close

Enter

Log in using OpenID

Chapter 18 Resource: Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions

embedDownload
Glencoe Science
Chapter Resources
Radioactivity and
Nuclear Reactions
Includes:
Reproducible Student Pages
ASSESSMENT
TRANSPARENCY ACTIVITIES
✔ Chapter Tests
✔ Section Focus Transparency Activities
✔ Chapter Review
✔ Teaching Transparency Activity
✔ Assessment Transparency Activity
HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES
✔ Lab Worksheets for each Student Edition Activity
Teacher Support and Planning
✔ Laboratory Activities
✔ Content Outline for Teaching
✔ Foldables–Reading and Study Skills activity sheet
✔ Spanish Resources
✔ Teacher Guide and Answers
MEETING INDIVIDUAL NEEDS
✔ Directed Reading for Content Mastery
✔ Directed Reading for Content Mastery in Spanish
✔ Reinforcement
✔ Enrichment
✔ Note-taking Worksheets
Glencoe Science
Photo Credits
Section Focus Transparency 1: Bettmann/CORBIS; Section Focus Transparency 2: John Reader/Science
Photo Library/Photo Researchers; Section Focus Transparency 3: Blair Seitz/Photo Researchers;
Section Focus Transparency 4: Mark Harmel/Stone
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition
that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students,
teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with the
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions program. Any other reproduction, for use or sale,
is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher.
Send all inquiries to:
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
8787 Orion Place
Columbus, OH 43240-4027
ISBN 0-07-866064-5
Printed in the United States of America.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 067 08 07 06 05 04
Table of Contents
To the Teacher
Reproducible Student Pages
■
iv
Hands-On Activities
MiniLab: Try At Home Candy Nuclei. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
MiniLab Modeling a Nuclear Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Lab Chain Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Lab: Model and Invent Modeling Transmutation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Laboratory Activity 1 The Effect of Radiation on Seeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Laboratory Activity 2 Radioactive Decay—A Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Foldables: Reading and Study Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
■
Meeting Individual Needs
Extension and Intervention
Directed Reading for Content Mastery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Directed Reading for Content Mastery in Spanish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Enrichment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Note-taking Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
■
Assessment
Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Chapter Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
■
Transparency Activities
Section Focus Transparency Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Teaching Transparency Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Assessment Transparency Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Teacher Support and Planning
Content Outline for Teaching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T2
Spanish Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T6
Teacher Guide and Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T12
Additional Assessment Resources available with Glencoe Science:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ExamView® Pro TestMaker
Assessment Transparencies
Performance Assessment in the Science Classroom
Standardized Test Practice Booklet
MindJogger Videoquizzes
Vocabulary PuzzleMaker at: gpscience.com
Interactive Chalkboard
The Glencoe Science Web site at: gpscience.com
An interactive version of this textbook along with assessment resources are available
online at: mhln.com
iii
Reproducible
Student Pages
Reproducible Student Pages
■
Hands-On Activities
MiniLab: Try at Home Modeling the Strong Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
MiniLab: Modeling a Nuclear Reaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Lab: Chain Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Lab: Model and Invent Modeling Transmutation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Laboratory Activity 1: The Effect of Radiation on Seeds . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Laboratory Activity 2: Radioactive Decay—A Simulation . . . . . . . . . 13
Foldables: Reading and Study Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
■
Meeting Individual Needs
Extension and Intervention
Directed Reading for Content Mastery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Directed Reading for Content Mastery in Spanish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Enrichment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Note-taking Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
■
Assessment
Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Chapter Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
■
Transparency Activities
Section Focus Transparency Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Teaching Transparency Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Assessment Transparency Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
1
Hands-On Activities
Hands-On
Activities
2 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
Date
Class
Hands-On Activities
Name
Modeling the Strong Force
Procedure
1. Gather 15 yellow candies to represent neutrons and 13 red and two green
candies to represent protons.
2. Model a small nucleus by placing 2 red protons and 3 neutrons around a
green proton so they touch.
3. Model a large nucleus by arranging the remaining candies around the other
green proton so they are touching.
Analysis
1. Compare the number of protons and neutrons touching a green proton in both models.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. Suppose the strong force on a green proton is due to the protons and neutrons that touch it.
Compare the strong force on a green proton in both models.
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
3
Name
Date
Class
Procedure
1. Put 32 marbles, each with an attached lump of clay, into a large beaker.
These marbles with clay represent unstable atoms.
2. During a 1-min period, remove half of the marbles and pull off the clay.
Place the removed marbles into another beaker and place the lumps
of clay into a pile. Marbles without clay represent stable atoms. The clay
represents waste from the reaction—smaller atoms that still might decay
and give off energy.
3. Repeat this procedure four more times.
Analysis
1. What is the half-life of this reaction?
2. Explain whether the waste products could undergo nuclear fission.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Hands-On Activities
Modeling a Nuclear Reaction
4 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
Name
Date
Class
Hands-On Activities
Chain Reactions
Lab Preview
Directions: Answer these questions before you begin the Lab.
1. Define a chain reaction.
2. How do you set up the dominoes in this lab?
In an uncontrolled nuclear chain reaction, the number of reactions increases
as additional neutrons split more nuclei. In a controlled nuclear reaction, neutrons are absorbed, so the reaction continues at a constant rate. How could you
model a controlled and an uncontrolled nuclear reaction in the classroom?
Real-World Question
How can you use dominoes to model chain reactions?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Materials
dominoes
stopwatch
Goals
■
■
Model a controlled and uncontrolled chain reaction.
Compare the two types of chain reactions.
Procedure
1. Set up a single line of dominoes standing on
end so that when the first domino is pushed
over, it will knock over the second and each
domino will knock over the one following it.
2. Using the stopwatch, time how long it
takes from the moment the first domino
is pushed over until the last domino falls
over. Record the time in the Data and
Observations section.
3. Using the same number of dominoes as in
step 1, set up a series of dominoes in which
at least one of the dominoes will knock
down two others, so that two lines of
dominoes will continue falling. In other
words, the series should have at least one
point that looks like the letter Y.
4. Repeat step 2.
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
5
Name
Date
Class
(continued)
Domino arrangement 1:
Domino arrangement 2:
Conclude and Apply
1. Compare the amount of time it took for all of the dominoes to fall in each of your two
arrangements.
2. Determine the average number of dominoes that fell per second in both domino
arrangements.
3. Identify which of your domino arrangements represented a controlled chain reaction and
which represented an uncontrolled chain reaction.
4. Describe how the concept of critical mass was represented in your model of a controlled chain
reaction.
5. Assuming that they had equal amounts of material, which would finish faster—a controlled or
an uncontrolled chain nuclear reaction? Explain.
Communicating Your Data
Explain to friends or members of your family how a controlled nuclear chain reaction
can be used in nuclear power plants to generate electricity.
6 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Hands-On Activities
Data and Observations
Name
Date
Class
Model and Invent
Hands-On Activities
Modeling Transmutations
Lab Preview
Directions: Answer these questions before you begin the Lab.
1. Define transmutation.
2. Why would the possible materials be useful in this experiment?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Imagine what would happen if the oxygen atoms around you began changing
into nitrogen atoms. Without oxygen, most living organisms, including people,
could not live. Fortunately, more than 99.9 percent of all oxygen atoms are stable and do not decay. Usually, when an unstable nucleus decays, an alpha or
beta particle is thrown out of its nucleus, and the atom becomes a new element.
A uranium-238 atom, for example, will undergo eight alpha decays and six
beta decays to become lead. This process of one element changing into another
element is called transmutation.
Real-World Question
Make a Model
How could you create a model of a uranium-238
atom and the decay process it undergoes during
transmutation? What types of materials could
you use to represent the protons and neutrons
in a U-238 nucleus? How could you use these
materials to model transmutation?
1. Choose two materials of different colors or
shapes for the protons and neutrons of your
nucleus model. Choose a material for the
negatively charged beta particle.
2. Decide how to model the transmutation
process. Will you create a new nucleus
model for each new element? How will
you model an alpha or beta particle
leaving the nucleus?
3. Create a transmutation chart in the Data
and Observations section to show the
results of each transmutation step of a
uranium-238 atom with the identity,
atomic number, and mass number of
each new element formed and the type
of radiation particle emitted at each step.
A uranium-238 atom will undergo the
following decay steps before transmuting
into a lead-206 atom: alpha decay, beta
decay, beta decay, alpha decay, alpha decay,
alpha decay, alpha decay, alpha decay, beta
decay, beta decay, alpha decay, beta decay,
beta decay, alpha decay.
Possible Materials
brown rice
white rice
colored candies
dried beans
dried seeds
glue
poster board
Safety Precautions
WARNING: Never eat foods used in the lab.
Data Source
Refer to your textbook for general information
about transmutation.
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
7
Name
Date
Class
(continued)
Test Your Model
1. Using your nucleus model, demonstrate the
transmutation of a uranium-238 nucleus
into a lead-206 nucleus by following the
decay sequence outlined in the previous
section.
2. Show the emission of an alpha particle or
beta particle between each transmutation
step.
Data and Observations
Analyze Your Data
1. Compare how alpha decay and beta decay change an atom’s atomic number.
2. Compare how alpha and beta decay change the mass number of an atom.
Conclude and Apply
1. Calculate the ratio of neutrons to protons in lead-206 and uranium-238. In which nucleus is
the ratio closer to 1.5?
2. Identify Alchemists living during the Middle Ages spent much time trying to turn lead into
gold. Identify the decay processes needed to accomplish this task.
Communicating Your Data
Show your model to the class and explain how your model represents the transmutation
of U-238 into Pb-206.
8 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Hands-On Activities
4. Describe your model plan and transmutation chart to your teacher and ask how
they can be improved.
5. Present your plan and chart to your
class. Ask classmates to suggest
improvements in both.
6. Construct your model of a uranium-238
nucleus showing the correct number of
protons and neutrons.
Date
1
Laboratory
Activity
Class
The Effect of Radiation on
Seeds
When seeds are exposed to nuclear radiation, changes may be observed. Seeds contain genetic
materials that determine the characteristics of the plants produced from them. Radiation can alter
this genetic material. The type of seeds and the amount of radiation absorbed determine the
extent of this alteration.
Strategy
You will grow plants from seeds that have been exposed to different amounts of nuclear radiation.
You will observe and record the growth patterns of the plants during a period of a week.
You will use the results of your experiment to discuss some of the possible effects of exposure to
nuclear radiation.
Materials
seeds that have received different amounts of radiation
seeds that have not been irradiated
potting soil
boxes or containers for planting
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Procedure
1. It is important that all seeds are planted
and grown under the same conditions.
Plant the seeds according to your teacher’s
instructions. Plant one container of
untreated seeds. Label this container 1.
Carefully label each of the remaining
containers. In Table 1, record the number
of each container and the amount of
radiation the seeds planted in it received.
2. Place the containers in a location away
from drafts where they can receive as much
light as possible. Keep the soil moist, but
not wet, at all times.
3. As soon as the first seeds sprout, start
recording your observations in Table 2.
Observe the seeds at regular intervals for a
week. If necessary, continue Table 2 on a
separate sheet of paper. Watch for variations in sprouting and growth rates and
differences in size, color, shape, number,
and location of the stems and leaves.
Remember, it is important to make an
entry in the table for each container at
every observation date, even if you report
no change.
4. In the space provided in the Data and
Observations section, make sketches of
your plants and show any variation in
growth patterns.
Data and Observations
Table 1
Container number
Amount of radiation
1
no radiation
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
9
Hands-On Activities
Name
Name
Date
Class
Laboratory Activity 1 (continued)
Date
Plant Sketches
10 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
Container number
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Hands-On Activities
Table 2
Name
Date
Class
Hands-On Activities
Laboratory Activity 1 (continued)
Questions and Conclusions
1. Why did you plant seeds that were not exposed to nuclear radiation?
2. What pattern or trends did you observe as the seeds sprouted?
3. What patterns or trends did you observe in the growth rate of the plants?
4. What relationship can be seen between the amount or time of radiation exposure and the
following:
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
maximum height of plants
size of leaves
color of leaves
shape of leaves
number of leaves
placement of leaves
other variations that you observed
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
11
Name
Date
Class
Laboratory Activity 1 (continued)
6. What conclusions can you make based on the results of this experiment?
7. What predictions can you make based on the results of this experiment?
Strategy Check
Can you grow plants from seeds that have been exposed to different amounts of nuclear
radiation?
Can you observe and record the growth patterns of the plants during a period of weeks?
Can you use the results of your experiment to discuss some possible effects of exposure
to nuclear radiation?
12 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Hands-On Activities
5. What characteristics of the plants seem unaffected?
Date
2
Laboratory
Activity
Class
Radioactive Decay—
A Simulation
Certain elements are made up of atoms whose nuclei are naturally unstable. The atoms of these
elements are said to be radioactive. The nucleus of a radioactive atom will decay into the nucleus
of another element by emitting particles of radiation. It is impossible to predict when the nucleus
of an individual radioactive atom will decay. However, if a large number of nuclei are present in a
sample, it is possible to predict the time period in which half the nuclei in the sample will decay.
This time period is called the half-life of the element.
Radioactive materials are harmful to living tissues. Their half-lives are difficult to measure
without taking safety precautions. To eliminate these problems, you will simulate the decay of
unstable nuclei by using harmless materials that are easy to observe. In this experiment you
will use dried split peas to represent the unstable nuclei of one element. Dried lima beans will
represent the stable nuclei of another element. Your observations will allow you to make a mental
model of how the nuclei of radioactive atoms decay.
Strategy
You will simulate the decay of a radioactive element.
You will graph the results of the simulated decay.
You will determine the half-life of the element.
Materials
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
small bag of dried split peas
250-mL beaker
large pizza or baking tray
bag of dried lima beans
Procedure
1. Count out 200 dried split peas and place
them in a beaker.
2. Record the number of split peas in Table 1
as Observation 0.
3. Place the pizza or baking tray on a flat
surface.
4. Hold the beaker over the tray and sprinkle
the split peas onto the tray. Try to produce
a single layer of split peas on the tray.
5. Remove all the split peas that have NOT
landed on the flat side down. Count the
split peas that you have removed and return
them to the bag. Replace the number of
peas that you have removed from the tray
with an equal number of lima beans. Count
the number of peas and the number of
lima beans on the tray. Record these values
in Table 1 as Observation 1.
6. Scoop the peas and beans from the tray
and place them into the beaker.
7. Predict how many split peas you will
remove if you repeat steps 4 and 5.
Enter your predictions in the Data and
Observations section.
8. Repeat steps 4 through 6, recording your
data in the data table as Observation 2.
9. Predict how many observations you will
have to make until there are no split peas
remaining. Enter your prediction in the
Data and Observations section.
10. Repeat steps 4 through 6 until there are
no split peas remaining.
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
13
Hands-On Activities
Name
Name
Date
Class
Laboratory Activity 2 (continued)
Table 1
Observation
Time (minutes)
Split peas
Prediction of number of split peas removed:
Prediction of number of observations until there are no split peas remaining:
14 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
Lima beans
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Hands-On Activities
Data and Observations
Name
Date
Class
Analysis
In this experiment each split pea represents the nucleus of an atom of radioactive element A. A
split pea that has landed flat side down represents the nucleus of an atom of radioactive element A
that has not yet decayed. Each split pea that has NOT landed flat side down represents the nucleus
of element A that has decayed. Each lima bean represents the nucleus of an element B that was
formed by the decay of the nucleus of an element A .
Assume that the time period between each observation was 5 minutes. Observation 1 will have
been made at 5 minutes, observation 2 at 10 minutes, and so on. Complete the time column in
Table 1.
1. Use Graph 1 below to graph the results of your experiment. Plot on one axis the number of the
nuclei of element A atoms remaining after each observation. Plot the time of this observation
on the other axis. Determine which variable should be represented by each axis.
2. Use Graph 1 to construct another graph. Plot on one axis the number of nuclei of element B atoms
remaining after each observation. Plot the time of the observation on the other axis.
3. Determine the appropriate half-life of element A from your graph.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Graph 1
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
15
Hands-On Activities
Laboratory Activity 2 (continued)
Name
Date
Class
Laboratory Activity 2 (continued)
1. What is the approximate half-life of element A?
2. Use your graph to determine the number of element A nuclei remaining after 2 half-lives, and
after 3 half-lives.
3. Why did you replace split peas but not lima beans during this experiment?
4. The two graphs that you constructed look like mirror-images. Explain why this is so.
5. Suppose you were given 400 dried split peas to do this experiment. Explain which of the
following questions you could answer before starting this experiment.
a. Can you identify which split peas will fall flat side up?
b. Can you predict when an individual split pea will fall flat side up?
c. Can you predict how many split peas will remain after 3 observations?
Strategy Check
Can you simulate the decay of a radioactive element?
Can you graph the results of the simulated decay?
Can you determine the half-life of the element?
16 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Hands-On Activities
Questions and Conclusions
Name
Date
Class
Hands-On Activities
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
Directions: Use this page to label your Foldable at the beginning of the chapter.
Radioactivity
Nuclear Reactions
Large nuclei tend to be unstable and are
commonly radioactive.
Nuclear fission is the splitting of a nucleus into two nuclei.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Nuclear fusion is the combining of two low-mass nuclei to form one
nucleus with a larger mass.
This is the process of nuclear decay.
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
17
Meeting Individual Needs
Meeting Individual
Needs
18 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
Name
Date
Directed Reading for
Content Mastery
Class
Overview
Radioactivity and Nuclear
Reactions
Directions: Complete the concept map describing the three main types of radioactive decay products using the
terms in the list below.
faster
gamma rays
electromagnetic waves
alpha particles
electron
least penetrating
Meeting Individual Needs
neutrons
most penetrating
Radioactive
nuclei
can emit
1.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
which are
composed of two
beta particles
6.
which are
composed of one
which are
4.
7.
and two
and are
with
2.
5.
no mass
or charge
and are the
and more
and are the
protons
3.
form of
nuclear radiation
penetrating
than alpha
particles
8.
form of
nuclear radiation
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
19
Name
Date
Section 1
Section 2
Directed Reading for
Content Mastery
■
■
Class
Radioactivity
Nuclear Decay
Directions: Short crypts are lists of related words written in a simple code in which a different set of letters
has been substituted for the correct letters. Two crypts are given to you titled Discovery of Radioactivity and
Nuclear Decay. The code corresponding to each crypt is listed above it. Remember, the same code is used for the
entire list. For example, if m stands for x in one word, m will stand for x in every word on the list. One word in
each list has been done for you.
Code
Z
b
A
c
Q
d
B
e
E
f
C
g
P
h
D
i
W F O
l m n
G
o
X
p
H
q
U
r
I
s
N
t
J
u
Discovery of Radioactivity
1. P B O U D Z B A H J B U B W Henri Becquerel
2. JUMODJF
3. NPB AJUDBI
4. XPGNGCUMXPDA XWMNB
5. UMQDJF
6. XGWGODJF
7. UMQDMND GO
Code
E
a
F
c
V
d
K
e
U
g
L
i
X A
l m
M
n
Nuclear Decay
8. CEVLIEFDLRLDJ radioactivity
9. LNIDIYKN
10. D CEMNAZDEDLIM
11. YCIDIMN
12. MKZD CIMN
13. KXKFD CIMN
14. CEVLIEFDLRK VEDLMU
20 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
I
o
Y
p
C
r
N
s
D
t
Z
u
R J
v y
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Meeting Individual Needs
M
a
Name
Date
Directed Reading for
Content Mastery
Class
Section 3
■
Section 4
■
Detecting
Radioactivity
Nuclear Reactions
Directions: Use the clues given below to identify terms related to radioactivity detection. Write each term in the
space provided. Then find and circle each term in the puzzle. The term may be written up, down, forward, backward,
or diagonally.
1. uses lines of bubbles in a superheated liquid to track particles
3. device that detects electric charges
4. device that produces clicking sounds or flashing light by
amplifying an electric current formed when radiation is
present
5. radiation that travels as waves
6. a particle that leaves a long, thin trail in a cloud chamber
7. a particle that leaves a short, thick trail in a cloud chamber
8. atomic nuclei are combined together
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
9. a mass of fissionable material required for fission
C A R Y A R A M M A G B O N C
B H E C
T
E
N P
L O U D C H A M B
L P P R O T O N
T
I
I
I
T
E C Y U H D B
N
I
I
M C E R
C S U S A A A E E
I
T Q
G T N O
I
I
I
S U
L
G C
L M O E M A
H R D R D N E
E R N T
I
B
O C M O P N T
R O
Z H U O
H M B S L N C Y
U O S A A
E R
G C
S L
T C U S E H
C T
F
I
S
I
T N A
I
I
C R M C A T O M C R Y M S V
E E U U
L A
L
Y G O L
I
B
Y
G L
N Q E N E U T R O E
E
H T
G E
I
T E R
P Y
G E R C O U N
I
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
21
Meeting Individual Needs
2. detects charged particles by creating a visible path of droplets
Name
Date
Directed Reading for
Content Mastery
Class
Key Terms
Radioactivity and Nuclear
Reactions
Directions: Match the terms in Column II with the descriptions in Column I. Write the letter of the correct term
in the blank at the left.
Column I
Column II
a. alpha particle
2. causes protons and neutrons to be attracted
to each other
b. critical mass
3. used to detect nuclear particles as a visible
path of droplets
c. half-life
4. a radioisotope used to find or track molecules
in an organism
5. device that produces an electric current when
radiation is present
d. chain reaction
e. transmutations
f. tracer
6. high-speed electron emitted from a nucleus
7. process of changing one element to another
through nuclear decay
g. beta particle
8. amount of time it takes for half the nuclei in
a radioactive sample to decay
h. radioactivity
9. an ongoing series of fission reactions
10. amount of fissionable material required for
a fission reaction to produce one or more
fission reactions
i. cloud chamber
j. bubble chamber
k. nuclear fusion
11. comprised of two protons and two neutrons
12. uses tracks of bubbles to detect radiation
l. nuclear fission
13. the release of matter and energy from
nuclear decay
m. Geiger counter
14. electromagnetic waves with high-frequency
energy
n. gamma rays
15. combines two smaller nuclei to make a
larger nucleus
o. strong force
22 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Meeting Individual Needs
1. process of splitting a nucleus into two
nuclei with smaller masses
Nombre
Fecha
Lectura dirigida para
Dominio del contenido
Clase
Sinopsis
Radiactividad y reacciones
nucleares
Instrucciones: Instrucciones: Usa los siguientes términos para completar el mapa conceptual que describe
los tres tipos principales de productos de la desintegración radiactiva.
más rápidamente
rayos gamma
ondas electromagnéticas
electrones
partículas alfa
menos penetrante
Satisface las necesidades individuales
neutrones
más penetrante
Los núcleos
radiactivos
pueden emitir
1.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
compuestas de
dos
partículas beta
6.
compuestas de un
que son
4.
7.
y dos
y son
sin
2.
5.
masa
o carga
y son la
y más
y son la
protones
3.
forma de
radiación nuclear
penetrating
que las partículas
alfa
8.
forma de
radiación nuclear
Radiactividad y reacciones nucleares
23
Nombre
Fecha
Lectura dirigida para
Dominio del contenido
Sección 1
Sección 2
Clase
■
■
La radiactividad
Desintegración
nuclear
Instrucciones: Las palabras en clave son términos relacionados escritos en un código simple en el cual un grupo
diferente de letras representa las letras de los términos. Hay dos grupos de escritos misteriosos llamados Descubrimiento de la radiactividad y Desintegración radiactiva. Los códigos aparece arriba.
Recuerda que un símbolo representa la misma letra en todo el escrito misterioso. Por ejemplo, si la m representa
la x en una palabra, la m siempre representará x en todas las palabras del escrito. En cada escrito misterioso
hay un término hecho como ejemplo.
M Z A Q B
a b c d e
E C P D W F O G X H U
f g h i l m n o p q r
I
s
N J
t u
J
y
B
ó
L Ñ
ó á
Descubrimiento de la radiactividad
1. P B O U D Z B A H J B U B W Henri Becquerel
2. JUMOFG
3. WGI AJUDB
4. XWMAM EGNGCUÑEDAM
5. UMQD G
6. XGWGOD G
7. UMQDMADLO
Código
E
a
F
c
V K U L
d e g i
X A M I
l m n o
Nuclear Decay
8. CEVLIEFDLRLDJ radioactivity
9. LNBDIYIN
10. D CEMNAZDEFLBM
11. YCIDIMKN
12. MKZD CIMKN
13. KXKFD CIMKN
14. VEDEFLBM CEVLIEFDLRE
24 Radiactividad y reacciones nucleares
Y C N D Z R
p r s t u v
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Satisface las necesidades individuales
Código
Nombre
Fecha
Lectura dirigida para
Clase
Sección 3
■
Sección 4
■
Dominio del contenido
Detección de la
radiactividad
Reacciones nucleares
15. Liberación de materia y energía del núcleo de un átomo es el(la)
(enlazamiento/radiactividad).
16. Los isótopos de un elemento difieren en su número de (neutrones/electrones)
y en su número de masa, pero tienen el mismo número de protones.
17. Los elementos con números atómicos entre el 93 y el 112 son elementos
(sintéticos/que ocurren en la naturaleza).
18. Los elementos más pesados son generalmente más estables cuando tienen
(menos/más neutrones que protones en el núcleo).
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Instrucciones: Usa las claves para identificar términos relacionados con la detección de radiactividad. Escribe
cada término en el espacio a la izquierda. Encuentra los términos en la sopa de letras y enciérralos en un círculo.
1. usa filas de burbujas en un
K H Y R K N H R T P I C
líquido super calentado para
A N O V B O L W S A M W
seguir la pista a las partículas
C E C O N T A D O R G E
2. detecta las partículas con carga A P O O A F Y N U T X N
creando un camino visible de
M O I Z G V B O Z I P B
pequeñas gotas
A N P M R E M R A C A X
3. aparato que detecta las cargas
R I O N A X R T X U D Q
eléctricas
A R C J D Z N U C L E O
4. aparato que produce sonidos
de clic o luces que se prenden y D T S L I D O E K A W P
E C O Y A S T N H A T O
se apagan amplificando una
B E R P C M O F C L I J
corriente eléctrica que se
U L T M I A R S I F D E
forma en presencia de
radiación presente
R E C U O F P G T A U V
5. radiación en forma de ondas
B D E C N T B T V E G E
U G L D E B U N E D A R
6. partícula que deja una marca
larga y delgada en una cámara J T E H I E U A M A G O
de nube
A C I T E N G A M O R T
7. partícula que deja una marca corta y ancha en una cámara de nube
8. los núcleos atómicos se combinan
9. masa de material que puede sufrir fisión que se requiere para la fisión
P Q A N
T
I
I
G E R
F
J
T O
B T
U Q A C
S Z
I
L
E
B U L
O L C E
N S
I
J
M O T R
W C R H
K F A Q
G C P F
L
Y P O
A M A C
Y A R A
C E
Radiactividad y reacciones nucleares
L
E
25
Satisface las necesidades individuales
Instrucciones: Encierra en un círculo el término o frase que mejor complete cada oración.
Nombre
Fecha
Lectura dirigida para
Dominio del contenido
Clase
Términos claves
Radiactividad y reacciones
nucleares
Instrucciones: Coordina el término de la Columna II con su descripción en la Columna I. Escribe la letra del término correcto en el espacio en blanco a la izquierda.
Columna II
Satisface las necesidades individuales
1. proceso por el cual un núcleo se divide en
dos núcleos de masa más pequeña
a. partícula alfa
2. hace que los protones y neutrones se vean
atraídos unos a otros
b. masa crítica
3. se usa para detectar partículas nucleares
en la forma de filas visibles de gotitas
4. radioisótopo que se usa para seguir la pista
a ciertas moléculas en un organismo
5. aparato que produce una corriente
eléctrica cuando detecta radiación
6. electrón de gran rapidez emitido de un núcleo
7. proceso de cambiar un elemento a otro
por medio de la desintegración nuclear
c. media vida
d. reacción en
cadena
e. transmutaciones
f. indicador
radiactivo
g. partícula beta
8. cantidad de tiempo que le toma el
h. radiactividad
desintegrarse a la mitad de los núcleos de
una muestra de material radiactivo
i. cámara de niebla
9. serie continua de reacciones de fisión
10. cantidad de material que puede ser fisionado que j. cámara de
se requiere para que una reacción de fisión
produzca una o más reacciones nucleares.
burbujas
11. compuesto(a) de dos protones y dos neutrones
k. fusión nuclear
12. usa huellas y burbujas para detectar radiación
13. liberación de materia y energía debido a la
l. fisión nuclear
desintegración nuclear
14. ondas electromágneticas con energía de alta
m. contador Geiger
frecuencia
15. combina dos núcleos más pequeños para formar n. rayos gamma
un núcleo más grande
o. fuerza fuerte
26 Radiactividad y reacciones nucleares
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Columna I
Name
Date
1
Class
Radioactivity
Reinforcement
Directions: Use the following section of the periodic table to complete the following.
56
Ba
Barium
137.33
87
72
57 to 71
88
Fr
Ra
Francium
(223)
Radium
226.025
89 to 103
78
79
81
82
Hf
Ta
W
Re
Os
Ir
Pt
Au
Hg
Tl
Pb
Bi
Po
At
Rn
Hafnium
178.49
Tantalum
180.95
73
Tungsten
183.85
74
Rhenium
186.207
75
Osmium
190.2
76
Iridium
192.22
77
Platinum
195.08
Gold
196.967
Mercury
200.59
80
Thallium
204.383
Lead
207.2
Bismuth
208.98
Polonium
(209)
Astatine
(210)
Radon
(222)
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
Unq
Unp
Unh
Uns
Uno
Uue
Uun
Uuu
Uub
Unniquadium Unnipentium Unnihexium Unniseptium Unnioctium Unniennium
(261)
(262)
(263)
(264)
(265)
(266)
57
58
59
60
61
62
Pr
Nd
Pm
Sm
63
64
Eu
Gd
65
66
67
Dy
Ho
68
84
69
85
86
70
71
La
Ce
Lanthnum
1.00794
Cerium
104.12
140.908
(145)
(145)
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
Ac
Th
Pa
U
Np
Pu
Am
Cm
Bk
Cf
Es
Fm
Md
No
Lr
Actinum
227.028
Thorium
232.038
Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium
Protactinium
231.036
Uranium
238.029
150.36
Europium Gadolinium
151.96
157.25
Neptunium Plutonium Americium
237.048
(244)
(243)
Curium
(247)
Tb
83
Terbium
158.925
Dysprosium Holmium
162.50
164.93
Er
Tm
Yb
Lu
Erbium
167.26
Thulium
168.934
Ytterbium
173.04
Lutetium
174.967
Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium
(247)
(251)
(252)
(257)
(258)
(259)
Lawrencium
(260)
1. Use a pencil to lightly shade in the boxes of the radioactive elements.
2. Draw an X through the boxes that represent synthetic elements.
3. How many of the radioactive elements are found in nature?
4. How many radioactive elements are made only in the laboratory?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. What statement can you make about the relationship between atomic numbers and radioactivity?
Directions: The atomic number of uranium is 92. The most stable isotope of uranium is uranium-238. The
radioactive isotope of uranium is uranium-235. In the spaces provided, write the symbols for the nucleus of each
isotope of uranium.
Uranium-238
Uranium-235
6. How many neutrons does uranium-238 contain?
7. How may neutrons does uranium-235 contain?
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
27
Meeting Individual Needs
55
Cs
Cesium
132.91
Name
2
Date
Reinforcement
Class
Nuclear Decay
Directions: Element Z has a half-life of one week. Use the graph grid and the directions below to trace the decay
of a 256-gram sample of element Z over a 10-week period. Each box on the grid represents one gram of element Z.
After you complete each step, answer the question.
2. Use a different color pencil to draw a
large X through 1/2 of the remaining
boxes. How many grams of element Z
remain after two weeks?
3. Use a pencil to shade 1/2 of the
remaining boxes. How much of
element Z is left?
4. Repeat step 3 using the colored pencil. How many grams of element Z remain?
5. Use a pencil to draw an X in 1/2 of the remaining boxes. How many grams of element Z remain?
6. Repeat step 5 using the colored pencil. How many grams of element Z remain?
7. Use your pencil to draw a circle in 1/2 of the remaining boxes. How many grams of element Z
remain?
8. Repeat step 7 using the colored pencil. How many grams of element Z remain?
9. Shade in 1/2 of the remaining box with a pencil. How much of element Z remains?
10. Repeat step 9 using the colored pencil. How much of element Z remains?
Directions: On a separate sheet of graph paper, make a line graph or a bar graph that shows the decay of
element Z over a 10-week period. Use your answers to questions 1–10 as your data.
28 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Meeting Individual Needs
1. Use a pencil to draw a large X through
all of the boxes on the left half of the
grid. How many grams of element Z
decayed?
Name
Date
3
Reinforcement
Class
Detecting Radioactivity
Directions: Determine whether the italicized term makes each statement true or false. If the statement is true,
write true in the blank. If the statement is false, write in the blank the term that makes the statement true.
1. Radiation forms ions by removing protons from matter as it
passes through.
3. In a bubble chamber, a moving radioactive particle leaves ions
behind, causing the liquid to boil along the trail.
4. The common method of measuring radioactivity at job sites is
to use an electroscope.
5. In a cloud chamber, beta particles leave short, thick trails.
6. Small and portable Geiger counters are often used to test for
radioactivity.
7. A radioactive particle moving through the air near an electroscope will cause the leaves of the electroscope to move together.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Directions: Match each type of radiation detector in Column II with its description in Column I. Write the letter
of the correct term in the space provided.
Column II
Column I
8. ionizing rays pass through a superheated liquid
a. Geiger counter
9. ionizing rays pass through water vapor or ethanol
b. electroscope
10. loses charge in the presence of radiation
c. bubble chamber
11. radiation causes a current to flow from a wire to produce
clicking sound or flashing light
d. cloud chamber
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
29
Meeting Individual Needs
2. In a cloud chamber, alpha particles leave long, thin trails.
Name
Date
4
Reinforcement
Class
Nuclear Reactions
Directions: Use the diagrams below to complete the following activities.
1p
1n
+
1p
1n
2p
2n
Energy
56p
85n
n
n
92p
143n
n
n
Ene
rgy
36p
56n
1. The diagrams show two types of nuclear reactions: nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. Label the
type of reaction shown in each diagram in the space provided.
2. Circle the letter of the equation that correctly explains the nuclear reaction shown in the top
diagram.
a. H-2 + H-2 → H-4
c. H-1 + H-1 → H-2
b. H-2 + H-2 → He-4
d. H-1 + H-1 → He-2
3. Circle the letter of the equation that correctly explains the nuclear reaction shown in the
bottom diagram.
a. 1 neutron + U-235 → Ba-141 + Kr-92 + 3 neutrons + energy
b. 1 neutron + U-238 → Ba-141 + Kr-92 + 4 neutrons
c. Ba-141 + Kr-92 → U-235 + 3 neutrons
d. Ba-141 + Kr-92 → U-238
4. What two elements are involved in the nuclear fusion reaction?
5. Label each atom in the fusion reaction with its correct symbol and isotope notation.
6. What three elements are involved in the fission reaction shown?
7. Label each atom in the nuclear fission reaction with its chemical symbol and its correct isotope
notation.
30 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Meeting Individual Needs
gy
Ener
+
Name
Date
1
Enrichment
Class
How do isotopes differ?
Directions: Most elements exist in nature as isotopes. Isotopes of an element are almost identical in their
chemical properties and reactions. However, the nuclear properties of isotopes are different. Not only do isotopes
differ in mass, but some may be radioactive. Using a periodic table, complete the information in the chart below.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1.
1
1H
2.
2
1H
3.
3
1H
4.
4
2 He
Atomic number
Number of
protons
Mass number
Number of
neutrons
1
1
Meeting Individual Needs
Symbol
1
3
2
2
5.
12
6C
12
6.
14
6C
14
7.
18
8O
18
8.
49
21 Sc
9.
63
27 Co
10.
212
82 Pb
212
11.
222
88 Ra
222
12.
226
88 Ra
226
13.
235
92 U
235
14.
238
92 U
238
21
28
63
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
31
Name
2
Date
Class
The Decay of U-235
Enrichment
Directions: Fill in the 12 steps in the decay of U-235 in the diagram below. Begin with U-235 and finish with an
isotope of lead. The particles emitted in each step are listed below. Use the periodic table to find information about
mass numbers, atomic numbers, and chemical symbols. Place the correct symbol in the space corresponding to the
correct mass number and atomic number.
Step
Particle emitted
1
Alpha
2
Beta
3
Alpha
4
Alpha
5
Beta
6
Alpha
7
Alpha
8
Alpha
9
Beta
10
Alpha
11
Beta
12
Stable
235
U
227
Mass Number
223
219
215
211
207
203
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93
Atomic Number
1. What nucleus is the final product?
2. Which steps are linear and which steps are diagonal?
32 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Meeting Individual Needs
231
Name
Enrichment
Class
Radiation Around Us
In this activity, you will learn how radiation comes from different sources. Radiation is sometimes
measured in a unit called a rem. This is a measure of the power of radiation to cause ionization in
human tissue. The average person receives about 200 mrem (millirem) per year from background
sources of radiation.
The data table below lists the relative amount of radiation from various background sources. You
will calculate the percent each source represents of the whole. The circle below will represent the total
200 mrem of the background radiation. You will divide the circle into wedges. Each wedge will represent the percentage amount of the total background radiation of that source. Label each wedge with
the correct letter. The size of the wedge, in degrees, can be found by multiplying the percent for the
source by 360. See the example in the table.
Source of radiation
A. Natural background *
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
B. Medical (X-rays)
Dose (mrem)
Size of wedge
30.7
110.5
135.2
61.4
C. Nuclear fallout
1.2
D. Miscellaneous **
1.0
E. Occupational
0.9
F. Nuclear industry
0.3
Totals
% of total
200.0
100
360
* Natural background radiation includes cosmic rays, rocks, soil, water, and air sources.
** Miscellaneous radiation includes color TV tubes, air travel, and consumer products.
1. What are some of the ways of reducing your background sources of radiation?
2. What sources of background radiation are most difficult to avoid?
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
33
Meeting Individual Needs
3
Date
Name
Date
4
Enrichment
Class
Fission and Fusion
Possibilities
The bombardment of an atomic nucleus
with neutrons can result in nuclear fission.
One common example of nuclear fission is
described in your text where U-235 splits into
Ba-142 and Kr-91. U-235 can also split into
other elements. Other unstable nuclei such as
Pu-239 can split in a variety of ways when
struck by a neutron.
Like nuclear fission, nuclear fusion has more
than one possibility. In nuclear fusion, two
smaller nuclei fuse to form a larger nucleus.
For example, in the Sun three separate fusion
reactions take place. As a result of these
reactions smaller hydrogen nuclei are fused
into large helium nuclei.
1. Complete the following fission reactions.
n +
1
0
235
92
92
36
1
0
235
92
152
60
1
0
239
94
n +
n +
U
Kr +
Ba + ____________ 01n
141
56
Nd + ____________ + 4 01n
U
____________ +
Pu
97
40
Zr + 2 01n
2. Complete the following fusion reactions.
H + 12H
2
1
He + ____________
3
2
____________ + 2 11H
He + 23He
3
2
He + 12H
3
2
He + ____________
4
2
3. Is the ratio of the amount of hydrogen to helium in the Sun increasing or decreasing? Explain.
4. Use library resources to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using nuclear fission to
power electrical generating plants and submarines.
34 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Meeting Individual Needs
Directions: The following exercises are examples of fission and fusion reactions. Some of the products are given
to you. Try to figure out the missing products.
Name
Date
Note-taking
Worksheet
Section 1
Class
Radioactivity and Nuclear
Reactions
Radioactivity
A. The ________________ of an atom is composed of protons and neutrons which comprise
most of the atom’s mass.
B. The ______________________ causes protons and neutrons to be attracted to each other in the
1. The strong force is powerful only when neutrons and protons
are ________________________________________.
2. The protons and neutrons in a ______________ nucleus are held less tightly by the strong
force than protons and neutrons in a ______________ nucleus.
C. ______________________—nuclear decay which happens when the strong force is not large
enough to hold the nucleus together; the nucleus gives off matter and energy.
1. _________________ are atoms of the same element with varying numbers of neutrons.
2. A nucleus with too many or too few neutrons compared to ________________ is radioactive.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. ______________________—number of protons in an atom
4. ____________________—number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus
D. Uranium radioactivity was discovered in 1896 by Henri Becquerel; Marie and Pierre
______________ discovered the radioactive elements polonium and radium in 1898.
Section 2
Nuclear Decay
A. __________________________—particles and energy are released from a decaying nucleus.
B. ______________ particle—two protons and two neutrons with an electric charge of +2
1. Alpha particles leave charged _____________ in their path when they travel through matter.
2. Alpha particles are the ______________ penetrating form of nuclear radiation.
3. Alpha particles can cause serious biological damage.
C. _____________ particle—neutron decays into a proton and releases an electron at high speed;
more penetrating than alpha particles
D. ___________________—penetrating electromagnetic waves that carry energy, but have no
mass or charge
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
35
Meeting Individual Needs
nucleus.
Name
Date
Class
Note-taking Worksheet (continued)
E. ______________________—process of one element’s changing to another through nuclear decay
F. The __________________ of a radioactive isotope is the length of time it takes half the
nucleus to decay; half-lives vary from fractions of a second to billions of years.
G. Carbon dating can be used to date once-living materials while ________________ dating can
be used to date rocks.
Section 3
Detecting Radioactivity
passes through matter.
1. A ______________ chamber detects alpha or beta particles by means of a trail of
condensed vapor.
2. A _______________ chamber detects radioactive particles by means of a bubble trail in a
superheated liquid.
3. ______________________ can measure charged particles in the air.
B. A _______________________ measures radioactivity by producing an electric current when
radiation is present.
C. Background radiation comes from ______________ gas produced in the Earth’s crust, from
cosmic rays, and from radioactive isotopes in the body.
Section 4
Nuclear Reactions
A. Nuclear ________________—process of splitting a nucleus into two nuclei with smaller
masses; a large amount of energy is released.
1. _______________________—an ongoing series of fission reactions
2. ______________________—amount of fissionable material required to continue a
reaction at a constant rate
36 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Meeting Individual Needs
A. Radiation detectors are instruments used to identify _____________ formed when radiation
Name
Date
Class
Note-taking Worksheet (continued)
B. Nuclear _______________—two nuclei with low masses are combined to form one nucleus
of larger mass.
1. Nuclear fusion can happen only when nuclei are moving fast enough to get ______________
to each other.
2. _____________________ in stars (millions of degrees Celsius) are high enough for fusion
to occur.
1. Radioisotopes are used as ________________ to find or keep track of molecules in an organism.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. _______________ cells can be killed with carefully measured doses of radiation.
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
37
Meeting Individual Needs
C. Nuclear __________________ have medical uses.
Assessment
Assessment
38 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
Name
Date
Class
Radioactivity and Nuclear
Reactions
Chapter
Review
Part A. Vocabulary Review
Directions: Complete the following sentences using the terms listed below.
Geiger counter
critical mass
alpha particle
cloud chamber
bubble chamber
strong force
nuclear fusion
radioactivity
chain reaction
transmutation
half-life
beta particle
tracer
nuclear fission
gamma ray
1. A device that uses a superheated liquid to detect radioactive particles
is a(n) _____.
2. A positively charged nuclear particle that has two protons and two
neutrons is a(n) _____.
3. A form of nuclear radiation that travels as waves is a(n) _____.
4. The process by which one element changes to another element
through nuclear decay is _____.
5. A type of nuclear reaction in which nuclei with low masses are
united to form a nucleus with a larger mass is _____.
7. Beta and alpha particles can be tracked in a(n) _____, a device that
is filled with water vapor or ethanol vapor.
8. The time it takes for one-half a sample of a radioisotope to decay is
its ______.
9. The process of nuclear decay is called ______.
10. An electron emitted from a nucleus at high speed is called a(n) ______.
11. An ongoing series of fission reactions is a(n) ______.
12. The process of splitting an atom into two nuclei with smaller masses
is ______.
13. Any radioisotope that is used to detect changes in bodily functions
is a(n) ______.
14. A device that indicates the presence of radiation by clicking sounds
or flashes of light is a(n) ______.
15. The amount of fissionable material required so that each fission
reaction produces approximately one more fission reaction is
a(n) ______.
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
39
Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
6. Protons and neutrons are attracted to each other because of
a(n) _____.
Name
Date
Class
Chapter Review (continued)
Part B. Concept Review
Directions: Circle the term in parentheses that makes each statement correct.
1. The discovery that uranium is a radioactive element was made by (Henri Becquerel,
Marie Curie).
2. Marie and Pierre Curie discovered the elements radium and (polonium, technetium).
3. Because of the strong force protons are (attracted to, repelled by) protons.
4. A form of radiation that travels as waves is a (beta particle, gamma ray).
5. Energy in the sun is produced as a result of nuclear (fission, fusion) reactions.
6. The type of nuclear reaction that produces a nucleus with a large mass from nuclei of lower
masses is a (fission, fusion) reaction.
7. The constant rate at which a radioactive element decays is its (half-life, chemical change).
8. The radioisotope that is used to detect and treat thyroid cancer is (U-238, I-131).
9. Radiation can be used to stop (some, all) types of cancerous cells from growing.
10. To determine how much radiation is present in an area, a Geiger counter is (more, less) useful
than a bubble chamber.
12. When subatomic particles released from one fission reaction continue to produce other fission
Assessment
reactions, it is called a (fusion, chain) reaction.
13. A beta particle travels more (quickly, slowly) than an alpha particle.
14. The radioisotope (Co-60, Au-189) is sometimes used as a source of external ionizing radiation
in the treatment of cancer.
15. In nuclear fusion (hydrogen, oxygen) atoms are used to produce helium atoms with larger masses.
16. An isotope of the element (carbon, iodine) is used to detect thyroid problems.
17. (Radioactive, Stable) tracers are useful in determining medical problems.
18. Elements with an atomic number greater than (84, 93) are synthetic.
19. Radioactivity is the process of (nuclear attraction, nuclear decay).
20. When the charged leaves of an electroscope gradually come together, they have (lost, gained)
their charge because of radioactive particles.
40 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
11. The use of carbon-14 to determine the age of fossils is called (uranium decay, radioactive dating).
Transparency Activities
Transparency
Activities
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
45
Name
1
Date
Section Focus
Transparency Activity
Class
Scientific Sacrifice
Transparency Activities
1. Uranium and radium are always decaying. What do you think
they release that makes them so dangerous?
2. Name some present day uses of uranium.
46 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Pierre and Marie Curie, shown here in their laboratory in Paris,
France, helped pioneer the study of radioactivity. For years they
handled and examined uranium and radium, unaware of the deadly
hazards. Even with deteriorating health, the Curies continued their
research. Much of today’s nuclear science is based on their work.
Name
2
Date
Section Focus
Transparency Activity
Class
A Distant Relative
Transparency Activities
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In 1974, Donald Johanson and Tom Gray discovered the skeleton of
the world’s oldest human relative. Nicknamed Lucy, the remains were
dated using the potassium-argon radioactive decay method. Lucy was
determined to be 3.2 million years old.
1. Radioactive nuclei are said to decay. From the general meaning
of decay, what do you think this means?
2. Where was the radioactive material that was used to date Lucy?
3. Every radioactive isotope has a half-life. What do you think that
means?
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
47
Name
3
Date
Section Focus
Transparency Activity
Class
Home Safety
Transparency Activities
1. The can looks pretty simple. How do you think the detector
works?
2. What kinds of risk might the accumulation of radon pose?
3. Using the word radon as a guide, name the element that decays
and releases radon.
48 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Radon is a radioactive gas that exists naturally in soil and rock. This
odorless and colorless gas can seep through cracks into basements. At
high levels, radon is a serious health risk. A home radon detector, like
the one shown below, is a practical way to check radon levels.
Name
4
Date
Section Focus
Transparency Activity
Class
PET Scan
1. What part of the body do these images show? How do you know?
Transparency Activities
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
To take a PET (positron emission tomography) scan, doctors inject
a patient with radioisotopes. When the radioisotopes reach the part
of the body to be scanned, special cameras detect the rays emitted by
them. The resulting images can be seen on a computer screen.
2. How is a PET scan different from an X-ray image?
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
49
2
Teaching
Transparency Activity
Transparency Activities
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Name
Date
Class
Smoke Detector
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
51
Name
Teaching Transparency Activity
Date
Class
(continued)
1. When an atom loses an alpha particle, it no longer is the same element. What part of the atom
was lost?
2. When alpha particles collide in air, what results?
3. What is transmutation?
5. How many protons and neutrons are in an alpha particle?
6. What creates the current in a smoke detector?
Transparency Activities
52 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4. How does smoke set off the alarm in a smoke detector?
Name
Date
Assessment
Transparency Activity
Class
Radioactivity and
Nuclear Reactions
Directions: Carefully review the tables and answer the following questions.
Elements
Element name
Number of protons
Number of neutrons
Carbon
6
6
Cobalt
27
32
Iodine
53
74
Uranium
92
144
Isotopes
Number of protons
Number of neutrons
Carbon-14
6
8
Cobalt-60
27
33
Iodine-131
53
78
Uranium-235
92
143
1. The element carbon has at least one other isotope, carbon-13. A
reasonable hypothesis based on the data contained in the tables is
that carbon-13 has ___.
A 8 neutrons
C 6 electrons
B 7 neutrons
D 12 protons
Transparency Activities
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Isotope name
2. What do the elements and their isotopes have in common?
F same number of protons
H same mass number
G same number of neutrons
J same nuclear mass
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
53
Author
Document
Category
Education
Views
292
File Size
965 KB
Tags
1/--pages
Report inappropriate content