorphanol with other opioids.
butt, 1. to place two surfaces together to form a joint.
2. (in dentistry) to place directly against the tissues covering
the residual alveolar ridge.
butter, a soft, solid substance, such as the oily mass produced by churning cream.
butterfly bandage [AS, buttorfleoge], a narrow adhesive
strip with broader winglike ends used to approximate the
edges of a superficial wound and to hold the edges together
as they heal. It is used in place of a suture in certain cases.
Also called butterfly.
butterfly fracture, a bone break in which the center fragment contained by two cracks forms a triangle.
butterfly needle, a short needle attached to plastic stabilizers at 90 degrees. It is used for IV access of small veins of
adults and children. Usual gauge is 25 to 22 length.
button suture
Butterfly needle
(Harkreader and Hogan, 2007/Courtesy Medline Industries)
butterfly rash,
an erythematous eruption of both cheeks
joined by a narrow band of rash across the nose. It may be
seen in lupus erythematosus, rosacea, and seborrheic dermatitis.
Butterfly rash (Habif, 2004)
buttermilk [Gk, boutyron, butter; AS, meoluc],
1. the
slightly sour tasting liquid remaining after the solids in
cream have been churned into butter. It is nearly fat free and
is nutritionally comparable to whole milk. 2. cultured milk
made by the addition of certain organisms to fat-free milk.
butter stools, a fatty fecal discharge from the bowels, as
may occur in steatorrhea.
buttock, the fleshy hillocks at the lower posterior part of
the torso comprising fat and the gluteal muscles. Also called
buttock augmentation, a reconstructive procedure in
cosmetic surgery for reshaping the buttocks.
button /butР€Yn/ [OFr, boton], 1. a knoblike elevation or
structure. 2. a small appliance shaped like a spool or disk,
used in surgery for construction of an intestinal anastomosis.
buttonhole [OFr, boton П© AS, hol], a small slitlike hole in
the wall of a structure or a cavity of the body.
buttonhole fracture, a fracture caused by a straight perforation of a bone, such as by a bullet.
buttonhole stenosis, an extreme narrowing of a vessel.
The term usually refers to the mitral valve, in which the
valve cusps are contracted to form an opening shaped like a
buttonhook, an adaptive device designed to help patients
who have limited finger range of motion, dexterity, or weakness with fastening buttons on clothing.
button suture, a technique in suturing in which the ends
of the suture material are passed through buttons on the sur-
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 96 SESS: 54 OUTPUT: Fri Jun 13 09:07:36 2008
face of the skin and tied. It is used to prevent the suture from
cutting through the skin.
buttressing, a phenomenon of osteoarthritis in which
osteophytes at the hip joint extend across the femoral neck
inferior to the femoral head and combine, with a proliferation along the medial aspect of the femoral neck.
buttress plate, a thin, flat metal plate used to provide support in the surgical repair of a fracture.
butyl /byoo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇШ…til/ [Gk, boutyron, butter, hyle, matter], a hydrocarbon radical (C4H9), most compounds of which are obtained from petroleum. It exists as four isomers: n-butyl,
isobutyl, secondary butyl, and tertiary butyl. Butyl compounds, some of which are toxic and irritating, are used in a
variety of industrial and medical applications, including anesthesia.
butyl alcohol (C4H9OH), a clear, toxic liquid used as an
organic solvent. It exists as four isomers, n-butyl, isobutyl,
secondary butyl, and tertiary butyl alcohol. Also called
butyr-, combining form meaning “butter”: butyric,
butyric acid (C4H7OOH) /byoo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇtirШ…ik/, a clear, colorless
liquid with an odor of rancid butter or vomit that is miscible
with water, alcohol, glycerin, and ether. Butyric acid is obtained commercially from 1-butanol by oxidation and can
be obtained from carbohydrates by butyric fermentation. It is
used in the production of artificial flavors. Also called butanoic acid /byoo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇР€tYnoВЇР€ik/, propylformic acid.
butyric fermentation, the conversion of carbohydrates to
butyric acid.
butyrophenone /byoo
ВЇВЇВЇВЇР€tYroВЇfeВЇШ…noВЇn/, one of a small group of
major tranquilizers. They are used in treating psychosis, to
decrease the choreic symptoms of Huntington’s disease and
the tics and coprolalia of Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome,
and are used as an adjunct in neuroleptanesthesia. Principal
butyrophenones are haloperidol and droperidol. Butyrophenones are pharmacologically and clinically similar to phenothiazines.
Buzzard’s maneuver [Thomas Buzzard, English neurolo-
Byzantine arch palate
gist, 1831–1919], a modified patellar reflex in which the
patient’s toes are firmly pressed on the floor while the quadriceps muscle is tapped.
BWS, abbreviation for battered woman syndrome.
Byler’s disease, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis; an autosomal-recessive disorder caused by an error in
conjugated bile salt metabolism, with early onset of loose,
foul-smelling stools; jaundice; hepatosplenomegaly; and
bypass [AS, bi, alongside; Fr, passer], 1. any one of various surgical procedures to divert or shunt the flow of blood
or other natural fluids from normal anatomic courses. A bypass may be temporary or permanent. Bypass surgery is
commonly performed in the treatment of cardiac and GI disorders. 2. a term used by some hospitals to signal that its
emergency department lacks the personnel and equipment to
handle additional patients, thereby advising that ambulances
transporting new patients be diverted to other hospitals.
by-product material, 1. the radioactive waste of nuclear
reactors. 2. something produced in the making of something else.
byssinosis /bisР€inoВЇШ…sis/ [Gk, byssos, flax, osis, condition],
an occupational respiratory disease characterized by shortness of breath, cough, and wheezing. The condition is an allergic reaction to dust or fungi in cotton, flax, and hemp fibers. The symptoms are typically more pronounced on
Mondays when workers return after a weekend break. They
are reversible in the early stages, but prolonged exposure results in chronic airway obstruction, bronchitis, and emphysema with fibrosis, leading to respiratory failure, pulmonary
hypertension, and cor pulmonale. Treatment is symptomatic
for the irreversible changes of emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Compare pneumoconiosis. See also organic dust.
byte /bД±ВЇt/, the amount of memory required to encode one
character of information (letter, number, or symbol) in a
computer system; it is normally 8 bits. See also bit.
Byzantine arch palate /bizШ…YnteВЇn/, a congenital anomaly
of the roof of the mouth marked by incomplete fusion of the
palatal process and the nasal spine.
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