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Chapter 19 Resource: Elements and Their Properties

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Glencoe Science
Chapter Resources
Elements and
Their Properties
Includes:
Reproducible Student Pages
ASSESSMENT
TRANSPARENCY ACTIVITIES
✔ Chapter Tests
✔ Section Focus Transparency Activities
✔ Chapter Review
✔ Teaching Transparency Activity
✔ Assessment Transparency Activity
HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES
✔ Lab Worksheets for each Student Edition Activity
Teacher Support and Planning
✔ Laboratory Activities
✔ Content Outline for Teaching
✔ Foldables–Reading and Study Skills activity sheet
✔ Spanish Resources
✔ Teacher Guide and Answers
MEETING INDIVIDUAL NEEDS
✔ Directed Reading for Content Mastery
✔ Directed Reading for Content Mastery in Spanish
✔ Reinforcement
✔ Enrichment
✔ Note-taking Worksheets
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Table of Contents
To the Teacher
Reproducible Student Pages
■
iv
Hands-On Activities
MiniLab: Try at Home Discovering What’s in Cereal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
MiniLab: Identifying Chlorine Compounds in Your Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Lab: What type is it? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Lab: Design Your Own Experiment Slippery Carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Laboratory Activity 1: Preparation of Carbon Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Laboratory Activity 2: Preparation of Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Foldables: Reading and Study Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
■
Meeting Individual Needs
Extension and Intervention
Directed Reading for Content Mastery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Directed Reading for Content Mastery in Spanish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Enrichment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Note-taking Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
■
Assessment
Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Chapter Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
■
Transparency Activities
Section Focus Transparency Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Teaching Transparency Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Assessment Transparency Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Teacher Support and Planning
Content Outline for Teaching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T2
Spanish Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T6
Teacher Guide and Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T11
Additional Assessment Resources available with Glencoe Science:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ExamView® Pro TestMaker
Assessment Transparencies
Performance Assessment in the Science Classroom
Standardized Test Practice Booklet
MindJogger Videoquizzes
Vocabulary PuzzleMaker at: gpscience.com
Interactive Chalkboard
The Glencoe Science Web site at: gpscience.com
An interactive version of this textbook along with assessment resources are available
online at: mhln.com
iii
Reproducible
Student Pages
Reproducible Student Pages
■
Hands-On Activities
MiniLab: Try at Home Discovering What’s in Cereal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
MiniLab: Identifying Chlorine Compound in Your Water . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Lab: What type is it? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Lab: Design Your Own Experiment Slippery Carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Laboratory Activity 1: Preparation of Carbon Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Laboratory Activity 2: Preparation of Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Foldables: Reading and Study Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
■
Meeting Individual Needs
Extension and Intervention
Directed Reading for Content Mastery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Directed Reading for Content Mastery in Spanish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Enrichment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Note-taking Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
■
Assessment
Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Chapter Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
■
Transparency Activities
Section Focus Transparency Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Teaching Transparency Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Assessment Transparency Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Elements and Their Properties
1
Hands-On Activities
Hands-On
Activities
2 Elements and Their Properties
Date
Class
Hands-On Activities
Name
Discovering What’s in Cereal
Procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Tape a small, strong magnet to a pencil at the eraser end.
Place some dry, fortified, cold cereal in a plastic bag.
Thoroughly crush the cereal.
Pour the crushed cereal into a deep bowl and cover it with water.
Stir the mixture for about 10 min with your pencil/magnet. Stir slowly for
the last minute.
6. Remove the magnet and examine it carefully. Record your observations in
the space below.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Data and Observations
Analysis
1. What common element is attracted to your magnet?
2. Why is this element added to the cereal?
Elements and Their Properties
3
Name
Date
Class
Procedure
1. In three labeled test tubes, obtain 2 mL of chlorine standard solution,
distilled water, and drinking water.
2. Carefully add five drops of silver nitrate solution to each and stir.
WARNING: Avoid contact with the silver nitrate solution. Silver nitrate is a
corrosive liquid that can stain skin and clothes.
Analysis
1. Which solution will definitely show a presence of chlorine? How did this result compare to the
result with distilled water?
2. Which result most resembled your drinking water?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Hands-On Activities
Identifying Chlorine Compounds in
Your Water
4 Elements and Their Properties
Name
Date
Class
Hands-On Activities
What type is it?
Lab Preview
Directions: Answer these questions before you begin the Lab.
1. Why do you need to take precautions when using electricity?
2. What are some visual differences of metals and nonmetals?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Suppose you want an element for a certain use. You might be able to use a
metal but not a nonmetal. In this lab, you will test several metals and nonmetals and compare their properties.
Real-World Question
Procedure
How can you use properties to distinguish
metals from nonmetals?
1. Observe and record in the table on the next
page the appearance of each element sample.
Include its physical state, color, and whether
it is shiny or dull.
2. Remove a small sample of one of the elements. Gently tap the sample with a hammer. The sample is malleable if it flattens
when tapped and brittle if it shatters. Clean the
hammer between testing using a paper towel.
Record your results in the table.
3. Repeat step 2 for each sample.
4. Test the conductivity of each element by
touching the electrodes of the conductivity
tester to a sample. If the bulb lights, the
element conducts electricity. Record your
results.
Materials
samples C, Mg, Al, S, and Sn
dishes for the samples
conductivity tester
spatula
small hammer
paper towels
Goals
■
■
■
Observe physical properties.
Test the malleability of the materials.
Identify electrical conductivity in the given
materials.
Safety Precautions
Elements and Their Properties
5
Name
Date
Class
(continued)
Observing Properties
Element
Appearance
Malleable or brittle/
Electrical conductivity
1. carbon
2. magnesium
3. aluminum
4. sulfur
5. tin
Conclude and Apply
1. Compare and Contrast Locate each element you used on the periodic table. Compare your
results with what you would expect from an element in that location.
2. Explain Locate palladium, Pd, on the periodic table. Use the results you obtained during the
activity to predict some of the properties of palladium.
Communicating Your Data
Compare your results with those of other students. For more help, refer to the Science
Skill Handbook.
6 Elements and Their Properties
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Hands-On Activities
Data and Observations
Name
Date
Class
Design Your Own
Hands-On Activities
Slippery Carbon
Lab Preview
Directions: Answer these questions before you begin the Lab.
1. Why might you use spaghetti and gumdrops in this lab?
2. Is graphite an element or a compound?
Often, a lubricant is needed when two metals touch each other. For example, a
sticky lock sometimes works better with the addition of a small amount of
graphite. What gives this allotrope of carbon the slippery property of a lubricant?
Real-World Question
Test Your Hypothesis
Why do certain arrangements of atoms in a
material cause the material to feel slippery?
Make a Plan
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Form a Hypothesis
Based on your understanding of how carbon
atoms bond, form a hypothesis about the
relationship of graphite’s molecular structure
to its physical properties.
Possible Materials
thin spaghetti
small gumdrops
thin polystyrene sheets
flat cardboard
scissors
Goals
■
■
■
Make a model that will demonstrate the
molecular structure of graphite.
Compare and contrast the strength of the
different bonds in graphite.
Infer the relationship between bonding and
physical properties.
Safety Precautions
Use care when working with scissors and
uncooked spaghetti.
1. As a group, agree upon a logical hypothesis
statement.
2. As a group, sequence and list the steps you
need to take to test your hypothesis. Be
specific, describing exactly what you will
do at each step to make a model of the
types of bonding present in graphite.
3. Remember from Figure 8 in your textbook
that graphite consists of rings of six carbons bonded in a flat hexagon. These rings
are bonded to each other. In addition, the
flat rings in one layer are weakly attached to
other flat layers.
4. List possible materials you plan to use.
5. Read over the experiment to make sure
that all steps are in logical order.
6. Will your model be constructed with materials that show weak and strong attractions?
Follow Your Plan
1. Make sure your teacher approves your plan
before you start.
2. Have you selected materials to use in your
model that demonstrate weak and strong
attractions? Carry out the experiment as
planned.
Elements and Their Properties
7
Name
Date
Class
(continued)
Analyze Your Data
1. Compare your model with designs and results of other groups.
2. How does your model illustrate two types of attractions found in the graphite structure?
3. How does the bonding of graphite that you explored in the lab explain graphite’s lubricating
properties?
Conclude and Apply
1. Describe the results you obtained from your experiment. Did the results support your
hypothesis?
2. Describe why graphite makes a good lubricant.
3. Explain What kinds of bonds do you think a diamond has?
Communicating Your Data
Explain to a friend why graphite makes a good lubricant and how the two types of bonds
make a difference. For more help, refer to the Science Skill Handbook.
8 Elements and Their Properties
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Hands-On Activities
3. Once your model has been constructed,
list any observations that you make and
include a sketch in the space at the right.
Date
1
Laboratory
Activity
Class
Preparation of Carbon Dioxide
When you burn a material that contains carbon, such as paper or gasoline, carbon dioxide gas
is produced. You also produce carbon dioxide when your body “burns” the food you eat. You don’t
burn the food with a flame, however. The cells of your body combine the carbon in the food you
eat with the oxygen in a reaction called oxidation. When carbon compounds are oxidized, carbon
dioxide gas is produced.
Carbon dioxide gas is colorless, odorless, and tasteless. It is necessary for photosynthesis, the
process by which green plants produce oxygen and glucose.
Strategy
You will observe a reaction that produces carbon dioxide gas.
You will describe the reaction that produces carbon dioxide gas.
You will observe the chemical properties of carbon dioxide gas.
Materials
metric ruler
hydrochloric acid solution
forceps
distilled water
24-well microplate
marble chips
lime water
scissors
transparent tape
toothpicks
long stem plastic pipette
plastic microtip pipettes (4)
matches
WARNING: Hydrochloric acid is corrosive. Avoid its contact with your skin or clothing. Rinse spills
with water.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Procedure
Part A—Preparing Carbon Dioxide Gas
1. Place the microplate on a flat surface. Have
the numbered columns of the microplate
at the top and the lettered rows at the left.
2. Use the scissors to trim the stem of the
long stem pipette to a length of 2.5 cm.
3. Using the scissors, cut a small slit in the
pipette as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1
Cut
2.5 cm
4. Use the forceps to insert a small marble
chip through the slit into the bulb of the
pipette. Cover the slit with transparent tape
to seal the bulb.Place the bulb of the
pipette in well A1.
5. Make collector pipettes by cutting the
stems of 2 of the microtip pipettes to
lengths of 1 cm, as shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2
Collector pipettes
1 cm
6. Completely fill the two collector pipettes
with water by holding each pipette under
running water with its stem upward.
Squeeze the bulb repeatedly until there is
no more air in the pipette.
7. Stand the collector pipettes with their
stems upward in wells C1 and C2.
8. Using an uncut microtip pipette, add about
half a pipetteful of hydrochloric acid to
well C3. Rinse the pipette with
distilled water.
9. Take the pipette containing the marble chip
from well A1 and invert it.
Elements and Their Properties
9
Hands-On Activities
Name
Name
Date
Class
Laboratory Activity 1 (continued)
13. Allow the bulb and about 0.5 cm of the
stem of the collector pipette to fill with
gas. Remove the collector pipette and
invert it. Allow the water to form a “plug”
sealing the gas in the pipette as shown in
Figure 4.
14. Return the collector pipette to well C1.
15. Remove the second collector pipette from
well C2 and the pipette containing the
hydrochloric acid and the marble chip
from well C4.
16. Repeat steps 11 and 13. Return the second
collector pipette to well C2.
Figure 4
Figure 3
Carbon dioxide
Water plug
Water
Collector pipette
Carbon dioxide gas
24-well microplate
10 Elements and Their Properties
Hydrochloric acid
Marble chip
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Hands-On Activities
10. Squeeze out the air. Place the stem of the
pipette in well C3 and draw the hydrochloric acid into the bulb of the pipette. Immediately invert the pipette.
11. Take the collector pipette from well C1 and
invert it over the stem of the pipette containing the hydrochloric acid and marble
chip. Insert the stem of the lower pipette
into the stem of the collector pipette. Place
the stem of the lower pipette into the bulb
of the collector pipette as far as it will go.
Place the pipettes into well C4 as shown in
Figure 3. Allow the displaced water from
the upper pipette to collect in the well.
12. Observe the reaction of the marble chip and
hydrochloric acid. Record your observations
in the Data and Observations section.
Name
Date
Class
Part B—Properties of Carbon Dioxide Gas
1. Fill a clean microtip pipette with the lime
water.
2. Observe the color of the lime water. Record
your observations in the Data and Observations section.
3. Push the tip of the microtip pipette into
the stem of the collector pipette in well
C1. Push the tip through the water plug
and into the bulb of the collector pipette.
4. Add about one-fourth a pipetteful of the lime
water to the collector pipette. Remove the
upper pipette.
5. Remove the collector pipette from well
C1. Cover the tip of the pipette with your
finger and shake the pipette vigorously for
about 20 seconds.
6. Return the pipette to well C1. Observe the
color of the solution. Record your observations in the Data and Observations section.
7. Ignite the tip of a toothpick with a match.
CAUTION: Use care with open flames.
Extinguish the flame, allowing the tip of
the toothpick to glow.
8. Remove the water plug from the collector
pipette in well C2 by gently squeezing the
bulb of the pipette.
9. Immediately insert the glowing tip of the
toothpick into the bulb of the collector
pipette.
10. Observe the tip of the toothpick. Record
your observations in the Data and
Observations section.
Data and Observations
Part A—Preparing Carbon Dioxide Gas
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Step 12. Observations of reaction of marble chip and hydrochloric acid
Part B—Properties of Carbon Dioxide Gas
Step 2. Observations of lime water
Step 6. Observations of solution
Step 10. Observations of glowing tip of toothpick in carbon dioxide gas
Elements and Their Properties
11
Hands-On Activities
Laboratory Activity 1 (continued)
Name
Date
Class
Laboratory Activity 1 (continued)
1. When carbon dioxide gas and lime water are mixed, calcium carbonate is formed. Describe
how your observations of the reaction of lime water and carbon dioxide gas can be used to
identify carbon dioxide gas.
2. Carbon dioxide gas does not support combustion. Describe how your observations of the
glowing toothpick can be used to identify carbon dioxide gas.
3. When a can of a soft drink is opened, bubbles of carbon dioxide gas form. When hydrochloric
acid and marble chips are mixed, bubbles of carbon dioxide gas are produced. How do the two
situations differ?
Strategy Check
Can you describe the reaction that produces carbon dioxide gas?
12 Elements and Their Properties
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Hands-On Activities
Questions and Conclusions
Date
2
Laboratory
Activity
Class
Preparation of Oxygen
About 20 percent of Earth’s atmosphere is oxygen. Oxygen gas is colorless, odorless, and tasteless. You, as well as most living organisms, require oxygen for respiration.
On Earth, most metallic elements are found as oxides. An oxide is a compound containing
oxygen and another element. One oxide with which you are familiar is silicon dioxide—sand.
Sand and water are the most common compounds of oxygen on this planet’s surface.
Strategy
You will observe a reaction that produces oxygen gas.
You will describe the reaction that produces oxygen gas.
You will observe the chemical properties of oxygen gas.
Materials
24-well microplate
cobalt nitrate solution
toothpicks
plastic microtip pipettes (3)
metric ruler
matches
household bleach solution
scissors
distilled water
long-stem plastic pipette
WARNING: Bleach and cobalt nitrate solution can cause stains; avoid contact with your skin or clothing.
Rinse spills with water.
Procedure
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Part A—Preparing Oxygen Gas
1. Place the microplate on a flat surface. Have
the numbered columns of the microplate
at the top and the lettered rows at the left.
2. Using a clean microtip pipette, add 30
drops of the household bleach to well A1.
Rinse the pipette with distilled water.
3. Using the microtip pipette, add 10 drops of
the cobalt nitrate solution to well A2. Rinse
the pipette with distilled water.
4. Make collector pipettes by cutting the
stems of two of the microtip pipettes to
lengths of 1 cm, as shown in Figure 1.
5. Completely fill the two collector pipettes
with water by holding each pipette under
running water with its stem upward.
Squeeze the bulb repeatedly until there is
no more air in the pipette.
6. Stand the collector pipettes with their
stems upward in wells C1 and C2.
Figure 1
Collector pipettes
1 cm
Figure 2
Cut
2.5 cm
Elements and Their Properties
13
Hands-On Activities
Name
Name
Date
Class
Laboratory Activity 2 (continued)
11. Observe the reaction of the bleach and cobalt
nitrate solutions. Record your observations in
the Data and Observations section.
12. Allow the bulb and about 0.5 cm of the
stem of the collector pipette to fill with
gas. Remove the collector pipette and
invert it. Allow the water to form a “plug”
sealing the gas in the pipette as shown in
Figure 4.
13. Return the collector pipette to well C1.
14. Remove the second collector pipette from
well C2 and the pipette containing the
bleach and cobalt nitrate solutions from
well C4.
15. Repeat steps 10 and 12. Return the collector
pipette to well C2.
Figure 4
Figure 3
Oxygen gas
Water plug
Water
Collector pipette
Oxygen gas
24-well microplate
14 Elements and Their Properties
Bleach and cobalt nitrate solutions
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Hands-On Activities
7. Use the scissors to trim the stem of the
long stem pipette to a length of 2.5 cm as
shown in Figure 2.
8. Using this pipette, draw up all the bleach
solution from well A1 into the bulb of the
pipette.
9. Hold the pipette with the stem upward.
Gently squeeze out the air. While still
squeezing the bulb, invert the pipette and
place the stem into well A2. Draw the
cobalt nitrate solution into the bulb of the
pipette. Immediately invert the pipette.
10. Take the collector pipette from well C1
and invert it over the stem of the pipette
containing the bleach and cobalt nitrate
solutions. Insert the stem of the lower
pipette into the stem of the collector
pipette. Place the stem of the lower pipette
into the bulb of the collector pipette as far
as it will go. Place the pipettes into well
C4 as shown in Figure 3. Allow the
displaced water from the upper pipette to
collect in the well.
Name
Date
Class
Part B—Properties of Oxygen Gas
1. Ignite the tip of a toothpick with a match.
CAUTION: Use care with open flames.
Extinguish the flame.
2. Remove the water plug from the collector
pipette in well C1 by gently squeezing the
bulb of the pipette.
3. Immediately insert the glowing tip of the
toothpick into the bulb of the collector
pipette.
4. Observe the reaction. Record your observations in the Data and Observations section.
5. Repeat steps 1 through 4 for the second
collector pipette in well C2.
Data and Observations
Part A—Preparing Oxygen Gas
Step 11. Observations of reaction of bleach and cobalt nitrate solutions:
Part B—Properties of Oxygen Gas
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Step 4. Observations of glowing toothpick in presence of oxygen gas:
Questions and Conclusions
1. Describe how your observations of the reaction of the glowing toothpick and oxygen gas
demonstrate a property of oxygen gas.
2. What is the chemical formula of oxygen gas?
3. The wood of the toothpick contains carbon compounds. What substances are formed when
these carbon compounds burn?
Elements and Their Properties
15
Hands-On Activities
Laboratory Activity 2 (continued)
Name
Date
Class
Laboratory Activity 2 (continued)
b. How many oxygen atoms are in each compound?
Strategy Check
Can you describe the reaction that produces oxygen gas?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Hands-On Activities
4. You observed the chemical reaction of sodium hypochlorite which is found in bleach, and
cobalt nitrate solutions. The chemical formula for sodium hypochlorite is NaOCl. The chemical formula for cobalt nitrate is Co(NO3)2.
a. What elements are in each compound?
16 Elements and Their Properties
Name
Date
Class
Hands-On Activities
Elements and Their Properties
Directions: Use this page to label your Foldable at the beginning of the chapter.
Metals
Nonmetals
argon
bromine
calcium
chlorine
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
fluorine
gold
helium
hydrogen
iodine
iron
krypton
nickel
potassium
silver
sodium
zinc
Elements and Their Properties
17
Meeting Individual Needs
Meeting Individual
Needs
18 Elements and Their Properties
Name
Date
Directed Reading for
Content Mastery
Class
Overview
Elements and Their Properties
Directions: Use the terms below to correctly complete the statements. Write the terms in the blanks to the left.
Then find and circle each term in the puzzle.
lanthanide
hydrogen
alkali
noble gases
salts
allotropes
1. Elements with atomic numbers from 58 through 71
are part of the ______ series.
2. ______ have both metallic and nonmetallic properties.
3. Diamond and graphite are ______ of carbon.
4. All of the elements in the boron group except boron
are ______.
5. Halogens form ______ when combined with metals.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
6. The ______ do not naturally mix with other elements
to form compounds.
7. The ______ metals are the most reactive group of
elements.
8. ______ is the only nonmetal on the left side of the
periodic table.
O T N M E W U
U H
I
D F
A S R Q F M K
L O
L O H O A N G R S C O N C E V R A
R H E C Y Z R P H
I
S E
L P D O O B S A
E P
T
G A R
J R T N H A
T
S
O
I
C A
B
I
T L U F
K M P G O E P M S K A L
E
N
I
R M
O
T R O P E S
I
I
R N B S L
S G
I
L
O E M A
S S U S E H A
T E
L
L
L
L M T
E M A
A M N F
L
I
L
A R T
R M C
G O L A N T H A N
I
D E C
S L D S B A
I
E S C H
C T S D R G
E C L
N O B L
N D A
L K
E G A S E S
T N A
I
I
G E B A
Elements and Their Properties
19
Meeting Individual Needs
metals
metalloids
Name
Date
Directed Reading for
Content Mastery
Section 1
Section 2
■
■
Class
Metals
Nonmetals
Directions: Use the terms below to complete the puzzle. The letters in the vertical box answer question 10.
diatomic
halogens
hydrogen
flourine
malleable
transition
ductile
noble gases
bromine
1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1. ______ is the only nonmetal on the left side of the periodic table.
2. ______ is the only liquid nonmetal.
3. Metals in Groups 3 through 12 of the periodic table are called ______ elements.
4. Two atoms of the same element, when bonded, form a(n) ______ molecule.
5. ______ is the most chemically active element.
6. Copper is useful as wire in a lamp because it conducts electricity and is ______.
7. Aluminum can be made into foil and cans because it is ______.
8. Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine are ______.
9. The elements in Group 18 are commonly known as the ______.
10. What category of elements is found on the right side of the periodic table?
20 Elements and Their Properties
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Meeting Individual Needs
2
Name
Date
Directed Reading for
Content Mastery
Section 3
■
Class
Mixed Groups
Directions: Complete the table below using the correct terms from the list. You will use some terms more than
once. Some terms might not be used.
Element
14
13
siding on buildings
Group
number
Metal, nonmetal,
or metalloid
nonmetal
metalloid
16
coal, oil, natural gas
sand, rock, soil
laundry products
Meeting Individual Needs
metal
multivitamins
paint
Found in/Used for
1. sulfur
2. silicon
3. boron
4. selenium
5. carbon
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
6. aluminum
Directions: Select the term from the following list that correctly completes each statement. Use each word
only once.
nitrogen
metalloids
transuranium
allotropes
carbon
7. Elements with properties of both metals and
nonmetals are called ______.
8. ______ are different forms of the same element, but
with different molecular structures.
9. Elements having more than 92 protons, the atomic
number of uranium, are called ______ elements.
10. All organic compounds contain ______.
11. Elements in the ______ group share electrons and
form covalent compounds with other elements.
Elements and Their Properties
21
Name
Date
Directed Reading for
Content Mastery
Class
Key Terms
Elements and Their Properties
Meeting Individual Needs
1. consists of two atoms of the same element in a
covalent bond
metals
2. element in Group 3 through Group 12
of the periodic table
malleable
3. positively charged metallic ions
surrounded by a cloud of electrons
diatomic molecule
4. capable of being hammered or rolled
into sheets
metallic bonding
5. elements that are shiny, good conductors
of heat and electricity, and solids at
room temperature
radioactive element
6. elements that conduct an electric current
under certain conditions
transition element
7. elements that are usually gases or
brittle solids at room temperature,
do not conduct heat or electricity well,
and are not shiny
nonmetals
8. element having more than 92 protons,
the atomic number of uranium
ductile
metalloids
9. the ability to be drawn into wires
10. forms of the same element that have
different molecular structures
semiconductors
11. element whose nucleus breaks down,
giving off particles and energy
allotropes
12. elements having properties of metals
and nonmetals
transuranium element
22 Elements and Their Properties
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Directions: Draw a line connecting each definition to its term.
Nombre
Fecha
Clase
Sinopsis
Elementos y sus propiedades
Lectura dirigida para
Dominio del contenidio
Instrucciones: Usa los siguientes términos para completar correctamente los enunciados. Escribe el término en
la línea en blanco. Luego halla cada uno en la sopa de letras. Los términos pueden estar a lo largo, hacia arriba,
hacia abajo o diagonalmente.
lántanidos
magnético
alcalinos
gases nobles
sales
alótropos
1. Los elementos con números atómicos que van de 58 a
71 forman parte de la serie de ______.
2. ______ tienen propiedades metálicas y no metálicas.
3. El diamante y el grafito son ______ de carbono.
4. Todos los elementos en el grupo del boro, exceptuando el boro, son ______.
5. Los halógenos forman ______ al combinarse con los
metales.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
6. El(La) ______ no se mezclan naturalmente con otros
elementos para formar compuestos.
7. Los metales ______ son el grupo más reactivo de
elementos.
8. El hierro, el cobalto y el níquel son los únicos elementos que poseen propiedades ______.
H U W F
A R E
I
K A K L
D E M A G N E
T
I
R G B A
S
C O A O
L S K P A N Y W P
T G A S E S N O B
L
E S O
K W K L
N T
J
S L
T
E E R
O M A L
C A
L
I
N O S S
T
R S M N E K R G H C A C O
M E T A
L O
T O G S
L A T
G S S O D
I
I
D E S K H
L
E M H
F T
A
N A T N A L
E
Elementos y sus propiedades
23
Satisface las necesidades individuales
metales
metaloides
Nombre
Fecha
Lectura dirigida para
Dominio del contenidio
Sección 1
Sección 2
Clase
■
■
Metales
No metales
Instrucciones: Usa los siguientes términos para completar el crucigrama. Las letras en la caja vertical contestan
la pregunta 10.
diatómica
halógenos
hidrógeno
flúor
maleable
transición
dúctil
gases nobles
bromo
1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1. El ______ es el único no metal a la izquierda de la tabla periódica.
2. El ______ es el único no metal líquido.
3. Los metales en los grupos 3 a 12 de la tabla periódica son elementos de ______.
4. El enlace de dos átomos del mismo elemento forma una molécula ______.
5. El ______ es el elemento químicamente más activo.
6. El cobre es útil para hacer el alambre de una lámpara porque conduce electricidad
y es ______.
7. El aluminio puede formarse en hojas y latas porque es ______.
8. El flúor, el cloro, el bromo y el yodo son ______.
9. Los elementos del grupo 18 se conocen comúnmente como ______.
10. ¿Qué categoría de elementos está en la parte derecha de la tabla periódica?
24 Elementos y sus propiedades
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Satisface las necesidades individuales
2
Nombre
Fecha
Lectura dirigida para
Sección 3
Clase
■
Grupos mixtos
Dominio del contenidio
Instrucciones: Completa la siguiente tabla usando los términos correctos la lista. Usarás algunos de ellos más
de una vez. Algunos términos no se usarán.
Elemento
Número
de grupo
Metal, no metal,
o metaloide
no metal
metaloide
16
metal
arena, roca, suelo
productos para lavar ropa
Se encuentra en/Se usa para
1. ázufre
2. silicio
3. boro
4. selenio
5. carbono
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
6. aluminio
Instrucciones: Selecciona los términos de la lista para completar correctamente cada oración. Usa cada palabra
una sola vez.
nitrógeno
metaloides
transuránicos
alótropicas
carbono
7. Los elementos que tienen propiedades tanto de metales como de no metales se llaman ______.
8. Las ______ son diferentes formas de un mismo elemento pero con estructura molecular diferente.
9. Los elementos que tienen más de 92 protones, que es
el número atómico del uranio, se llaman elementos
______.
10. Todos los compuestos orgánicos contienen ______.
11. Los elementos en el grupo del ______ comparten
electrones y forman compuestos mediante enlaces
covalentes con otros elementos.
Elementos y sus propiedades
25
Satisface las necesidades individuales
carbón, petróleo, gas natural
14
multivitaminas
13
pintura
cubierta para edificios
Nombre
Fecha
Lectura dirigida para
Dominio del contenidio
Clase
Términos claves
Elementos y sus propiedades
Instrucciones: Une con una línea cada término y su definición.
1. consta de dos átomos del mismo elemento
unidos por un enlace covalente
metales
2. elemento del grupo 3 al 12 de la tabla periódica
maleable
molécula diatómica
4. se puede martillar o enrollar en hojas
5. elementos que son brillantes, buenos conductores
de calor y electricidad y que son sólidos a
temperatura ambiente
enlace metálico
elemento radiactivo
6. elementos que bajo ciertas circunstancias pueden
conducir una corriente eléctrica
7. elementos que son generalmente gases o sólidos
quebradizos a temperatura ambiente, no conducen
bien el calor o la electricidad y no brillan
8. elementos que tienen más de 92 protones,
que es el número atómico del uranio
9. tiene la capacidad de alargarse y formar
alambres
10. formas del mismo elemento, pero que tienen
diferente estructura molecular
11. elemento cuyo núcleo se desintegra, liberando
partículas y energía
elemento de transición
no metales
dúctil
metaloides
semiconductores
alotrópicas
12. elementos que tienen propiedades de metales y
de no metales
elementos transuránicos
26 Elementos y sus propiedades
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Satisface las necesidades individuales
3. iones metálicos de carga positiva rodeados de
una nube electrónica
Name
1
Date
Reinforcement
Class
Metals
Directions: Complete the table below by writing the name of each of the following metals under the correct
heading. Use the periodic table in your textbook if you need help.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1.
Alkali
metals
sodium
cadmium
cobalt
potassium
2.
Alkaline
earth metals
iron
zinc
calcium
lithium
3.
magnesium
nickel
radium
copper
francium
mercury
silver
cesium
Meeting Individual Needs
barium
strontium
gold
chromium
Transition elements
Directions: For each of the following, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes the sentence.
4. The transition elements are in Groups ______.
a. 1–12
b. 3–13
c. 3–12
d. 3–5
5.The most highly reactive of all metals are the ______.
a. coinage metals
c. iron triad
b. alkaline earth metals
d. alkali metals
6. The alkali metals make up ______ of the periodic table.
a. Group 1
b. Group 2
c. Group 16
d. Group 18
7. The elements that make up the iron triad are
a. radioactive
c. alkali metals
b. transition
d. alkaline earth metals
8. The inner transition metals include the ______.
a. alkali metals and halogens
c. lanthanides and actinides
b. carbon group and noble gasses
d. alkaline earth metals only
9. The alkaline earth metals make up ______ of the periodic table.
a. Group 1
b. Group 2
c. Group 17
d. Group 18
Elements and Their Properties
27
Name
Date
2
Reinforcement
Class
Nonmetals
Directions: Complete the following table that compares the properties of metals and nonmetals by supplying
the information requested.
Characteristic
Metal
Nonmetal
1. Appearance of solid
2. Is it malleable?
4. Does it conduct heat well?
5. Does it conduct electricity well?
6. Most common state at room
temperature.
7. Does it conduct electricity well?
Directions: In the spaces provided, list two properties for each nonmetal listed.
8. hydrogen
9. flourine
10. chlorine
11. bromine
12. iodine
13. helium
14. neon
Directions: Answer the following questions on the lines provided.
15. How does bromine differ from the other nonmetals?
16. How does the location of hydrogen on the periodic table differ from the locations of the other
nonmetals?
28 Elements and Their Properties
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Meeting Individual Needs
3. Is it ductile?
Name
3
Date
Reinforcement
Class
Mixed Groups
Directions: The elements that make up groups 13 through 16 of the periodic table are listed below. Classify
each element as a metal, metalloid, or nonmetal by writing its name under the correct heading in the table. Refer
to the periodic table of the elements in your textbook for information on each element.
Nitrogen Group
nitrogen
phosphorus
arsenic
antimony
bismuth
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. Metals
Carbon Group
carbon
silicon
germanium
tin
lead
2. Metalloids
Oxygen Group
oxygen
sulfur
selenium
tellurium
polonium
Meeting Individual Needs
Boron Group
boron
aluminum
gallium
indium
thallium
3. Nonmetals
Directions: Answer the following questions in the spaces provided.
4. Why is it useful to create neptunium by bombarding uranium with protons, even though
neptunium disintegrates in about two days?
5. What are allotropes?
6. Describe the appearance of two allotropes of silicon.
7. Name three allotropes of carbon.
Elements and Their Properties
29
Name
1
Date
Enrichment
Class
Recovering Magnesium Ions
from Simulated Ocean Water
Magnesium hydroxide can be separated from
solution by filtration. After further treatment,
pure magnesium can be obtained from ocean
water.
After you prepare your simulated ocean
water and filter out the magnesium sulfate, you
will test several solutions for hardness. Hard
water contains many dissolved salts. These salts
interfere with the cleaning ability of soaps.
Materials
clean beaker or jar
water
tablespoon
Epsom salts (magnesium sulfate)
stirring rod
household ammonia
100 mL containers with lids (4)
filter paper
funnel
funnel support and stand
table salt
sugar
liquid soap
detergent
Part A—Recovering the Magnesium Ions
Part B—Testing the Hardness of Simulated
Ocean Water
1. Fill the beaker or jar with 250 mL of water;
add several spoonfuls of Epsom salts. Stir
the solution until all the magnesium sulfate
dissolves and your solution is clear. This
solution is the simulated ocean water.
2. Slowly add a few milliliters of ammonia
to the beaker of simulated ocean water.
CAUTION: Ammonia is toxic and fumes are
irritating. Add a few more milliliters of
ammonia and stir. Record your observations.
4. Add 50 mL of water to each of the small
containers. Add a spoonful of one of the
following substances to each of the first
three containers: Epsom salts, table salt,
sugar. The last container will contain
only water.
5. To each container add a small amount of
liquid soap. Seal the containers with their
lids and shake each container. Record your
observations.
3. Set up the filtration equipment. Filter the
solution. What substance is left in the filter
paper?
6. Prepare another set of solutions. This time
add a small amount of detergent to each
container. Shake each container. Record
your observations.
Procedure
Conclude
Explain the results of your hard water tests.
30 Elements and Their Properties
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Meeting Individual Needs
In this activity you will prepare a simulated
ocean water solution. To simulate means to
look or act like something. Your solution will
not be real ocean water, but it will be like ocean
water because both contain dissolved magnesium ions. Ocean water contains magnesium
ions from dissolved magnesium chloride and
magnesium sulfate. These can be changed to
the insoluble compound magnesium hydroxide.
Name
The Halogens
Enrichment
Temperature (Kelvin)
The halogens are the most reactive nonmetallic group. Fluorine is the most reactive nonmetal. All the halogens in the gas state are highly
toxic and thus are very hazardous to handle.
Halogen atoms form stable diatomic molecules. High temperatures are required to disrupt these molecules and form single atoms.
Chlorine atoms have been detected near the
Sun’s surface, where the temperature is about
6,000°C. At more moderate temperatures,
chlorine atoms react with each other to form
chlorine molecules: 2Cl(g)→Cl2(g).
Each halogen atom has seven electrons in
its outer energy level. Each chlorine atom
achieves a stable electron arrangement by
sharing its one unshared electron. The result is
the diatomic chlorine molecule.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Class
It is possible to relate the melting and boiling
points of the halogens to the forces acting
between the molecules. On the graph below,
plot the melting point versus atomic number
and the boiling point versus atomic number
from the information in the table. Use your
graph to answer the questions that follow.
Atomic
number
MP (K)
BP (K)
fluorine
9
55
85
chlorine
17
172
239
bromine
35
266
332
iodine
53
387
457
Element
Meeting Individual Needs
2
Date
500
400
300
Room temperature
200
100
4
8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56
Atomic number
Room temperature ~ 22°C = 295 K
1. The temperatures given above are in kelvin (K) units. Why are kelvins easier than Celsius
degrees to graph?
2. Which of the halogens exist as a gas at room temperature (295 K)? As a liquid? As a solid?
3. What does the graph tell you about the atomic number of a halogen and the forces that act
between molecules?
Elements and Their Properties
31
Name
Enrichment
Class
Diamond and Graphite
Alchemists of the Middle Ages sweated over
their stoves while trying to turn metals like
lead, copper, and zinc into gold. They may have
been better off trying to turn their glowing
coals into diamonds. Charcoal and diamonds
are made of the same element, carbon.
Carbon Allotropes
Meeting Individual Needs
Carbon is found in nature in at least six
crystalline forms, called allotropes. Allotropes
are different forms of the same element with
different molecular structures. Diamond and
graphite are carbon allotropes.
These atomic arrangements explain the
differences in physical properties of diamond
and graphite. Because all the valence electrons
of diamond are tied up in single bonds, there
are no mobile electrons and diamond doesn’t
conduct electricity. In contrast, graphite’s
crystal system has many mobile electrons.
Figure 1
This accounts for its electrical and thermal
conductivity. In fact, graphite is the only nonmetal found in nature that conducts electricity.
Since graphite is inert, it is used to make
electrodes for electrochemical applications.
The many double bonds in graphite absorb
light of all wavelengths. This explains its
opaque, black color which contrasts with the
colorless transparency of pure diamond.
In diamond, each carbon atom is bonded to
four other carbon atoms. There are four carbon
atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron around the
central carbon atom. In graphite, each carbon
atom is bonded to only three other carbon
atoms. Graphite is composed of hexagonal rings
that are arranged as a flat sheet. The atoms in
the rings of graphite share their electrons, which
is shown in alternating single and double bonds.
In diamond, neighboring carbon atoms are
joined by single covalent bonds.
Figure 2
Diamond
Graphite
Conclude and Apply
1. Using the description and diagrams above, tell why graphite is one of the most slippery solids
known, while diamond is one of the hardest.
2. What are some uses for graphite? For diamond?
32 Elements and Their Properties
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3
Date
Name
Date
Note-taking
Worksheet
Section 1
Class
Elements and Their Properties
Metals
A. Properties of __________
1. ___________ heat and electricity
2. __________—reflect light well
3. _____________—can be hammered or rolled into sheets
5. ____________ ____________—combine with nonmetals by losing electrons
6. ____________________—positively charged metallic ions are surrounded by a cloud of
electrons; ions are in sliding layers and electrons are weakly held; readily form ionic bonds
with nonmetals
B. The __________ Metals—softer and more reactive than other metals
1. Highly ____________ with oxygen and water; don’t occur naturally as elemental forms
2. Combine readily with other elements due to __________ electron in outer energy level
3. ____________ uses
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
a. Human health—__________, _____________, and ___________ compounds
b. Photocells—some depend on ____________ or __________
c. Francium—a _______________ element which breaks down giving off particles and
energy
C. The __________________ Metals—not found naturally in elemental form; _______ electrons
in outer energy level
1. Applications—_____________ and magnesium found in fireworks; _____________ in
vehicles, ladders, and bats; ___________ in statues and countertops
2. Human body—___________ in bones; __________ in disease diagnoses; radium formerly
used in cancer treatment
D. ______________ Elements –they often occur in nature as uncombined elements
1. Typically form colored compounds—____________ found in rubies and emeralds
Elements and Their Properties
33
Meeting Individual Needs
4. ___________—can be drawn into wires
Name
Date
Class
Note-taking Worksheet (continued)
2. Iron _________—iron, cobalt, and nickel
a. ________—most widely used of all metals and main ingredient in _________; abundant
in Earth’s crust
b. __________ and nickel—used in some steels
c. __________ used to coat other metals
3. Copper, silver, gold—___________ metals since once were commonly used in coins
a. __________—used in electric wiring because it is a superior electricity conductor
c. ________—used in jewelry
4. Zinc, cadmium, mercury—group ______ on periodic table
a. Zinc and ___________—often used to coat or plate other metals
b. ___________—only room temperature liquid metal; used in thermometers and batteries
E. The ____________________ Metals—seem disconnected from the rest of periodic tables
1. The _______________—include _____________, cerium, praseodymium, amarium,
europium, gadolinium, and terbium
2. The _____________—all are radioactive and ____________; ___________ is the best known.
Section 2
Nonmetals
A. Properties of _____________—usually gases or ___________ solids at room temperature; are
not malleable or ___________; usually poor ______________ of heat and electricity;
usually not lustrous
1. _________ compounds—form when nonmetals gain _____________ from metals and
become ____________ ions
2. ____________ compounds—form when nonmetals share electrons with
other ______________
B. ____________—most common element in universe
1. A _____________________—two atoms of the same element in ____________ bond
2. Highly ____________ element found mostly on Earth as part of water compound
C. The ____________—include bromine, iodine, ____________, ____________, and astatine
1. A ________ forms when a halogen gains one electron from a metal.
34 Elements and Their Properties
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Meeting Individual Needs
b. __________—used in photographic film and paper; jewelry
Name
Date
Class
Note-taking Worksheet (continued)
2. Use of halogens
a. ____________—disinfectant and bleach
b. ___________—dyes in cosmetics
c. __________—hormone regulation
3. ________________—a solid changes directly into a gas without first becoming a liquid
D. The _______________—exist as isolated, stable atoms
2. Neon, _________, and ___________—used in lights
Section 3
Mixed Groups
A. Properties of ______________—form ionic and covalent bonds; have some metallic and some
nonmetallic properties; partial conduction gives them _________________ characteristics.
B. The _______________—named for the first element in Group 13
1. _________—used in water softening products, antiseptics, and fuels
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. ____________—abundant in Earth’s crust; used in cans, foil wrap, pans, building materials,
and aircraft
C. The __________ Group—four electrons in outer energy level
1. __________—found in coal, oil, natural gas, and foods
2. Silicon occurs as an allotrope—same element with different molecular structures
a. ___________ found in sand, rocks, and soil
b. The main component in __________________, which conduct electricity under certain
conditions
3. _____________—also used in semiconductors
4. _______—used to coat other metals
5. ________—toxic, so no longer used in paint
6. Diamonds, graphite, and buckminsterfullerene are all ______________ of carbon.
D. The ____________ Group—five electrons in outer energy level; tend to form covalent bonds
1. ____________—used to make nitrates and ammonia
2. ______________—used in water softeners, fertilizers, match heads, fine china
3. ____________ and ___________ used with other metals to lower their melting points
Elements and Their Properties
35
Meeting Individual Needs
1. __________—used in blimps and balloons
Name
Date
Class
Note-taking Worksheet (continued)
E. The __________ Group or Group 16
1. __________—makes up 20% of air, is used by living things in respiration, and provides
protection from Sun’s radiation
2. __________—used to form sulfides for pigment in paint
3. ____________—used in photocopiers and multivitamins
4. _____________ and ____________ are also oxygen group elements.
1. Uranium can be made into _____________ which forms plutonium when it disintegrates.
2. Plutonium can be changed into _____________, which is used in _________ detectors.
3. ________________ elements have more than ______ protons and are synthetic and unstable.
a. The study of synthesized elements helps scientists to understand the __________ holding
the ___________ together.
b. Element 114 lasted for ______ seconds.
c. It combined 114 protons with _______ neutrons.
d. It broke apart due to enormous _____________ between the protons.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Meeting Individual Needs
F. _____________ Elements—scientists create elements not usually found on _________;
synthetic elements usually disintegrate quickly.
36 Elements and Their Properties
Assessment
Assessment
38 Elements and Their Properties
Name
Date
Class
Elements and Their Properties
Chapter
Review
Part A. Vocabulary Review
Directions: Use the clues below to complete the crossword puzzle.
1
3
2
4
6
5
8
7
9
10
11
12
13
15
14
Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
16
17
Across
1.
5.
7.
9.
13.
14.
16.
17.
Element with more than 92 protons
Able to be hammered or rolled into sheets
Able to be drawn into wire
Different forms of same element with
different molecular structures
Molecule that consists of two atoms of the
same element
Elements that give off particles and energy
Element in Group 1
Element with metallic and nonmetallic
properties
Down
1. Elements in Groups 3–12
2. Substance that conducts electricity under
certain conditions
3. Forms a salt when it gains an electron
from a metal
4. Type of bonding in which a “sea of electrons” surrounds positively charged ions
6. Not naturally occurring
8. State of all elements in Group 18
10. State of most metals at room temperature
11. Halogens form salts by ______ bonding.
12. Gases with full outer energy levels
15. Elements in Group 2 are alkaline ______
metals
Elements and Their Properties
39
Name
Date
Class
Chapter Review (continued)
Part B. Concept Review
Directions: Use the outline of the periodic table shown below to complete question 1.
1. a. Draw an H inside the box that represents hydrogen.
b. Identify the locations of the following groups on the periodic table by writing the letters
indicated above the correct columns.
AE–alkaline earth metals N–nitrogen group
C–carbon group
B–boron group
O–oxygen group
F–halogens
TE–transition elements
NG–noble gases
c. Draw a stair-step line on the periodic table to show the locations of the metalloids.
Directions: Refer to the periodic table in your textbook to answer questions 2 through 9.
2. What is the name of the group of elements below hydrogen?
Assessment
4 Name two elements that are alkaline earth metals.
5. What is a synthetic element?
6. Name one use and one danger of synthetic elements.
7. Name the two series of inner transition elements.
8. Explain why the noble gases are not found as compounds.
9. How does bromine differ from the other halogens and nonmetals?
40 Elements and Their Properties
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. How is hydrogen similar to the elements below it? How is it different from them?
Transparency Activities
Transparency
Activities
Elements and Their Properties
45
Name
1
Date
Section Focus
Transparency Activity
Class
Light Metals,
Light Speed
Transparency Activities
1. What qualities are important in materials for making bike
frames?
2. What other uses can you give for lightweight metals?
46 Elements and Their Properties
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The frame of this mountain bike is made of a magnesium alloy.
Magnesium is a metal that is very lightweight yet strong. This makes
it useful for things like bike frames and aircraft parts.
Name
2
Date
Section Focus
Transparency Activity
Class
It’s a Gas
1. Why was hydrogen replaced by helium for use in blimps?
2. Do you suspect helium is very reactive? Explain.
Transparency Activities
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How many ways can you think of to fly? Planes and gliders use
wings for lift, while hot air balloons use air. Blimps have a
different way to get off the ground; they use helium gas.
3. Give some differences between blimps and hot air balloons.
Elements and Their Properties
47
Name
3
Date
Section Focus
Transparency Activity
Class
A Diverse Group
These photos show the elements of group 15 from the periodic
table (excluding nitrogen).
phosphorus
bismuth
antimony
Transparency Activities
1. Describe the similarities and differences among the pictures
above.
2. What do you notice about the elements of this group as you move
clockwise from phosphorous?
48 Elements and Their Properties
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
arsenic
Date
3
Teaching Transparency
Activity
Transparency Activities
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Name
Class
Carbon Allotropes
Elements and Their Properties
49
Name
Teaching Transparency Activity
Date
Class
(continued)
1. What are allotropes?
2. Sulfur is another element that exists as allotropes. In what ways is sulfur similar to carbon?
4. How do the physical properties of diamond compare to the physical properties of graphite?
5. Graphite is rectangular in shape, diamond is triangular in shape. What is the shape of buckminsterfullerene?
Transparency Activities
6. What is the arrangement of carbon atoms in buckminsterfullerene?
50 Elements and Their Properties
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. How does the arrangement of carbon atoms in diamond compare to the arrangement of carbon atoms in graphite?
Name
Date
Assessment
Transparency Activity
Class
Elements and Their
Properties
Directions: Carefully review the table and answer the following questions.
Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Some Chemicals
Alkali
metals
Transition
elements
Halogens
Noble
gases
Conduct
electricity
yes
yes
no
no
Reactivity
very
reactive
reactive
reactive
not
reactive
solid
solid
solid,
liquid,
or gas
gas
Na Li K
Fe Co Ni
Cl F I
He Ne Ar
Characteristic
Phase at
room
temperature
1. An element is tested and does not conduct or react with anything.
According to the table, it is a(n) ___.
A alkali metal
B transition element
C halogen
D noble gas
2. According to the table, an element that does react but does not
conduct electricity is a(n) ___.
F alkali metal
G transition element
H halogen
J noble gas
Transparency Activities
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Examples
3. According to the table, which of these elements will conduct
electricity?
AK
B Cl
C Ar
D He
Elements and Their Properties
51
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