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09_VBM - Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging

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Voxel-Based
Morphometry
John Ashburner
Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging,
12 Queen Square, London, UK.
Inter-subject variability
...diverse and dissimilar fish [brains]
can be referred as a whole to identical
functions of very different coordinate
systems...
D’Arcy Thompson (1917). GROWTH AND FORM
Morphometry is defined as:
Measurement of the form of
organisms or of their parts.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary
What kind of differences are we looking for?
* Usually, we try to localise regions of difference.
* Mass-univariate models.
* Using methods similar to SPM
* Typically localising volumetric differences
* Some anatomical differences can not be localised.
* Need multivariate models.
* Differences in terms of proportions among measurements.
* This talk is about a mass-univariate method - VBM.
Voxel-Based Morphometry - VBM
* Based on comparing regional volumes of tissue.
* Suitable for studying focal volumetric differences of grey matter.
* Assumes independence among voxels
* Shows differences that are easier to interpret
* Produce a map of statistically significant differences among
populations of subjects.
* e.g. compare a patient group with a control group.
* or identify correlations with age, test-score etc.
* The data are pre-processed to sensitise the tests to regional
tissue volumes.
Group-wise
statistics
SPM for group fMRI
fMRI time-series
Preprocessing
Stat. modelling
Results query
“Contrast”
spm T
Image
Preprocessing
Stat. modelling
Results query
“Contrast”
Image
Preprocessing
Stat. modelling
Results query
“Contrast”
Image
fMRI time-series
fMRI time-series
SPM for structural MRI
High-res T1 MRI
?
High-res T1 MRI
?
High-res T1 MRI
?
?
Group-wise
statistics
The need for tissue segmentation
* High-resolution MRI reveals fine structural detail in the
brain, but not all of it reliable or interesting
* Noise, intensity-inhomogeneity, vasculature, …
* MR Intensity is usually not quantitatively meaningful (in
the same way that e.g. CT is)
* fMRI time-series allow signal changes to be analysed
statistically, compared to baseline or global values
* Regional volumes of the three main tissue types: gray
matter, white matter and CSF, are well-defined and
potentially very interesting
Volumetry
T1-Weighted MRI
Grey Matter
Spatial Normalisation
* Brains of different subjects vary in shape and size.
* Need to bring them all into a common anatomical space.
* Examine homologous regions across subjects
* Improve anatomical specificity
* Improve sensitivity
* Report findings in a common anatomical space (eg MNI space)
* In SPM, alignment is achieved by matching grey matter
with grey matter and white matter with white matter.
* Need to segment.
Original
Warped
Template
“Modulation” – change of variables.
Deformation Field
Jacobians determinants
Encode relative volumes.
Smoothing
Each voxel after smoothing effectively
becomes the result of applying a weighted
region of interest (ROI).
Before convolution
Convolved with a circle
Convolved with a Gaussian
Statistical Parametric Mapping…
–
group 1
voxel by voxel
modelling

parameter estimate
standard error
=
statistic image
or
SPM
group 2
Some Explanations of the Differences
Mis-classify
Mis-register
Folding
Thickening
Thinning
Mis-register
Mis-classify
VBM Pre-processing
in SPM8
* Use New Segment for
characterising intensity
distributions of tissue classes,
and writing out “imported”
images that DARTEL can use.
* Run DARTEL to estimate all
the deformations.
* DARTEL warping to generate
smoothed, “modulated”,
warped grey matter.
* Statistics.
New Segment
• Generate low
•
resolution GM and
WM images for
each subject
(“DARTEL
imported”).
Generate full
resolution GM map
for each subject.
Segmentation
* Segmentation in SPM8 also
estimates a spatial
transformation that can be
used for spatially normalising
images.
* It uses a generative model,
which involves:
* Mixture of Gaussians (MOG)
* Bias Correction Component
* Warping (Non-linear
Registration) Component
Image Intensity Distributions
(T1-weighted MRI)
Mixture of Gaussians (MOG)
* Classification is based on a Mixture of Gaussians model
(MOG), which represents the intensity probability density by a
number of Gaussian distributions.
Frequency
Image Intensity
Belonging Probabilities
Belonging
probabilities are
assigned by
normalising to
one.
Non-Gaussian Intensity Distributions
* Multiple Gaussians per tissue class allow non-Gaussian
intensity distributions to be modelled.
* E.g. accounting for partial volume effects
Modelling a Bias Field
* A bias field is modelled as a linear combination
of basis functions.
Corrupted image
Bias Field
Corrected image
New Segmentation – TPMs
Segment button
New Seg Toolbox
New Segmentation – registration
Segment button
* 9×10×9 × 3 = 2,430
New Seg Toolbox
* 59×70×59 × 3 = 731,010
Deforming the Tissue Probability Maps
* Tissue probability
images are deformed
so that they can be
overlaid on top of the
image to segment.
Optimisation
* The “best” parameters are those that minimise this
objective function.
* Optimisation involves finding them.
* Begin with starting estimates, and repeatedly change
them so that the objective function decreases each time.
Searching for the optimum
Start
Optimum
Alternate between
optimising different groups
of parameters
Limitations of the current model
* Assumes that the brain consists of only the tissues
modelled by the TPMs
* No allowance for lesions (stroke, tumours, etc)
* Prior probability model is based on relatively young and
healthy brains
* Less appropriate for subjects outside this population
* Needs reasonable quality images to work with
* No severe artefacts
* Good separation of intensities
* Good initial alignment with TPMs...
Run DARTEL
(create Templates)
• Simultaneously
•
align “DARTEL
imported” GM and
WM for all
subjects.
Generates
templates and
parameterisations
of relative shapes.
DARTEL Image
Registration
* Uses fast approximations
* Deformation integrated using
scaling and squaring
* Uses Levenberg-Marquardt
optimiser
Grey matter
template warped to
individual
* Multi-grid matrix solver
* Matches GM with GM, WM with
WM etc
* Diffeomorphic registration takes
about 30 mins per image pair
(121×145×121 images).
Individual scan
Evaluations of
nonlinear
registration
algorithms
One-to-one mapping
One-to-one mappings (no folding
of the deformations).
Positive Jacobian determinants
(relative volumes).
Hard to achieve with the usual
small deformation models.
Jacobian determinants
(should be positive)
Displacements don’t add linearly
Forward
Inverse
Composed
Subtracted
DARTEL
* Parameterising the deformation
* φ(0) = Identity
1
* φ(1) = ∫ u(φ(t))dt
* u is a flow field to be estimated
t=0
* Scaling and squaring is used to
generate deformations.
Scaling and squaring example
Registration objective function
*
Simultaneously minimize the sum of:
*
Matching Term
*
*
*
Regularisation term
*
*
*
Drives the matching of the images.
Multinomial assumption
A measure of deformation roughness
Regularises the registration.
A balance between the two terms.
Effect of Different Regularisation Terms
Simultaneous registration of GM to GM and
WM to WM
Subject 1
Grey matter
White matter
Grey matter
White matter
Grey matter
White matter
Grey matter
Template
Grey matter
White matter
White matter
Subject 2
Subject 4
Subject 3
Template
Initial
Average
Iteratively generated
from all subjects in
study
Begin with rigidly
aligned tissue
probability maps
After a few
iterations
Final
template
Initial
GM images
Warped
GM images
Normalise to MNI
Space
• Use shape
parameterisations
to generate
smoothed
Jacobian scaled
and spatially
normalised GM
images for each
subject.
MNI Space
Grey matter
average of 452
subjects – affine
Population Space
Grey matter
average of 471
subjects - nonlin
“Modulation” – change of variables.
Deformation Field
Jacobians determinants
Encode relative volumes.
Smoothing
* The analysis will be most sensitive to effects that match
the shape and size of the kernel
* The data will be more Gaussian and closer to a
continuous random field for larger kernels
* Results will be rough and noise-like if too little
smoothing is used
* Too much will lead to distributed, indistinct blobs
Smoothing
* Between 7 and 14mm is probably best
* (lower is okay with better registration, e.g. DARTEL)
* The results below show two fairly extreme choices,
5mm on the left, and 16mm, right
Some References
* Ashburner & Friston. “Voxel-based morphometry-the
methods”. Neuroimage 11(6):805-821, 2000.
* Ashburner & Friston. “Unified Segmentation”. NeuroImage
26:839-851, 2005.
* Ashburner. “A Fast Diffeomorphic Image Registration
Algorithm”. NeuroImage 38:95-113 (2007).
* Ashburner & Friston. “Computing Average Shaped Tissue
Probability Templates”. NeuroImage 45:333-341, 2009.
* Klein et al. Evaluation of 14 nonlinear deformation algorithms
applied to human brain MRI registration. NeuroImage
46(3):786-802 (2009).
* Ashburner. “Computational Anatomy with the SPM software”.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging 27(8):1163-1174, 2009.
A brief history of VBM with SPM
*
A Voxel-Based Method for the Statistical Analysis of Gray and White Matter Density…
Wright, McGuire, Poline, Travere, Murrary, Frith, Frackowiak & Friston. NeuroImage 2(4),
1995 (!)
*
*
Voxel-Based Morphometry – The Methods. Ashburner and Friston. NeuroImage 11(6), 2000
*
*
*
“Optimised” GM-normalisation (ad hoc procedure), modulation of segments with Jacobian
determinants
Unified Segmentation. Ashburner and Friston. NeuroImage 26(3), 2005
*
*
Non-linear spatial normalisation, automatic segmentation
Thorough consideration of assumptions and confounds
A Voxel-Based Morphometric Study of Ageing… Good, Johnsrude, Ashburner, Henson and
Friston. NeuroImage 14(1), 2001
*
*
Rigid reorientation (by eye), semi-automatic scalp editing and segmentation, 8mm smoothing, SPM
statistics, global covars.
Principled generative model for segmentation using deformable priors
A Fast Diffeomorphic Image Registration Algorithm. Ashburner. Neuroimage 38(1), 2007
*
Large deformation normalisation to average shape templates
General Linear Model
 a1 ( x, y, z ) 
 a ( x, y , z ) 
 2
  Y  X  e
xyz
xyz





 a N ( x, y , z ) 
1
1

X  

0
0
0
0
2
  exyz ~ N (0,  xyzV )

1
1 
“Globals” for VBM
* Shape is really a
multivariate concept
* Dependencies among
volumes in different regions
* SPM is mass univariate
* Combining voxel-wise
information with “global”
integrated tissue volume
provides a compromise
* Using either ANCOVA or
proportional scaling
Figures from: Voxel-based morphometry of the human brain…
Mechelli, Price, Friston and Ashburner. Current Medical Imaging
Reviews 1(2), 2005.
Above: (ii) is globally thicker, but locally thinner than
(i) – either of these effects may be of interest to us.
Below: The two “cortices” on the right both have equal
volume…
Total Intracranial Volume (TIV/ICV)
* “Global” integrated tissue volume may be correlated with
interesting regional effects
* Correcting for globals in this case may overly reduce sensitivity
to local differences
* Total intracranial volume integrates GM, WM and CSF, or
attempts to measure the skull-volume directly
* Not sensitive to global reduction of GM+WM (cancelled out by CSF
expansion – skull is fixed!)
* Correcting for TIV in VBM statistics may give more powerful
and/or more interpretable results
* See also Pell et al (2009) doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.02.050
VBM’s statistical validity
* Residuals are not normally distributed
* Little impact on uncorrected statistics for experiments
comparing reasonably sized groups
* Probably invalid for experiments that compare single subjects
or tiny groups with a larger control group
* Need to use nonparametric tests that make less assumptions, e.g.
permutation testing with SnPM
VBM’s statistical validity
* Correction for multiple comparisons
* RFT correction based on peak heights should be OK
* Correction using cluster extents is problematic
* SPM usually assumes that the smoothness of the residuals is
spatially stationary
* VBM residuals have spatially varying smoothness
* Bigger blobs expected in smoother regions
* Toolboxes are now available for non-stationary cluster-based
correction
* http://www.fmri.wfubmc.edu/cms/NS-General
Longitudinal VBM
* The simplest method for longitudinal VBM is to use
cross-sectional preprocessing, but longitudinal statistical
analyses
* Standard preprocessing not optimal, but unbiased
* Non-longitudinal statistics would be severely biased
* (Estimates of standard errors would be too small)
* Simplest longitudinal statistical analysis: two-stage summary
statistic approach (common in fMRI)
* Within subject longitudinal differences or beta estimates from linear
regressions against time
Longitudinal VBM variations
* Intra-subject registration over time is much more
accurate than inter-subject normalisation
* Different approaches suggested to capitalise
* A simple approach is to apply one set of normalisation
parameters (e.g. Estimated from baseline images) to
both baseline and repeat(s)
* Draganski et al (2004) Nature 427: 311-312
* “Voxel Compression mapping” – separates expansion
and contraction before smoothing
* Scahill et al (2002) PNAS 99:4703-4707
Longitudinal VBM variations
* Can also multiply longitudinal volume change with
baseline or average grey matter density
* Chételat et al (2005) NeuroImage 27:934-946
* Kipps et al (2005) JNNP 76:650
* Hobbs et al (2009) doi:10.1136/jnnp.2009.190702
* Note that use of baseline (or repeat) instead of
average might lead to bias
* Thomas et al (2009)
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.05.097
* Unfortunately, the explanations in this reference relating to
interpolation differences are not quite right... there are
several open questions here...
Alzheimer’s Disease example
Baseline Image
Standard clinical MRI
1.5T T1 SPGR
1x1x1.5mm voxels
Repeat image
12 month follow-up
rigidly registered
Subtraction image
Longitudinal VBM variations
Late
Early
Late CSF - Early CSF
Late CSF
Early CSF
Late CSF - modulated CSF
Smoothed
Warped early
Difference
Relative volumes
CSF “modulated” by
relative volume
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