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BALIKSIR UNIVERSTY FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES
BIALYSTOK UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE AND MANAGEMENT
9TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE: NEW PERSPECTIVES IN TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY
25-27 September, 2014, Burhaniye, Turkey
BOOK OF PROCEEDINGS
EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
PROF. DR. ERDOĞAN KOÇ
EDITORS
ASSOC. PROF. DR. HASAN ABDİOĞLU
ASST. PROF. DR. RECEP KILIÇ
HONORARY PRESIDENT
PROF.DR. MAHİR ALKAN,
Rector,
BalıkesirUniversity
ISBN : 978-975-6993-19-4
Balıkesir University, Bandırma Faculty of Economis and Administratiive Sciences
The authors are solely responsible for the contents of their papers published in this book of proceedings. The conference organizers and
editors may not be held liable for any loss, damage, expense, costs or liability whatsoever which may be incurred.
No parts of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without the prior permission in writing. In the case of
academic use of any material published in this book of proceedings the source of the relevant material must be properly acknowledged
and referenced.
ii
SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE *
ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
Professor Erdoğan Koc, Conference Chair
Professor Abraham Pizam, University of Central Florida, USA
Professor Edip Örücü, Balikesir University
Professor Mehmet Arslan, Balikesir University
Professor Oktay Öksüzler, Balikesir University
Associate Professor Cüneyt Akar, Balikesir University
Associate Professor Hasan Abdioğlu, Balikesir University
Associate Professor M. Emin Akkılıç, Balikesir University
Associate Professor M. Oğuzhan İlban, Balikesir University
Associate Professor Sedat Azaklı, Balikesir University
Associate Professor Sedat Yumuşak, Balikesir University
Assistant Professor Aydın Okuyan, Balikesir University
Assistant Professor Burcu İ. Kılıç, Balikesir University
Assistant Professor Ertan Demirkapı, Balikesir University
Assistant Professor Fatih Koç, Balikesir University
Assistant Professor Ferhat Topbaş, Balikesir University
Assistant Professor Gülnil Aydın, Balikesir University
Assistant Professor İlkay Taş, Balikesir University
Assistant Professor Metin Uluköy, Balikesir University
Assistant Professor Nida Abdioğlu, Balikesir University
Assistant Professor Recep Kılıç, Balikesir University
Assistant Professor Sabriye Çelik Uğuz, Balikesir University
Assistant Professor Volkan Özbek, Balikesir University
Dr. Evren İpek, Balikesir University
Dr. Ömür Kızılgöl, Balikesir University
Lecturer. Ayşegül Yıldırım, Balikesir University
Lecturer Cemal Çelik, Balikesir University
Lecturer Hakan Boz, Balikesir University
Lecturer. H. Hüseyin Yıldırım, Balikesir University
Lecturer Metin Akbulut, Balikesir University
Lecturer Muammer Bezirgan, Balikesir University
Lecturer Yasin Nuri Çakır, Balikesir University
Research Assistant Ayça Özekin, Balikesir University
Research Assistant Çağrı İzci, Balikesir University
Research Assistant Devran Deniz, Balikesir University
Research Assistant Emin Öztürk, Balikesir University
Research Assistant Musa Bayır, Balikesir University
Research Assistant Selda Lisan, Balikesir University
Research Assistant Sercan Hatipoğlu, Balikesir University
Research Assistant Sinem Atay, Balikesir University
Research Assistant Tahir Şeker, Balikesir University
Research Assistant Vahit Handar, Balikesir University
Research Assistant Zeynep Arıöz, Balikesir University
Professor Ahmet Öztürk, University of Finance and Management in Białystok,
Poland
Professor Akın Aksu, Mediterranean University
Professor Alan Fyall, Bournemouth University, UK
Professor Arch Woodside, Boston College, USA
Professor Atila Yüksel, Adnan Menderes University
Professor Aypar Uslu, Marmara University
Professor Benan Orbay, Doğuş University
Professor Cengiz Yılmaz, Middle East Technical University
Professor Cevdet Avcıkurt, Balikesir University
Professor Cevat Tosun, Gazi University
Professor Cihan Çobanoglu, University of South Florida, Sarasota, USA
Professor Clayton Barrows, University of New Hampshire, USA
Professor Dimitrios Buhalis, Bournemouth University, UK
Professor Doğan Gürsoy, Washington State University, USA
Professor Elif Çepni, Bahçeşehir University
Professor Ercan Gegez, Marmara University
Professor Ercan Sırakaya Türk, University of South Carolina, USA
Professor Fevzi Okumuş, University of Central Florida, USA
Professor Halil Seyidoğlu, Doğuş University
Professor Hüseyin Kanıbir, Orhangazi University
Professor Irfan Arıkan, University of Applied Sciences Krems, Austria
Professor İlker Parasız, Turkish Central Bank
Professor Józef Szabłowski, University of Finance and Management in Białystok,
Poland
Professor Kazimierz Meredyk, University of Finance and Management in
Białystok, Poland
Professor Kenan Aydın, Yıldız Technical University
Professor Levent Altınay, Oxford Brookes University, UK
Professor Lütfihak Alpkan, Gebze Institute of Technology
Professor Maria Dolores Alvarez, Boğaziçi University
Professor Marianna Sigala, University of the Aegean, Greece
Professor Mehmet Arslan, Balikesir University
Professor Metin Kozak, Dokuz Eylül University
Professor Nazan Günay, Aegean University
Professor Necdet Hacıoğlu, Balıkesir University
Professor Nimet Uray, Istanbul Technical University
Professor Nüzhet Kahraman, Istanbul Commerce University
Professor Orhan Batman, Sakarya University
Professor Osman Karatepe, Eastern Mediterranean University, KKTC
Professor Özkan Tütüncü, Dokuz Eylül University
Professor Sahavet Gürdal, Marmara University
Professor Salih Kuşluvan, Istanbul Medeniyet University
Professor Selime Sezgin, Bilgi University
Professor Ulrike Gretzel, University of Queensland, Australia
Associate Professor Çağatan Taşkın, Uludağ University
Associate Professor Helena Reis, University of Algarve, Portugal
Associate Professor Murat Doğdubay, Balikesir University
Associate Professor Nihat Kaya, Gebze Institute of Technology
Associate Professor Sima Nart, Sakarya University
Associate Professor Yusuf Aymankuy, Balikesir University
CONFERANCE SECRETARIES
Res. Assist. Çağrı İzci
Res. Assist. Devran Deniz
* in alphabetical order
iii
Preface to the Proceedings: 9th of the International Conference: New Perspectives in Tourism and
Hospitality Management, 25-27 September 2014, Burhaniye, Turkey
I am pleased to present the proceedings of the 9th of the International Conference:
New Perspectives in Tourism and Hospitality Management.
The theme for this year's conference has been New Perspectives in Tourism and Hospitality
Management. The rationale and relevance of the theme of the conference are reflected in the diverse
range of papers, from accounting and finance to marketing and from economics to international
relations, which have been submitted for publication. Altogether there have been 68 papers included in
the proceedings. Thank you to all those who have contributed to producing such a comprehensive and
successful conference and proceedings and thus contributed to the improvement of theory and practice
in the field of tourism and hospitality.
I would like to thank all of the presenters who made this conference so interesting and
enjoyable. My special thanks should also be extended to the session chairs and to the reviewers from
various countries including Austria, Australia, Greece, Poland, Portugal, Turkey, the UK and the US
who gave of their valuable time to evaluate the record number of submissions. To the rector of
Balikesir University, Professor Mahir Alkan, the Dean of Bandirma Faculty of Economics and
Administrative Sciences, Professor Mehmet Arslan, the two deputies Professor Oktay Oksüzler and
Associate Professor Sedat Azaklı, the two editors of the proceedings and my deputies for the
conference, Associate Professor Hasan Abdioğlu and Assistant Professor Recep Kılıç, Director of
Burhaniye School of Applied Sciences, Associate Professor Mehmet Emin Akkılıç, all of the
organizing committee members and the members and staff at Bandirma Faculty of Economics and
Administrative Sciences, I owe a great debt as this conference would not have been realised without
their hard work and constant efforts.
Finally, I would like to especially thank Professor Clayton Barrows, University of New
Hampshire, for coming all the way from the US and delivering his keynote speech.
Professor Erdoğan Koç
Conference President & Chair
iv
9.International Conference: “New Perspectives in Tourism Management”
CONFERENCE PROGRAM
Day 1 (25.09.2014, Thursday)
Breakfast 07:00 -09:30
Registration09:30 – 10.30
Opening Ceremony
HALL A
Opening Speeches-Açılış Konuşmaları (Conference Hall)
10:30 -12:45
Prof. Dr. Erdoğan KOÇ (Conference Chair - Kongre Başkanı)
Sn. Necdet Uysal (Mayor, Burhaniye- Burhaniye Belediye Başkanı)
Sn. Osman Yenidoğan (County Governor, Burhaniye)
Prof. Dr. Mahir ALKAN(Rector, Balıkesir University- Balıkesir Üniversitesi Rektörü)
Sn. Edip UĞUR (Mayor, Balikesir-Balıkesir Büyükşehir Belediye Başkanı)*
Sn. Mustafa YAMAN (Governor, Balikesir- Balıkesir Valisi)*
*(Katılmaları Halinde / TBC)
Keynote Speech
Prof. Dr. Clayton Barrows, Professor of Hospitality Management-University of New Hampshire, USA.
Session 1
Conference Banquet (Lunch) 13:00 - 14:00
New Perspectives in Tourism Marketing
Session Chair: Adam Edward SZCZEPANOWSKI
HALL A
NEW HERITAGE-MOTIVATED ATTRACTION OF INNER ANATOLIA: SONSUZ ŞÜKRAN KÖYÜ
Aytuğ ARSLAN *, Erkan AKGÖZ
2. THE EFFECT OF WEBSITES ON CUSTOMER PREFERENCES RELATED TO TOURISM PRODUCTS WITHIN THE
FRAMEWORK OF TECHNOLOGICAL ACCEPTANCE MODEL
Özer YILMAZ *
3. NEW PERSPECTIVES OF CULTURAL TOURISM IN EUROPE AND POLAND
Adam Edward SZCZEPANOWSKI *
4. SMARTLY DESIGNING OF TOURISM EXPERIENCE IN THE CONCEPTUAL AGE
Göknil Nur SEVER, Salar KUHZADY*
5. FACTORS OF CHANGESIN THE DYNAMICS AND STRUCTURE OF TOURISM IN POLAND
Józef SZABŁOWSKI *
1.
14:15 -15:45
Session 2
HALL B
14:15 -15:45
New Perspectives in Tourism Marketing
Session Chair: Professor Hüseyin KANIBİR
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Session 3
HALL C
14:15 -15:45
ACTIVITY BASED CUSTOMER PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS: A CASE STUDY IN TRAVEL AGENCY
Levent KOŞAN, Kemal ENES*,Okan ÇOLAK
NEW PERSPECTIVES FOR PACKAGE TOUR OGANIZATIONS: A MIXED PACKAGE TOUR PROPOSAL
Rıza Haluk KUL*, Hakan EMANET
THANA TOURISM: NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN THE TURKISH TOURISM MARKET
İlkay TAŞ*, Erdoğan KOÇ
USING CUSTOMER COMPLAINTS MANAGEMENT AS AN INSTRUMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT:
THE CASE OF ESKİŞEHİR
Engin BAYRAKTAROĞLU*, Barış DEMİRCİ, Cihan SEÇİLMİŞ
THE ECOTURIZM NETWORK BETWEEN THE BUG AND NAREW – THE EXAMPLE OF THE REGIONAL ECOTURIZM
PRODUCT IN POLAND
Joanna Omieciuch
New Perspectives in Human Resource Management
Session Chair: Professor Erdoğan KOÇ
1.
2.
3.
4.
THE IMPACT OF THE MANAGERS’ EDUCATION LEVEL ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF HUMAN RESOURCES
POLICIES IN TOURISM SECTOR
Edip ÖRÜCÜ, Çağrı İZCİ , Sinem ATAY *
DEPRESSION AND TURNOVER INTENTION AMONG HOTEL EMPLOYEES
Erdoğan KOÇ, Recep KILIÇ , Hakan BOZ*
THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CAREER MANAGEMENT, CAREER COMMITMENT AND CAREER SATISFACTION IN
HOTELS: THE CASE OF ÇEŞME
Nilgün AVCI, Sinem UYSAL*
THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL CLIMATE ON WORKPLACE FRIENDSHIP, PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AND HELPING
BEHAVIORS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY
Murat YEŞİLTAŞ, Pelin KANTEN*, Selahattin KANTEN, Ümit SORMAZ
Coffee Break 15:45- 16:00
v
Session 4
New Perspectives in Management, Organization and Strategy
Session Chair: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Göknil Nur SEVER
HALL A
1.
16:00 17:30
2.
3.
4.
Session 5
THE ANALYSIS OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT AND JOB SATISFACTION
:AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN HOSPITALITY BUSINESSES
Çağlar DOĞRU *
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SYSTEMATIC SOLDIERING AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT IN
HOSPITALITY BUSINESSES
Serkan BAYRAKTAROĞLU, Metin ULUKÖY, Çağrı İZCİ*
AN AHP FRAMEWORK FOR HOTEL SELECTION BASED ON MASLOW’S NEEDS HIERARCY
Mahsa SERPOUSH*, Cemalettin Öcal FİDANBOY
DOES EXPRESSING TOURISM AS “HOSPITALIY BUSINESS” SUFFER FROM
MARKETING MYOPIA? A DISCUSSION FROM CONSUMER PERSPECTIVE
Göknil Nur SEVER*, Şebnem YILDIZ
New Perspectives in Tourism and Hospitality
Session Chair: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sima NART
HALL B
1.
16:00 17:30
2.
3.
4.
5.
Session 6
AN EXAMINATION OF HOTELS’ SPA WEBSITE DESIGNS
S. Pınar TEMİZKAN, Beybala TİMUR*, Rahman TEMİZKAN
TRADITIONAL AND REGIONAL PRODUCTS AS A COMPETITIVENESS FACTOR IN THE REGION ( THE EXAMPLE OF
THE PODLASKIE VOIVODESHIP )
Elzbieta ZALESKO *
THE RELATIONSHIP OF TOURISTIC CONSUMER PERSONALITY TRAIT, DESTINATION PERSONALITY AND
BEHAVIOURAL INTENTIONS: THE CASE OF TURKEY
Sima NART, Özlem AKSOY
*
THE EFFECTS OF INTERNAL MARKETING PRACTISE ON COMPETITIVE PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES:
EVIDENCE FROM TOURISM INDUSTRY
Sima NART, Senem NART *
MEASURING EFFICIENCY OF TOURISM SECTOR IN TURKEY BY USING DEA-BASED MALMQUIST PRODUCTIVITY
INDEX
Hale KIRER,Gülçin BEKEN*
New Perspectives in Economics
Session Chair:Professor. Ivanka NESTOROSKA
HALL C
1.
16:00 17:30
2.
3.
4.
Session 7
SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN AYVALIK AS A POTENTIAL CITTASLOW
Mehmet Behzat EKİNCİ*
CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS EFFECT OF TURKISH TOURISM
Yasin Nuri ÇAKIR*, Ivanka NESTOROSKA
THE EFFECT OF CREDIT USAGE ON TOURISTIC CONSUMPTION AND APPLICATION IN TURKEY
Kudret GUL, Melike GUL*
THE ROLE OF SOCIO-CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF TOURISM IN PERCEIVED TOTAL TOURISM
EFFECT
Çağrı ERDOĞAN*, Seyit Ahmet SOLMAZ, Burhanettin ZENGİN
Coffee Break 17:30 - 17:45
New Perspectives in Tourism and Hospitality Research
Session Chair: Asst. Prof. Dr. Erkan TAŞKIRAN
HALL A
1.
17:4519:15
2.
3.
Session 8
HALL B
17:4519:15
THE SCHOLARSHIP ON THE SCHOLARLY RESEARCH OF RECREATION: CONTEXT OF TOURISM AND OTHER
RESEARCH AREAS
Göknil Nur SEVER*, Mehtap ÖZKAN BUZLU
DATA MINING: USAGE AND APPLICATIONS IN TOURISM INDUSTRY
Eyüp AKÇETİN, Alper KILIÇ, Nilüfer YURTAY, Okutman Yüksel YURTAY, Emin ÖZTÜRK*
Onur Alper ŞAHİN
PROPOSITION OF A NEW CONSTRUCT FOR RECREATION RESEARCH
Göknil Nur SEVER*, Gamze YILDIZ
New Perspectives in Human Resource Management
Session Chair: Asst. Prof. Dr. Recep KILIÇ
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
TURIZM SEKTÖRÜNDE MEVSIMLIK İSTIHDAMIN SEKTÖR ÇALIŞANLARININ ÖRGÜTSEL BAĞLILIKLARINA ETKISI:
BÜYÜKADA KONAKLAMA İŞLETMELERI ÇALIŞANLARINA YÖNELIK BIR ARAŞTIRMA
Recep KILIÇ, Yasin Nuri ÇAKIR, Said Kerem TEKER*, Adnan ÇALIŞKAN
TURİZM SEKTÖRÜNDE DEĞİŞEN İK STRATEJİLERİNE YÖNELİK BİR İNCELEME
Burçin ÇETİN KARABAT, Mustafa ŞEKER *
TURİZM VE OTEL İŞLETMECİLİĞİ ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN PROGRAMI SEÇMEDE ETKİLİ OLAN FAKTÖRLER: BALIKESİR
ÜNİVERSİTESİ ÖRNEĞİ
Adnan ÇALIŞKAN*, Yasin Nuri ÇAKIR
AVRUPA BİRLİĞİ EKONOMİK KRİZİNİN TÜRKİYE’DEKİ TURİZM TALEBİNE ETKİSİ
Alpaslan SEREL, Musa BAYIR*, Ayça ÖZEKİN
KONAKLAMA İŞLETMELERİNDE DUYGUSAL EMEK: YAPISAL EŞİTLİK MODELİ İLE BİR ANALİZ
Işıl ARIKAN SALTIK*, Tuncer ASUNAKUTLU
vi
Session 9
New Perspectives in Marketing
Session Chair: Prof. Dr. Necdet HACIOĞLU
HALL C
1.
17:4519:15
2.
3.
4.
5.
YARATICILIK VE HİZMET ODAKLILIK: YİYECEK İÇECEK İŞLETMELERİNDE BİR UYGULAMA
Neslihan SERÇEOĞLU*, Fatma GÜNDÜZ
TURİSTİK ÜRÜN TERCİHİNİN A TİPİ VE B TİPİ KİŞİLİK ÖZELLİKLERİNE GÖRE BELİRLENMESİ
Salim İBİŞ*, Ümit ŞENGEL, Burhanettin ZENGİN, Orhan BATMAN
DİYARBAKIR İLİNİN TURİZM POTANSİYELİNİN SWOT ANALİZİ İLE BELİRLENMESİ
Ayhan KARAKAŞ, İbrahim ÇENBERLİTAŞ*
HİZMET PAZARLAMASINDA DEMARKETING (PAZARLAMAMA) STRATEJİSİ VE EGE BÖLGESİ BUTİK
OTELLERİNDE BİR ARAŞTIRMA
Berrin ONARAN, İlknur MAZAN, Selçuk SERT*
MEDİKAL TURİZM KÜMESİNİN GELİŞİMİ: ANTALYA ÖZELİNDE BİR DEĞERLENDİRME
Pelin ARSEZEN-OTAMIŞ*, Oğuz DOĞAN
Dinner 19:30 - 21:00
Day 2 (26.09.2014, Friday)
Session 10
Breakfast 07:00 -09:30
New Perspectives in Marketing
Session Chair: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yaşar SARI
HALL A
1.
09:3011:00
2.
3.
4.
5.
Session 11
HAVAYOLU İŞLETMELERİNDE İLETİŞİM KANALLARININ İŞVEREN MARKASINA YÖNELİK OLARAK İKY
AÇISINDAN DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ
Mustafa ŞEKER*, Ümit ŞENGEL, Salim İBİŞ
ÇEVREYE DUYARLI OTELCİLİK KAPSAMINDA YEŞİL YILDIZ UYGULAMASI: ANTAKYA GÜNGÖR OTTOMAN
PALACE ÖRNEĞİ
Melahat YILDIRIM SAÇILIK* , Samet ÇEVİK
SÜRDÜRÜLEBİLİRLİK BAĞLAMINDA TURİZMDE MEVSİMSELLİK OLGUSUNA GENEL BİR BAKIŞ
Yaşar SARI, Orhan YABANCI*
BÖLGESEL OTEL İŞLETMELERİNİN KÜRESEL OTEL İŞLETMELERİ İLE REKABETTE BİLGİ İLETİŞİM
TEKNOLOJİLERİNİN ÖNEMİ
Mustafa ŞEKER*, Salim İBİŞ, Ümit ŞENGEL
İŞE ALIM SÜRECİNDE SOSYAL AĞ WEBSİTELERİNİN KULLANIMI: İSTANBUL'DAKİ BEŞ YILDIZLI OTEL
İŞLETMELERİNDE BİR UYGULAMA
Ömer L. MET*, Serap ÖZDEMİR GÜZEL, Filiz DALKILIÇ YILMAZ
New Perspectives in Marketing
Session Chair: Asst. Prof. Dr. Ferhat TOPBAŞ
HALL B
1.
09:3011:00
2.
3.
4.
Session 12
DEMOGRAFİK ÖZELLİKLERİ AÇISINDAN TURİSTLERİN, CİTTASLOW UYGULAMASI İLE İLGİLİ TUTUMLARININ
DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ VE TEKRAR ZİYARET ETME NİYETLERİNE ETKİSİ: PERŞEMBE ÖRNEĞİ
Üzeyir KEMENT*, Murat GÖRAL
TÜKETİCİLERİN KİŞİLİK ÖZELLİKLERİNE GÖRE ALGILADIKLARI RİSK TÜRLERİNİ BELİRLEMEYE YÖNELİK BİR
ARAŞTIRMA: DÖRT VE BEŞ YILDIZLI OTEL İŞLETMELERİNDE BİR UYGULAMA
Erdem TEMELOĞLU*, Sebahattin KARAMAN
YEREL HALKIN TURİZM ALGISI: AYVALIK ÖRNEĞİ
S. Banu YILDIZ*
YİYECEK-İÇECEK İŞLETMELERİ BAKIŞ AÇISIYLA ŞANLIURFA YEMEK KÜLTÜRÜNÜN, ŞEHRİN TURİZM
AÇISINDAN PAZARLANABİLİRLİĞİNE ETKİLERİ
Gül ERKOL*, Nuray ÇILDIREL EKER, Burhanettin ZENGİN
Contemporary Accounting Applications in Tourism and Hospitality
Session Chair: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hasan ABDİOĞLU
HALL C
1.
09:3011:00
2.
3.
4.
Session 13
TÜRKİYE MUHASEBE VE FİNANSAL RAPORLAMA STANDARTLARI VE VERGİ MEVZUATINA GÖRE KONAKLAMA
İŞLETMELERİNDE MUHASEBE DÜZENİ VE FİNANSAL RAPORLAMA
Hasan ABDİOĞLU, Burcu İŞGÜDEN KILIÇ *, Ömür KIZILGÖL
SAĞLIK TURİZMİNİN BİR TÜREVİ OLARAK İLERİ YAŞ VE YAŞLI TURİZMİNDE MALİYET DAĞITIM TABLOSU
OLUŞTURULMASININ ÖNEMİ: ÖRNEK OLARAK SAĞLIK KURULUŞU BULUNDURAN BİR JEOTERMAL OTELİN
MALİYET UYGULAMASI
Ayşenur TARAKCIOĞLU ALTINAY*
TURİZM İŞLETMELERİNDE SOSYAL SORUMLULUK MUHASEBESİ
Ayşe Nur BUYRUK AKBABA*
GELİR YÖNETİMİ UYGULAMALARI: ANKARA’DAKİ OTEL İŞLETMELERİNDE BİR ARAŞTIRMA
Mehmet Selami YILDIZ, Çiğdem GÜR*
Coffee Break 11:00- 11:15
New Perspectives in Tourism and Hospitality
Session Chair: Asst. Prof. Dr.Sabriye ÇELİK UĞUZ
HALL A
1.
11:15 13:00
2.
3.
TÜROFED ÜYESİ DERNEKLERİN İNTERNET SİTELERİNDE TANITIMA YER VERME DURUMUNUN İÇERİK ANALİZİ
YÖNTEMİYLE DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ
Özge GÜDÜ DEMİRBULAT *, Gencay SAATÇİ, Düriye BOZOK
TÜRKİYE’DE MEDİKAL TURİZM: ÖZEL HASTANELERE YÖNELİK NİTEL BİR ARAŞTIRMA
Fatih KOÇ, Hasan YILDIZ*
TURİZMDE GEÇMİŞTEN GELECEĞE ARACILARIN ROLÜ ÜZERİNE BİR DEĞERLENDİRME
Yaşar SARI, Murat KATRAN*
vii
Session 14
New Perspectives in Economics
Session Chair:Assoc. Prof. Dr. Suna KORKMAZ
HALL B
1.
11:15 13:00
2.
3.
4.
Session 15
MARKA ŞEHİR GAZİANTEP’İN TURİSTİK ARZ VE TALEP YAPISI ÜZERİNE BİR İNCELEME
İbrahim GİRİTLİOĞLU, Atınç OLCAY, Yavuz AKÇİ*, Barış ARMUTCU
TÜRKİYE’DE TURİZM GELİRLERİ VE EKONOMİK BÜYÜME ARASINDA NEDENSELLİK İLİŞKİSİ
Suna KORKMAZ, Özlem GÜNGÖR*
BORSA İSTANBUL’DA İŞLEM GÖREN TURİZM SEKTÖRÜ İŞLETMELERİNİN FİNANSAL ETKİNLİKLERİNİN ÖLÇÜMÜ:
VERİ ZARFLAMA ANALİZİ YÖNTEMİ İLE BİR UYGULAMA
Sinan AYTEKİN*, A. Gamze Ç. AYTEKİN
TİCARİ AÇIKLIK VE TURİZM: SEÇİLMİŞ AKDENİZ ÜLKELERİNDEN PANEL VERİ KANITLAR
Sabriye ÇELİK UĞUZ, Ferhat TOPBAŞ*
New Perspectives and Approaches in Human Resource Management in the Tourism and HospitalitySectors
Session Chair: Assoc. Prof. Dr. M. Oğuzhan İLBAN
HALL C
KONAKLAMA İŞLETMELERİ ÇALIŞANLARININ ÖRGÜTSEL BAĞLILIK ALGILAMALARI: KARŞILAŞTIRMALI BİR
ÇALIŞMA
Sibel ÖZAFŞARLIOĞLU SAKALLI *, Başak Nur ARASAN *
2. BİR KAYIRMACILIK (NEPOTİZM) ÇEŞİDİ OLARAK KRONİZME İLİŞKİN ÇALIŞANLARIN BAKIŞ AÇILARI
Gencay SAATÇİ, Melis FİDANCI*, Cevdet AVCIKURT
3. TURİZM ÇALIŞANLARININ KİŞİLİK ÖZELLİKLERİNİN KÜLTÜREL ZEKÂLARI ÜZERİNDEKİ ETKİSİ: EDREMİT
KÖRFEZİ ÖRNEĞİ
Muammer BEZİRGAN*, Nuray MERCAN, Bayram ALAMUR
4. İL KÜLTÜR VE TURİZM MÜDÜRLÜKLERİNDE ÇALIŞAN İŞGÖRENLERİN PROFİLİ: BALIKESİR VE ÇANAKKALE
İLLERİNDE PİLOT BİR ARAŞTIRMA
Barış ERDEM, Eray POLAT*, Sami Sonat ÖZDEMİR
1.
11:15 13:00
Lunch 13:00 - 14:00
Session 16
New Perspectives and Approaches in Tourism and Hospitality Management, Organization and Strategy
Session Chair: Assoc. Prof. Dr. M. Emin AKKILIÇ
HALL A
1.
14:15 15:30
2.
3.
4.
Session 17
LİDER-ÜYE ETKİLEŞİMİ VE YUKARIYA DOĞRU ETKİLEME TAKTİKLERİ İLİŞKİSİ
Oya İnci BOLAT, Aytaç TOPTAŞ*
OTEL YÖNETİCİLERİNİN SAHİP OLDUĞU KÜLTÜREL DEĞERLERİN YENİ YÖNETİM YAKLAŞIMLARINA ETKİSİ
Övgü AÇIKSÖZLÜ, İlbey VAROL, Nur Neşe ŞAHİN *, Özlem KÖROĞLU
TURİZM ALANINDA YAPILAN LİSANSÜSTÜ TEZLERİN STRATEJİK YÖNETİM LİTERATÜRÜNE KATLILARI:
TÜRKİYE ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA
Orhan BATMAN, Emrah ÖZTÜRK *
ÖRGÜTSEL SİNİZM VE ÖRGÜTSEL YABANCILAŞMA ARASINDAKİ İLİŞKİ: KARS İLİ TURİZM İŞLETMELERİNE
YÖNELİK BİR ARAŞTIRMA
Cansu SOLMAZ*, Çağla ÜST
Fiscal Matters and Incentives Laws and Applications in Tourism and Hospitality Sectors
Session Chair:Prof.Dr. Mehmet ARSLAN
HALL B
1.
14:15 15:30
2.
3.
4.
Session 18
HALL C
14:15 15:30
Session 19
YATIRIMLARDA DEVLET YARDIMLARI HAKKINDA BAKANLAR KURULU KARARI KAPSAMINDA TURİZM
YATIRIMLARINA SAĞLANAN TEŞVİKLER
Mehmet YÜCE*
TURİZM İŞLETMELERİNDE VERGİ SORUNLARI VE ÇÖZÜM ÖNERİLERİ
Ersan ÖZ*, Selçuk GÜLTEN
AVRUPA’DA TURİZME SAĞLANAN KATMA DEĞER VERGİSİ TEŞVİKLERİ ÜZERİNE BİR İNCELEME
Ali ÇELİKKAYA *
BİR DIŞ POLİTİKA ARACI OLARAK TURİZM
Özlem ÖZKÖSEDAĞ İÇİN *, Yasemin OĞUZLAR TEKİN
New Technology and Media Applications in Tourism and Hospitality
Session Chair: Prof. Dr. Cevdet AVCIKURT
SOSYAL PAYLAŞIM SİTELERİNİN PAZARLAMA İLETİŞİM KANALI OLARAK KONAKLAMA İŞLETMELERİNDE
KULLANIM ETKİNLİĞİNİN İNCELENMESİ: MUĞLA İLİ ÖRNEĞİ
Gülay ÖZALTIN TÜRKER*, Ali TÜRKER, F. Özlem GÜZEL
2. KONAKLAMA İŞLETMELERİNDE E-TURİZM UYGULAMALARININ STARTEJİK ÖNEMİ ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA
Yaşar SARI, F.Zehra ÖZTÜRK*
3. MÜŞTERİ MEMNUNİYETİNDE KANO MODELİ: TÜRKİYE’DEKİ HAVAYOLU YOLCULARI ÖRNEĞİ
Halil KORKMAZ*, İbrahim GİRİTLİOĞLU, Cevdet AVCIKURT, Nalan ALBUZ
1.
Coffee Break 15:45 - 16:00
New Perspectives in Marketing
Session Chair:Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mustafa BOZ
HALL A
TURİSTLERİN KİŞİLİK ÖZELLİKLERİ İLE POSTMODERN TURİZME EĞİLİMLERİ ARASINDAKİ İLİŞKİYİ
İNCELEMEYE YÖNELİK BİR ARAŞTIRMA - BALIKESİR İLİ ÖRNEĞİ
Düriye BOZOK, Övgü AÇIKSÖZLÜ*, Nur Neşe ŞAHİN, İlbey VAROL*
2. PAZARLAMA ETİĞİ ÇERÇEVESİNDE İZİNLİ PAZARLAMA: TURİSTLER ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA
Bayram ŞAHİN, Burçin SÖNMEZ*, Aslı Ceren SAYGI
3. TARİHİ KENTLERİN TURİZM DESTİNASYONU OLARAK GELİŞTİRİLMESİ: SAFRANBOLU ÖRNEĞİ
Mustafa BOZ*, İsa UĞUR
4. ALAÇATI OT FESTİVALİNİN YEREL HALK ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİNİN DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ
Esin ÖZKAN, Samet Can CURKAN*, Engin Can SARAK
1.
16:00 -17:30
viii
Session 20
Tourism, Hospitality and International Relations Interface and Interaction
Session Chair: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sedat AZAKLI
HALL B
1.
16:00 -17:30
2.
3.
4.
ULUSLARARASI ENTEGRASYONUN ÖZSERMAYE MALİYETİ ÜZERİNDEKİ ETKİLERİ: TURİZM SEKTÖRÜ
Sezgin DEMİR*, Yasemin COŞKUN KADERLİ
ULUSLARARASI İLİŞKİLERDE BİR DIŞ POLİTİKA ARACI OLARAK TURİZM: BOSNA-HERSEK ÖRNEĞİ
Burhan AYDEMİR*, Bayram ŞAHİN
YEREL YÖNETİMLERDE TURİZM GİRİŞİMCİLİĞİ UYGULAMALARININ İNCELENMESİ: İSTANBUL İLİ ÖRNEĞİ
Burhan AYDEMİR, Özkan DERELİ*
SİYASİ PROPAGANDA ARACI OLARAK REKREASYON VE TURİZM PROJELERİ: 31 MART 2014 YEREL SEÇİMLERİ
ÜZERİNE BİR DEĞERLENDİRME
Yasin BİLİM*, Zekeriya YETİŞ
Gala Dinner 19:00-24:00
Day 3 (27.09.2014, Saturday)
Breakfast 08:00-10:00
Social Program 11:00 – 17:00
ix
CONTENTS *
TITLE
PAGE
NUMBER
1 NEW HERITAGE-MOTIVATED ATTRACTION OF INNER
ANATOLIA:SONSUZ ŞÜKRAN KÖYÜ
Aytuğ ARSLAN, Erkan AKGÖZ....................................................................................
1
2 NEW PERSPECTIVES OF CULTURAL TOURISM IN EUROPE AND POLAND
Adam Edward SZCZEPANOWSKI...............................................................................
14
3 SMARTLY DESIGNING OF TOURISM EXPERIENCE IN THE CONCEPTUAL
AGE
Göknil Nur SEVER, Salar KUHZADY..........................................................................
27
4 FACTORS OF CHANGES IN THE DYNAMICS AND STRUCTURE OF
TOURISM IN POLAND
Józef SZABŁOWSKI ....................................................................................................
35
5 ACTIVITY BASED CUSTOMER PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS: A CASE
STUDY IN TRAVEL AGENCY
Levent KOŞAN, Kemal ENES,Okan ÇOLAK................................................................
50
6 THANA TOURISM: NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN THE TURKISH
TOURISM MARKET
İlkay TAŞ, Erdoğan KOÇ..............................................................................................
61
7 THE ECOTURIZM NETWORK BETWEEN THE BUG AND NAREW – THE
EXAMPLE OF THE REGİONAL ECOTURİZM PRODUCT IN POLAND
Joanna OMIECIUCH....................................................................................................
74
8 THE IMPACT OF THE MANAGERS’ EDUCATION LEVEL ON THE
IMPLEMENTATION OF HUMAN RESOURCES POLICIES IN TOURISM
SECTOR
Edip ÖRÜCÜ, Çağrı İZCİ , Sinem ATAY.....................................................................
84
9 DEPRESSION AND TURNOVER INTENTION AMONG HOTEL EMPLOYEES
Erdoğan KOÇ, Recep KILIÇ , Hakan BOZ................................................................
96
10 THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CAREER MANAGEMENT, CAREER
COMMITMENT AND CAREER SATISFACTION IN HOTELS: THE CASE OF
ÇEŞME
Nilgün AVCI, Sinem UYSAL.........................................................................................
109
x
CONTENTS *
TITLE
11
PAGE
NUMBER
THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL CLIMATE ON WORKPLACE FRIENDSHIP,
PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AND HELPING BEHAVIORS: AN
EMPIRICAL STUDY IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY
Murat YEŞİLTAŞ, Pelin KANTEN, Selahattin KANTEN, Ümit SORMAZ....................
124
12 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT
AND JOB SATISFACTION :AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN HOSPITALITY
BUSINESSES
Çağlar DOĞRU............................................................................................................
148
13 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SYSTEMATIC SOLDIERING AND
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT IN HOSPITALITY BUSINESSES
Serkan BAYRAKTAROĞLU, Metin ULUKÖY, Çağrı İZCİ........................................
157
14 AN AHP FRAMEWORK FOR HOTEL SELECTION BASED ON MASLOW’S
NEEDS HIERARCY
Mahsa SERPOUSH, Cemalettin Öcal FİDANBOY....................................................
169
15 AN EXAMINATION OF HOTELS’ SPA WEBSITE DESIGNS
S. Pınar TEMİZKAN, Beybala TİMUR, Rahman TEMİZKAN.....................................
176
16 TRADITIONAL AND REGIONAL PRODUCTS AS A COMPETITIVENESS
FACTOR IN THE REGION ( THE EXAMPLE OF THE PODLASKIE
VOIVODESHIP )
Elzbieta ZALESKO.......................................................................................................
185
17 THE RELATIONSHIP OF TOURISTIC CONSUMER PERSONALITY TRAIT,
DESTINATION PERSONALITY AND BEHAVIOURAL INTENTIONS: THE
CASE OF TURKEY
Sima NART, Özlem AKSOY...........................................................................................
195
18 THE EFFECTS OF INTERNAL MARKETING PRACTISE ON COMPETITIVE
PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES: EVIDENCE FROM TOURISM INDUSTRY
Sima NART, Senem NART.............................................................................................
207
19 SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN AYVALIK AS A POTENTIAL
CITTASLOW
Mehmet Behzat EKİNCİ................................................................................................
219
20 CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS EFFECT OF TURKISH TOURISM
Yasin Nuri ÇAKIR, Ivanka NESTOROSKA.................................................................
234
xi
CONTENTS *
TITLE
PAGE
NUMBER
21 THE EFFECT OF CREDIT USAGE ON TOURISTIC CONSUMPTION AND
APPLICATION IN TURKEY
Kudret GUL, Melike GUL.............................................................................................
246
22 THE ROLE OF SOCIO-CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF
TOURISM IN PERCEIVED TOTAL TOURISM EFFECT
Çağrı ERDOĞAN, Seyit Ahmet SOLMAZ, Burhanettin ZENGİN..............................
261
23 THE SCHOLARLY RESEARCH OF RECREATION: CONTEXT OF TOURISM
AND OTHER RESEARCH AREAS
Göknil Nur SEVER, Mehtap ÖZKAN BUZLU............................................................
271
24 DATA MINING: USAGE AND APPLICATIONS IN TOURISM INDUSTRY
Eyüp AKÇETİN, Alper KILIÇ, Nilüfer YURTAY, Yüksel YURTAY, Emin ÖZTÜRK,
Onur Alper ŞAHİN........................................................................................................
281
25 TURİZM SEKTÖRÜNDE DEĞİŞEN İK STRATEJİLERİNE YÖNELİK BİR
İNCELEME
Burçin ÇETİN KARABAT, Mustafa ŞEKER................................................................
294
26 TURİZM VE OTEL İŞLETMECİLİĞİ ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN PROGRAMI
SEÇMEDE ETKİLİ OLAN FAKTÖRLER: BALIKESİR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
ÖRNEĞİ
Adnan ÇALIŞKAN, Yasin Nuri ÇAKIR.......................................................................
304
27 KONAKLAMA İŞLETMELERİNDE DUYGUSAL EMEK: YAPISAL EŞİTLİK
MODELİ İLE BİR ANALİZ
Işıl ARIKAN SALTIK, Tuncer ASUNAKUTLU............................................................
323
28 YARATICILIK VE HİZMET ODAKLILIK: 25. YİYECEK İÇECEK
İŞLETMELERİNDE BİR UYGULAMA
Neslihan SERÇEOĞLU................................................................................................
333
29 TURİSTİK ÜRÜN TERCİHİNİN A TİPİ VE B TİPİ KİŞİLİK ÖZELLİKLERİNE
GÖRE BELİRLENMESİ
Salim İBİŞ, Ümit ŞENGEL, Burhanettin ZENGİN, Orhan BATMAN...........................
342
30 DİYARBAKIR İLİNİN TURİZM POTANSİYELİNİN SWOT ANALİZİ İLE
BELİRLENMESİ
Ayhan KARAKAŞ, İbrahim ÇENBERLİTAŞ.................................................................
352
31 HİZMET PAZARLAMASINDA DEMARKETING (PAZARLAMAMA)
STRATEJİSİ VE EGE BÖLGESİ BUTİK OTELLERİNDE BİR ARAŞTIRMA
Berrin ONARAN, İlknur MAZAN, Selçuk SERT...........................................................
375
xii
CONTENTS *
TITLE
PAGE
NUMBER
32 HAVAYOLU İŞLETMELERİNDE İLETİŞİM KANALLARININ İŞVEREN
MARKASINA YÖNELİK OLARAK İKY AÇISINDAN DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ
Mustafa ŞEKER, Ümit ŞENGEL, Salim İBİŞ.............................................................
392
33 ÇEVREYE DUYARLI OTELCİLİK KAPSAMINDA YEŞİL YILDIZ
UYGULAMASI: ANTAKYA GÜNGÖR OTTOMAN PALACE ÖRNEĞİ
Melahat YILDIRIM SAÇILIK, Samet ÇEVİK..............................................................
404
34 SÜRDÜRÜLEBİLİRLİK BAĞLAMINDA TURİZMDE MEVSİMSELLİK
OLGUSUNA GENEL BİR BAKIŞ
Yaşar SARI, Orhan YABANCI......................................................................................
415
35 BÖLGESEL OTEL İŞLETMELERİNİN KÜRESEL OTEL İŞLETMELER İLE
REKABETTE BİLGİ İLETİŞİM TEKNOLOJİLERİNİN ÖNEMİ
Mustafa ŞEKER, Salim İBİŞ, Ümit ŞENGEL...............................................................
431
36 İŞE ALIM SÜRECİNDE SOSYAL AĞ WEBSİTELERİNİN KULLANIMI:
İSTANBUL'DAKİ BEŞ YILDIZLI OTEL İŞLETMELERİNDE BİR UYGULAMA
Ömer L. MET, Serap ÖZDEMİR GÜZEL, Filiz DALKILIÇ YILMAZ.........................
439
37 TÜKETİCİLERİN KİŞİLİK ÖZELLİKLERİNE GÖRE ALGILADIKLARI RİSK
TÜRLERİNİ BELİRLEMEYE YÖNELİK BİR ARAŞTIRMA: DÖRT VE BEŞ
YILDIZLI OTEL İŞLETMELERİNDE BİR UYGULAMA
Erdem TEMELOĞLU, Sebahattin KARAMAN.............................................................
449
38 YEREL HALKIN TURİZM ALGISI: AYVALIK ÖRNEĞİ
S. Banu YILDIZ.............................................................................................................
466
39 TÜRKİYE MUHASEBE VE FİNANSAL RAPORLAMA STANDARTLARI VE
VERGİ
MEVZUATINA
GÖRE
KONAKLAMA
İŞLETMELERİNDE
MUHASEBE DÜZENİ VE FİNANSAL RAPORLAMA
Hasan ABDİOĞLU, Burcu İŞGÜDEN KILIÇ, Ömür KIZILGÖL................................
482
40 TURİZM İŞLETMELERİNDE SOSYAL SORUMLULUK MUHASEBESİ
Ayşe Nur BUYRUK AKBABA
508
41 GELİR YÖNETİMİ UYGULAMALARI: ANKARA’DAKİ OTEL
İŞLETMELERİNDE BİR ARAŞTIRMA
Mehmet Selami YILDIZ, Çiğdem GÜR.........................................................................
538
42 TÜROFED ÜYESİ DERNEKLERİN İNTERNET SİTELERİNDE TANITIMA
YER VERME DURUMUNUN İÇERİK ANALİZİ YÖNTEMİYLE
DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ
Özge GÜDÜ DEMİRBULAT, Gencay SAATÇİ, Düriye BOZOK................................
555
xiii
CONTENTS *
TITLE
PAGE
NUMBER
43 TURİZMDE GEÇMİŞTEN GELECEĞE ARACILARIN ROLÜ ÜZERİNE BİR
DEĞERLENDİRME
Yaşar SARI, Murat KATRAN........................................................................................
581
44 MARKA ŞEHİR GAZİANTEP’İN TURİSTİK ARZ VE TALEP
YAPISI ÜZERİNE BİR İNCELEME
İbrahim GİRİTLİOĞLU, Atınç OLCAY, Yavuz AKÇİ, Barış ARMUTCU..................
587
45 TÜRKİYE’DE TURİZM GELİRLERİ VE EKONOMİK BÜYÜME ARASINDA
NEDENSELLİK İLİŞKİSİ
Suna KORKMAZ, Özlem GÜNGÖR.............................................................................
596
46 BORSA İSTANBUL’DA İŞLEM GÖREN TURİZM SEKTÖRÜ
İŞLETMELERİNİN FİNANSAL ETKİNLİKLERİNİN ÖLÇÜMÜ: VERİ
ZARFLAMA ANALİZİ YÖNTEMİ İLE BİR UYGULAMA
Sinan AYTEKİN, A. Gamze Ç. AYTEKİN....................................................................
619
47 TİCARİ AÇIKLIK VE TURİZM: SEÇİLMİŞ AKDENİZ ÜLKELERİNDEN
PANEL VERİ KANITLAR
Sabriye ÇELİK UĞUZ, Ferhat TOPBAŞ.....................................................................
635
48 KONAKLAMA İŞLETMELERİ ÇALIŞANLARININ ÖRGÜTSEL BAĞLILIK
ALGILAMALARI: KARŞILAŞTIRMALI BİR ÇALIŞMA
Sibel ÖZAFŞARLIOĞLU SAKALLI, Başak Nur ARASAN ...........................................
646
49 BİR KAYIRMACILIK (NEPOTİZM) ÇEŞİDİ OLARAK KRONİZME İLİŞKİN
ÇALIŞANLARIN BAKIŞ AÇILARI
Gencay SAATÇİ, Melis FİDANCI, Cevdet AVCIKURT...............................................
662
50 TURİZM ÇALIŞANLARININ KİŞİLİK ÖZELLİKLERİNİN KÜLTÜREL
ZEKÂLARI ÜZERİNDEKİ ETKİSİ: EDREMİT KÖRFEZİ ÖRNEĞİ
Muammer BEZİRGAN, Nuray MERCAN, Bayram ALAMUR.....................................
676
51 İL KÜLTÜR VE TURİZM MÜDÜRLÜKLERİNDE ÇALIŞAN İŞGÖRENLERİN
PROFİLİ: BALIKESİR VE ÇANAKKALE İLLERİNDE PİLOT BİR
ARAŞTIRMA
Barış ERDEM, Eray POLAT, Sami Sonat ÖZDEMİR.................................................
690
52 LİDER-ÜYE ETKİLEŞİMİ VE YUKARIYA DOĞRU ETKİLEME TAKTİKLERİ
İLİŞKİSİ
Oya İnci BOLAT, Aytaç TOPTAŞ.................................................................................
704
xiv
CONTENTS *
TITLE
PAGE
NUMBER
53 OTEL YÖNETİCİLERİNİN SAHİP OLDUĞU KÜLTÜREL DEĞERLERİN
YENİ YÖNETİM YAKLAŞIMLARINA ETKİSİ
Övgü AÇIKSÖZLÜ, İlbey VAROL, Nur Neşe ŞAHİN, Özlem KÖROĞLU................
718
54 TURİZM ALANINDA YAPILAN LİSANSÜSTÜ TEZLERİN STRATEJİK
YÖNETİM LİTERATÜRÜNE KATLILARI: TÜRKİYE ÜZERİNE BİR
ARAŞTIRMA
Orhan BATMAN, Emrah ÖZTÜRK...............................................................................
735
55 YATIRIMLARDA DEVLET YARDIMLARI HAKKINDA BAKANLAR
KURULU KARARI KAPSAMINDA TURİZM YATIRIMLARINA SAĞLANAN
TEŞVİKLER
Mehmet YÜCE.............................................................................................................
760
56 AVRUPA’DA TURİZME SAĞLANAN KATMA DEĞER VERGİSİ
TEŞVİKLERİ ÜZERİNE BİR İNCELEME
Ali ÇELİKKAYA...........................................................................................................
777
57 BİR DIŞ POLİTİKA ARACI OLARAK TURİZM
Özlem ÖZKÖSEDAĞ İÇİN, Yasemin OĞUZLAR TEKİN ..........................................
795
58 SOSYAL PAYLAŞIM SİTELERİNİN PAZARLAMA İLETİŞİM KANALI
OLARAK KONAKLAMA İŞLETMELERİNDE KULLANIM ETKİNLİĞİNİN
İNCELENMESİ: MUĞLA İLİ ÖRNEĞİ
Gülay ÖZALTIN TÜRKER, Ali TÜRKER, F. Özlem GÜZEL………………………
808
59 KONAKLAMA İŞLETMELERİNDE E-TURİZM UYGULAMALARININ
STARTEJİK ÖNEMİ ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA
Yaşar SARI, F.Zehra ÖZTÜRK....................................................................................
828
60 MÜŞTERİ MEMNUNİYETİNDE KANO MODELİ: TÜRKİYE’DEKİ
HAVAYOLU YOLCULARI ÖRNEĞİ
Halil KORKMAZ, İbrahim GİRİTLİOĞLU, Cevdet AVCIKURT, Nalan ALBUZ......
836
61 TURİSTLERİN KİŞİLİK ÖZELLİKLERİ İLE POSTMODERN TURİZME
EĞİLİMLERİ ARASINDAKİ İLİŞKİYİ İNCELEMEYE YÖNELİK BİR
ARAŞTIRMA - BALIKESİR İLİ ÖRNEĞİ
Düriye BOZOK, Övgü AÇIKSÖZLÜ, Nur Neşe ŞAHİN, İlbey VAROL......................
849
62 PAZARLAMA ETİĞİ ÇERÇEVESİNDE İZİNLİ PAZARLAMA: TURİSTLER
ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA
Bayram ŞAHİN, Burçin SÖNMEZ, Aslı Ceren SAYGI................................................
872
xv
CONTENTS *
TITLE
PAGE
NUMBER
63 TARİHİ KENTLERİN TURİZM DESTİNASYONU OLARAK
GELİŞTİRİLMESİ: SAFRANBOLU ÖRNEĞİ
Mustafa BOZ, İsa UĞUR..............................................................................................
896
64 ALAÇATI OT FESTİVALİNİN YEREL HALK ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİNİN
DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ
Esin ÖZKAN, Samet Can CURKAN, Engin Can SARAK.............................................
920
65 ULUSLARARASI İLİŞKİLERDE BİR DIŞ POLİTİKA ARACI OLARAK
TURİZM: BOSNA-HERSEK ÖRNEĞİ
Burhan AYDEMİR, Bayram ŞAHİN.............................................................................
932
66 YEREL YÖNETİMLERDE TURİZM GİRİŞİMCİLİĞİ UYGULAMALARININ
İNCELENMESİ: İSTANBUL İLİ ÖRNEĞİ
Burhan AYDEMİR, Özkan DERELİ.............................................................................
948
67 SİYASİ PROPAGANDA ARACI OLARAK REKREASYON VE TURİZM
PROJELERİ: 31 MART 2014 YEREL SEÇİMLERİ ÜZERİNE BİR
DEĞERLENDİRME
Yasin BİLİM, Zekeriya YETİŞ.......................................................................................
961
SEKTÖRÜNDE
MEVSİMLİK
İSTİHDAMIN
SEKTÖR
68 TURİZM
ÇALIŞANLARININ ÖRGÜTSEL BAĞLILIKLARINA ETKİSİ: BÜYÜKADA
KONAKLAMA
İŞLETMELERİ
ÇALIŞANLARINA
YÖNELIK
BIR
ARAŞTIRMA
Recep KILIÇ, Yasin Nuri ÇAKIR, Said Kerem TEKER, Adnan ÇALIŞKAN................
974
--------------------*68 of the papers presented have been reviewed and published in the book of proceedings.
xvi
NEW HERITAGE-MOTIVATED ATTRACTION OF INNER ANATOLIA:
SONSUZ ŞÜKRAN KÖYÜ
Assist. Prof. Dr. Aytuğ ARSLAN∗
Assist. Prof. Dr. Erkan AKGÖZ∗∗
ABSTRACT
Sonsuz Şükran Köyü (the Village of Endless Gratitude), which has been established nearby the
town of Çavuş in the district of Hüyük, Konya, has grown out of an idea of an artist, namely Mehmet
Taşdiken, to express gratitude to his hometown, in the broader sense to Anatolia by adding value to
the region. The village has come into existence as a prototype project in Turkey to revive and maintain
the tangible and intangible cultural heritage of the village and the surroundings. It offers an
alternative living place for the artists, writers or architects etc. who desire to live and work in
uncorrupted places in comparison to the over-crowded cities. Therefore, it is planned to have
basically houses designed according to traditional residential architecture in Anatolia, workshops and
recreation areas for cultural activities. Thus, it is a living, working and activity site for the residents of
the village.
Although this project has been carried out to serve mainly socio-cultural purposes and ignores
the major components of the tourism industry such as transportation, accommodation, marketing, it
meets the goals of tourism industry, especially one of the most popular concepts, ‘sustainability’.
In this study, Sonsuz Şükran Köyü which is new heritage-motivated attraction of Inner Anatolia
is introduced. The project of Sonsuz Şükran Köyü seems to be a successful example for the sustainable
cultural tourism in the other parts of the country especially to promote domestic tourism. Its facilities
and possible positive contributions to the tourism figures of the region are discussed in the frame of
sustainable heritage tourism.
Keywords: Sustainability, Heritage, Tradition, Konya, Anatolia
1. INTRODUCTION
As Vagianni and Spilanis (2004) state, tourism activity can be divided into two major
categories: conventional tourism (3S – Sun, Sand and Sea Tourism) and new forms of tourism (SIT Special Interest Tourism and alternative). While alternative tourism (cultural tourism, eco-tourism,
agro-tourism, health tourism) combines tourist products or individual tourist services different from
∗
Selçuk University, Beyşehir Ali Akkanat Tourism Faculty, Department of Travel Management and Tourist Guidance,
[email protected]
∗∗
Selçuk University, Beyşehir Ali Akkanat Tourism Faculty, Department of Travel Management and Tourist Guidance,
[email protected],
1
the mass tourism by means of supply, organization and the human resource involved, special interests
are defined by the motives that induce travel. Douglas et al., (2001) define SIT as “the provision of
customised leisure and recreational experiences driven by the specific interests of individuals and
groups”. These visitors are attracted to a destination for special interests such as sport, religious,
maritime, food or even business experiences. These small profitable groups of visitors are considered
as niche market.
Heritage tourism is a broad category that embraces both eco-tourism and cultural tourism. As
defined by United Nations World Tourism Organization (1985), cultural tourism is “movement of
persons for essentially cultural motivations such as study tours, performing arts and cultural tours,
travel to festivals and other cultural events, visits to sites and monuments, travel to study folklore or
art with the intention to gather new information and experiences to satisfy their cultural needs”. Ecotourism is “all nature-based forms of tourism in which the main motivation of the tourists is the
observation and appreciation of nature as well as the traditional cultures prevailing in natural areas”
(UNWTO, 2002). Refer to the study of Repiso (2007), in conceptual terms, tourism is increasingly
being regarded as a positive force for the preservation of nature and culture; its contributions should
bring about benefits for the host community and incentives to maintain their heritage, conceived of as
the identifying set of natural and cultural assets (both tangible and intangible) of a society.
2. SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
The concept of sustainable tourism has grown out of the concept of sustainable development
(SD), whose most popular definition has arisen from the World Commission on Environment and
Development (the Brundtland Commission). Their 1987 report (Our Common Future) defined SD as:
“development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs”. The UNWTO (1998) defines sustainable tourism as: “Tourism
development that meets the needs of the present tourist and host regions while protecting and
enhancing opportunity for the future”.
There are many definitions of sustainable tourism. The following is one of these cited in
Bramwell & Lane (1993):
“Sustainable tourism is a positive approach intended to reduce the tensions and frictions
created by the complex interactions between the tourism industry, visitors, the environment and the
communities which are host to holidaymakers. It involves working for the long-term viability and
quality of both natural and human resources. It is not anti-growth, but acknowledges that there are
limits to growth”.
Therefore, the idea of sustainability is found in all the market segments and definitions of the
tourism types. All the definitions address the following characteristics such as preservation of the
2
resource for future generations; the use of tourism to contribute to environmental protection; limiting
negative socio-economic impacts, and benefiting local people economically and socially. Hence,
especially the definition of eco-tourism with the concept of sustainability expanded in a way including
the following characteristics according to UNWTO (2002).
• It contains educational and interpretation features. It is generally, but not exclusively organised
by specialised tour operators for small groups. Service provider partners at the destinations tend
to be small, locally owned businesses.
• It minimises negative impacts upon the natural and socio-cultural environment.
• It supports the maintenance of natural areas which are used as ecotourism attractions by
generating economic benefits for host communities, organisations and authorities managing
natural areas with conservation purposes, providing alternative employment and income
opportunities for local communities and increasing awareness towards the conservation of
natural and cultural assets, both among locals and tourists.
In addition, as Pedersen (2002) emphasized that the Convention Concerning the Protection of
the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, signed in Paris in 1972, is an international agreement
through which nations join together to conserve a collection of the world’s timeless treasures. Each
country recognises its primary duty to ensure the identification, protection, conservation and
transmission to future generations of the cultural and natural heritage situated on its territory. The
World Heritage Convention, one of the most powerful protection instruments in the world, is the only
international legal instrument for the protection of both cultural and natural sites encouraging
cooperation among nations for safeguarding their heritage.
3. SONSUZ ŞÜKRAN KÖYÜ (THE VILLAGE OF ENDLESS GRATITUDE)
Sonsuz Şükran Köyü (the Village of Endless Gratitude), which has been established recently
nearby the town of Çavuş in the district of Hüyük, Konya, has come into existence as a prototype
project in Turkey. The project, primarily aimed at building a new village which will offer an
alternative living place for the artists, writers or architects etc. away from the densely populated
stressful cities of Turkey, especially İstanbul. Besides, it is planned to make significant contributions
to the cultural and economic life of the village and the surroundings by maintaining the tangible and
intangible cultural heritage of the village and the surroundings with its workshops and recreation areas
for cultural activities. Thus, it is a living, working and activity site for the residents of the village.
3.1.
Location Choice
The historical background and natural beauties of the area has played an important role for the
location of the village apart from being hometown of the head of the project, writer Mehmet Taşdiken,
Sonsuz Şükran Köyü is located nearby the steep lines and forests of Taurus Mountains and the shore
3
of Lake Beyşehir, the largest freshwater lake in Turkey with its islands. The history of the region dates
back to the Pre-historic times, approximately 5700-5300 B.C. as concluded from the findings tumuli
nearby. The Monument of Eflatunpınar, 7.5 m. and 4 m. high, dating back to the last quarter of 13th
century B.C. is one of the rare freestanding monuments of Hittites. Eşrefoğlu Mosque, built by
Eşrefoğlu Süleyman Bey in 1296-1299, the biggest and finest example of flat-wooden-ceiling and
wooden supporter style, bears importance as one of the few remaining wooden mosques of Seljuks
Period in Anatolia. Another major trace of Seljuks around the region is Kubadabad Palace, built by
Sultan Kayqubad I who admired the beauty of the lake on his way to Antalya and instructed for the
construction of a summer palace next to the lake and at the hillside of Mount Anamas.
3.2. The Facilities of the Village
There will be 48-residential area, 1-vineyard, orchard, 1-mosque, 2 pond, 220-house, 3-park,
13-cultural centre in Sonsuz Şükran Köyü According to the layout plan. The houses that has been
designed according to traditional Anatolian architecture are completely different from the concrete
buildings in the cities. The houses which are individually designed encompasses a range of single and
double storey with balcony, lean-to roof or cumba, room partition extending as an external component
on the floors above ground level and flat earth roofs. Sustainable, ecological, traditional natural
building materials like stone, adobe, wood and reed were preferred for the construction of the
dwellings. It is necessary to note that Prehistoric peoples everywhere used earth and other natural
materials for building and adobe houses in Anatolia, in fact, are as old as one of the world’s first
Neolithic permanent settlements, Çatalhöyük which is located in the district of Çumra, 40 km. away
from Konya. Mud-brick exterior walls of the houses in Sonsuz Şükran Köyü are protected from the
rain water by overhanging large eaves. Adobe walls are built on a foundation of concrete or stone to
protect them from moisture damage. The wood lintels are placed over the windows and door frames.
The wood beams are respectively covered with wickerwork, reeds, insulation and earth on the roof.
Plaster, mixture of straw, clay and water, is applied to the adobe walls (Pic. 1-5).
Smith (2002) say that natural building which places the highest value on social and
environmental sustainability relies heavily on
simple, easy-to-learn techniques based on locally
available, renewable resources, human labour and creativity instead of on capital, high-technology and
specialized skills. Meanwhile, in the study of Chiras (2004), utilitarian benefits are rewarding that it
offers a chance to build with locally available materials harvested near the building site. Not only are
natural houses comfortable to live in, they are healthier because natural materials do not contain toxic
substances that are released into indoor air.
Apart from its environmental and health advantages, adobe has good thermal mass, meaning
that it is slow to transmit heat or cold. It retains heat in the winter and keep interiors cool during the
summer months. It is very suitable for comfortable accommodation, especially in summer season.
4
The village hosts the monuments such as Anatolian panthers, 2.85 m high and 5 m in length
which welcomes the visitors at the entrance of the village in compliance with a tradition of the
decoration of the gates with the figures in Anatolia. The wild animals, sphinxes flanking the gates of
the city were thought of as a guarding at the Hittites as seen from the ruins of Hattusha, the capital of
the Hittite Empire (Pic. 6). Another monument is the Fountain of Eternal Gratitude which represents
the Hittite, Roman, Seljukian and Ottoman Empires that had once ruled in the region, with the eternity
symbols of the four civilizations embedded in the wall like fortune’s wheel, rosette, s-curves and
entwined medallions and symbolic crowns on the top of them (Pic. 7).
3.3. Workshops & Festivals
Sonsuz Şükran Köyü was planned to be working and demonstration site for the residents, wide
range of artists including writers, painters, sculptors, fashion designers, film directors. Therefore, there
are workshops connected to their houses, open air sculpture atelier, recreation grounds and theme
parks. Although the village has been recently established, the number of the works of art, exhibitions
and festivals are beyond the expectations. The art and culture festival under the name of Gratitude
Meetings to Anatolia has been held every year in Sonsuz Şükran Köyü.
The exhibitions of underglass painting, ethnographic objects, painting, sculpture and photograph
workshop activities for the children, training in craftsmanship, music and movie nights, panels during
Gratitude Meetings to Anatolia I were the first serious contributions to the cultural and economic life
of the village and the surroundings in 2010. One of the most important events that took place in the
following year was Land Art during Gratitude Meetings to Anatolia II. Land art or Earth Art (Pic. 8),
which emerged as an artistic protests against artificiality, plastic aesthetics and commercialization of
art at the end of the 1960s, is an art form created in nature, using natural materials such as soil, rock,
branches, leaves, and water with introduced materials such as concrete or metal. Sculptures are not
placed in the landscape, rather, the landscape is the means of their creation. Land Art projects by
different artists who had been inspired by Anatolian civilizations were carried out in the wide land of
the Sonsuz Şükran Köyü. Among them, the projects, called New Birth (Pic. 9), Cybele’s Throne, Bird
on the Boat, Sundance, Eternal Path, Mevlana’s Message: Don’t be stone, be earth, Anatolian Dragon,
Çintemani (Pic. 10) can be counted. As part of the festival, the portraits of the villagers were painted
and the children participated in the workshop activities on performing arts, painting and clay (Pic. 1112).
4. THE NEWLY-INTRODUCED HOSPITALITY CONCEPT IN ANATOLIA
According to McKercher (2003) over the recent years sets of principles have been developed to
try to operationalize the sustainability. These principles identify sustainable tourism as having four
pillars economic, ecological, cultural and community sustainability. Various guidelines have been
developed for each. Ngamsomsuke, Hwang and Huang (2011) suggest that sustainable tourism
5
indicators are essential mechanism to achieve the objective of sustainable tourism development by not
only evaluating and co-ordinating it but also identifying the limits and opportunities over time.
Twining-Ward and Butler (2002) notes that according to the different in geographic, culture and
environment in each places, specific indicators should be developed to specifying to each place.
Although the project of Sonsuz Şükran Köyü has been carried out to serve mainly socio-cultural
purposes and ignores the major components of the tourism industry such as transportation,
accommodation, marketing, it meets the goals of tourism industry, especially one of the most popular
concepts, ‘sustainability’ and follows the latest tourism trends.
Firstly, the project serves multi-purposes of sustainable tourism with its natural buildings made
out of adobe and wood as well as preservation of natural, historical and cultural heritage, providing
communities with the events of visual and performing arts, revival and maintenance of local traditions
and increased awareness about unused heritage potential. The project is in conformity with the core
indicators of sustainable tourism determined by UNWTO such as site protection, social impact,
planning process, consumer satisfaction, local satisfaction, tourism contribution to local economy,
carry capacity, attractiveness.
Secondly, Sonsuz Şükran Köyü can be designated as
new heritage motived attraction or
tourism accommodation for the artists, travellers not just national but international because it can host
them with its guest house and realize the contemporary aspects of tourism. In this respect, even though
the project ignores consciously being the part of tourism in terms of business income which is contrary
to its moral principle ‘gratitude’, this project offers new model for the entrepreneurs in the tourism
sector who would like to make an investment by taking the tourism trends into consideration as well
even .
It would be necessary to sum up the main tourism trends identified in the study of Pedersen
(2002) as described below in headlines to assess the consistency of the characteristics of Sonsuz
Şükran Köyü with them.
There is a rising demand for nature and culture based, more active and educational holidays.
Cultural tourism motivations are shifting slowly towards a more general interest in culture,
rather than very specific cultural goals.
The tourism industry is expected to take more responsibility for sustainable development.
Although tourism literature has developed a large number of tourism demand typologies based
on different set of criteria (demographic, socio-economical, behavioural, purpose of travel,
destination) and it is possible to increase the number of criteria that are used separately or in
6
combination depending on the case, according to the study in which simplified demand typology has
been suggested, there are basically three major groups of tourists.
Table 1. General Model of Demand Typologies
Type
Lonely travellers
Tourists traveling in
small groups
Mass tourists
Destination
Pioneer resort
Popular
Famous
Contact with the
local community
Life cycle stage
Impacts
Exploration
Small
High
Medium
Medium
High
Small
Initial stages of
tourism growth
Stagnation
Resource: Coccossis and Constantoglou (2006)
Coccossis and Constantoglou (2006) claims that those that are travelling alone in pioneer
destinations searching for exotic and strange environments in destinations not discovered yet from the
tourism industry, they are using local facilities and they want contact with the residents. In their case,
the impacts on the socio-economic system and the environment as well is minimum mainly because of
small numbers. The first group could be the target audience of this project. Eco-tourists, young and
highly-educated with professional and managerial occupations are interested in a more natural
environment and more likely to use small independent hotels, preferring less crowded destinations.
As mentioned in the report of European Travel Commission, the relationship between host and
guest is changing, some tourists want to get rid of their tourist label. Tourists are becoming more
interested in environmental protection and more and more interested in visiting attractions with the
concept of sustainable tourism. People are becoming career travellers, demanding an endless flow of
new experiences, and looking for deeper, genuine experiences rather than stages ones within the
communities they visit. As Brooks (2011) points out, tourists often talk about “absorbing” the local
culture. Simply attending local events and festivals is generally more satisfying than the special
“cultural performances” that are only staged for tourists. In recent decades, the general public’s
concept of heritage has expanded far beyond famous monuments, archaeological sites, major museums
and spectacular landscapes into every aspect of daily life and community memory. Physical heritage is
complemented by all forms of traditional and popular culture. The considerable changes in the supply
required by these new tendencies in the tourism demands can be adapted by the projects similar to
Sonsuz Şükran Köyü.
Another crucial point to mention is the domestic tourism figures of Central Anatolia,
particularly the province of Konya and the district of Beyşehir. The study conducted by Tosun,
Timothy and Öztürk
(2004) showed that the vast majority of domestic tourists (66%) visited the
coastal regions such as Aegean (24%), Marmara (25%) and Mediterranean (17%), and only a small
percentage of them (25%) visited the non-coastal regions, including Central (16%), Eastern (4%) and
7
Southeast (5%) Anatolia. However, the most nights spent in Central (69%), Eastern (90%), and Southeastern (95%) Anatolia were generated by domestic tourists (Table 1). This fact was also noted by
Seckelmann (2002) that domestic tourism has by far the biggest share of the existing tourism in the
central and eastern provinces. The recent statistics suggests that the number of the domestic arrivals in
Central Anatolia has increased dramatically (Table 2).
Table 1. Number of Citizen Arrivals and Nights Spent by Regions of Turkey - 2000
Regions
Number of
Arrivals
Nights
Spent
Aegean
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeast Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
2 191 647
2 218 813
1 516 815
401 120
346 079
771 608
1 409 820
4 361 648
3 802 003
4 159 065
509 915
497 682
1 060 836
2 084 550
Average
Length
of Stay
2.0
1.7
2.7
1.3
1.4
1.4
1.5
Resource: Tosun, Timothy and Öztürk (2004)
Table 2. Number of Citizen Arrivals and Nights Spent by Regions of Turkey – 2013
Regions
Number of
Arrivals
Nights
Spent
Aegean
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeast Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
7 330 782
8 037 069
5 784 959
1 877 785
1 603 530
3 328 183
4 311 732
15 110 722
13 972 942
13 782 595
2 591 478
2 164 392
4 758 093
6 740 662
Average
Length
of Stay
2.1
1.7
2.4
1.4
1.3
1.4
1.6
Resource: Author’s calculation based upon Ministry of Culture and Tourism
The reason behind it seems to be increasing demand for the Museum of Mevlana and Annual
Seb-i Arus Ceremonies which is held between 01-17 December (Table 3). Although Konya has an
abundance of historical sites and natural beauties, the tourism seems to be based upon only rich culture
of Mevlana.
Table 3. Visitor Figures of Konya Museums and Mevlana Museum - 2013
Konya
Mevlana Museum
Citizen Visitor
1 862 857
1 599 053
Travel Agency
438 678
331 124
Total
2 301 535
2 037 731
∗ Tourists visiting Mevlana Museum using travel agencies are citizens and foreigners.
Resource: Ministry of Culture and Tourism – dosim.kulturturizm.gov.tr
The number of the citizen arrivals in Beyşehir is just 3 percent of total citizen arrivals in
Konya (Table 4). Sonsuz Şükran Köyü which is 40 km from the district of Beyşehir may be an
opportunity for the rural region to meet the need of domestic tourism promotion by increasing
8
awareness about unused heritage potential, especially in Beyşehir such as Lake Beyşehir National
Park, the largest national park and the biggest fresh water lake in Turkey with more than 30 islands in
the lake, is a resting place for migratory birds, Eşrefoğlu Mosque which is in the UNESCO’s
temporary list of world heritages, a Hittite Monument Eflatunpınar and the summer residence of
Seljuk Sultans, Palace of Kubad Abad.
Table 4. Number of Arrivals, Nights Spent, Average Length of Stay and Occupancy Rates of
Establishments in Beyşehir and Konya - 2013
licensed tourism establishment
Average Length of
Year
Number of Arrivals
Nights Spent
Stay
2013
Foreigner Citizen
Total
Foreigner Citizen
Total
Foreigner Citizen
Beyşehir
1112
7330
8442
1671
8810
10481
1.5
1.2
Konya
146057
298327 444384 209807
433699 643506 1.4
1.5
municipality licensed accommodation establishments
Average Length of
Year
Number of Arrivals
Nights Spent
Stay
2013
Foreigner Citizen
Total
Foreigner Citizen
Total
Foreigner Citizen
Beyşehir
11
7912
7923
31
10724
10755
2.8
1.4
Konya
10352
283097 293449 25141
438207 463348 2.4
1.5
TotalNumber of Citizen Arrivals
Beyşehir
15242
Konya
581424
Occupancy Rate %
Foreigner
5.72
13.22
Citizen
30.17
27.33
Total
35.89
40.56
Occupancy Rate %
Foreigner
0.05
1.64
Citizen
18.25
28.52
Total
18.30
30.15
Resource: Author’s calculation based upon Ministry of Culture and Tourism
As Alegre and Pou (2006) states that the length of time a tourist decides to stay at a holiday
destination is a basic characteristic of the holiday. It has important repercussions for tourist
destinations, since it affects their occupancy rates and final income. Sonsuz Şükran Köyü may play
important role to prolong the nights spent in the region which is about 1.3 for the citizens as well by
providing the events of visual and performing arts.
5. CONCLUSION
Tangible heritage -for instance adobe houses in the region- is the material manifestation of
cultural expression, either traditions of living society or those of past societies occupying the same
area and important for anyone wanting to gain a deeper understanding of the society. Festivals and
events performed at sites of cultural and natural significance are important dimension of cultural
tourism. They play important roles in helping to maintain cultural traditions and develop craft skills. It
sustains the well-being of people by creating new jobs. It may be even a tool for providing children
with manual or performing arts skill as done in Sonsuz Şükran Köyü.
The project must have been considered as alternative to the mass tourism accommodation. The
projects which will be developed from the model of Sonsuz Şükran Köyü will add value to natural and
cultural heritage through tourism offer in a sustainable manner. It would stop depopulation of rural
areas, revive and maintain local traditions, gastronomy and increase awareness about “new-tourism”.
9
The project will help to enhance tourism performance of the region in terms of number of
arrivals, average length of stay and occupancy rate by combining its own facilities with other potential
tourism assets in the region over the long term.
Plate 1.
Pic. 1
Pic. 3
Pic. 5
Pic. 2
Pic. 4
Pic. 6
10
Plate 2.
Pic. 8
Pic. 7
Pic. 9
Pic. 10
11
Pic. 11
Pic.12
Resource: http://www.sonsuzsukran.org/
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Alegre, J., Pou L. (2006) “The Length of Stay in the Demand for Tourism”, Tourism Management,
(27), 1352.
Bramwell B., Lane, B. (1993) “Sustainable Tourism: An evolving global approach”, Journal of
Sustainable Tourism, (1), 1-5.
Brooks, G. (2011) “Heritage as a driver for development: Its contribution to sustainable tourism in
contemporary society”, ICOMOS, 17th General Assembly, Paris.
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Chelsea Green Publishing.
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th
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Sons.
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McKercher B. (2003) “Sustainable Tourism Development: Guiding Principles for Planning and
Management”, National Seminar on Sustainable tourism Development, Bishkek, Kyrgystan.
12
Ngamsomsuke, W., Hwang, T. and Huang, C. (2011) “Sustainable Cultural Heritage Tourism
Indicators”, International Conference on Social Science and Humanity, IACSIT Press,
Singapore (5).
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Heritage Site Managers”, World Heritage Manuals I, Paris: UNESCO World Heritage Centre.
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Local Sustainable Development”, Holcim Forum.
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University Press.
13
NEW PERSPECTIVES OF CULTURAL TOURISM IN EUROPE AND POLAND
Dr. Adam Edward SZCZEPANOWSKI*
ABSTRACT
The end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century is a period of dynamic
growth in the number of institutions and cultural facilities as well as the development of cultural
tourism, which is considered one of the most important segments of tourism in Europe and globally.
According to the European Travel Commission already in 2005, more than 30% of all trips taken in
Europe stemmed directly from the motivation related to culture. The article presents current trends
regarding the development of cultural tourism, which stem from greater awareness, motivation of
tourists, together with social, demographic and technological changes and the development of the
web. In its second part the article attempts to define the directions in the development of cultural
tourism in Poland, with reference to the six forms of cultural tourism, i.e.: cultural heritage tourism,
tourism in industrial and post-industrial facilities, military tourism, museum tourism, religious
pilgrimage tourism as well as cultural and social events tourism.
Keywords:cultural tourism, perspectives
1. INTRODUCTION
Cultural tourism is one of the oldest types of tourism, in addition to health tourism and nature. It
is associated with the wider culture, which since the dawn of human history accompanied a man.
Cultural tourism is based on the contacts and getting to know the spiritual and material cultural
heritage of different communities around the world. This cultural heritage is a great value and
includes a variety of cultural content, which mainly relates to people and their creations. Recipients of
these values , ie. tourists want to witness great events: listen to a concert, see a performance, attend
folk festivals, regional holidays, meet cultural heritage sights and try regional delicacies. In this way
arises a cultural space that is attractive to tourists, and with good land and economic use it can become
a source of income for the communities of the region and the country.
In today's world cultural tourism is growing rapidly. In Poland, about 45% of travel is related to
culture (Dziedzic E., 2005). Visiting cities is becoming more and more popular in Europe. More
local
trips
are
observed,
trips
are
more
frequent
as
well
as
shorter
(www.
businessandculture.wordpress.com).
*
The University of Finance and Management in Bialystok, [email protected]
14
In the development of tourism (including cultural tourism), it is important to track trends which
have their origin in the internal and external factors (Lohmann M., 2004). Trends in turn are
forecasting tourism which is very important when making business decisions.
The study set the thesis: diagnosing trends in the development of cultural tourism will
contribute to a better understanding and more effective cooperation between the culture and tourism
but also making better decisions as for the development and marketing of cultural tourism products
according to the demand of tourists. This paper reviews the literature and studies related to the essence
of cultural tourism, analyzes the trends of its development in Europe and in Poland and sets future
directions of development of cultural tourism in Poland in relation to its different forms.
2. THE ESSENCE ANDCLASSIFICATION OFCULTURAL TOURISM
The concept of"cultural tourism" isknownand usedin the theoryand practice oftourismin the
second halfof the eightiesof the twentieth century. EuropeanAssociation for theEducationfor
TourismandLeisure Time(ATLAS) in 1991 has definedcultural tourismas a formof tourismin which
theinterest in travelingfocuses onthe rich past ofpeopleorareas, preservedandreflectedin the
monuments, historicsurroundings,traditional architectureandhandicraft products(MetelkaCh.J.,1990).
The literature of the subject is dominated by twoextremeapproaches tocultural tourism.In its
narrowunderstanding cultural tourismis limited solelyto exploring themonuments ofmaterial
culture.The broader approachallows fora widecoverage of allmanifestationsof culture,and it is
thereforemore appropriateto characterizethe moderntourist movement, in whichcontemporarily
createdattractions are a key element (Malek J.,2003).
Most authors who definecultural tourismindicate thatits mainfeature islearning aboutothers and
theirway of life. This approachtakes into accountall theelements of culture, understood in a modern
way.
Therefore,G.Adamsand
M.Kneafseydefinecultural
tourismas
a
formof
leisureactivity
through"traveling to enrichthe inner self"(ang. self-enrichment) or"search for knowledge". The key
elementshere
arethe
development,
presentation
and
interpretation
ofcultural
resources.Thereforecultural tourismis defined as "commercialized manifestation ofthe human needto
see
howothers
live,
satisfying
your
curiosityand
the
desire
toseeother
peopleintheir
"authentic"environment and thephysicalmanifestations oftheir activitiesin the arts, crafts, music,
literature,
dance,
food
and
drink
as
well
asfun,language,
rituals"(J.
Jafari,
2000).
AccordingH.L.Hughes(2000) "cultural tourismis one thatwithin its range encompasses experiences of
artisticandintellectualactivity ofthe society[...], it is visitingmonuments andplaces of historical
interest[...], museums and art galleries, theaters and concert halls(in order toparticipatein
performancesandconcerts)". In turn,FladmarkJM(1994) believes that cultural tourismis "the activity"
which givespeople the opportunity ofextending orexperiencingdifferentways of lifeof other people,
reflecting thesocial customs, religious traditions, intellectual thoughtandpreviously unknowncultural
heritage.
15
InPolishliterature of that subject there are manydefinitions ofcultural tourism.According to
A.Kowalczyk(2008) cultural tourismcan be definedas a set ofbehaviorsof touristsrelated to
theirgenuineinterest incultural heritage(monuments, folklore,places associatedwith importantevents,
etc..) and their participationin the widely understood contemporarycultural life.Thereforecultural
tourismshould be regarded notonlyas a set ofspecific needs andhuman behaviourresulting from
itssystem of values, education, etc.. (cultural tourism in statistical perspective), but also as
acontinuousprocess ofgainingnew experiencesby tourists, expandingtheir existing knowledgeetc..
(cultural tourism in dynamic perspective). A similar definition is depicted byMarciszewskaB.(2002),
in which she indicates thatcultural tourismallowsus to get to knowor experiencedifferent waysof life of
people, reflectingsocial customs, religious traditions, intellectual thought, cultural heritage-designed to
satisfytheir needs, desires and expectations withinculture range .Thereforeit is worth mentioningin the
name of SasinowskiH.(2009),thatcultural tourismcan not standa hurry,focuses onexploringthe
accuracy of sightseeingandthe need to learn and explore insuch a long time that bringstouriststo their
fullsatisfaction.
Many definitions ofcultural tourismby various authors are citedand discussed byA.Mikosv.
Rohrscheidt. In conclusion,the following definition offunctionalcultural tourism given by him states :
"... by the nameof cultural tourism we can determine all thegroup or individualexpeditionsof tourist
nature, wheretravellingparticipantscan meetobjects, events and other values of high and popular
cultureorbroadeningtheir knowledge ofthe surrounding world organised by human being which is an
essentialpart of thetravel schedule oristhe decisiveargument for theindividual decisionto take
itortakepart in it"(A. Mikosv. Rohrscheidt, 2008b). It can be saidthatcultural tourismis a type
oftourism, whichthrough various formsof travelallows you toexplore thecultural objectsand to learn
aboutthe customsof the communityatvarious types ofreligious ceremonies, folk festivals, song reviews
, regionalfestivalsand others.
In the literature of the matter there are manydivisionsof cultural tourism. M.Smithproposed
adivision intosix categories(M.Ivanovicz, MKSmith, 2008):
•heritage tourism,
• arts tourism,
•urbancultural tourism,
•ruralcultural tourism,
• indigenous culturaltourism,
• contemporary culturaltourism.
The variety ofreasons for travelling, more and more up to dateneeds of tourists, and the
diversityof used resources andtourism valuesincultural tourism were introduced by A.Mikosv.
Rohrscheidt. He divided thecultural tourisminto three basic groups(Mikos v. Rohrscheidt, 2008a): high
culturetourism, educationaltourism, common cultural tourism. High culturetourismis a kind ofhighgradetravelrealizingthe
objective
ofpresenting
participantswith
objects,
collections,
works
16
ofrecognizedglobalornational heritageor participation ineventsof high culture.It is akind ofelitetourism
which distinguishedthe followin: cultural heritage tourism, museum tourism, andliterary tourism
andevent tourism.Educational tourismaims to increaseparticipants' knowledgein a particular
areaortopic(study tours, thematic, linguistic andseminars). Commoncultural tourism(popular) is
directedtothe most abundantpublic of recipients (highlighted here are urban tourism , rural tourism,
ethnic, military, industrialand technical objects tourism, religious and pilgrimage tourism as well as
culinary tourism. Cultural tourism is distinguished by its specialization andmultiplicity of forms,
whichdraws attention of BuczkowskaK.(2008). She singles outamong others the following
classificationof formsof cultural tourism:
•tourism ofcultural heritage, which among othersrelatestoprotectedheritagetourism, historical
tourism, ethnographictourism and sentimental tourism;
•tourism of contemporary culture, which comprises among others the following.;tourism
ofcultural events, tourism totheme parks;
•tourism ofcultural heritage andcontemporary culture inthe field ofthe following, e.g.:urban
tourism, religious and pilgrimage tourism, culinary, wine.
The division ofcultural tourismwas also carried out by W.Kosinski(2004), based on the valueof
empiricalpatterns, trying to assignto eachof itsformsandvarietiesappropriateplace in theprotected area.
He singles out:educational andcognitivetourism,cult tourism (religious and pilgrimage), nostalgic
tourism (sentimental, "to the sourcesor roots"), events tourism (events).
Classificationsquotedor other highlightedformsof cultural tourismare sometimestoogeneral
orvaguein their transmission(eg. urban tourism). Someindicatedforms of tourismare shownin too much
detailandtoounlikelyto apply in practice(eg. indigenoustourism, or high culture tourism). Therefore the
authorproposed thedivision ofcultural tourismintosevenforms(groups), where the primary criterion
forthe divisionisthe main objectiveof departure.Incultural tourism we can distinguish the following
forms:
• cultural heritage tourismorientedto exploringcultural heritage facilities(mainlythe globalones
listed byUNESCO),
• industrialand post-industrial tourismwheretourist travelsare mainlyaimedat exploring
thehistoricalbuildings associated with theextraction of raw materials(eg. coal and salt mines),
andmanufacturing(eg. textile),
•
military
tourism-orientedmainlyto
explore
themuseumsof
militarydefense
facilities,battlefields, memorialsand cemeteriescommemoratingmilitaryevents,
•
museum
tourism-primarily
focused
onexploringmuseumswith
abundantcollections,
whichpresent the achievements ofculture and civilizationthroughout centuries,
•religious andpilgrimagetourism, which is associated withtravelingto the holy placesandsacred
facilitiesofvarious religions,
17
•cultural events tourism, which takes place throughmusic, theater, film, carnival shows, fiestas,
festivals and fairs.
During onetriptourists cancertainlyuseseveralforms ofcultural tourism at one time, for example,
while exploring thecultural heritage facilities ormuseums tourists can also finallytake partin a folk
festival. The variousforms ofcultural tourism are oftenconnected to each otherand mutuallypenetrate
one another.
To sum up cultural tourismprovidesthe wealthof cultural heritageof the formerandcurrent
generationsandis a source forpersonal growth of tourists andentire societies.Cultural tourism, among
other things, shapescultural and historical awareness of the society, inspires people ofart, culture and
science
to
takevarious
initiatives,
educatesthe
public,
affects
the
development
of
tourism,promotescountries, regions as well as towns, generates jobsfor many peopleandhas a
significant impacton the growth ofindividual regions andwhole countries.
3. THE DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURAL TOURISM IN EUROPE- FACTORS AND
TRENDS
As expected, the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) and UNESCO future of tourism will
be based largely on the development of cultural tourism, which will become the focus feature of
various aspects of cultural life into the traditional summer holidays. According to the UNWTO, the
wider cultural tourism currently accounts for 35-40% of the total tourism market in the world and is
growing at an annual rate of 15%, ie. three times faster than tourism in general (Montenegro Tourism
Development Strategy is a 2020, 2008).
In the European Union, the development of cultural tourism is treated as a priority, as a factor
stimulating regional development. In July 2005 European Economic and Social Committee drafted an
opinion on Tourism and culture - two forces for growth (Official Journal of the European Union, 425
(2006 / C 110/01. According to this opinion there are two chapters devoted to cultural tourism, ie
Chapter ‘cultural tourism and cultural tourism segments’. The first one states that:
•
among the sectors with the highest tourism growth rate is cultural tourism, tourism connected
with such values as art and nature, with the cities that pride in art heritage, as well as areas
with a particularly high concentration of historical and local traditions;
•
The European Union boasts the largest number of cultural heritage and natural heritage in the
world recorded in 137 countries on the World Heritage List;
•
influx of visitors to Europe from China and India is caused mainly by the interest that people
of these countries cherish for the wealth of cultural and architectural heritage, therefore the EU
18
•
and the Member States must continue to invest in the promotion of cultural tourism and the
protection of rich cultural heritage;
•
in addition to the economic benefits, cultural tourism is also important for the development of
social and civic values as well as promoting European integration and dialogue between
peoples and cultures;
•
developing cultural tourism, highlighting the historical and social artistic context, European
heritage and making use of environmental heritage will give tourists from all countries fuller
understanding of the history of European culture.
In the chapter on cultural tourism segments, it was found that;
•
effective promotion of cultural tourism, which is also associated with raising interest in a
"tourist indifferent to culture", needs analysis and the development of individual segments,
while attempting to identify trends and opportunities for future development. The main
segments of cultural tourism are: art heritage, exhibitions and expositions, festivals and other
events, food and wine , rural and film tourism, and historical and cultural theme parks;
•
most traditional segment of cultural tourism is "physical" art heritage, which consist of city
centers, museums and archaeological sites. Preference will be to promote and revitalize the
cultural heritage by organizing temporary exhibitions in museums and historic buildings such
as palaces and castles, with a particular focus on the promotion of contemporary art;
•
the second major segment of cultural tourism is associated with events such as exhibitions,
concerts, festivals and other special events. Over the past 10-15 years, cultural events have
become important factors for the promotion of tourism. Culture lovers (mainly young people),
go on a journey to see big exhibitions, attend concerts and festivals;
•
the third important factor of cultural tourism is associated with values of vineyards
and catering in individual regions. It belongs to the "material culture" and in recent years has
gained increasing importance, leading to the creation of a genuine cultural and economic
movement for the promotion of typical regional products;
•
the fourth segment of cultural tourism, which is becoming a significant source of tourist flows,
is linked to the production of films and television series. In many regions, tourism is
increasing as more people visit sites and locations where famous films and filmed television
series are set. A good example is the castle in Alnwick, in Northumberland (northern part of
the United Kingdom), in which the action from the Harry Potter movies takes place. Tourist
traffic in this place brings 13 million euros per year, and thus it became one of the most
important tourist attractions in the UK;
19
•
fifth segment of cultural tourism can be linked to the creation of historical and art theme parks,
which supplement visits to museums, historical centers and archaeological sites. The parks,
which could be built near famous tourist attractions, should make an auxiliary facility in
comprehending history.
In studies of the new trends of tourism two basic groups of factors can be found that will
determine the demand for tourist destinations in the XXI century. The first group contains external
factors (mainly megatrends), while the second group includes internal factors related to the tourism
market. Among the most important megatrends seem to be the following factors: political, social,
cultural, economic and technological. Pease W., Rowe M. (2005) claim that the technology of modern
societies, in particular linked to the Internet, has led to key changes in the demand for tourism. These
changes contribute to: the ability to incorporate market innovations, increasing the speed of access to
offers and a better exchange of information.
During the conference PISA Forum (The Latest Global Travel Trend, 2002-2003 CPI)
organized by the World Travel Monitor Company (together with its partners, the WTO, ETC, PATA,
TIA and the United States - DOC) megatrends referring to the global economic slowdown and
tourists’safety in travelling were recognised. Other megatrends (external factors) affecting tourism
demand include: globalization, political unrest, economic situations (growth or recession causing
crises), natural disasters, changes in technology, marketing initiatives, various expansions and
seasonality (French Ch., Craig- Smith JS, Collier A., 1995). Expansion factors include: general
increase in free time access, increase in affluence in countries generating tourism, the progress of
transportation technology, urban growth, increased influence and activity in the mass media.
Expected forecasts for the development of cultural tourism in the world and placing it in
planning documents allow to estimate the increase in the importance of this type of tourism in the
development of tourism economy. According to Mr Richards (2001), the number of participants in
cultural tourism from year to year will grow as more and more tourist attractions define themselves as
"cultural". In addition, cultural travel demand will grow due to the increase in the level of education
and leisure time among the populations in many countries.
4. DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURAL TOURISM IN POLAND
Poland on the background of Europe can be proud of its rich cultural heritage resources which
are of the global and European importance. Large regional variety of cultural heritage has a major
impact on the attractiveness of Poland (rich culture of national and ethnic minorities). In Poland, there
are many cultural regions within which traditions are constantly cultivated. Often are they referred to
as "small homelands", which is a testament to the unification of the community of the specific area.
Culture of the region is therefore a community of "small homelands" distinguishable from other
regions. Around the world are known Polish artists and their cultural heritage (Frederic Chopin,
20
Ludwig Zamenhof, John Paul II, Krzysztof Penderecki, Andrzej Wajda, Roman Polanski). And the
most important thing is the growing awareness of the role of culture in socio-economic life and the
preservation of tangible and intangible cultural heritage .
The document adopted by the Polish government “Directions of Tourism Development by
2015”, in the section on supporting the development of cultural tourism and tourism within industrial
heritage objects states that the development of this type of tourism is justified by the necessity of
building a new image of Polish tourism and the image of the country. Creating an offer exposing the
most valuable resources of Polish culture we should make efforts to reach the affluent as well as
opinion leaders audiences. We should pay attention to the audience with refined tastes and high
material status. Creating the offers within this measure can assist in giving Polish tourist offer the
necessary prestige. Such activity also means strengthening of the metropolises, their cultural
proposals, using creative environments associated with the strongest regional centers. The
development of cultural tourism will add to the better potential of Polish cities, both for visitors and
for residents. In this sense, it will translate into residential and investment attractiveness. It will also
promote the use of currently inactive potentials or active only to some extent. Particularly noteworthy
is the organization of cultural, sporting and political meetings that could create an image for regions
and key metropolises (Directions of Tourism Development 2015, 2008).
Cultural tourism is a part of contemporary trends. It combines the individual passions of
tourists manifesting cognitive collective duty to meet the needs in the field of culture, tourism and
recreation, which are statutory duties of public authority (Hibner E., 2012). XXI century tourism
assumes the effect of two trends as the major forces affecting the tourist industry and its management.
The first one is related to environmental issues (certification, ecotourism, tourism product labeling and
waste management). The second trend is related to the political unrest and the general level of security
in the country of destination, which is now and will increasingly be an important factor in consumer
decision-making process. Despite offering many attractions for tourists, some countries are perceived
as too dangerous to visit them. The threat of terrorism is one of the most important aspects, which is
taken into account by potential tourists (Kurleto M., 2012). For the development of cultural tourism
the most dangerous trend is the one connected with terrorism and street riots that has been observed in
recent years, for example in Egypt, a country particularly attractive for Polish tourists because of the
priceless cultural monuments from the times of the Pharaohs, as well as due to the warm climate.
Analysis of determinants of tourist potential based on strategic documents from various Polish
regions, the analysis of literature and the author's many years of observations indicate that you can
specify the main directions of the development of cultural tourism in relation to each of its forms
(Table 1).
21
Table 1. The Directions of The Development Of Cultural Tourism
Lp.
1.
Forms of cultural
tourism
Cultural heritage
tourism
The main directions of development
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2.
Tourism in industrial
and postindustrial
objects
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
3.
Military tourism
•
•
•
•
•
•
4.
Museum tourism
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
revitalization of towns and buildings of historic and cultural significance;
strategic development of sightseeing programs beginning from historical sites;
information signs along the roads leading to monuments and good lighting of historic
buildings;
developing promotional brochures, for example detailing the building and indicating the
direction of exploring the sites;
ensuring a sense of security to visitors of the city by local authorities;
organizing exhibitions, fairs connected with cultural events and trips around the city and the
surrounding area (promotion);
making sightseeing more attractive by using abnormal transport (eg. rickshaws);
recovery of historic buildings and museums through interactive programs, night tours;
building accessibility for disabled people to buildings and historical and cultural attractions;
developing and setting cultural routes with the information system and enabling tourists to
see the facilities.
resuming deeper cooperation with local authorities aiming to adapt monuments and
industrial facilities, eg. for galleries, cultural centers, art studios;
development and designation of cultural routes, including city routes and the creation of
urban information system and attractions, and the sights and making facilities accessible for
tourists;
developing an offer and presenting technical monuments, addressed to the organizers of
tourism;
better signage, lighting and visibility of historic monuments and equipment;
wider promotion of technical monuments in the mass media, as well as in tourist guides and
specialized studies;
including school trips into visiting programs of various technical monuments;
promoting measures in order to preserve, disseminate and use of technical monuments in
tourism,
tourist development, with a particular focus on catering in old buildings;
preparation of the assumptions and the development of industrial tourism.
good development of tourist battlegrounds aiming to significantly increase the tourist
attractiveness of Poland for foreign tourists;
appoint attractive routes, sightseeing trails and explore the exhibition themes of medieval
castles, direct them to microevents and cyclical events;
protect fortresses,strongholds and forts against devastation carrying out inventory and
cleaning work, designate and protect temporary fortifications tour routes,
create educational paths with signs and descriptions of individual fortifications and
equipment on the military premises,
train object-oriented guides and tour organizers;
share collections in military museums in an attractive way by enriching it with an element
of interactivity (use of media), workshops, courses and fictionalized sightseeing;
organize and refine the staging of battle scenes (battles) within the existing military
installations, as well as the organization and improvement of cyclical events (knights
tournaments, demonstrations of military equipment).
direct guided museum offer not only for professionals and connoisseurs but to all tourists;
create interactive tours of museums and independent research;
change the way of presenting the collections, using audio-visual techniques,
organize attractive temporary exhibitions in collaboration with other attractive museums in
Poland or around the world;
apply more dynamic forms of media exposure;
create narrative museums that tell a story, represent events or explain the phenomenon of
ideas, and not only show exhibits in showcases;
strengthen marketing activities so as to actively search for tourists.
22
•
5.
Religious and
pilgrimage tourism
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
6.
Tourism of events
and cultural events
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
create and / or develop cheap accommodation base with the average standard (pilgrim
houses, dormitories, camping sites);
expand the seasonal base of private accommodation;
identify and professionally label pilgrimage routes;
develop a comprehensive (for the region and Poland) the calendar of events in the form of
folders and calendars, and distribute them to parishes and schools throughout the country;
enrich the religious ceremonies with additional events so that they could last a total of a few
days;
direct actions in order to promote (including designing folders) places less known for
pilgrimage;
create a system of proper and distinctive markings on the access routes;
develop catering infrastructure and parking in places where there are shrines and places of
pilgrimage;
develop economic activity in the centers of worship and pilgrimage connected with the
production of souvenirs, religious items and articles of folklore;
very securely support the sick and the disabled in the centers of religious worship.
making the range of cultural offers more attractive and expanding them with for example:
theme parks, amusement parks, recreational parks, summer theaters in the open air, car
cinemas,
prepare and carry out integrated information and promotion actions of cultural events and
possible entertainment events;
expand programs of music festivals, theater performances through the optional linking them
with auctions of works of art, antiques, etc. .;
support through local authorities, the development and maintenance of small catering and
little family hotels, B & Bs, etc .;
introduce and develop culinary offers which means region-specific cuisine and cultural
diversity;
increase the safety of residents and tourists during organized events, especially sports and
music events;
increase funding for the activation of the cultural life of the region through the development
of an integrated model of sponsorship and patronage of culture;
create tourist attractions based on local environmental resources such as natural and cultural
botanical gardens, organizing entertainment and cultural events, including such sites as
castles or their surroundings;
creating attractions and cultural events of any kind should always take into account the
diversity of national, cultural and religious region;
coordinate the calendar of events on the local and regional level, so that organized events do
not overlap each other at the same time.
The proposed directions in the development of cultural tourism do not cover all relevant factors
affecting its development. Cultural tourism is undoubtedly a factor that stimulates the socio-economic
development of particular regions and the whole country at the same time. Therefore, one of the most
important activities is to facilitate access to cultural heritage through the development of infrastructure
and the development of a comprehensive system of cultural and tourist information. However, the
most important is to prepare attractive brands of cultural tourism products and their
commercialization.
5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Today, cultural tourism is one of the fastest growing types of tourism in Poland, Europe and
around the world. Cultural tourism as a separate type of tourism is becoming more and more attractive
and begins to play an increasingly crucial role in the development of the tourism industry. It should be
remembered that modern tourists are much better educated, have more opportunities to travel and
23
therefore seek above all professionally conducted, unusual, unique and intellectually enriching forms of
travel.
Cultural tourism is affected by megatrends, ie. factors and developmental processes, which
include globalization, the development of new technologies, the development of air transport, including
low cost airlines. We must not forget about the social changes (eg. globalization and ethnic conflicts
and terrorist threats), and the demographic changes related to, inter alia, the aging of European
societies. Easier and faster access to information makes it possible to compare offers, shortens
decision-making process and moving to tourist destinations even in the most remote corners of the
world. Society in developed countries, being more and more affluent, better educated, generates the
greatest demand for cultural tourism. In the production and creation of cultural tourism products we
must keep track of trends, which are among other things related to changes in motivation of tourists
and moving in directions of greater activity, creativity and attitude to the experience.
With the advance of the Internet and the development of e-business, it is necessary that all
planned business ventures in tourism should be conducted with support of the latest technologies
(Dessler G., 2001). Management of projects made by entities of the tourism industry depends on
planning which takes into account new trends and analysis of tourism demand, implementing the latest
organization systems and practices, as well as appropriate use of logistics, risk and knowledge.
Tracking new trends in cultural tourism should be used in professional forecasting and
modeling demand for tourist services. Review of recent research on forecasting and modeling demand
for tourist services in the light of the literature on the subject, was carried out in their work by Haiyan
Song and Gang Li (2008), who analyzed 121 studies on modeling and forecasting tourism demand.
Events in the field of quantitative techniques and forecasts were presented in three categories: time
series models, econometric methods and other new methods. More and more attention is paid to the
quantification of the impact of such external shocks as economic crises and natural disasters on tourism
demand. Differences between expected and actual demand can be provided by the estimates of the
effects of the event. For example, for the research of devastation caused by earthquake and recovery
in tourism demand SARIMA model was used, while in the studies of the impact of SARS on tourism
demand in Taiwan model Eugenio-Martin was used. Causal structural time series models that qualify
the effects of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 were also used. Studies have shown that there
is no single model that consistently outperforms other models in every situation. For researchers, it is
important to find such forecasting methods that can accommodate unexpected events in predicting
potential effects by the so-called scenario analysis.
Apart from the official forecasts (international and domestic) concerning tourism demand and
research analysis, nowadays it is also popular to make professional predictions. Commissioned by
Amadeus - a technology partner and transaction processing services provider to the global travel and
24
tourism industry - Oxford Economics consultancy agency prepared a report called ‘Gold Rush in the
Tourism Industry’, which presented a new vision for the future of travel and announced how tourism
industry can better respond to the problems of the world economy and ensure the growth and
profitability (Oxford Economic, 2014).
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Fáilte Ireland, Dublin, 5, http://www.aoifeonline.com/uplds/cultural-tourism.pdf, (18.08.
2014).
Buczkowska K., (2008), Turystyka kulturowa. Przewodnik metodyczny , Wydawnictwo Akademii
Wychowania Fizycznego im. Eugeniusza Piaseckiego w Poznaniu, Poznań, 46.
Dessler G., (2001), Management: Leading people into the 21s'. century, UpperSaddle River,
Prentice Hall Publishers, New Jersey, 291French Ch., Craig-Smith J.S., Collier A. (1995),
Principles of Tourism, Longman, Australia, 173-175.
Dziennik Urzędowy Unii Europejskiej, 425. Sesja plenarna w dniach 15-16.03. 2006 r., Opinia w
sprawie: „Turystyka i kultura: dwie siły służące wzrostowi” (2006/C 110/01); http://eurlex.europa.eu, (25.03.2013).
Dziedzic E., (2005), Badania ankietowe profilu społecznego turystów odwiedzających Polskę (miasta i
atrakcje turystyczne). Raport z badań, Instytut Turystyki, Warszawa.
Encyclopedia of Tourism (2000), J. Jafari, (red.), Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, London - New
York, 126.
Fladmark J.M. (1994), Cultural Tourism, w: Cultural Tourism, papers presented at the Robert Gordon
University Heritage Convention, Donhead Publishing Ltd., London.
Hibner E., (2012), Turystyka kulturowa – między państwem i rynkiem, Narodowy Instytut
Muzealnictwa i Ochrony Zabytków , „Biuletyn Programowy”, Warszawa, nr 4, 14.
Hughes H. L. (2000), The Exclusive Cultural Tourist, w: Expressions of Culture, Identity and
Meaning in Tourism.Reflections on International Tourism, Education Publishers Ltd,
Sunderland, 111-122.
Ivanovicz M., Smith M.K. (2008), Cultural Tourism, Cape Town, 80-89.
Kierunki rozwoju turystyki do 2015 roku, (2008), Dokument Rządowy przyjęty przez Radę Ministrów
r., Warszawa, 68. Kosiński W. (2004), Turystyka kulturowa. Krajobraz kulturowy. Kultura
międzyludzka, „Folia Turistica”, nr 15, 9-23.
25
Kowalczyk A. (2008), Turystyka kulturowa jako czynnik kształtujący konkurencyjność regionów, w:
Turystyka jako czynnik wzrostu konkurencyjności regionów w dobie globalizacji, G.
Gołembski (red.), Wydawnictwo Akademii Ekonomicznej w Poznaniu, Poznań, 40-41.
Kurleto M., (2012), Przewidywanie nowych trendów popytu turystycznego i ich wpływ na
zarządzanie podmiotów przemysłu turystycznego, w: Popyt turystyczny. Uwarunkowania, J.
Buko (red.), Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego nr 698, Lohmann M. (2004),
New Demand Factors in Tourism, Institut fur Tourismus und Baderfor- schung-Nordeuropa
16, D-24105 Kiel, 7-11,www.ectaa.org.
Małek J., (2003), Turystyka kulturowa jako czynnik rozwoju lokalnego, „Prace i Studia Geograficzne”
Warszawa, t. 32, 21-23.
Marciszewska B. (2002), Społeczno-ekonomiczne uwarunkowania rozwoju turystyki kulturowej w
Polsce, „Problemy Turystyki i Hotelarstwa”, nr 3, 5.
Metelka Ch. J. (1990), The Dictionary of Hospitality, Travel and Tourism, Albany-New York, 41.
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akademicki,
Wydawnictwo Gnieźnieńskiej Wyższej Szkoły Humanistyczno-Menadżerskiej
„Milenium” w Gnieźnie, Gniezno, 53-100.
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18.
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Montenegro Ministry of Tourism and
Environmental, Podgorica 2008, 25.
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next decade, London, 4.
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Białostockiej, Białystok, 301.
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The Latest Global Travel Trend, 2002-2003, IPK.
www. businessandculture.wordpress.com, http://travel-fan.pl/starsze-wpisy/jaka-bedzie-przyszloscturystyki/(02.09.2014). http://www.amadeus.com/goldrush2020.
26
SMARTLY DESIGNING OF TOURISM EXPERIENCE IN THE CONCEPTUAL AGE
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Göknil Nur SEVER∗
Salar KUHZADY ∗∗
ABSTRACT
According to Pink, in the conceptual age right hemisphere of brine and six senses including:
Design, Story, Symphony, Empathy, Play and Meaning, will be more active. Obviously, these shifts
will change tourist’s wants. Thus, in designing experience for a new generation of tourists,
destinations need to focus on these senses. Based on this situation, the study was to explore how with
using of augmented reality and gamification destinations can smartly respond to these senses. The
results of study indicated that with AR and gamification, they can smartly and effectively respond to
the six senses of conceptual age.
Keywords: Tourism Experience, Conceptual Age, Smartly Designing
1. INTRODUCTION
Tourism has made a significant contribution to the economies of many communities around the
world because of its ability to create income, taxes, and jobs (Lee & Brahmasrene, 2013).
Accordingly, trying for getting more share of this market is increasingly growing. So, Competition
between destinations has attracted much attention (Kozak et al., 2009; Vanhove, 2011; Hallmann,
Müller, & Feiler, 2012; Zainuddin, Radzi, & Zahari, 2013). For responding this situation, due to
effective impacts of ICTs on the efficiency and effectiveness of tourism organizations (Wang &
Pizam, 2011), growth, expansion and offering of new products (Consoli, 2012), adoption of
information and communication technologies (ICTs) in tourism for getting competitive advantages are
widely considered (Buhalis, Leung, & Rob, 2011; Sirirak, Islam, & Khang, 2011; Berne, GarciaGonzalez, & Mugica, 2012).
Todays, with integration ICTs in tourism industry, the tourist experience is no longer restricted
to services encounters on-site, but is extended to before, during and after of travel or service
(Neuhofer & Buhalis, 2012). Therefore, in planning for providing better experience for visitors,
destinations have to focus on it. At the same time, development of ICTs and specially Web 2.0 by
facilitating information sharing, collaboration and interaction (Power & Phillips-Wren, 2011) led to
increasing attention to customer. Based on this new situation, consumer have been more demanding,
powerful and knowledgeable (Al-Shammari, 2009). So, like any business, and even more than them,
∗
Mersin University, Tourism.Faculty, Tourism Management Department, [email protected]
Mersin University, Tourism.Faculty, Tourism Management Department, s,[email protected]
∗∗
27
tourism as a service industry (Singh, 2008) which in it interactions and shared experiences with other
tourists form a crucial part of the experience (Rihova, Buhalis, Moital, & Gouthro, 2014), is being
more consumer centric. Emerging concepts like: customer-dominant (CD) logic (Heinonen et al.,
2010), Customer is the king (Bose, 2007), C2C (Huang & Hsu, 2009), value co-creation (Navarro,
Andreu, & Cervera, 2014), can be evidences for this shifting.
On the other hand, another transition which is called by Pink as conceptual age (Pink, 2006), is
going to be more important. In the conceptual age, right part of brain, which is responsible for
emotion, visual and creative (Jennifer, 2011) and six senses will be more active, including: design,
story, symphony, empathy, play and meaning (Mooth, 2008). It is clear that this trend will changes
the consumers. Accordingly, for effectively meet the needs and wants of new tourists, destinations
need to update their activities based on this shift. Base on this change, it’s possible to say that only
using of ICTs and offering information on a different websites will not be enough. Instead, in trying to
designing experience for their visitors, destinations have to be smarter and accept new and creative
way, in order to effectively respond to these new senses.
Unfortunately, in the field of tourism, this subject has been overlooked. Therefore, research try
to show that in the conceptual age, how with integration of Augmented reality and gamification in
experience designing, destinations can smartly and pioneering respond to the six senses of emerging
tourism generation.
2. LITERATURE
Conceptual age
According to Pink(2005) by passing agriculture, industrial and information ages, we are going to
enter the conceptual age (Patki, Patki, & Kulkarni, 2009). In this new age, in opposite of information
age, which has been dominated by left-brain, right brained qualities will be more valuable (Langlie,
2008). Pink(2005) believes we need to maintain our Ldirected skills, but business succession and
personal satisfaction will increasingly depend on six essential Rdirected natural abilities, or six senses
including: Design, Story, Symphony, Empathy, Play, and Meaning(Ryn, 2013).
The Conceptual Age, is one in which creativity is the dominant skill and center of economic
activity (Fortino, 2013). Given these changes, it can be say that competitive advantage will be equal
to being creative. Therefore, destination and tourism business need to be more creative toward
effectively answering to the new coming economy, in order to getting competitive advantage from
hyper-competitive market.
Augmented reality (AR)
Is a term that applies to the enhancing the user perception of the real world with virtual elements
(Nikobonyadrad, 2012). AR is defined as adding computer-generated information to the real word in
28
order to enhance perception of reality (Furht, 2011). In other words, AR is overlaying, for example,
map, video, audio, link on the real word (Kipper & Rampolla, 2012), unlike the virtual reality(VR)
which completely limited user’s to computer simulated environment (Jimeno-Morenilla, SánchezRomero, & Salas-Pérez, 2013). In generally, AR can provides following benefits for business:
•
Offering unique and creative way for business and The content created by AR is
highly interactive, entertaining (Smith, 2010).
•
Increase the perceived value of product and Low expensive, in contrast of other
medias (EC, 2014).
Given the introduction of Augmented Reality apps on smartphones and Tablets, for example,
layer with more than 10,000,000 downloads in the play store (play.google.com), and more recently,
Google’s glass and wearable technology, AR quickly going to be new buzz word, especially in
tourism industry. Using of AR in different ways will revolutionize the way tourist experience,
destinations and services within the industry, including:
• Enhancing booking experience (Barcode scanner)
• Interactive advertising like AR broacher
• Making attractions more interactive
• AR browsers in the destination and facilitating of finding an address (layer, wikitude,
junaio…)
• Services in the Restaurant (izkaya.nl)
• Re-living historical site, life and events
• Transportation (street lens)
• Translation (world lens)
Although AR technology has existed for more than 10 years, still has not yet been fully
developed in tourism industry (Han, Timothy, & Gibson, 2014). Thus, with this variety range of
applications and benefits that using of AR can provides, tourism, in the near future, it will be more
effective in tourism experience.
Gamification
Play is an important component of our daily lives and nowadays, a game is more than just
something to entertain yourself and others, it is also a tool that can be used to teach or learn matters of
every sort (Koorevaar, 2012: 6). Based on this idea gamification developed as:
29
The process of adding
ding game mechanics to processes, programs, and platforms that would not
traditionally use such concepts (Elizabeth, 2013: 6). Or gamification is the use of game design
elements, characteristic of games, in non-game
non game contexts (Simões et al., 2013:346). In this relation,
three changes in the cultural-economic
economic atmosphere aid in explaining the emergence of gamification
including:
• Development of ICTs
• The relevance of social networks and the participatory culture to gamification is explored and
discussed.
• Emerging conceptual age
Gamification is often applied by a business, corporation or any other initiative to solve a certain
problem. This problem informs the goal of, for example, promoting user retention, activation,
participation, or more generally to influence
influence certain behavior. Based on this, today in tourism like
other industry using of gamification have been started (4food, pixmeaway, stray boots…).
3. Discusion
According to pink (2006) looking for success in the conceptual age involving to pay attention
attenti to
the six new senses (figure2).
Figure
igure 2: The six sense of conceptual age
Based on his view in the 21st century right hemisphere of the brain will be more active. So,
businesses must pay attention to this change. In this new age only offering information
informa
to consumers
will not be enough because by passing the information age they have a huge volume of information.
Creativity and innovation will be a future competitive advantage for any business. It is completely
obvious that conceptual age will affects the tourism experience. In opposite of past destination have to
30
strengthen the right hemisphere, which is responsible for emotion and creativity. Based on six
dimensions of conceptual age, destinations with the applying of AR and gamification will be able to
positively and smartly affect the dimensions of a new age.
•
The first part of new age is a design which indicates that it will not be enough to create a
product or service that's merely functional; it must also be beautiful. In this relation with
applying of AR, destination or business in tourism can improve attractiveness and beauty of
their products and services. For example, using the augmented reality menu in the restaurant
which consumer by using of smartphone or near future Google glass be able to getting
multimedia information about food or drinking they are going to choose. Or using AR map
which transfers old tourist map, to interactive one.
•
The second part is the story, is needed because we are already inundated with information and
data. So a compelling narrative is essential for persuasion. In this relation using of AR can be
helpful. For example, by adding AR to museums, visitor during the visit can easily access to
virtual Interpretive to covering the need for compelling narrative (British museum).
•
The Symphony, the third aptitude, is the ability to put the pieces together to create big picture.
In this relation, AR browser with offering interactive data about destinations can be helpful.
by enter to a destination tourists can more easily find a big view of tourism facilities and
establishments such as attractions, hotels, restaurants, shopping centers, transportation, and
etc. For example in field of food and accommodation, by using of AR Browser app ( such as
Street lens and Junaio ) tourists in a big view will be able to see different type of information
about hotel and restaurant like location, review of other tourists, call, pictures, video, …
•
Empathy, the fourth part, is needed because logic alone is not enough to convince anybody. It
is somewhat related to this new P in marketing which rather than just buying presence,
modern consumer expects business to be supportive and accessible. In this relation destination
by offering gamification and AR browser, AR map, AR brochure, AR in attractions in before,
during and after the trip can induce tourists that they are with them. So, positively can affect
the tourism experience.
•
Play, is fifth part, in the conceptual Age, in work and in life, we all need to play. For
responding to this change and positive effect on tourism experience, applying of gamification
in tourism will be useful, because makes travel and service more funny and enjoyable. In this
relation 4food, pixmeaway, strayboots are intrestig example of using gammification in
tourism.
•
The sixth part is the meaning. The process of meaning-making is the process of making sense
of experience, of explaining or interpreting the world to ourselves and others. Accordingly, for
31
example in museum, meaning is made in the connections between artefacts and visitors'
knowledge and experience (Kevin, 2010). Therefore, by offering augmented reality about
artefacts not only connection between visitors and artefacts by interactive data will be
increased but in contrast of paper label with augmented label, museums can offer more
information to visitors and therefore will be able to increase knowledge and make experience
more enjoyable. Based on this, AR by Enrichmentrelationship between above tree factors can
be useful in meaning making for tourists.
4. CONCLUSION
Conceptual age will change tourists. Accordingly, destination and tourism business need to be
more creative toward effectively answering to the new coming economy, in order to getting
competitive advantage from hyper-competitive market. In this new era, right hemisphere which is
responsible for emotion and creativity and six senses including: Design, Story, Symphony, Empathy,
Play and Meaning, will be more active. For responding to these senses integration of augmented
reality and gamification is useful. By use of AR and gamification destination and tourism stakeholders
will be able to add more visual information to real product (such as package of foods and souvenirs)
and finally offer more attractive and beautiful products or services (Not just function but also Design).
gamification and AR by offering possibility of using of virtual information, sound, video and 3D,
instead of only argument, make destinations able to tell story and effectively respond to the need to
compelling narrative (Not just argument but also Story). Create big picture of a destination will be
more easily, tourists by using their smart phones and AR apps can access to surrounded tourism
establishment and facilities in categorized group (Not just focus but also Symphony). By integrating
ICT, tourism experiences has taken a new form, which including 3 stages: pre-travel, during travel,
post travel. Accordingly, availability of AR and gamification induced tourists that destinations and
tourism business are with them all of time (before, during and after) (Not just logic but also Empathy).
Finally, gamification makes the process more funny and enjoyable. Therefore, increase participating of
tourist in make meaning. Accordingly, we can say that by these creative, innovative tools destinations
and tourism business can smartly and pioneering respond to the six senses of emerging tourism
generation.
Totally, by using these tools they can make themselves different from competitors and offer
exceptional value for money and time. One important note, AR applications often require an Internet
connection. However, all destination or sites are not fully covered with internet. So, offering free
Internet connection and 3G must be considered.
32
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Bose, S. K. (2007). Customer is the King: A Managerial Perspective in Modern Banking Scenario.
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Buhalis, D., Leung, D., & Rob, L. (2011). eTourism: Critical Information and Communication
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Wang & A. Izam (Eds.), Destination Marketing and Management. CBA. Retrieved from
Consoli, D. (2012). Literature Analysis on Determinant Factors and the Impact of ICT in SMEs.
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 62, 93–97.
Furht, B. (2011). Handbook of Augmented Reality (p. 768). Springer Science & Business Media.
Hallmann, K., Müller, S., & Feiler, S. (2012). Destination competitiveness of winter sport resorts in
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Han, D., Timothy, J., & Gibson, A. (2014). Dublin AR: Implementing Augmented Reality in Tourism.
In Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism (pp. 511–523). Switzerland:
Springer.
Heinonen, K., Strandvik, T., Mickelsson, K.-J., Edvardsson, B., Sundström, E., & Andersson, P.
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Huang, J., & Hsu, C. H. C. (2009). The Impact of Customer-to-Customer Interaction on Cruise
Experience and Vacation Satisfaction. Journal of Travel Research, 49(1), 79–92. d
Jennifer, L. (2011). The Right-Brain Business Plan: A Creative, Visual Map for Success. New World
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Kevin, W. (2010). Designing for meaning making in museums Visitor-constructed trails using
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Kipper, G., & Rampolla, J. (2012). Augmented Reality: An Emerging Technologies Guide to AR (p.
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34
FACTORS OF CHANGES IN THE DYNAMICS AND STRUCTURE
OF TOURISM IN POLAND
Prof. Józef SZABŁOWSKI*
ABSTRACT
According to the Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council of the European
Union No. 692/2011 in force since 2012 , the term tourism means: the activities of visitors who take a
trip to a main destination outside their environment for less than a year, for any main purpose.
Tourism plays an important role both economically and for the personal development of
individuals, including their propensity to innovate. Since the entrance of Poland into the European
Union, there has been an increase in the proportion of people going abroad in relation to the whole
population. There has also been an increase in the number of foreigners coming to Poland. In the
years 2005 – 2012, the number of tourist facilities has increased by nearly 50%, particularly
accommodation facilities. The number of catering establishments since the Polish accession to the EU
has increased by 10%. In terms of numbers, most tourists arriving to Poland are German, Russian,
British, French, and Ukrainian. In the years 2005 – 2012, there has been an increase in the number of
tourist trails developed, as well as the number of institutions serving tourism.
Keywords: tourism, development, innovations, accommodation facilities.
1. INTRODUCTION
The aim of the paper is to present tourism development factors and changes in its dynamics
and structure between the years 1990 - 2012, a period of political, social, and economic transition in
Poland, where the socialist economy was abandoned and the transition to a social market economy
began.
The importance of tourism has been well characterized by the Ministry of Sport and Tourism
in the Tourism Development Programme to 2020. "Tourism is an important part of the Polish
economy. Tourism is responsible for 5-6% of GDP, employing an estimated 760 thousand people
(4.7% of total employed) (...); inflow from the arrival of foreigners reaches €8 - 9 billion in Poland,
of which about half are outflows due to the arrival of foreign tourists."1
The study presents:
a definition of tourism;
*Faculty of Economic Sciences, at the University of Finance and Management in Bialystok, Poland.
1
“Program for the development of tourism by 2020” (2014), Ministry of Sport and Tourism, Warsaw, June 25, p. 3.
35
characteristics of the factors in the development of tourism;
range of accommodation as a factor in tourism development;
catering establishments in tourism accommodation facilities in Poland in the years 1995 2012;
social and economic conditions for the development of tourism in Poland;
management as a factor in tourism development.
Between the years 1990 – 2012, there have been significant changes in the dynamics and
structure of tourism in Poland. These concerned improvements in accommodation and catering, and
the development of tourism products, which are often discussed in broad terms, due to the extent of
the development.
2. THE DEFINITION OF TOURISM
Tourism is understood as "a form of active rest outside the place of residence, linked to cognitive
objectives and elements of sport, usually regarded as a form of physical exercise or as part of
sightseeing (where the dominant element is cognitive / educational). In a broader sense, tourism
includes all forms of voluntary change of residence (if it is not related to work or change of residence
(...). "2 "The term tourism - as defined by the World Tourism Organization - includes activities of
persons traveling for purposes other than paid labor, such as recreational, business, religious, etc.., and
outside their usual environment for not more than one year. "3
3.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE FACTORS OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
The literature lists five groups of factors of tourism development. These include:
social;
economic;
technical;
political;
ecological.
Social factors include, among others, an increase in the level of education of society in the
knowledge of foreign languages; increase in prosperity; changes in values; increased mobility; the
desire to explore the region, country, world; growth in consumer attitudes; and effective use of leisure
time.
2
3
tourism, “New PWN encyclopedia” (1997), Volume 6, PWN, Warszawa 1997, p. 504.
“Statistical Yearbook of the Polish Republic in 2012” (2012), GUS, Warsaw 2012, p. 383.
36
Economic factors are an important prerequisite for the development of tourism. It is measured
as the level of national income per capita. Human beings, after satisfying their basic needs, search for
goods of a higher order, which include tourism.
Technical factors are the infrastructure of tourism. These factors include: how and when
tourists travel, and the conditions of their stay, determined by tourist accommodation, catering,
recreation and cultural activities.
Political factors can have a profitable impact on the development of tourism in different
countries. A good example is the situation for people of individual countries in the European Union.
People within the European community can move to individual EU countries without visas and border
control.
Ecological factors include, among others:
lithosphere ("outer most rigid layer of the globe, made of various rocks and minerals,
including the Earth's crust and upper mantle of the earth"4);
atmosphere;
hydrosphere;
soil cover;
flora
fauna
landscape.
Some of these factors in the development of tourism in Poland will be discussed later on in this work.
4. TOURIST TRAFFIC IN POLAND IN THE YEARS 1990-2012
The data on arrivals and departures from Poland (Table 1) between the years 1995-2007 and
the years 2008-2012 are not comparable. These data relate to border crossings recorded by border
guards regardless of the destination of people crossing the border and the length of their stay. They do
not include workers on; planes, trains, ships and other vessels. They do not take into account people
crossing the border in the framework of streamlined cross-border movement. 5
As of December 21, 2007, the Polish Border Guard ceased recording the movement of
people and transport at the borders with the countries of the European Union, with the exception of air
border crossings. Part of the eastern Polish border, which is shared with Russia, Belarus and Ukraine,
became the border of the European Union (and of the Schengen zone) 6.
4
lithosphere, “Great dictionary of foreign words” (2003), PWN, Warszawa 2003, p. 751.
“RSRP 2010” (2010), Central Statistical Office, Warsaw 2010, p. 429.
6
Ibid., p. 429
5
37
The year 1990 was the first year of social, political and economic transformation in Poland7.
Society and the economy became much more open to the world. The economy began to be subject to
greater pressure and world competition. This also applied to tourism. In 2007, tourist traffic at the
borders of Poland had increased threefold compared to 1990, and the arrival of foreigners to Poland
during this period was three and half times larger. It can therefore be assumed that the change in the
functioning of the Polish society has positively influenced the development of tourism.
Table 1. Arrivals and departures, Poland, 1995 - 2012 (in thousands)
Description
Total number of
crossings
Number of:
Foreign arrivals
Departures of
Polish citizens
abroad
Total
1990
1995
2000
2004
2007
2008
2010
2011
2012
79, 308
234, 871
278, 409
196, 011
221, 638
35, 534
30, 377
33, 300
37, 540
18, 211
82, 244
84, 515
61, 918
64, 883
6, 582
8, 913
10, 764
12, 443
22, 131
36, 387
56, 677
37, 226
46, 881
11, 148
6, 261
5, 927
6, 355
Source: Statistical Yearbook 1996, Central Statistical Office, Warsaw 1996, table. 25 / (390), p. 292;
RSRP 2005, Central Statistical Office, Warsaw 2005, table. 14 (320), p. 403; RSRP 2008, GUS
Warsaw 2008, table. 14 (312), p. 403; RSRP 2010, Central Statistical Office, Warsaw 2010, table. 14
(309), p. 440; RSRP 2013, Central Statistical Office, Warsaw 2013 Table. 8 (176), p. 287.
As already mentioned, the data from the years 2008 - 2012 are not comparable with those of
the previous period. They do not include foreign exchange of tourists within the countries of the
European Union. In the years 2008 – 2012, arrivals of foreigners (from outside the EU) increased by a
factor of two. There are many reasons for the increase in the number of foreigners visiting Poland, in
particular, improvement in tourism management on a national level, positive changes in infrastructure,
the stability of prices, better servicing of tourists, and the improvement of accommodation and
catering.
In 2010, there was a significant decrease in the number of trips to countries outside the EU.
However, there is a lack of specific information on this process. Perhaps it was a result of the impact
of the crisis of 2008-2009. It should also be noted that travel to other EU countries does not require
special procedures such as a visa or passport. This may encourage travel by Polish citizens to other EU
countries rather than outside of it. Within Polish statistics, there is no data on Polish citizens travelling
7
The opposition won the elections in June 1989.
38
to other EU countries, because, as mentioned, border control between these countries has been
eradicated.
Table 2, Arrivals to and departures from Poland, by type of border crossings, 1995-2007 (in
thous.)
Type of border
crossings
Total:
Road
Rail
Air
Sea
River
1995
No. of
in [%]
crossings
234, 871
222, 035
8, 861
2, 649
1, 326
•
100.00
94.5
3.8
1.1
0.6
•
2007
No. of
crossings
in [%]
2, 221, 638
198, 494
4, 503
16, 804
1, 815
22
100.00
89.6
2.0
7.6
0.8
0.0
Source: RSRP 2006, Central Statistical Office, Warsaw 2006, table 25 (390), p. 292; RSRP
2008, Central Statistical Office, Warsaw 2008, table 14 (312), p. 403.
Table 2 shows arrivals to and departures from Poland between 1995-2007 by type of border
crossings. During these years there were several major changes. There was a noticeable decline in rail
and road travel in favor of traveling by air. This is consistent with the general trend of changes in
transportation. Road transport, due to its high flexibility, has displaced rail transport for years. In
Poland, there was a revolutionary expansion in the auto industry for individuals after the
transformation. Table 3 shows arrivals to and departures from Poland by type of border crossings in
the years 2009 – 2012. Data are not comparable with the data in Table 2. In 2009, nearly one-third of
all registered border crossings by tourists took place by air, while in 2012, this ratio decreased to onefourth.
Table 3 . Arrivals to and departures from Poland, by type of border crossings, 2009 -2012, (in
thous. )
2009
Type of border
crossings
Total:
Road
Rail
Air
Sea
River
No. of
crossings
27, 393
17, 927
875
8, 506
85
0.4
2012
in [%]
100.00
65.4
3.2
31.1
0.3
0.0
No. of
crossings
37, 540
26, 691
1, 222
9, 342
285
0.6
in [%]
100.00
71.1
3.2
24.9
0.8
0.0
Source: RSRP 2010, GUS, Warsaw 2010, tabl. 14 (309), p. 440; RSRP 2013, Central
Statistical Office, Warsaw 2013, table 8 (176), p. 287.
39
Table 4 shows the participation of Poles aged 15 years and older in tourist trips between
2000-2012. It can be assumed that during this period 50% of Poles took part in tourism. Changes
amongst individual years are small. It should be noted, however, that these are the results of a survey
on a sample of 18 thousand respondents.
Table 4. Participation of Poles aged 15 years and older in tourism (in %)
Description
% of population that took
part in a trip b)
Outgoing
Domestic trip for 2-4 days
Domestic trip for 5 or more
days
Trip abroad
Did not travel
2000
2005
YEAR
2010
2011 a)
2012
60
47
45
43
51
37
24
22
21
30
34
29
26
23
29
15
40
12
53
14
55
13
57
16
49
a) estimated data
b) in 2012, 18 thousand. respondents, ie, approx. 0.06 target population, were surveyed.
Source: Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Poland (RSRP) 2012, Central Statistical Office,
Warsaw 2012, table 15 (303), p. 393; RSRP 2013, Central Statistical Office, Warsaw 2013 Table.
9 (177), p. 288.
As mentioned, up until 2007, traffic on the Polish border with EU countries was recorded. In
2007, the number of tourist visits across the Polish border exceeded 64.9 million. Most visits were by
tourists from neighboring countries, including 37 million visits from Germany, 7.1 million visits from
the Czech Republic, 5.6 million visits from the Ukraine, 3.8 million visits from Belarus, 3.1 million
visits from Slovakia, 1.6 million visits from Russia, and 1.4 million visits from Lithuania. In 2007,
Poland had 39,300 tourist visits from Turkey.
5. ACCOMMODATION FACILITIES AS A FACTOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF
TOURISM
Accommodation in Poland between the years 1990 - 2012 is shown in Table 5. Statistical data in this
table clearly shows the following trends:
decrease in the total number of beds, but a decrease in this number does not indicate a
degradation in the potential of accommodation in Poland. Moreover, since 2005, there has
been an increase in the number of beds;
in the period of transformation from 1990 – 2012, there has been a fourfold increase in the
number of beds available in luxury hotels which offer a high level and comprehensive range of
40
services. Global hotel chains are also present in Poland, carrying out services at a very good
level. There are also many 3 star hotels that provide services at a moderate level;
the number of beds in facilities providing services year-round almost doubled during the
transition period (186.5%);
there has been a decrease in the number of other facilities built during socialism. These were
seasonal centers of low standard. The number of places in these centers has decreased by 39.3
percentage points between the years 1990 - 2012;
there has been a significant reduction in the number of beds at holiday camps (by 64.5
percentage points), which were often seasonal and provided services at a low level;
less and less tourists use campsites and camping grounds, although in 2012 this form of
accommodation was used by more than 43 thousand tourists;
A network of hotels has appeared on the market, offering cheap accommodation.
Table 5. Accommodation in Poland in the years 1990 - 2012 (as of July 31) (in thousands)
Description:
YEAR
1990
1995
2000
2005
2012
2012/1990
743,1
714,8
651,7
569,9
675,4
90,9
Beds, including:
Year-round
244,7
262,5
319,3
343,7
456,3
186,5
Hotel Facilities
65,6
93,4
120,3
169,6
264,1
402,6
Hotels
57,4
74,6
95,1
127,5
198,1
345,1
Motels
2,2
4,2
4,5
4,4
4,3
195,5
Bed and breakfasts
6,0
14,6
20,7
11,0
13,7
228,3
Other hotel facilities
•
•
•
26,7
48,1
677,5
621,4
531,4
400,3
411,3
60,7
Other facilities
Excursion houses
24,8
17,6
12,2
5,7
3,9
15,7
Shelters
4,0
4,6
4,0
2,5
3,2
80,0
Youth shelters
35,6
23,4
21,7
22,3
20,1
56,5
Campsites
43,0
36,3
25,4
24,9
21,9
50,9
Camping grounds
71,5
62,3
46,5
31,3
21,4
29,9
Holiday centers
318,5
269,9
195,2
136,0
116,4
36,5
Conference centers
40,3
41,6
48,8
49,7
46,8
116,1
Artist colonies
2,1
2,3
2,5
2,2
1,8
85,7
Tourism complex
22,1
26,9
31,5
21,6
24,3
110,0
Hostels
•
•
•
•
6,9
Guest rooms
66,8
43,5
37,6
56,3
Agrotourism
•
•
•
•
11,1
Other facilities
37,2
86,1
143,6
104,1
95,9
257,8
Saturday-Sunday recreation facilities
11,6
6,9
•
•
•
Source: RSRP 1996, CSO, Warsaw 1996, table 15 (380), p. 289; RSRP 2010, Central Statistical
Office, Warsaw 2010, table 16 (311), p. 441; RSRP 2013, Central Statistical Office, Warsaw 2013
table 16 (318), p.408.
41
6. CATERING IN TOURISM ACCOMMODATION FACILITIES IN POLAND IN THE
YEARS 1995-2012
Catering is one of the most important elements of tourist infrastructure. In The Direction for
Tourism Development until 20158, the following postulation was made for the development of
accommodation infrastructure: "Implementation of tourism activities should be conducive to creating
diversified infrastructure, accommodation and catering, available to customers with different
expectations and financial possibilities, to people with disabilities, coordinated within the tourist offer,
meeting established quality standards. In addition to issues associated with the material creation of
infrastructure activities, there are also issues with its proper functioning."9
Table 6. Catering establishments in tourism accommodation facilities in Poland in the years
1995-2012
TYPE OF ESTABLISHMENT
Bars
Canteens
Fast-Food
Outlets
Total: 1995
6320
986
2184
2339
811
2000
8486
1788
2734
2814
1150
2005
6873
1951
2266
1910
746
2010
7415
2702
2359
1757
597
2011
7408
2775
2364
1728
541
2012
7565
2962
2274
1804
525
Hotel Facilities 2012
4625
2556
1556
307
206
Hotels
3228
1907
1144
78
99
Motels
151
92
46
2
11
Bed and Breakfast
353
122
93
114
24
Other Hotel Facilities
893
435
273
113
72
Other Facilities
2940
406
718
1497
319
Excursion house
43
11
7
19
6
Shelters
62
7
20
12
23
Youth shelters
90
5
8
70
7
Campsites
60
15
26
6
13
Camping grounds
41
4
8
8
21
Holiday camps
936
78
239
551
68
Conference centers
544
100
156
240
48
Artist colonies
30
6
8
15
1
Tourism complex
143
31
40
38
34
Hostels
29
5
11
5
8
Guest rooms
224
36
38
120
30
Agrotourism
60
46
14
Other facilities
678
108
157
367
46
Source: RSRP, 2005, Central Statistical Office, Warsaw 2005, tabl. 18 (324), p. 406; RSRP 2013,
Central Statistical Office, Warsaw 2013 Table. 19 (321), p. 411.
Description
8
9
Total
Restaurants
Government document adopted by the Council of Ministers on September 26, 2008.
Ibid., p. 59.
42
In the Directions for Tourism Development until 2015 a range of activities were adopted,
including:
- Expansion and renovation or reconstruction of accommodation facilities;
- Developing activities concerning the standardization of infrastructure and improving the
quality of accommodation and catering facilities;
- Creation of a system of grants and subsidies related to the aestheticization of
accommodation facilities and the surrounding grounds;
- The promotion and dissemination of a system of warranties and guarantees for taking action
in the field of hotel and catering services;
- The creation, in conjunction with labor market institutions, a system of grants for the
creation of new jobs related to the development of tourist accommodations;
- The creation of an information system on innovative solutions related to waste,
accommodation and catering.
tourist
10
Catering establishments in tourism accommodation facilities in Poland in the years 1995 2012 are shown in Table 6. From the data contained therein, it can be deferred that during the analysis
period, there was an increase of tourism and catering establishments, and there were a number of
structural changes. The number of catering establishments in the period 1995 - 2012 increased by
1245, an increase of 20%. Qualitative changes are quite observable. The growth rate of the number of
restaurants, providing services at a higher level, is 300.4%. At the same time there has been a decline
in the number of canteens and fast food outlets. Improving the standard of catering establishments is
associated with enormous changes taking place in Poland in the field of infrastructure (roads, bridges,
gas stations, sewage treatment plants, telephone services) and the development of aesthetics and
modern building technology.
In 2012, the structure of hotel's food and beverage outlets according to their types were as
follows:
10
Ibid., p. 60.
43
(A percent of the total)
Restaurants ___________________________________ 100,0
within:
- hotels_______________________________________ 69,8
- motels _______________________________________ 3,3
- bed and breakfasts _____________________________ 7,6
- other hotel facilities ____________________________ 19,3
Catering establishments in hotel facilities represent 61.2% of total tourist catering
establishments. Their aesthetics, functionality, quality of service, and diversity has undergone abrupt
changes since the period of political transformation.
7.
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF
TOURISM IN POLAND
The Directions for Tourism Development until 2015 specified that; "Tourism is an important
and modern sphere of social activity. Tourist activity is a measure of the standard of living and an
indicator of the development of civilized societies (...). Tourism contributes to the exhibition of the
most valuable cultural and environmental resources, which improves the internal and external image
of the country, region and city."11
According to the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), the World Travel and Tourism
Council (WTTC), there has been continuous development of tourism since the World War II,. This is
illustrated in Figure 1.
11
Government document adopted by the Council of Ministers on September 26, 2008.
44
Figure 1. Number of tourist arrivals (in millions) and income from tourism in the world (in
billion USD) from 1950-2006
No. of tourist arrivals
(in millions)
Inflow from tourism
(in billions, USD)
Tourism is a field which:
generates economic growth, restores macroeconomic balance and positively influences the balance
of payments of the country;
engages dozens of industries and sectors of the economy because of its interdisciplinary nature,
becoming the driving force for regional and local development;
activates various environmental and internal potential, liberating entrepreneurship and social
activity;
creates new jobs, enriches the economic structure, constitutes a bridge between social and
commercial activities, allows business to utilize different interests and passions;
reinforces the positions of metropolitan centers, while allowing for dynamic development of
smaller peripheral centers and those that have exhausted the development potential of the local
market; it acts as a staple, holding regions together, linking urban and rural areas, activating village
areas and contributes to the revitalization of degraded areas, providing a new meaning to suburban
areas for tourist and recreational functions;
connects different activities, the development of which is based on the exploitation of synergies
between economic, cultural and entertainment innovations and its impact on the transformation of
infrastructure, space, the environment;
builds awareness among local and regional communities, strengthens and unifies social capital,
serves an educational function, boosts pride in the place of residence, reinforces responsibility for
the environment- calling attention to spatial order, aesthetics and the natural environment;
45
has strong influence on the shaping of culture, sensitivity and sense of beauty, provides a spiritual
experience;
provides meaningful ways to spend free time, enabling healthy pro-family and pro-environment
behavior;
is an important component of sustainable development, where its development affect the protection
of natural and cultural heritage and local and regional traditions;
is one of the foundations for creating a positive image of the country and region as places attractive
to live in and attractive to invest in;
supports sustainable development through the implementation of new techniques, technologies and
processes.12
The political changes occurring in Poland since 1989, involving the transition from a
socialist economy to a social market economy is conducive to the development of tourism. Between
the years 1990-2011, the percentage of the total area of the country which is protected by law, because
of its outstanding natural beauty, has increased from 19.4% to 32.5%. The ratio of average monthly
net wages between the years 1990 - 2011 increased by 169.4%. Housing has increased by 2.5 million
dwellings. The number of graduates in 1990 was 56.1 thousand, and in 2011 498 thousand, a ninefold
growth. Retail sales, according to the fixed price in the transition period, has more than doubled
(202.2%). The synthetic measure for the development of Poland between the years 1990 - 2011 is the
growth rate of gross domestic product. During this period, the growth rate of GDP, at constant prices,
was 221.5%.13 These indices show a rapid development of Poland after the introduction of a market
economy. Tourist services have a high income elasticity. An increase in consumer attitude is also
significant, after a period in which there was a socialist economic system characterized by widespread
shortages. According to the Report on the Competitiveness of Poland, its development gap relative to
the EU-1514 has decreased. "Despite weakening growth in Poland in 2012, the processes of real
competition continued in relation to the more developed countries of the European Union. In the
period 2009 - 2012, Poland was at the forefront of the fastest developing countries in the EU. The
relative competitive position of Poland, as measured by the relative level of GDP per capita, has
improved during the last few years. According to preliminary data, in 2012, GDP per capita in Poland,
according to purchasing power parity (PPP), was about 61% of the average for the EU 15, meaning
that in 2012, the development gap between Poland and the average in the EU-15 decreased by 3
percentage points, and since the beginning of the financial crisis, by 11 percentage points. 15
12
Ibid., p. 3-4.
„RSRP 2012” (2012), GUS, Warszawa 2012, s. 40-57.
Unia Europejska 15 państw.
15
M.A. Weresa (2013), „Podsumowanie raportu; pozycja Polski w gospodarce światowej 2012 roku”, [in:] POLSKA. Raport o
konkurencyjności 2012, wymiar krajowy i regionalny, IGS SGH, Warszawa 2013, s. 366.
13
14
46
8.
MANAGEMENT AS A FACTOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM
The Central Government, regional governments and individual companies are the main
tourism operators in the country, the latter directly offering tourism products and their prices. These
entities develop strategies and establish the direction of tourism development. In 2008, Guidelines for
the development of tourism in Poland to the year 2015, were adopted. There is a draft program for the
development of tourism to the year 2020.
16
The latter document lists the five factors of tourism
development. These factors are:
Political;
Economical;
Social;
Environmental;
Technological.
The tourism development strategy of various entities consists of the following components:
1) Initial definition of objectives (which may be comprehensive or selective - preliminary
definition of objectives limits and directs the scope of the analysis, especially the market
environment);
2) Analysis of the market environment (factors of tourism development and in particular
competition);
3) Internal analysis of the tourism entity;
4) Choosing strategic objectives;
5) Determining the methods and stages of strategic objectives;
6) Controlling the strategy (control includes analysis leading to the answer of two questions.
First: is the strategy being implemented? Second: Does the strategy need to be changed or
modified?).
In the recent times, increased importance is attached to such slogans as "high-quality
tourism products", " marketing support of tourism products"17, "marketing tourist products"18. "The
purpose of the book - writes A.E. Szczepanowski - is an attempt to define what is a branded tourist
16
Jest to dokument opracowany przez Ministerstwo Sportu i Turystyki z dnia 25 czerwca 2014 roku.
Kierunki rozwoju turystyki do 2015 roku, tamże.
18
Por. Adam Edward Szczepanowski (2012), „Markowe produkty turystyczne Polski”, PWE, Warszawa 2012.
17
47
product, what are its features and how to create it, shape it and effectively manage it, especially in
environmentally valuable areas that are vulnerable to degradation. "19
Research on the determinants of regional tourism development are conducted by the School
of Finance and Management in Bialystok. The results of these studies were published in a two-volume
book, which discusses extensively the tourist attractions of the province of Podlasie in Poland. 20
Marketing management includes the development of the tourism product, and its price,
distribution and promotion is an important factor in its development.
9. CONCLUSIONS
Factors in tourism development are: marketing, political, economic, social, environmental and
technological. In Poland, as a result of the social, political and economic transformation which begun
in 1989, where the socialist economy was abandoned, there has been a substantial improvement in the
factors of tourism development. From 2008, the Polish Border Guard does not record the movement of
travelers between EU countries. In the years 1990 – 2012, the accommodation facilities in Poland have
improved greatly. The number of beds in relatively modern hotels increased more than fourfold. The
number of beds in outdated buildings and seasonal facilities has decreased. Similar structural
transformation occurred in catering establishments. The number of restaurants from the year 1995 2012 has tripled. Gross Domestic Product from the year 1990 - 2011 has doubled (221.5%). This was
an important factor in the development of tourism because these services are characterized by the
income elasticity of demand. Management plays an important role in the development of tourism,
imperative for the design and implementation of appropriate strategies in tourism entities.
REFERENCES
“Program for the development of tourism by 2020” (2014) Ministry of Sport and Tourism, Warsaw,
June 25, p. 3.
„New PWN encyclopedia” (1997) Volume 6, PWN, Warszawa, p. 504.
„Statistical Yearbook of the Polish Republic in 2012” (2012), GUS, Warsaw, p. 383.
„Great dictionary of foreign words” (2003), PWN, Warszawa, p. 751.
„RSRP 2012”, (2012), GUS, Warszawa, p. 40-57.
19
A.E. Szczepanowski, tamże, s. 8.
A.E. Szczepanowski (2011), „Walory i atrakcje turystyczne województwa podlaskiego, tom I”, WSFiZ w Białymstoku, Białystok 2011, s.
308. A.E. Szczepanowski (2013), „Walory i atrakcje turystyczne województwa podlaskiego, tom II”, WSFiZ w Białymstoku, Białystok
2013, s. 484.
20
48
Weresa M.A. (2013), „Podsumowanie raportu; pozycja Polski w gospodarce światowej 2012 roku”,
[in:] POLSKA. Raport o konkurencyjności 2012, wymiar krajowy i regionalny, IGS SGH,
Warszawa, p. 366.
Szczepanowski A. E. (2012), „Markowe produkty turystyczne Polski”, PWE, Warszawa.
Szczepanowski A.E. (2011), „Walory i atrakcje turystyczne województwa podlaskiego, tom I”,
WSFiZ w Białymstoku, Białystok.
Szczepanowski A.E. (2013), „Walory i atrakcje turystyczne województwa podlaskiego, tom II”,
WSFiZ w Białymstoku, Białystok.
49
ACTIVITY BASED CUSTOMER PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS: A CASE STUDY IN
TRAVEL AGENCY
Assistant Prof. Dr. Levent KOŞAN*
Lecturer Kemal ENES**
Lecturer Okan ÇOLAK***
ABSTRACT
The main purpose of this study is to make an implementation of the customer profitability
analysis in a travel agency, where it will enable the managers to take right decisions and develop
prudential strategies accordingly. The customer profitable analysis is a management accounting
approach. It’s new and yet becoming popular gradually. Necessary revenue information required for
the customer profitable analysis can be obtained by selling records and various computers
programmes. On the other hand, the difficult part of the analysis is to choose a right cost system in
order to be able to calculate the costs. Therefore, the cost of the customer activities have been
calculated on the Activity-Based Costing method. By doing so, we hope to determine changes in
customer profitability when compared to the conventional method.
In this study, case study method was used and carried out by real data belonging to the year
2013, it has been found that customer groups profitability can acquire a different character according
to the traditional and the Activity based costing system. Customer profitability remains parallel with
amount of selling in the traditional method. On the other hand, the ratio of customer profitability has
been found to change in the Activity-Based Costing system.
Keywords: Customer, Profitability, ABC, Cost
1. INTRODUCTION
The development of global competition and technological innovation from the mid 1970's
onwards has pushed companies to a paradigm shift in the marketing of their products and services
from the conventional marketing approach of "explain and sell" to the "relation management with
profitable customers" (Kotler and Armstrong, 2012:4). This understanding also supports the
requirement of companies to use their limited capacities in more effective ways.
In the planning of the marketing activities, companies have started to gather more effective cost
and activity data regarding production processes, services and customers in order to identify profitable
customers. (Kaplan and Cooper, 1998:1). The information gathered is analysed by company
*
Mersin Üniversitesi, Turizm Fakültesi, Turizm Rehberliği Bölümü, [email protected]
Mersin Üniversitesi, Turizm Fakültesi, Gastronomi ve Mutfak Sanatları Bölümü, [email protected]
***
Harran Üniversitesi, Birecik M.Y.O.,Tur. ve Otel İşl. Prog.,[email protected]
**
50
management in an effort to understand which customers yield a higher profit. (Raaij, Vernooij and
Triest, 2003:577). After profitable customers are identified, the company management will focus on
these customers and plan activities accordingly (Kaplan and Cooper, 1998:11).
The Customer Profitability Analysis (CPA) is the analysis performed to identify to which
degree the customer satisfies the company (Atağan, 2013:251). The difference of this analysis from
the traditionalcost accounting approach is to take into consideration not only the costs of production
but also the costs of marketing and management (Garrison, Noreen and Brewer, 2012:318)
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
The Customer Profitability Analysis (CPA), is the evaluation and reporting of revenues obtained
from different customers and of the costs incurred in order to obtain these revenues (Horngren, Datar
and Rajan, 2010: 510). As CPA is an approach based on the identification of customer profitability by
grouping activity profits by revenue and costs, it is used to assist companies in making strategic
decisions aimed to increase revenue from customers through investments in profitable customers and
the evaluation of customers for which costs are higher than revenues (Howell and Soucy, 1996: 45;
Horngren et al: 510). This analysis provides an insight into customer needs, allowing companies to
produce more specific products and therefore creating more value for customers. This affects customer
profitability indirectly (Zeithaml, Rust and Lemon, 2001: 118). On the other hand, CPA provides
more contributions to management decision making processes such as long term marketing and
capacity management (Noone and Griffin, 1997:75 Noone ve Griffin, 1998: 279).
The Customer Profitability Analysis is becoming more significant day by day. Companies are
required to reinforce relationships with customers in order to increase profitability. Customer relations
can also be kept under more effective control with the use of information technologies. As the
acquisition of new customers has a higher cost than retaining existing customers, companies are
aiming to retain their most profitable customers (Cokins, 2006: 14). There are two significant factors
in the development of CPA. Firstly, with the development of activity based costing from the 1990's
onwards, companies have been able to identify the resources used in the production of each individual
product. Secondly, with the development of information technologies, information such as extra
expense and accommodation costs for each individual is stored and easily accessible, allowing
customer profitability analysis to be performed in a more realistic way (Raaij, Vernooij and Triest,
2003: 537, Blattberg and Deighton, 1991: 5-6).
The Activity Based Costing (ABC) has made a great contribution to companies in the
calculation of customer profitability (Foster and Sjoblom, 1996: 8). For CPA to be performed, costs
related to the expense made by individuals must be distinguished. In this sense, ABC appears to be the
most appropriate methodology (Noone and Griffin, 1997: 75). CPA is based on the principles of ABC
51
to calculate service costs for customer groups. In this context, expense costs incurred by customers are
assigned to activities, factors driving costs for each activity are identified and activity costs are
assigned to products in proportion to the goods or services consumed (Brown, 2007: 1; Cookins, 2002:
1). The basic principle of ABC is that activities such as customer entry, meal services and room
preparation within event organization consume organizational resources (Noone and Griffın, 1999:
112). Differently to the conventional costing methodologies, which randomly distribute fixed costs,
ABC uses cost grouping according to the organizational activities, forming a relation between
activities and resources consumed by the demand, revealing that each customer does not benefit from
activities and resources equally (Cooper and Kaplan, 1988: 100, Cooper and Kaplan, 1991: 130).
Although the Activity Based Customer Profitability Analysis is widely used in the
manufacturing sector, the use of such methodologies is limited in the service sector and especially in
the hospitality management. The first application was carried out by Nordling and Wheeler (1992) at
the Las Vegas Hilton Hotel. However, in this study they were unable to effectively distribute fixed
costs to activities. In a study performed by Noone and Griffin (1997) at a 3 star hotel in Dublin, they
concluded that the activity based customer profitability analysis was viable for hotel management and
would provide valuable information for management purposes. Noone and Griffin (1998) went on to
develop a system for CPA implementation in hotels using ABC to allocate costs to customers. Using
this system, hotel administrators had the opportunity to gather information and manage profits, costs
and revenues from the customers' point of view. Noone and Griffin (1999) performed a case study at a
hotel in the city centre of Dublin to test the viability of the system they had developed. In this study,
activities were identified at the macro and micro levels and ABC was used to assign activity costs to
customers. The study showed that the management had no conception of profits and losses associated
with specific customer groups. Raab and Mayer (2003) performed a study with restaurant managers in
the USA to identify their level of knowledge and usage of ABC. They found that ABC usage in the
restaurant sector was virtually non-existent for various reasons. In a study performed by Raab, Mayer,
Ramdeen and Ng (2005), the ABC methodology was implemented on menu profitability for
restaurants and tested at a buffet type luxury restaurant in Hong Kong. The study concluded that the
model that was developed could be implemented in other restaurants of this type. Another study
performed by Raab and Mayer (2007) used menu engineering and ABC to analyse the menu at a
restaurant in Hong Kong in order to calculate the profitability of each food on the menu. It was found
that only 3 of the 20 main courses were profitable. Koşan (2008) used CPA with ABC system to
identify the results in accommodation facilities, performing a case study at a four star hotel located in
the Çukurova region. Although sales figures for all customer groups were positive, the analysis
showed that agency customers and sports clubs were not profitable customer groups. Anugrah (2011)
performed a case study at the Pangeran Beach Hotel, using activity based customer profitability
analysis to allow the hotel management to identify activities that were not creating value and customer
52
groups with a high service cost, concluding that the method could be used to manage costs and ensure
a competitive advantage.
An examination of the studies carried out show that the implementation of the methodology in
the hospitality sector has been limited, with a marked lack of studies related to travel agencies. As
there is a lack of studies in the literature related to travel agencies, this study aims to address this
specific need. Furthermore, as with other companies, travel agencies need to identify profitable
customer groups in order to maximise revenue over a specific period and to take accurate long term
strategic decisions. It is thought that this study will assist travel agency managers in decisions related
to marketing, pricing, cost management, capacity management and other areas.
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS
In this study, case study method was used. This method are thought to be the most appropriate
method for accounting research (Tanış, 1997:189) and was used in tourism before (Dalci, Tanis, &
Koşan, 2010, s. 612). One of the co-authors of this research interviewed with the Regional (Aeagean
Region) manager of the travel agency. He asked for permission to use their revenue and cost
information.
The travel agency in which the study was applied is located in Bodrum and has been providing
hotel accommodation sales, transfer and tour services to international tourists travelling to Turkey,
mainly from Azerbaijan, Germany and the Netherlands since 2009. The data used in the study is the
actual annual data of the company from 2013 and was gathered through interviews and examination.
As a result of the preliminary analysis, it was seen that a profitability table had been prepared
using the cumulative amounts of revenues and expenses for three activities performed in 2013.
However, there had been no efforts to calculate profitability on the basis of customer groups. For this
reason, the profitability calculations for customer groups were performed as per the aims of this study,
"Activity Based Customer Profitability Analysis: A Case Study in a Travel Agency".
The expenses of the company were grouped as overhead expenses (indirect) and direct expenses
related to the activities. As the overhead expenses of the company for the period in question was in TL
and the sales data was in Euros, the Central Bank of The Republic of Turkeyexchange rates for the
months examined were used to convert all TL figures into Euros. The table prepared is given below.
53
Table 1.The Year 2013 Company’s Overhead (Indirect) Expenses
OVERHEAD EXPENSES
AMOUNT (€)
PERSONNEL EXPENSES
337.415
STAFF TAXES AND INSURANCE
229.420
RENT EXPENSE
24.229
INTERNET EXPENSES
2.884
ELECTRİC EXPENSES
15.861
WATER CONSUMPTION EXPENSES
1.586
OFFICE PHONE EXPENSES
2.644
MOBILE PHONE EXPENSES
18.505
OTHER EXPENSES
23.440
TOTAL EXPENSES
655.984
The company has three main activity areas, as accommodation sales, tour sales and transfers.
After accommodation sales amount is received from the customer, the company takes a determined
commission and transfer the remaining money to the hotel. This situation is reflected in the sales
revenues and sales costs items. For the other areas of activity, tour sales revenues and transfer
revenues were recorded regularly and monthly totals were used in the calculations. Direct costs related
to these activities such as vehicle rental, personnel, fuel, commissions paid etc. were also recorded
regularly and reported on a monthly basis.
The table prepared by the company in this regard is presented below.
Table 2. The year 2013 Companies Activity Based Profitability Table
ACCOMODATION TOUR
TRANSFER
AMOUNTS (€)
ACTIVITY
ACTIVITY
ACTIVITY
TOTAL
SALES REVENUES
14.997.716
693.816
554.184
16.245.716
SALES COST
13.502.087
454.335
267.665
14.224.087
GROSS PROFIT
1.495.629
239.481
286.519
2.021.629
OVERHEAD
EXPENSES
PROFIT
TAX)
655.984
(BEFORE
1.365.645
The table shows profits before tax for 2013 was €1,365,645. But the allocation of profits
according to customer groups was not calculated. However, companies working with different
customer groups such as agencies, have different commission rates for different groups as defined by
54
the contract signed, requiring the company to calculate profitability per group. For this reason, the
company required an effort to identify revenue and expenses for different customer groups to calculate
profitability for each. Revenue data was readily available in the sales reports of the company, however
a more detailed calculation was required to examine expenses. At this point, actual expenses needed to
be associated with each customer group, meaning that the expenses figures had to be calculated
separately for each group. In this way, the revenues and expenses for each customer group could be
identified and profitability could be calculated.
Expenses incurred by the company were classified as the expenses related to sales (direct) and
the overhead expenses (indirect) related to the costs of the company. Even though the direct expenses
can be related to the sales easily, these expenses must be examined carefully due to the fact that
companies such as travel agencies have different ratios of sales commissions for different customer
groups. As the three different customer groups have different commission rates (20% for the
Azerbaijani customer group, 6% for the German and French customer groups), the groups also have
different direct cost ratios (80% for the Azerbaijani customer group, 94% for the German and French
customer groups). Subsequently, although the French customer group generates more sales revenue,
the contribution provided by the Azerbaijani customer group is higher.
An examination of direct expenses related to tour and transfer activities shows that calculations
were made based on the number of participants from each customer group, the number of customers
participating in tours and the activities used by the different customer groups, while the tour and
transfer revenues and direct expenses for each group was calculated. The table presented below
displays the revenues, expenses and contribution to company profitability based on customer groups.
Table 3. “Revenue – Expense – Gross profıt” belongs to Customer Groups
REVENUE AND EXPENSES
AZERBAIJAN
GERMANY
NETHERLANDS
TOTAL
REVENUE (€)
4.255.474
1.490.721
9.251.521
14.997.716
SALES COST (€)
3.404.379
1.401.278
8.696.430
13.502.087
GROSS PROFIT (€)
851.095
89.443
555.091
1.495.629
TOUR SALES REVENUE (€)
466.136
46.610
181.070
693.816
SALES COST (€)
254.052
49.395
150.888
454.335
GROSS PROFIT (€)
212.084
-2.785
30.182
239.481
(€)
183.864
51.390
318.930
554.184
SALES COST (€)
75.948
26.605
165.112
267.665
GROSS PROFIT (€)
107.916
24.785
153.818
286.519
TOTAL GROSS PROFIT (€)
1.171.095
111.443
739.091
2.021.629
ACCOMODATION
SALES
TRANSFER SALES REVENUE
55
Although the contributions made by each customer group is presented in the table above, in
order for customer profitability to be identified the overhead expense amounts must be associated with
customer groups and the share for each customer group must be calculated for the group profitability
to be identified. Therefore, a technique is needed to allocate overhead costs among the customer
groups in an accurate way. As explained under the literature review section, the activity based costing
is an effective method used in a number of sectors to allocate companies’ overhead expenses. In this
framework, the ABC system is considered to be an appropriate method to allocate overhead expenses
of the company among the customer groups.
For the implementation ofthe ABC system, firstly the activities must be identified, followed by
the relation of overhead expenses through cost drivers of activities. As a result of the research and
interviews, it was found that the company had three main activities, as accommodation sales, tours and
transfers. Various cost drivers were selected according to the relation between activities and overhead
expense. The shares of overhead expense for activities calculated accordingly are presented in the
table below.
Table 4.Distribution of Overhead Expenses to Activities
ACTIVITIES
ROOM
EXPENSES
AMOUNT (€) COST DRIVER
CONSUMED
PERSONNEL
566.835
EXPENSES
PERSONNEL
SELLING TOUR
TRANSFER
(€)
(€)
(€)
226.734
56.684
OF
TIME 283.418
PERCENTAGE
RENT EXPENSE
24.229
EQUAL
8.076
8.076
8.076
SALES AMOUNT
18.770
853
709
6.001
2.102
13.046
11.720
9.376
2.344
327.985
247.141
80.859
INTERNET, ELECTRIC
AND
WATER 20.332
EXPENSES
PHONE EXPENSES
21.149
OTHER EXPENSES
23.440
TOTAL
655.984
NUMBER
CUSTOMER
DETERMINED
PERCENTAGE
OF
As seen in the table, the overhead expense of the company has been allocated to the activities
and the shared amount of each activity has been calculated. The next step is to calculate the share of
each customer group according to their usage of activities. The analysis shows that the room sales and
transfer activities are used by all customers, meaning that the cost related to these activities can be
distributed among all customers, while tour activities can be allocated among the customer groups
56
according to tour revenues. In 2013, the company served 9,780 people from Azerbaijan, 3,426 people
from Germany and 21,262 from France. The results of the subsequent calculations are presented in
the table below.
Table 5.Allocation of Overhead Expenses to Customer Groups
THE SHARE OF CUSTOMER GROUP (€)
COST
APPLICATION AZERBAIJAN GERMANY NETHERLANDS TOTAL
ACTIVITIES
RATES
ROOM SALES 9,52
93.063
32.601
202.321
327.985
TOUR
0,36
166.040
16.603
64.498
247.141
TRANSFER
2,35
22.943
8.037
49.879
80.859
282.046
57.240
316.698
655.984
TOTAL
After the overhead expenses amounts presented in table 5 are subtracted from the contributions
of the individual groups as shown in table 3, the total profitability of customer groups and customer
profitability according to numbers of customers can be calculated. The situation is shown in the table
below.
Table 6. Customer and Customer Groups Profitability (€)
REVENUE AND EXPENSES
AZERBAIJAN GERMANY
NETHERLANDS TOTAL
TOTAL GROSS PROFIT
1.171.095
111.443
739.091
2.021.629
OVERHEAD EXPENSES
282.046
57.240
316.698
655.984
PROFIT
889.049
54.203
422.393
1.365.645
PROFIT PER CUSTOMER
91
16
20
40
(€)
4. CONCLUSION
The customer profitability analysis is a technique found in management accounting literature in
recent years, regarding the calculation of profitability of different customer groups according to the
revenues and expenses they generate. For this reason, this technique is used by companies to measure
the contributions and value added by customers and customer groups. Setting up accounting systems
with this philosophy is important for the accuracy of the analysis and the contributions this analysis
will make to decision making processes.
As a result of this study, the profitability situations of different customer groups were calculated
and it was found that the Azerbaijani customer group was the most profitable and had made the
57
highest contributions. At the same time, this technique allows the company to have an insight into
profitability per activity apart from cumulative profitability indices. Indeed, as the implementation of
the technique in the travel agency has shown, the company was operating at a loss for the German
customer group and this situation must be reviewed. On the other hand, the company must also
consider measures to retain the Azerbaijani customer group, which was the most profitable, in order to
maintain profits in the coming period.
Businesseshavedifferentcustomer groups thus will requiremore detailedcalculations about
customer relateddecisions. Although revenue obtainedfrom each group the profitabilitymay not beat
the same rate. Therefore itis necessary to calculateprofitabilityofcustomer groups. Thisis made
possible bythe customerprofitability analysis. Using the results of the analysis, companies may
separate customer groups into segments according to their contributions and profitability and develop
different strategies and decisions for these segments. Considering the increasing competition in all
sectors, the customer profitability analysis is crucial for all companies, as it provides important data
for the management to take decisions regarding different customer groups. In additionshould not
forgetthat the correct selection of cost systemwill be usedincrease theaccuracy ofthe calculations.
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60
THANA TOURISM: NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN THE TURKISH TOURISM
MARKET
Assist. Prof. Dr. İlkay TAŞ*
Prof. Dr. Erdoğan KOÇ **
ABSTRACT
Despite long dominance of general interest tourism on tourism mobility, there is an increasing
interest for specialized tourism products. This brings about a challenge for tourism destinations which
have based their product offer on sun and sea tourism. Aggravated with seasonality, dependence on
sun and sea tourism increases the vulnerability of tourism destinations. Considering the major share
of sun and sea related products in Turkish tourism market and the risks associated with it, the study
proposes thanatourism as an opportunity for diversifying Turkish tourism products. In this context, the
study provides a conceptual analysis of thanatourism and a profile of major thanatourism sites in
Turkey.
Keywords: Thanatourism, Dark Tourism, Turkish Tourism, New Product Development
ÖZ
Genel ilgi turizmi turizm hareketleri üzerinde uzun süredir ağırlığını korusa da, özel turizm
ürünlerine duyulan ilgi giderek artmaktadır. Bu durum, turizm ürünlerini deniz ve güneş turizmine
dayandıran turizm destinasyonları açısından bir meydan okuma yaratmaktadır. Mevsimsellik ile daha
da ciddileşen, deniz ve güneş turizmine bağımlılık durumu turizm destinasyonlarının hassasiyetini
arttırmaktadır. Çalışma, güneş ve deniz ile ilgili turizm ürünlerinin Türk turizm pazarındaki büyük
payları ve bu durumla ilgili riskler dikkate alındığında, keder turizmini (thanatourism) Türk turizm
ürünlerinin çeşitlendirilmesi için bir fırsat olarak ileri sürmektedir. Bu bağlamda, çalışmada keder
turizmine yönelik bir kavramsal çerçeve ve Türkiye'deki başlıca keder turizmi yerlerinin profili
sunulmaktadır.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Keder Turizmi, Karanlık Turizm, Türk Turizmi, Yeni Ürün Geliştirme
1. INTRODUCTION
The 4th of August 2014 marks the centenary of the First World War and on the 3rd of August
2014 the presidents of France and Germany laid the foundation stone for a joint First World War
museum in Alsace, a site which once was a battlefield. Thus a former battlefield turned into a symbol
*
University of Dokuz Eylul, [email protected]
University of Balıkesir, [email protected]
**
61
of peace and an attraction spot for visitors interested in this part of the history. What makes this event
more prominent is that the commemoration activities will take place in various forms and places until
2018 with reference to the duration of the war (Centenary News, 2014). During the four years' period,
media interest will be on the centenary events. Different media channels will be in use to raise
awareness on First World War and to disseminate news about the commemoration events (Great War,
2014) by increasing curiosity, interest and desire to visit the sites which were once scenes to death,
suffering, fear, grief and loss under the conditions of the World War.
War oriented interest of people for visiting sites related to death is only one aspect of a broader
phenomenon which is named, in general, as thanatourism or dark tourism. In this study the term
thanatourism is adopted to refer to travels "to a location wholly, or partially, motivated by the desire
for actual or symbolic encounters with death, particularly, but not exclusively, violent death" (Stone
and Sharpley, 2008: 578 referring from Seaton 1996:240). Knudsen (2011:57) offers a broader
conceptualization for thanatourism as "tourism to globally recognized places of commemoration".
Thanatourism is a special interest tourism product addressing a niche market. Niche markets emerge in
contrast to mass tourism production and consumption which involve standardized tourism products,
fixed prices, mass amount of tourists (Robinson and Novelli, 2005). However, Lew (2008:412) signals
the rise of niche tourism products in an ever crowded market place where service providers compete
through market differentiation and specialization for drawing the attention of the customers. Thus,
standardized tourism products tend to lose ground in favor of more specialized ones.
Considering the risks associated with dependence of Turkish tourism on standardized products
such as sun and sea tourism and regarding the vulnerability of Turkish tourism (Koç, 2005:167),
evaluating new product development opportunities becomes timely and important. In this context, the
study aims to discuss the potential of thanatourism for diversifying product offer in Turkish tourism
market.The study aims to provide a conceptual analysis of thanatourism based on supply and demand
factors. Sites which are already established as thanatourism destinations and which have the potential
to become thanatourism destinations in Turkey are discussed. In this way, it is aimed to contribute to
the literature on thanatourism profile of Turkey.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Thanatourism combines the notions of tourism and thanatology. Thanatology derives from
Greek word thanatos (death) and it refers to "the description or study of death and dying and the
psychological mechanisms of dealing with them" (Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Academic
Edition, 2014). As the name indicates, thanatourism deals with the visitations to "deathscapes".
Johnston defines deathscape as
62
"a space or place where interaction between society, death and bereavement is intensified. Such
sites have the capacity to create particular spatial geographies of the dead for the living...where
public and private emotions can intersect" (2013:202).
Dark tourism, is the another name given to "the act of travel to sites associated with death,
suffering and the seemingly macabre"(Stone, 2006:146). Besides, Brand and Platter (2011) refer dark
tourism as "the commoditisation of suffering and death" and Walter (2009) refers as "mediating
between the dead and the living". Blom (2000:29) uses the term "morbid tourism" to label the travels
motivated by morbidity related events which have aspects related to fear, death, deviance and
destruction. A more detailed description from Stone (2013) states that
"dark tourism is concerned with tourist encounters with spaces of death or calamity that have
perturbed the public consciousness, whereby actual and recreated places of the deceased, horror,
atrocity, or depravity, are consumed through visitor experiences"(Stone, 2013:307).
Thanatourism has subcategories which are labeled according to the main element or the theme
of travel. For example, Buda et al. (2014), examine the experiences of visitors travelling to an active
war zone and name it as "danger-zone tourism". Prideaux (2007) names the act of visiting battlefields
as "battlefield tourism". Biran et al. (2014) aim to understand the motivations of tourists visiting
earthquake disaster zones and refer this travel as "consumption of post-disaster destinations".
Yankovska and Hannam (2013) look into visits to Chernobyl exclusion zone and label this type of
travel as "toxic tourism".
Although thanatourism lives on the emotions related to death, fear, loss and grief, all events
carrying these feelings can not become thanatourism attractions. Everyday suffering or death such as
cancer can not be the subject of thanatourism (Walter, 2009:52-53). Thanatourism attractions have
some common characteristics. The events or experiences related to this attractions have value not
only in terms of emotional attachment but also in terms of history, politics, culture, national identity
etc. (Tarlow, 2005:49). For example, sites related to racism or slavery are the sites of tragedy and
sorrow. Besides they are, at the same time, instruments for creating collective narratives for a nation
or cultural, social, political heritage (Walter, 2009:52-53). Thanatourism experiences depend on the
recreation of death for popular consumption. For an attraction to show thanatourism characteristics, it
should link the death (the dead) with the touristic recreation (representation) of death and the
experience of tourists visiting this attraction (Stone, 2013:314). Besides, the length of time affects the
way the tourists perceive the event. As the time passes, visitors tend to see the disastrous event more
of a heritage rather than a tragedy in history (Farmaki, 2013).
Therefore thanatourism can be conceptualized within a broader framework such as heritage
tourism and iconic tourism (Tarlow, 2005:55). Tarlow by citing from Sternberg (1999), defines an
icon as "an object, person, or experience that has acquired added value through the commercial
63
heightening of meaning". Drawing on the this definition of icon, thanatourism can be considered in the
framework of iconic tourism due to its role for transforming past tragic events into attractions or icons
which are consumed in the present period (Tarlow, 2005). Knudsen (2011) refers to thanatourism as
difficult heritage tourism and highlights its role as way of establishing a connection with the past and
present which enables remembering and activating memories related to past. In this way, thanatourism
enable the visitors to feel part of these places.
Museums, heritage theme parks, graveyards, the scenes of accidents and battlefields, sites of
extraordinary disaster, commemorative sites associated with death, burial sites of military leaders,
political figures or celebrities are examples of thanatourism attractions. These places are examples of
deathscapes or memoryscapes where encounters with real or recreated death take place. Besides these
are the sites where visitors interpret and create a meaning for the death. This is because of human
tendency to meaning making. Mallon (2008:12) expresses that "when confronted with the death of
someone we care about we need to understand what happened and why, and build a narrative around
loss".
Many thanatourism tourism sites are not created as tourist attractions but they happened to
attract visitors due to the events once occurred there (Sharpley, 2009). So, thanatourism attractions can
be grouped into two as being natural or human-made attractions. Natural attractions which are not
intentionally created are generally created by catastrophic natural forces These sites are subject to
post-disaster production and consumption of death such as Sichuan, China after the earthquake, City
of Pompeii, Italy after the volcano explosion and U.S. Golf cost after hurricane Katrina. Some sites
are not established as tourism attractions such as military bases but later they are turned into
thanatourism attractions due to historical events occurred there (Seaton, 2009:95). Thanatourism
attractions can be purposefully created as well. As in the example of Dracula Tours in Romania,
feelings of death, fear or morbidity is highly commercialized and the primary focus is to attract more
and more visitors. Besides, thanatourism attractions can be used as a means of diversify existing
destination attractions for a temporary period. For example, using cemetery visits in an urban setting,
to diversify existing attractions in the city (Seaton, 2009:95)
The motives behind visitors' interest to the sites associated with death, suffering or fear are
various. Kang et al. (2012) argues that visitors seek some benefits from visiting these sites. These
benefits can be stated as leisure, learning, curiosity, fulfilling an educational programme or an
obligation, social reasons, family bonding, achieving the feeling of meaningfulness, feeling
comfortable for achieving internal obligation, being active. Stone (2012) argues that visitors are
attracted to these sites because these sites perform some functions: narrative function, educational
function, entertainment function, haunting function, memorialisation function (reminding of death).
Raine groups the visitors into four according to their level of attachment with site and the
64
intention of visit. For the visitors who feel deep personal attachment to the site, the primary motive for
the visit is devotion. Experience is the primary motive for the visitors who are interested in death
related aspects of the site but not personally feel connected to the site. They see visitation to the site as
an opportunity to experience death related feelings. Discovery is another motivation factor for the
visitors. Education purposes and interest in local history and culture play role in the decision to visit
the site. Besides, pursuit for just recreation and leisure opportunities also impact upon the decision to
visit a thanatourism site (Raine, 2013: 247-251).
Urry (2002:74) argues that tourist gaze is influenced by a range of structural and cultural
developments which creates changes in the notion of taste, way of life, attitudes and behaviours etc.
Such changes in the cultural mode alter the way meaning is produced symbolically (Barker, 2004). In
this context, consumption of tourism destinations changes as well. Gretzel et al. (2006:14) note the
shift in tourist expectations throughout the years and highlight new millenium as an era of meaningful
consumption experiences. Search for meaningful consumption experiences points to special interest
tourism which is related to primary motivations of the tourist in taking a particular journey and it is
generally characterized by novelty, authenticity and quality in tourist experiences (Cooper and Hall,
2008:66). The growth of dark tourism as a type of special interest tourism, can be seen partly as a
result of the change in general cultural mode within the last 25 years (Knudsen, 2011).
Change and continuity have been two perpetual characteristics of tourism. Change signifies
dynamic, ever changing, evolutionary nature of tourism over ages. On the other hand, continuity
implies that tourism has continued to be an influential phenomenon in the leisure lifestyles of certain
social classes (Page, 2011:36). According to a recent study of United Nations World Tourism
Organization (UNWTO), tourism is expected to continue its expansion and diversification despite its
vulnerability to change. The growth will continue in the future but nature and shape of tourism
products are expected to be under the influence of fashion, shock events and trends (UNWTO, 2014;
Page, 2011). The expectations of European Travel and Tourism Advisory Group about travel and
tourism, give some clue about future evolution of the tourism products. Some arguments of European
Travel and Tourism Advisory Group can be presented as follows (European Travel and Tourism
Advisory Group, 2012):
* Due to increase in the education level, demand for special products will be on increase.
Visitors will demand more of cultural, historical or artistic components either in package or selforganized travels.
*Due to increase in the health-consciousness level, the preferences for destinations and leisure
activities will change. Sun and sea holidays will be on decrease while activity holidays and
destinations which offer activity based tourism products will become popular.
65
* Long term main holidays will be on decrease by paving way to several but shorter holidays.
Tourism plays an important role in Turkish economy. It produced 3.7% of the gross national
product in 2012 (TURSAB, 2014). Tourism and travel sectors generated 2.3 million jobs in Turkey
and Turkey was at the 6th rank in terms of arrivals and at 12th rank in terms of receipts in the world in
2013 (WTTC, 2014). Multiplier effect coefficient of tourism is 2.67 for GDP and 3.96 for employment
in Turkey (Bulin et al., 2014:78). This refers to the degree that tourism expenditure is recycled through
the economy and stimulates other sectors (Kotler et al.,2010:504). According to travel and tourism
competitiveness index 2013, Turkey ranks at 46 among 140 countries evaluated worldwide. The travel
and tourism competitiveness report 2013 states the richness of cultural sources as the main strength of
the Turkish tourism. Regarding cultural resources, Turkey's rank for competitiveness is 19th among
the countries evaluated worldwide (Blanke and Chiesa, 2013).
Turkey's position in world tourism market and tourism's contribution to national economy can
be improved by taking steps against internal leakages. Turkish tourism sector faces a problem of under
capacity performance. Capacity use of accommodation facilities remained around 54% in 2012.
Average days of stay were 4.4 days for international tourists and 1.9 days for domestic tourists.
Seasonality of tourism activities is still a bottleneck. The number of international visitors shows
sudden changes among months. For example, the number of international visitors which was around
1.8 million in March increased to 2.5 million in April and to 3.8 million in May 2013. The number of
international tourists visiting Turkey between April and September, including April and September,
(24 140 816) corresponded to 69% of the total number of international visitors for the whole year (34
910 098) in 2013 (TURSAB, 2014).
Given the vulnerabilities of Turkish tourism and expected decrease in the number of organized
mass tourists, Koç (2005) highlights the importance of diversifying Turkish tourism product offer with
an proactive approach. The richness of cultural resources which contribute to competitiveness of
Turkish tourism can be seen as an opportunity against this shortcoming. Turkey, while maintaining its
place as a mainstream destination for especially European and Russian visitors, can improve its special
offerings by benefiting from its diverse culture, history, and natural resources (Blanke and Chiesa,
2013:46). Considering the expected decrease in interest for sun and sea holidays in favor of special
tourism products, considering growing media interest on death related tourism activities (Institute for
Dark Tourism Research, 2014) and considering the potential of thanatourism to meet the search of
travellers for the so-called meaningful consumption experiences, it is proposed as an opportunity
diversify tourism products in Turkish market.
66
3. SELECTED THANATOURISM SITES IN TURKEY
Gelibolu National Historical Park with Anzac Cove and Helles Memorial
In order to examine thanatourism profile of Turkey, the literature on thanatourism sites of
Turkey is reviewed. Gelibolu National Historical Park with Anzac Cove and Helles Memorial in
Çanakkale come to fore, currently, as the most studied thanatourism site in Turkey. This composite
site which involves 56 national and 35 foreign memorial and martyrdoms extends geographically over
1 town (Eceabat) and 8 villages. This is a in situ thanatourism site according to Knudsen's (2011:60)
classification of place designs because this composite site is located is at the real place where
Çanakkale Wars took place during 1915-1916 as a part of the First World War. Aliağaoğlu (2008)
explains the process through which Gelibolu has become a memorial site with reference to the stages
of framing and elevation, enshrinement, mechanical reproduction, social reproduction. Gelibolu where
more than 250 000 soldiers from France, Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand and the more than 250
000 Turkish soldiers lost their lives (Çanakkale İl Kültür ve Turizm Müdürlüğü, 2014), has a totally
different meaning for Australians and New Zealanders as a marker and representative of the
psychological birthplace of these countries as nations (Slade, 2003:78).
Başkomutan National Historical Park
Başkomutan National Historical Park in Afyon is an in situ thanatourism attraction including a
large area of battlefields where the Turkish War of Independence took place in the Aegean Region. It
represents a site where "national pride was born" (Prideaux, 2007:18). Despite the importance of this
area for the Independence War, Kılıç and Akyurt (2011) noted neglect over the use historical park for
diversifying tourism product offer and strengthening destination image of Afyon. Başkomutan
National Historical Park may not be attractive for international visitors but as being a part of the recent
Turkish history, its memorial and educational functions can be highlighted to attract more domestic
visitors. Cultural function of Başkomutan National Historical Parkrefers to the national identity
making power of battlefields because they are part of national cultural assets. Besides, recreational
function of the Park can be improved by developing themed routes on history and battlefields and
raising interest through various channels such as TV programmes (Piekarz, 2007:31).
Anıtkabir Museum and the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Anıtkabir Museum and the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the leader of the Turkish
War of Independence and the founder of the Republic of Turkey are located in Ankara. This
memorial monument is mostly visited by domestic travelers. In 2013, total number of visitors was
5.073.259, of which 4 856943 was domestic visitors and 216 316 was international visitors (Türk
Silahlı Kuvvetleri Genel Kurmay Başkanlığı, 2014). This site is symbolic design according to
Knudsen's (2011) classification because it is a symbolic representation of the Turkish War of
67
Independence and the establishment of a new state. Media refers to different materials used to convey
the message, to realize discourses (Knudsen, 2011:61). The cultural signs at Anıtkabir such as towers,
halls, gardens and the relics on the walls, documents, tour guides, they all represent the media used to
communicate the site to the visitors.
Yeşil Türbe (Green Tomb)
Yeşil Türbe (Green Tomb) in Bursa is a mausoleum of Sultan Mehmed I Çelebi built in 1421
and it is a part of the Green Mosque complex in Bursa. It has an octagonal architectural structure
which symbolizes the link between heaven (which is generally represented by the use of circle) and
earth (which is generally represented by the use of square) in Islamic and Christian art. The use of
octagon may also refer to the concept of paradise with eight gardens with eight doors in Islamic
thinking (Grupico, 2011). Thus, Yeşil Türbe as a thanatourism site has religious philosophical aspects
with it which make visitors to contemplate on the death and the life. The contemplation on death upon
the visitation to Yeşil Türbe can seen in a poem titled as "Time in Bursa" written by a well known poet
Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar. Tanpınar, in his poem interprets death in the context of time at a sacred place.
Kayaköy (Rock Village) in Mugla and Şirince Village in Izmir
Kayaköy (Rock Village) in Mugla and Şirince Village in Izmir are two places which
experienced the exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations under the relevant convention of the
Lausanne Peace Treaty dated 30 January 1923. The convention concluded that without permission of
the Turkish Government and Greek Government, these people would not return to live either in
Turkey or in Greece (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2014). These communities at the both
sides of the border established a foundation named as The Foundation of Lausanne Treaty Emigrants.
The Foundation aims to re-develop cultural ties and organizes several activities such as tours to their
cities or villages of origin (Bursahaber, 2014; Toprakkaya, 2010). As thanatourism tourism refers to
difficult, controversial, unwanted past events, the task of creating empathy becomes a highly sensitive
job (Knudsen, 2010).
4. CONCLUSION
Thanatourism which takes on various forms for various intentions can provide an opportunity to
diversify tourism products offered by Turkish tourism market. Due to the centenary events of First
World War, it can be expected that battlefield tourism will get media attention during four years, thus
will get increased interest from visitors. Therefore, the centenary events can impact upon tourist flows
to Gelibolu. Thanatourism addresses the symbolic decoding and encoding processes of the visitors,
therefore using various forms of media ranging from TV programmes and virtual tours to computer
games, from stories of witnesses of the dark events to role playing can keep the attention alive for the
thanatourism sites.
68
The intrinsic characteristics of thanatourism such as dealing with controversial memories of the
past, makes product development and marketing processes more delicate. Therefore, marketing and
management of a thanatourism site have peculiarities which need to be explored. This study aimed to
provide a conceptual framework for thanatourism and examined major thanatourism attractions in
Turkey based on documentary analysis. Further studies should focus on cases and aim to explore the
peculiarities related to thanatourism attractions regarding marketing and management of the relevant
site.
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73
THE ECOTOURISM NETWORK BETWEEN THE BUG AND NAREW – THE EXAMPLE
OF THE REGIONAL ECOTOURISM PRODUCT IN POLAND
Joanna OMIECIUCH*
1. INTRODUCTION
The socio-economic changes initiated in Poland after 1989 have led to a rising interest in the
economic effects of tourism development, the more so that tourism is one of the most dynamic sectors
of the global economy. In many countries tourism represents a significant portion of the gross
domestic product and economic activity. Mass tourism has a negative impact on the natural
environment, cultural and social. Responsible ecotourism programs include those that minimize the
negative aspects of conventional tourism on the environment and develop the cultural integrity of local
inhabitants.
Sustainable tourism is nowadays preferred by professional and informal groups concerned
about nature protection and as well the tourist management sector. Moreover, tourists more often
decide to choose ecologically oriented forms of leisure and holidays, what raises theirs demands
toward tour-operators. Sustainable tourism and especially its core – ecotourism - is strongly orientated
for both - local nature and local community.
Poland with its diversified nature constitutes an ideal basis for enlargement of ecotourism. The
most important factor determining growth of ecotourism is the attitude of local society in the rural
areas. In order to increase ecotourism the communes and local population have to be convinced as to
the advantages and benefits stemming from it. As ecotourism develops new jobs, and as a result
permanent and seasonal ones may be created as well, rural areas could be economically and socially
motivated and the existing own initiatives and resources may also be exploited.
The aim of this article is to present the first example of the regional ecotourism product in
Poland – “Ecotourism Network between the Bug and Narew” and the Polish Ecotourism Certification
System.
The network - a group of businessmen closely cooperating in the field of services and standards
- is located in 13 municipalities located in the basin of the Bug and Narew (the rivers).The Network
members work together to support each other, care about the quality of service, create high-quality
products and monitor the implementation of environmental standards.
2. ECOTOURISM AS AN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY FORM OF TOURISM
In Poland in the years 2007-2011 the share of tourism in GDP amounted to 5-6%. Tourism also
plays an important role in Polish trade. In 2011, tourism export value amounted to 31.5 billion zł,
*
Phd, The University of Finance and Management in Bialystok, [email protected]
74
which accounted for 4.7% of total exports (Raport o stanie gospodarki turystycznej w latach 20072011, pp.6).
Table 1. The share of the tourism economy in GDP in 2007-2011
Specification
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Gross Domestic Product (billion zł)
1176,7
1275,4
1343,4
1415,4
1476,4
Revenue from tourism economy
according to the Institute of Tourism
(billion zł)
The share of the tourism economy in
GDP (%)
70
75
70,7
74,2
72,7
6,0
5,9
5,3
5,3
4,9
References: Raport o stanie gospodarki turystycznej w latach 2007-2011, Ministerstwo Sportu i
Turystyki, Warszawa 2013, pp.74.
Ministry of Sport and Tourism in the "Report on the state of the tourism economy in 20072011," stressed the importance of rural tourism and agro-tourism for the development of regions and
rural areas in Poland. In addition to offering various forms of lodging and food, rural tourism
development involves the creation of regional tourism products, construction thematic villages and
specialized and demonstration facilities (mills, farms, settlements) and educational farms. In rural
areas, it is also important to create pathways, including in particular the network of routes connecting
the above-mentioned objects, representing the unique character of the area. (pp.36)
Mass tourism has a negative impact on the natural, cultural and social environment.
Spontaneous development ofmass tourismhas contributed tosignificant air pollutionand water
pollution, land degradation, destruction ofvegetationand animals,depletion ofthe natural landscapeand
theloss ofcultural valuesof the local population. According to literature (Zaręba, 2008, pp. 16), mass
tourism is a threat to the natural environment comparable to the impact of certain industries or
intensive agricultural crops.
Ecotourism movement emerged in the 70s of the last century as a response to the rapid
development of mass tourism, entailing the devastation of nature and local culture. Ecotourism
programs include those that minimize the negative aspects of conventional tourism on the
environment. Ecotourism is a form of tourism that involves visiting natural areas – in the remote
wilderness or rural environments. According to the definition and principles of ecotourism established
by The International Ecotourism Society (TIES) in 1990, ecotourism is "Responsible travel to natural
areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people." (TIES, 1990).
Martha Honey (Honey 2008, pp. 29-31), expands on the International Ecotourism Society
definition by describing the seven characteristics of ecotourism, which are:
1. Involve travel to natural destinations,
2. Minimize impact,
75
3. Builds environmental awareness,
4. Provide direct financial benefits for conservation,
5. Provide financial benefits and empowerment for local people,
6. Respect local culture,
7. Support human rights and democratic movements.
According TIES those who implement and participate in ecotourism activities should follow the
following ecotourism principles:
•
Minimize impact.
•
Build environmental and cultural awareness and respect.
•
Provide positive experiences for both visitors and hosts.
•
Provide direct financial benefits for conservation.
•
Provide financial benefits and empowerment for local people.
•
Raise sensitivity to host countries' political, environmental, and social climate.
Ecotourism is understood as an active and intense exploration of destinations characterized by
unique and particularly interesting natural and cultural features, a type of tourism that does not
devastate the harmony of ecosystems and the cultural identity of local communities, and provides
finances for the protection of these elements. Ecotourism is seen as the ‘cleanest’ form of
environmentally-friendly travelling. It relies on the existence and sustainability of superior natural
attractions. According to many authors ecotourism contributes to the education of societies to behave
in line with the principles of the preservation of natural and cultural resources and brings solid benefits
to local people by providing money for the protection of resources.
Dominika Zaręba notes that the term "ecotourism" is new in the literature, but the concept and
style of "green travel" have existed for a long time. Most fans, for example, mountain or skiing hiking
were looking for isolated places for their travel, close contact with nature, with monuments of the past
and the indigenous population. They did not call themselves "ecotourist", but their form of spending
time, their interests, motivations, needs, approach to nature and culture, were similar to what used to
be called today a "green tourism". The concept, the essence and philosophy of travel-called ecotourism
is therefore not something new, but it is only defined in the last decade of the twentieth century.
Active and profound style of valuable natural tour, friendly nature and culture, is a kind of return to
the tradition of traveling initiated more than 100 years ago (Zaręba 2008, pp.52-53).
“The Ecotourism Network between the Bug and Narew”terms and conditions (Ekoturystyka
między Bugiem i Narwią, 2010, pp. 14) define ecotourism in the following way:
“Ecotourism is an enriching experience with nature and culture, organized by the responsible
entrepreneurs who care about the environment, their guests and the local community of which they are
part.”
76
3. THE ECOTOURISM NETWORK BETWEEN THE BUG AND NAREW
The ecotourismservices marketis stillunderdevelopedin Poland.The Ecotourism Network
between the Bug and Narew isthe first example of the regional ecotourism product in Poland. The
Network was established in 2010 as a result of a project conducted by the Social Ecological Institute.
The Social Ecological Institute is a not-for-profit organization, registered in 1990, which leads and
supports ecological initiatives in Poland. They provide professional help to a diverse range of
ecological programs and activities, and strive to strengthen the development of the civil society in
Poland. One of their main goals is the sustainable development of the Polish countryside and the
conservation and dissemination of agricultural biodiversity.
SEI invited the all persons interested in the development of ecotourism in the area "between the
Bug and Narew”. The project was implemented under support provided by Iceland, Liechtenstein and
Norway and funded by Norwegian Funds and the budget of Poland too.
In the process of development of eco-tourism in the area "between the Bug and Narew"
participated Norwegian Partner – Lone Lamark. She was involved in the project as a consultant in the
activities relating to the establishment of eco-tourism development strategy for the region and the
creation of the Polish system of certification of ecotourism. Lone Lamark formed Norwegian
Certification System and for many years worked with the Norwegian self-government on the
development of ecotourism. As an employee of GRIP in 2007, she organized the World Conference on
Ecotourism in Oslo. Lone Lamark currently runs her own ecotourism business in the region Vestaralen
(northern Norway) and is responsible for conducting inspections of certified facilities on behalf of the
above Norway Innovation Norway. Lone engages in activities to promote eco-tourism at European
level. (Ekoturystyka między Bugiem i Narwią, 2010, pp. 2-3)
To create a network SEI ledactivities implementedby1.5 yearsin 13municipalities.Municipalities
that have been actively involved in the project are the rural communities or urban-rural: Brańszczyk,
Brok, Długosiodło,, Łochów, Małkinia Górna, Nur, Obryte, Ostrów Maz., Rząśnik, Sadowne,
Somianka, Zaręby Kościelne, Zatory.
These areas are characterized by small-scale agricultural economy, the lack of large production
facilities and rich natural resources, which largely are protected under the European network of the
sites Natura 2000. There are five such sites in these communities:
•
The White Wilderness (Special Protection Areas for birds),
•
The Lower Bug Valley (Special Protection Areas for birds),
•
The Bug Refuge (Special Area of Conservation),
•
The Pulwy Swamp (Special Protection Areas for birds),
•
The Liwiec Valley (Special Protection Areas for birds),
This demonstrates the unique natural beauty of this region in Europe, especially related to the
world of birds, but also the wealth of fauna and flora. There are some rare and protected species,
77
which are a joy for bird watchers and nature lovers.In this area there are 400 protected species of birds,
mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fishes and plants.
In addition to thewealthof naturein the area Between the Bug and Narew has preserved many
interesting traditions - local festivals, carnivals, harvest festivals, fairs, crafts, old recipes.
A regional tourism product “The Ecotourism Network between the Bug and Narew” is a
network consisting currently of 24 different places in Poland in the province of Mazovia offering bed,
breakfast, activities and run according to world ecotourism standards. All objectsbelonging to The
Networkaremarked withthe logo ofthe networkin the cities andvillagesand describedon the
websitebugnarew.pl. (http://www.bugnarew.pl/obiekty)
The logo of “The Ecotourism Network between the Bug and Narew”
Sources:www.bugnarew.pl
The activities of the Network members respect the fundamental principles of ecotourism:
• offer is based on nature, culture, local uniqueness, promotion, protection and respect for the
natural and cultural environment;
• care for the environment and local communities, the environment and biodiversity protection,
supporting the local economy;
• positive awareness-raising knowledge and awareness-raising experience for both guests and
hosts.
The Ecotourism Network between the Bug and Narew is in continuous development.All those
who are pursuing or planning to start ecotourism can join the Network. Compliance with the rules of
business networks, obtaining a recommendation of at least 2 members of the Network, signing the
declaration, rules and pay the membership fee (in 2014 it is 120 zl) are the conditions to join the
Network.
To the Ecotourism Network between the Bug and Narew join another company, farmhouses, as
well as artists who have decided to act together in accordance with the principles of sustainability. In
this group, among others there are: farmhouses, holiday homes, guesthouses, bike and canoe rentals,
Museum of the Sadowne Earth, Paderewski Memorial Chamber in Julin, Whistler Museum at School
in Gwizdały, forester’s lodge, sculpture workshops, horse riding centers. The big attraction of this area
are regional products: smoked meats, cheeses, cakes, potato cake, dumplings, and more.
The benefits of being a member of the network include:
78
1. joint marketing and cross-promotion (joint publications, events, participation in fairs
and festivals),
2. expanding the customer base and offer,
3. use a common website, logo and brand "Between the Bug and Narew",
4. acquiring new business partners.
As a result of working together a new group of owners of agritourism, farmers, artists,
craftsmen, social activists, guides to promote the co-branded services offered to tourists. Some
network objects received the Polish Ecotourism Certification. The certification is awarded by the SEI
and managed jointly by the SEI and the two associations.
A continuation of Ecotourism Network is the Ecotourism of The Bug River Valley Trail. The
Trail was built in 2012 as a result of a project conducted by the Social Ecological Institute and is
located in 10 municipalities along the Bug River.
3. THE POLISH ECOTOURISM CERTIFICATION SYSTEM
Currently, there are various moves to create national and international ecotourism accreditation
programs, although the process is also controversial. Many environmentalists have argued for a global
standard of accreditation, differentiating ecotourism companies based on their level of environmental
commitment. A national or international regulatory board would enforce accreditation procedures,
with representation from various groups including governments, hotels, tour operators, travel agents,
guides, airlines, local authorities, conservation organizations, and non-governmental organizations.
The decisions of the board would be sanctioned by governments, so that non-compliant companies
would be legally required to disassociate themselves from the use of the ecotourism brand. Some
countries have their own certification programs for ecotourism.
The creation and granting of the first in Poland ecotourism certification was preceded by multistep preparation - study how others do it, through, inter alia, visit ecotourism network in Austria and
Norway, the development of list of 103 terms of the certificate, and creation a network web site - an
important tool for the exchange of information and promotion.
The lists of criteria for ecotourism was created by the Social Ecological Institute, the local
community and the two associations: Association of Agro Farms and Ecotourism "Mazovia Willows"
and Mazovia-Podlasie Agritourism Association.
The standard procedurefor reportingand broadcastingcertificaterequestas follows:
1. The applicantshall notifyin writingthe initial wish toreceive the certificate ofthePresident of
the Counciloran auditor appointedby the Council.Inwritingthe application, the applicant
presents a briefdescription of the businessand the reasonforwhich he intends toapply for
acertificate(maximumone A4 page).
79
2. Withinthree days, the applicant receives a responseindicatingwhether or notthe chance toget a
certificatein a given year. The applicantalso receivesinformation about thecosts ofcertification
andexpresseshis writtenconsent.
3. The applicant shall senda preliminaryapplication form. Doubts about thecompletion of the
applicationshall be consultedunit/personcertifyinge-mail or telephone.
4. Withintwo weeksofreceipt of the requestentity/personcertifyingprovide its comments onthe
necessaryadjustments.
5. The processprovided for inparagraphs4 and 5continues untilthe recognitionby the
personcertifyingthat
theproposal
allows
forthe
grant
ofthe
certificate.Incase
of
doubt,theyconsultedwith the Council.
6. Arranginga visitauditor arriveson site.The applicantis nowrequired to payhalf the cost
ofcertification.
7. After the visit,a written reportis preparedrecommendingthe granting ofa certificate
orrecommendingnecessary adjustmentsandtimeproposedfortheiraccomplishment.
8. The applicantmakes correctionswithin the prescribedtime andinform the Council. If
necessary,carry out a secondsite visitto verifythe implementation ofcorrections.
9. After making thenecessary adjustmentsauditor shall submitto the Councilduring the
weekprotocolrecommendingthe
granting
ofa
certificate.Council
is
requiredto
takea
decisionwithin one monthof certification. In the case ofa positive decision, the applicant shall
be informedin writing withinseven daysofits adoptionandshall payother fees. In the case ofa
negative decision, the applicantis entitled toone-offappealto the Council. The applicantmay
requestto presenttheir casedirectly to the Council, which is required tolisten to hisarguments
andmake a final decision.
In September 2010, eight facilities of “The Ecotourism Network between the Bug and Narew”
received the Polish Ecotourism Certification:
1. The Organic Farm "Bielińska Mountain" and canoe rental.
2. The Agritourism Farm of "Accommodation in Alice" in Długosiodło.
3. The Goat Rearing and Agritourism Farm and Knowledge in Glina.
4. The Private Ethnographic Museum in Prostyń.
5. The Agritourism Farm of "Old Mill" and Fish Farming in Ołtarze Gołacze.
6. The Agritourism Farm of "House on the willows" in Jackowo Dolne.
7. The Kurpiowska Smithy - Regional Chamber of Pniewo.
8. Organic Agritourism Farm of "Dąbrówka" in Hołowienki.
All this objectswere marked witha patentedlogo and the certificate isrevised everyyear.
80
The Logo of the Polish Ecotourism Certification
Sources: http://www.sie.org.pl/polski-certyfikat-ekoturystyczny
The aim of the “The Ecotourism Network between the Bug and Narew” is that all members of
the network receive a Polish Ecotourism Certification within a few years.
In September 2014, eight facilities of “The Ecotourism Network between the Bug and Narew”
have got the Polish Ecotourism Certification:
1. The Organic Farm "Bielińska Mountain" and canoe rental.
2. Ecotourism - "Accommodation at Alice" and bike rental.
3. The Agritourism Farm of "Old Mill" and Fish Farming.
4. “The Agritourism at Kaflik” and bike and canoe rental.
5. The Agritourism Farm of "House on the willows".
6. The Organic Farm “For birch”.
7. Education-tourist farm “Kaliska Stable”.
8. The Kurpiowska Smithy - Regional Chamber.
These facilities are compliant with the list of more than 100 rigorous criteria of ecology and
ecotourism in particular:
• Food made with local products, organic and "Fair Trade";
• minimizing the impact on the environment (farms are run organically or sustainably, do not
use chemical cleaners, biodegradable disposable packaging, chemical pesticides in the garden; care
about saving water, energy, segregates waste);
•
care for wildlife (participation in conservation projects or environmental education,
knowledge of the flora, fauna, protected areas, reducing motorized transport during the tour);
•
promotion of local culture and tradition, high standards of knowledge hosts and guides;
•
transparency and clarity of the offer.
81
Lone
Lamark
believes
that:
“The
Ecotourism
Certificationgivesa
smallecotourismventuresunique opportunity toconnectwiththerecognizablein the world "The Global
BrandEcotourism". The Ecotourism Certificationincreases the effectivenessof marketingactivities
andcommunicationat
becomeambassadorsfor
local
andglobal
Ecotourism.
levels.Objects
It's
a
thathave
been
bigresponsibility.The
certifiedhave
responsibility
forrespectingandimplementingecotourismvalues every day andsupportingecotourismmovementacross
Europe.” (Ekoturystyka między Bugiem i Narwią, 2010, pp. 2)
SUMMARY
Tourism is an important part of the Polish economy. However, mass tourism is dangerous for
the environment and local communities. The principlesof ecotourismdo,that thistype of tourismis safe
forthe environment.The ecotourismservices marketis stillunderdevelopedin Poland.The Ecotourism
Network between the Bug and Narew isthe first example of the regional ecotourism product in Poland.
The Ecotourism Network between the Bug and Narew is a group of businessmen closely cooperating
in the field of services and standards. The Network is in continuous development. At the moment, 24
small and medium-sized enterprises with 13 Mazovia municipalities is forming the network and 8
have got the Polish Ecotourism Certification. Detailed list of businesses is located on the website of
the Network. All those who are pursuing or planning to start ecotourism can join the Network.
Compliance with the rules of business networks, obtaining a recommendation of at least 2 members of
the Network, signing the declaration, rules and pay the membership fee (in 2014 is 120 zl) are the
conditions to join the Network. The aim of this article was to present the first example of the regional
ecotourism product in Poland and the Polish Ecotourism Certification System.
REFERENCES
Lenarczyk, E., Priwieziencew, S., Włoszczowski, T. Ekoturystyka między Bugiem a Narwią.
Przewodnik po gminach i obiektach” (2010) Biblioteczka SIE Zeszyt 16, Społeczny Instytut
Ekologiczny, Warszawa.
Honey, M. (2008) “Ecotourism and Sustainable Development: Who Owns Paradise”, Washington,
DC: Islannd Press.
Kulczyk, S., Lewandowski, W. „Ekoturystyka „zieloną” ścieżką do Europy” (2004) (w:) „Studia
ekologiczno-krajobrazowe w programowaniu rozwoju zrównoważonego. Przegląd polskich
doświadczeń u progu integracji z Unią Europejską” (red.) M. Kistowski, Gdańsk.
Kurczewski, R. (2011), „Rola społeczności lokalnej w rozwoju ekoturystyki”, FOLIA POMERANAE
UNIVERSITATIS TECHNOLOGIAE STETINESIS, Oeconomica 288 (64).
Matlegiewicz, M. (2009) „Ekoturysyka jako przyjazna forma turystyki”, FOLIA POMERANAE
UNIVERSITATIS TECHNOLOGIAE STETINESIS, Oeconomica 275 (57).
82
Niezgoda, A. (2008) „Rola różnych koncepcji i form rozwoju turystyki w dążeniu do celów rozwoju
zrównoważonego”, Turyzm, 18/2.
Raport o stanie gospodarki turystycznej w latach 2007-2011, Ministerstwo Sportu i Turystyki,
Warszawa 2013. (http://www.msport.gov.pl/article/raport-o-stanie-gospodarki-turystycznej-wlatach-2007-2011)
Zaręba, D. (2010) „Ekoturystyka”, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa.
www.bugnarew.pl
www.sie.org.pl
http://www.ecotourism.org/what-is-ecotourism
.
83
THE
IMPACT
OF
THE
MANAGERS’
EDUCATION
LEVEL
ON
THE
IMPLEMENTATION OF HUMAN RESOURCES POLICIES IN TOURISM SECTOR
Prof. Dr. Edip ÖRÜCÜ•
Res. Assist. Çağrı İZCİ••
Res. Assist. Sinem ATAY•••
ABSTRACT
With this study, it is intended to put forth to what extent tourism sector managers adopt modern
human resources policies and to what extent they can direct human resources policies in a
comparative manner. For that purpose, literature review on personnel management and human
resources management was done and the concepts ‘manager’ and ‘education’ were briefly mentioned.
Then, under the light of a case study, an analysis was made and results were discussed. In the study,
frequency analysis and independent sample t-tests were used. The study was prepared as a result of
more than 33 questionnaires conducted in 3, 4 and 5 star hotels and resorts in Central Muğla, Akyaka,
Marmaris, İçmeler and Bodrum. As a result of the study, it was found that businesses do not pay
attention to human resources applications, while human resources are implemented more frequently
in 5 star hotels as compared to other businesses.
Keywords: Human Resources Policy, Education, Performance
1. INTRODUCTION
“When you see geese flying to the South with V-shape for the next winter, you should think
discovery of the science that explain why they fly in that manner. While flapping wings, each bird
creates power which lifts the following bird. While the gaggles are flying with the V-shape, they fly at
least %71 longer flight distance than one bird can do. Once a goose fells out of the form, it quickly
feels friction force and resistance of the air, and gains its power for benefiting from the friction force
of the bird that in front of it, catches the speed of others” (Fındıkçı, 2012: 16).
As stated in the abovementioned example, organizations that support each other at the same
point always manage to survive. To find that point and to provide all the support activities could be
achieved through implementation of human resources management in an effective manner.
Implementation of human resources management and its functions in an effective manner are directly
related to the knowledge and talent of the human resources managers.
•
BalikesirUniversity, Faculty of Bandirma Economics and Administrative Sciences, [email protected]
BalikesirUniversity, Faculty of Bandirma Economics and Administrative Sciences, [email protected]
•••
BalikesirUniversity, Faculty of Bandirma Economics and Administrative Sciences, [email protected]
••
84
In this study, approaches of hospitality managers in tourism sector towards human resources
policies were investigated and to what extent managers can reflect their education to implementation
of human resources management was tried to find out.
2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
It should be kept in mind that the basic element of the management is human and personnel
function is a sum of activities that focus on human more than any other managerial factions. It is
necessary for personnel management to set forth individual purposes and expectations from the
business, and evolve policies accordingly in order to accomplish targets (Örücü, 1997: 215).
Personnel problems are as old as history of civilizations. Managers have always demanded for
the human labour as well as dealt with the issues such as looking for personnel, finding and employing
them. Nevertheless, this interest was usually promiscuous. Elaboration of personnel issues as a special
subject of a study happened at the beginning of the century. Reflection of the developments in
behavioral sciences in the organizational work environment took place in the period following the
Second World War. This view reveals personnel management follows a long line of evolution
(Geylan, 1992: 23).
The history of personnel management in the modern sense is so recent. Modern and scientific
personnel management starts in 1940s. On the other hand, personnel related issues gained importance
and drew the attention of managers much before (Yalçın, 1994: 3).
Before 1990s, despite personnel management’s being the subject of discussions related to
human resource management and technical change, the relationship between them have rarely been
investigated systematically. Personnel management, in business organizations, should not be linked
directly to the role of specialized personnel managers. Personnel management covers both staff busy
with designing and planning of personnel policies and those who are directly responsible for personnel
management (Clark, 1993: 2).
Personnel management is concerned with the issues such as providing a basis to an organization
for reaching its targets, ensuring personnel, training them and satisfying material, health and protection
needs. Therefore, personnel management means planning, organizing, commanding and controlling of
the level of success (Yalçın, 1994: 4).
Despite being completely different from one another, personnel department in order to provide
comprehensive personnel services to the authority, combines disciplines and responsibilities that
complement each other. These disciplines includes industrial relations and labor law publications,
labor relations, conditions of service, training, administrative services (business studies, organization
85
and methods operational approach), member search, payroll health and safety issues in general the
staff recommendation provides (Vickerstaff, 1992: 23-32).
Increase in the number of staff with high education level and culture has brought a new
dimension to personnel management in enterprises. What the abovementioned personnel expect from
their jobs and business has rapidly changed. Personnel with high level of education and culture have
understood they should have life outside of work, have tried to get exactly what they deserve in return
for their labour and have realized they should get satisfied in their jobs. This situation has become an
important factor in the formation of democratic management which regards personnel from each level
as part of the organization, gives value to ideas and combines organizational targets with individual
ones (Geylan, 1992: 46).
"Human resources" is a term which is contemporary than "staff". In the last quarter of the
twentieth century, there was a transition from traditional "personnel management" understanding to
the "human resource management" approach. With the effect of globalization, decrease in borders and
increase in free movement, national companies have become ‘internationalized’. These
internationalized companies are getting huge in numbers and requiring more importance (Kaçmaz and
Serinkan, 2014: 4809). One leg of this crucial change is related to the competitiveness that necessitates
betterments in management. Another reason for choosing contemporary word "human resource
management" is that both organizations and countries have realized they should improve individual
abilities and put these abilities to work in order to push their production capacity in the fierce and
destructive competition environment that they are in. Hence, human element has been taken to the
center of the management in the "human resource management" against traditional "personnel
management" approach. Human resources are seen as an investment property and are thought to be
developed for helping the organization reach its targets and objectives. "Human resources
management" has replaced traditional "personnel department" and "industrial relations" approach
(Hesapçıoğlu, 1994: 1).
At the origins of HRM in contemporary organizations, personnel management functions
performed by specialists or personnel departments can usually be observed. Personnel management
and HRM slowly came to a crossroads in the United States in the early 1980s when Harvard Group
and Michigan / Columbia groups defined the term HRM as a unique discipline in their MBA
curriculum (Monir, 1996: 8).
While HRM is presenting concept or philosophical approach and being an indicator of business
ethics, its implementation of the theory is known as personnel management. Personnel management is
the functional application of the theory of HRM. HR director defines the objectives of HRM in line
with the specified purposes; HR department does daily work that is necessary for realization of these
objectives. These targets are related to the company's employee, so personnel management is a term
86
that describes this function. Some hotels use this term only in recruiting new employees. For our
purposes, this term will be used to define all the functions arising from the HR department. Because,
every activity involves the status of employees. All consultants in an organization, regardless of their
department, should know targets and implementation of HRM as well as personnel distribution.
Because; all employees will be directly affected by them. It is to be noted HR department should be
seen as an extension of all the other departments. The better communication between department
management and HR, the effective implementation there is (Eade, 2000: 21).
Implementation of HR policies are dependent on organizational culture. When organizational
culture supports these policies, it is more feasible to implement human resources management and it is
more probabale to achieve the organizationaltargets (Sikora&Ferris, 2014: 279). In other
organizational structures, managers may prefer to keep old administrative practices. Nevertheless, it is
too difficult to take part in the market without taking new management systems into consideration.
Organizational survival necessitates keeping pace with time. Therefore, organizational survival can be
achieved through an organizational structure that is open to innovation. In his research, Gülsoy states
this innovation is highly correlated with human resources policies and their implementation. As a
result of successful implementation of HR policies, creativity improves and members of organization
take more risk. These are crucial steps in management in order for being in the market (2013: 505).
One dimension of HR in some companies is the acceptance of the importance of human
resources management in determination of payments made to managers. In some companies, HRM
functions are carried out by a director or a senior manager who makes significant contributions to
strategic decisions. HR is an inseparable part of comprehensive, detailed policies and plans of
companies. Some firms may direct HR only to the operational areas such as leasing, firing and making
calls for trade unions. Status of HRM in a company depends on what the managers understand from
managing their organizations in a suitable manner, and ultimately on the company's comprehensive
philosophy and culture (Monir, 1996: 13-15).
When said manager, a person who provides input necessary to produce goods and services when
profit and risk belong to others should be understood. This person also plans, organize, direct, regulate
and monitor these goods and services for meeting particular needs (Şener, 1997: 48).
As stated by Bohdanowicz"Hotels constitute one of the main, and still expanding, pillars of the
tourism sector and are highly unique among other commercial buildings."(2006: v). This supports the
neccessity of a leader that will implement successful human resources management in accomodation
sector. The hotel manager is the person who determines, provides and combines the quantity and
quality of production elements such as labour, capital, and natural resources. He/she performs
functions and activities directing production according to demands in the market by maximizing
production, development and profitability of the business, or both production and development and
87
production as well (Şener, 1997: 53). The same idea is supported by Hayes and Ninemeimer who
claim that HRM helps the formation of corporate culture in businesses, which enables more
participatory practises. While employees are more active in creation and implementaion of policies,
this participation gives a competitive advantage to enterprises. (2009: 9).
As Giousmpasoglou claimsthat what kind of roles managers play and what kind of a
relationship exists between managers’ effectiveness and organizational performance have been a
debated issue in hospitality industry where many studies have been conducted, especially in 1990s
(2014: 151). According to some authors, hotels have different organizational cultures and it is too
difficult to implement one practise in the whole business. Hence, expected qualities change from one
manager to the other. (Nickson, 2007: 47) Even if it is too difficult to talk about 'one size fits all'
practices in HRM in hotel administration, it is possible to mention certain characteristics of managers.
Forexample, findings show that for being successful, managers are supposed to be as much active as
possible. As put into the words by Şener they should be able to get the desired results with a
reasonable devolution and sensible planning in the process of business operations. They should be
capable of renewing themselves continuously, directing members whom they work with, meeting
these members’ needs and problems. Therefore, managers of different branches should have different
qualifications. But it is necessary for a good manager to have some features (1997: 59).
These features can be listed as follows:
-
Innate features: These properties are personal characteristics such as intelligence, talent,
patience, personality, a strong memory, loyalty, good temperament, a witty personality,
honesty, compassion, courage and manliness
-
Knowledge and experience-based features: These features can also be called features that
are not innate and be acquired through education and training. For this purpose, raise the
morale to achieve the goal by knowing management techniques and stimulating the team.
A good manager gives importance to studies that will reduce the impact of external factors.
He/she develops and renews him/herself by continuously monitoring innovations and
developments in the industry and gives importance to team work. He/she prevails the
understanding of ‘us’ not ‘me’ and complements communicative, technical, analytical and
conceptual skills with positive human relations skills.
-
Executive skills: A good manager should have executive features related to implementation
of administrative procedures. These features can be counted as leadership, problem solving,
conflict management, representation capability, fairness in initiative and competence.
In order to train a successful manager, a good education is needed. This education is usually
given in 2-4 year college or high school which is in the field of tourism and hotel management. After
graduating, candidate managers are subjected to internship training in every part of the hotel business.
88
Managers in hotel business ought to be well-informed about the activities carried out in the hotel. In
addition, they are expected to have practical knowledge and skill. Managers without abovementioned
skill and knowledge are not thought to take healthy decisions about the future of the hotel (Şener,
1997: 79-86). This idea was also supported, in their quantitative study, by Damiani and Ricci who
found out managerial skills which are critical in tourism sector can be held through education.
Nevertheless, neither all the types nor the levels of education is helpful in this. Thus, according to
them, specialization in tourism and hospitality in tertiary schools is necessary (2014:10).
Education is one of the indispensible tools of HR that provide people an effective and an
efficient life with satisfaction. The proliferation of information has led to increase in the importance of
education in today's world. Rapid growth in knowledge results in changes in the purposes, principles,
procedures and consequences of training (Fındıkçı, 1999: 54, 65, 235, 243).
Development of hotel managers offers a different image from training activities. Executive
development means to sensitize the managers about the features and problems of the hotel and service
delivery. A manager not sensitive to these issues will be limiting his/her effectiveness. Therefore,
executive development has different purposes even if it seems as a training activity.
Productivity is one of the most critical elements in hotel operations and it is a composition of
different elements such as efficiency, effectiveness, quality and predictability (Sigala, 2004: 40). For
maximization productivity in hotels, it is vital to up bring and develop middle- and upper-level
managers. A manager is a person who affects many people, a region, and the national economy, to a
certain
extent.
Hence,
manager
training
is
regarded
as
a
very
crucial
activity.
Human resource management can be defined as all the functions and operations that help human
resource administration in harmony with the organization, individual and the environment and in
accordance with the law. In this context, the importance of HR management has increased due to
increases in labor costs and negative symptoms in productivity, change and labor (Kaynak et al., 1998:
7).
In today's world, human labour is the basis of any economic function. Effective use of human
resources in today's conditions brings about being one step ahead in the competition. Efficient use of
human resources has a positive effect on costs as follows:
− Cutback in the rate of labor turnover
− Decrease in absenteeism rate
− Reduction in losses due to work accidents
− Decline in manufacturing defects
− Rise in the quality of production
− Escalation in morale and motivation at workplace
89
− Diminution in employee-employer conflict
Appropriate human resource policies lead to increase in labor productivity, satisfaction and
motivation, which means efficiency is increased to the desired level.
3. METHODS
Research survey method was used for data collection. The reason for this is the necessary
information can be reached in a short time and at less cost thanks to the survey method. Questionnaires
were conducted with 33 people, and the research sample was general managers and human resources
managers in 3, 4 and 5 star hotels in Central Muğla, Marmaris, Akyaka and Bodrum.
To analyze the findings, the statistical software package SPSS 19.0 for Windows was used. In
data analysis, first, two tailed t test was used for each factor in order to measure the effects of the
managers' education level on planning, business analysis, performance evaluation and in-service
training.
The questionnaire used in this study consists of two parts. In the first section, there are questions
asked for determining demographic characteristics of subjects. Second part includes 9 questions that
aim at determining how HRM functions are implemented. Cronbach's alpha value was calculated as
0.78. Multiple-choice and Likert-type scale questions are also available.
4. FINDINGS AND EVALUATION
At first, education levels of managers were divided into five as primary, secondary, high
school, undergraduate and graduate in order for measuring the effects of managers' education level on
planning, business analysis and performance evaluation. Then, first three groups are called group with
low level of education, while the rest was named as the group with higher level of education. Whether
planning and business analysis have been performed and their correlation with education levels were
measured by determining 5-point likert scale.
Table 1. Distribution of Managers according to the Levels of Education
1:Primary 2:Secondary 3:High School 4:Undergraduate 5:Graduate
90
As seen in this graph the majority of subjects are people who have a bachelor's degree. One
manager has primary school and two of the participants have secondary school diploma. Those who
got high school diploma are six. The number of managers with university degree is 22, as two of the
participants have postgraduate degree. The first three groups (elementary, middle and high school) are
considered to be low level of education at which there are nine managers. Other two groups
(undergraduate and graduate) are considered to be high-level education and 24 managers fell into this
group. Moreover, only two managers who have bachelor's degree are from the field of tourism
education.
The research hypotheses are as follows:
H0: Education level of managers has no effect on planning and business analysis.
H1: Education level of managers has an impact on planning and business analysis.
Table 2. Variation of HR Planning Studies according to Education Levels
Group Statistics
Planning
Education
Low level
High level
N
9
24
Mean
1,00
3,00
Std.
Deviation
,000
,933
Std.
Error
Mean
,000
,190
Table 3. T-Test Table
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of
Variances
Planning
Equal
variances
assumed
Equal
variances
not
assumed
t-test for Equality of Means
F
Sig.
T
df
9,662
,004
-6,370
31
-10,507 23,000
,000
-2,000
,314
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Lower
Upper
-2,640
-1,359
,000
-2,000
,190
-2,390
Sig.
Mean
Std. Error
(2Difference Difference
tailed)
-1,656
As a result of the analysis, it was observed that the level of managers' education has an effect on
planning and business analysis. Thus, H1 hypothesis was accepted. In other words, managers'
91
education level is influential on detailed analysis of the organizations, identification of business
analysis and effective and efficient implementation of human resource planning that detects quality
and quantity of human resources the business will require in the future. The higher this level is, the
more efficiency in business analysis and planning functions is held.
Tables below were prepared in order to measure the effect of managers' education level on
performance evaluation studies.
The research hypotheses are:
H0: Managers' education level has no effect on performance evaluation.
H1: Managers’ education level has an impact on performance evaluation.
Table 4: Variation of HR Performance Evaluation according to Education Levels
Group Statistics
Performance
N
9
24
Education
Low level
High level
Mean
1,00
2,71
Std.
Deviation
,000
1,268
Std.
Error
Mean
,000
,259
Table 5: T-Test Table
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test
for Equality
of Variances
F
Performance
Sig.
Equal 23,801 ,000
variances
assumed
Equal
variances
not
assumed
t-test for Equality of Means
t
df
-4,003
31
-6,602 23,000
,000
-1,708
,427
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Lower
Upper
-2,579
-,838
,000
-1,708
,259
-2,243
Sig.
Mean
Std. Error
(2Difference Difference
tailed)
-1,173
92
As a result of the analysis, it is possible to conclude performance evaluation becomes more
critical, as managers’ education level increases and accept hypothesis H1. It can be referred the higher
education level managers have, the more attention is paid to performance evaluation which has gained
importance.
It is obvious there is an increasing importance attached to the HRM department, especially in 5
star hotels. Due to the lack of recognition of the importance attributed to HRM, effective solutions to
the problems in overall planning, job analysis, recruitment, training, performance evaluation, job
evaluation, job security and employee rights might not be found. By considering investment in HRM
in 5 star hotels, not only more qualified personnel would be raised, but also service delivery would be
more qualified.
Table 6. Personnel/HR Departments in Hotels according to the Stars
Personnel Manager/
Chief of Staff
HRM Department
Chief of Staff at
Accounting
Department
Lack of Personnel
Department
3 Star Hotels
5
4 Star Hotels
3
5 Star Hotels
1
-
-
6
3
2
1
9
3
-
5. DISCUSSION
The findings of the analysis largely coincide with the standing encountered in the literature
review.This study confirms certain claims that educated managers would always follow innovations
and developments in the sector, and refresh both themselves and the organizations accordingly.
Because, human resource planning, job analysis, performance evaluation and in-service training are
modern methods recently implemented in our country.It is gratifying that well-educated managers
have information and implement this information in organizations.
Nevertheless, it is a reality there are still deficiencies in applications. Main reason for these
deficiencies can be related to the fact that managers have not been educated in tourism field.
6. RESULTS AND SUGGESTIONS
With the impact of globalization, the way in which hospitality industry is understood has
changed. In order to survive in such kind of an environment, managers are expected to have different
skills as being motivators and good delegators. They should also have ability to form a good team and
good communication environment (Nebel, 1991). All these show that human resources manager plays
a leading role in participation in education and self-improvement activities.The idea supported here is
human resources manager should have bachelor's degree, at least.Today's world is called information
93
age and needs for development and education of individuals and institutions have increased regardless
of their status and occupation.Organizations, in order to meet their own needs, are in need to give inservice training to their employees.Performance evaluation is the first condition of employee
motivation, fair pricing, promotion and reward-punishment system creation.However, the prerequisite
for a healthy performance evaluation system is to carry out business analysis and human resource
planning appropriately.
If all these abovementioned considerations are performed with human resource management
rather than traditional personnel management, businesses would have a better chance of success.
As experts in tourism sector stated before, one of the biggest problems in our country is the need
for trained staff and high quality service to be developed accordingly. Those who would provide
personnel and qualified service are well-educated managers.If these conditions are met, our country
can switch to selective tourism understanding instead of mass tourism whose added value is
comparatively low.Furthermore, the fact that foreign tour operators have discretion to select the profile
of tourists coming to the country is another problem expressed in face to face interviews.Managers
proposed solutions such as creation of tourism-related websites, formation of internal organizations
composed of private enterprises, associations and public agencies that are operating in tourism sector
for eliminating troubles related to this issue.
It is important for managers to have high levels of education in their own field in terms of
tourism potential of the country and efficient management of hotel enterprises.Thus, hotel managers
should have a tendency to improve themselves continuously for the benefit of their organization.
REFERENCES
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and Strategies”, (Doctoral dissertation), Retreived from www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva
2:10873/FULLTEXT01.pdf on July 10, 2014.
Clark,J. (1993) "Human Resource Management & Tecnical Change", University of Southampton,
London.
Damiani, M. & Ricci, A. (2014) “Managers’ Education and the Choice of Different Variable Pay
Schemes: Evidence from Italian Firms”, European Management Journal, 32.
Eade, V.H. (2000) "Human Resources Management in the Hospitality Industry", Holcomb-Hathaway,
Arizona.
Fındıkçı, İ. (1999) "İnsan Kaynakları Yönetimi", Alfa Yayınları, İstanbul.
Fındıkçı, İ. (2012) "İnsan Kaynakları Yönetimi", Alfa Yayınları, İstanbul.
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Geylan, R. (1992 ) "Personel Yönetimi", Met Yayıncılık& Organizasyon, Eskişehir.
Giousmpasoglou, C. (2014) “The Importance of Context in Managerial Work: The Case of Senior
Hotel Managers in Greece”, Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality&Tourism, 13:2, 146172.
Gülsoy,
T.
(2013)
“Human
Resource
Practices
of
an
Emerging-Market
Multinational:
ImplicationsforEnhancingOrganizationalInnovation”, ProcediaSocialandBehavioralSciences, 75, 498-507.
Hayes, D. K.,& Ninemeier, J. D. (2009) “Human Resources Management in the Hospitality Industry”,
Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.
Hesapçıoğlu, M. (1994) "İnsan Kaynakları Yönetimi ve Ekonomisi", Beta Yayıncılık, İstanbul.
Kaçmaz, R.&Serinkan, C. (2014)“Human Resource Management Practices in International Sebat
Educational Schools”, Procedia-SocialandBehavioralSciences, 116, 4809-4813.
Kaynak, T., Adal, Z., Ataay İ., Uyargil C., Sadullah Ö., Acar A. C., Özçelik O., Dündar G., Uluhan R.
(1998) "İnsan Kaynakları Yönetimi", İ.Ü. İşletme Fak. Yayın No: 276, İstanbul.
Monir, H.T. (1996) "The Management of a Multiculturel
Workforce", Heriot-Watt University,
Edinburg.
Nebel, E. C., III. (1991) “Managing Hotels Effectively: Lessons from Outstanding General
Managers”, New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Nickson, D. (2007). “Human Resource Management for the Hospitality and Tourism Industries”,
Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Örücü, E. (1997) "Modern İşletmecilik", Ünyay Yayıncılık, Muğla.
Sigala, M. (2004) “Using Data Envelopment Analysis for Measuring and Benchmarking Productivity
in the Hotel Sector”, Journal of Travel &Tourism Marketing, 16(2–3), 39-60
Sikora, D. M. &Ferris, G. R. (2014)“Strategic Human Resource PracticeImplementation: The Critical
Role of Line Management”, Human Resource Management Review, 24(3), 271-281.
Şener, B. (1997) "Modern Otel İşletmelerinde Yönetim ve Organizasyon ", Geliştirilmiş 2. Baskı, Gazi
Kitabevi, Ankara.
Vickerstaff, S. (1992) "Human Resources Management in Europa", London.
Yalçın, S. (1994) "Personel Yönetimi", 5. Baskı, Beta Yayınları, İstanbul.
95
DEPRESSION AND TURNOVER INTENTION AMONG HOTEL EMPLOYEES
Prof. Dr. Erdoğan KOÇ*
Assist. Prof. Dr. Recep KILIÇ**
Lecturer Hakan BOZ***
ABSTRACT
This study explores depression and turnover intention of employees in the hospitality sector.
Based on a survey with 104 hotel employees in eight 5 star hotels in Bodrum region of Turkey, it is
ascertained that depressed hotel employees have a higher tendency to have the intention to leave their
jobs. Particularly, staff in the kitchen and service staff tend to be more depressed in their jobs and
have a relatively higher tendency to have the intention to leave their jobs. The study has practical
implications for the managers of hospitality establishments.
Key Words: Depression, turnover intention, hotels, hospitality, tourism
1. INTRODUCTION AND THE RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY
Service encounters, which distinguish services from manufacturing operations (Batt, 2000), are
interactions between customers and service staff and they may be considered as social exchanges
(Gruber, Szmigin, & Voss, 2009; Scott, Laws & Prindeaux, 2008; Patterson, Cowley &
Prasongsukarn, 2006). The interaction during a social exchange is a significant element of satisfaction
for the customer and which, this in turn, may or may not motivate the service customer to continue her
/ his relationship with the same service provider (Koc, 2013). According to Doyle (2008) while
products (goods / service products) account for 14% of all switching behaviours, dissatisfaction during
social exchanges account for 67 % of all switching behaviours. The social interaction between the
service staff and the customer may be significantly influenced by the mood of service staff.
Psychological mood disorders such as stress, anxiety and depression are among the top health
related issues affecting not only employees working in an organization, but also the society as a whole.
Depression, as one of the psychological mood disorders, was the fourth most prevalent health problem
in the world, though it is expected to be the second most prevalent health problem in the world by the
year 2020 (Murray and Lopez, 1996; Marcotte, Wicox-Gök, and Redmon, 1999; Lecrubier, 2001:4).
In general depression is experienced by 5% and 9% of all people in the US and Europe
respectively (Marneros, 2006:52; Kaya and Kaya, 2007: 4). In Turkey too, neuropsychiatric disorders
*
University of Balikesir, [email protected]
University of Balikesir, [email protected]
***
University of Usak, [email protected]
**
96
and depression are experienced rather frequently. According to Turkish Ministry of Health (2014: 16)
5.6% of females and 2.3% of males in Turkey suffer from increased levels of depression.
From a business perspective, depression is an important issue too (Kessler, Greenberg,
Mickelson, Meneades and Wang, 2001; Eaton, Anthony, Mandel and Garrison, 1990). Depression
appears to be the third most common (%9.1) health problem among employees. According to Mintz,
Mintz, Arruda and Hwang (1992), treating the depressive disorders of employees’ would be expected
to increase employee efficiency and effectiveness and reduce failures. Kessler et al’s (1999) study with
over eight thousand participants in the U. S. shows that for a business the monthly cost of depression
per person may range from $188 and $395. It is estimated that the insufficient level of productivity
emanating from depression may equal to the loss of 172 million labour days and costing as much as
40-60 billion dollars in the U.S (Riotto, 2001: 37; Adler et al., 2006: 1569). Lerner et al.’s (2004)
study shows that there are significant levels of differences between staff who are depressed and staff
who are not depressed.
Studies in the hospitality sector have similar sorts of findings. According to a study carried out
by Shani and Pizam (2009; 452-453), the occurrence of e work-related depression was on average as
high as 12.5%, while in some instances the figure was as high as 24 %. A 24% depression rate for a
hotel may have disastrous consequences in terms of productivity, service quality and service failures.
In addition to lowered levels of productivity, and increase in problems relating to service quality
and service failures, depression may also cause employees to leave their jobs and seek jobs elsewhere.
This is and added cost of depression and this study aims to explore the relationship between
depression and employee intention to leave.
2. DEPRESSION AND INTENTION TO LEAVE
Depression, as explained above, is one of the most important psychological mood disorders
experienced by human beings. Depression may be defined as a decreased level of mood together with
a continuing feeling of anxiety (Wells and Sturm, 1995: 80; Sandra, 1997: 14–16). According to a
study by Haar and Roche (2011) in 367 companies in four countries, there is an inverse relationship
between depression and job satisfaction of employees.
The main symptoms of depression include, but not limited to, the following (Hotopf and
Wessley, 1997; Stein, 2003: 16-18; Moor and Garland, 2003: 3-4; Grieco and Edwards, 2010: 34-35;
Dobson and Dozois, 2008: 3-4; Wells and Sturm, 1995: 80; Monroe, Skowronski, MacDonald, and
Wood, 2005; Schwartz et al., 2002);
• Thinking about committing suicide
97
• Feelings of weariness, loss of energy, nervousness, restlessness, guiltiness and shame,
hopelessness
• Extensive consumption of alcohol
• Unexplained physical symptoms (lack of facial expressions, speaking undertone)
• Chronic fatigue
• Willingness to postpone (delay behavior)
• Lack of curiosity and interest in previously liked stuff
• Lack of decisive abilities, indecisiveness, restraining from making decisions, forgetfulness,
difficulty in focusing
• Decline in self-confidence and self-esteem
One added negative cause of depression is that it may cause employees to leave their jobs.
Turnover intention is conscious and willing idea employees may have to leave their jobs (Tett and
Meyer, 1993; Sousa-Poza and Henneberger, 2004:113). Turnover intention appears to be the precursor
of the state of quitting the job (Lee and Mowday, 1987; Allen, Weeks and Moffit, 2005; Griffeth, Hom
and Gaerthner, 2000). According to Shani and Pizam (2009), early diagnosis of depression in
employees is essential both for the elimination of the turnover intention among employees and for the
protection of the health of employees. Thus, it can be suggested that turnover intention is important for
both practitioners (work life) and theoreticians (academic life) (Lambert, Hogan, and Barton, 2001:
233; Fishbein and Ajzen, 2010: 4).
The research conducted by ISSP (International Social Survey Program, 2005) in 32 countries
provides significant outcomes regarding turnover intention. The study suggests that the turnover
intention of the employees in 32 countries is on average 9.95% in general. The average turnover
intention rates of employees is 17.48% in France, 17.42% in Mexico, 15.08% in America, 14.47% in
New Zealand, 14.26% in Australia, and 8.74% in Switzerland. According to the study, turnover
intention appears to exist in as high as in one-fifth of all employees, even in developed countries.
Employees tend to leave their jobs when they find suitable conditions or when they are dissatisfied in
their current jobs. According to Waldman, Kelly, Arora, and Smith (2004) study, the cost of recruiting
a new employee because a former employee quitted her / his job may vary between $276 and $36.743.
Simons and Hinkin’s (2001) study of 105 hotels in the U, which monitored the performance of these
hotels over a period of six months, showed that turnover had a significant influence on a hotel’s
profitability. The costs associated with an employee quitting her or his job are one and a half times
more than the income the hotel would make of that employee had not quitted (Chikwe, 2009).
Considering the fact turnover is a significant problem in the tourism and hospitality sectors, as
turnover in these sectors may range from 26% and 300% a year (Chalkiti and Sigala, 2009; The
Canadian Tourism Human Resource Council, 2011; Wood, 1997: 141; Tanke, 1990; Boella, 1988), a
98
study of depression and employee turnover intention may have significant implications for the
efficient and effective operation of hospitality establishments.
3. METHODS, FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
This study explored the levels of depression and turnover intentions of 104 hotel employees in
eight 5star hotels in Bodrum region in Turkey. A questionnaire has been developed and administered
in these eight 5 star hotels on a convenience sampling basis. The data collected have comprised of
three parts. The first part included the Turnover Intention Scale, developed by Tak and Çitçioğlu
(2009) and also used by Polat (2009). The responses to Turnover Intention Scale comprised of
responses on a five-point Likert scale, 1 denoting completely agree and 5 denoting completely
disagree).
The second part of the questionnaire comprised of 14 depression-related questions based on the
Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS), which was developed by Lovibond and Lovibond
(1995) and tested for validity and reliability in Turkish by Akın and Çetin (2007). Participants have
been asked to indicate their responses on a 4-point Likert scale. The “Does not apply to me at all”
option has been appointed 0 (zero) points, the “Applies to me to a little bit” option has been appointed
1 (one) point, the “Applies to me to some extent” option has been appointed 2 (two) points, and the
“Applies to me completely” option has been appointed 3 (three) points. According to the score
evaluations of the scale, 0-9 points meant that the individual did not have depression, 10-13 points
meant that the respondent was slightly depressive, 14-20 points meant that the respondent was
moderately depressive, 21-27 points meant that the respondent was highly depressive, and 28 and
above points meant that the respondent was extremely depressive.
The third part of the questionnaire comprised of demographic questions to determine the
gender, age, marital status, job duration, and job position of the participants.
3.1. FINDINGS
The results have been analyzed through descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation and SPSS
22.0 and Factor 9.2 packages have been used. For determining the normality of the values in the
Turnover Intention Scale and Depression Scale skewness and kurtosis intervals have been checked.
Skewness and kurtosis intervals were sufficient (+3 and -3) for normal distribution (Groeneveld and
Meeden, 1984; Moors, 1986; Hopkins and Weeks, 1990; De Carlo, 1997). The internal validity
coefficient of the points in the first five items of the Turnover Intention Scale was α=,630.
Table 1 shows that as people get depressed their intention to leave / turnover intention increases.
It is also important that all employees (depressed or non-depressed) have a relatively high score of
intention to leave (2,8385).
This shoos that turnover intention is high among five star hotel
99
employees. This may be attributed to that fact that as these hotels operate on an all inclusive basis and
provide non-stop service for almost 24 hours a day, the staff may be quite often overwhelmed by the
daily pressures of work.
Table 1: Turnover Intention
Level of Depression
Non-Depressed
Depressed
%
n
%
n
62,50%
65
37,50%
39
Turnover
Intention
Mean
Total
104
2,6954 3,0769
2,8385
Table 2 shows level of depression by gender. While 51,7 % of female employees appear to be
depressed, only 32% of male employees appear to be depressed. This finding is in line with a number
of studies (Saygın, Yaşar, Çetinkaya, Kayan and Özgüner, 2011; Demiaral, Akvardar, Ergör and
Ergör, 2006) which found higher levels of depression among female employees. This may be
attributable to the fact that females have more communual (affiliation) orientation while males may
have agentic (achievement) orientation (Koc, 2002). In general as males tend to be more achievement
oriented they may tend to cope and endure struggle than their female counterparts. Additionally, due
to gender inequality at work in Turkey, males may tend to occupy higher positions and may hold more
power than females, which in turn may enable them to cope better with stress and depression
compared with their female counterparts.
Table 2: Depression and Gender
Level of Depression
Non-Depressed
%
Depressed
Total
n
%
n
n
Females 48,30%
14
51,70%
15
29
68,00%
51
32,00%
24
75
Total 62,50%
65
37,50%
39
104
Gender
Males
.
An analysis of the results from the perspective of hotel employee’s department of work (Table
3) shows that kitchen staff are most depressed hotel employees followed by service staff both of whom
try provide non-stop food and drinks service to guests for almost 24 hours a day in all-inclusive hotels.
100
Table 3:Depression and Department Worked for
Depression Level
Non-Depressed
Depressed
Total
%
n
%
n
n
Front
Office
65,20%
15
34,80%
8
23
Kitchen
57,70%
15
42,30%
11
26
24
38,50%
15
39
68,80%
11
31,30%
5
16
Total 62,50%
65
37,50%
39
104
Service
Employee’s
Department Department
61,50%
(Food and
Beverage)
Other
A further analysis of employees’ emotional disorders by department worked for (Table 4)
reveals erratic results. The highest level turnover intention is among depressed females working in the
F & B service department (3,27), followed by depressed males working in kitchen (3, 11), in the
production of food and beverages, and non-depressed females working in the front office (3, 11).
These findings may be interpreted as females may have a higher turnover intention, even though when
they are not depressed. This may be due to the fact that in Turkey males are usually regarded as the
breadwinner of a family, and they have to keep their jobs to look after the family no matter how bad
the conditions may be. On the other hand, females may leave their jobs from time to time and seek
other job opportunities.
101
Table 4: Turnover Intention and Department Worked For
Front Office
%
Females
Males
n
Turnover
Mean
Non
Depressed
63,60%
7
3,11
Depressed
36,40% 4
2,95
Non
Depressed
66,70%
8
2,4
Depressed
33,30% 4
3,1
Service Department
(F & B)
Kitchen
%
0,00%
n
Turnover
Mean
0
0
100,00% 2
62,50%
37,50%
2,7
15
2,93
9
3,11
n
Turnover
Mean
4
2,65
60,00% 6
3,27
%
40,00%
Other Departments
n
Turnover
Mean
3
2,33
50,00% 3
3,27
%
50,00%
80,00%
69,00%
20
2,66
31,00% 9
3
8
20,00% 2
A final analysis of results according to the position held (lower management / non-management,
middle and upper management) and years of experience (Table 5 and Table 6) shows that employees
working in non-management and lower management positions have a higher turnover intention rate
compared with employees in middle and upper management levels. This is an expected result as
people go up in the hierarchy, i) they may have more power to cope with stress and depression and iib)
it may be difficult to find similar jobs with same sorts of benefits package, at least in the short run. In
other words as people go up in the hierarchy they may have more to lose, which may percent them
from quitting their jobs. Moreover, as people stay longer in the same business and gain experience,
their ability to cope with stress and depression increases, resulting in reduced levels of turnover
intention.
Table 5: Level in the Hierarchy and Intention to Leave
Gender
Position / Hierarchy
Non-Management / Lower Managerial Positions
Mid-Level Management
Females
Upper Level Management
Total
Non-Management / Lower Managerial Positions
Mid-Level Management
Non Males
Depressed
Upper Level Management
Total
Non-Management / Lower Managerial Positions
Mid-Level Management
Total
Upper Level Management
Total
Depressed Females Non-Management / Lower Managerial Positions
Turnover
Intention
Mean
2,5333
3,0667
2,1000
2,8143
2,7000
2,6194
2,7750
2,6627
2,6667
2,7200
2,6400
2,6954
3,2500
N
3
9
2
14
12
31
8
51
15
40
10
65
4
102
2,43
3
Gender
Total
Position / Hierarchy
Mid-Level Management
Upper Level Management
Total
Non-Management / Lower Managerial Positions
Mid-Level Management
Males
Upper Level Management
Total
Non-Management / Lower Managerial Positions
Mid-Level Management
Total
Upper Level Management
Total
Non-Management / Lower Managerial Positions
Mid-Level Management
Females
Upper Level Management
Total
Non-Management / Lower Managerial Positions
Mid-Level Management
Males
Upper Level Management
Total
Non-Management / Lower Managerial Positions
Mid-Level Management
Total
Upper Level Management
Total
Turnover
Intention
Mean
3,3667
2,6800
3,1067
3,3000
3,0769
2,3333
3,0583
3,2833
3,1684
2,5500
3,0769
2,9429
3,1867
2,5143
2,9655
2,9400
2,7545
2,6545
2,7893
2,9407
2,8644
2,6000
2,8385
N
6
5
15
8
13
3
24
12
19
8
39
7
15
7
29
20
44
11
75
27
59
18
104
Table 6: Experience and Turnover Intention
Non Depressed
Depressed
Gender Experience (Number of Years)
Females Less than 1 year
1 year
2-3 years
4-6 years
Total
Males Less than 1 year
1 year
2-3 years
4-6 years
Total
Total Less than 1 year
1 year
2-3 years
4-6 years
Total
Females Less than 1 year
1 year
2-3 years
4-6 years
Total
Males Less than 1 year
1 year
Mean
2,8571
3,0500
2,4000
2,4000
2,8143
2,5750
2,7556
2,6842
2,6267
2,6627
2,7067
2,8462
2,6571
2,6125
2,6954
3,2333
3,0000
2,8000
3,2000
3,1067
3,0000
3,0000
N
7
4
2
1
14
8
9
19
15
51
15
13
21
16
65
6
4
2
3
15
6
3
103
Total
2-3 years
4-6 years
Total
Total Less than 1 year
1 year
2-3 years
4-6 years
Total
Females Less than 1 year
1 year
2-3 years
4-6 years
Total
Males Less than 1 year
1 year
2-3 years
4-6 years
Total
Total Less than 1 year
1 year
2-3 years
4-6 years
Total
3,7714
2,5000
3,0583
3,1167
3,0000
3,5556
2,6909
3,0769
3,0308
3,0250
2,6000
3,0000
2,9655
2,7571
2,8167
2,9769
2,5826
2,7893
2,8889
2,9000
2,9267
2,6444
2,8385
7
8
24
12
7
9
11
39
13
8
4
4
29
14
12
26
23
75
27
20
30
27
104
Results from the correlation analysis reveal that the depression level (normal or depressed) of
the employees and turnover intention are positively correlated (r=0,31), and the correlation is
statistically significant (p=0,001). There is a medium level of correlation (Cohen, 1988) between these
two variables. On the other hand, there is a negative significant (p=0,001) correlation (r=0,31)
between the ages of the employees and turnover intentions.
5. CONCLUSION
This study has explored the depression and turnover intentions of hotel employees in Bodrum,
in Turkey. The findings have a number of implications for practitioners. Firstly, as all-inclusive hotels
provide non-stop service for almost 24 hours a day, overall the levels of depression and intention to
leave are higher, even though the study has been implemented in five star hotels. Pushing employees
to their limits may not only reduce service quality and increase service failures and wastage, but also
may reduce profitability significantly and seriously endanger long term viability of a hotel business.
Hotels are recommended to take measures to lower stress and depression among their employees.
Food and Beverage production staff in the kitchen and service staff are at the centre of all-inclusive
hotels, and their levels of depression and turnover intention are relatively higher. Hotel managers need
develop strategies especially to make their employees working in these departments. Especially
kitchen staff have more mobility as there is always a need for them and quick replacements may not
be possible. Current short-run view of recruitment practices should be avoided for the sustainability of
hotels.
104
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108
THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CAREER MANAGEMENT, CAREER SATISFACTION,
AND CAREER COMMITMENT IN HOTELS: THE CASE OF CESME
Asst. Prof. Dr. Nilgün AVCI*
Sinem UYSAL**
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationships between hotel career management,
career satisfaction, and career commitment. Career management refers to programs, processes, and
other forms of assistance provided by organizations to improve the career effectiveness of their
employees. Employees’ career satisfaction reflects how they feel about their career-related roles,
accomplishments, and success. Career commitment is the strength of motivation to work in a chosen
career. In the study, quantitative methods were used in data collection and analysis. Data were
collected from four and five stars hotels’ employees in Cesme. 220 data were collected between April
and May 2014. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS 20 software program. Firstly reliability,
validity were tested, and hypotheses were tested with correlation analyze. The results indicate career
management includes two dimensions: (1) career training and (2) career appraisal and development
program. The data demonstrated that there are significant positive relationship between career
managements’ two dimensions, career commitment and career satisfaction. The article concludes with
implications for theory development and human resources management practice in the hospitality and
tourism domain.
Keywords: Career management, Career satisfaction, Career commitment, Hotels, Cesme
1. INTRODUCTION
Rapid increase in tourism since 1980s has stimulated the hospitality industry. The development
of hospitality industry in quantitative and qualitative ways has fed continuously the need of qualified
employee. The employee problems in industry have been mentioned by the researchers and the
implementers for a long time; and their solution suggestions have been discussed in academic
environments. The job qualifications lie behind the employee problems. As agreed by many
researchers, the jobs in hospitality industry consist of: labor intensive, repeating, and conductive
working part-time jobs incorporating seasonal, rough working-hour, low social-status, low-paying,
low-quality jobs (Wood, 1997; Akoglan Kozak, 1999; Barron, Maxwell, Broadbridge and Ogden,
2007; Baum 2007). These job qualifications bring with the problems of “lack of motivation, lack of
continuity, performance decrease in personals, and decreasing in their commitment, increasing in their
willingness to resign (Deery, 2002; Ayres, 2006; Barron, Maxwell, Broadbridge and Ogden, 2007).
*
Ege Üniversitesi, Çeşme Turizm ve Otelcilik Yüksekokulu, Konaklama İşletmeciliği Bölümü [email protected]
İstanbul Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Turizm İşletmeciliği Anabilim Dalı [email protected]
**
109
In tourism sector, there are problems related to not only attitude and behavior of the employees
but also their career satisfaction and career commitment. On average, tourism graduates left their first
job after 13.4 months and their second job after 10.5 months (Ayres, 2006). It is recognized that
increasing numbers of hospitality management graduates from high-ranking universities are available,
but few graduates are dedicated to the industry and committed to their jobs (Song and Wang, 2008).
So the studies on career management, career commitment and career satisfaction have gained
importance in tourism sector.
Career management has been positively related to job performance and negatively linked to
behaviors such as absenteeism and turnover (Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002). During the last three
decades, career development and management has appeared to be one of the fastest developing areas
in the hotel industry (Kong, Cheung and Zhang, 2010).
If, about filling of the manager positions available and potential in any organization, the
increasing of production and productivity, or at least the protection of attained level is required, a
career planning management will be needed (Akoglan Kozak, 1999). If the hotel addresses employee
career needs and offers challenging jobs, employees are more likely to be committed to their
profession (Kong, Cheung and Zhang, 2010). Hotels may attract and retain qualified employees is by
helping them to develop their own careers and increasing their career satisfaction (Barnett and
Bradley, 2007). In this context, it is important to increase the career satiation and the career
commitment of the employees in hospitality management industry. The purpose of this study is to
specify the relationship between career management, career satisfaction and career commitment in the
hotel organizations. It is expected that the results of the study bring forward a proposal to career
management implementations, and contribute to career management literature in hospitality
managements.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Careers are concerned with personal direction in working life, and the future (Ladkin,
2002).Recent trends suggest that the traditional organizational career offering a career for life
philosophy appears to have been replaced by a more flexible and uncertain career construct
characterized by intra-organization, inter-organization and even inter-industry career moves (Arthur,
Inkson, and Pringle, 1999). Career management is seen as an important tool for matching individuals’
goals with organizational goals. (Akoglan Kozak, 1999).Organizational Career management has been
described as a series of formal and less formal activities designed and managed by the organization to
influence the career development of one or more employees (Arnold, 1996). Hotels can provide
effective career management activities such as training, mentoring, performance appraisal, and
development programs to their employees (Kong, Cheung and Zhang, 2010).
110
Despite increased attention to career development recently, career commitment and career
satisfaction have been comparatively neglected. Career commitment the strength of one’s motivation
to work in a chosen career role (Hall, 1971:59).Career commitment describes individual attitudes
toward their career, and has been recognized as a form of work commitment that individuals have on a
career facet (Lin and Chen 2004). Career satisfaction isdefined as” the satisfaction that individuals
derive from the intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of their careers, including pay, advancement, and
developmental opportunities” (Greenhaus, Parasuraman and Wormley, 1990).Greenhaus, Parasuraman
and Wormley’s (1990) study showed that, career management practices, such as career sponsorship,
training, and career development programs, also contribute positively to career satisfaction.
On one hand, career is mostly related with individuals; on the other hand, it is also included in
organizations’ job description Improvement employees’ career ability requires a cooperative
relationship between hotel managers and hotel employees (Dehghani, 2014). Kong, Cheung and
Zhang (2010) emphasized although career management plays an important role in human resources
management, there is a gap between hotel career management and employees’ career needs.
Although many studies have addressed the issues of career choice (Cho, Robert, and Sciarini,
2006; Barron, Maxwell, Broadbridge and Ogden, 2007; Ballout 2009; Song and Chon, 2012; Chen and
Shen, 2012), career path (Ladkin, 2002; Ayres, 2006; McCabe, 2008; Kong, Cheung and Zhang,
2010) career commitment (Lin and Chen, 2004; Ballout, 2009 ) and career success (Chung, 2000;
Akrivos, Ladkin and Reklitis, 2007; Ballout, 2009) little attention has been paid to the study of hotel
career management (Kong, Cheung and Zhang, 2010).
Kong, Cheung and Song’s (2012) study show that career competency mediates the effects of
three dimensions of hotel career management (career appraisal, career development, and career
training) on career satisfaction in hotels. Dehghani’s (2014)found in study career ability reconciliation
the effects of three dimensions of hotel career management (career assessment, career development,
and career preparation) on career satisfaction in the studied hotels. Rezaean, Hatami and Dastar (2012)
founded in the study career management functions including career evaluation; development and
training have strong positive impact on career satisfaction.
It has been specified that, in Turkey, career management in tourism industry has not been
studied a lot by the researchers. There are a few researches about this topic. In the research done by
Akoglan Kozak,1999; sampled by five-star hotels and first-class holiday villages, on-job training
(empowerment, workplace training, rotation), and off-job training (seminars, professional trainings)
are used frequently; whereas, consultancy, performance evaluation, and team work methods are not
preferred a lot.
111
Kılıc and Ozturk (2009) confirm that five-star hotels are applying career management tools or
systems in the middle range. In another research, Kılıc and Ozturk have analyzed the relationship
between career management system and organizational loyalty. In that research, it has been found that
there is a positively strong relationship between career management, planning, development variables
and organizational loyalty.
While career management, career satisfaction, and career commitment have been emphasized a
lot in the literature, the researches about these topics are very limited. This study aims to fill this gap
in the literature. Besides, this study will be beneficial both for the literature and for human resources
coordinators in accommodation industry by analyzing the relationship between career management,
career satisfaction, and career commitment. Therefore, the following hypotheses have been developed,
and the relationship among the variables has been analyzed.
H1: There is a positive correlation between career management and career satisfaction
H2: There is a positive correlation between career management and career commitment
H3: There is a positive correlation between career satisfaction and career commitment
3. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS
In the study, the quantitative approach was adopted and the method of field research was used.
In the field research, the survey technique was performed. In the configuration process of the survey,
the preliminary investigation was done; the knowledge obtained from the review of literature was
assessed; and the scales used in the empiric studies were analyzed. To make the expressions
comprehensible and compatible to the sector, the scale which was observed by three academicians and
two professional manager-totally five specialists-, was drawn up since the expressions to use in the
survey. In this way, the content validity was ensured. Hotel career management was measured 13
items developed by Kong, Cheung and Song’un (2011). There are the expressions concerning its three
dimensions consisted of “career appraisal, career development and career training” in the career
management scale. Career satisfaction was estimated using items adopted from the study of
Greenhaus, Parasuraman and Wormley (1990). Career commitment was measured using a six items
measurement developed by Blau (1989). Employees responded on five-point scales with anchors of
“strongly disagree” (1) and “strongly agree” (5). In the final part of the questionnaire is given to
demographic questions.
The scales were translated from English to Turkish by back translation technique. To observe how
the scale, whose validity and reliability have been proved before, is perceived from the point of the
individuals in Turkey, pilot test was implemented by 32 surveys obtained from the students of
Vocational School of Tourism and Hotel Management in Cesme. The internal consistency values
obtained from the pilot study were within acceptable limits (Career management scale’s reliability
112
coefficient 0,805, career satisfaction scale’s reliability coefficient 0,919 and career commitment
scale’s reliability coefficient 0,706) (Nunnally, 1967).
The target population of the study was employees in four and five stars hotels’ employees in
Cesme. Data were collected face to face from employees in 8 four and five stars hotels within twoweek period. According to the information received from the human resource managers in participant
hotels, there were 500 employees in the study. Amount of data collected from employees who were in
hotels and were willing to answer the questions within the period when the study was done, was 220.
This amount of data was enough to represent the population (Sekaran and Bougie, 2010). Skewness
and Kurtosis were observed in order to be able to decide if would be used or nonparametric tests in the
analysis of data. And parametric tests were used in the analysis of data because it was determined that
data distributed normally. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20 software program; and so their frequency
distribution, reliability analysis and factor analysis were done, and hypotheses were tested with t-test
and variance analysis.
3.1. Profile of Participants
Table 1 presents the demographic characteristics of the respondents. When analyzing the Table
1, It is seen that respondents of 50.5% were aged between 25 and 34, 64.5% had completed university
education of 64.5 % participants were single.29.5% of respondents have more than 10 years
experience in the sector.
Table 1.Profile of Participants
Age
Under 25
25-34
35-44
45-54
55-64
65 and Over
Number
Percent
(%)
55
111
38
10
4
1
25
50.5
17.3
4.5
1.8
0.5
Educational Level
Number
Percent
(%)
Marital Status
Married
Single
78
142
35.5
64.5
Hotel Stars Rating
5 stars
4 stars
145
73
65.9
33.2
65
53
36
65
29.5
24.1
16.4
29.5
54
20
61
42
40
24.5
9.1
27.7
19.1
18.2
Primary Education
High School
College
Master or higher
10
64
142
4
4.5
29.1
64.5
1.8
Years of working in the
hotel industry
1-3 years
4-6 years
7- 9 years
10 years and over
Revenue
Under 1000 TL
1000-2999TL
3000-4999TL
5000-6999TL
7000 TL and over
29
169
12
3
2
13.2
76.8
5.5
1.4
0.9
Department
Front-office
Housekeeping
Food and Beverage
Offices
Others
113
Position
Manager
Supervisor
Employee
41
48
131
18,6
21.8
59.5
Gender
Female
Male
69
150
31.4
68.2
Years of working in
this hotel
Under 1 year
1-3 years
4-6 years
7- 9 years
10 years and over
78
91
33
6
11
35.5
41.4
15
2.7
5
3.2.Reliability and Validity
Their reliability coefficients (Cronbach’s Alpha) have been found career management 0.879,
career satisfaction 0.896, and career commitment 0.731. These coefficient values are acceptable
according to Cronbach’s Alpha method used in studies of Social Sciences; therefore it can be said that
parameters used in this researched are reliable (Nunnally, 1967).
Construct validity for the parameters has been realized by Explanatory Factor Analysis (AFA).
To obtain more significant and interpretable results, eliminating two statements, which are less
influential or influencing more than one factor at the same time (Hair, Anderson, Tatham, and Black,
2006), has been needed. In analyzing appropriateness of data set for factor analysis, Bartlett’s Test of
Sphericity and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) Sampling Adequacy Formula have been used.
Mean
% of Var.
Factor 1: career appraisal, and
career development
My direct supervisor//manager has
discussed my career development
plan with me
I learned about hotel culture and
behaviors in an orientation/induction
program
I have been told about the succession
plan, the possible replacement of
other mangers and the potential of
promotion
I have been given necessary career
advice by my direct manager or the
human resource(HR) manager when I
need it
I have experienced job rotation
conducted by the hotel to gain crossfunctional experience
Eigen-Value
Factor
Table 2. Career Management Factor Analysis
6,124
3,28
36,539
F
α
p
16,214
,889
,000
,784
,743
,741
,738
,713
114
% of Var.
Factor 2: Career training
Mean
I have participated in in-house
training provided my hotel
I have been offered dual ladder to
enable my upward mobility and
recognition
Eigen-Value
Factor
I have been clear feedback on my
performance
1,206
2,58
24,550
F
α
p
48,819
,815
,000
,652
,635
,593
I have been given the opportunities
,862
for external study and visits
I have been offered financial support
,809
for my further education by my hotel
I have been giving training to help
,705
develop my career
o
I have experienced 360 performance
,549
appraisal in my hotel
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin = ,904; Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity = 1174,67 ;
Total Variance Explained : % 61,089
According to the result from Factor Analysis for career management parameter, Bartlett’s Test
Result is 1174.67; and p significance value is realized as 0.000 that means variables are highly
correlated with each other (Kalaycı, 2008). Kaiser-Meyer- Olkin (KMO) Sampling Value is 0,904.and
this value is sufficient to apply factor analysis method. To determine factor structure and achieve
meaningful and interpretable factors, Principal Component Analysis and Varimax Rotation techniques
have been used, data that have eigenvalue statistics bigger than 1 and factor loading above 0.30 have
been taken into account (Kalaycı, 2008). The factor analysis results concerning data have been
presented in Table 2. When the table for career management has been analyzed, it is seen that data
split up two dimensions. In the study on Hong Kong and Iran hotels by using the same scale, career
management was gathered under three dimensions (Kong,Cheung and Song, 2012; Dehghani, 2014).
In other studies, career management variable had been rolled up three dimensions, but in this study, it
splits up two dimensions. “career appraisal-career development” dimension has rised up together. It
can be thought that this situation results from the cultural differences. In this dimension, there are the
expressions such as career plan, orientation, seniority plan, career recommendations, and job rotation.
As refer to Table 2, the first factor has been named as “career appraisal-career development”.
Eigenvalue of “career appraisal-career development” is 6.124, and it refers to %36.539 of total
variance. Participants rated this factor as 3.28 on average. The second factor from factor analysis has
been named as “career training”. Eigenvalue of the second factor is 1.206, and it refers to %24.550 of
total variance. Participants rated this factor as 2.58 on average. With regard to the expressions in this
115
dimension, it’s seen that employees informed to attend over mid-level. It was determined that
employees explained their thoughts about the presence of career management in hospitality
managements. However it is seen that they thought negatively in training dimension, another one of
career management. On the one hand their implementations aimed at developing career of the
attendant hospitality managements are found; on the other hand it can be put forward that the training
subject was left out. It’s seen that the activities related to career management system in five stars
hotels obtained from the studies of Kılıc and Ozturk (2009) were implemented in mid-level. The study
of Akoglan Kozak (1999) supports the rotation and the presence of job shadowing implementations
from the findings of career plan implementations.
According to the result from factor analysis for career satisfaction parameter, Bartlett’s Test
result is 721.987, and p significance value is found as 0.003 that means variables are highly correlated
with each other. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Sampling value is 0.812. And this value is sufficient to apply
factor analysis method.
Mean
% of Var.
Factor: Career Satisfaction
Eigen-Value
Factor
Table 3. Career Satisfaction Factor Analysis
F
3,562
3,736
71,243
3,981
α
p
,896
,003
I am satisfied with the progress I have
,899
made toward meeting my overall career
goals
I am satisfied with the progress I have
,877
made toward meeting my goals for
advancement
I am satisfied with the progress I have
made toward meeting my goals for the ,865
development of new skills
I am satisfied with the progress I have
made toward meeting my goals for
,825
income
I am satisfied with the success I have
achieved in my career
,746
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin = ,812; Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity = 721,987 ;
Total Variance Explained: % 71,243
In Table 3, factor analysis results concerning data have been presented. When factor analysis
Table related with career satisfaction is analyzed, it is seen that all data point out to only one result.
Eigenvalue for career satisfaction is 3.562 and this explains %71.243 of total variance. Participants
have rated career satisfaction as 3.736 on average.
116
According to the result from factor analysis for career commitment parameter, Bartlett’s Test
result is 230,569, and p significance value is found as 0.000 that means variables are highly correlated
with each other. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Sampling value is 0.783. And this value is sufficient to apply
factor analysis method. In Table 4, factor analysis results concerning data have been presented. When
factor analysis Table related with career commitment is analyzed, it is seen that all data point out to
only one result. Eigenvalue for career commitment is 2,592 and this explains %43,197 of total
variance. Participants have rated career commitment as 3.188 on average. It is not hard to think that
the tendency to resign is high in sector which career commitment is low in generally tourism (Ayres,
2006; Barron, Maxwell, Broadbridge and Ogden, 2007); and that the rate remaining in sector of
graduates was low (Ayres, 2006; Song and Wang, 2008).
If I could do it all over again, I would
choose to work in this profession
If I had all money I need without
working. I would probably still
continue in this profession
I definitely want a career for myself in
my current area
Mean
% of Var.
Factor: Career Commitment
Eigen-Value
Factor
Table 4. Career Commitment Factor Analysis
2,592
3,188
43,197
F
α
p
18,656
,731
,000
,768
,757
,680
I spend a significant amount of
personal time reading profession,608
related journals or books
I would recommend a career in
,598
hospitality industry to others
If I could get another job different from
this one and get paid same amount of
,488
money, I would probably take it.
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin = ,783; Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity = 230,569 ;
Total Variance Explained: % 43,197
3.3. Significance Analysis
In Table 5, t-test and ANOVA results is situated. According to the results of significance
analysis in Table 5, the variables that have lower than 0.005 or equal to 0.005 of significance level (p)
differ in terms of participants’ industry experience, job passion and department that they work.
117
Table 5. Significance Analysis
Career
AppraisalCareer
Development
Career
Training
Career
Commitment
Career
Satisfaction
Years of working in the
hotel industry
3 years and under
*
2,4064
*
3,5915
4-6 years
*
2,4057
*
3,4811
7- 9 years
*
2,4375
*
3,8625
10 years and over
*
2,9038
*
3,9715
F-test
*
3,348
*
3,072
Sig. level
*
,020
*
,029
Position
Manager
3,6503
3,0224
3,5683
4,2341
Supervisor
3,4327
2,6719
3,1431
3,8250
Employee
3,1392
2,3798
2,9718
3,5263
5,361
6,309
7,534
8,773
,005
,002
,001
,000
Front-office
3,6333
2,8463
*
*
Housekeeping
3,1950
2,6000
*
*
Food and Beverage
3,6893
3,2361
*
*
Offices
3,7650
3,2883
*
*
Others
4,1857
3,4087
*
*
F-test
4,126
5,122
*
*
,003
,001
*
*
F-test
Sig. level
Department
Sig. level
In Table 5, Variables that are significantly different in terms of employees’ experience in the
sector; career training (F=3,012 and p=0,019) and career satisfaction (F= 2,456 and p=0.047). Those
are the variables that differ statistically significant depending on employees’ experience in the sector.
While Analyzing the Table 5, it has been seen that people who are the most satisfied with career
training have worked over the 10 years in the tourism industry. It also has been determined that people
who are the most satisfied with career satisfaction have worked over the 10 years in the tourism
industry.
Variables that are significantly different in terms of employees’ position; Career appraisal-career
development (F=5,361 and p=0,005), career training (F=6,309 and p= 0,002), career commitment (F=
7,534 and p=0,001), and career satisfaction (F=8,773 and p=0,000). Those are the variables that differ
statistically significant depending on employees’ position. It has been observed that managers
118
(Department Heads, General Managers, and GM Assistant) are the most satisfied with career
appraisal-career development, career training, career commitment, and career satisfaction variables.
And Finally, According the Table 5; Variables that are significantly different in terms of
employees’ department; career appraisal-career development (F=4,126 and p=0,003) and Career
training (F=5,122 and p=0,001). Those are the variables that differ statistically significant depending
on employees’ department. People who work in Offices’ Department (Human Resources, Account,
and Public Relations etc.) are the most satisfied with both variables. This result supports the finding in
studies of Kılıc and Ozturk (2009).
3.4.Correlation Analysis
Correlation analysis was used to test the relationship between variables which are career
management, career commitment and career satisfaction. There are the results of correlation analysis
in the Table 6. When Analyzing the Table, it was seen that there was a highly significant positive
correlation between career appraisal-career development, and career training dimension (r=, 650). It
was also determined that there was a highly significant positive correlation between career appraisalcareer development dimension of career management and career satisfaction(r=403). It was seen that
there was a weak positive correlation between career training dimension of career management and
career satisfaction dimension (r=, 305). Hypothesis H1 was accepted with these findings. This result
supports the studies of Kong, Cheung and Song (2012), and Dehghani (2014). It was reached to
similar findings in Rezaean, Hatami and Dastar (2012).
Table 6. Career Management, Career Commitment and Career Satisfaction Correlation
Appraisal and
Development
Career Training
Career Satisfaction
Career
AppraisalCareer
Development
1
Career Training
,650**
1
,403**
,305**
,424**
,420**
Career Commitment
**The correlation is significant at the 001 level.
Career
Satisfaction
Career
Commitment
1
,486**
1
It is found that there is positive correlation between assessment and development dimension of
career management and career commitment(r = ,424). It is seen that there is a weak positive
correlation between career training dimension of career management and career commitment(r=, 420).
Hypothesis H2 was accepted with these findings. In the same way, Ballout (2009) determined the
positive relationship between career satisfaction and career commitment in his study. It is also seen
that there is a weak positive correlation between career satisfaction and career commitment. This result
119
is in the same direction with the relationship determined in Kong’s (2010) study. And also Hypothesis
H3 was accepted with these findings.
4. CONCLUSION
In this study, the relationship between career management, career satisfaction and career
commitment in hotels was researched. The results were obtained from the data analysis of four and
five stars hotels’ employee in Çesme.. Therefore, it’s not true to generalize, however some suggestion
can be given to the implementers. In many studies, the importance of career management was
emphasized for hospitality managements; the positive relationship between career management, career
satisfaction and career commitment was determined in this study and in many. From this point of
view, as one of the solution suggestions to employees’ important problems in hospitality management,
it can be said that the implementations to increase career satisfaction and career commitment of
employees. Hotels can increase career satisfaction and career commitment by development programs
and career paths. Paths could include working in different departments, if it is possible different hotels
in chain. Hotels should help employees to develop specific career goals, and improve career-relevant
skills. Career mentoring program, training programs, and promotion systems will help in career
management of hotels.
It is thought that the study’s results contributed to career management literature. Few studies
showed that the relationship between career management, career satisfaction and career commitment
was tested. It is thought that the study contributed considerably to fill this void.
One of the constraints in the study is that the survey method (quantitative method) was used
allowing to be able to reach many people and to be able to gather lots of data, in a short time. Another
one is that its only one destination was geographically chosen as a field. Suggestion for further studies:
career satisfaction’s mediation effect between career management and career commitment should be
tested by using Structural Equation Model
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123
THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL CLIMATE ON WORKPLACE FRIENDSHIP,
PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AND HELPING BEHAVIORS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY
IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY
Assist. Prof.Dr. Murat YEŞİLTAŞ∗
Assist. Prof.Dr. Pelin KANTEN ∗∗
Assoc. Prof.Dr. Selahattin KANTEN∗∗∗
Assist. Prof.Dr. Ümit SORMAZ ∗∗∗∗
ABSTRACT
The aim of this study is investigating the effect of social climate on workplace friendship,
psychological well-being and helping behaviors as well as examining the moderating and mediating
roles of workplace friendship, and psychological well-being on the relationship between social climate
and helping behaviors. For this purpose, data has been collected by using survey method conducted
on 375 employees of five star hotel establishments which are located in Istanbul. In this respect,
exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, correlation and hierarchical regression analysis have
been applied to the data obtained from employees. Based on the findings of the study, it has been
observed that one of the dimensions of social climate, which is labelled as relation-based climate
affects workplace friendship, psychological well-being and helping behaviors positively, whereas
other dimension of emotion-based climate affects workplace friendship and helping behaviors
negatively. In addition to this, it has been found that workplace friendship and psychological wellbeing have mediating effects on the relationship between social climate and helping behaviors.
Furthermore, according to the results of the study, psychological well-being has a moderating effect
on the relationship between social climate and helping behavior, while workplace friendship has no
moderator role in this relationship.
Keywords:Social Climate, Workplace Friendship, Psychological Well-Being, Helping Behaviors
1. INTRODUCTION
In a fiercely competitive global setting, achieving organizational effectiveness and
organizational survival depend on employee’s attitudes and behaviors. Due to the importance of
employees, it is crucial for organizations to understand the factors that influence their behaviors and
attitudes in the workplace. Climate or atmosphere of the workplace is considered as one of the
∗
Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, School of Tourism and Hotel Management, [email protected]
Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, School of Tourism and Hotel Management, [email protected]
∗∗∗
Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, School of Tourism and Hotel Management, [email protected]
∗∗∗∗
Necmettin Erbakan University, Faculty of Tourism, [email protected]
∗∗
124
components, which result in significant consequences for both individuals and organizations (Kanten
and Ülker, 2013: 144-146). In other words, the perception of employees’ of the work environment or
atmosphere is a determinative factor that identifies the organizational social climate (Minor, Wells and
Jones, 2004: 18). However, social climate is regarded as a type of organizational environment that
may affect attitudes and behaviors of the employees (Chen and Lin, 2011: 207). Social climate is
generally defined as the perceptions of a social environment, which tend to be shared by a group of
employees in the organizations (Vattano, 2001: 1551; Peters and Hutchison, 2004: 906).
Social climate has received considerable attention in the literature, since it results in individual
and organizational outcomes such as job satisfaction, burnout, organizational citizenship behaviors,
job involvement, job performance, customer satisfaction and financial performance (Parker et al.,
2003: 390-391). Therefore, it can be said that social climate may cause some consequences which are
crucial for organizations in today’s working conditions. In this context, this study aims to determine
some consequences of the employees’ perception of social climate in hotel establishments. However,
since the social climate can be considered as a significant factor influencing the attitudes and
behaviors of employees positively and it leads to customer satisfaction; which make it an important
topic to find out its outcomes. Accordingly, workplace friendship, employee well-being and helping
behaviors are investigated within the scope of the consequences caused by social climate. Since there
is not any research existing in the literature investigating the relationships between social climate,
workplace friendship, and psychological well-being and helping behaviors; this study aims to add
some contribution to the literature. In addition, this study aims to determine the moderating and
mediating effects of workplace friendship and psychological well-being on the relationship between
social climate and helping behaviors.
2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND HYPOTHESES DEVELOPMENT
2.1. The Relationships between Social Climate, Workplace Friendship, Psychological
Well-Being and Helping Behaviors
Social climate refers to a set of values, norms and beliefs which reflect employees’ views
regarding how they interact with their colleagues while performing tasks for their organizations (Chen
and Lin, 2011: 207). Social climate is composed of key mechanisms such as trust, cooperation and
shared language, which affect abilities and motivation of the employees. However, social climate
provides employees to perform greater effort and opportunities to exchange and combine their
knowledge and increase their efficiency of interactions and communication in workplaces (Collins and
Smith, 2006: 9-16). Workplace environment or social climate has the potential of influencing the
quality of interpersonal relationships. In addition, social climate encourages employees to have better
cooperation, friendship and social harmony in the workplaces (Erdil and Ertosun, 2011: 509).
Accordingly, it is possible to express that social interaction among individuals would be influenced by
125
the climate of the organizations (Chen and Huang, 2007: 106). In other words, the climate of the
workplace, which represents a mutual willingness to help and support each other, is a high sense of
cohesion and team spirit that may lead to have an identity and high level of satisfaction within the
team (Buunk, Zurriaga, Peiro, Nauta and Gosalvez, 2005: 64). Therefore, from this point of view, it is
expected that the social climate dimensions may influence workplace friendship, thus the following
hypotheses are proposed:
H1: Relation-based social climate perception has a significant effect on the workplace friendship
perception of the employees.
H2: Emotion-based social climate perception has a significant effect on the workplace friendship
perception of the employees.
The social climate as a psychological component of organizational climate reflects a sense of
shared meaning among members of an organization that have some significant effects on well-being
levels of the employees (Jex, Sliter and Britton, 2014: 179-180). However, organizational environment
from thepsychological perspective of the workforce is considered a starting point for an individual´s
well-being and productivity at work (Eisele and D’Amato, 2011: 4). In the literature, it is indicated
that there is a significant relationships between the organizational climate and well-being levels of
employees (Muhonen, Jönsson, Denti and Chen, 2013: 1043; Bahrami, Taheri, Montazeralfaraj and
Tafti, 2013: 62). In addition, it is suggested that supportive social climate can enhance the emotional
and physical well-being levels of employees in the organizations (Erdil and Ertosun, 2011:
510).Accordingly,it is expected that the social climate dimensions may influence psychological wellbeing levels of the employees. Thus, the following hypotheses are proposed:
H3: Relation-based social climate perception has a significant effect on the psychological well-being
levels of employees.
H4: Emotion-based social climate perception has a significant effect on the psychological well-being
levels of employees.
Social relationships, which are shaped by the perception of climate, affect the attitudes and
behaviors of employees. Helping behaviors are one of the crucial behaviors that are considered as an
outcome of interpersonal connections (Yang, Gong, Huo, 2011: 743). Helping behaviors are defined
as a type of interpersonal, cooperative, and extra-role behavior that is directed towards organizational
members (Liao, Chuang and Joshi, 2008: 110). In addition, helping behaviors involve in some costs
because it requires employees to spend their times and efforts on others activities such as completing
the work assignment of one another. Therefore, it is important to find out what motivates employees to
assist their coworkers work roles (Poon, 2006: 520). In the literature, it has been seen that the
antecedents of helping behaviors are classified as situational and individual perspectives. Situational
126
factors, which are the significant predictors of helping behaviors, are categorized such as work load,
communication, relationships and etc. However, individual factors like goal orientation, personality
and gender may be effective on employees to have a tendency for helping behaviors (Triana, Porter,
Degrassi and Bergman, 2013: 1124). Therefore, it has been asserted that the perception of climate will
influence the attitudes and behaviors of employees in an organization (Murugesan, Raja and Kannan,
2013: 211). In this context, it is expected that the social climate dimensions influence the helping
behavior levels of employees. Thus, the following hypotheses are proposed:
H5: Relation-based social climate perception has a significant effect on the helping behavior levels of
employees.
H6: Emotion-based social climate perception has a significant effect on the helping behavior levels of
employees.
Helping colleagues such as sharing resources or assisting them, who are behind the schedule
mandated by their work, depends on characteristics of the work group and the relationship between the
group members. In other words, cooperative group norms which place on shared pursuits, shared
objectives, and mutual interests have important effects on employees to exhibit helping behaviors (Ng
and Van Dyne, 2005: 514-519). However, employees who are integrated and involved in their
communities, perceive themselves as members of the community and receive social support from their
colleagues that have more willingness to show helping behaviors. Therefore, it can be said that
individuals are more likely to help their friends and their acquaintances than others in work groups
(Avdeyeva, Burgetova and Welch, 2006: 163). In addition, individuals who have higher levels of
prosocial or helping behaviors towards their coworkers, have higher levels of friend connection. The
individuals that have willingness to exhibit these behaviors also have loyalty, concern, linking and
mutual obligation in their relationships with their friends (Padilla-Walker, Fraser, Black and Bean,
2014: 1). In this context, the spread of trust, respect, cooperation and synergy between individuals
influence work related attitudes and behaviors like supportive behaviors in the organizations (Dickie,
2009: 130). Accordingly, it is expected that workplace friendship perception may influence helping
behavior levels of employees and the following hypothesis is proposed:
H7: Workplace friendship perception has a significant effect on the helping behavior levels of
employees.
Helping behaviors are also regarded as prosocial behaviors that refer to the voluntary actions
which are intended to benefit from other group members. Due to the benefits and necessity to improve
these behaviors in organizations, it has been seen that researchers seek to discover its antecedents and
psychological variables (Ucho, Ogwuche and Anhange, 2013: 91). In the literature, it is indicated that
psychological well-being, which is composed of internal states including affective, emotional and
127
mental states is derived from employees’ assessments of their social and work life that can influence
some behaviors of the employees such as organizational citizenship behaviors and counterproductive
work behaviors (Dwayne, 2013: 632). However, it is suggested that the well-known “feel good, do
good” phenomenon establishes that happy moods and positive emotions increase the likelihood and
amount of helping behaviors of employees (Vecina and Fernando, 2013: 870). In this context, it is
expected that psychological well-being levels of employees may influence their helping behaviors and
the following hypothesis is proposed:
H8: Psychological well-being level of employees has a significant effect on the helping behavior levels
of employees.
2.2. The Mediating and Moderating Roles of Workplace Friendship and Psychological
Well-Being
Workplace friendship represents the voluntary and reciprocal relations within the organizations
and provides both instrumental and emotional support for individuals to accomplish their work-roles
efficiently (Yen, Chen and Yen, 2009: 548). In other words, workplace friendship increases the
amount of support and resources that help employees to get their jobs done in time. Thus, workplace
friendship also helps reducing stress and improving the quality of work. Furthermore, it leads to create
a supportive and innovative climate which facilitates increasing productivity (Berman, West and
Richter, Jr., 2002: 218). Workplace friendship results in increased communication and coordination
between employees, provides job satisfaction and positive work attitudes (Song, 2005: 13-14).
Therefore, workplace friendship is considered as a significant characteristic for the productivity of
both individuals and the organization (Asgharian et al., 2013: 95). In addition, workplace friendship is
considered as a powerful structural unit which results in discretionary attitudes and behaviors within
interpersonal relationships based on their characteristics (Tse, Dasborough and Ashkanasy, 2008:
198). Accordingly, in this study workplace friendship will be examined both mediator and moderator
variable on the relationship between social climate and helping behavior. In this context, the following
hypotheses are proposed:
H9: Workplace friendship has a mediating role on the relationship between relation-based social
climate and helping behaviors.
H10: Workplace friendship has a mediating role on the relationship between emotion-based social
climate and helping behaviors.
H11: Workplace friendship has a moderating role on the relationship between relation-based social
climate and helping behaviors.
H12: Workplace friendship has a moderating role on the relationship between emotion-based social
climate and helping behaviors.
128
Psychological well-being represent a positive mental health and being happy, which facilitates
to gain a variety of organizational outcomes, such as enhanced job performance, organizational
commitment and job satisfaction, reduced turnover and increased profitability (Murthy, 2014: 2).
Moreover, psychological well-being provides employees to have positive emotions and positive
cognitions which lead them to exhibit positive behaviors (Huppert, 2009: 139). Well-being is a
positive feeling that emerges based on the experiences both in work and social life such as interactions
with friends and co-workers, participating in work, sports, or leisure activities (Lin, Huang, Yang and
Chiang, 2014: 245). In addition, organizational environment and climate, which encompasses the
processes, procedures and management systems are crucial factors on the psychological well-being
levels of employees (Marques, 2013: 65). In this context, psychological well-being will be examined
both mediator and moderator variable on the relationship between social climate and helping behavior.
Thus, the following hypotheses are proposed:
H13: Psychological well-being has a mediating role on the relationship between relation-based social
climate and helping behaviors.
H14: Psychological well-being has a mediating role on the relationship between emotion-based social
climate and helping behaviors.
H15: Psychological well-being has a moderating role on the relationship between relation-based social
climate and helping behaviors.
H16: Psychological well-being has a moderating role on the relationship between emotion-based social
climate and helping behaviors.
129
Figure 1. Direct and Mediating Effects
Workplace
Friendship
H1 H7
Relation-Based
Social Climate
H9
H5
Helping
Behaviors
H2
H10
Emotion-Based
Social Climate
H13
H6
H3
H14
Psychological
H4
H8
Figure 2. Moderating Effects
Workplace Friendship
Relation-Based
Social Climate
Helping
Behaviors
H11
H15
Psychological
Emotion-Based
Social Climate
H12
H16
130
3. RESEARCH METHOD
3.1. Sample and Procedures
The sample of the research was composed of 10 five-star hotels which are located in Istanbul.
The participants of this study consist of 375 employees, who have been determined via convenient
sampling method. From the 500 questionnaires that were sent out, 400 were returned, representing a
response rate of 80%. After the elimination of cases with incomplete data and outliers, 375
questionnaires (75%) were accepted as valid and considered during the evaluation. In this study,
questionnaire survey method was used for data collection. Questionnaire form contains four different
measures related to research variables.
3.2. Profile of Participants
Majority of the respondents (71%) were male. Most of them (64%) had a high school
education, and 20% had a primary education, 16% had a bachelor and master degree. 49% of the
employees were between the ages of 18-29, and 51% of them were older than 30. 56% of the
employees have reported that they have been working in food and beverage department. On the other
hand, 44% of these participants have been working in other departments such as front office and
housekeeping.
3.3. Measures
Measures used in the questionnaire forms were adapted from the previous studies in the
literature. Measures were adapted to Turkish by following the method of forward-backward translation
from the lecturers and a pilot study has been conducted for the validity of these measures. As a result
of the pilot study, some corrections were done in questionnaire forms.
Social Climate Scale: The social climate perceptions of employees were measured by 9 items
obtained from the studies of Erdil and Ertorun’s (2011). Exploratory factor analysis using principal
component analysis with varimax rotation was applied to the adapted scale to check the dimensions.
As a result of the varimax rotation of the data related to the social climate variables; one item was
removed from the analysis due to the factor loadings that were under 0.50 and two factor solutions
(relation-based and emotion-based) that were obtained as per theoretical structure. Factor loadings of
the items ranged from .75 to .91. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the relation-based social climate
questionnaire scale items was 91; whereas the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the emotion-based
social climate questionnaire scale items was 83.
PsychologicalWell-Being Scale:Psychological well-being was measured with 36 items which was
devepoled by Ryff (1989) obtained the studies of Springer and Hauser’s (2006). As a result of the
varimax rotation of the data related to psychological well-beingvariables, 14 items were removed from
131
the analysis due to the factor loadings that were under 0.50 and five factor solutions (autonomy,
personal growth, purpose of life, positive relations, self-acceptance) were obtained as per theoretical
structure. Factor loadings of the items ranged from .67 to .85. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the
psychological well-being questionnaire scale items was 74.
Helping Behaviour Scale:Helping behavior was measured with 7 items developed by Podsakoff,
Ahearne and MacKenzie (1997). As a result of the exploratory factor analysis one factor solution was
obtained as per theoretical structure and one item was removed due to the factor loadings that were
under 0.50. Factor loadings of the items ranged from .83 to .88. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of
the helping behavior questionnaire scale items was 91.
Workplace Friendship Scale: Theworkplace friendship perception was measured with six items
obtained from the studies of Nielsen, Jex and Adams (2000). As a result of the exploratory factor
analysis one factor solution was obtained as per theoretical structure. Factor loadings of the items
ranged from .79 to .86. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the workplace friendship questionnaire
scale items was 88.
After the exploratory factor analyses, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted by Lisrel
8.80 for all scales. Goodness of fit indexes is presented in Table 1.
Table 1. Goodness of Fit Indexes of the Scales
Variables
X2
df
X2/df
GFI
CFI
NFI
IFI
RMSEA
≤5
≥ .85
≥.90
≥.90
≥.90
≤.0.08
Social Climate
52.38
17
3.08
0.97
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.075
PsychologicalWell-Being
536.15
197
2.72
0.88
0.97
0.96
0.97
0.068
Helping Behavior
16.40
6
2.73
0.99
1.00
0.99
1.00
0.068
Workplace Friendship
8.34
3
2.78
0.99
1.00
0.99
1.00
0.069
4. RESEARCH FINDINGS
4.1. Descriptive Analyses
Correlations, standard deviations and means, related to social climate, workplace friendship,
and psychological well-being and helping behaviors have been computed which are presented in Table
132
Table 2. Means, Standard Deviations and Correlations of the Study Variables
Variables
Mean
Relation-Based Climate
2.87
.96
Emotion-Based Climate
3.39
.97
-.318**
1
Workplace Friendship
2.98
.91
.611**
-.440**
Psychological Well-Being
3.14
.94
.589**
-.095
Helping Behavior
3.21
SD
.47
1
2
3
4
5
1
.588**
-.292**
.632**
1
.499**
.583**
1
1
**p<0.01
According to Table 2, it can be said that employees’ perception of emotion-based climate is
higher than relation-based climate and their tendency to exhibit helping behaviors are relatively
higher. However, the results of correlation analysis show that relation-based climate positively related
with workplace friendship (r=.611, p<0.01), psychological well-being (r=.589, p<0.01) and helping
behavior levels (r=.588, p<0.01) of the employees, whereas emotion-based climate perception is
negatively related with (r=.-440, p<0.01) workplace friendship perception and (r=-.292, p<0.01)
helping behavior levels of the employees. In addition, workplace friendship perception (r=.632,
p<0.01) and psychological well-being levels (r=.583, p<0.01) of employees positively related with
their tendency to exhibit helping behaviors.
4.2. Hierarchical Regression Analysis
Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to test all research hypotheses, mediating
and moderating effects. For testing mediating effects the approach of Baron and Kenny (1986) was
used. In this study, firstly it has been examined that whether workplace friendship and psychological
well-being were mediating variables or not.
133
Table 3. Mediating Role of Workplace Friendship
β
Workplace Friendship
Helping Behavior
Test 1
Relation-Based Social Climate
R²
Adj. R²
Relation-Based
Social Climate
Test 2
Relation-Based Social Climate
R²
Adj. R²
.611***
.373
.372
(F=222.314***)
Test 3
Relation-Based Social Climate
Workplace Friendship
R²
Adj. R²
Sobel Test
.588***
.346
.344
(F=197.033***)
z=7.88
.322***
.435***
.464
.461
(F=160.993**)
p<0.01
According to the results, relation-based social climate perception has positive and significant
effects on workplace friendship perception of the employees β=.611 (p<0.001) and H1 hypothesis was
supported. However, relation based social climate has positive and significant effects on helping
behaviors β=.588 (p<0.001) so H5 hypothesis was also supported. In addition to this, workplace
friendship has positive and significant effects on helping behaviors of the employees β=. 632 (p<
0.001) so H7 hypothesis was supported. Moreover, considering the mediator role of workplace
friendship, it has been seen that the effects of relation-based social climate on helping behavior has
been continued but β=.322 (p<0.001) has been decreased and it has been seen that the effects of
workplace friendship on helping behaviors also decreased β=.435 (p<0.001). In this regard, it can be
said that conditions of Baron and Kenny approaches were provided and workplace friendship has a
partially mediator role on the relationship between relation-based social climate and helping
behaviors; thus H9 hypothesis was supported.
134
Table 4. Mediating Role of Workplace Friendship
β
Workplace Friendship
Helping Behavior
Test 1
Emotion-Based Social Climate
R²
Adj. R²
Emotion -Based
Social Climate
Test 2
Emotion-Based Social Climate
R²
Adj. R²
-.440***
.194
.192
(F=89.700***)
Test 3
Emotion-Based Social Climate
Workplace Friendship
R²
Adj. R²
Sobel Test
-.292***
.085
.083
(F=34.803***)
z=7.87
-.017
.624***
.399
.396
(F=123.534***)
p<0.01
Emotion-based social climate perception has negative and significant effects on workplace
friendship perception of the employees β=-.440 (p<0.001) thus, H2 hypothesis was supported.
However, emotion-based social climate has negative and significant effects on helping behaviors of
the employees β=-292 (p<0.001) so, H6 hypothesis was supported. In addition to this, considering the
mediator role of workplace friendship, it has been seen that the effects of emotion-based social climate
on helping behavior has not been continued β=.-017 (p>0.05) and it has been seen that the effects of
workplace friendship on helping behaviors also decreased β=.624 (p< 0.001). In this regard, it can be
said that conditions of Baron and Kenny approaches were provided and workplace friendship has a
fully mediator role the on relationship between emotion-based social climate and helping behaviors;
thus H10 hypothesis was supported.
Table 5. Mediating role of psychological well-being
β
Psychological Well-Being Helping Behavior
Test 1
Relation-Based Social Climate
R²
Adj. R²
Relation-Based
Social Climate
Test 2
Relation-Based Social Climate
R²
Adj. R²
.589***
.347
.346
(F=198.635***)
Test 3
Relation-Based Social Climate
Psychological Well-Being
R²
Adj. R²
Sobel Test
.588***
.346
.344
(F=197.033***)
z=6.60
.374***
.363***
.432
.428
(F=141.193**)
p<0.01
135
According to the results, relation-based social climate perception has positive and significant
effects on psychological well-being levels of the employees β=.589 (p<0.001); so H3 hypothesis was
supported. On the other hand, psychological well-being has positive and significant effects on helping
behaviors of the employees β=.583 (p<0.001); thus H8 hypothesis was supported. Considering the
mediator role of psychological well-being, it has been seen that relation-based social climate
perception of employees on helping behavior has been continued but β=.374 (p<0.001) has been
decreased and it has been also seen that the effects of psychological well-being on helping behaviors
also decreased β=.363 (p<0.001). In this regard, it can be said that conditions of Baron and Kenny
approaches were provided and psychological well-being has a partially mediator role on the
relationship between relation-based social climate and helping behaviors; thus H13 hypothesis was
supported.
Table 6. Mediating Role of Psychological Well-Being
β
Psychological Well-Being Helping Behavior
Test 1
Emotion-Based Social Climate
R²
Adj. R²
Emotion-Based
Social Climate
Test 2
Emotion-Based Social Climate
R²
Adj. R²
Test 3
Emotion-Based Social Climate
Psychological Well-Being
R²
Adj. R²
-.292***
.085
.083
(F=34.803***)
-.095
.009
.006
(F=3.382)
-.239***
.561***
.397
.394
(F=122.368**)
Emotion-based social climate perception has no significant effect on psychological well-being
levels of the employees β=-.095 (p>0.05); thus H4 hypothesis was not supported. Therefore, since
emotion-based social climate has no significant effect on psychological well-being, the conditions of
Baron and Kenny approaches were not provided so its mediating effect were not questioned, which
implies that H14 hypothesis was not supported.
136
Table 7. Moderating Role of Workplace Friendship
Variables
1.Relation-Based
Social Climate
2. Relation-Based Social Climate
Workplace Friendship
3.Interaction (Relation-Based
Social Climate x Workplace
Friendship
Dependent Variable: Helping Behavior
1- R= .588 F = 197.033***
2- R= .681 F = 160.993***
3- R= .684 F = 108.823
***p<0.01
B
.591
Beta
.588
R²
.346
∆R²
Significance
.000
.324
.455
-.077
.322
.435
-.067
.464
.118
.468
.004
.000
.000
.091
In first phase, it has been observed that relation-based social climate affects helping behaviors
positively (β =.588 p<0.001). In next phase, considering the workplace friendship (moderator) entered
to the analysis, it has been seen that both relation-based social climate (β =.322 p<0.001) and
workplace friendship (β =.435 p<0.001) affect helping behaviors positively and the value of R² has
been changed. However, when interaction entered to the analysis in the third phase, it has been seen
that the value of R² has been changed but results were not significance. Thus, workplace friendship
has no moderator role the on relationship between relation-based social climate and helping behaviors;
thus H11 hypothesis was not supported.
Table 8. Moderating Role of Workplace Friendship
Variables
1.Emotion-Based
Social Climate
2. Emotion-Based Social Climate
Workplace Friendship
3.Interaction (Emotion-Based
Social Climate x Workplace
Friendship
Dependent Variable: Helping Behavior
1- R= .292 F = 34.803***
2- R= .632 F = 123.534***
3- R= .633 F = 82.704
***p<0.001
B
-.325
Beta
-.292
R²
.085
∆R²
Significance
.000
-.019
.653
.045
-.017
.624
.042
.399
.314
.401
.002
.697
.000
.312
According to table 8, it has been seen that emotion-based social climate affects helping
behavior negatively (β =-.292 p<0.001). In the next phase, considering the workplace friendship
(moderator) entered to the analysis, it has been seen that emotion-based social climate (β =-.017
p>0.05) has no significant effects on helping behaviors, whereas workplace friendship (β =.624
p<0.001) affects helping behaviors positively and the value of R² has been changed. However, when
interaction entered to the analysis in the third phase, it has been seen that the value of R² has been
changed but results were not significance. Thus, workplace friendship has no moderator role on the
137
relationship between emotion-based social climate and helping behaviors; thus H12 hypothesis was not
supported.
Table 9. Moderating Role of Psychological Well-Being
Variables
1.Relation-Based
Social Climate
2. Relation-Based Social Climate
Psychological Well-Being
3.Interaction (Relation-Based
Social Climate x Psychological
Well-Being
Dependent Variable: Helping Behavior
1- R= .588 F = 197.033***
2- R= .657 F = 141.193***
3- R= .676 F = 104.110***
***p<0.001
B
.591
Beta
.588
R²
.346
∆R²
Significance
.000
.376
.853
-.183
.374
.363
-.173
.432
.086
.457
.025
.000
.000
.000
In the first phase, it has been seen that relation-based social climate affects helping behaviors
positively (β =.588 p<0.001). In the next step phase, considering the psychological well-being
(moderator) entered to the analysis it has been seen that both relation based social climate (β =.374
p<0.001) and psychological well-being (β =.363 p<0.001) affects helping behaviors positively and the
value of R² has been changed. However, when interaction entered to the analysis in the third phase, it
has been seen that the value of R² has been changed and the results were significance. Therefore, it is
possible to express that psychological well-being has a moderator role on the relationship between
relation-based social climate and helping behaviors; thus H15 hypothesis was supported.
After the moderating analysis, it has been seen that psychological well-being has a moderator
role on the relationship between relation-based social climate and helping behaviors. On the other
hand, the process proposed by Cohen and colleagues (2003) has been followed in order to identify the
direction of these relationships in detail. In the moderating analysis, the effect of moderating variable
has been investigated in case of low and high levels can be determined via regression slopes (Akkoç,
Çalışkan and Turunç, 2012: 32). In this context, the significance of the relationship between relationbased social climate and helping behaviors has been tested by the regression slopes while the
moderator variable (psychological well-being) is both in low and high levels.
138
Figure 3. Moderating Role of Psychological Well-Being on the Relationship between Relationbased Social Climate and Helping Behaviors
According to Figure 3, when the perception of relation-based climate is at the strongest point,
psychological well-being and helping behaviors are at the strongest level as well. However, when the
perception of relation-based climate is at the weakest point, the psychological well-being and helping
behaviors are also at the weakest point at the same time. Therefore, when the employees’
psychological well-being levels increase the effects of relation-based climate on helping behaviors
may increase. Thus findings confirm that, psychological well-being has a moderator role on the
relationship between relation-based climate and helping behaviors.
Table 10. Moderating Role of Psychological Well-Being
Variables
1.Emotion-Based
Social Climate
2. Emotion-Based Social Climate
Psychological Well-Being
3.Interaction (Emotion-Based
Social Climate x Psychological
Well-Being
Dependent Variable: Helping Behavior
1- R= .292 F = 34.803***
2- R= .630 F = 122.368***
3- R= .633 F = 92.080***
***p<0.001
B
-.325
Beta
-.292
R²
.085
∆R²
Significance
.000
-.266
1.318
.204
-.239
.561
.177
.397
.312
.427
.030
.000
.000
.000
In table 10, it has been seen that emotion-based social climate affects helping behaviors
negatively (β =-.292 p<0.001). In the next phase, when psychological well-being (moderator) entered
to the analysis, it has been seen that emotion-based social climate (β =-.239 p<0.001) affects helping
behaviors negatively, whereas psychological well-being (β =.561 p<0.001) affects helping behaviors
positively and the value of R² has been changed. However, when interaction entered to the analysis in
the third phase, it has been seen that the value of R² has been changed and the results were
significance. Therefore, it can be said that psychological well-being has a moderator role on the
139
relationship between emotion-based social climate and helping behaviors and H16 hypothesis was
supported.
Figure 4. Moderating Role of Psychological Well-Being on the Relationship between Emotionbased Social Climate and Helping Behaviors
According to Figure 4, when the perception of emotion-based climate is at the strongest point,
psychological well-being and helping behaviors are at the strongest level as well. However, when the
perception of emotion-based climate is at the weakest point, the psychological well-being and helping
behaviors are also at the weakest point at the same time. Therefore, increased psychological wellbeing levels of employees may also result in increased effects of emotion-based climate on helping
behaviors. In other words, psychological well-being may increase the helping behavior levels of
employees even though they have perceived emotion-based social climate negatively. Thus, findings
confirm that, psychological well-being has a moderator role on the relationship between emotionbased climate and helping behaviors.
Table 11. Summary of Hypotheses Results
Hypothesized Path
β
Significance
H1: Relation-based social climate
Workplace Friendship
.611
H2: Emotion-based social climate
Workplace Friendship
-.440
H3: Relation-based social climate
Psychological Well-Being
.589
.000
Supported
H4: Emotion-based social climate
Psychological Well-Being
-.095
.067
Not Supported
H5: Relation-based social climate
Helping Behavior
.588
.000
H6: Emotion-based social climate
Helping Behavior
-.325
.000
Supported
.632
.000
Supported
H7: Workplace Friendship
Helping Behavior
H8:Psychological Well-Being
Helping Behavior
.583
.000
Results
.000
.000
Supported
Supported
Supported
Supported
140
Hypothesized Path
Mediator
Results
H9: Relation-based social climate
Helping Behavior
Workplace Friendship
Supported
H10:Emotion-based social climate
Helping Behavior
Workplace Friendship
Supported
H13: Relation-based social climate
Helping Behavior
Psychological Well-Being
Supported
H14: Emotion-based social climate
Helping Behavior
Hypothesized Path
H11: Relation-based social climate
H12: Emotion-based social climate
Psychological Well-Being
Moderator
Helping Behavior
Helping Behavior
Not Supported
Results
Workplace Friendship
Not Supported
Workplace Friendship
Not Supported
H15: Relation-based social climate
Helping Behavior
Psychological Well-Being
Supported
H16: Emotion-based social climate
Helping Behavior
Psychological Well-Being
Supported
5.
CONCLUSION
In the hotel industry, social climate is considered as a crucial component for enhancing both
service quality and customer satisfaction. Since the success of hotel establishments’ depends on
personalities and attitudes of employees in an unpredictable service environment, it is needed to attract
qualified employees, keep employing them and creating a positive social climate, which provides
healthy relationships between employees. However, due to the specific characteristics of hotel industry
such as customer heterogeneity, integrated services, production and consumption are instantaneous and
intensive working conditions; social climate becomes an increasingly important topic for hotel
establishments. Because, it is thought that a positive social climate is expected to affect performance,
satisfaction and motivation levels of employees positively. In addition, social climate provides
employees to build workplace friendship, have a tendency of both undertaking additional roles and
exhibiting helping behaviors more willingly. In other words, social climate has a positive effect on the
life satisfaction and psychological well-being levels of the employees and also on their attitudes and
behaviors.
Social climate is regarded as one of the precursors, which are effective on employees to
exhibit positive attitudes and behaviors such as prosocial, organizational citizenship behaviors and
helping behaviors towards their colleagues. Moreover, when employees perceive a positive social
climate in an organization, they may establish friendship relations easily and have more positive
emotions. Accordingly, it is possible to express that positive social climate provides employees to feel
themselves better and leads to increase in their psychological well-being levels. In this context, this
study aims to determine the impact of social climate on workplace friendship, psychological well-being
and helping behaviors of the employees. In addition, this study has aimed to question whether
141
workplace friendship and psychological well-being have a mediator and moderator role or not on the
relationships between social climate dimensions and helping behaviors.
According to the results, it has been seen that dimension of social climate, which are labelled
as relation-based and emotion-based social climate have significant effects on helping behaviors.
Relation-based social climate affects employees to exhibit helping behaviors positively, whereas
emotion-based social climate affects helping behaviors of employees negatively. However, relationbased social climate affects workplace friendship positively while emotion-based social climate affects
these behaviors negatively. From this point of view, it can be inferred that emotion-based climate
perception of employees decrease their workplace friendship perception and tendency to exhibit helping
behaviors. In addition to these, relation-based social climate affects the psychological well-being levels
of employees positively, whereas emotion-based social climate has no significant effects on the
psychological well-being levels of employees. Therefore, it is possible to express that the emotion-based
climate are not perceived positively by the employees within the scope of the hotel establishments,
hence their workplace friendship and helping behavior levels are affected negatively. Moreover,
according to the research results of the study, it has been seen that workplace friendship perception and
psychological well-being levels affect helping behaviors of the employees positively.
On the other hand, considering the mediator roles of workplace friendship and psychological
well-being, it has been found that workplace friendship has a mediator role on the relationship between
social climate dimensions and helping behaviors. In other words, workplace friendship mediates the
effect of both relation-based and emotion-based social climate on helping behaviors. Besides,
psychological well-being has a mediator role on the relationship between relation-based social climate
and helping behaviors. Considering the moderator roles of workplace friendship and psychological wellbeing, it has been observed that workplace friendship has no moderator role on the relationship between
social climate dimensions and helping behaviors. However, psychological well-being has a moderator
role on the relationship between social climate dimensions and helping behaviors. Therefore, it is
possible to express that psychological well-being levels may lead to increasing the effect of the
relationship between social climate and helping behaviors.
Theoretical Implications
In the literature, there are some studies related to the antecedents of helping behaviors.
Though, there is not any research existing in the literature investigating both organizational and
individual antecedents together yet. However, there is not any research investigating the relationships
between social climate, workplace friendship, and psychological well-being and helping behaviors in
hotel industry. Therefore, this study aims to add several contributions to the literature by exploring the
relationships between these variables and determining the mediating and moderating effect of
workplace friendship and psychological well-being. Furthermore, studies focusing on workplace
142
friendship and social climate and its antecedents are relatively scant in the hospitality industry.
However, this study reveals how the perception of social climate of employees is reflected to their
attitudes and emotions such as workplace friendship, psychological well-being and helping behaviors.
Managerial Implications
The results of the study are significant for the hotel establishments in terms of emphasizing the
role of social climate. However, it is highlighting the effects of social climate on workplace friendship,
psychological well-being and helping behaviors of employees. Due to the importance of social climate
in the hotel establishments, they should be considering to maintain a positive social climate which
provides good relationship opportunities among group members, and between the employees and the
managers. Thus, positive social climate lead employees to maintain workplace friendship and facilitate
them to act in a helping manner. In this context, it can be said that hotel establishments have to carry out
favorable human resource policies and procedures which may increase welfare, well-being and
satisfaction levels of employees in the organizations. In addition, according to the results of the study, it
is needed to build positive emotion-based social climate which is effective on employees’ workplace
friendship and helping behaviors. Moreover, based on the results it can be said that perception of
relation-based social climate may be strengthened by the trust, mutual relations and social activities.
Limitations and Future Research
One of the limitations of this study is including only ten hotels located in Istanbul. Therefore,
the results of this study cannot be judged to be representative of all establishments in the hospitality
industry of Turkey and Istanbul. Accordingly, the results of the study are valid only for the hotel
establishments included in this study. For future studies, it is recommended that the perception of
human resource management practices and policies can be added to the research model and questioned
whether the perception of workplace friendship, psychological well-being and helping behaviors of
employees are differenced or not. Moreover, since the workplace friendship, helping behaviors and
psychological well-being are important outcomes for the hotel establishments, other antecedents of
these variables can also be tested. In other words, the research model can be designed by adding some
other organizational variables within the scope of antecedents of workplace friendship, psychological
well-being and helping behaviors. For example, perception of organizational trust, organizational
identification and organizational commitment may be examined as organizational antecedents of
workplace friendship, psychological well-being and helping behaviors in the future studies.
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THE ANALYSIS OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL
SUPPORT AND JOB SATISFACTION :
AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN HOSPITALITY BUSINESSES
Res. Asst. Çağlar DOĞRU∗
ABSTRACT
In today’s world new management perspectives as well as new organizational behavior issues
are needed to apply especially on hospitality businesses. One of these perspectives is the concept of
perceived organizational support which indeed originates from the Social Exchange Theory. And the
following concept of job satisfaction has long been in the attention of organizational behavior
researchers. The aim of the research is to identify the relationship between perceived organizational
support and job satisfaction of employees in four and five star hotels in Ankara. The research has
been carried out through surveys on employees working in four and five star hotels in Ankara. At the
end of data collecting stage, the correlation analysis between perceived organizational support and
job satisfaction will be held on agenda and the survey forms compromises of two sections in which the
first section is the scale of perceived organizational support and the second section is the scale of job
satisfaction after a brief data collection about demographic information of employees. The sample
was chosen of 151 employees and the number of surveys returned for evaluation is 112. To test the
hypothesis the correlation and regression analysis are carried out to reach the conclusions in the
study area of hospitality businesses. According to the results it has been found that there is a positive
relationship between perceived organizational support and job satisfaction of employees in our
sample in 4 and 5 star hotels operating in Ankara.
Keywords: Perceived Organizational Support, Job Satisfaction, Hospitality Businesses,
1. INTRODUCTION
An increasing number of organizational behavior researchers are interested in perceived
organizational support and its relationships with other variables in their studies. In this study it is
intended to see how perceived organizational support and job satisfaction of employees in hospitality
businesses are related to each other.
This study searches answers to questions below:
- Is perceived organizational support in hospitality business organizations related to job
satisfaction of employees?
∗
Ufuk University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Business Administration, [email protected]
148
- How is the relationship between perceived organizational support and job satisfaction of
employees in hospitality business organizations?
- How can the relationship between perceived organizational support and job satisfaction of
employees lead new perspectives for both the researchers and the practitioners of hospitality business
managing.
In addition to these descriptive questions, this research needs to analyze the mentioned
problem throughout testing hypotheses.
The research questions may well be expressed as hypotheses below:
H1: Perceived organizational support is related with job satisfaction.
H2: Perceived organizational support has a positive effect on job satisfaction.
These hypotheses will be tested in this research and findings will be discussed in accordance.
To answer the questions by scientific method, this study originates its importance to be
applied. Before detailing research method and hypotheses and data findings, the concepts of perceived
organizational support and job satisfaction are needed to examine by presenting theoretical
background and literature study.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Organizational support theory (OST) indicates that employees increase their efforts and
willingness to achieve goals to the degree that the organization in which they work gives feedback to
the employee in a supportive way of desirable and motivating resources. (Aselage and Eisenberger,
2003:492) This stems from the Social Exchange Theory in which it is assumed that any increase of
work efforts of employees is just because of expecting on an exchange basis that the organization will
give more material and symbolic benefits to the employees. (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison,
Sowa, 1986: 501)
Perceived organizational support (POS) refers to “the extent to which the organization values
employees’ contributions and cares about their well-being” (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison,
Sowa, 1986). A supportive organization is committed to its workers (Malatesta & Tetrick,
1996).According to Blau (1964) the basics of Social Exchange Theory is that individuals maintain
relationship in need of getting benefits form the other side of the relationship. This clearly means
‘’what you get is what you give.’’
149
In Rhoades and Eisenberger’s (2002) meta-analysis, perceived organizational support was
found positively related to evaluative and objective measures of job satisfaction in standard job
activities (Armeli, Eisenberger, Fasolo, & Lynch, 1998; Eisenberger et al., 1986; Eisenberger, Fasolo,
& Davis-LaMastro, 1990), extra-role performance in carrying out job responsibilities, help for
coworkers and creative suggestions for the organization’s operations (Eisenberger 1990; Lynch,
Eisenberger, & Armeli, 1999; Shore & Wayne, 1993; Moorman, Blakely, & Niehoff, 1998; Wayne,
Shore, & Liden, 1997).
But in what ways does the Perceived Organizational Support (POS) can ben seen in
organizations? The answer of the question is like: While many employees understands perceived
organizational support (POS) as such factors as the organization members’ willingness to provide
them with special assistance or special equipment in order to reach a goal, the rest may understand a
strong sense of POS based upon the organization members’ willingness to provide them with
additional opportunities for training which is useful for them. (Lamastro, 1999:3)
At this point Levinson (1965) pointed out that agents of the organization and their all
behaviors are not isolated from the organization which means that their actions represent the whole
organization. It clearly means that the actions of supervisors are meant to be directly the feedback of
the organization to the employees’ willingness to rise their work efforts by expecting some benefits.
After stating the basics of perceived organizational support concept here it is time to state the
researches about this issue. In the literature chronologically, March and Simon (1958), Etzioni (1961),
Levinson (1965), Porter, Steers, Mowday and Boulian (1974), Gould (1979) and Mowday, Porter and
Steers (1982) have argued about the exchange between employees and the organization. In this scope
as the psychological contracts are the antecedents of perceived organizational support, the researches
about psychological contracts should be mentioned here too.
There are many studies of psychological contracts. Among these studies, the ones which
transactional and relational content are seperated in was, Rousseau and McLean Parks 1992, Shore and
Tetrick 1994, Robinson, Kraatz and Rousseau 1994, Rousseau 1995. And in the literature of course
there are some research studies directly related with perceived organizational support. Among these
are, Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, Sowa (1986), Eisenberger, Fasolo, Lamastro (1990),
Eisenberger, Cummings, Armeli, Lynch (1997), Eisenberger, Armeli, Rexwinkel, Lynch, Rhoades
(2001). In these studies there are positive relationships between the variables perceived organizational
support and other variables.
The second part of this study is related to job satisfaction of employees. Job satisfaction is the
key aspect related with employee behaviors in the organization such as, motivation and turnover
intentions (Locke 1976), responsibility, task variety, communication requirements (Hackman and
Oldham, 1980). So this shows the importance of studying job satisfaction of employees in hospitality
150
businesses. And job satisfaction can be defined as, employees emotional and psychological reactions
to their works through all organizational elements of organizational policy, colleagues, organizational
design, supervisor support and organizational support.
To go further reviewing the literature; according to Locke and Lathan (1976) job satisfaction
can be defined as ‘’pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or
job experience’’. Job satisfaction is an important consequence of employee's perception of how well
his/her job provides things that are viewed as important.
Mitchell and Lasan, (1987) tells that, it is generally recognized in the organizational behaviour
field that job satisfaction is the most important and frequently studied attitude. In addition to all this
Luthans (1998) pointed out three important dimensions of job satisfaction:
- ‘’Job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job situation. As such it cannot be seen, it can
only be inferred.
- Job satisfaction is often determined by how well outcome meet or exceed expectations. For
instance, if organization participants feel that they are working much harder than others in the
department but are receiving fewer rewards they will probably have a negative attitudes
towards the work, the boss and or coworkers. On the other hand, if they feel they are being
treated very well and are being paid equitably, they are likely to have positive attitudes
towards the job.
- Job satisfaction represents several related attitudes which are most important characteristics
of a job about which people have effective response. These are: the work, pay, promotion
opportunities, supervision and coworkers.’’
There have been numerous researches that have measured job satisfaction and stated its causes
and effects. Mostly, organizational policy helps generating job satisfaction. (Solmon and Tierney,
1977: 413) This makes our topic of perceived organizational support more important at this point.
Because this means that when there is organizational support in an organization job satisfaction tends
to be higher and so its results.
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, FINDINGS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
In this research, under the constraints of time and cost of study, the research was carried out in
the 4 and 5 star hotels which are established in Turkiye and operate in Ankara. The method of
collecting datas is survey forms including demographic information of survey participants and scales
of perceived organizational support and job satisfaction. The study was carried out from Spring 2014
through Summer 2014.(from April to August 2014) The related permissions are given by management
151
of hotels to carry out surveys on employees. The number of surveys which sent to the employees are
151. From 151 surveys the return number is 112 which has the return ratio of %74 that can be thought
exactly sufficient in such studies.
To measure perceived organizational support, the short form of (8 out of 36 queries) the scale
which was generated by Eisenberger (1986) was used. The cronbach alpha coefficient is 0.97. The
queries are 5 choices of Likert Type Scale.The sample queries are like these: ‘’The organization values
my contribution to its well-being’’. ‘’The organization fails to appreciate any extra effort from me’’. ‘’
The organization would ignore any complaint from me’’. ‘’The organization really cares about my
well-being’’. ‘’Even if I did the best job possible, the organization would fail to notice’’. ‘’The
organization cares about my general satisfaction at work’’. ‘’The organization shows very little
concern for me’’. ‘’ The organization takes pride in my accomplishments at work’’.
To measure job satisfaction, the 20-item short form of the Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire (MSQ) was used. The 20 MSQ-short version items items are rated on a 5-point Likert
scale (1: “very dissatisfied with this aspect of my job”, 2: “dissatisfied with this aspect of my job”, 3:
“can’t decide if I’m satisfied or dissatisfied with this aspect of my job”, 4: “satisfied with this aspect of
my job” and 5: “very satisfied with this aspect of my job”)
Some of the sample queries in the 20-item short form of the Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire are like these:
-‘’Being able to keep busy all the time.’’
-‘’The chance to work alone on the job.’’
- ‘’The chance to do different things from time to time.’’
-‘’The chance to try my own methods of doing the job.’’
-‘’The feeling of accomplishment I get from the job.’’
The questionnaire (MSQ) was generated by Weiss, Davis, England and Lofquist in 1967.
According to Spector (1997); one important benefit of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire short
form is that it can be used to measure two components:
1-Intrinsic job satisfaction
2-Extrinsic job satisfaction.
Intrinsic job satisfaction shows how people feel about the nature of the job tasks themselves;
whereas extrinsic job satisfaction shows how people feel about aspects of the work situation that are
external to the job tasks or work itself. The cronbach alpha coefficient for Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire was measured 0.87 which is sufficent for our research.
152
The demographic characteristics of survey participants are; %51,2 of the employees are in the
age range of 26-35. Female participants are %56 wheras male participants are %44. University
graduated participants are % 45. The data is analyzed through descriptive statistics, Pearson Multiple
correlation and multiple classification methods with t-test were employed to analyze it. After
measuring the variables, the result is that: Between the variable of perceived organizational support
and its variance on job satisfaction variable (r=0.384; p<0.01) there is a positive and meaningful
relationship. So the results of hypotheses test:
H1: Perceived organizational support is related with job satisfaction. (Accepted)
H2: Perceived organizational support has a positive effect on job satisfaction. (Accepted)
The findings of the study reveal that a positive correlation exists between perceived
organizational support and job satisfaction of employees. Moreover findings also show that
differences exist in the job satisfaction of females and males. Females tend to be more eager to be
supported in terms of job satisfaction in organizations like hotels. The correlation that exists in this
study among perceived work motivation, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment corresponds
with (Brown and Shepherd, 1997) who reported that motivation improves workers' performance and
job satisfaction.
4. CONCLUSION
In this study is has been tested if there is a relationship between perceived organizational
support and job satisfaction . And it has been noted that there is a positive relationship between
perceived organizational support and job satisfaction of employees in hotels in Ankara. On the basis of
Social Exchange Theory, organizational support which is perceived by the employees generate a result
of job satisfaction.
It is just because the organizational elements like, organization politics on support, supervisor
support, intrinsic and extrinsic benefits, work arrangements and the organization climate as a whole
enhance job satisfaction of employees. The result is important because job satisfaction leads less
turnover, more motivation and less work stress which increase efficiency in an organization.
The other important point in this study is, in the literature, there has been a small number of
researches about perceived organizational support, and especially indirectly relating it with job
satisfaction as means of a prior or consequence variable.
The importance of this study to the literature is that it conducts perceived organizaional
support and job satisfaction directly. Again here it must be stressed that there were no such researches
of these two variables observing in hotels in the previous studies. So that is what makes our study
more important and lead the way for future studies.
153
Future studies may be suspicious of the relationship between other elements of Social
Exchange Theory. For instance Leader-Member Exchange and other organizational dynamics of
intention to leave, turnover and employee motivation may well be executed in hospitality businesses.
And of course one step in this research was job satisfaction of employees and so may be another step
will be the customer side. In this scope employee feelings and motives may well be related with the
customer feelings and motives to choose particular hospitality businesses. This should be also
examined under the Social Exchange Theory when applied in tourism management studies.
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156
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SYSTEMATIC SOLDIERING AND ORGANIZATIONAL
COMMITMENT IN HOSPITALITY BUSINESSES
Prof. Dr. Serkan BAYRAKTAROĞLU∗
Assist. Prof. Dr. Metin ULUKÖY∗∗
Res. Assist. Çağrı İZCİ∗∗∗
ABSTRACT
People are inherently lazy and they don't like working. Due to this reason, people can show
soldiering behaviour. Soldiering emerge on account of two main reasons. The first reason is natural
laziness caused by natural instincts. In this case, people show a behaviour which ignore their works.
Soldiering which is more complex and systematic is the second reason. In this case, people
deliberately show a slowdown tendency and they work less than the other times. Systematic soldiering
is seen a dangerous situation faced by employees as well as managers. Systematic soldiering which is
almost seen all managament systems is a reaction that emerge to increase interests of the employees.
In the study, it was found out employees are soldiering but it is neither systematic nor
significant. At the same time, results of Correlation, Anova and Factor analysis showed that there is
no relationship between systematic soldiering and organizational commitment.
Key Words: Soldiering, Systematic Soldiering, Organizational Commitment
1. INTRODUCTION
When literature review is done, it is seen that individuals are psychological beings and their
motivation level positively or negatively affects their behaviours (Kanten, 2014:13). Mc Gregor states
individuals behave in two different manners. One of them is human beings are lazy in nature and they
do not like working. Therefore, they are inclined to soldiering. Soldiering happens due to two reasons.
First reason is natural laziness which is caused by natural instincts. In this situation, individuals tend to
cutting corners and neglecting. The second reason, on the other hand, is more complex and systematic.
According to this view, people work less deliberately and are prone to slowing down.
∗
Sakarya University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Business Administration, Sakarya, Turkey,
[email protected]
∗∗
Balikesir University, Faculty of Bandirma Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Business Administration, Balikesir,
Turkey, [email protected]
∗∗∗
Balikesir University, Faculty of Bandirma Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Business Administration, Balikesir,
Turkey, [email protected]
157
Systematic soldiering is a dangerous situation faced by both employees and managers. It is seen
in almost all of the management systems as a reaction of employees to increase their interests (Akın,
2013:21).
There is no doubt that those who cause harm in managements are the people that are soldiering.
The purpose of this study is to put forth if personnel in tourism sector is systematically soldiering, if
yes what their reasons are for it and what the cost of soldiering to the businesses is. At the same time,
the effects of systematic soldiering on loyalty of employees towards their businesses and on
organizational commitment are analyzed.
2.SOLDIERING AND SYSTEMATIC SOLDIERING
Soldiering means avoidance from working. Especially, people are more inclined to make less
effort when they are soldiering (Kanten, 2014:13). Why are people refraining from working or
soldiering? The reason for that is people think they safeguard their interests by soldiering and going
slow(Akın, 2013:21).
Taylor, in his work ‘The Principles of the Scientific Management’ claims soldiering emerges
due to two reasons. The first of these is the natural laziness that is caused by natural instincts. The
second one is systematic soldiering that is the result of systematic thinking. The reason for this is the
relation of people with others (Akın, 2013:24).
Systematic soldiering arises when people work in groups and is seen as an attempt of employees
to hide themselves (Doğan, 2012:56). In a similar definition, it is expressed as a decrease in
employee's effort as compared to other employees performing the same job (Thompson and Thornton,
2007:159; Ying et al, 2014:165; Luao, et al., 2013:456; Latane et al., 1979: 823; Doğan, 2012:57).
Soldiering also occurs in the form of individual effort which is less when working in groups
(Thompson and Thornton, 2007:159; Ilgın, 2013:241; Kanten, 2014:13). As a result, other people
working in the same group and performing a better job would decrease their performance gradually.
Naturally, when an energetic employee works with a lazy one, the former would question that the
latter receives the same amount despite his/her less effort. Thus, the latter would decrease his/her
performance (Akın, 2013:24).
People are lazy by nature. However, the greatest danger faced by both employees and managers
is systematic soldiering. It is seen in almost all management systems as a result of workers' analysis to
improve their interests (Akın, 2013:25). In organizations, systematic soldiering can increase as a result
of examination of those who are refraining from working. Therefore, it is put forth systematic
soldiering declines organizational performance (Kanten, 2014:14) by spread of soldiering (Luao et al,
2013:456; George, 2013:240).
158
A large part of the systematic soldiering is run by workers who aimed at leaving their employers
uninformed about the ways in which work is done in a faster manner. Soldering done for that purpose
is extremely common. (Akın, 2013: 25). In particular, social soldiering is affected by the idea of
workers that their efforts would not be recognized by their managers, their attempts would be
neglected and other members of the group would fill the gap. Moreover, the size of the group, the
difficulty as well as the importance of the duty is influential in social soldiering behaviour (Kanten,
2014:15).
Those who are soldiering cause high costs to the businesses. In a study carried by Greenber in
2005, it is found that a worker whose annual earning is 40.000 dollars causes 5.000 dollars loss by
soldiering an hour in his/her working hours. In the same way, a research of Websense.com conducted
in 2006 in America demonstrates an American worker leads a high costs by soldiering in 24% of
his/her working hours (Enver et al.,2012:23).
3.ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT
Manpower is the most strategic factor in increasing the efficiency and the level of development
in organizations (Alavi, Mojtahedzadeh, Amin and Savoji, 2013: 815). Organizations that take into
account that power and turn it to advantage take the lead in the race. Those manage to survive in a
competitive world are the organizations that have qualified and affiliated employees.
As a concept and perception, commitment exists with emotional instinct as an emotional
expression of this social instinct. It expresses loyalty of slave to his/her master, of civil servant to
his/her job, of soldier to his homeland (Tengilimoğlu and Mansur, 2009: 71-72). Commitment stated
as a psychological concept by many researchers varies from one study to another, in terms of scope
and definition (Luo, Song, Marnburg and Øgaard, 2014: 22). Commitment between the two agents is
not just a static event; it is a dynamic process that can change the situation at that time (Sultan,
Bentahar, Wan, and Al-Saqqar, 2014: 6291).
When the issue is to maintain communication among various groups, group cohesion has
become a crucial approach for more than ten years (Sultan, K., Bentahar, J., Wan, W., & Al-Saqqar,
F., 2014: 6291). Group cohesion creates a suitable environment for group members to act together. It
helps group members get away from pursuing their self-interest and behave in a way that in favour of
group members.
Organizational survival depends on employees' continuation to work. The more commitment is
held by employees, the more strong organization there is (Bayram, 2005: 125). Organizational
commitment has become a vital concept for organizations due to five reasons. This concept is highly
related with, first, quitting, absenteeism and job search activities, second, attitudinal, emotional, and
159
cognitive structures such as job satisfaction, morale and performance, third, features of worker's job
and role as autonomy, responsibility, participation, sense of duty, fourth, personal characteristics such
as age, sex, length of service and education, and last, awareness of organizational commitment
estimators (Balay, 2000: 1).
Organizational commitment is one of the widely studied areas in the organizational science
literature (Ng and Feldman, 2011: 529). It has become a central topic in scientific research for long
years (Morrow, 2011: 19). Organizational commitment is one of the strongest predictors of employee
success for a better performance. At the same time, it can increase creativity in organizations (Mahdi,
Mohd ve Almsafir, 2014: 1077).
Organizational commitment is an important concept in terms of employee productivity and
intention of leave. In general, this concept expresses worker's psychological commitment to the
organization with participation in work, loyalty and belief in organizational values (Tengilimoğlu and
Mansur, 2009: 72). Organizational commitment includes normative pressures made for employees to
work for organizational purposes, psychological interest towards the organization and the
psychological expressions pushing the individual to stay in the organization (Akbolat, Işık and
Karadağ, 2010: 44). Organizational commitment also is defined as organizational targets and the
power of individual's identity (Permarupan, Saufi, Kasim and Balakrishnan, 2013: 92). According to
another definition, organizational commitment is correlated with employee acceptance of
organizational targets and his/her loyalty to the organization (Yeh, 2014: 94). Meyer and Allen (1991)
states as a multi dimensional term, organizational affiliation is the implementation of decisions related
to quitting the job or continuing to work. According to Meyer and Allen (1991), it encompasses three
components: Affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment. Affective
commitment means more than passive obedience of workers to organizational purposes and leads an
active bond by persuading worker to improve organization's current position (Gürbüz, 2006: 59). In
other words, emotional commitment means worker affiliation to the organization by heart, worker
identification with the organization, adoption of organizational purposes wholeheartedly and being
proud of the organization (Öğüt and Kaplan, 2011: 192). Continuance commitment, on the other hand,
cares about the cost of employee leave and is defined as continuation of work as a result of necessity.
Otherwise, it would have negative impacts on the organization (Boylu, 2007: 58). This commitment
type can also be stated as a worker motivation due to the necessity of remaining in the organization
(Casper, Harris, Taylor-Bianco and Wayne, 2011: 643). Normative commitment contains beliefs that
are internalized by the individual and are consistent with organizational policies (Durna and Eren,
2005: 211). It refers to remaining in the organization because of the individual feeling that there are
rules are the organizations to be obeyed (Shagholi, Zabihi, Atefi and Moayedi, 2011: 247). An
individual who has high normative commitment feels that it is compulsory to stay at that position due
to legal regulations (Stan, 2013: 673)
160
4.RESEARCH APPLICATION
4.1.Methodology
In this study that examines the relation between systematic soldiering and organizational
commitment, survey technique was used for data collection. For that purpose, literature review was
done and a survey questions were prepared accordingly. With convenience sampling, the survey was
conducted with business employees in the tourism sector. There were 101 employees that fit into the
definition. Face to face interviews were made with those people. Analysis was made by using SPSS
20.0 program. As a result of the analysis, the reliability of the scale (Cronbach’s Alpha) was found as
,734.
4.2.Results
As a result of the analysis, under the lights of questions in the survey, data of employees in the
tourism sector was prepared. This data is shown in the tables below.
Table 1: Demographic Characteristics of Participants
Education
Secondary School
High School
Frequency
14
63
%
13,9
62,4
Age
< 25
26-30
Frequency
61
26
%
60,4
25,7
Undergraduate
18
17,8
31-35
6
5,9
Graduate
6
5,9
Total
101
100,0
36-40
> 41
Total
6
2
105
5,9
2,0
100,0
Marital Status
Frequency
%
Gender
Frequency
%
Single
82
81,2
Male
58
57,4
Married
19
18,8
Female
43
42,6
Total
101
100,0
Total
101
100,0
When looked at demographic characteristics of participants, it is seen %13.9 of them are
secondary school graduates. While %62.4 of the participants finish high school, this percentage
becomes 17.8 and 5.9 for undergraduate and graduate levels, respectively. Those who are below 40 are
98% of the participants. 81.2% of the participants are single and 57.4% of them are male.
161
Table 2: Demographic Characteristics of Participants
Earning
< 1000 TL
1001-1500
Frequency
85
10
%
13,9
62,4
Position
Director
Chief
Frequency
5
16
%
5,0
15,8
1501-2000
5
17,8
Employee(Permanent)
76
75,2
2001-3000
1
5,9
Employee (Seasonal)
4
4,0
Total
101
100,0
Total
101
100,0
Working Hours Frequency
%
Hotel Type
Frequency
%
08:00-17:00
87
86,1
Front Office
21
20,8
17:00-24:00
24:00-08:00
8
6
7,9
5,9
Total
101
100,0
Food Services
Accommodation Ser.
Entertainment Ser.
Administrative Ser.
Total
55
19
3
3
101
54,5
18,8
3,0
3,0
100,0
According to demographic characteristics of those answering the questionnaire, 13.9% of them
earn less than 1000 TL. For the intervals 1001-1500, 1501-2000 and 2001-3000, the percentages
become 62.4, 17.8 and 5.9, respectively. 75.5% of the participants are permanent workers and 4% of
them have seasonal job. 86.1% of them work between 08.00 and 17.00, 7.9% do the same between
17.00 and 24.00. In addition, 5.9% of the participants work between 24.00 and 08.00. Distribution of
participants according to their departments as follow: 20.8% of them work at the front desk, 54.5% are
responsible for food services, 18.8% perform duty in accommodation services and 3% of the
participants serve on administrative services.
Table 3: Relationship Between Systematic Soldiering and Organizational Commitment
OCACort Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
OCACort OCCCort OCNCort
1
-.285**
.185
.004
.065
101
101
100
OCCCort Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
-.285**
.004
101
101
OCNCort Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
.185
.065
100
-.082
.415
100
**
**
OCort
SSort
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
.673
.000
100
.427**
.000
73
1
.381
.000
100
-.308**
.008
73
OCort
.673**
.000
100
SSort
.427**
.000
73
-.082
.415
100
.381**
.000
100
-.308**
.008
73
1
.558**
.000
100
.154
.196
72
1
.221
.062
72
1
100
.558**
.000
100
.154
.196
72
100
.221
.062
72
73
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
OCAC: Affective Commitment, OCCC: Continuation Commitment, OCNC: Normative Commitment,
SS: Systematic Soldiering
162
In Table 3, results of Correlation analysis made to measure the relationship between
systematic soldiering and organizational commitment are shown. According to the results, there is no
relationship between variables of organizational commitment and systematic soldiering at p<0,01
significance level. A positive correlation (r=0.427) exists between systematic soldiering and affective
commitment. On the other hand, an imperfect negative correlation (r=0.308) between systematic
soldiering and continuation commitment is observed. Furthermore, there is no significant correlation
between systematic soldiering and normative commitment.
Table 4: Anova Test Results Showing the Relationship of the Service Area with Systematic
Soldiering and Organizational Commitment
OCACort
OCCCort
OCNCort
OCort
SSort
Between
Groups
Within
Groups
Total
Between
Groups
Within
Groups
Total
Between
Groups
Within
Groups
Total
Between
Groups
Within
Groups
Total
Between
Groups
Within
Groups
Total
Sum of
Squares
5.966
5
Mean
Square
1.193
67.687
95
.712
73.652
2.219
100
5
.444
47.476
95
.500
49.694
.255
100
5
.051
27.959
94
.297
28.214
1.463
99
5
.293
12.695
94
.135
14.158
4.096
99
5
.819
19.777
67
.295
23.873
72
df
F
Sig.
1.675
.148
.888
.492
.172
.973
2.167
.064
2.775
.024
In Table 4 Anova test results of the relationship of service area with systematic soldiering as
well as organizational commitment are demonstrated. According to the results, those working in travel
agency and as animators are the ones who have the lowest organizational commitment. Fields in which
systematic soldiering is at the highest level are food and accomodation services. As shown in Kaplan
and Çetinkaya’s research, people working at floor services are the ones who are soldiering more as
compared to the ones working at other departments (Kaplan and Çetinkaya, 2014: 32).
163
Table 5: Anova Test Results Showing the Relationship of Hotel Type with Systematic Soldiering
and Organizational Commitment
Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
OCCCort Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
6.906
42.789
49.694
3
97
100
2.302
.441
5.218
.002
SSort
9.736
14.137
23.873
2
70
72
4.868
.202
24.105
.000
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
In the Anova test results (Table 5), it is found out commitment of employees working at 2-star
hotels are lower than the ones working at 3,4 and 5-star hotels. This situation is attributed to
organizational culture, institutionalization of the businesses and regulations in working hours with
respect to the increase in their stars. As the number of stars in the hotels increase, controls are done
more often and this leads to decrease in systematic soldiering.
Table 6: Anova Test Results Showing the Relationship of Earning Level with Systematic
Soldiering and Organizational Commitment
Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
OCCCort Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
6.486
43.209
49.694
3
97
100
2.162
.445
4.853
.003
SSort
5.035
18.838
23.873
3
69
72
1.678
.273
6.148
.001
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Another result of Anova test (Table 6) is that workers whose earning is between 1500 and 2000
TL are more affiliated to their organizations and those who earn 2500-3000 TL are most likely to be
soldiering. Although the normal expectation was employees feel more affiliated to their organization
and they do not soldier as their wages increase, this was not the case in this study. The reason behind
this is there are other variables affecting organizational commitment and systematic soldiering other
than earning level.
164
Table 7: Anova Test Results Showing the Relationship of Working Hours with Systematic
Soldiering and Organizational Commitment
Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
OCACort Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
5.728
67.924
73.652
2
98
100
2.864
.693
4.132
.019
SSort
5.588
18.284
23.873
2
70
72
2.794
.261
10.697
.000
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Anova test results (Table 7) state when workers work between 8.00 and 17.00 have the highest
level of loyalty to the organization, while soldiering is common among the same group of people. In
general, working hours are between 8.00 a.m. and 5 p.m. Workload is mostly between these
mentioned hours and working hours besides them may not be too busy. Hence, it might be normal to
have no need for soldiering.
5.CONCLUSION
In the current study, correlation, Anova and factor analysis model were used for measuring the
relation bewteen systematic soldiering and organizational commitment. In the results, in general there
is no correlation bewteen systematic soldiering and organizational commitment.
According to the research, systematic soldiering and affective commitment are positively
correlated. In this case, as affective commitment increases, so does systematic soldiering. Moreover,
there is positive but low correlation between ssytematic soldiering and normative commitment. The
more affective commitment exists among workers, the more they are soldiering.
Anova tests put forth commitment is lower among those who are working at 2-star hotels as
compared to the ones working at hotels with 3, 4 and 5 stars. Employees whose working hours are
8.00-17.00 fell more committed to their organizations. However, soldiering is common among the
same people, at the same time. Participants whose wage is 1500-2000 TL are more affiliated to their
organization and those whose wage falls into the interval 2500-3000 TL are the ones who are most
soldiering.
As seen in the tables, employees in the tourism sector are soldiering but it is neither significant
nor systematic. At the same time there is no detected correlation between systematic soldiering and
organizational commitment.
165
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AN AHP FRAMEWORK FOR HOTEL SELECTION BASED ON MASLOW’S NEEDS
HIERARCHY
Mahsa SERPOUSH *
Cemalettin Öcal FİDANBOY**
ABSTRACT
There have been studies trying to answer the question that which criteria influence the people in
hotel selection; how people choose which hotel to stay from many of options. Criteria have been
identified in literature review which some were gained from questionnaires and some were suggested
based on previous works, however, they are not inspected as a matter of human needs. In this paper,
the hotel selection criteria are suggested. Subsequently, they are referred to Maslow’s needs’
categories and are grouped under four main needs: psychological, love and belongings, safety and
self-esteem. In order to determine and organize them well, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is
employed. Finally, an AHP framework for hotel selection is demonstrated based on Maslow’s needs’
theory. The framework can help hotel industry to identify their customers’ needs, define their services
with regards to those needs and focus on the attributes customers appreciate more. For future
research, AHP-based survey can be conducted, so that the weights of each element presented in the
hierarchy can be clarified and as a result, the priorities of customers in selecting the hotel can be well
perceived.
Keywords: Hotel selection, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs.
1. INTRODUCTION
Hotel industry has gone through so many changes in response to economic, business and social
environment (Vallen and Vallen, 2014). Back in time, hotels were supposed to just provide a bed and
meals, however, now hotels offer wide range of services. As a result, the hotel facilities has developed,
changed or even newly introduced.
The hospitability and hotel industry have been the subject of many studies in both national and
international scales. Through these studies, there are some which mainly focused on hotel selection
criteria. For instance, the hotel selection preferences of Hong Kong inbound travelers were discovered
by using the Choquet Integral and five criteria have been taken for hotel selection named as follows:
*
Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Institute of Social Sciences, Management and Organization PhD Program, Ankara, TURKEY,
[email protected],
**
Başkent University, Institute of Social Sciences, Management and Organization PhD Program, Ankara, TURKEY,
[email protected]
169
location, value, room sleep and cleanliness (Li, Law, Quan Vu, and Rong, 2013). Another study, the
hotel attributes were prioritized according to their influence on satisfaction by employing ImportancePerformance Analysis (IPA) and Asymmetric Impact-Performance Analysis (AIPA) (Albayrak and
Caber, 2015). The attributes which were identified are technical status of the hotel and rooms,
decoration of the rooms, personnel, overall cleanliness, swimming pool, beach, food and beverage
quality, facilities for children and animation activities. Chu and Choi (2000) also used an importanceperformance analysis for hotel selection factors in the Hong Kong hotel industry comparing leisure
and business travelers. They conducted factor analysis and six hotel selection factors were named for
each leisure and business travelers: room and front desk, value, security, food and recreation, service
quality and business facilities. Tanford et al. (2012) contemplated determinants of customer loyalty
and purchasing behavior for full-service and limited-service hotels and identified factors which
influence hotel purchasing: amenity, brand, image, green, price and utility. Sohrabi et al.(2012)
studied hotel selection factors of Tehran hotels and these factors were found: security and protection,
promenade and comfort, pleasure, network services, cleanliness and room comfort, hotel staff and
their services, news and recreational information, car parking, expenditure and room facility. In
another study, the hotel choice attributes were grouped into three categories: cognitive, affective, and
sensory attributes (Kim and Perdue, 2013). According to Kim and Perdue (2013), cognitive attributes
includes price, service and food quality, sport facility and national, recognized brand. Affective
attributes compromised of two factors: being comfortable and entertaining. Sensory attributes
encompass room quality and overall atmosphere. A hotel advisory system (HAS) which uses fuzzy
logic was suggested to help tourists in hotel selection and price, facilities and food were taken into
account as the critical factors for hotel selection (Ngai and Wat, 2003). Product price, hotel brand,
product variety, product review and conditions were considered as the product related factors in the
study investigated factors affecting customer selection of online hotel booking channels (Liu and
Zhang, 2014). Lockyer (2005) studied the factors that influence the hotel choice and concluded that
four main areas affect guests in selecting the hotel accommodation: price, location, cleanliness and
facility. Dolnicar and Otter (2003) reviewed 21 studies which were published between 1984 and 2000
in hospitability and extracted 173 attributes categorized in 10 fields: services, image, room,
price/value, location, hotel, security, marketing, food and beverage and others ( includes gifts, hotel
newsletter, adequacy of bill, quality seems assured and hours of operation).
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (1943) consists of five levels from the most needed at the bottom
to the least at the top relatively: psychological, safety, love and belonging, self-esteem and selfactualization. Maslow indicated that the first four levels of needs are deficiency needs or requirements
for physical and mental health (Duncan and Blugis, 2011). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs has been used
as a framework for hospitality houses' resources and services evaluation (Duncan and Blugis, 2011).
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Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is a decision making method when the decision maker
encounter lots of criteria. It was first introduced by Saaty (1980) and since then, has been used to solve
selection problems.
As mentioned before, there have been studies in which the criteria influencing the hotel
selection were defined and categorized, however, the criteria were not considered from a needs’
theory’s point of view. In this paper, the hotel selection problem is put in an AHP framework with
respect to Maslow’s hierarchy. The framework can assist to better understand the expectations of the
hotel customers and help the hotel industry to define and fulfill their needs more effectively. Besides,
hotel industry will be able to focus on where their customers appreciate more.
2. Model
AHP has been selected as the method for several reasons; there are many criteria that involve
the hotel selection process and so the problem is a multi-criteria decision making problem; each
criterion and its related sub criteria can be organized clearly well in this framework; all the criteria and
sub criteria are supposed to be independent from each other; each element can be then assigned
weights to in empirical studies, so that the elements’ priorities can be determined, however, based on
Maslow’s theory of needs, physiology and its sub criteria are more likely to be assigned the most
weight followed by safety, love and belonging, self-esteem.
With reference to AHP method, a hierarchy is depicted in order to answer these questions:
“Which criteria and sub criteria are taken into account in hotel selection and how important is each of
them?”. The hierarchy is drawn with the goal of hotel selection. The first level contains four Maslow’s
needs’ categories. Self-actualization is not taken place in this level as it is said not to be required for
physical and mental health (Duncan and Blugis 2011) and based on the definition given to selfactualization, it cannot be fitted in the model as a need that can be responded by hotel industry.
In Figure 1 the goal and the first level of hierarchy is demonstrated.
Figure 1, First Level of Hierarchy
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Physiological needs cover price, place, food and beverage. Safety includes people security,
security of personal information, and security of personal properties. Love and belonging consists of
interactions with hotel staff, other hotel guests and also family members. Self-esteem is divided into
two types: the self-respect and the respect of others (Duncan and Blugis, 2011; Maslow, 1943). Sport
facilities, education facilities, business facilities, health facilities and entertainment facilities are taken
as fulfilling the self-esteem need. In Figure 2, the second level of hierarchy is shown:
Figure 2. Second Level Of Hierarchy
Price is defined as the cost of staying at hotel and using its services. As money is needed to
fulfill physiological needs, it has been put in this category. Place consists of two sub-criteria: where
the hotel is (location) and where to stay at (room). Food and beverage embrace quantity and quality;
how much food and beverage are included and how the quality is.
People need to be safe and be sure that their personal information, the one that the hotel asked
for, is kept confidential. Moreover, they can feel safe about their properties like wallet, purse and the
items they have brought to hotel.
People have interactions with hotel staff, other guests and the other members of their family.
Sport facilities may include swimming pools, tennis courts, gyms, etc. Education facilities
embrace facilities of which are used for the purpose of learning and teaching like conference halls
equipped with smart boards. Business facilities comprise of what is used for business purposes such as
meeting rooms. Health facilities may cover spas, skin care, beauty salons and so on. Entertainment
facilities consist of concert halls, cafes, children’s play area, etc. Image is defined as the general
picture of hotel in people’s minds. It may be affected by the brand or the stars of the hotel.
172
3. DISCUSSION
An AHP framework is formed with the goal of hotel selection. Four main criteria which were
extracted from Maslow’s theory of needs, are fitted in the first level of hierarchy. The second level
consists of sub criteria some extracted from available literature and some suggested by the authors.
The second level sub criteria are then been placed under the first level categories with regards to their
nature and the Maslow’s definition of each needs’ categories. The first question, on which the paper is
focused, is answered; which criteria and sub criteria are taken into account in hotel selection, however,
the second question has been still remained; how important is each of these criteria and sub criteria.
There are two ways to answer these questions: first based on literature and second first on empirical
study.
Maslow’s theory has defined the priorities of needs started from physiology, followed by safety,
love and belonging and self-esteem. The sub criteria also will bear the same rank as their upper level
criteria.
The second way is to conduct an empirical study, ask hotel customers to fill out AHP-based
questionnaires, analyze the results and assign weights to every element, however, it is beyond the aim
of this paper as the aim of this research is to suggest a framework for future research.
4. CONCLUSION
In this paper, the hotel selection problem is considered and examined as a multi-criteria decision
making problem and as a matter of human needs. In order to reach this, AHP is employed as the
method and Maslow’s theory of needs is regarded as human needs- focused theory.
Criteria and sub-criteria were defined both based on the available literature and also the
suggestion of paper’s authors. Then, the criteria were categorized under Maslow’s needs groups with
respect to their nature and the definition given by Maslow for each needs’ groups. The importance of
elements presented in the hierarchy can be guessed respecting Maslow’s theory or can be gained from
empirical study, however, the empirical study does not take place in this research and is an idea for
future research.
The result can help hotel industry to understand the needs of hotel customers better, to fulfill
their needs efficiently and effectively. It assists hotel industry to organize their services according to
their customers’ needs, find on where and which attributes focus and invest more.
It is concluded that first physiology’s sub criteria should be first fulfilled and then, safety, love
and belonging, self-esteem relatively.
173
For future research, the weights of each criterion can be determined after empirical study and
the priorities of people in hotel selection may be clarified. The results can be then compared with the
Maslow’s theory’s perceptions, whether supporting them or suggesting new ranks for the needs of
hotel customers.
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Ngai, E., and Wat, F. (2003) "Design and development ofa fuzzy expert system for hotel selection",
Omega (The International Journal of Management Science), 31: 275-286.
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Sohrabi, B., Raeesi Vanani, I., Tahmasebipur, K., and Fazli, S. (2012) "An exploratory analysis of
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174
Tanford, S., Raab, C., and Kim, Y.-S. (2012) "Determinants of customer loyalty and purchasing
behavior for full-service and limited-service hotels", International Journal of Hospitality
Management, 31: 319-328.
Vallen, G. K., and Vallen, J. J. (2014). Check-In Check-Out: Managing Hotel Operations. Essex:
Pearson Education Limited.
175
EXAMINATION OF HOTELS’ SPA WEBSITE DESIGNS
Asst. Prof. Dr. S. Pınar TEMİZKAN*
Res. Asst. Beybala TİMUR**
Asst. Prof. Dr. Rahman TEMİZKAN***
ABSTRACT
Nowadays, there is a particular awareness and demand raise on healthty lifestyle. Spas are
one of the most convenient tools to meet this demand. Most of the hotels add spas to their facilities to
take part in meeting this demand. In tourism sector, as in any other sector, Internet is an indispensable
advertising and marketing tool. Hotels, which are keystones of tourism sector, are making use from
the benefits of Internet in order to operate their marketing strategies effectively. They also use Internet
marketing for their spa facilities. This study aims to examine the Internet usage situation of hotel’s
about their spa facilities and to give useful suggestions to promote spa introduction strategies. From
this point of view, 4 and 5 star hotel spa web sites in Antalya, where is the tourism capital of Turkey
with the most numerous hotels, were examined through the content analysis. The gathered data is
evaluated with frequency and percentage ranges and analysis conducted through this web sites. The
results indicated that both 5 and 4 star hotels in Antalya should and may use Internet marketing more
effectively.
Keywords: Hotel, Spa, Content Analysis, Web Site Design, Antalya
1.INTRODUCTION
People used to get information about touristic destinations and spa facilities through phone
calls, printed and written advertisements. But thanks to everyday evolving technology, Internet,
nowadays, is the best introduction tool for both consumers, who seek reliable and detailed information
about destinations and hotel executives who seek to develop more efficient marketing strategies for
their spa facilities.
Spas with the raising awareness about having a healthy lifestyle, are gaining more and more
importance amongst societies. As people adopt healthier lifestyles they also do not want to take break
from their way of life when they are on vacation. So they prefer hotels with adequate spa facilities
*
Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Tourism. Travel Man. and Tour.Guide Dept. , [email protected]
Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Tourism.Tourism and Hotel Man. Dept. , [email protected]
***
Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Tourism. Travel Man. and Tour.Guide Dept, [email protected]
**
176
where they can keep on their healthy diet, keep exercising and have fun at the same time. Hotels which
realize this opportunity, are adopting spa facilities to benefit from this demand. Also spas are
continuously seeking ways to embodying their services. For this purpose, using Internet and adopting
online marketing strategies through websites look like the best solution for spas. Thus, they adopt email list marketing strategy and give advertisement to search engines, they adopt social media
accounts to communicate with their customers instantly. These are not solely enough. Also having a
spa logo, spa slogan and putting it on website have great importance in order to create an effective
company image (Salon Builder, 2014).
Also as the Internet usage through the world is getting more and more common and today in
Turkey 48,9% of the population use Internet (TUIK, 2014). Parets (2002) points out that not only big
hotel chains use well designed websites but also small hotels which seek inexpensive and effective
marketing tools, use internet marketing in order to increase their competitiveness in the market. From
this point of view it can easily be said that most of the touristic product consumers seek online
information and purchase possibilities. Therefore this study aims to examine the hotel spa websites to
evaluate their website effectiveness in terms of site design characteristics and online marketing
practices.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Online marketing is a tool which extends the conventional marketing with new methods into a
brand new dimension. So, it promises more benefits to the both consumers and sellers (Kırcova, 2005:
34-35). Beacuse of this features, online marketing is rapidly growing and becoming an essential tool
for touristic businesses as well as the other sectors. With this growth almost every firm adopts online
marketing strategies and implement these strategies through their websites. However, adopting
website does not guarantee success. Success at online marketing depends on two stages. The first stage
is traffic which means attracting visitors to the website. And the second is conversion which include
turning visitors into clients. A website is a guide which takes the visitors on a road trip. If a website
can provide the right destination to visitors, it will eventually turn them into clients. To create a
successful website essential tools are considered as choosing right keywords, optimizing home page,
building links, Local search listings, online reviews, online advertising and the most importantly these
days using the social media (Spaboom, 2014).
There are studies which examine hotel websites in terms of general context and Internet
marketing strategies (Connoly, Olsen, &Moore, 1998; Liebmann, 2000; Rushmore, 2000; Mullen,
2000; Benckendorff & Black, 2000; Sigala, 2001; Karpinski, 2001 Kasavana, 2002;). However there is
not a specific study focused on spa websites of hotels.
177
Law and Hsu (2006) chose two groups which include online browsers who only seek
information and online purchasers who made online bookings and examined perceived importance
level of specific dimensions and attributes on hotel websites. The results indicated that there was no
significant difference on most of the included dimensions and attributes between these groups. Baloglu
and Pekcan (2006) studied web site design and Internet site marketing practices of upscale and luxury
hotels in Turkey. The results indicated that the hotels in Turkey are not using Internet to it’s full
potential and they are not using effective e-marketing.
De Wulf, Schillewaert, Muylle and Rangarajan (2006) have conducted a study on the role of
pleasure in website success. Authors developed a process model of website success by identifying the
role of pleasure as a key mediating variable. According to the results pleasure partially mediated the
evaluations–success relationship and also found significant support for direct relationships between
web site evaluations and success. Wan (2002) examined the websites of international tourist hotels and
tour wholesalers in Taiwan in terms of user interface, variety of information and online reservation.
Results indicated that user interfaces rated the most and the use of Internet in Taiwan’s
tourism/hospitality industry is not for marketing but primarily for advertising.
Bai, Law and Wen (2008) have studied the impact of website quality on customer satisfaction
and purchase intentions on Chinese online visitors. Results indicated that online satisfaction has a
positive impact on purchase intensions in both long and short term. Also visual environment is
significant to increase intentions for purchase of travel products online. Schmidt, Cantallops and dos
Santos (2008) have studied the characteristics of hotel websites and their implications for website
effectiveness. Results indicated that there is a circular effect between website characteristics and
consumer demands. Websites which serve inefficiently to consumer demands are directing consumers
to use traditional tourist distributors.
In this study, hotels’ web sites were examined in context of promotion and marketing tools of
hotels’ SPA facilities.
3. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS OF STUDY
3.1 METHODOLOGY
Content analysis is the criteria, information or essence that researcher look for how frequently
it is mentioned when examining a written source (Aziz, 1990: 107). Content analysis is a technique
which helps to determine the significant features of a written source in a systematical, objective and
quantatively way (Arseven, 2001:87; Franzosi, 2004: 549). Content analysis is applied in order to
attain scientific results. Though it has emerged as a quantitive method, it has been developed in time
and has become a method which can be applied to both qualitative and quantitive approaches. Not
only the number of words should be taken in consideration but also their meanings which they gain
178
through the relations in text they are in (Temizkan, 2010). From this point of view this study utilizes
content analysis to analyze the 4 and 5 star hotel websites in Antalya region in terms of site design
characteristics, effectiveness and spa marketing practices on the Internet.
A list of all registered hotels in Antalya are requested from Ministry of Culture and Tourism. 4
and 5 star hotels in Antalya are picked for study. There were 222 4-star hotels and 290 5-star hotels,
totally 512 hotels. All of the hotels are examined if they have web sites for hotel and their spa facilities
and according to results there are a total of 333 hotels which have website. 207 of 5 star hotels have
web sites for hotels which include information about spa facilities but only 2 of them have a seperate
web site for their spa facilities. 186 of 4 star hotels have websites but only 126 of them have spa
facility information and none of them has a seperate spa web site.
Coding form form is adapted from Baloglu and Pekcan’s (2002) study. The original form was
about general hotel features. These questions are customized for spa features. Irrelevant questions to
spa are taken out. Coding form consists of 3 divisions with 41 items. First division includes hotel’s
information, second division includes design features with 3 sub-divisons which are interactivity,
navigation and functionality. The last division includes marketing features. The websites of hotels
which take part in study are evaluated according to this criterias. During the evaluation process, every
website has been evaluated with a seperate coding form form which has “yes” and “no” options for
criterias.
3.2. FINDINGS
As mentioned earlier, a total of 333 hotel’s website are examined through content analysis in
order to determine on which level they use Internet for marketing purposes and to promote their spa
facilities, spa services and spa products.
As it can be seen on the Table-1, 10,1% of 5 star hotels’ spas have a unique spa name other
than hotel’s name. 4,8% for 4 star hotels. Only 18,4% of 5 star hotels are giving information about
which department operates the spa facilities or with which department the spa facilities are related and
2 of 126 4 star hotels are giving information about operating department and the rate is 1,6%. 2 of 207
5 star hotels and 1 of 126 4 star hotels from a total 333 hotels have an independent spa web site. Not
having spa name different than hotel’s might seem as a good way to avoid confusion but a spa should
have a slogan to attract consumers.
179
Table-1. Business informations on hotel’s spa websites.
207 5 Star Hotels
Business Information
n
126 4 Star Hotels
%
Yes
No
Yes
A unique name for SPA facility
21
186
Operating department information
38
169
Independent spa web site
2
205
n
Yes
No
Yes
No
10,1 89,9
6
120
4,8
95,2
18,4 81,6
2
124
1,6
98,4
1
125
0,8
99,2
99
No
%
1
During the examination of site design characteristics through interactivity, functionality and
navigation, as it can be seen from the Table-2, although 5 star hotels give more information than 4 star
hotels very few of hotel’s spa websites have phone number, e-mail adress, social media accounts,
online evaluation form and online guest book. This is maybe because spa facilities are operating
within hotel and guests making contact with spa during their stay and evaluating them with a general
hotel evaluation form.
Table-2. Interactivity of hotel spa websites
207 5 Star Hotels
n
%
126 4 Star Hotels
n
%
Interactivity
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
SPA's phone number
10
197
4,8
95,2
1
125
0,8
99,2
SPA's adress
10
197
4,8
95,2
0
126
0
100
Online information form for SPA services and products
5
202
2,4
97,6
0
126
0
100
SPA's e-mail adress
10
197
4,8
95,2
0
126
0
100
SPA's social media accounts
7
200
3,4
96,6
5
121
4
96
Current exchange rates
0
207
0
100
1
125
0,8
99,2
Online evaluation form for SPA
0
207
0
100
0
126
0
100
Online guest book for SPA
2
205
1
99
0
126
0
100
Table 3 shows that in 70% of 5 star hotels and 97,6% of 4 star hotels spa pages there are an
index page link but only 3,9% of 5 stars hotels and none of 4 star hotels spa pages have search
capabilities. The reason 4 star hotels do not have search capabilities might be that they have search
capability on their main page.
Table-3. Navigation of Hotel Spa Websites.
207 5 Star Hotels
n
126 4 Star Hotels
%
n
%
Navigation
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Index page link
145
62
70
30
123
3
97,6
2,4
8
199
3,9
96,1
0
126
0
100
Search capabilities
Table-4 shows the functionality features of spa website designs, in which 83,1 of 5 star hotels
and 88,1 of 4 star hotels do not have a SPA slogan at their pages. While almost half of 5 star hotels
have a background color or picture, nearly 80% of 4 star hotels do not have background color or
picture. Videos and music is another feature that web sites are lacking of. Also only 1 of 5 star hotels
180
has a “what’s new” page while none of 4 star hotels have. Both 4 and 5 star hotels web sites have very
little downloadable content about SPA services and products. 6,3% of 5 star hotels have downloadable
content about spa services and products while 18,3% of 4 star hotels have downloadable content about
spa services and products. Also the use of flash animations are not very common either for both hotel
types. Visual attractions and small entertainment features might be helpful with creating fun image
and it would be effective on consumer’s deciding process.
More than 90% of both 5 and 4 star hotels’ spa pages have multilingual capabilities, 87% of 5
stars and 67,5% of 4 star hotels have easy access to SPA services and products information. 76,3% of
5 star hotels have detailed information about SPA services and products while this number is only
15,9% for 4 star hotels.
Table-4. Functionality of hotel’s spa web sites.
207 5 Star Hotels
n
126 4 Star Hotels
%
n
%
Functionality
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
SPA Slogan
35
172
16,9 83,1
15
111
11,9 88,1
SPA website background color
99
108
47,8 52,2
23
103
18,3 81,7
SPA website background picture
88
119
42,5 57,5
16
110
12,7 87,3
Video
9
198
4,3
95,7
4
122
3,2
Music
16
191
7,7
92,3
14
112
11,1 88,9
SPA website's last update date
1
206
0,5
99,5
9
117
7,1
92,9
Do you have to scroll down on SPA page
95
112
45,9 54,1
29
97
23
77
Ads and banners on SPA website
22
185
10,6 80,4
15
111
11,9 88,1
Downloadable content about SPA services and products
13
194
6,3
93,7
23
103
18,3 81,7
What's new page
4
203
1,9
98,1
0
126
0
100
Multilingual capabilities
187
20
90,3
8,7
114
12
90,5
9,5
Flash animation about SPA services and products
17
190
8,2
91,8
25
101
19,8 80,2
Easy access to SPA services and products information
180
27
87
13
85
41
67,5 32,5
Detailed information about Spa services and products
158
49
20
106
15,9 84,1
76,3 23,7
No
96,8
As it can be seen from the Table-5, a very high percentage of 5 star hotels spa website pages
have high quality spa facilitiy photos and 87,4 of them have easily readable font. When it comes to 4
star hotels 57,1% of them have facility photos and 54% of them have high quality photos. 84,9% of 4
star hotels web sites use easiliy readable font. Though both hotel types have good multilingual
capabilities, using facility photos on spa websites might have a good effect on embodying of services.
Only 7 of 207 5 star hotels and 1 of 126 4 star hotels give special offer information and only 6
of 5 star hotels and none of 4 star hotels have membership discounts and opportunities information on
their web sites. However 66% of 5 star hotels give product and service descriptions while this number
is 28,6% for 4 star hotels. Very few of 5 star (1,9%) and 4 star hotels (0,8%) give price information on
181
their websites. Adopting a membership program may steer consumers to revisit. Further more
supporting membership program with discounts and advantages may attract local people to use spa
facilities.
Almost 70% of 5 star hotels and 76% of 4 star hotels have a map to the hotel and spa if their
spa facilitiy is on a seperate location. 18,4% of 5 star hotels have online payment capability, 16,4% of
them use online reservation system and 2,4% accepts reservations by e-mail. 4 star hotels do not use
online payment system except one of them. They also do not use an online payment system and they
do not accept reservations by e-mail. This is also may occur because spa employees usually contact
with consumers during stay but having online payment capabilities may help to create early buying
advantages in order to support membership program and raise sales.
Table-5. Marketing features of hotels’ spa web sites.
207 5 Star Hotels
n
126 4 Star Hotels
%
n
%
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
SPA facility photos
188
19
90,8
9,2
72
54
57,1 42,9
SPA equipment photos
103
104
49,8 50,2
38
88
30,2 69,8
Good photo quality
164
43
79,2 20,8
68
58
Readable font
181
26
87,4 12,6
107
19
84,9 15,1
7
200
3,4
96,6
1
125
0,8
Description of SPA services and products
137
70
66,2 33,8
36
90
28,6 71,4
Membership discounts and opportunities
6
201
2,9
97,1
0
126
Map to the SPA facility
143
64
69,1 30,9
96
30
76,2 23,8
Online payment capability
38
169
18,4 81,6
1
125
99,2
0,8
Online reservation capability for SPA
34
173
16,4 83,6
0
126
0
100
E-mail reservation capability for SPA
5
202
2,4
0
126
0
100
Touristic information link
21
186
10,1 89,1
107
19
84,9 15,1
Price information for SPA services and products
4
203
1,9
1
125
0,8
Special offer information about SPA services
97,6
98,1
54
0
No
46
99,2
100
99,2
4.CONCLUSION
Internet usage through the world is rapidly growing. Consumers mostly seeking online
information before buying a product or a service. In this context, the power and importance of online
marketing can not be ignored. According to the results, most of the hotel spas do not have a unique
name or slogan or a seperate spa website which is dedicated to promote spa facilities and services.
Also very few of them have social media accounts. Most of the websites are not attractive as they lack
of background colour and photos. Both 5 and 4 star hotels do not give price information on their
websites and have very little downloadable content. Also both 5 and 4 star hotels mostly do not have
182
online payment capabilities, online reservation capabilities. Other missing details are information
about membership discounts and opportunities.
What is positive about both 5 and 4 star hotels websites is that they have multilingual
capabilities, so foreign tourists can easily reach to the information they seek. However, while 5 star
hotels mostly have detailed information about their services and products, most of the 4 star hotels do
not.
In this context, it is fair to say that both 5 and 4 star hotels are using Internet marketing as a
marketing tool. However, they should and may use it more effectively. It can be recommended to have
a unique spa name and slogan. Additionally, they should have up to date information for services,
products and promotions on their websites. Using attractive and interesting tools on websites and
creating a membership circle are also useful in order to steer guests to revisit. Finally, executives
should consider adopting more effective online marketing strategies and evolve their websites in this
context. The limitation of this study was that most of the hotels do not have up to date websites and
spa pages were missing detailed information.
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184
TRADITIONAL AND REGIONAL PRODUCTS AS A FACTOR OF TOURIST
COMPETITIVENESS OF THE REGION
(THE EXAMPLE OF THE PODLASKIE VOIVODSHIP )
Elżbieta ZALESKO*
ABSTRACT
The aim of this paper is to present the role of regional and local products in process of improving
the region's competitiveness in the tourism market. An example of Podlaskie voivodship was used as it
is one of the largest provinces in Poland, but with a relatively low competitiveness of tourism. The
main tourist destinations are located in the north of the country – coast of the Baltic Sea coast,
Warmia and Masuria, as well as in the south – mountain’s areas. Very popular is also the country's
capital - Warsaw and cities such as: Krakow, Gdansk and Wroclaw. Potential for development of
tourism in regions is determined by location of province, its natural conditions, structure of the
economy and multiculturalism and multi-ethnic. Traditional and regional products manufactured in its
territory are becoming a factor that may contribute to increase in the competitiveness of the region.
Appropriate usage of resources can contribute to improvement in the competitiveness of tourism and,
consequently, to an increase in interest with this part of Poland among tourists from homeland and
abroad.
An inductive-descriptive method was adopted in the study.
Key Words: tourism competitiveness of the region, regional products, traditional products, local
products, a factor of competitiveness of tourist
1. INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, tourism is considered in many countries as one of the fastest developing sectors of the
economy. The all sector Travel & Tourism (T&T) already accounts for 9 percent of GDP, a total of
US$6 trillion, and it provides 120 million direct jobs and another 125 million indirect jobs in related
industries. This means that the industry now accounts for one in eleven jobs on the planet, a number
that could even rise to one in ten jobs by 2022, according to the World Travel & Tourism Council.1
International tourism contributes significantly to the economies of EU Member States. The EU
tourism industry generates more than 5% of the EU GDP, with about 1.8 million enterprises
employing around 5.2% of the total labour force (approximately 9.7 million jobs). When related
sectors are taken into account, the estimated contribution of tourism to GDP creation is considerably
*
Phd University of Finance and Management in Bialystok, Poland, [email protected]
More info: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013. Reducing Barriers to Economic Growth and Job Creation, ed. Jennifer
Blanke and Thea Chiesa, World Economic Forum, Geneva 2013, p. xiii
1
185
higher: tourism indirectly generates more than 10% of the European Union's GDP and accounts for
12% of the labour force.2
In Poland also tourism is one of the economic activities that has the most significant potential in
the creation of the economic growth and jobs. Tourism, in its narrow definition, generates 6% of the
Polish GDP. In 2008 in Poland, the document "Guidelines for developing tourism to 2015" was
approved, in which the basic assumption was to treat tourism as a field closely associated with many
processes of development and to shaping tourism in a way that will be compatible with the other goals
of socio-economic development of the country.
To be a relevant factor of the economic development of a country or a region, tourism must be
more attractive for people potentially interested in trips and travels as compared to competitors.
Tourism competitiveness of local government is gaining more and more importance as well.
2. THE TOURISM
COMPETITIVENESS OF POLAND AND PODLASKIE
VOIVODSHIP
The modern economy is characterized by strong competition waged among units at all levels of
activity, starting from the micro level, and finishing with the global economy. For years, competition
intensifies between regions for growth factors, especially financial and human capital, investments and
tourists. Units that wish to meet the competition must have a set of characteristics that determine the
attractiveness of the region for tourists, for pacing investments or for a place of residence in
comparison with other regions. These features are called in the literature as the competitiveness of the
region. Narrowing the concept only to the attractiveness for tourists talk about tourism
competitiveness of the country or local governments.
The region's competitiveness is determined by two essential elements. The first is the
macroeconomic competitiveness, ie. competitiveness of economic base of the regions. It is a result of
comparison of all regions of the country. It consists of national and international sectors of the
economy that determine the dominant profile of the economic structure of regions. The second
element is the microeconomic competitiveness, which is oriented towards markets and resources. In
this case, market and competitive environment include: present and potential users of the products
manufactured in the region - domestic and foreign customers, people and organizations, consumers,
investors and homogeneous macroeconomic groups due to identical or similar products and service
offers.3
It seems that in this area, to increase the attractiveness of the tourism competitiveness of the region
(voivodship) local government and local community might do much.
2
Enhancing the Competitiveness of Tourism in the EU - 20 Cases of Innovation & Good Practice, Center for Strategy & Evaluation
Services, Sevenoaks , September 2013 , p. 5
3
http://www.pitwin.edu.pl/attachments/1053_019%20czudec.pdf
186
Table 1 Competitive environment of the region
The type of competitiveness of
Customers the region
the region
Business
and
investment interest in the region
competitiveness of the region
companies and investors
Competitors the region
homogeneous groups of regions
with given the level of
development, economic profile
and prospects
development
The competitiveness of the basic sectors that are major homogeneous groups of regions
economic base of the region
users
of
resources
and because of the level (high,
infrastructure of the region
medium, low) abundance and
activity
Competitiveness of sectors and current and potential users
homogeneous groups of regions
products of the region
region:
people
and with
organizations
due to the offer
product and service
International competitiveness of recipients of foreign
homogeneous groups of regions
the region
offer of the region
with
due to the export offer
product and service
Source: A. Klasik, Strategia konkurencyjności regionów, [in] Klasik A. Zioło Z. (ed.), Problemy
transformacji struktur regionalnych i konkurencyjność regionów w procesie integracji europejskiej,
Wyższa Szkoła Informatyki i Zarządzania, Rzeszów, 2002
Table 1 shows that competitiveness of sectors and products in the region is determined by an offer
to current and potential users of the region. Competitors of the region constitute homogeneous groups
of regions that offer similar products and services. It seems, therefore, that an effective way to improve
the competitiveness of the region will be diversification of an offer of tourism products and services
that are provided to tourists, and thus also to potential buyers of products and services with specific
characteristics. This allow manufacturers to distinguish their offer among wide range of competitors.
Decisive to this will be the ability to produce and offer differentiated products local/regional,
manufactured only in the province (voivodship), that are sold in the domestic and foreign markets.
In broader consideration in characterizing a competitiveness in the tourism sector is its ability to
respond to consumers’ requirements, especially when these are changing significantly.
In competing, destinations need to differentiate themselves by offering high quality and
distinctive experiences. Unique natural and cultural features can be important assets in this respect, but
providers also need to respond in other ways to customers, who are increasingly seeking different
experiences and are becoming ever more demanding, as the offer is diversified. For a start in meeting
this intensified range of demands, providers need to see the customer as a co-creator of value in that
the customer increasingly participates in defining and co-creating the experience rather than relying on
a static and embedded offer. Given that it takes time to change physical resources, this puts a lot of
emphasis on the skills and responsiveness of service providers and their staff. Furthermore, there
needs to be a greater co-responsibility for providing the different aspects of the experience. An ideal
187
location can be ruined by poor hotel or restaurant service and vice versa. In a real sense therefore it is
destinations that compete, as well as individual service providers.4
The competitiveness of countries in terms of tourism is presented among others by The Travel &
Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI), developed by the experts of the World Economic Forum in
the context of the Affiliate Program of the World Economic Forum for Aviation, Travel and Tourism.
The aim of the TTCI is to measure factors and policies that make development of travel and tourism
sector is attractive in different countries. Ranking of countries according to the TCCI together with an
analysis of the tourism sector is published every two years in a document The Travel & Tourism
Competitiveness Report.
According to the report The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 Beyond the
Downturn, in 2011, Poland received in terms of tourism competitiveness 49 place among 139
countries.5 It was a much better result than in year 2009, when the country was placed 58 among 130
countries. In year 2007 Poland was ranked at 63 place in the 124 states. On the other hand, in the
report The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013 Reducing Barriers to Economic Growth
and Job Creation, published in year 2013, Poland was ranked 42 among 140 countries.6 This means
that Poland improved its ranking by 21 positions since 2007, but still it is located in the fifth ten of all
countries.
In the whole country there is a huge diversity in the level of tourism competitiveness among
individual regions. The main tourist destinations in Poland is the northern part of the country - coast of
the Baltic Sea, the region of Warmia and Mazuria, in the southern part - mountain areas, as well as
large cities, such as the capital - Warsaw, Krakow, Gdansk and Wroclaw.
Podlaskie is one of the sixteen Polish provinces. It is located in the north-eastern part of the
country and it is one of the regions with large nature and landscape advantages. The capital of the
province is the city of Bialystok. It is an attractive region to tourists who enjoy close contact with
nature. In addition to traditional forms of tourism in Podlaskie there is also a trend of active tourism.
Additionally, Podlasie is the most diversified in terms of ethnicity and culture. For centuries, different
nationalities and religions live in the neighborhood. Besides Poles in the region live Belarusians,
Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Roma, Russians, Jews and Tatars. Followers of Catholicism, Orthodox
Christianity, Judaism and Muslims live next to each other. This results in a rich and diverse cultural
heritage, including cuisine of the region.
Local authorities saw the potential for the development of this sector of the economy and outlined
a vision of the tourism in the region in the document "Programme for the Development of Tourism
4
Enhancing the Competitiveness of Tourism in the EU - 20 Cases of Innovation & Good Practice, Center for Strategy & Evaluation
Services, Sevenoaks , September 2013 , p. 7
5
The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011. Beyond the Downturn, Ed. Jennifer Blanke, Thea Chiesa, World Economic Forum,
Geneva 2011, p. 310
6
The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013. Reducing Barriers to Economic Growth and Job Creation, ed. Jennifer Blanke and
Thea Chiesa, World Economic Forum, Geneva 2013, p. 288
188
and the Tourist Development in Podlaskie Voivodship for the years 2010 - 2015". "Podlasie in 2015 is
a region where tourism is one of the leading sectors of the economy efficiently managed, with a
developed tourist infrastructure corresponding to the standards of the European Union, an integrated
system of information and promotion of tourism, a specific tourism brand with attractive tourist
products based on the unique natural and cultural - ethnic heritage and developed system of recreation
oriented for learning, health and active rest".7
However, despite many advantages one should take additional actions to increase the tourist
attractiveness of the region. To make it possible, it is assumed that Podlasie should become a tourist
area based on sustainable and recognizable tourism brands, competitive among brands of regions of
Eastern Poland and Mazur associated with unique qualities health-related areas, with places for
socializing and recreation and sports using the natural advantages of the region. Traditional local
products, typical of the region might play an important role in building the image of the region and
increasing its competitiveness.
To effectively compete for tourists with other local government units, local authorities must
undertake effective marketing so as to draw attention of potential tourists for their own region. Typical
for Podlasie traditional and regional products might be used as a promotion tool to improve the
tourism competitiveness of the region, both at home, abroad.
3.
TRADITIONAL
AND
REGIONAL
PRODUCTS
AND
TOURIST
COMPETITIVENESS OF THE REGION
For many years, economy of Podlaskie voivodship is based primarily on food, light and wood
industry, construction and engineering. Especially food industry is developing rapidly in recent years.
There are many large plants involved in processing of milk, meat, poultry, cereals and breweries that
operate in the region. Dairies from Podlasie are the largest and the most modern in the country. They
operate basing on modern technology, many of them have ISO certificates. Some of them are allowed
to export their products to the European Union. Besides to industry. Agriculture still dominates in the
economy of Podlasie.
However, it seems that opportunities in the production and marketing of local and regional
products are still undervalued. Local product is considered a product or service, which identify people
of the region. It is produced in a way that is not massive and environmentally friendly, from materials
that are locally available. Local product becomes a showcase of the region through the use of its
specific and unique character and involving residents in the development of local entrepreneurship.
7
Program Rozwoju Turystyki i Zagospodarowania Turystycznego Województwa Podlaskiego w latach 2010 – 2015. Część druga –
strategiczna, Białystok listopad 2009, s. 7
189
Podlaskie voivodship has a long tradition and potential which is necessary to produce this type of
goods. A significant part of workforce lives in rural areas, farming and manufacturing are traditional.
Activities are performed in areas uncontaminated ecologically, and dominant form of farming form are
family farms. They can produce goods based on traditional methods in parallel with agricultural
activities.
Local producers have possibility to use regulations at the national level and the European Union.
Definition of regional products is based upon the three following elements (the first two are also
mandatory requirements to attain the label):
1. Geographic specificity. The product must have intrinsic characteristics that differentiate it
from similar products. These characteristics must depend on a specificity of the production
process, and/or in the raw agricultural input, that can be found only in a well defined
geographic area.
2. Historical tradition. There must be no historical evidence of the existence of the product in the
past, with characteristics similar to the present.
3. Cultural and social specificity. In the region where the product comes from, there is a
consensus, depending on the local social and cultural environment, about the identification
and assessment of specific attributes that differentiate the product. The cultural values can be
associated with particular gastronomic events or to local customs, or to a symbology
supporting local social norms.
In Poland, like in all The European Union, system of regional and traditional products
protection is based on two regulations defining rules of their registration and protection:
•
Council Regulation (EC) no 510/2006 on the protection of geographical indications and
designations of origin for agricultural products and foodstuffs and
•
Council Regulation (EC) no 509/2006 on agricultural products and foodstuffs as
traditional specialities guaranteed.
These regulations were implemented into the Polish legal system by the Act on registration
and protection of names and marking of agricultural products and foodstuffs and on traditional
products (Dz. U. 2005 no 10, item 68). The Act regulates the domestic stage of the requests
evaluation.
Names of agricultural products and foodstuffs can be registered as:
•
Protected Designation of Origin - when a name is directly or indirectly related to a region,
specific place or, in exceptional cases, country where the product is produced, the whole
technological process takes place in the area to which the name of the product refers to
and characteristics and the quality of the product can be assigned without any doubts to
the specifity of the geographical area where it is produced.
•
Protected Geographical Indication - when a name of the product refers to a region or
specific place or, in exceptional cases, country where the product is produced. The product
190
must have some special quality, reputation or other specific qualities coming from or
assigned to its geographical origin. The quality of the product can stem from a
geographical area (for example: climate, vegetation, shape of the land), local know-how or
other environmental and human factors.
•
Traditional Speciality Guaranteed – product can be registered as a traditional speciality
guaranteed when its name is specific in itself or it indicates the specific character of the
agricultural product or foodstuff and the product itself is specific that it has the quality or a
set of qualities distinguishing it from other products of the same category and it has a
traditional character, which can be expressed through the use of traditional raw materials,
traditional composition or traditional method of production.
Registration of the name of an agricultural product or foodstuff as a geographical indication,
designation of origin or guaranteed traditional speciality guarantee that nobody can illegally use the
registered name in a commercial way on the territory of Poland or the EU. Only producers who come
from the registered territory, produce according to the specification and use registered raw materials
are allowed to use the graphic mark or the registered name. Consequently, granting indication protects
producers against any illegible use of the product’s name. It allows to emphasize the uniqueness of the
product and makes competition on the EU market possible. Placing a graphic mark on the package of
the product makes it recognizable for millions of consumers in the European Union with high
disposable incomes and who are aware of the high quality and uniqueness of the marked good.
In Podlaskie two products with protected designation of origin name are produced – honey from
Sejny, multi-flower honey from Sejny, one product with Protected Geographical Indication - Cheese
Korycinski "Homemade" and one product of a Guaranteed Traditional specialty - Pierekaczewnik.
Traditional and regional products exist in the Member States of the European Union as a special
and guaranteed quality and are owned pan-social at the local or regional level. Public property in the
sense of open to anyone who meets requirements imposed by producers themselves and often by
traders who declare their willingness to submit to voluntary control stored by them in the product
description. Social ownership also means that the product is based on history, tradition, or the specific
features of the place, which is owned by local or regional, and as such cannot be appropriated by
anyone. So, the system of traditional regional products has nothing to do with patents, this is a system
of protecting the specific quality and brand.
In addition to EU regulations, also Polish regulations apply to traditional products. Products that
are added to the List of Traditional Products are characterized by the quality or the unique features and
characteristics that result from the use of traditional methods of production. For traditional methods
considered to be those used for at least 25 years. Thus, regardless of the name of the product and its
possible link with the region, the base to include it into the list is to demonstrate a 25-year tradition of
191
producing the product. This does not mean that a registrant of the product that applies for inclusion on
the list has to produce it for at least 25 years. This period refers to the product and not to the producer.8
Among 1292 products entered in the List of Regional Products 50 comes from Podlasie, including
“tree cake (pol. sękacz) from Suchowola”, “homemade cheese” from Korycin, “Kindziuk from Punsk”
or cucumbers Arms Kruszewski. The list includes milk products (10), meat products (5), fishery
products (1), fruit and vegetables (4), bakery products and sweets (10), oil and fats (1), honey (3),
made meals and dishes (10), drinks (3), other products (3) produced in the province of Podlasie. This
is a small part of the whole country, however plays an important role in education and raising
awareness of local producers in terms of the opportunities offered to them and the entire local
community by production of region-specific products.
Benefits of a strong brand for the region can be described as follows:9
•
informs, characterizes and distinguishes the local government units, affects the
decisions related to the placement of investments, residence, recreation, education,
etc..,
•
synthesizes the image of the area, creates in minds of people the overall positive or
negative image that identifies the place, even when we do not know the details,
•
fixed image allows to verify positive or negative information that we acquire later.
The brand of tourism products in the region could result in the following positive changes:10
•
increase in differences between products and more visible advantage of the brand of
tourism products of the region over the other products;
•
stimulating return of tourists to region - the most important decisions to buy a product
are motivated by habits, customers buying a brand have in their mind satisfaction of
previous stays in the region,
•
broadening an offer - using the existing image of the brand of tourism products in the
region there is a greater opportunity to implement under its wing new products,
which will help to reduce costs,
•
obtaining a higher price.
In increasing competitiveness of the region is also used product space – its ground is to
generate local products. It is located in the attractive tourist places, or associated with a single, but a
strong dominant attraction such: specific event, the existing brand;
8
More information: Lista produktów tradycyjnych. Praktyczne informacje dotyczące umieszczania produktów tradycyjnych na Liście
Produktów Tradycyjnych przygotowane przez Wydział Oznaczeń Geograficznych Ministerstwa Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi, MRiRW,
Warszawa 2005, s. 5
9
Założenia Wieloletniego Planu Promocji Województwa Podlaskiego, Katowice, luty 2009 s. 12, Z. Knecht, Public relations w administracji
publicznej, C.H. Beck, Warszawa 2006, s. 9-10.
10
B. Marciszewska, Potencjał turystyczny regionu a kreowanie jego wizerunku, (In:) Potencjał turystyczny. Zagadnienia przestrzenne, ed. B.
Meyer, Uniwersytet Szczeciński, Zeszyty Naukowe nr 590, Ekonomiczne Problemy Usług nr 52, Szczecin 2010, p. 19
192
Promotion of local products helps to build tourism brand of the region. The brand is not a
product, but a set of associations that make brand-name product is bought more often and for higher
price than competing products. In addition, buyers know why a product with particular brand meets
their expectations. The value of the brand from their perspective tells them about it. Physical
characteristics and utility of the product are only a confirmation of truthfulness brand.11
There are many initiatives that are being undertaken in the region aimed at building the tourist
brand based on regional products. Many recurrent events take place across the region, that give to
inhabitants, tourists from home and abroad an opportunity to get acquainted with products produced in
the province and taste them. This includes both foreign trips to fairs and other events aimed at
promoting Podlasie, as well as a number of other projects that take place in the region, among others:
the feast of cheese and feast of strawberries in Korycin, the feast of bread in Ciechanowiec, the feast
of cucumber in Kruszewo, the Honey feast, the festival of Podlasie Flavours, and many others that
build in minds of potential buyers a positive image of local products and the entire province. Such
activities will translate into an improvement in the tourism competitiveness of Podlaskie in the long
term.
4. CONCLUSIONS
In the environment of growing competition for tourists, regions and states must take actions to
improve their attractiveness in the market. One of the options gives the manufacturing of regional and
traditional products. Because of its location Podlaskie has all the capabilities to produce goods of this
nature. On the lists of Polish traditional products is only 50 products from Podlasie. However, proper
activities of the local government can help to raise awareness of the inhabitants in terms of the benefits
they can achieve by taking up such production, as well as the whole region. Effective promotion of the
region that uses this group of products contributes to the increase of tourist attractiveness of the
region. It enables to extend local markets (exchanges between regional producers, local sales), to
increase the number of tourists from homeland and abroad visiting the region, increase of interests and
knowledge about the region, as well as the entrance to the Polish and foreign markets. There is an
increase in income of people working in other industries related to tourism. An important factor also
appears to be a building a positive image of the region, creating local brand, as it enables to positively
distinguish as compared to its rivals, and therefore also affects the tourism competitiveness of the
region. The tourist, who has good memories associated with a stay in a particular place, will return to
this place
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Enhancing the Competitiveness of Tourism in the EU - 20 Cases of Innovation & Good Practice,
Center for Strategy & Evaluation Services, Sevenoaks , September 2013 , p. 5
11
Program rozwoju turystyki i zagospodarowania turystycznego województwa podlaskiego w latach 2010-2015. Część pierwsza –
analityczna, Business Mobility International Spółka z o.o., Białystok, lipiec 2009, s. 10-11
193
http://www.pitwin.edu.pl/attachments/1053_019%20czudec.pdf
Klasik A., Strategia konkurencyjności regionów, (in:) Klasik A. Zioło Z. (ed.), Problemy
transformacji struktur regionalnych i konkurencyjność regionów w procesie integracji
europejskiej, Wyższa Szkoła Informatyki i Zarządzania, Rzeszów, 2002
Knecht Z., Public relations w administracji publicznej, C.H. Beck, Warszawa 2006
Lista produktów tradycyjnych. Praktyczne informacje dotyczące umieszczania produktów tradycyjnych
na Liście Produktów Tradycyjnych przygotowane przez Wydział Oznaczeń Geograficznych
Ministerstwa Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi, MRiRW, Warszawa 2005
Marciszewska B., Potencjał turystyczny regionu a kreowanie jego wizerunku, (in:) Potencjał
turystyczny. Zagadnienia przestrzenne, B. Meyer (ed.), Uniwersytet Szczeciński, Zeszyty
Naukowe nr 590, Ekonomiczne Problemy Usług nr 52, Szczecin 2010
Potencjał turystyczny. Zagadnienia przestrzenne, B. Meyer (ed.), Uniwersytet Szczeciński, Zeszyty
Naukowe nr 590, Ekonomiczne Problemy Usług nr 52, Szczecin 2010
Program Rozwoju Turystyki i Zagospodarowania Turystycznego Województwa Podlaskiego w latach
2010 – 2015. Część druga – strategiczna, Białystok listopad 2009
Program rozwoju turystyki i zagospodarowania turystycznego województwa podlaskiego w latach
2010-2015. Część pierwsza – analityczna, Business Mobility International Spółka z o.o.,
Białystok, lipiec 2009
The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011. Beyond the Downturn, J. Blanke, T. Chiesa
(ed.), World Economic Forum, Geneva 2011
The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013. Reducing Barriers to Economic Growth and Job
Creation, J. Blanke, T. Chiesa (ed.), World Economic Forum, Geneva 2013
Założenia Wieloletniego Planu Promocji Województwa Podlaskiego, Katowice, luty 2009
194
THE RELATIONSHIP OF TOURISTIC CONSUMER PERSONALITY TRAIT,
DESTINATION PERSONALITY AND BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS:
THE CASE OF TURKEY
Assoc. Prof.Dr. Sima NART *
Özlem AKSOY **
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceived destination personality of Turkey and to
examine the relationship among perceived destination personality, personality trait of touristic
consumers and tourist’s behavioral intentions. A purposive sample of 147 tourists to Antalya,
Marmaris and Bodrum were surveyed. A research model was proposed with three main hypotheses.
To test the hypothesis the factor and regression analyses was conducted. The findings of the study
indicate that the perceived destination personality of Turkey is three dimensions: excitement,
extroversion and sincerity. These dimensions have determiner role on tourists’ intention to
recommend. The study also analyses relationship between tourists’ personality trait and perceived
destination personality.
Key Words: Personality trait, Big Five, Destination personality, Tourists’ behavioral intention
1. INTRODUCTION
One of the main characteristics of today's tourism industry is fierce competition environment.
The similarity and substitutability among tourism destinations has increased competition in the
tourism sector. Destination marketers emphasize beaches, blue seas, scenery, entertainment and social
atmosphere of destinations (Ekinci et al., 2007). But, these attributes in destination marketing no
longer helps differentiate destinations from their competitors. In the marketing discipline, branding is
a powerful strategy to differentiate any brand from their competitor. There is vast amount of studies
about product and service branding in the marketing literature (Blain, Levy, & Ritchie, 2005).
Destination marketers around the world have been trying to adopt branding strategies to destinations.
Thus, it is possible that to differentiate the identities and to emphasize the uniqueness of their
destinations. Ekinci and Hosany (2006) suggest that destination personality can be used as a viable
metaphor for building destination brands, understanding visitors’ perceptions of destinations, and
crafting a unique identity for tourism places. The tourism literature increasingly acknowledges the
importance of destination personality (Usakli and Baloglu, 2011; Ekinci et al. 2007).
*
Sakarya University, Faculty of Business, [email protected]
Sakarya University, Tourism Vocational School of Kırkpınar,[email protected]
**
195
Brand personality is a popular topic in marketing to investigate consumers’ brand perceptions
and perception management. Understanding brand personality is important because consumers select
brands with personalities that are acceptable to them (Aaker, 1999). It is advantageous tool for
marketers including an increase in consumer preference and usage, an increase in consumer’s trust and
loyalty, and the ability to produce emotional responses in consumers (Guthrie et. al., 2008). A well
constituted brand personality influences consumer preference and patronage and develops stronger
relations with customers. A distinctive brand personality can help to
HYPERLINK
"http://tureng.com/search/stick%20in%20one's%20mind" stick in consumer's mind. On the other hand,
consumers may likely use the brand in line with their own personality traits (Yi Lin, 2010).
Personality is the dynamic organization of physiological systems that creates a person’s characteristic
pattern of behavior, thoughts, and feelings (Allport, 1961). Thus similar personal traits may be use
communicating between brand and the consumer (Govers and Schoormans, 2005).
Even though the topics of destination personality have been studied, few if any studies have
focused on relationship between consumer personality trait and destination personality. Therefore, the
main motivation of the study is formed to fill this gap. In this study, a theoretical model focusing on
relations between consumer personality and perceived destination personality as the antecedent to
tourists’ behavior intention is proposed and tested empirically. This study has three major objectives:
1. Explore the relationship of personality traits and perceived destination personality.
2. Study the influence of destination personality on recommend behavior of touristic consumers.
3. Examine the impact of personality traits on recommend behavior of touristic consumers.
2. LITERATURE
2.1. Personality Trait
According to psychologists, personality refers to an individual’s “inner” characteristics (Allport,
1937; Triandis & Suh, 2002). Personality can be seen as a configuration of an individual’s cognition,
emotion, and motivation, which activates behavior and reflects how the individual adjusts to the
environment. By examining many studies conducted by trait theory researchers, Norman (1963) found
five basic factors through factor analysis of the personality traits measured in peers. The five basic
factors are: extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and culture. Afterwards,
Goldberg (1990) elicited five major traits from a new variable table to support the Big Five Model.
There is a slight difference between the Big Five Model at present and the one proposed by Norman.
McCrae et al. (1986) modified the factor “culture” propounded by Norman to be “openness”, because
they thought that culture only carried small factor loading in the field of wisdom and culture while
originality, creativity, independence and confidence contributed more factor loading. Even if the name
is different, the five factors kept emerging in the subsequent studies (Liebert and Liebert, 1994).
196
McCrae et al. (1986) classified personality traits into five major factors. The five factors are
generally referred to as the Big Five Model, which is extensively used nowadays:
1. Extroversion;
2. Agreeableness;
3. Conscientiousness;
4. Neuroticism; and
5. Openness.
Some personality trait researchers believe that, for the most part, personality traits can be
generated by nature and they are stable, meanwhile some others mention that personality traits will
continue to evolve and they are changeable, even though the natural-born temperament can never
change (Sternberg, 2000). Overall, this paper considers personality traits as stable psychological
features which are generating meaning to human actions and experiences.
2.2. Destination Personality
Human personality can be accepted as the starting point of the research on brand personality.
The best known definition of brand personality defines it as a “set of human characteristics associated
with a brand” (Aaker 1997, p. 347). The brands like humans may possess distinct personality
characteristics (Plummer, 1985). Brand personality is one of the core dimensions of brand equity
(Aaker, 1996), which are related to how people tending to contribute a ''pseudo'' human personality to
the brand itself, rather than to what the brand really does. Understanding brand personality is
important because consumers select brands with personalities that are acceptable to them (Aaker,
1999).
Destination personality refers to brand personality in the context of tourism literature. Ekinci
and Hosany (2006) define destination personality as “the set of personality traits associated with a
destination” (p. 127), adapting Aaker’s (1997) brand personality terminology. Although product/brand
personality research in the consumer goods domain began in the early 1960s (Ekinci & Hosany, 2006),
the investigation and application of brand personality to tourism destinations are relatively new (Gnoth
et al., 2007; Hosany, Ekinci, & Uysal, 2006; Pitt, Opoku, Hultman, Abratt, & Spyropoulou, 2007;
Tasci & Kozak, 2006). A well-established brand personality influences consumer preferences and
patronage (Sirgy, 1982), as well as greater trust and loyalty (Fournier, 1998; Siguaw, Mattila, &
Austin, 1999). Just like a brand personality, a distinctive destination personality can help differentiate
among destinations, and influence both preferences and choice behavior (Murphy, et al., 2007), as well
as help consumers to develop an emotional and social relationship with a place.
Ekinci and Hosany (2006) are the first to examine the applicability and validity of Aaker’s
(1997) brand personality framework in the context of tourism destinations. The authors found that
197
tourists ascribe personality characteristics to destinations, and hence, the concept of BPS can be
applied to tourism destinations. They concluded that destination personality consists of three salient
dimensions, rather than the original five dimensions: sincerity, excitement, and conviviality. Sincerity
and excitement were found to be the two main factors. Conviviality was new and specific to
destinations (Ekinci & Hosany, 2006). Since then, empirical studies on destination personality began
to emerge in the tourism literature.
At the conceptual level, many tourism academics embrace the face validity of the destination
personality construct (Henderson, 2000; Morgan et al., 2004; Crockett and Wood, 2002). For example,
through content analysis of travel and tourism advertisements, Santos (2004) found that personality
attributes such as “contemporary,” “modern,” “sophisticated,” and “traditional” represents Portugal in
the US travel media. Henderson (2000) posits that the New Asia-Singapore brand is comprised of six
personality characteristics: cosmopolitan, youthful, vibrant, modern, reliable and comfort.
2.3. Behavioral Intention (Intention to Recommend)
Consumer attitudes towards a brand in the memory of consumers associate with the brand is
under the influence of the other meanings. This also affects the buying behavior of consumers. From
the perspective of consumers of tourism marketing tourist destination in the city or positive attitudes
towards brands they own behavior is expected to revisit.
In that case, tourism market practitioners should find answer the question that how tourist
attitudes towards a particular destination can change to positive. The answer to this problem is to
create a successful brand then the brand image (Porter, 1985; Holbrook and Batra, 1987). In other
words, the brand personality and brand image attracting the tourist consumers' perceptions are
expected to influence consumers’ attitudes in a positive way. The marketers can affect consumers’
decision making process sending right messages with logical, emotional and informational dimensions
within the framework of the strategies required. One of the indicators reflecting the success of the
strategy or tourist satisfaction of consumers after visiting the tourist destination
is consumers’
recommend behavior of the people around them. In this context, the research is available that
examines the effects of tourism destination image on attitudes and behaviors of tourists. (Ashworth ve
Goodal 1988; Milman ve Pizam, 1995; Bigne, Sanchez ve Sanchez, 2001).
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, FINDINGS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
This study was conducted via a cross-sectional survey of quantitative methodology. To be able
to gather the data required, the main population for this study was determined as all foreign tourists regardless of their size –visiting Turkey. Since the population of the study was unknown and very
large, the sample was constituted by the tourists who visited Antalya, Marmaris and Bodrum. These
cities are most visited cities by foreign tourists in the Turkey destination. Thus, we used purposive
198
sampling due to the difficulties to reach the entire universe. It has been expected that the respondents
who are actively participating in data gathering process can serve our research purpose. During
August-2014, four separate weekends (Saturdays and Sundays) found in each of the 3 city hotels in the
city with 500 foreign tourists were interviewed and received a positive response from their 147
(acceptance rate 29%) constituted the sample of this study.
Based on research model above three hypotheses were questioned in this research study. The
questionnaire was organized into four parts: consumer’s personality traits, destination personality,
behavioral intention and the respondent’s basic information.
The questionnaire used in the study is based on a research model developed for this paper
(figure 1)
Figure 1- Research Model
In terms of personality traits, this study uses the Big Five Model scale developed by John and
Srivastava (1999). To measure the component of the questionnaire, a 5–point Likert scale (ranging
from 1= strongly disagree, to 5= strongly agree) was constructed. For destination personality, this
study refers to questionnaire used by Ekinci and Hosany (2006). This scale is based upon Aaker’s
(1997) Brand Personality Scale (BPS). Ratings for the items were collected using a 5-point Likert type
scale (anchored by 1 = not at all descriptive and 5 = extremely descriptive). Intention to recommend
was operationalized using a 7-point numeric scale with (–3) representing extremely unlikely and (+3)
extremely likely (Cronin and Taylor 1992).
The obtained data was analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). In the
SPSS, frequency distribution and mean values of the variables were conducted in order to identify the
perceptions of touristic consumers with respect to the destination personality of Turkey. Before
checking the hypotheses set out in this study, an exploratory factorial analysis was undertaken with the
aim of reducing the possible dimensions and identifying the determinant factors. Second, the
regression analysis was adopted to test relationship of among variables.
199
3.1. Findings
Before analysis of the data, general descriptive statistics of the sampling can be summarized as
follows: there were slightly more female respondents (53%) than men. The age of the respondents
ranged from 18 to 69, with a mean score of 41 years. Most of the respondents (68 %) were from the
UK, with the majority of them coming from Germany (27 %). This was followed by respondents from
other European countries (0.4%). Among the respondents, 52 % were married and approximately 40
% held a university degree. The major portion of the respondents (28 %) belonged to the income group
of $60,000 - $89,999.
Exploratory Factor Analysis of Personality Traits
An exploratory factor analysis was performed on the 44 personality items to reduce data and to
identify the underlying dimensions. Principal component analysis, with varimax rotation and latent
root criterion (eigenvalues >1), was used in the factor analysis. As recommended by Hair, Black,
Babin, Anderson, and Tatham (2005), factor loadings greater than .50 are considered necessary for
practical significance; therefore, a cutoff point of .50 was established to include items in the
interpretation of a factor. Table 1 displays the factors, factor loadings, eigenvalues, the percentage of
variance explained by the factors, and the corresponding Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients.
According to analyses results four factor dimensions was obtained.
Table 1: Personality Trait Dimensions of Touristic Consumers
Factor Loadings
Personality
Factor 1
Traits
Extroversion
Extraverted
.845
Shy (R)
.777
Quiet (R)
.687
Energetic
.612
Agreeableness
Sympathetic
Warm
Cold (R)
Rude (R)
Conscientiousness
Organized
Disorganized (R)
Systematic
Openness
Creative
Uncreative (R)
Imaginative
Explained Total Variance: % 67.03
Factor 2
Factor 3
Factor4
Egienvalue
Expained
Variance
6.18
28.21
2.82
16.17
2.12
12.67
1.22
9.98
.812
.787
.635
.536
.893
.784
.754
.623
.896
.789
.653
KMO: 0.81
200
Exploratory Factor Analysis of Destination Personality Items
An exploratory factor analysis was performed on the 27 personality items to reduce data and to
identify the underlying dimensions. Principal component analysis, with varimax rotation and latent
root criterion (eigenvalues >1), was used in the factor analysis. Table 2 displays the factors, factor
loadings, eigenvalues, the percentage of variance explained by the factors, and the corresponding
Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients. According to analyses results three factor dimensions was
obtained.
Table 2: Destination personality dimensions for Turkey destination
Factor Loadings
Destination
personality
Excitement
Original
Cheerful
Exciting
Good looking
Glamorous
Sincerity
Friendly
Spirited
Sincere
Family oriented
Ruggedness
Rugged
Tough
Outdoorsy
Factor 1
Factor 2
Factor 3
Egienvalue
Expained
Variance
5.89
30.34
2.47
18.38
1.88
12.27
.831
.788
.714
.672
.603
.773
.658
.581
.539
.633
.581
.526
Explained Total Variance: % 60.99
KMO: 0.782
Regression Analyses
To test the research hypotheses and the effect of personality trait and destination personality
on behavioral intention of touristic consumers’ employed the regression analyses. The results of the
regression analyses between dependent and independent variables are presented in table 3, 4 and 5.
201
Table 3: The Regression Analysis for the Relationship of Personality Traits (extroversion,
agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness) and Destination Personality (excitement, sincerity,
extroversion)
Model/dependent variable
Excitement
Model 1
Independent
Variable
Extroversion
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Openness
Sincerity
Extroversion
Agreeableness
Model 2
Conscientiousness
Openness
Ruggedness Extroversion
Agreeableness
Model 3
Conscientiousness
Openness
*Correlation is significant at 0.01 level
β
p
.149
.136
.047
.112
.038**
.033**
.564
.213
.117
.167
.052
.131
.126
.101
.045
.012
.010**
.024**
.149
.032**
.013**
.068
.085
.040**
Model Significance
F
9.314
Adjusted R2
= 0.369, p =0.000*
4.959
Adjusted R2
= 0.325, p=0.002*
2.724
Adjusted R2
= 0.114, p = 0 .032**
**Correlation is significant at 0.05 level
According to the statistical results in table 3, the regression coefficient is statistically
significant at 0.01 levels and the independent variable (personality trait) has a positive impact on the
destination personality for 3 models. The results show that for model 1 the adjusted R2 score is shown
as 0.36 respectively, which explain 36 % of the variance. For model 2 and model 3 the regression
coefficients are 0.32 and 0.11, respectively. The findings show that, as it was predicted in H1,
destination personality is positively related to the personality traits of touristic consumers’.
The applied regression analyses to test the H2 and H3 hypotheses are presented table 4 and
table 5. These regression models reflect the relationship among destination personalities, personality
traits and recommend behavior.
Table 4: The Regression Analysis for the Influence of Destination Personality on Recommend
Behavior
Dependent variable
Recommend
Behavior
Independent
Variable
Excitement
Sincerity
Ruggedness
β
p
F
.082
.110
.096
.221
.042**
.070
12.325
Model Significance
Adjusted R2
= 0.118, p =0.000*
Correlation is significant at 0.01 level
**Correlation is significant at 0.05 level
202
Table 5: The Regression Analysis for the Influence of Personality Trait on Recommend
Behavior
Dependent variable
Recommend
Behavior
Independent
Variable
Extroversion
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Openness
β
p
F
.058
.199
.082
.109
.065
.020**
.248
.023**
5.896
Model Significance
Adjusted R2
= 0.102, p =0.000*
Correlation is significant at 0.01 level
**Correlation is significant at 0.05 level
It is indicated in table 4 and table 5 that each of the independent variables had a positive effect
on the dependent variable of recommend behavior. The findings showed that the coefficient of
determination (R2) was 0.11 for the association between destination personality and recommend
behavior, representing that 11.8 % of recommend behavior can be explained by the destination
personality. According to table 5, there are similar position between personality traits of tourists and
recommend behavior. But the (R2) value of this model is lower than previous. The explained variation
is 10.2 %.
3. CONCLUSION
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between among destination
personality of Turkey destination, touristic consumers’ personality trait and behavioral intention. The
results of the present study make important theoretical and practical contributions to the understanding
of brand personality and behavioral intentions in the context of tourism destinations.
The major findings of this study were listed as follows:
. There is a significantly positive relationship between excitement destination personality and
extroversion, agreeableness personality trait.
. There is a significantly positive relationship between sincerity destination personality and
agreeableness, extroversion and openness personality trait.
-There is a significantly positive relationship between ruggedness destination personality and
extroversion, and openness personality trait.
. Sincerity destination personality has a significantly positive influence on recommend behavior.
. Agreeableness and openness personality trait have a significantly positive influence on recommend
behavior.
203
While there is a vast body of research on destination marketing in tourism marketing literature,
there is a lack of body analyzing the relationship between consumer personality trait and destination
personality on the behavioral intention of consumers. The paper highlights the value of personality
that benefits a destination marketing organization. By providingempirical data concerning foreign
tourists in Turkey destination this study contributes to the emerging literature and theory. As such, the
paper contributes to academic and practitioner understanding about the relationship of touristic
consumer personality trait, perceived destination personality and recommend intention of consumer.
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206
HOW DOES INTERNAL MARKETING PRACTICE INFLUENCE THE COMPETITIVE
PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES: EVIDENCE FROM TURKISH TOURISM SECTOR
Assoc.Prof.Dr. Sima NART*
Senem NART**
ABSTRACT
The aim of this study is to explore the effects of internal relationship marketing on some
psychological factors such as employee satisfaction, emotional labor and customer oriented behavior.
Strategies and strategic tools to create a competitive organization have been important parts of
market success. From the strategic view of point, internal customers have a critical role in building
competitive advantage. This study is based on a survey conducted in touristic hotels in Antalya. The
data were collected from 764 employees who were working in different positions and departments. In
particular, employees who are relationships with customer were asked to fill out the questionnaire.
This paper with an empirical study result of a research model proposing six postulated hypotheses
towards customer oriented behavior through employees’ competitive performances in tourism sector.
Keywords: Internal releationship marketing, emotional labor, competitiveness
1.
INTRODUCTION
In today’s highly competitive marketplace, to create and then maintain competitiveness
represents the leading interest for all type of organizations. Barney (1991) suggests that any
organization must consider three basic types of resources namely physical capital, organizational
capital, and human capital as the agents of competitiveness. The resources-based view of Barney is
widely accepted in academic areas analyzing the sources of competitiveness. The factors determining
the quality of human capital such as skills, intelligence, and the intellectual capacity of people can also
be taken into account as the determinants of firms’ competitive market performance. In this context,
the aim of this study is to shed light on the effect of internal marketing practice on the competitive
performance of employees in the service industry.
Many empirical studies (Lado and Wilson, 1994; Wright, McMahan, McWilliams, 1994;
Jackson, Schuler, 1995) generated clear evidence that the human capital of the organization was the
leading source of competitive advantage. The factors determining the quality of human capital such as
skills, intelligence, and the intellectual capacity of people can also be taken into account as the
determinants of firms’ competitive market performance. Within this context, without direct
*
Sakarya University, Faculty of Business, [email protected]
Balikesir University, Social Sciences Institute, PhD Candidate, [email protected]
**
207
contributions from human resources, competitiveness cannot be gained just with technical steps such
as technology or physical capital. The leading question, thus, is to ask ‘what conditions can create a
superior contribution by the labor force to the competitiveness of the organization’.
Organization members are especially important in service industry due to their direct roles in
organizations’ market practices. Tourism industry represents one of the leading areas in services with
its employee-based productions. This paper tries to understand the drivers of competitive performance
of people in organizations. This study focuses on exploring the effects of internal relationship
marketing (IRM) practices on employees’ competitive performance in tourism industry through some
psychological factors such as internal customer satisfaction, and emotional labor.
2. LITERATURE
2.1 Internal Marketing
Internal marketing has become a strategic approach that firms use to enhance their employees’
motivation and abilities to increase organizational performance. As suggested by Gronroos (1981),
firms should treat their employees as internal customers to enhance their satisfaction. Thus, employees
can develop more customer-focused, market-oriented attitudes. In addition that employees can focus
on addressing customers’ needs, thus the company can develop customer-oriented service.
Employees has critical role to provide greater value for customers. Firms have broader vision
give special importance to employees as well as their customers. Strong relations with employees have
positive effects on customer satisfaction and market success. Research has shown that (Pugh, 2001,
Grandey, 2000) the feelings of employees directly influence the way of acting towards external
customers. On the other hand, previous studies with empirical results clearly indicate that positive
displays reflected by internal customers such as smiling, conveying friendliness, and acting with
problem solving approach are positively associated with competitive results from the area of external
customers such as intention to return or intention to recommend the organizations to others (Grandey,
2003). In the other words, internal customers has determiner role on external customers’ performance
evaluation process of the firm.
2.2. Employee Satisfaction
Satisfaction has been studied widely in marketing literature in the context of building
organizational competitiveness. Accordingly, it should be noted that the higher level the competition
is, the more important market players’ ability to satisfy will be. Broadly defined, customer satisfaction
is a customer’s overall evaluation based on the consumption experience of goods and services over
time (Anderson, Fornell and Mazvancherly, 2004). In a highly competitive marketplace, customer
satisfaction is viewed in the literature as a strategic issue and a leading source of competitive
advantage (Fornell et al., 2006). Several studies with empirical results (Bolton and Lemon, 1999;
208
Ennew and Binks, 1999; Yang and Peterson, 2004) indicate that customer satisfaction plays the role of
a primary and direct link to outcome measures. The relationship between customer satisfaction and
their behavioral loyalty has been clearly presented in the vast body of research (Gronholdt, Martensen
and Kristensen, 2000; Gruca and Rego, 2005). In linking this evidence for customers’ behavioral
loyalty with the context of organizational approach, an important role of internal customer satisfaction
on their superior performance for competitive advantage of the firm might logically be expected. The
conceptualization of the customer satisfaction construct has expanded over the years into internal
customers’ as well as external ones (Jackson, 1991; Hauser and Simester, 1996). Berry’s concept of
“employee as customer” (1981) explains the needs of employees to be satisfied like the needs of
external customers. The main assumption in this approach is that fulfilling employee needs enhances
employee motivation and enthusiasm, and as a consequence the higher the degree of employee
satisfaction, the higher the degree of creating external satisfaction and loyalty (Ahmed and Rafiq,
2003).
2.3. Emotional Labor
Highly intense competition, particularly in the service industry, requires that organizations
continually seek out the way of competitiveness through offering higher customer value for their target
groups. In the process of generating higher customer value, the interaction between employees and
external customers is considered an essential part due to its effect on customers’ evaluations for both
service quality and their relationship with the organization (Henning-Thurau et al., 2002). This area of
research represents the efforts of exploring either the role of emotional labor in creating superior
organizational performance or its antecedents in the workplace. In the literature of services marketing,
emotional labor refers to employees’ display of expected emotions as a self-regulatory process
(Hochschild, 1983; Ashforth and Tomiuk, 2000). Morris and Feldman (1996, p.987) maintain that
emotional labor is the expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal
transactions. Both definitions highlight the importance of employees’ displayed emotions as one of the
main parts of work performance. More specifically, in order to generate competitiveness for the
organization through customer relations, internal customers are expected to represent the organization
in a brilliant way with positive attitudes and behaviors “regardless of circumstances” (Bettencourt,
Gwinner and Meuter, 2001, p.41). Related literature suggests that emotional labor of employees can be
appeared in two separate forms: Surface acting which explains the behavior of employees who
evaluate their true feelings as not conforms to their current role, and therefore has a tendency of
“faking” for organizational benefits. However, deep acting stresses modifying the inner feelings to
match expressions and behaviors (Grandey, 2003).
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2.4. Customer Oriented Behavior
Ashforth and Humphrey (1993) suggested that front-line personnel who interact with
customers are the interface between firms and customers. They represent the organization and present
the overall image of the organization to customers. Therefore, in performing their services, front-line
personnel must respect customers by displaying appropriate emotions. According to Siguaw et al.
(1994), a key factor in customer satisfaction and competitive advantage is enhancing employees’
customer orientation.
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, FINDINGS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
This study has been conducted via a cross-sectional survey of quantitative methodology.
Current study was conducted in tourism industry in Antalya to test the research model for generating
insight on the relationship between internal RM and some related consequences. With the developing
potential, Antalya is one of the leading tourism destinations of Turkey. One-third of Turkey's hotels
are located in Antalya, it is about 1200 hotels. Social Security Instuition of Antalya estimated the
number of employees in the tourism sector in Antalya as 318 thousand in 2012. Since the population
of the study was very large, we use convenience sampling. The sample was constituted by hotel
employees who are willing in data gathering process. Thus, a total of 764 questionnaires with full of
closed ended questions were collected.
In order to minimize the sampling error in quantitative research, the sample should be as larger
as possible (Lewis, 1984). In the literature of marketing research (Tinsley and Tinsley, 1987; Hinkin
et al., 1997), it is suggested to build a positive relationship between the sample size and the number of
items asked in the survey, representing a ratio of at least 1:4 or 1:5.
The questionnaire used in the study is based on a research model developed for this paper
(figure 1).
210
Figure 1. Research Model
Based on research model above six hypotheses are questioned in this research study. The
questionnaire was organized into five parts: internal marketing practice, employee satisfaction,
emotional labor, customer- oriented behavior and the respondent’s basic information. A face-to-face
questionnaire including Likert, and scales was developed for literature study. A forward and backward
translation process was used and pilot testing was undertaken to identify ambiguous questions, errors,
and translation issues. Scale development for internal marketing practice is outlined in Huang and
Rundle-Thiele (2013) item scale was supported in a tourism context. Measures concerned with
employee satisfaction were sourced from Bearden and Netemeyer (1999). For measuring emotional
labor, we used Grandey’s (2003) emotional labor scale and Diefendorff et al. (2005). The study
measures the degree of hotel employees customer oriented behavior by using the scale of customeroriented behavior developed by Brown et al. (2002). To measure the item of the questionnaire, a 5–
point Likert scale (ranging from 1= strongly disagree, to 5= strongly agree) was constructed.
The data will be analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). In the
SPSS, frequency distribution and mean values of the variables will be conducted in order to identify
the perceptions of hotel employees about variables.
Moreover, the regression analysis will be
conducted to examine hypotheses in the research model.
The collected data were analyzed by employing SPSS program to see the statistical results on
the constructs of research model. A series of regression analysis were used to measure the validity of
the research model developed in this study that estimates the unique effect of internal Relational
Marketing Practice activities on Customer Oriented Behavior through Employee Satisfaction and
Emotional Labor.
211
5. FINDINGS
In total, over the period of 8 weeks in June – July 2014 the number of usable questionnaires collected
from respondents who worked in different positions and departments. In particular, employees who
are relationships with customer were asked to fill out the questionnaire. The sample of 746
respondents answering the questionnaire fully has been considered for analysis of data. The frequency
distribution of these sample characteristics is shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Frequency Distribution of Sample characteristics
Gender
Age
Education
Seniority
Job level
Items
Male
Female
Below 25 years old
26-35 years old
36-45 years old
Above 46 years old
Below senior high school
(vocational school)
Graduate School or higher
Below 2 years
3-8 years
9-15 years
15 years or more
Front desk personnel
Waiter
Bell captain
Bellboy
Number of Samples
421
325
160
409
147
30
Percentage
43.4 %
56.6 %
21.4 %
54.7 %
19.7 %
4 %
285
461
217
376
125
28
132
171
92
123
38.1 %
61.7 %
29 %
50.3 %
16.7 %
3.7 %
17.6 %
22.9 %
12.3 %
16.4 %
Housekeeping
79
10.6 %
other
112
15 %
The reliability of measure in the proposed model was tested. Cronbach’s alpha was used as an
internal consistency measure (Hair et al., 2000). It should be analyzed the Alpha coefficient for each
construct involved in research model because of its eclectic structure coming from 4 separate scales.
Table 1 presents Alpha scores for each construct of the model. The table indicates that Alpha
coefficients of each construct are higher than threshold value of 0.60. This suggests that the eclectic
scale of this study is highly reliable to measure the hypothetical relationships between the constructs
involved in the model.
212
Table 2: Cronbach Alpha Coefficients of the Research Model
Constructs
Internal Marketing Practice
Employee Satisfaction
Emotional Labor
Customer Oriented Behavior
Total
Item
number
Alpha
15
3
14
12
.74
.85
.75
.80
Huang and Rundle-Thiele (2013)
Bearden and Netemeyer (1999)
Grandey (2003) and Diefendorff et al. (2005).
Brown et al. (2002)
44 items
The independent sample t-test was conducted on the grand mean scores of the constructs involved in
the research model to determine if significant differences existed between the genders of “Women”
and “Men”, and also between the genders. Table 3 describes the results of the statistical analyses for
each sub-group in the sample of this study.
Table 3: t- test results for the Group of Women and Men on Model Constructs
Internal Marketing practice
Employee Satisfaction
Emotional Labor
Customer Oriented Behavior
Group A
(women)
Grand
Mean*
3.89
4.02
3.80
4.11
Group B
(Men)
Grand
SD
Mean*
.982
3.71
1.076
3.82
.876
3.88
.977
3.80
SD
t
Sig.
1.124
.887
1.084
.899
1.604
1.225
-0.781
1.488
0.163
0.258
0.469
0.195
*The negative t-values mean that Group B has higher mean scores than Group A for the related items. The criteria were
based on a five-point scale, ranging from 1= strongly disagree to 5= strongly agree.
In order to assess the validity of 6 hypotheses proposed in this research we employed the
method of regression analysis. Prior to running the regression analyses, a correlation test was
performed to look for possible signs of multicollinearity. The results of correlation analysis show that
the independent relationships of all the constructs involved in the model are positively correlated to
each other. To test the research hypotheses and the effect of internal marketing activities on customer
oriented behavior through employee satisfaction and emotional labor employed regression analysis.
The results of the regression analyses for how predictive the activities of internal marketing practice
on the dependent variables are presented in table 4, 5 and 6.
Table 4: Regression Analyses for Internal Marketing Practice and Employee Satisfaction
Depended Variable (Employee Satisfaction)
Independent Variables
β
Sig.
Adjusted R2
F
Internal Marketing Practice
.359*
0.000
0.481
110.226
*Correlation is significant at 0.01 level
According to the statistical results in table 4, the regression coefficient is statistically
significant at 0.01 levels and the independent variable (internal marketing practice) has a positive
impact on the employee satisfaction. The results show that an H1 hypothesis of the study is supported
213
by data gathered from the sampled group. The adjusted R2 score is shown as 0.48 respectively, which
explain 48 % of the variance in predicting employee satisfaction by the items in the questionnaire
used. The findings show that, as it was predicted in H1, employee satisfaction is positively related to
the activities of internal marketing practice.
Regression analyses towards second group of hypotheses are summarized in table 5. Internal
marketing practice and Employee satisfaction are independent variables and Emotional Labor is
dependent variables in table 5 in the context of H2 and H4.
Table 5: Regression Analyses for Internal Marketing Practice, Employee Satisfaction and
Emotional Labor
Dependent Variable (Emotional Labor)
Independent Variables
Internal Marketing Practice
Employee Satisfaction
*Correlation is significant at 0.01 level
β
Sig.
.402*
.193*
0.000
0.000
Adjusted R2
F
0.252
125.762
The H2 and H3 hypotheses of the research expecting a positive and significant relationship
between internal marketing practice, employee satisfaction and emotional Labor. Both of the
hypotheses were supported by the data from this research. The hypothesis H2 was reflecting the
expectation that if internal marketing practice in an organization increases, then, emotional labor of
employees will also increase. Similarly, hypothesis H3 proposed that emotional labor of employees
would be related to employees’ satisfaction. In line with the expectations of H2 and H3, the regression
model was significant in each hypothesis. It should be noted that the variable of internal marketing
practice has relatively greater effect on the dependent variable of emotional labor.
The final group of hypotheses (H4, H5 and H6) in this study deals with the association among
internal marketing practice, emotional labor, employee satisfaction and customer oriented behavior.
The results for H3, H4 and H5 are presented in table 6.
Table 6: Regression Analyses for Internal Marketing Practice, Emotional Labor, Employee
Satisfaction.
Independent Variables
Employee Satisfaction
Internal Marketing practice
Emotional Labor
*Correlation is significant at 0.01 level
Dependent Variable Customer Oriented
Behavior
β
Sig.
Adjusted R2
F
0.611
389.244
.687*
0.000
.055** 0.040
.163*
0.000
** Correlation is significant at 0.05 level
214
It is indicated in table 6 that each of the independent variables had a significant and positive
effect on the dependent variable of customer oriented behavior. The findings showed that the
coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.611 for the association between employee satisfaction and
customer oriented behavior, representing that 61.1 % of customer oriented behavior can be explained
by the variable employee satisfaction. The other hypotheses of this study dealing with the relationship
among the independent variable of customer oriented behavior and the dependent variable internal
marketing practice and emotional labor. Also, the relatively higher beta value for H5 reports that the
variable employee satisfaction has more influence than other variables on the dependent variable of
customer oriented behavior.
6. CONCLUSION
Relational marketing activities developed by organizations to attract, keep, and extend
customers towards avoiding the competitive attacks of other firms can be adopted into the internal
environment of any organization. It should be noted that investing in relationships and creating
customer value through relationships are the main focus of relational marketing strategy. By adopting
this competitive strategy into the processes related to internal customers, any organization can
generate higher value for its employees through putting customer-orientation philosophy at the heart
of the internal environment. Such organizational behavior calls for a consideration of the strategic
perspective and a broader vision rather than short-run viewpoints.
This paper has shown the effects of the internal marketing practice that employees were
exposed to, on employee satisfaction; emotional labor within the construct of customer oriented
behavior representing the main dependent variable of the study was analyzed in an empirical context
in order to contribute to the understanding on this area of research. More specifically, we analyzed the
issue of relational marketing which is a leading topic in marketing science, and the issue of emotional
labor, representing the area investigated intensively in management literature, within the same context.
The results of regression analyses showed that internal marketing practices implemented by the
management in an organization had significant and positive contributions to employee satisfaction and
emotional labor of employees.
While there is a vast body of research on relationship marketing in marketing literature, there
is a lack of body analyzing the internal marketing practices in Tourism Industry. Relationship
marketing represents an approach from a strategic perspective in marketing science, and thus it can be
viewed as one of the parts of strategic marketing management with a customer orientation. By
adopting this competitive strategy into the processes related to internal customers, any organization
can generate higher value for its employees. By providingempirical data concerning hotel employees
in Turkey this study contributes to the emerging literature and theory. As such, the paper contributes to
215
academic and practitioner understanding about the influence of internal marketing practices on
employees’ customer oriented behavior through employee satisfaction and emotional labor.
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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN HALFETİ AND AYVALIK AS THE
RECENT AND POTENTIAL CITTASLOWS1
Assit. Prof. Dr. M. Behzat EKİNCİ*
ABSTRACT
This paper asserts that Sustainable Tourism Development would be realised more
systematically and speedily if the number of Cittaslows could be increased all over the world. In this
paper, the case of Ayvalık is studied particularly. For this purpose, Cittaslow candidateship of Ayvalık
is offered under four main criteria, namely: historic structures, natural resources, socio-cultural
values, and touristic capacities. In this context, and with particular importance being given to these
four major criteria, extensive data on Ayvalık have been collected and its Cittaslow capacity revealed.
Later, the appropriateness of Ayvalık to be Cittaslow was established through a comparative
descriptive analysis by using Halfeti, as the base, being the recent Cittaslow in Turkey as of August
2014.
Key Words: Cittaslow Philosophy, Sustainable Tourism Development (STD), Balıkesir, Ayvalık.
JEL Classification: Q01, L83.
1. INTRODUCTION
Obsolescence and depreciation of historic heritage, destruction of natural resources/splendour,
and degeneration in socio-cultural values have compelled individuals, institutions, and societies all
over the world to take some counter measures. In this context, initiatives are launched and various
organizations formed. Of such movements, none are independent of sustainable development and, in
this context, of sustainable tourism development.
As one of these initiatives, Cittaslow was conceived as a movement to prevent or slow the
negative effects of the processes of modernisation such as loss of historic heritage, swift consumption
of natural resources and a decrease in renewal capacity, oblivion and/or neglect of socio-cultural
values and, in this context, traditions. When considering this side of the coin, Cittaslow, consisting of
an Italian word ‘citta’ and an English word ‘slow’, meaning ‘slow city’, can be assessed as a
philosophy.
1
Prepared based on “Ekinci, Mehmet Behzat (2014), The Cittaslow Philosophy in the Context of Sustainable Tourism Development; The
Case of Turkey, Tourism Management, 41:178-189
*
Mardin Artuklu University, [email protected]
219
This philosophy, aiming at constituting places which are at peace with their history, nature,
and socio-cultural values, is directly related to STD because of such features. In fact, all cities which
adopt and practise this philosophy are simultaneously implementing STD.
Material and Method
The main assertion of the paper is that STD would be realised more systematically and rapidly
if the Cittaslow philosophy could be spread around the world. Proposal of the paper is that some
Cittaslow candidate cities in Turkey are expected to have the potential to execute STD at institutional
level when transitioning to Cittaslows. Here the case of Ayvalık is studied by taking into account the
recent Cittaslow in Turkey, Halfeti, as a base city to make related comparisons. Methodology of the
paper is as follows: First, an extensive data have been collected through e-mail surveys and the
Cittaslow capacities of Halfeti and Ayvalık revealed. Then, a comparative descriptive analysis of the
strengths and weaknesses of these cities has been conducted.
The paper consists of three sections: The first consists of conceptual framework on sustainable
development and Cittaslow philosophy. The second section includes some information concerning
Cittaslow practices in the world and Turkey. In the last, Cittaslow candidateship of Ayvalık is assessed
through the extensive data collection and a comparative descriptive analysis by using the city of
Halfeti as the base.
2. SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND CITTASLOW PHILOSOPHY
2.1. Sustainable Tourism Development
Rempel (2009, 76) states that the notion ‘sustainable development’, having been the subject of
negotiation starting from its first appearance in print with the publication of ‘Our Common Future’
(also known as the Bruntland Report, UN, 1987), involves the integration of various impacts. In this
context, he says that the concept of sustainable development, as applied to tourism, is about an
evolving understanding of the complex and dynamic relationships between various parts of the socialecological system. Bramwell and Lane (1993) [quoted in Mycoo (2006, 490)] similarly say that
sustainable tourism is a positive approach aimed at reducing the tensions caused by the complex
interaction of the tourism industry; tourists, the environment, and the hosts catering for holidaymakers.
Lerner and Haber (2000) [quoted in Ayaş (2007, 64)] list tourism resources, with respect to
their chronological order of rise to prominence, into two main parts. One: Natural Tourism Resources:
climate, land structure and shape, plant cover, natural monuments, hot springs, curative water,
beaches, natural splendour, geological formations, drinkable water resources, and animal species.
Two: Developed Tourism Resources: qualified labour, information sources, transportation, sewerage
and waste water, electricity, and communication systems, infrastructure and superstructure e.g. airport,
resort, hotel, motel, restaurant, shopping centre, recreational area, aqua park, and museum. Sustainable
220
tourism requires the preservation of the first resources and, taking sustainability into consideration, the
developmentof the second. In this context, the sustainability of natural resources must be paramount
during execution of touristic activities, and developed tourism resources should be compatible with the
sustainability of human, flora, and fauna systems.
In a further version of tourism resources, Welford and Ytterhus (2004, 412) state that the
product/service packaged and sold by the tourism sector depends on the availability of clean seas,
unspoiled mountains, unpolluted water, clean streets, well preserved buildings and archaeological
sites, and different cultural traditions. Jiang (2009, 118), on the other hand, includes people in his
approach and says that a sub-system within the environment is formed by the population in touristic
areas. This sub-system is the ecological basis that supports human development and eliminates general
environmental impacts. He states that this system allocates and consumes the resources and ecological
services of the environment to sustain life and develop society.
For Sezgin and Kalaman (2008, 436), sustainable tourism is a managerial process essentially
related to the environment, and this management must be tailored to meet the needs of both hosts and
holidaymakers for cultural integrity, ecology, biological diversity, and vital functions. Hawkins (1994)
[quoted in Welford and Ytterhus (2004, 415)] also emphasizes the managerial side of sustainable
tourism and makes some concrete proposals accordingly. In this context, he describes the starting
point for environmental management as the development of programmes for: efficient use of energy;
minimisation of waste from facilities by requiring suppliers to reduce packaging, implementing
programmes to reuse products, composting biodegradable wastes, and recycling of non-avoidable
wastes; minimising water use by installing water saving technology and reusing water for secondary
activities such as watering gardens; and efficient disposal of waste. All these programmes are directly
related to tourism development as their execution is oriented towards the sustainability of touristic
activities.
In addition to such concrete proposals, a broader approach to sustainable tourism belongs to
the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), a global authority in sustainable tourism
theory and practice. The UNWTO (2013) defines sustainable tourism simply, as: 'Tourism that takes
full account of its current and future environmental, economic, and socio-cultural impacts, addressing
the needs of tourists, the industry, the environment, and host communities'. In this context UNWTO
makes further concrete proposals stating that sustainable tourism should:make optimal use of
environmental resources, and thus, must maintain essential ecological processes and help to conserve
natural heritage and biodiversity; respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities, conserve
their built and living cultural heritage/traditional values; ensure viable, long-term economic operations
providing socio-economic benefits to all stakeholders in the context of a fair distribution of stable
employment, income-earning opportunities, social services to host communities; provide means for
221
the wide participation of all relevant stakeholders as well as strong political leadership to ensure wide
participation and consensus building; maintain a high level of tourist satisfaction and ensure a
meaningful experience for tourists; raise the awareness of tourists about sustainability issues and
promote sustainable tourism practices amongst them.
2.2. Cittaslow Philosophy
As an initiative, Cittaslow, launched in 1999 by Paolo Saturnini, mayor of Greve in Chianti in
Toscana region in Italy, it introduces some standards and action plans to constitute tranquil and
peaceful cities and leads the cities to put them into effect. Cittaslow, in this context, as a movement
aiming at the development of a city in a different style by improving life quality has been supported by
some other mayors in Italy and started its activities through contribution of Slow Food Organization.
As a global, non-profit member-supported association founded in 1989 with supporters in 160
countries around the world as of midst of 2014 which are linking the pleasure of good food with a
commitment to their community and the environment, Slow Food counters the rise of fast food and
fast life, the disappearance of local food traditions and people’s dwindling interest in the food they eat,
where it comes from, how it tastes and how their food choices affect the rest of the world. Slow Food
states its mission as “promoting good, clean, and fair food for all”. The Association expresses its
philosophy as below:
“We believe that everyone has a fundamental right to the pleasure of good food and
consequently the responsibility to protect the heritage of food, tradition, and culture that make
this pleasure possible”.
One of the main aims of Cittaslow is to disperse the philosophy of Slow Food to local
communities and also to their administrations and thus to provide the implementation of the concept
‘Ecogastronomy’ in daily life (Ecogastronomy Initiative, 2014). The cities who take part in Cittaslow
movement endeavours to effectuate the following main principles: They mind public health, in this
context, they care for procurement of healthy products and food; They encourage traditional
handicrafts and valuable craft studies; They mind the structure of the city. In this context, they
construct squares, theatres, shopping centers, coffee houses, and restaurants without harming the
structure of the city; They are respectful to traditions which provides a tranquil and peaceful
atmosphere.
2.3. Requirements for a Cittaslow in the Context of Sustainable Tourism Development
There are a lot of requirements to become a Cittaslow and such requirements are updated in
time. Here, the requirements stated in the Association’s charter shall be taken into account. These are
59 items classified under 6 major subjects as given in Table 1 (Cittaslow Association, 2014-b).
222
Table 1: Major Requirements for Cittaslow Membership in terms of STD
Major Subject
I-Environmental
Policies
Requirement
1. Verification of the quality of air, water, and soil under the parameters
established by law,
2. Existing purification facilities for urban or collective sewage,
3. Preparation of projects that stimulate the collection of urban and private wastes
by decomposing them,
4. Encouraging the recycling/safe disposal of industrial waste and the composting
of household waste,
5. Preparation of a municipal plan for saving energy, with particular reference to
the use of alternative sources of energy (renewable resources, green hydrogen,
mini-hydroelectric power plant),
6. Banning the use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) in agriculture,
7. Establishing systems for controlling and reducing electromagnetic, noise, and
light pollution,
8. Adoption of environmental management systems (EMAS and ECOLABEL or
ISO 9001; ISO 14000, SA 8000 etc.).
II-Safeguarding
1. Promoting organic and/or locally planted products,
Autochthonous
2. Determining local products and supporting them for their commercial value
Production
e.g. alloting them spaces in the bazaars,
3. Preserving and encouraging cultural traditions,
4. Preparing relevant planning and certification programmes for saving
tradesmen, craftsmen, and working methods/products which are in danger of
dying out.
III-Infrastructural
1. Preparation of plans for developing and improving historic centres and/or
Policies
works of cultural and historic value,
2. Making plans for safe transportation and traffic,
3. Promotion of programmes to facilitate family life and local activities,
4. Applying programmes for redevelopment and improvement of urban life,
5. Preparation of plans for the distribution of merchandise and the construction of
commercial centres for natural products.
IV-Technologies
1. Providing wastebins consistent with environmental requirements and removal
and Facilities
of rubbish in accordance with an announced timetable,
for Urban
2. Arranging programmes and promotional activities for planting environmentally
Quality
suitable plants, preferably local ones,
3. Making plans to brighten up the urban landscape e.g. flowers in house, window
boxes, and gardens; hanging baskets and green spaces in public places; and
clean, fresh paintwork on buildings.
V-Hospitality
1. Carrying out training courses on the provision of tourist information and
quality hospitality,
2. Using international signs on signboards at historic places,
3. Arranging the ‘slow’ routes of the city.
VI-Awareness
1. Informing people about the aims and procedures of Cittaslow and how to
become such a city,
2. Preparation of programmes to attract social interest in acquiring the ‘slow’
philosophy, and the application of Cittaslow projects such as educational
gardens, parks, and libraries,
3. Preparation of training programmes in schools on taste and nutrition in
collaboration with the Slow Food Initiative.
Source: Cittaslow Association (2014-b), “Charter”,
http://www.cittaslow.org/section/association/charter, (06.06.2014).
223
As can be seen from Table 1, almost all requirements are related to STD. It can, therefore, be
asserted that the Cittaslow philosophy contributes directly to STD if implemented correctly.
3. CITTASLOW PHILOSOPHY IN THE WORLD AND TURKEY
3.1. Cittaslow International
As of August 2014, number of Cittaslow members is 189 cities, 74 of which is in Italy, in 29
countries. The names are as follows alphabetically (Cittaslow Association, 2014-c): Australia, Austria,
Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,
Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Taiwan, the Netherlands, Turkey, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, and the USA.
Cittaslow Movement having a Scientific Committee including scientists from different
countries assesses a city which applies for being a Cittaslow in accordance with the determined criteria
and accepts it as a member if meets the requirements. Cittaslow does not interest only in the concept
‘Slow City’ but also studies on related projects such as climate change, environmental sustainability,
sustainable eco-systems, economic performance and social development, and sustainable energy
(Cittaslow Association, 2014-a).
3.2. Cittaslow in Turkey
The first Cittaslow member in Turkey was Seferihisar of İzmir in western Anatolia which
describes itself as ‘The Cittaslow Capital of Turkey’. The cities in Turkey that have received Cittaslow
membership as of August 2014 are as follows:
1.
Perşembe (Ordu; Central Black Sea Region)
2.
Taraklı (Sakarya; Marmara Region)
3.
Vize (Kırklareli; Marmara Region)
4.
Gökçeada (Çanakkale; Marmara Region)
5.
Seferihisar (İzmir, Aegegan Region)
6.
Yenipazar (Aydın; Agean Region)
7.
Akyaka (Muğla; Aegean Region)
8.
Yalvaç (Isparta; Western Mediterranean Region)
9.
Halfeti (Urfa, South-East Anatolia Region).
These cities are marked on the map of Turkey, Figure 1.
224
Figure 1: Cittaslows in Turkey (August 2014)
New candidates are going through the necessary procedures for membership. However, as will
be seen, current Cittaslow members are mostly in the western regions of Turkey and no member or
candidate city, with the exceptions of Perşembe of Ordu in the Central Black Sea Region and Halfeti
of Urfa in the South-East Anatolia Region, is situated in the central or eastern regions of the country.
3.3. Halfeti as the Recent Cittaslow and Ayvalık as a Potential Cittaslow Candidate in
Turkey
To be named a Cittaslow, the criteria whose detailed information in terms of its sub-elements
have been given under the previous title are required for a city. In this context, to summarise, the
following main policies should be implemented in a candidate city:
a) Some environmental policies should be implemented,
b) Some infrastructure policies should be implemented,
c) Certain level of technologies and facilities for urban quality should be obtained,
d) Local production should be preserved.
e) Hospitality should be kept in the center of public/private administrative/commercial services.
It is obvious that for a city to be named a Cittaslow, drastic changes should be realised.
Moreover, sustainability of the changes is also very important. In this context, implementation and
sustainability of a Cittaslow Project is not only the responsibility of the administrators of that location
but also of the whole persons and institutions living there.
225
It should be noted that considering the requirements of Cittaslow philosophy contains some
challenges, the following main criteria have been taken into account when selecting the candidate
cities:
1.
Historical Background: A candidate city is supposed to be a historical one,
2.
Natural Structure: A candidate city is supposed to have natural sources and beauties,
3.
Socio-Cultural Features: A candidate city is supposed to have various traditional
values and heritages,
4.
Tourism Structure: A candidate city is supposed to have a touristic potential.
Essentially, these criteria are not very much different from those determined by the Cittaslow
Initiative, being regarded as a compressed version of them which are also available in Table 2.
Table 2: Compressed Version of Requirements to Becoming a Cittaslow
Criteria
History
Natural Structure
Socio-Cultural Features
Tourism Capacity
Explanation
• Info on the history
• Ruling civilizations
• Climate
• Info on flora and fauna
• Natural splendour
• Major traditional handicrafts
• Local traditional foods/drinks
• Info on maintenance of local traditional foods/drinks
• Major historic buildings
• Potential touristic activities
• Info on accomodation facilities with bedspaces
Here, Ayvalık is offered as a potential Cittaslow candidate. For this purpose, candidateship of
Ayvalık is offered under these four main criteria, namely: historic structures, natural resources, sociocultural values, and touristic capacities. In this context, and with particular importance being given to
these four major criteria, extensive data on Ayvalık is presented in a table and its Cittaslow capacity
revealed. However, for making comparison, first of all, the same table is prepared for the recent
Cittaslow of Turkey, Halfeti.
Halfeti, a town of Urfa, was the recent Cittaslow in Turkey. This historic and touristic city
accommodates 38,737 people as of 2013 (ADNKS, 2014).
226
Table 3: Halfeti as the Recent Cittaslow in Turkey
Criteria
Explanation
History
•
•
Natural Structure
•
•
•
•
Socio-Cultural Features
•
•
•
Tourism Capacity
•
•
•
•
Its past goes back as far as 2,000 B.C.
Ruling civilisations: Hittits, Assyrians, Babylon, Meds, Persians,
Macedonians, Seleucuses, Osrhoenes, Romans, Byzantines,
Sasanids, Omayads, Abbasids, Seljuks, Ayyoubis, Mongols,
Mamlouks, and Ottomans.
It is a micro climate region due to Euphrates and shows a typical
feature of Mediterranean climate.
Euphrates coast is like a green line.
There are endemic plants (i.e. black rose) and bugs.
More than half of the arable land is covered by pistachio, wineyard,
and olive trees.
Different ethnic groups have been living together from long past.
Major traditional handicrafts: cold ironworking, carpentry,
shoemaking, and the production of various hand-made giftwares.
Local traditional foods/drinks: Zahter Suyu, Şabut Balığı Kebabı,
Sacda Patlıcan Kebabı, Domatesli Kebap, Urfa Kebap, Soğanlı
Kebap, Çağırtlak Kebabı, Patlıcan Aşı, Dolma Eziği, Etli Bulgur
Pilavı, Erik Tavası, İncir Kebabı, Mukaşşerli Pilav, Sarığı Burma
Tatlısı, Peynir Helvası, Kebat Reçeli, and Semsek.
Major historic buildings: Rum Castle, Kanterma Mezrası Khan, Aziz
Nerses Church, Barşavma Monastery, Norhut Church, cisterns, wells
and several other historic heritages left under the water of Birecik
Dam.
New Halfeti (40 percent of total area) is settled in an area called
‘Karaotlak’ and old Halfeti left under water (60 percent of total area)
is being transformed into a touristic area.
Potential touristic activities: water skiing, diving, ATV motor safari,
boat tour, bird observation, and trekking.
There are four accomodation facilities with 80 bedspaces.
Sources:
• Municipality of Halfeti (2014), “Halfeti”, http://www.halfetibelediyesi.com, (07.07.2014).
• District Governorship of Halfeti (2014), “Halfeti”, http://www.halfeti.gov.tr, (07.07.2014).
Ayvalık, a town of Balıkesir, lies on the coast of Aegean Sea and is one of the major touristic
cities in Turkey. It has a population of 64,462 as of 2013 (ADNKS, 2014).
227
Table 4: Ayvalık as a Cittaslow Candidate
Criteria
History
Natural Structure
Socio-Cultural Features
Tourism Capacity
Explanation
• According to some reports its past goes back to 330 B.C.
• Ruling civilisations: Hellens, Romans, Karesioğuls, and Ottomans.
• It has a moderate coastal climate.
• It has winds called ‘İmbat’ full of iodine and odor of pine tree.
• According to a research, there are 752 kinds of plants. There are also
4 endemic plants.
• There are around 2.5 million olive trees.
• It has more than 100 km coast line.
• It has very colorful coral reefs and very clear sea water ideal for
underwater photography.
• It has 24 small islands suitable for scuba diving.
• It has 1,868 Cultural and Natural Heritages under protection.
• There is ‘Ayvalık Islands Natural Park’ on 17,950 hectare area.
• ‘Şeytan Sofrası’ is one of the major splendours where one can
observe a very fascinating sunset.
• Major traditional handicrafts: wood engraving, wood painting, and
the production of various hand-made giftwares.
• Production of olive, olive oil, and olive soap are among the major
economic activities.
• Local traditional foods/drinks: Papalina, Zeytinyağlı Ot Yemekleri,
seafood.
• Inventory of historic buildings: six mosques, six churches, and two
monasteries.
• Major historic buildings: Hamidiye Mosque, Taksiyarhis Church,
Saatli Mosque, Çınarlı Mosque, Aya Nikola Church, Ayışığı
Monastery, Leka Monastery, and Old Ayvalık Houses.
• The old city was settled in amphitheater shape where old Ayvalık
houses neighbor on narrow streets.
• Potential touristic activities: yatching, scuba diving, underwater
photography.
• There are around 60 scuba diving areas.
• Training programmes for scuba diving are available.
• There are 232 accomodation facilities with 17,000 bedspaces.
Sources:
• Municipality of Ayvalık (2014), “Ayvalık”, http://www.ayvalik.bel.tr, (07.07.2014).
• District Governorship of Ayvalık (2014), “Ayvalık”, http://www.ayvalik.gov.tr, (07.07.2014).
These information show that Ayvalık has the potential of Cittaslow candidateship. For
confirming this assertion, additional information provided from mayors/governors of Halfeti and
Ayvalık are given in Table 5. As will be seen, such data also indicate the quality of life in a city and
the level of welfare of the residents. They also provide significant criteria with which to gauge the
situation of a sample of current Cittaslow in Turkey, Halfeti, by revealing potential barriers to
Cittaslow membership; and assessing the appropriateness or unsuitability for candidateship of selected
city in Turkey, Ayvalık.
228
Table 5: Additional Information on Halfeti and Ayvalık (August 2014)
I-General Information
• Length of roads (km)
• Length of pedestrian footpaths (km)
• Length of pedestrian footpaths/Length of roads (%)
• Number of vehicles
• Traffic congestion (yes/no)
II-Market Structure
• Any market for specifically local products? (yes/no)
• Number of street markets for local/general products
• Number of street markets per week for local/general
products
III-Local Foods/Drinks
• How are the local traditional foods/drinks maintained?
Halfeti
Ayvalık
216
4
1.8
500
No
350
6
1.7
24,948
Yes
Yes
3
3
Yes
5
1
Local traditional foods/drinks are
prepared in private houses and served
in some restaurants. They are also
preferred at wedding ceremonies and
funerals.
These information also indicate that Ayvalık is a potential Cittaslow candidate. For the
appropriateness of Ayvalık to be Cittaslow, a comparative descriptive analysis is also made in the
following chapter.
4. A COMPARATIVE DESCRIPTİVE ANALYSIS FOR CITTASLOWS IN TURKEY;
THE CASES OF HALFETI AND AYVALIK
4.1. Methodology of the Research
In this study, a comparative descriptive analysis is made. Thus, in consideration of the
requirements to become a Cittaslow, an indices table has been prepared by which Halfeti and Ayvalık
are assessed. The purposes of the indexing are:
• to check the situation of Halfeti in order to make comparisons,
• to reveal the barriers to Cittaslow membership,
• and to assess the appropriateness or unsuitability for candidateship of Ayvalık.
For collection of information on Halfeti and Ayvalık, their mayors/governors were contacted
via an e-mail survey and asked to answer 26 questions under six main subject headings. The scores are
available in Table 6 for index calculation and the results are available in Table 7 for equal weights.
229
Table 6: Scores for Current (Halfeti) and Potential Candidate Cittaslow (Ayvalık) in Turkey in
terms of Cittaslow Requirements – August 2014
Major Subject
Halfeti
Ayvalık
I-Environmental Policies
I-1
0
1
I-2
0
1
I-3
0
0
I-4
0
0
I-5
0
0
I-6
1
1
I-7
0
0
I-8
1
0
II-Safeguarding Autochthonous Production
II-1
1
1
II-2
1
1
II-3
1
1
II-4
1
1
III-Infrastructural Policies
III-1
1
1
III-2
0
1
III-3
1
1
III-4
1
1
III-5
1
0
IV-Technologies and Facilities for Urban Quality
IV-1
1
1
IV-2
1
1
IV-3
0
0
V-Hospitality
V-1
1
0
V-2
1
1
V-3
1
1
VI-Awareness
VI-1
1
0
VI-2
1
0
VI-3
1
0
A score of ‘one’ means ‘yes/available/implemented’ in terms of Cittaslow requirements, while
a score of ‘zero’ means ‘no/unavailable/not implemented’ as available in Table 6. Considering these
scores in the comparative descriptive analysis, the indices were calculated by using equal weights for
each question which are given in Table 7.
230
Table 7: Index Calculation and Equal Weights for Halfeti and Ayvalık in terms of Cittaslow
Requirements
Major Subject
I-Environmental Policies
II-Safeguarding Autochthonous Production
III-Infrastructural Policies
IV-Technologies and Facilities for Urban Quality
V-Hospitality
VI-Awareness
Equal Weights
Halfeti Ayvalık
0.38
0.25
1.00
1.00
0.80
0.80
0.67
0.67
1.00
0.67
1.00
0.00
0.58
0.79
As available in Table 7, an index score of ‘one’ represents full compatibility with Cittaslow
requirements, while a score of ‘zero’ represents no compatibility with both each major subject and
equal weights.
4.2. Results of the Research
In this descriptive analysis, it is ascertained that rankings for both cities are as expected and
are compatible with the assertion of the paper.
Equal weight (79 percent) for Halfeti shows the expected ranking. As this city is already
Cittaslow it has the highest score. However, it can be seen that this city could not get the full score
(100 percent), which means that a candidate city does not, in fact, have to meet the full requirements at
the time of membership acceptance, but endeavours to complete them in time.
Ranking for Ayvalık is also as expected. The score for Ayvalık is 58 percent and this shows
that it is a potential Cittaslow candidate. However, Ayvalık can not offer itself as a Cittaslow
candidate as it fails to meet the population criterion of the Cittaslow Initiative which is restricted up to
50,000 residents. Clearly the population criterion hinders the execution of STD on a wider scale.
5. CONCLUSION
Mankind causes a lot of problems such as socio-cultural and environmental ones. Essentially
Cittaslow becomes a means which solve these problems systematically. For instance, from the
environmental aspect, as one of the base factors of Cittaslow philosophy, a city is supposed to
implement STD following the receipt of Cittaslow membership. When also the Cittaslow requirements
are examined, it is seen that the model essentially aims at a sustainable development inclusive of
human being, flora, and fauna. Therefore, it becomes more possible for a Cittaslow candidate to
realise STD with condition that it has required infrustructure and superstructure.
Through extensive data collected and comparative descriptive analysis established in this
paper, Ayvalık is considered to have potential Cittaslow candidateship, however, population criterion
231
hinders it from being Cittaslow. If there were no such impediment this city could then be required to
implement the Cittaslow philosophy.
As, by ignoring this criterion, other factors: an established historic background, natural
resources, socio-cultural features, and touristic capacity are available for Ayvalık, it could be accepted
as a candidate. Therefore, above mentioned requirements could be considered sufficient at the first
stage, following which it could be expected to complete the determined requirements by the Cittaslow
Initiative.
Therefore, in the medium to long term, neighbouring cities would also be encouraged to
become Cittaslow candidates and it would be easier to increase the number of Cittaslows and execute
STD systematically and rapidly both in Turkey and in the world. It would then be possible to obtain a
collective STD on a global scale.
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233
THE CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IN INFLUENCE OF TURKISH TOURISM
Lecturer Yasin Nuri ÇAKIR*
Prof. Dr. Ivanka NESTOROSKA**
ABSTRACT
Global warming and increasing greenhouse effect result in change in climates. Climate
change has effects on agriculture, industry and labor sectors at different levels. Today, humankind
face the consequences of the climate change which will affect natural systems and human life across
the globe such as melting of land and sea glaciers, rising of global average sea level, replacement of
climate zones, increase of extreme weather events and their intensification, drought, desertification
and decrease of drinking water. Furthermore, it has been predicted that climate change will also
affect social and economical systems in various ways.
Climate is a principal resource for tourism, it determines the suitability of any location for a
wide range of tourist activities and it is a principal drive of tourism demand within the impact on the
tourists destination choice. Because of all these factors; tourism is identified as a climate-dependent
industry and it is being considered that it will be affected by the climate change more than other
economical sectors. Tourism sector, sub-level of labor sector, will be negatively affected since it’s
main raw materials are climate and environmental factors.
Keywords: Tourism Sector, Climate Change, Turkey
1. INTRODUCTION
Tourism is an industry of primary importance for the world economy. For some countries,
tourism is the first source of income and foreign currency, and many local economies heavily depend
on tourism. Tourists are sensitive to climate and to climate change, which will affect the relative
attractiveness of destinations and hence the motive for international tourists to leave their country of
origin. Yet, until recently, the attention devoted by the tourism literature to climate change and by the
climate change literature to tourism has been quite limited.
Turkey is a popular destination for the tourists from all over the world. Not only natural
beauties and summer tourism, but also her cultural and historical affluence and history make Turkey
visited by millions of foreign tourists each year. In 2012 Turkey was ranked 6th in the World Tourism
Organization’s list of top destinations with the total tourist arrivals of 35.7 million. In the following
year, 2013, this figure increased to 37.8 million. Furthermore, tourism receipts of Turkey in 1984
*
Balıkesir University, Manyas Vocational School, [email protected],
St. Kliment Ohridski- Bitola University, Tourism Faculty, [email protected]
**
234
recorded as US$ 840 million, increased to US$ 27,997 million in 2013. In terms of international
tourism receipts, Turkey became the third after Spain and Italy, with a 7.8% market share among
Southern Europe countries in 2013. (www.unwto.org)
Climate change, both from natural and anthropogenic causes, has already affected and will
continue to affect physical and biological systems in many parts of the world. Overall, Turkey is the
third most visited holiday country in the Mediterranean region, after Spain and Italy. Although it has
numerous cultural and historic attractions, beach holidays on Turkey's Mediterranean (the Aegean and
the Turkish Riviera) and Black Sea coasts are predominant. City tourism plays a part, particularly in
Istanbul. As a result of increasing temperatures, Turkey could also be negatively affected by climate
change.
Turkey is in a risky group with respect to climate change. As a result of lack of water
resources, drought, desertification, forest fires and damages in ecological systems will be observed and
all of these will also affect tourism destinations. Changes in temperature and precipitation, which
consist of climate, inadequate water resources and sea level rise result in changes in tourism activities,
tourism season and tourism centers.
In this research, it is aimed to find out how climate change
will affect tourism in the context of Turkey tourism by taking the increasing importance of the subject
on world tourism literature.
2. CLIMATE CHANGES AND TOURISM
According to studies of Wreford, Moran and Adger (2010) and Kaise (1991) have primarily
focused on the impact of climate change and adaptation to it, especially in the agricultural and
industrial sectors.
It is hardly denied that the agricultural sector is inevitably affected by climate change, as it is
instantly and directly involved with nature. In the industrial sector, there is also a policy to control
greenhouse emissions that some industrial sectors must carefully monitor to comply with policy and
law enforcement within each country and on an international scale.
The agricultural and industrial sectors are not the only sectors affected by climate change;
tourism is considered another sector that is affected by it. The United Nation World Tourism
Organization's (UNWTO) forum on the impact of climate change on tourism in 2007 prioritized key
issues concerning the change in global temperatures (UNWTO, 2007). We are witnessing the melting
of snow in major ski resorts and changes in the color of sea coral (UNWTO, 2009).
There are multiple interactions between tourism and the climate. In the first instance climate is
a resource for tourism and it is an essential ingredient in the tourism product and experience. At the
same time, climate poses a risk to tourism. For example, as a result of climate variability, weather
conditions at a given location and time may prevent tourists from engaging in their planned activities.
235
This is the case for skiers when there are snow-poor winters in alpine tourist destinations. A similar
situation exists when conditions are unseasonably cool and wet at beach destinations. Climate can also
pose a severe risk in relation to extreme events such as hurricanes and floods. These put both tourists
and tourism-oriented businesses at risk, including damage to tourism infrastructure and increased
financial costs combined with lower incomes. (Becken & Hay,2007; 7)
Climate plays an obvious role in tourist destination choice. The majority of tourists spend their
holidays lazing in the sun, a sun that should be pleasant but not too hot. The Mediterranean
particularly profits from this, being close to the main holiday-makers of Europe’s wealthy, but cool
and rainy Northwest. Climate change would alter that, as tourists are particularly footloose. The
currently popular holiday destinations may become too hot, and destinations that are currently too cool
would see a surge in their popularity. This could have a major impact on some economies. About 10%
of world GDP is now spent on recreation and tourism. Climate change will probably not affect the
amount of Money spent but rather where it is spent. Revenues from tourism are a major factor in some
economies, however, and seeing only part of that money move elsewhere may be problematic.
(Beritella & Bigano & Roson &Tol, 2005; 1)
According to Scott and others (2004), the interrelationship between the weather and tourism
has featured in studies dating from the 1930s. In 1936, for example, Selke wrote on the geographic
aspects of the German tourist trade. So far, these studies have been few, and only in recent times has
the literature on tourism started to increase. These tourism studies, as stated by Hamilton and Tol
(2007), focused mainly on economic factors and did not include climate variables in the modelling
process. The studies had short time-horizons, and climate was taken to be a constant variable.
However, there is much evidence to show that climate will change in the long run, and that this change
is being hastened by human activities.
More recently, researchers have begun to include climatic variables and, in some cases, a
tourism climatic index. One of the first studies on climate change and tourism demand employed
temperature to estimate the effect of forecasted changes in temperature on the ski industry in
Switzerland (Koenig and Abegg, 1997; 46). The study revealed that, under the present conditions, with
prevailing temperature and a snow line of 1,200 m,134 there was an 85 % chance that there would be
snow to keep the industry functioning. However, if temperatures were to increase by 2°C, then only
65% of all Swiss ski areas would be snow reliable. This would clearly have serious implications for
the growth of that sector of the industry.
The increasing volume of literature on the impact of climate on tourism demand is due to the
recognition that a more precise modelling of tourism demand must include weather and climate, since
they are significant influences on the tourism industry. The climatic factors identified as having the
most impact on tourism are temperature, sunshine, radiation, precipitation, wind, humidity and fog
236
(Stern, 2006; Hamilton and Lau, 2004). These factors are significant both to the tourist’s assessment of
his or her health and well-being, and to the tourism industry. It is therefore essential that these
elements be measured and evaluated, since they form an important resource for tourism.
The warming is likely to be higher inland than along the coast in Mediterranean Region. The
largest increase in temperature is expected to take place in the summer, when extremely hot days and
heat waves are expected to increase substantially, especially in inland and southern Mediterranean
locations. During the last 50 years of the 20th century large parts of the Mediterranean experienced
winter and summer warming. Giorgi (2002) analyzed the surface air temperature and found a
significant warming trend. For the same period, precipitation over the Mediterranean decreased. Giorgi
(2002) found negative winter precipitation trends over the larger Mediterranean land-area for the 20th
century. (Zengin, 2009; 38)
For Turkey, in general, the temperatures of the year of 2012 have been 0,7 °C over the normal.
In 2012, it is saved that the mean temperatures are over the normal in, especially, eastern and coastal
areas of Turkey. The mean weather temperatures in Turkey have a trend of increasing in southern and
south-western regions. Heating trend especially in summer mean temperatures are defined by
significant positive serial relationship factor in most of the stations. (Zengin, 2009; 39)
Significant changing in precipitation serials are seen mostly in winter seasons. 24 of 78
stations that have decreasing trend in the precipitation of winter are significant statistically. Winter
precipitations of Mediterranean, Mediterranean Transition, Terrestrial Central Anatolia and Terrestrial
Mediterranean Regions decrease. For example, the precipitation decreases in a significant level in
Antalya. (Demir, İ., Kılıç, G., Coskun, M., Sümer, U.M., 2008).
In tourism climatic index maps below, the differences between the current year and 2080s can
be seen clearly. The countries that are ideal in current map will be poor countries in 2080s with the
impacts of the climate change in terms of tourism. Especially for Turkey, it can be seen clearly the
threat of climate change on tourism (Figure 1 and 2). Global warming and extreme weather events
such as storms or heat waves are related to climate change. Thus, it will have implications in terms of
weather patterns and events, as well as associated impacts on physical and biological resources and so
both flora/fauna and tourism are directly influenced. It is attempted that tourism is one of the world’s
biggest industries and also the fastest growing; for many regions, tourism is the most important source
of income, and generally accepted that climate is an important part of the tourism resource base.
However, little is known about:
a) the effects of climate on tourism, or the role it plays;
b) the economic impacts of climate on commercial prospects for tourism;
237
c) which climate related criteria people use to make decisions about tourism choices.
(UNWTO, 2008)
Figure 1: Tourism Climatic Index
Source: Climate Change and Toursim: Responding to Global Challenges,2008
Figure 2: Tourism Climatic Index- Summer 2080s
Source: Climate Change and Toursim: Responding to Global Challenges,2008
238
3. The Climate Change and Its Influence of TurkishTourism
Greenhouse gases hold infrared radiation reflected from globe and prevent them from escaping
to space. Accordingly, they affect energy balance of the earth and cause increasing of surface
temperature (Arıbaş and Kara, 2009, p.130). Temperature on the surface of the earth rises
distinctively. Accordingly, changes occur in climates and the components of climate affect each other
in a complicated way. Ultimately all living creatures take their shares from changes. While expansion
in deserts is seen depending on drought living spaces become narrow, forests and vegetation cover are
reduced, and living creatures migrate in order to keep pace with the new order.
As a result of global warming climate changes occur in the various regions of the world.
Climate changes can be briefly described as changes in climate parameters (downfall, moisture, air
movements, drought etc.) depending on global warming. As changes occured in any region of the
world induce other regions, effects of global warming are inclusive of not only certain countries or
continents but all the globe. Turkey is one of the countries affected by global warming. Effects do not
make themselves evident in short time. They appear in a long time period. Their boundaries are so
wide that they affect all the fields from agriculture to animal husbandary, from desiccation to
immigration and from sea level rising to tourism. For example, according to different scenarios it is
estimated that average sea level rising in 2100 will be 15-100 cm in current climate modelling
(Öztürk, 2002, Spence 2007 and Evans, 2009). Even only rising of 15-100 cm in sea level can make
changes in the map of the earth and make away with some small island states
In the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC it is indicated that a 1˚C - 2˚C increase in
temperatures in the Mediterranean basin would be observed, that aridity will be felt in an even wider
area, and heat waves and the number of very hot days will increase especially in inland regions. For
Turkey, on the other hand, the average increase in temperatures is estimated to be around 2.5°C - 4°C,
reaching up to 5°C in inner regions and up to 4°C in the Aegean and Eastern Anatolia. The IPCC
report and other national and international scientific modeling studies demonstrate that Turkey in near
future will get hotter, more arid and unstable in terms of precipitation patterns.
Turkey is a country industrializing rapidly in Western norms. Particularly in the last 20 years
the aspects of development and change have been felt in every sectors. As of 2013 Turkey which is the
18. country with large economy in the world maintains development and targets to be in the first ten
countries having strongest economies. One of the leading sectors in Turkey is tourism in terms of
growing economy. Turkey is one of the countries in the world having highest tourism potentiality with
its historical and cultural assets, unique nature, seas surrounding its three sides, safety and the people
who lean towards tourism. Unfortunately, tourism in Turkey, which is frequently referred to as
flueless industryǁ, was scarcely any before 25 years. In last 25 years, particularly in last 10 years,
239
tourism in Turkey has gained substantial speed (Table 1)
(http://www.tursab.org.tr/content/turkish/
istatistikler/gostergeler)
Table 1. Distribution of Tourists Visiting Turkey in Last 12 Years
Months
/Years
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Total
2002
306 597
426 405
675 687
852 930
1 325 752
1 457 615
1 897 112
1 900 120
1 770 566
1 420 386
662 985
559 873
13 256 028
2003
363 983
481 252
499 663
669 288
1 146 309
1 510 951
2 130 949
2 275 055
1 874 329
1 657 726
776 181
643 872
14 029 558
2004
533 694
607 854
784 107
1 104 270
1 799 130
1 898 435
2 591 140
2 492 794
2 125 025
1 842 277
948 815
789 367
17 516 908
2005
700 469
696 643
1 107 348
1 348 264
2 302 389
2 402 912
3 180 802
2 861 141
2 502 123
2 108 398
1 052 561
861 836
21 124 886
2006
667 337
626 565
921 892
1 372 922
1 918 809
2 368 628
3 109 727
2 905 817
2 267 146
1 713 916
1 020 106
926 968
19 819 833
2007
714 425
787 048
1 099 960
1 520 954
2 287 645
2 774 076
3 624 156
3 384 065
2 799 276
2 152 908
1 177 475
1 018 923
23 340 911
2008
782 786
896 482
1 305 297
1 647 903
2 748 564
3 305 832
4 084 764
3 762 136
2 981 044
2 462 497
1 267 996
1 091 376
26 336 677
2009
751 817
898 927
1 207 729
1 750 281
2 718 788
3 263 089
4 343 025
3 760 372
3 136 010
2 617 193
1 403 740
1 226 143
27 077 114
2010
809 974
953 848
1 414 616
1 744 628
3 148 337
3 500 024
4 358 275
3 719 180
3 486 319
2 840 095
1 491 005
1 165 903
28 632 204
2011
975 723
1 079 505
1 617 782
2 290 722
3 283 125
3 780 637
4 597 475
4 076 783
3 923 546
3 039 754
1 596 295
1 194 729
31 456 076
2012
981 611
997 571
1 460 563
2 168 715
3 232 926
3 882 592
4 571 389
4 470 202
3 991 415
3 050 981
1 631 647
1 343 220
31 782 832
2013
1 104 754
1 268 440
1 841 154
2 451 031
3 810 236
4 073 906
4 593 511
4 945 999
4 266 133
3 402 460
1 709 479
1 442 995
34 910 098
Turkey, subtropical belt in the western part of the continent and formed a so-called
Mediterranean climate zone is located in the great climate. Surrounded by sea on three sides and an
average height of about 1100 m in Turkey, which has appeared in many subtypes of climates. This
diversity in climate types, Turkey throughout the year, resulting from polar and tropical belts of
various types of pressure systems and air entering the domain is associated with a transition zone to
take place on.
In Turkey, the temperatures of the year of 2013 have been 0,6 °C over the normal. In 2013, it
is saved that the mean temperatures are over the normal in, especially, eastern and coastal areas of
Turkey. The mean weather temperatures in Turkey have a trend of increasing in southern and southwestern regions. Heating trend especially in summer mean temperatures are defined by significant
positive serial relationship factor in most of the stations. The changing in the annual maximum
temperature serials have generally increasing trend and increasing trend is significant statistically in
Mediterranean, South-Eastern Anatolia and southern part of East Anatolia (Demir, İ., Kılıç, G.,
Coşkun, M., Sümer, U.M., 2008). In addition, significant changing in precipitation serials are seen
mostly in winter seasons. 24 of 78 stations that have decreasing trend in the precipitation of winter are
significant statistically. Winter precipitations of Mediterranean, Mediterranean Transition, Terrestrial
240
Central Anatolia and Terrestrial Mediterranean Regions decrease (Demir, İ.,Kılıç, G., Coskun, M.,
Sümer, U.M., 2008).
Mean temperature rises have made evident themselves depending on global warming.
According to the local and general studies it is certain that mean temperature rises gradually. Mean
temperature rises have been increased as to the previous period. It has been revealed by various
researches that mean temperature rises in Turkey in the last period of 30-40 reach 0,5 oC (Kadıoğlu,
2008). It is predicted that in the following years glaciers will melt away and sea level will rise about 1
meter. Undoubtedly, all glaciers will not melt away. However, it is certain that glacier dissolving will
be experienced and seal level will rise about 1 cm in every year.
In general terms, Turkey is located in Mediterranean climate zone in which–except for several
areas- winters are rainy and snowy and summers are dry. Dry summers are an advantage for the areas
having dense summer tourism. Summer precipitations affects tourism negatively. Deviations in
precipitation despite dry summers, experiences summer downfalls and floods caused by cloudbursts
will affect tourism regions. Instant floods will damage not only coastal areas but upland tourism,
hunting tourism, golf tourism, mounting climbing and stream sports.
A large part of the tourists come from the countries which are located in North of Turkey and
have relatively colder climates. Tourists prefer Turkey for hot summers, sea, sand and sun. Sea
tourism focuses on Southern and Western coasts of Turkey such as Antalya, Muğla, Aydın and İzmir.
As beaches are small and narrow a part of them will be left under the sea level when a rise occurs at
sea level. Some small beaches might be disappeared completely and a part of large beaches might
become smaller by overflowing Undoubtedly all beaches would not be disappeared by the effects of
global warming. There might be new bech extensions and formation while sea water is rising in a part
of beaches. Beaches are considered to be equivalent with tourism all over the world. Unfortunately
beaces in Turkey under the threats of erosion, climate change and sea level change. Rising in water
level will affect not only beaches but settlements at coastal regions and touristic facilities as well.
Touristic facilities, roads, ports, summer residences and other buildings at seaside and seafront will be
at hazard by sea rising. (Kara & Bilgen & Acar, 2010; 573)
June, July and August in Turkey are the months in which sea tourism is very popular About
40% of tourists who visit Turkey ( 13 millions tourist) prefer June, July and August. At the same time
both are the the hottest months all over Turkey. (Table 1) The more mean temperatures the more
electricity and water consumptions. In a large part of touristic facilities in South and West regions air
conditioners opererate much due to hot. This means greater costs for the managements. The more hot
the more electricity consumption and greater costs depending on airconditioning. (Kara & Bilgen &
Acar, 2010; 574)
241
According to Türkeş (2001), the changing of temperatures on Turkey until the years 2080s are
that:
•
According to the scenario in which emissions can not be controlled, there will be 3-4 C°
(by comparing the normals of the years 1961-1990) increases in the annual mean
temperatures on Turkey until 2080s;
•
According to the scenario that predicts to stop the accumulation of CO2 on 750 ppmv,
there will be 2-3 C° increases in the annual mean temperatures;
•
According to the scenario that predicts to stop the accumulation of CO2 on 550 ppmv,
there will be 1-2 C° increases in the annual mean temperatures.
For the another scenario, it is found the expected temperature changing by evaluating the
differences between the model results of the future period (as averages for 30 years, 2011– 2099) and
reference period (1961–1990). The seasonal increases in mean temperatures are tried to be figured by
periods such as:
•
In winter season, the mean temperatures that will be in approximately 0,4–0,8 interval
between 2011 and 2040 will be increased to the 3,5–4,5 interval between 2071 and 2099.
This means that the increase in winter season is approximately 3–3,5 C°;
•
In spring season, the mean temperatures that will be in approximately -0,8–0,4 interval
between 2011 and 2040 will be increased to the 1,5–3,5 interval between 2071 and 2099.
This means that the increase in spring season is approximately 2,5–3 C°;
•
In summer season, the mean temperatures that will be in approximately -0,4–0,8 interval
between 2011 and 2040 will be increased to the 2,5–6 interval between 2071 and 2099.
This means that the increase in summer season is approximately 3–5 C°;
•
In autumn season, the mean temperatures that will be in approximately 0,4–1,5 interval
between 2011 and 2040 will be increased to the 2,5–4,5 interval between 2071 and 2099.
This means that the increase in autumn season is approximately 2–3 C°;
According to all these statements iel negative effects of global warming on Turkey is expected
to occur in the following way:
•
Forest fires will increase,
•
shortage of drinking water in cities will increase,
•
cities nighttime temperatures significantly due to increased energy consumption will
increase,
•
Extreme temperatures will affect human health and biological productivity
242
•
Important fisheries in the marine ecosystem and socio-economic problems will be
experienced,
•
Sea-level rise as a result of intensive settlement, tourism and agriculture, coastal areas
and estuaries of the type to be flooded, (Aksam,2007)
•
Bird of paradise destroyed as national parks, while the migration routes of birds will
change and accommodation venues (Kadıoglu, 2007; 340)
•
The duration and severity of droughts will increase. If extreme drought; significant
decrease in agricultural and forest products, energy shortages due to depletion of
water resources, coastal walks towards the interior of the large-scale migration to the
emergence of infectious diseases will lead to increase and are indicated (Çavdar,
2007; TOBB, 2007: 62)
4. CONCLUSION
The tourism industry is one of the world's fastest growing industries and countries provide
substantial revenue due to the increasing importance of each industry. Raw, unspoilt natural
environment, climate and vegetation, and which therefore climate and geographical structure of
primary dependence indicating this sector, but again these factors will arise in changing the face of the
most rapid and severe that will be affected is the sector. Along with the acceleration of
industrialization accelerated and felt a little more with each passing day that the effects of global
warming on the basic input of the tourism sector raises serious adverse effects.
Turkey is one of the countries in the world having great economy which is rapidly developped.
Tourism is in the leading role in her revenues. Tourism revenues of Turkey which is almost 20
billiards dollars are of importance in terms of economy. Global warming and climate changes affecting
all the world is also important for Turkey and tourism sector takes its share from the effect. Number of
people who participate in tourism activities is increased in every year. While the number of people
who participate in tourism activities is increased thanks to economical improvements, transportation
possibilities and organizations all over the world the tourism cake is also enlarged accordingly.
Countries all over the world compete for attracting more tourists. When planning regarding the future
is made global warming must be taken into consideration.
These disadvantages of tourist attractions on the one hand a certain charm while eliminating
some other destinations can be brought into the center of the new tourist attraction. If this situation
occurs the opportunities that global warming should be considered. Turkey, in terms of the tourism
sector are the most fortunate countries in the category. As the one hand, the resulting temperature
increase due to global warming caused by the addition to losing the old charm of the south coast on
the other coast of the Black Sea coast has revealed opportunities opening up to tourism. In the world
tourism, sea, sand and sun tourism demand for the location of alternative tourism starts dropping also
243
as a result of Turkey, rich alternative tourism has the potential to be the advantages of the use if the
world tourism, the share will increase as well as an important regional destination by becoming
regional market share will expand. That arise from this situation that will benefit both countries as
well as social and economic reveal that global warming new tourist attraction centers in eliminating a
significant source of inter-regional disparities will be created.
After all, besides the negative effects of global warming occurs should be noted that brought
opportunities. These opportunities should be evaluated properly monetized. At this point the future of
tourism investments, according to the orientation of the tourist action planning has a different
significance.
REFERENCES
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Berrittella, M. Bigano, A. Roson, R. Tol, R.S.J. (2006). A general equilibrium analysis of climate
change impacts on tourism. Tourism Management, 27, 913–924.
Climate Change and Tourism: Responding to Global Challenges (2008), UNWTO- NEPWMO,
Madrid
Climate Change and Tourism: Responding to Global Challenges, Technical Report (2007),
Commissioned for the Second International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism,
Davos
Climate Change and Tourism: Responding to Global Challenges, Through Education (2008), Amforth
Forum, Lisbon
Climate Change Synthesis Report (2007), Summary for Policymakers
Demir, İ., Kılıç, G., Coşkun, M., Sümer, U.M. (2008), Türkiye’de Maksimum, Minimum ve Ortalama
Hava Sıcaklıkları ile Yağış Dizilerinde Gözlenen Değişiklikler ve Eğilimler, The Climate
Change Symposium of the Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects , The
Notice Book, 69-84, Ankara
Evans, J.P. (2009). 21st Century Climate Change in The Middle East, Climatic Change, 92, (p.417432). Hamilton, J.M. and M.A. Lau (2004), “The role of climate information in tourism
destination choice”, Working Paper FNU56, Hamburg University Centre for Marine and
Climate Research, Hamburg.
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Hamilton, J.M. and R.S.J. Tol (2007), “The impact of climate change on recreation and tourism”,
Working Paper FNU52, Hamburg University Centre for Marine and Climate Research,
Hamburg
Kadıoğlu, M. (2008). Günümüzden 2100 Yılına Küresel İklim Değişimi, TMMOB İklim Değişimi
Sempozyumu Bildiriler Kitabı, (p.25-45).
Kara Hasan, Bilgen Nureddin, Acar Derya
2010 nd International Symposium on Sustainable
Development, June 8-9 2010, Sarajevo
Koenig, U. and B. Abegg (1997), “Impacts of climate change on winter tourism in the Swiss Alps”,
Journal of Sustainable Tourism 5 (1): 46 – 58
Öztürk, K. (2002). Küresel İklim Değişikliği ve Türkiye‘ye Olası Etkileri, G.Ü. Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi
Dergisi, Vol:22(1), (p.47- 65)
Scott, D., G. McBoyle and M. Schwartzentruber (2004), “Climate change and the distribution of
climatic resources for tourism in North America”, Climate Research 27 (2) pp. 105- 117
Spence, C. (2007). Küresel Isınma, (Translated:S.Gönen-S.Ağar), Pegasus Publications No:83,
İstanbul
Stern, N. (2006), “The economics of climate change”, The Stern Review, Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Susanne Becken and John E. Hay, Tourism and Climate Change Risks and Opportunities, 2007
CHANNEL VIEW PUBLICATIONS
Zengin Öznur, (2009) The Level Of Awareness And Response Mechanisms Of The Actors About The
Impacts Of Climate Change On Tourism, The Case Of Antalya
245
THE EFFECT OF CREDIT USAGE ON TOURISTIC CONSUMPTION AND APPLICATION
IN TURKEY
Assist. Prof. Dr. Kudret GUL*
Instructor Melike GUL**
ABSTRACT
Turkish tourism was developed as more dependent on external demand until the 2000s.
With the effect of increase in demand of domestic tourism, Turkish tourism has gained more stable
and more balanced structure in the early 21st century. Economic stability in recent years, personal
income growth, developments in the banking and finance sector play an important role in this
increase in demand for domestic tourism. In parallel to these developments in Turkey, increasing use
of consumer credit has increased significantly domestic and international tourism demand of the
Turkish citizens in the last 10 years. In our study, taking account these developments in Turkish
tourism, the effect of the use of consumer credit for touristic consumption is to determine for domestic
and foreign tourism in Turkey.
Key Words: Tourism Demand, Touristic Consume, Individual Income, Consumer Credits, Individual
Credits, Travel Credit
1. INTRODUCTION
Unstored features of touristic goods and services, the need to be consumed where they are
produced (Usal and Oral, 2001:34; Hacioglu, 1997:42 and Icoz, 1996:28) and demand sensitivity
(Olali and Timur, 1988:196) makes selling pressure on tourist enterprises. Consumer credit plays an
important role in the evaluation of all kinds of selling opportunities that emerged in reducing this
selling pressure. On the other hand, one of main functions of banks is to funding markets. Thus, loan
demand for tourist consumption is creating a significant potential for banks. Consumer credit also
allows pre-financing for consumer demand. As a result, all parties benefit on consumer credit in
financial sector.
The structure of the financial system in a country plays an important role in the increase of the
tourism demand. The positive developments that affect tourist demand with the presence of financial
*
Balıkesir University, Balıkesir Vocational School, Tourism and Hotel Management Department. [email protected];
alıkesir University, Sindirgi Vocational School, Tourism and Hotel Management [email protected]
**
246
institutions willing to finance tourist consumption increases tourist consuption. One of the most
influential financial instruments in the financial system that effect touristic spend is the credit (Foscht
et al., 2010:152).
Increasing economic stability in the economy, decline inflation, falling interest rates and
increasing global liquidity has reduced banks' cost of funds in recent years in Turkey's economy.
These developments have facilitated access to credit needs of consumers. These developments have
also led to an increase in tourist consumption together with demand for consumer loans (BRSA
Financial Market Report-2012). Due to these developments, the change in the economic structure and
financial system plays an active role in the increase of touristic consumption.
In this study, firstly, we examined both domestic and foreign tourism income and expenditure
trends in Turkey. Secondly, we tried to determine relationship between tourist consumption and
consumer credit usage. Finally, we evaluated the effect of credit usage on tourist consumption in
Turkey.
The study aimed to determine the existing situation with a descriptive method.
2. TOURIST CONSUMPTION TRENDS IN TURKEY
As of the end of 2013 the number of tourists visiting Turkey is 39.2 million and tourism
revenues were $ 32.3 Billion. 78.9% of these revenues were obtained from foreign visitors and 21.1%
of the citizens residing abroad. On the other hand, the number of Turkish citizens who travelled abroad
was 7.5 million, while their spending was $ 5.2 billion in 2013 (TurkStat News Bulletin, January
2014).
The number of visitors to Turkey has increased annually 8.3% in the last 11 years. In the same
period, the rate of increase in international tourism income is 8.0%. These data indicate that rate of
increase in international tourism revenue has remained lower than 0.3% from the rate of increase in the
number of visitors. On the other hand, the increase rate of travels abroad from Turkey is 7.44% and
annual increase in foreign tourism expenditure ratio is 7.28% in the last 11 years. Also it can be
observed from the table below that there is a significant increase in both internal and external tourism
revenues and expenses with the exception of some years in the past 11 years. These growth rate are
quite high when compared with the growth rate in world GDP of 2.7% (World Development
Indicators, 2013) and 4% in Turkey's economy (Ekinci, 2013:84) between the years of 2000-2011.
Thus, the factors that influence tourist demand have been improved positively in the same period in
Turkey.
The data also show that despite the reduction in overseas spending in some years, the upward
trend continued in international tourism demand and tourism spending. The annual increase rate in
number of the domestic travels has been 2.36% in the last 5 years. In contrast, the annual increase in
247
domestic tourism spending is 8.5% in the same period. These results show that citizens traveling
abroad have spent much more per capita in the same period.
Table 1. Domestic and International Tourism Income-Expenditure in Turkey, 2003-2013
Year
Number of
∆
Int.
∆
Travels
∆
Int.
Foreign
(%)
Tourism
(%)
Abroad
(%)
Tourism
Visitors
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Income
Expend.
(Million$)
(Million$)
16 302 053
-
13 854
-
20 262 640
24,3
17 076
23,2
24 124 501
19,0
20 322
19,0
23 148 669
-4,0
18 593
-8,5
27 214 988
17,5
20 942
12,6
30 979 979
13,8
25 415
21,3
32 006 149
3,3
25 064
-1,3
33 027 943
3,1
24 930
-0,5
36 151 328
9,4
28 115
12,7
36 776 645
1,7
29 351
4,3
39 226 226
6,6
32 310
10,0
Annual ∆ (%)*
8,3
8,0
Num of
Dom.
Travel
(1000)
∆
(%)
∆
(%)
Dom.
Tourism
Expend.
∆
(%)
(MillionTL)
3 414 844
-
2 424
-
-
-
-
-
3 844 494
12,5
2 954
21,8
-
-
-
-
4 124 829
7,2
3 394
14,8
-
-
-
-
4 063 180
-1,4
3 270
-3,6
-
-
-
-
4 956 069
21,9
4 043
23,6
-
-
-
-
4 892 717
-1,2
4 266
5,5
-
-
-
-
5 561 355
13,6
5 090
19,3
60 888
-
12 216
-
6 557 233
17,9
5 874
15,4
68 373
12,2
13 843
13,3
6 281 972
-4,1
5 531
-5,8
65 854
-3,6
15 641
12,9
5 802 950
-7,6
4 593
-16,9
64 922
-1,4
16 725
6,9
7 525 869
29,6
5 253
14,3
68 452
5,4
18 416
9,1
7,44
7,28
2,36
8,5
Source: TurkStat
* Annual
∆%= (n√x/y-1)100. In formula; n:years; x: the value belong to the last year; y:the value belong to first year
Tourist consumption requires the presence of a certain amount of disposable income, even after
the mandatory requirements are met. Therefore, the most important source of financing of the tourism
demand is the personal income. Usal and Oral (2001) qualifies the tourist consumption as a sociocultural type of consumption and today tourist consumption is still widely regarded as a luxury
consumption.
The surveys are conducted on household consumption expenditure by Turkey Statistical
Institute to produce data about the consumption habits of consumers, disposable income of households
and income distribution amoung individuals 1. Therefore, these data provide important clues about
monitoring the change in tourist expenditures which related with tourist consumtion items directly or
indirectly.
Change in expenditure elasticity compared with income is less than 1 and is argued to be
mandatory expenditures. If expenditure elasticity is bigger than 1, these expenditure groups are
considered as luxury. In a study conducted by Tari and Pehlivanoglu in 2006 (2007:205) in accordance
with these criteria that associated with tourist consumption expenditure elasticity, it was found 1.26 for
"Hotels and restaurants" spending, 1.57 for "transportation" spending and 1.73 for "culture248
entertainment" spending. In the same survey, when income increases, the share of mandatory spending
decreases and whereas the share of luxury spending increases on consumer budgets.
By analyzing the distribution of consumption expenditure of households in the past 5 years in
Turkey, the average spending associated with tourist consumption seems to be an increase of 1.3% per
year. In contrast, mandatory consumption expenditures is decreased - 1.7% in the same period per
year (see table 2). On the other hand, Avarage share of expenditure of entertainment and culture when
compared to total expenditure is 2,76% in the last 5 years. This rate is 5.3% in the restaurants and
hotels expenditures in the same period. Thus, spending related to tourist consumption is 8.06% of total
expenditure in Turkey. Although different calculation methods and methodologies is used from
Turkey, the recreation spending is $ 250 with 6.69% of total expenditure in the United States.
Restaurants, hotels and foreign travel expenses is $ 249 with 6.66% of the total expenditure 2. Thus,
spending related to tourist consumption is 13.35% of total expenditure in USA. This result indicates
that spending related to tourist consumption increases depending on high income per capita amoung
countries as specified in the literature (Usal and Oral, 2001; Olali and Timur, 1988; Gul, 2008).
Table 2. Distribution of Household Consumption Expenditures in the Turkish Economy,
2008-2012
1.Compulsory Expenditure Type
2008
Food and Non-Alcoholic Drink
368
22,6
88
3,0
03
1,9
39
0,7
Housing and Rent
472
29,1
477
28,2
500
27,1
547
31
1,9
32
1,9
39
2,1
871
53,6
897
53,1
942
Health
Share of Total
%
2009
%
2010
%
2011
%
2012
%
∆%
64
9,6
-0,750
25,8
611
25,8
-0,925
40
1,9
43
1,8
-0,025
51.1
1 026
48.4
1 118
47.2
-1.700
2. Expenditure Types Associated with Tourist Consumption
229
14,1
229
13,6
278
15,1
365
17,2
406
17,2
0,775
Entertainment and Culture
41
2,5
44
2,6
51
2,8
57
2,7
77
3,2
0,175
Restaurants and Hotels
71
4,4
87
5,2
100
5,4
121
5,7
137
5,8
0,350
341
21.0
360
21.4
429
23.3
543
25.6
620
26.2
1.300
414
25.4
431
25.5
472
25.6
551
26.0
628
26.6
0.300
1 626
100
1 688
100
1 843
100
2 120
100
2 366
100
Transportation
Share of Total
3.Other Substitution Expenditures
Total Consumption Expenditure
Source: TurkStat
The above data show that tourist consumption expenditures have increased significantly
compared to mandatory spending in recent years. In domestic tourism in 2013, a total of 68 million
452 thousand citizens traveled and they spent 18 billion 416 million TL. 1,274 million TL of these
249
spending consists of package tour expenditure,
while 17 million 142 thousand TL consists of
individual expenses(TurkStat News Bulletin, May 2014).
As indicated above, a significant increase is observed in both overseas and domestic travel
expenses in Turkey in recent years. The positive impact of the factors that affect tourism demand is
argued to be effective in these increases, as well as funding under more favorable conditions to tourist
consumption.
3. TOURIST CONSUMPTION AND CONSUMER CREDIT RELATIONSHIP IN TOURISM
Consumer loans are an effective source of financing for tourist consumption. These loans are
offered by banks to meet the cash needs of the consumers in this sector. They can be named as the
education, housing development, housing renovation, furniture, marriage, health, individual support
loans, holiday loans depending on usage. Maturity and interest rate of these loans vary from one bank
to the other 3.
The type of loans which can be associated directly with the tourist consumption is the travel
credit granted under individual needs. But there is no organization that publishes statistical data related
to the travel credit in Turkey. Therefore, it is difficult to establish a direct relationship between
changes in holiday loans and tourist consumption expenditure. Because of these difficulties, we will
try to determine the relationship between change in consumer loans and domestic/overseas tourism
spending. Due to the lack of statistical data, it is referenced by this measurement technique that may
give an idea indirectly about the relationship between travel credit and tourist consumption
expenditure.
Banks loan figures consists of the difference between the loan amount that are compiled from
the credit balance for the period up to the amount of loans granted during the period of repayment in
Turkey. In general, fluctuations in current credit movement is directly proportional to the total
consumption demand in the economy (Kurul, 2012:7). Thus, it is possible to establish a direct
relationship between the increase in consumer loans associated with tourist consumption and the
increase in domestic and foreign tourism demand in recent years.
Today, worldwide consumption is more concentrated in urban centers. Inflation and growth are
the most important factors affecting the consumption (Asia Pasific, 2004:6). On the other hand,
increasing economic stability, falling inflation and interest rates, global liquidity due to the decreasing
cost of funds of banks make easier to access consumer credits for touristic consumers in Turkey's
economy in recent years. These developments has led to an increase in tourist consumption and
consumer loans.
In a survey conducted by Mercan (2013), it is estimated that 1% increase in the volume of
domestic credit increased growth rate 0.6% between the years of 1992-2011 for Turkey's economy.
250
Also in an other study conducted by Iscan (2003), it is suggested that 7.2% growth occurred in the
Turkish economy in 2000, loans were increased 19.2%. Whereas 7.3% contraction experienced in
2001, loans was decreased 36.3%. On the other hand, when loans is mainly financed by banks in the
economy, the credit crunch makes it difficult for the revival of the economy. Therefore, it would be
logical to use other financing channels in the financing of tourism demand at the time of economic,
political and social crisis.
According to Hoti, McAler and Shareef (2005) country risk depending on economic, financial
and political factors affect the tourism market. There is a significant relationship between economic
growth and loans in an economy. A similar relationship can be argued with the increase in tourist
demand and increase in individual loans used to finance tourist consumption. Similar relationship is
also put forward between the increase in consumer credit and increase in tourist consumption. The
experiences faced in several countries indicate that rapid individual loans support economic growth.
But on the other hand, these loans cause inflation rises, increases interest rate, make pressures on
exchange rate, cause monetary crisis, increase household debt ratio, increase the risk of default and
the current account deficit as the economic problems.
Be able to spend more than income for consumers depends on savings or borrowing facilities. In
this context, consumer loans plays an important role in the increase of consumption when individual
savings are inadequate. Inag (1990) indicate that consumer loans taken consumer preferences forward
in time, while the Tekirdag (2009) emphasize these loans allows new consumer spending. On the other
hand, consumers are more willing to finance the current consumption with using credit. Nowadays,
facilitating the use of credit, the benefits of the widespread use of credit and consumer awareness
about the risks associated with credit use is supporting this process (Chien and Devaney, 2001:162).
The institutions that publishe statistical data related to consumer loans in Turkey is Turkish
Statistical Institute (TurkStat), the Banking Regulation and Supervision Agency (BRSA), Central
Bank of Republic of Turkey (CBRT), Banks Association of Turkey (BAT) and Turkisch Interbank
Card Center (ICC). These organizations are discussed housing, vehicle and loans for various needs
within the context of consumer credit.
4. THE EFFECT OF CREDIT USAGE ON TOURIST CONSUMPTION IN TURKEY
Other conditions are fixed, if the banks decrease interest rate, it increases demand for consumer
loans. If they increase interest rate, it reduces the demand for consumer loans. In other words, interest
rate is the main factor for determining the demand for consumer loans and degree of its influence was
calculated as 53.6% in Turkey between the years 2004-2009 (Ibicioglu and Karan, 2009:12). Tekirdag
(2009:87) are sorted the factors affecting the demand for credit as interest rates, income, asset
251
accumulation, occupational status, marital status, age, education level, household size and
unemployment.
The most important problem for lenders in consumer loans is the risk of these loans. In order to
reduce the risk of consumer loans, banks and public authorities can use the capital increase options,
limiting the amount of credit and credit risk reduction techniques (Sagkol et al., 2013:1-8). On the
other hand, the risk of default on consumer loans vary according to the type of loan. These risks is
quite higher in other consumer loans (including holiday loans) except automobile and housing loans
and is related to the level of economic development and stability (Tekirdag, 2009:32). In practice in
the tourism sector, firms do not undertake any responsibilities on the approval of travel loans to
consumers by financial institutions. Banks' travel credit conditions, interest rates and maturities of
these rates may vary credit to be granted 4.
Implementing the individual risk report contribute to the solution of the problems encountered
for consumer loans in recent years in Turkey. Individual credit risk report that including individuals
credit score is a report which outlines individual credit deals in the banking sector. These reports and
scores are used all kinds of consumer loans including travel credit and credit cards that are allocated to
individuals by banks. The application of credit rating affect credit limit, interest and costs in Turkey.
Thus, customers who have high credit scores will pay less interest and expenses in the future
(Kucukozmen, 2014). According to Nelson (2010:41) credit score applications that applied for
consumer is an important factor in determining customers risk, interest rates and cost of the loans. On
the other hand, payment history, credit utilization, credit history, credit used and new credit play
crucial role for determining the credit scores 5.
Nowadays, both credit score and credit risk report can be prepared for credit users. These reports
make two-way benefit for lenders as well as credit users in terms of minimizing risk 6. These methods
that reducing risk can also be used by tourism businesses. Implementing long term sales policies for
customers who have positive credit record and payment habits, will be effective in reducing risk.
Another point to be considered in term of loans are legal regulations about credits use.
According to Peterson (1983:1304) legal regulations is not effective to control especially in terms of
high-risk borrowers. However, with the impact of the global financial crisis faced worldwide in 2008,
many countries are directed to stabilize the financial sector and those new regulations to protect
consumers and creditors. According to Hofmann (2012) European Union gives emphasis to strategies
to ensure transparency for the protection of consumers in all new arrangements. In this context, the
annual interest rates on consumer loans and credit conditions relating to different banks can be
compared with standard that allows information to ensure. Union also tries to give resposibility to
creditors about the consumer credit agreements such as consumers' income, savings, debts and other
financial transactions that is related matters to determine the credibility of the customer.
252
Financial stability, decrease in inflation, increase in purchasing power and rise in long-term
positive expectations have increased the debt of households in the the past 11 years. Financial stability
period has been increasing real and nominal growth of consumer credit. As of December 2012 in
Turkey, household financial liabilities to financial assets ratio has risen to 43.2% and liabilities to
GDP ratio is 17.7%. These rates are manageable risks according to international standart. Individual
credit cards and personal loans plays an important role in the growth of consumer credit and the
increase in financial liabilities of households in total. In addition, in recent years the decline in interest
rates on consumer loans as well as real interest rates is downward, has been increased the loan volume
and thus has been a major factor in the growth of domestic demand (BRSA Financial Market Report2012). Therefore, these developments could be effective in increase of domestic tourism demand and
in the having of travel habit of citizens in Turkey in recent years.
Table 3 shows that consumer lending have increased by an annual average of 35.31% in Turkey
in the last 11 years. While this growth rate is quite high till seventh year, the rate of increase slowed
down in the last three years. Ekinci (2013:90) calculated optimal annual credit growth rate of Turkey
as 17% for the last 20-year period. The increase 35.31% in consumer loans is much higher than the
optimal increase 17% in loans that calculated for Turkey’s economy.
Table 3 shows that annual increase in international tourism expenditure is 7.28% in Turkey in
the last 11 years. The increase in domestic tourism spending is 8.5% followed by TurkStat since 2009
for the last four years. These rates are much below than the increase 35.31% in installment loans'
growth. In other words, the figures shows that despite the high increases in consumer loans, this
increase are not emerging adequately in tourist consumption. Therefore, this weak relationship
between consumer loans and tourist consumption, it is thought to be more useful to analyze a subcategory of consumer loans with the establishment of a relationship between tourist consumption. In
this study, such a relationship is conceived to fit for holiday loans but there is no systematic data
regarding such a calculation could be made adequately.
Table 3. Relationship Between Tourist Consupmtion and Credit Loans in Turkey
Year
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Annual ∆
(%)
Population GNP
Per Capita
Household Debt / Installment
(1000) (Million$) Income
∆(%) Disposable Income
Credit ∆(%)
($)
(%)
(Million$)
66 873 304.901
4.559
7.5
4 050
67 734 390.387
5.764
26,4
12.9
9 087
124,3
68 582 481.497
7.022
21,8
20.9
21 236 133,6
69 421 526.429
7.586
8,0
19.0
32 248
51,8
70 256 648.625
9.238
21,7
22.7
50 392
56,2
71 517 742.094
10.438
12,9
36.6
62 721
24,4
72 561 616.703
8.559
-18,0
36.4
58 550
-6,6
73 722 735.828
10.022
17,0
41.2
83 268
42,2
74 724 773 980
10 466
4,4
44.7
97 077
16,5
75 627 786 293
10 504
0,3
48.1
103 713
6,8
2,6
8,7
76 667 820 012
10 782
55.2
112 825
8,13
35,31
7,28
Int. Tourism
Expenditure
∆(%)
Domestic Tourism
Expenditure
∆(%)
21,8
14,8
-3,6
23,6
5,5
19,3
15,4
-5,8
-16,9
14,3
13,3
12,9
6,9
9,1
8,5
Source: TurkStat, CBRT, BAT.
253
Table 4. Effect of the Consumer Loans on Domestic and Int. Tourism Expenditure
Year
Per Capita
Income
(TL)
∆(%)
Installment
Credit
(Million TL)
Consumer
Credit
( MillionTL)
∆(%)
-
-
-
Other
Credit
( MillionTL)
-
∆(%)
-
Int.
Tourism
Exp.
∆(%)
-
Domestic
Tourism Exp.
∆(%)
Income Elasticity
of Demand for C.
Loans (Eg)
2003
8 760
-
2004
10 150
15,8
12.925 113,7
-
-
-
-
21,8
-
-
2005
11 390
12,2
28.474 120,3
**9 372
-
-
-
14,8
-
-
2006
12 890
13,1
46.151
62,0
15 712
67,6
-
-
-3,6
-
5,13
2007
13 870
7,6
65.586
42,1
25 869
64,6
-
-
23,6
-
8,50
2008
15 000
8,1
81.093
23,6
33 526
29,5
-
-
5,5
-
3,63
2009
6.048
∆(%)
-
-
14 520
-3,2
90.583
11,7
40 769
21,6
*** 596
-
19,3
-
6,75
2010
16 040
10,4
124.936
37,9
45 600
11,8
13 675
-
15,4
13,3
1,13
2011
17 810
11,0
162.119
29,7
62 261
36,5
20 275
48,2
-5,8
12,9
3,31
2012
18 390
2013
18 834
Annual ∆
(%)
7,2
3,2
2,4
185.906
248 357
14,6
33,5
40,17
67 365
8,1
27 606
36,1
-16,9
85 893
22,2
36 001
21,2
14,3
27,37
7,28
27,9
8,5
6,9
9,1
2,51
9,19
5,01
Source: TurkStat, CBRT, BAT*, BRSA
_____________________________
*
ICC data covers the data of member of deposit banks, and development and investment banks. Data provided can vary depending on the
number of banks and years.
**
In previous years, installment loans have been followed as auto, mortgage and other loans. Then, consumer loans have been followed
under a separate heading since 2005.
***
These group cover out of vehicles, mortgage and consumer loans that can not be classified in any of the types of consumer credit. Travel
loans is under in this group and classified as one of the types of other consumer loans.Consumer loans began to be monitored as loans of the
marriage, loans of the durable and semi-durable goods, education loans and health loans since 2009. But first year data seems unreliable and
inadequate. It is not used in the analyze.
It can be seen from table 4 that the annual average growth rate of 27.9% in consumer loans for
the last nine years. This rate is below than the increase in installment loans of 40,17%. But it is quite
high than 8.5% increase in the domestic tourist consumption expenditures and 7.28% increase in
foreign tourist consumption expenditures. In other words, it is understood that this high increase in
consumer loans arise from out of holiday loans.
Income per capita is 11 390 TL in 2005 in Turkey, which is increased to 18,834 TL in 2013. So
for the last eight years, the rate of increase income per capita in TL terms is 65.3%, while the average
annual increase in per capita income is 5.74%. In the same period, the elasticity is 5.01 depend on
change in the demand for consumer loans comparing with the income per capita. This results indicate
that credit demand is extremely sensitive to income increases in Turkey. No doubt the same will be
true for travel loan demand sensitivity.
It is expected that per capita income will be $ 25 000 in 2023 in Turkey(Aydınonat, 2012). Per
capita was $ 10,782 in 2013. Thus, when it comes 2023, per capita income rates up to 130% can be
realized by an increase in the foreseeable. By considering per capita income increase and consumer
254
loans demand elasticity in the projected period, the increase in the demand for consumer loans and
travel loans will continue. Thus, it can be foreseeable that the credit demand for touristic consumption
will continue to increase in the coming years and banks will create more business opportunities for the
reveal in Turkey.
As of December 2013, amounting to TL 332.2 billion of individual loans consists 74.7% of
installment loans and 25.3% of the credit card. Installment loans consists 52.1% of consumer loans
and other loans, 44.4% of housing loans, 3.4% of vehicle loans (BRSA, Turkisch Banking Sector
Overview-2013). On the other hand, non-mortgage debt, which includes consumer, personal and
instalment loans, but also private loans from relatives, friends, employers, etc. is held by 22.4% of
households in Euro Area. Whereas credit lines and credit card debt are much less prevalent, with
10.2% and 4.3% of all households reporting such types of debt, respectively (ECB Statistics Paper
Series 2, April 2013:59). In Turkey, credit card debt ratio is 25.2%. This rate is 20.9% higher than the
Euro Area in Turkey. In order to solve problem, goverment applied restriction policies to decline card
expenditures. Due to restrictions on credit card spending that came into force in March 2014, it is
estimated that the demand for consumer loans will increase in the coming years. In addition, some
banks install long-term consumer credit to POS devices which are relevant as cards spending 7.
Travel credits has been widespread in Turkey in recent years. These credits are one of the
individual credit types that extended to consumers by banks to meet social and psychological needs of
people with holiday expenses. Maturities and interest rates of these loans vary according to the bank,
but the term may be up to a maximum duration of 60 months 8. In addition, some banks organize
campaigns such as increasing the number of installments and defer payment that are valid only for
travel spending made by members credit cards in the members workplace 9.
The growth rate of domestic tourism and international tourism expenditure is well above the
growth rate of the economy in Turkey in recent years. This high growth rate in tourist consumption is
creating new business opportunities for banks in the market. Supporting this new credit market by
banks and other funding sources has great importance in terms of the stability for tourist consumption.
This process will be contribute to market expansion and deepening. But there are needs to gather
reliable and sufficient data in this area. In this context, related organizations such as the ICC, CBRT
and TurkStat are extremely important to produce the necessary statistical data. Thus, the effect of
using travel credit on the increase in tourist consumption may be easily examined.
5. RESULTS
One of the most influential financial instruments in the financial system that affect the increase
in touristic consumption is the credit. Increasing economic stability in the economy, decline inflation,
falling interest rates and increasing global liquidity has reduced banks' cost of funds in recent years in
255
Turkey's economy. These developments have led to an increase in tourist consumption together with
demand for consumer loans.
There are significant relationships between the increase in consumer loans and the increase in
tourism demand. In recent years, the decline in interest rates has been an important factor in the
growth of domestic demand (BRSA Financial Market Report-2012). Therefore, this development has
been effective in the increase in the domestic tourism demand and allowing nationals to travel more
often in recent years.
Annual avarage increase rate of foreign visitors is 8.3% for the last 11 years. In the same period,
the rate of increase in international tourism income is 8.0%. Thus the rate of increase in international
tourism revenue has remained low than 0.3% from the rate of increase in the number of visitors in the
past 11 years. On the other hand, avarage increase rate of travels abroad from Turkey is 7.44% and
annual increase in foreign tourism expenditure is 7.28% in the last 11 years. These finding indicate
that there is a significant increase in both internal and external tourism revenues and expenses with the
exception of some years in the past 11 years. These growth rates is quite high when compared with the
growth rate in world GDP of 2.7% (World Development Indicators, 2013) and 4% in Turkey's
economy (Ekinci, 2013:84) between the years of 2000-2011.
Despite the reduction in domestic spending in some years, the upward trend continued in
internal tourism demand amoung Turkisch citizens. The annual increase rate is 2.36% for domestic
travels in the last 5 years. In contrast, the annual increase in domestic tourism spending is 8.5% in the
same period. These results show that citizens traveling abroad have spent much more per capita in the
same period.
The average annual spending associated with tourist consumption is increased 1.3% in the past 5
years in Turkey. In contrast, mandatory consumption expenditures is decreased - 1.7% in the same
period. These data indicate that increase in tourist consumption expenditures will be continue in the
coming years.
Consumer loans is an effective source of financing for tourist consumption. These loans are
offered by banks to meet the cash needs of consumers. Maturity and interest rate of travel credits vary
according to the bank.
The type of loans which can be associated directly with the tourist consumption is the travel
credit that granted under individual needs. But there is no organization that publishes statistical data
related to the travel credit in Turkey. Therefore, it is difficult to establish a direct relationship between
changes in travel credit and tourist consumption expenditure.
256
Implementing the individual risk report contribute to the solution of the problems encountered
for consumer loans in recent years in Turkey. Individual credit risk report that including individuals
credit score is a report which outlines individual credit deals in the banking sector. These reports and
scores are used all kinds of consumer loans including travel credit and credit cards that are allocated to
individuals by banks. The application of credit rating affect credit limit, interest and costs in Turkey.
Implementing long term sales policies for customers who have positive credit record and payment
habits, will be effective in reducing risk in the tourism sector.
Annual increase rate of consumer lending is 35.31% in the last 11 years. This rate is much
higher than the optimal increase 17% in loans that calculated for Turkey’s economy by Ekinci (2010).
Annual increase in international tourism expenditure is 7.28% in the same period. The increase in
domestic tourism spending is 8.5% followed by TurkStat since 2009 for the last four years. These rates
are much below than the increase 35.31% in installment loans' growth. In other words, the figures
shows that despite the high increases in consumer loans, this increase are not emerging adequately in
tourist consumption.
The annual average growth rate of consumer loans is 27.9% for the last nine years. This rate is
below than the increase in installment loans of 40,17%. But it is quite high than 8.5% increase in the
domestic tourist consumption expenditures and 7.28% increase in foreign tourist consumption
expenditures. In other words, it is understood that this high increase in consumer loans arise from out
of travel credits.
The average annual increase in per capita income is 5.74% the years between 2005-2013 in
Turkey. In the same period, the elasticity is 5.01 depend on change in the demand for consumer loans
comparing with the income per capita. This results indicate that credit demand is extremely sensitive
to income increases in Turkey. No doubt the same will be true for travel loan demand sensitivity.
6. DISCUSSION
One of the main limitations of this study is the lack of data about the consumer loans used
directly for tourist consumption. As such, the results may not be generalizable for travel credit.
Another limitation is the lack of the data related to domestic tourism expenditure. A study that include
travel credit and tourist consumption would be more desirable. The study also notes that the
relationship between economic growth and tourist consumption. But the benefits considered was
limited. A more expansive study would probably have more results. This would also allow better
understanding about credit loans that can be used for tourist consumption.
257
7. CONCLUSIONS
Economic stability, decline inflation and falling interest rates promote consumer loans in an
economy. This study offers findings about consumer credit loans regarding tourist consumption. Our
findings show that increase in consumer credit promote tourist consumption. Tourist consumption and
credit usage have been increasing regularly in recent years as a result of positive developments in the
macroeconomic indicators in Turkey. However, despite the high increases in consumer loans in the
last 10 years, this increase are not emerging adequately in tourist consumption in Turkey. Our figures
contributed to this outcome.
ENDNOTES
1
Turkisch Statistic Institute. (2014).”Tüketim Harcamaları, Yoksulluk ve Gelir Dağılımı: Sorularla Resmi İstatistikler Dizisi-6”, available
at:www.tuik.gov.tr/IcerikGetir.do?istab_id=156 (accessed 26 July 2014).
2
Consumer Spending Statistics, available at: http://www.statisticbrain.com/what-consumers-spend-each-month/ (accessed 26 July 2014).
3
Kredi Dunyasi. (2013). “Ihtiyac Kredisi”, available at: http://kredidunyasi.com.tr/g/ihtiyac-kredisi (accessed 19 October 2013).
4
Tura Turizm. (2014). “Kampanya: Tatil Kredisi”, available at: 7 Nisan 2014 tarihinde http://www.turaturizm.com.tr/kampanya (accessed 7
April 2014).
5
Your credit score and credit card rewards: 10 tips, available at:http://www.getrichslowly.org/blog/2013/04/07/your-credit-score-and-creditcard-rewards-10-tips/ (accessed 02 September 2014).
6
Kredi Kayit Burosu. (2013). “KKB Kredi Notu”, available at: http://www.kkb.com.tr/btr/ürünler/kkb-kredi-notu.aspx. (accessed 21 March
2014).
7
Haber 7. (2014). “Ekotrent: Yasak Etkisini Gosterdi”, available at: http://ekonomi.haber7.com/finans/haber/1129990-yasak-etkisinigosterdi-15-milyar-lira-azaldi (accessed 7 April 2014).
8
Bankalar. (2013). “Tatil Kredileri”, available at: http://www.bankalar.org/krediler/ihtiyac-kredileri/tatil-kredisi ; Kredikredi. (2013).
“Kuveyt Türk TL Seyahat Kredisi” www.kredikredi.com/kredi-detaylari/ihtiyac/91/kuveyt_turk_tl_seyahat_kredisi.htm (accessed 18
October 2013).
9
Turkey
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(accessed 18 October 2013).
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260
THE ROLE OF SOCIO-CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF TOURISM IN
PERCEIVED TOTAL TOURISM EFFECT1
Res. Assist. Çağrı ERDOĞAN*
Res. Assist. Seyit Ahmet SOLMAZ**
Assist. Prof. Dr. Burhanettin ZENGİN***
ABSTRACT
This study aimed to determine the level of total tourism effect perceived by hotel employees as
one of the most important stakeholders in tourism industry, and the level of prediction of the total
tourism effect in terms of the socio-cultural and environmental effects of tourism. In this respect it is
found that the positive environmental effects of tourism were identified, particularly, the socio-cultural
effects that could predict the total tourism effect at a certain level; however, the negative
environmental effects did not have such prediction levels. Furthermore it was found that the sociocultural effects of tourism were perceived to be positive by employees in the tourism sector and the
positive environmental effects of tourism were agreed upon more than its negative effects. In general,
the total tourism effect was perceived as positive by the employees.
Keywords: Socio-cultural effects of tourism, environmental effects of tourism, total tourism effect,
tourism perception, hotel employees
INTRODUCTION
Both the sustainability and the development of tourism industry cannot be considered separately
from tourism employees and their support for the industry. The importance of the perceived tourism
effects by the employees could be better understood when favourable tourism perception has a
significant effect on the support for tourism is considered. Identifying the factors shaping perceived
total tourism effect2 is essential in terms of determining the basic dominant factors. These factors can
be considered as preferential while making decisions for future practices not only for organizations but
also regions.
1
Unpublished MSc. thesis of Çağrı Erdoğan –Sakarya University, Institute of Social Sciences, Department of Tourism Management– has
been used in the process of preparing this article.
Sakarya University, Faculty of Management, Tourism Management Department, [email protected], tel: +90 264 2957438, presenter
**
Sakarya University, Faculty of Management, Tourism Management Department, [email protected], tel: +90 264 2956486
***
Sakarya University, Faculty of Management, Tourism Management Department, [email protected], tel: +90 264 2956323
2
The effects that occur within the scope of tourism are called the "total tourism effect", as a whole. The total tourism effect is reflected
according to the way it is perceived by the interactive stakeholders; in other words, the support of the stakeholders for tourism is shaped in
terms of their reactions according to the perceived evaluations (Cengiz and Kırkbir, 2007: 20).
*
261
LITERATURE REVIEW
Social Effects of Tourism
Ignoring the environmental and social effects of tourism, limiting the scope of tourism to an
economic activity, and analyzing its financial benefits alone would be extremely insufficient. In order
to overcome this weakness, researchers have focused on related research activities and expanded the
economy-based perspective of tourism, as well as attempting to create a more comprehensive
understanding of tourism (Brougham and Butler, 1981; Duffield, 1982; Milman and Pizam, 1988;
Doğan, 1989; King et al., 1993; Lindberg and Johnson, 1997).
Interpersonal relationships that emerge within touristic activities that are participated in by
millions of people are effective in the maturation of various important social changes21 such as
traditions, beliefs, values, family structures, political structures, and economic structures
(Haralambopoulos and Pizam, 1996: 503; Gürbüz 2002: 50; Karaman and Avcıkurt, 2011: 1; Dönmez,
2011: 43; Kadanalı and Yazgan, 2012: 98). The interaction between societies that has increased due to
the spread of intensified tourism activities leads to the emerging of new opportunities to establish
global peace by facilitating an affiliation between the diverse societies with varied social and cultural
structures (Tayfun and Kılıçlar, 2004: 2; Akova, 2006; Desbiolles, 2006: 1192).
Cultural Effects of Tourism
Despite the fact that more than half (52%) of the global touristic activities consist of holidays in
the seaside (UNWTO, 2014: 4), there is an increasing demand for cultural tourism activities where
people could visit culturally-rich destinations, ancient remains, and understand diverse cultures.
Accordingly, there is an increase in the number of scientific studies on the determination of the
relationship between tourism and culture (Grünewald, 2002; Emekli, 2003; McKercher et al., 2005;
Bahçe, 2009; Emir and Avan, 2010; Eshliki and Kaboudi, 2012).
It is possible to claim that in addition to its economic effect, tourism revives traditional culture
by playing a protective and progressive role for culture (McKercher et al., 2005: 539; Gülcan, 2010:
102; Emir and Avan, 2010: 207; Çetin, 2010: 182; Kim et al., 2013: 528). From this perspective,
tourism is observed to have an effect on culture. These effects include (Emekli, 2005: 105): the
completion of studies on the inventory of the cultural heritage; the opening the ancient cities for
touristic visits and more effective utilization of museums; protection of traditional architectural
characteristics and using them for tourism purposes; utilization of traditional life elements in the
tourism industry; promotion of important people, heroes, and events; determination of values about
religious tourism; attribution of touristic product values to handcrafts; and preserving the local culture
through the promotion of agricultural products and cuisine.
21
Social change refers to the differentiation in the elements of the social structure in terms of quality and quantity at different periods of time
(Berber, 2003: 208).
262
Environmental Effects of Tourism
The interaction between tourists and the inhabitants of the destination, as well as the availability
of natural beauties, are considered touristic resources by the tourists. From this perspective, it is
clearly understood that the environment is more important for tourism when compared to the other
industries, and that it has a direct effect on the touristic products of a destination (Demir, 2002: 93; Dal
and Baysan, 2007: 70).
Investors, who focus on obtaining rapid profits, continue their activities without consideration of
the capacities of the destinations. This results in various types of natural and cultural damage. The
negative situation caused by such damage is ignored by investors, and has a generally negative effect
on the destinations and related tourism elements (Akıs et al, 1996: 36; Avgeli et al, 2006: 623). With
respect to the sustainability of the rapidly growing tourism industry and the continuation of the values
attributed to the relevant elements, it is essential to eliminate the ignorance towards its environmental
aspects (Sezgin and Karaman, 2008: 430).
The Importance of Perceived Total Tourism Effect
Displaying how the compositions that emerge within the scope of the tourism industry are
perceived by the stakeholders has great importance in terms of analyzing the support that is already
provided or could potentially be given to tourism. Additionally, taking realistic and solution-oriented
legal and administrative measures through the comprehensive evaluation of the existing problems also
requires the clarification of how the industry is perceived by the stakeholders (Andriotis and Vaughan,
2003: 173). Furthermore, any steps to be taken towards decreasing the number of perceived negative
effects and increasing the number of the positive effects require the definition of these effects
(Williams and Lawson, 2001: 270; Látková and Vogt, 2011: 50). Decreasing the number of negative
effects of the tourism industry on society, employees, and other stakeholders would contribute to the
development of positive attitudes towards tourists and improvements in tourism, which would increase
support for the industry, as well (Nunkoo and Ramkissoon, 2012: 998). Otherwise, the stakeholders'
failure to adopt the tourism industry and their opposition would lead to a deceleration in the
improvement of tourism and could even cause a regression that may reach a level of dysfunction
(Gursoy and Rutherford, 2004: 495).
METHODOLOGY
The Goal and Importance of the Research
The current study aimed to determine how the socio-cultural and environmental effects of
tourism are perceived by hotel employees, being the essential stakeholders of the tourism industry.
The study also aimed to identify the role of the mentioned effects on the perceived total tourism effect.
When taken into account the most of the related studies focused on local residents and it is reported
that studies applied on other stakeholders are needed, it can be considered that the research examines
hotel employees –in this respect– as an another essential stakeholder has an importance.
263
Sample and Data Collection
Due to the fact that a vast majority of the Istanbul hotels are four and five-star hotels22 and that
the touristic activities conducted by these hotels were the most important touristic hotel activities in
Istanbul, conducting the study with these hotels was believed to be more effective. Furthermore,
considering the high level of service standards offered in these hotels to maintain high levels of
customer satisfaction, and the intensity of the relationship between the employees of these hotels and
the tourists, the one-, two-, and three-star hotels were not included in the study. All respondents of the
survey among the components of the study universe were included in the sampling, which consisted of
234 hotel employees who were accessed through the convenience sampling method, as one of the nonprobability sampling methods. A certain portion of the survey was implemented online via the
Internet. Data were also obtained through individual face-to-face interviews.
Scales
The structural equality model, which was deemed statistically significant and was developed by
Yoon et al. (2001), with the aim of identifying how the tourism effects were perceived by the local
inhabitants and how much support was given accordingly, was used in the generation of the scale to be
implemented in this study. The section of the scale that assessed the perceived cultural effects of
tourism was formed with the help of the scale used by Látková and Vogt (2011); the section assessing
the perceived environmental effects was generated with the help of the scale used by Byrd et al (2009)
and Látková and Vogt (2011); the section about the perceived social effects was structured using the
scale used by Andereck et al. (2005), Látková and Vogt (2011) and Nunkoo and Ramkinssoon (2012).
The data obtained were analyzed using varied statistical methods in the SPSS software and the
findings are explained below.
Analysis and Results
In reviewing the results of the factor analysis in Table 1, it was observed that the hotel
employees had the highest agreement in the "Total Tourism Effect" dimension (3.9124). The
expressions under the total tourism effect dimension indicated that the perceived total effect of tourism
by the hotel employees was positive in general. However, a remarkable point about Table 1 was that
the hotel employees also agreed on the socio-cultural effects of tourism at a significant level (3.7558).
All statements listed under this dimension were negative statements, however reverse-coded. In light
of this perspective, it was observed that the hotel employees had positive perceptions about the sociocultural effects of tourism.
The environmental effects of tourism were perceived in two dimensions by the hotel employees.
The arithmetical averages of the two dimensions showed that the hotel employees agreed more about
22 According to the list of the registered and certified hotels published by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, General Directorate of Investment and Management (updated on March 31, 2013) there were 11 one-star hotels,
,
47 two-star hotels, 92 three-star hotels, 91 four-star hotels and 53 five-star hotels in Istanbul.
,
264
the positive environmental effects of tourism (3.6453) than its negative environmental effects
(3.2404). In this respect, it would be possible to say that the hotel employees had more positive
perceptions about the environmental effects of tourism. The arithmetical average of the responses
given in the negative environmental effect dimension was above 3, which was the median of the scale.
This could be an indicator for indecisiveness, as well as a sensibility towards negative effects.
Table 1. Factor Analysis Results According to the Variables of the Study
Socio-cultural Effect (R)*
Variance
Eigenvalue
Mean
Cronbach's
Alpha
22.782
4.556
3.7558
0.889
Tourism caused a negative change in our traditions, which has been valuable for us.
Factor
Loading
.846
.788
The inhabitants and the local businesses are suffering due to being located in a tourist attraction.
The increase in the number of tourists visiting the destination caused disputes between the inhabitants and the
tourists.
Tourism has negatively affected the cultural identity of our region.
.777
The tourists who spend a lot of money have negatively affected our life styles.
.758
Tourism increases crime rates.
.716
Total Tourism Effect
Variance
16.210
I think that the economic effects of tourism on our region are positive.
Eigenvalue
Mean
Cronbach's
Alpha
3.242
3.9124
0.798
.763
Factor
Loading
In general. I think that the effects of tourism improvements in our region are positive.
.758
.722
The benefits of tourism are higher than its costs.
.654
I am satisfied with the effects of tourism on the environmental values in our region.
.639
The effects of tourism on the socio-cultural structure in our region are positive.
Meeting tourists coming from various locations is an invaluable experience to understand these societies and
their cultures.
Cronbach's
Variance
Eigenvalue
Mean
Alpha
Negative Environmental Effect
12.672
2.534
3.2404
0.786
Tourism causes an increase in environmental pollution.
.632
Tourism causes traffic jams.
Hotels and other touristic premises have destroyed the environment.
Tourism causes extreme crowdedness in the beaches, walking tracks, parks, and other outdoor areas in our
region.
Cronbach's
Variance
Eigenvalue
Mean
Alpha
Positive Environmental Effect
.559
Factor
Loading
.810
.767
.533
.521
Factor
Loading
9.321
1.864
3.6453
0.586
Tourism improvements in the region are realized in conformity with the natural environment, in general.
.673
Tourists respect the lifestyles of the inhabitants.
.669
Tourism has contributions to the protection of the natural resources in the region.
.572
Varimax Rotated Principle Component Analysis: Explained Variance: 60.98%; KMO: 84.0%; Bartlett’s test of Sphericity:
p<0.001; Chi-Square: 2256, 0.91; df: 190; Interval of Scores: (1) Strongly Disagree – (5) Strongly Agree
* Reverse-coded dimension.
In order to present how the perceived total tourism effect was explained by the socio-cultural
and environmental effects of tourism, the multiple linear regression analysis was used. Considering
that the individuals would act according to their attitudes and beliefs, it is suggested that their general
265
perceptions about the effects of tourism would have an important influence in their perceived total
tourism effects. The results of the regression model implemented accordingly are displayed in Table 2.
Table 2. The Regression Model of the Socio-Cultural and Environmental Effects of Tourism in
Perceived Total Tourism Effect
Significance
Standard
Standard
Significance
Beta
DW
Independent Variables
R2
F
t
Error
Beta
(Model)
Socio-cultural effect*
0.236
0.041
0.380
5.796
0.000
Negative Environmental Effect
-0.015
0.039
-0.027
-0.392
0.696
Positive Environmental Effect
0.271
0.049
0.331
5.555
0.000
0.303
33.336
0.000
1.558
Dependent Variable: Total Tourism Effect
*dimensions with significant effects at the p<0.001 level
The multiple linear regression analysis on how the perceived total tourism effect was explained
by the socio-cultural and environmental effects of tourism was observed to be significant as a whole
(p<0.001). The Durbin-Watson coefficient indicates that there were no auto-correlations in the model
(1.558). In reviewing the regression model, it was identified that there were two dimensions with
significant effects on the dependent variable, being the total tourism effect. Standard Beta values
indicated that the dimension with the highest level of explanation was the “Socio-Cultural Effect”
dimension (β: 0.380; p<0.001). Another dimension with significant effects was the “Positive
Environmental Effect” (β: 0.331; p<0.001). The “Negative Environmental Effect” dimension was
found not to explain the perceived total tourism effect (p>0.001).
Figure 1. The t values of the variables assessed in the study
Socio-cultural Effect
5.796
Neg. Environmental
Effect
Pos. Environmental
Effect
TOTAL TOURISM EFFECT
-0.392
5.555
The R2 value of the model indicated that the 30.3% of the total variance was explained by the
two dimensions, which was a quite high percentage. This indicated that the socio-cultural effects and
positive environmental effects of tourism were dominant perceptions of the hotel employees.
266
CONCLUSION
In this study, which was conducted with the employees of four- and five-star hotels in Istanbul
as one of the most important destinations of Turkey, it was found that the employees were sensitive to
socio-cultural effects of tourism and they considered these effects as positive, as well as had certain
levels of sensitivity towards the environmental effects of tourism and that they perceived the positive
environmental effects of tourism to have a greater effect than its negative environmental effects.
Considering that tourism is less destructive to the environment and that it perceives the environment as
a source of demand, the agreement between the hotel employees on the positive environmental effects
of tourism would reflect a result that is in line with the expectations. However, the realization of the
profit-oriented applications that are not sensitive towards the protection of the social and natural
environment could be considered as the main reason for the significantly negative perception about the
environmental effects of tourism. The fact that the total tourism effect is not explained by the negative
environmental effects of tourism at a significant level leads to the assumption that the said effects have
not been taken into consideration sufficiently by the hotel employees.
It is known and expressed that given support for tourism is effected by how tourism is perceived
by the stakeholders. Obtaining related information could make possible to resolve what is perceived
negative and strengthen the sections that are welcomed due to their positive outcomes. It is essential
especially for planning future development in terms of both local and organizational scope. Knowing
how tourism employees perceive tourism effects might also play a significant role on employee
performance and taking place of institutional commitment. As it is mentioned before, related studies
focused on local residents; however, the issue should be taken into account by doing studies on other
stakeholders to obtain different perspectives and deepen the current understanding of the matter. In
addition to this, since perceptions of people can differentiate in time, related studies can be repeated
periodically by researchers.
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THE SCHOLARSHIP ON THE SCHOLARLY RESEARCH OF RECREATION:
CONTEXT OF TOURISM AND OTHER RESEARCH AREAS
Doç. Dr. Göknil Nur SEVER∗
Arş. Gör. Mehtap ÖZKAN BUZLU∗∗
ABSTRACT
Recreation is a research subject for various scholarly researches. Nevertheless, the scholarship
of this multidisciplinary research subject is so limited. The purpose of this study is to explore the
intersections and differences between Tourism/Leisure/Hospitality/Hotel/Restaurant related scholarly
researches and other social science areas. This work provides information about what is, how is, who
is, where is, searched in the recreation subject so far, and help researchers for the forthcoming
research design. The intersection and distinction findings demonstrate what is and consequently what
is not yet studied. Researchers may consider these “what and what not” elements when designing
further studies and defending their originality.
Keywords:Recreation, Scientometric, Word Clouds, Visual Data Analysis
1. INTRODUCTION
Every scientific research is expected to argue its significance. Significance is enhanced by the
originality. There are several routes to create originality. Some of these routes are; diversifying
searching construct, examining a previously unexplored relationship, applying a new method,
verifying theory on a previously unexplored sampling frame or field. In order to defense the
uniqueness of chosen route, scholarship on scholarship of searched field is a prerequisite. Reviews,
meta analysis, bibliometrics and scientometricstudies all provide scholarship on scholarship.
Recreation is one of the basic activities of tourism and it’s also subjected by some other research
fields such as health, geography, forestry, architecture, economics, and education. This makes
recreation a multidisciplinary concept. Nevertheless, the scholarship of this multidiscipline research
subject is so limited if any. The purpose of this study is to explore the similarities and differences
between tourism/hospitality related scholarly researches and other social science areas. By doing so,
multidiscipline frame of the recreation research, and the searched constructs, research approach and
sampling frame will be determined. This work is expected to provide information about what is/how
∗
Mersin University, Faculty of Tourism, Department of Tourism Management, [email protected],
Mersin University, Faculty of Tourism, Department of Tourism Management, [email protected],
∗∗
271
is/who is/where is searched in the recreation subject so far, and help researchers for the forthcoming
research design.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
The ‘scholarship on the scholarship’ of tourism broadly divided into five categories (Hunt,
Gao and Xue, 2014:2): The first category “focuses on the mechanisms, outcomes, and relationships
related to journal ratings, rankings, and citation analyses”. The second category “explores the source
knowledge and seminal writings in tourism”. The third category “delves into collaborations and
social networks among tourism scholars evidenced in their publication output”. The fourth category
“presents introspective scholarship on tourism”. The fifth category “explores the profound influence
of Google Scholar on the content, visibility, naming, and indexing of journals”. Their manuscript
aimed to provide a snapshot into shifts in the priorities of tourism researchers over the last four
decades, thus tracing the history of theoretical development in the field of tourism and they applied
word clouds to visualize findings. The same approach and analysis has been adopted for some other
fields (such as Ahern, 2013 and Haugerud, 2013 examined the field of antropology).
There are also some scholarship on scholarship studies specifically concentrated on recreation
subject. Such as; impacts of recreation (Sato, Wood and Lindenmayer, 2013; Steven, Pickering and
Castley, 2011; Sun and Walsch, 1998; Liddle and Scorgie, 1980), valuation and recreation values
(Ghermandi and Nunes, 2013; Zandersen and Tol, 2009; Brander, Van Beukering and Cesar, 2007;
Shrestra and Loomis, 2001), recreational physical activity (Ashford, Edmunds and French, 2010;
Kaczynski and Henderson, 2007; Olsen, Bain, Jordan, Nagle, Green, Whiteman and Webb, 2007),
recreation and consumer satisfaction (Williams, 1989), research methodology (Bedini and Wu, 1994),
geographic view (Jansen-Verbeke and Dietvorst, 1987), recreation experience preference (Manfredo,
Driver and Tarrant, 1996), recreation programs (Bedini and Phoenix, 2001) and outdoor recreation and
ethnicity (Gentin, 2011). Literature search shows that, there is a lack of scholarship on scholarship in
recreation, which evolves the multidisciplinary frame of recreation and provides directions for further
research.
3. METHOD, ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
There are various methodologies to explore scholarship on scholarship (Hunt, Gao ve Xue
(2014) such as bibliometrics, reviews, meta analysis and scientometrics. All these methodologies
provide unique outcomes but also consists some deficits. For example, bibliometrics can be used for
the evaluation of research performance and the study of science as a knowledge-generating and
communication system and its interaction with technology (Van Raan, 2005:50), but insufficient in
providing clues about further research designs. Reviews and meta analysis may provide valuable
outcomes for the further research designs. Corresponding to purpose; a scientometric study was
272
performed by applying a word cloud analysis. A scientometric approach provides an opportunity for
analyzing scientific fields according to research interests and make comparisons (e.g. Leydesdorff and
Gauthier, 1996; Glanzel and Schubert, 2003; Konur, 2011, 2012a, 2012b; Montoya, Montoya, Gomez,
Manzano-Agugliaro and Alameda-Hernández, 2014).
Scope of the sampling frame of this study consists of thesis and dissertations published in the
Proquest data base. Data collected in March 2014, comprise 664 thesis/dissertations which contain the
word “recreation” within title.
664 thesis/dissertations produced by 163 different scientific
departments. Out of 664 thesis/dissertations; 98 are produced by tourism, leisure, hospitality, hotel,
restaurant related scientific departments, and the 521 are produced by other scientific departments.
Major department have not been mentioned for 45 thesis/dissertations and this data dismissed from the
analysis. Analyzed 619 titles are published between the years 1917-2013 and 267 of them are thesis
and 397 of them are dissertations.
Content analysis has been generated by using ‘word clouds’ (www.wordle.net) which is one of the
visual data analysis techniques. A word cloud is a tool for visualizing how frequently words exist in a
body of text (Hunt et al., 2014: 2). Words or terms that are most prominent in a text are represented
with larger font and sometimes highlighted with a different font color (Riggs and Hu, 2003: 522).
While preserving the anonymity of the subjects, they show immediately what common themes and
phrases appear in the text, providing an excellent starting point for analysis and coding of qualitative
data and even more, word clouds (or tag clouds) are popular, fun ways to display text data in graphical
form and they can also be useful tools in assessment while “A picture is worth a thousand words”
(DePaulo and Wilkonson, 2014: 38-44).
A few minor adjustments were made on the text data to fit the visual analysis. All the words
were changed to their upper cases. Due to its frequency the word ‘recreation’, ‘recreational’ and
‘study’ was dismissed prom the analysis. Additionally, prepositions and punctuations were removed.
The resulting text was used to create the word clouds.
Figure 1 represents the major departments which recreation studies (thesis and dissertations)
produced. Cloud represented in Figure 1 shows that recreation is a multidisciplinary field. Education,
Physical Education,
Health, Tourism, Economics, Agricultural Economics, Rural Economy,
Resources Development, Resources (Tourism / Natural / Forest), Forestry, Geography, Management
(Tourism / Recreation / Resource and Environmental), Administration (Park / Educational / Tourism /
Business / Recreation / Public), Leisure Studies, Agriculture, Environmental Design and Planning,
Sociology, History, Kinesiology, Sport, Landscape Architecture, Psychology are the main research
areas produced work about recreation. Cloud shows that Education, Health, Management and Tourism
departments are the most interested ones.
273
Figure
re 1 : The Main Research Areas Interested in Recreation (n=619)
Figure 2 and Figure 3 represents the themes mentioned in the titles of thesis/dissertations’.
Figure 2: Thesis/Dissertations’ Themes Produced by
Tourism/Leisure/Hospitality/Hotel/Restaurant related scientific departments (n=98)
Tourism/Leisure/Hospitality/Hotel/Restaurant
Figure 3: Thesis/Dissertations’ Themes Produced by Other Social Research Departments
(n=521)
A synthesis of clouds represented Figure 2 and Figure 3 has been performed for evolving the
recreation research content, scope and perspective. The synthesis has been constructed according
categories of: searched variables (what), research scope (where), sampling frame (who), research
perspective (how), method, time implication (when), searched activity. Table 1 represents the
syntheses:
274
Table 1: Synthesis of Cloud 2 and Cloud 3
Other Social Research Areas
(Figure 3)
Tourism/Leisure/Hospitality
/Hotel/Restaurant Related Areas
(Figure 2)
Searched
Variables
(What)
Participation, Satisfaction, Activities, Quality,
Perceptions, Demand, Attitudes, Competencies,
Behavior, Benefits, Value(s), Utility, Preferences,
Experience, Conflict, Welfare, Needs, Risk,
Specialization, Characteristics, Cost, Constraints,
Identity.
Needs, Participation, Preferences, Experiences,
Characteristics, Conflict, Involvement, Activities,
Perceptions, Benefits, Acceptance, Competence,
Price, Quality, Satisfaction, Attitudes, Attribute,
Choices, Specialization, Behavior, Equity,
Enjoyment, Collaboration.
Research
Scope
(Where)
Outdoor, Parks, Areas, County, University,
Municipal, National, Forest, Lake, River, Sites,
Lands, California, Ontario, Mountain, Nature,
Wilderness(areas), Urban, British Columbia,
Alberta, Michigan, Association, Backcountry,
Wyoming, Center, College, Texas, United States,
Montana, Campus, Agencies, Departments,
Institutions, Setting, State, Organizational,
Facilities, City.
Outdoor, Parks, Mountain, Michigan, Carolina,
Forest, Illinois, River, Universities, Campus,
Lands, Water-Based, Urban, Settings, Local,
Municipal, National, Organization, Trail,
Corridors.
Sampling
Frame
(Who)
Community, Individuals, Directors, Student,
Visitor, Adolescents, Children, Public, Youth,
Disabilities.
Public, African, Visitors, American, Volunteers,
Male, Adults, Participants, Community(ies),
Professionals, Female, Adolescent, Youth,
Children, Homeless, Canadian, Family,
Individuals, Specialists, Student, Employees,
Consumers, Minorities, Staff.
Research
Perspective
(How)
Analysis, Evaluation, Comparison,
Assessment/Assessing, Exploration, Application,
Investigation, Influence, Relationship,
Understanding, Role, Effects, Impacts, Factors,
Examination, Approach, Valuation.
Analysis, Relationship, Evaluation, Comparison,
Application, Influence, Effect/Affect, Impact,
Exploratory/Exploring/Exploration, Examination,
Understanding, Role, Investigation, Assessment,
Conceptual, Survey, Guide, Factors, Framework.
Time
Implication
(When)
Leisure*
Leisure*, Part-time.
Searched
Activity
Method
Management, Services, Physical, Education,
Delivery, Practices, Play, Therapeutic,
Conservation, Planning, Programming, Training,
Tourism, Policy, Health, Travel/Access, Sport,
Economic, Implications, Leisure*
Case, Theory, Models.
Play, Management, Marketing, Economic, Sport,
Tourism, Physical, Leisure*, Services, Online,
Programming, Health, Adventure, Therapeutic,
Softball, Treatment, Slow-Pitch.
Theory, Model, Focus Group Interviews.
Environmental, Based, Data, Resource,
Environmental, Water, New, Use, Using,
Development, Using, Curriculum, Related, Social,
Disregarded
Selected, System, Curriculum, West,
Natural, Professional, Programs, Developmental,
Professional, Programs, Social, Life, Time,
Selected, Time, Patterns, Perceived, Types, Use,
Words in the
Resource, Patterns, Development, Perceived,
Job, Inputs, Method, Focus, Perspective, Degree,
Syntheses
Change.
Dog, Validated, Information, Gathering,
Demonstrated.
*In some thesis and dissertations; leisure mentioned as ‘leisure time’ and in some others mentioned as ‘leisure participation’.
Consequently leisure is placed both in ‘searched activity’ and ‘time implication”.
Conclusion presenting multidisciplinary frame of recreation studies and implications are discussed in
the further section.
4. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
In this work; we examined studies subjected recreation within the scope of thesis and
dissertations published in Proquest database and explored the “searched variables, research scope,
sampling frame, research perspective, searched activity, method and time implication” for the purpose
of exploring multidisciplinary frame of recreation. As conclusion, the similarities and differences have
275
been explored (presented in figures 4-5-6-7-8-9-10) between Tourism, Leisure, Hospitality, Hotel,
Restaurant related research and research produced by other social science areas. Right circles in the
figures present the Tourism, Leisure, Hospitality, Hotel, Restaurant related areas and left circles in
present the other social research areas. The intersection areas represent the mutual interests of all
fields.
Figure 4:The Multi-Disciplinary Frame of “Searched Variables” in Recreation Subjected
Research
Figure 5:The Multi-Disciplinary Frame of “Research Scope” in Recreation Subjected Research
Figure 6:The Multi-Disciplinary Frame of “Research Sample” in Recreation Subjected Research
276
Figure 7: The Multi-Disciplinary Frame of “Research Perspectives” in Recreation Subjected
Research
Figure 8:The Multi-Disciplinary Frame of “Searched Activities” in Recreation Subjected
Research
Figure 9:The Multi-Disciplinary Frame of “Time Implications” in Recreation Subjected
Research
Figure 10: The Multi-Disciplinary Frame of “Method Approaches” in Recreation Subjected
Research
277
This work provides a snapshot into variables searched, research scope, sampling frame, research
perspective, method, time implication and searched activity of dissertations and thesis related to
recreation. This snapshot may contribute to further research designs in several ways.
The intersection and distinction figures demonstrate what is and consequently what is not yet
studied. Researchers may consider these “what and what not” elements when designing further studies
and defending the originality. For example; as figure 4 presenting “The Multi-Disciplinary Frame of
Searched Variables in Recreation Subjected Research” examined, we notice that some basic constructs
such as trust, image has not been studied yet.
Word clouds has been implied as a very practical tool for analyzing qualitative data and a useful
option for visualization (e.g., DePaolo and Wilkonson, 2014; Hunt et. al., 2014; Ahearn, 2013;
Haugerud, 2013) and we think researchers who work on scholarship on scholarship or who perform
any content analysis may benefit from this tool and this study may be taken as an example.
The scope of this study is limited to Thesis and Dissertations published in Proquest data base.
Examining journal articles may provide a more comprehensive view.
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280
DATA MINING: USAGE AND APPLICATIONS IN TOURISM INDUSTRY
Yrd. Doç. Dr. Eyüp AKÇETİN∗
Dr. Alper KILIÇ∗
Yrd. Doç. Dr. Nilüfer YURTAY∗∗
Okutman Yüksel YURTAY∗∗
Ar. Gör. Emin ÖZTÜRK∗
Ar. Gör. Onur Alper ŞAHİN∗∗∗
ABSTRACT
Data mining method is used commonly to analyse huge amount of data and extract unforeseen
results from that data. Data mining techniques are used in a wide variety of disciplines and fields such
as customer relationship management in marketing, medical disease prediction and determination of
effective treatment methods, financial and banking risk management, training planning, customer
behaviour analysis in e-commerce, predicting and preventing possible criminal activities in criminal
sciences etc.
Customer relationship management is one of the most important points of service industry. A good
client relation management requires to analyse and reveal all aspects of client profiles. Extraction of
such client profiles from huge amount of customer data is possible by using integrated data mining
and decision support systems. Tourism businesses may benefit from data mining techniques to create
customer based business mind. By using data mining applications, businesses in tourism industry will
be able to conduct detailed analysis to have a better understanding of customer profile and thus they
may offer special personal promotions to customers or arrange seasonal campaigns. In addition,
businesses may form behavioural grouping for their products and service types based on processed
data. These groups may be analysed by clustering algorithms in data mining and it would be possible
to prepare an action plan for products and service types based on natural grouping or patterns of
customers.
∗
Balıkesir Üniversitesi, Bandırma Denizcilik Fakültesi, Deniz İşletmeleri Yönetimi Bölümü, [email protected]
Balıkesir Üniversitesi, Bandırma Denizcilik Fakültesi, Deniz İşletmeleri Yönetimi Bölümü, [email protected]
∗∗
Sakarya Üniversitesi, Bilgisayar ve Bilişim Mühendisliği Fakültesi, Bilgisayar Mühendisliği Bölümü, [email protected]
∗∗
Sakarya Üniversitesi, Bilgisayar ve Bilişim Mühendisliği Fakültesi, Bilgisayar Mühendisliği Bölümü, [email protected]
∗
Balıkesir Üniversitesi, Bandırma Denizcilik Fakültesi, Gemi Makine ve Gemi İnşa Bölümü, [email protected]
∗∗∗
İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Denizcilik Fakültesi, Gemi Makine ve Gemi İnşa Bölümü, [email protected]
∗
281
In this study, it is aimed to prove that data mining methods can be used effectively in tourism
industry in order to increase service quality, meet customer demands and how to improve customer
relations by giving examples.
Key Words: Data Mining, Tourism Information Technology, Data Mining in Tourism, E-Tourism
Services.
1. INTRODUCTION
It is possible to collect and store large amounts of data in a short time with the developments in
information and software technology. Databases enable users to access knowledge quickly and
provide large data sets.
Use of information technology is needed for the analysis of thousands of records from the
database. Data analysis is an important step to obtain previously unknown, hidden in data, meaningful
and useful patterns from large-scale database in the process of knowledge discovery. It is possible to
uncover previously unknown relationships and correlations between variables and to identify future
trends and possibilities by using data mining techniques.
Data mining is the process of extracting meaningful information from the analysis of big data
which are stored digitally. Today, data mining is applied in many areas such as sales, marketing,
banking, medicine, biology, meteorology and web use and risk analysis. The most important features
of data mining applications for companies can be summarized as follows. Customer profile analysis
method; customer profile analysis to identify most profitable group of customers for the company and
sub-grouping of that customers. Targeting method; it aims to identify profitable consumers who prefer
shopping at rivals and to organize campaigns for that consumers to convert them into loyal customers
of the target company. Market Basket Analysis method; it aims to identify purchasing trends of
customers and consumers and create special product or service placements, shelving arrangements etc.
and cross-sales operations. (Olson & Delen, 2008, s. 3-5).
Association rules method is one of the most important techniques of data mining. Association
rule is an approach that supports the analysis of historical data and identify behaviours associated with
these data in future studies. Association rules are the rules which contains the most common objects
together in a set of objects. In today’s world, in every purchase, every banking transaction and in any
kind of operation in the public sphere, a lot of data is created and recorded. It is necessary to explore
relations and rules of this large amounts of raw data set to extract meaningful information and to make
predictions about the future. Developing strategies based on these rules and relations may increase the
profits of the businesses while providing better and high quality services to customers. For example, in
supermarkets data could be analysed and the following month's sales forecast can be identified and
appropriate shelving arrangements can be made for the products that are purchased together.
282
Customers can be grouped based on their purchase interests and potential customers can be identified
for a new product. Personalized campaigns, membership cards and club cards can be arranged for
these customers thus customer loyalty can be achieved.
Every day, businesses and government agencies make more investments in database systems
and more amount of data is stored in these systems. As one of the largest databases in the world, in
Wal-Mart's database, 20 million operations are performed daily. Human genome project can be
mentioned as one of the large databases that was generated for scientific purposes. In this project, data
are expressed in gigabytes. In addition, database of high resolution images in the science of astronomy
has been created for research purposes and its size is expressed by terabytes. NASA’s Earth Observing
System (EOS) creates and stores 50 gigabytes of data in an hour. However, such large data cannot be
processed efficiently in many businesses and agencies. It is necessary to apply methods and rules on
this big databases to discover useful knowledge. This process is called as Knowledge Discovery in
Databases – KDD. As the data collected and stored keep growing every day, companies are seeking to
reveal association rules in databases. Discovery of interesting and meaningful association relationships
fromlarge amounts of professional transaction records, makes the decision-making process more
efficient for the companies. (Ghosh, Dehuri, & Ghosh, 2008, s. 2-3).
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Life standards and living choices improved substantially in the past years and data mining
methods are used to analyse customer behaviour and to increase quality of services. For example,
hairdresser salons are used widely and analysis of hairdressers customers by data mining method
showed that there are four main groups for customers; loyal customers, potential customers, new
customers and lost customers.
In another study, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method is used for dental services
marketing. Database is formed by using previous customer’s data in a dental clinic in Taiwan. Study
showed that ANN model is applicable for existing customer data evaluation.
GPS technology is used widely to create data about human activity and movement. However
this data may be huge. Data mining methods can be used to investigate this kind of movements. Big
data analysis is not so popular in the field of tourism marketing information development. Related
studies are limited to decision support systems for managers and travel advice systems for tourists in
recent years.
There are a lot of research and studies related to tourist choices and motivations however it is
still difficult to use data mining and association rule results in tourism management. A study was
conducted on Hong-Kong residents who travel abroad by collecting survey data. These data was
analysed to develop more appropriate tourism products by decision makers.
283
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS
Tourism is versatile, social and cultural activity which is an important industrial area. In this
case, the growth of this sector and the services sector requires an analysis of the people involved in
that activity. Therefore, cultural, social or business type of activities of tour companies were taken into
account to provide a better marketing and campaign data by investigating participating tourists
occupational groups. Analysis were conducted by applying apriori algorithm (association analysis)
method of data mining algorithms. It aimed to create special campaigns by considering the results of
occupational associations.
Association rule of data mining analyses the associations between products in a customer
shopping basket and reveals shopping habits of customers. Discovering such associations reveal which
products combinations are sold together. Marketing managers may be able to develop more efficient
sales strategies by considering that information. For example, if a tourist enjoys paragliding, what is
the possibility of that same tourist will go on a boat trip? Considering these type of information, it
would be possible to increase the sales of such products or services by taking necessary steps.
Attracting more tourist and having competitive advantage is possible by providing services according
to customer needs. For instance, if a company is aware of the fact that paragliding tourists are likely to
go on a boat trip, it would be crucial to include both services while marketing to ensure customer
satisfaction and to have competitive advantage against other companies.
3.1 Apriori Algorithm (Association Analysis)
Apriori algorithm aims to extract association rules from large data sets and to achieve results by
using these rules. Association rules can be classified into two groups as logical and numerical.
Logical rules are expressed as yes or no while numerical rules are represented in numeric values.
(Han & Kamber, 2001),
Association rules and sequential time patterns are used widely in data mining and known as
Market Basket Analysis for identification of purchasing trends.Association rules are used in defining
the simultaneous relationships. As shown in the examples presented hereinafter.
In this way,
association relationships between products during shopping can be found and in accordance with that
relationship data customers' buying habits can be determined.Salesman may have the opportunity to
develop effective and profitable marketing strategies, thanks to this discovered association relations
and shopping habits. Association rules can be defined as the rules that contain the object in the same
process which are often seen together. (Liu, 2011, s. 17-62).
Association rules are used in big databases and these two steps are followed:
I. Frequently repeated elements: each of these items are repeated at least at a
predetermined minimum number of support
284
II. Strong association rules are formed by frequently repeated elements: these rules must
meet minimum support and trust value criteria. Apriori Algorithm is the most basic method to
find frequently repeated elements
Steps of Apriori Algorithm:
• Firstly threshold values are determined to compare support and trust values.
• Support values are calculated for each product
• Support values are compared with additional threshold values and if lower
support values are removed
• Remaining products are grouped in pairs and group support values are
calculated
• Again support values are compared with threshold values and lower support
values are removed
• After that triple, quart, fivefold etc. groups are formed and comparing and
removal processes continue
• Processes continue as long as it fits to threshold value.
• Association rules are created for determined group by considering support
values and trust values are identified for each of these rules.
In short, association rules can be expressed mathematically as follows: If customers who
bought the product A, also buy product B at the same time, A → B [support = %2, trust= %60].
Support and trust value expressions state usefulness and accuracy of the discovered rule. A support
value of 2% indicates that out of all analysed shopping data, A and B are sold at the same time just for
2% of all. Trust value of 60% indicates that 60 % of customers who bought product A, also buy
product B at the same time. (Liu, 2011, s. 17-62).
Mathematical model of association rule is presented by Agrawal, Imielinski and Swami in
1993. In that model, I = {i1, i2,..,im} is called as products. D indicates all the movements in database
and T indicates each movement of products. TID is the only determinant for each movement.
Association rule can be defined as follows; A1, A2,......, Am → B1, B2, …..., Bn. Ai and Bj defines
conducted work or products in that expression. It means that when “A1, A2,...,Am” ocur, “B1,B2,
...,Bn” is also involved in same movement. Association rule is produced by the user to meet the
required support and trust threshold values. Support in a product group is the percentage of related
movements in D which indicates all the movements. For A and B product groups, association rule is
shown as “A → B” and support is calculated as follows: (Liu, 2011, s. 17-62).
285
Support (A → B) =
Trust value of A → B association rule is the percentage of moves inclusive of A which is also
inclusive of B. For example, if a rule have 85% trust, 85% of the clusters which is inclusive of A also
includes B. (Liu, 2011, s. 17-62).
62).
Trust(A → B) =
If the trust value iss 100%, rule is correct for all data analysis and these rule is called as
“absolute”. Association rules that meet the lowest support and trust of the threshold values are called
strong rules. Aim of algorithm is to reveal strong rules. (Liu, 2011, s. 17-62).
17
For example, association rule is formed as below by considering 100 customers shopping data
Trust ( Paraglidin g , BoatTrip → JetSki )
X = { Paraglidin g , BoatTrip }, Y = { JetSki }
It expresses the possibility of tourists whom joined in paragliding and boat trip, will also join
the jetski activity. Number of tourists who demands all of these three activites is 28 and total number
of tourists is 100, thus support value of the given rule is calculated as below:
sup port(Paragliding, BoatTrip→ JetSki) =
number(Paragliding, BoatTrip, JetSki) 28
=
= 0,28
Totaln umberofTourists
100
If 32 people join to paragliding and boat trip, trust value is calculated as follows:
trust(Paragliding, BoatTrip→ JetSki) =
number(Paragliding, BoatTrip, JetSki) 28
=
= 0,88
number(Paragliding, BoatTrip)
32
4. APPLICATION
In this study, hidden occupational associations and changing daily life and business life
relations were investigated for the tourist convoys in the province of Mugla. As a result of the derived
relationships data, it was aimed to make recommendations for campaigns of tour operators.
286
Pre-processing operation was conducted on the raw data which was obtained from the company
and data was prepared for further analysis. After that operations, database was built which consist of
175 tourist’s meaningful and workable data.
These data were selected and analysed by apriori algorithm for certain period of time and
association rules were extracted.
In this study, sample tourism data of the apriori algorithm is given as table below:
Table 1:Tourist Data Table According to Occupational Groups
N
o
Name &
Surname
1
…
Occupation &Title
TEACHER
(ACADEMICIAN)
2
TECHNICIAN
3
ARTIST
4
DOCTOR
5
HAIRDRESSER
Type
&Code
ast-2013001
ast-2013001
ast-2013001
ast-2013001
ast-2013001
City
Addres
s
Te
l
Email
Arrival
date
Departure
date
…
…
…
…
…
Konya
Nevsehi
r
Konya
Konya
Kayseri
Grou
p
Kny4.
Kny4.
Kny4.
Kny4.
Kny4.
Note
s
…
…
Relations between tour participants were investigated after collecting sample data. Some
participants in the same convoy stated that they were affected or invited by each other before joining
the tour. Occupational groups were formed for all participants in 50 convoys. Occupational groups of
participants in the same convoy were shown in Table 2.
Table 2: Occupational Groups according to Convoys
Group
Occupation
1
Doctor, Teacher (Academician), Businessman, Dietitian
2
Nurse, Footballer, Engineer, Tradesman, Artist
3
Technician, Cook, Waiter, Tradesman, Artist
4
Servant, Technician, Hairdresser
5
Vet, Writer, Businessman, Dietitian
6
Doctor, Technician, Hairdresser
7
Doctor, Teacher (Academician)
8
Cook, Waiter
9
Doctor, Businessman, Dietitian
10
Officer, Accountant, Musician, Painter
…
…
287
Support and trust thresholds were determined to compare measurements by utilizing the
information contained in Table 2. All these values are related to the sensitivity of the campaign. two
different occupational groups of tourists in all convoys were assumed to be on the same lot with 20%
possibility and the probability of a combination of different occupational groups is limited with 80%
confidence value.
Supportthreshold = %20 and Trustthreshold= %80, Threshold support value 50*0,2 = 10
Table 3: All occupational groups and threshold values
Occupation
Support Value
Doctor
20
Teacher (Academician)
10
Businessman
15
Dietitian
15
Nurse
5
Footballer
5
Manager
5
Tradesman
10
Artist
10
Technician
5
Cook
10
Waiter
10
Servant
5
Technician
10
Hairdresser
10
Vet
5
Writer
5
Officer
5
Accountant
5
Musician
5
Painter
Total
5
175
Support values for each occupation is calculated from Table 3 and compared with threshold value.
Lower values are removed. Table 4 is extracted from Table 3.
288
Table 4: Occupations above the threshold
Occupation
Support Value
Doctor
20
Teacher (Academician)
10
Businessman
15
Dietitian
15
Tradesman
10
Artist
10
Cook
10
Waiter
10
Technician
10
Hairdresser
10
Total
120
Occupations in Table 4 were grouped in pairs and group support values are calculated. With the
help of that calculation Table 5 is obtained from Table 4.
Table 5: Double occupational groups
Occupation
Support Value
Doctor, Teacher
10
Doctor, Businessman
10
Doctor, Dietitian
10
Doctor, Tradesman
0
Doctor, Artist
0
Doctor, Cook
0
Doctor, Waiter
0
Doctor, Technician
5
Doctor, Hairdresser
5
Teacher, Businessman
5
Teacher, Dietitian
5
Teacher, Tradesman
0
Teacher, Artist
0
Teacher, Cook
0
Teacher, Waiter
0
Teacher, Technician
0
Teacher, Hairdresser
0
Businessman, Dietitian
15
Businessman, Tradesman
0
Businessman, Artist
0
Businessman, Cook
0
Businessman, Waiter
0
Businessman, Technician
0
Occupation
Support Value
Businessman, Hairdresser
0
Dietitian, Tradesman
0
Dietitian, Artist
0
Dietitian, Cook
0
Dietitian, Waiter
0
Dietitian, Technician
0
Dietitian, Hairdresser
0
Tradesman, Artist
10
Tradesman, Cook
5
Tradesman, Waiter
5
Tradesman, Technician
0
Tradesman, Hairdresser
0
Artist, Cook
5
Artist, Waiter
5
Artist, Technician
0
Artist, Hairdresser
0
Cook, Waiter
10
Cook, Technician
5
Cook, Hairdresser
0
Waiter, Technician
5
Waiter, Hairdresser
0
Technician, Hairdresser
10
289
Double occupational groups in Table 5 were compared with threshold and lower support values are
removed. With the help of that calculation Table 6 is obtained from Table 5.
Table 2: Double occupational groups with support value above the threshold
Occupation
Support Value
Doctor, Teacher
10
Doctor, Businessman
10
Doctor, Dietitian
10
Businessman, Dietitian
15
Tradesman, Artist
10
Cook, Waiter
10
Technician, Hairdresser
10
After that triple, quart, fivefold etc. groups are formed and comparing and removal processes
continue. Operations continue as long as it is fit to threshold value
Table 7: Triple occupational groups with support value above the threshold
Occupation
Doctor, Teacher, Businessman
Doctor, Teacher, Dietitian
Doctor, Teacher, Tradesman
Doctor, Teacher, Artist
Doctor, Teacher, Cook
Doctor, Teacher, Waiter
Doctor, Teacher, Technician
Doctor, Teacher, Hairdresser
Doctor, Businessman, Dietitian
Doctor, Businessman, Tradesman
Doctor, Businessman, Artist
Doctor, Businessman, Cook
Doctor, Businessman, Waiter
Doctor, Businessman, Technician
Doctor, Businessman, Hairdresser
Doctor, Businessman, Tradesman
Doctor, Dietitian, Tradesman
Doctor, Dietitian, Artist
Doctor, Dietitian, Cook
Doctor, Dietitian, Waiter
Doctor, Dietitian, Technician
Doctor, Dietitian, Hairdresser
Doctor, Dietitian, Tradesman
Tradesman, Artist, Cook
Support Value
5
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
290
Occupation
Tradesman, Artist, Waiter
Tradesman, Artist, Technician
Tradesman, Artist, Hairdresser
Cook, Waiter, Technician
Cook, Waiter, Hairdresser
Support Value
5
0
0
0
0
Triple occupational groups in Table 7 were compared with threshold and lower support values are
removed. Table 8 is obtained from Table 7 with the help of that calculation.
Table 8: Triple occupational groups with support value above the threshold
Occupation
Support Value
Doctor, Businessman, Dietitian 10
There is no need to conduct compare and removal processes for quartet and fivefold groups as they
don’t meet required threshold criteria.
Association rules are generated at this step based on support value of identified group. Trust values
are determined for each of these rules. According to that; Sub-sets of Doctor, Businessman, Dietitian
association rules are; {Doctor, Businessman}, {Doctor, Dietitian}, {Businessman, Dietitian}, {Doctor},
{Businessman}, {Dietitian}.
Tablo 9: Association rules and trust values
Association
Explanation
Trust
Doctor & Businessman →
Dietitian
Doctor & Dietitian →
Businessman
Businessman & Dietitian →
Doctor
Doctor → Businessman &
Dietitian
Businessman → Doctor &
Dietitian
Dietitian→
Doctor&
Businessman
Possibility of existence of a Dietitian in convoy with the existence of Doctor
& Businessman
Possibility of existence of a Businessman in convoy with the existence of
Doctor & Dietitian
Possibility of existence of a Doctor in convoy with the existence of
Businessman & Dietitian
Possibility of existence of Businessman & Dietitian in convoy with the
existence of a Doctor
Possibility of existence of Doctor & Dietitian in convoy with the existence
of a Businessman
Possibility of existence of Doctor & Businessman in convoy with the
existence of a Dietitian
10/10
%100
10/10
%100
10/15
%60
10/20
%50
10/15
%66
10/15
%66
=
=
=
=
=
=
Considering the trustthreshold=80% value in that two association rule;
Doctor & Businessman → Dietitian 10/10 = 100%.
Possibility of existence of a Dietitian in convoy with the existence of Doctor & Businessman is 100%
Doctor & Dietitian → Businessman 10/10 = 100%
Possibility of existence of a Businessman in convoy with the existence of Doctor & Dietitian is 100%
291
According to these results of occupational groups, in a tourist group of doctor and businessman,
the possibility of existence of a Dietitian is 100%. Similarly, in a tourist group of doctor and Dietitian,
the possibility of existence of a businessman is 100%.
Considering these results, the relation between occupations in tourist groups were determined
and collected for further evaluation in campaign process. As it can be understood from that
application, analysis on customers with more data would provide a direct contact with clients
including accurate message and correct communication. Preparing campaigns through these data
analysis will provide competitive advantage for companies. For example, considering the results from
the application, it would be a right to decision to advertise the campaign in a media environment
which is followed by doctors, Dietitians and businessman.
5. CONCLUSION
Identifying customers buying patterns, determining the relations between demographic
characteristics of customers, in short understanding customers in detail by businesses is crucial for the
right communication between companies and customers and data mining technology have become
inevitable in today’s competitive market conditions. Transforming random customers to loyal
customers is only possible by knowing customers in detail. It is necessary to collect, review and
analyse all the information and data about the customers to get to know them closely.
Data mining methods may help decision makers to know customers closely. Businesses may
create special campaigns for the selected target audience and target audience behaviour can be taken
into account to create appropriate campaign conditions. Thus, personalized products and services can
be offered by businesses. Integration with customers can be achieved in service industry such as
tourism and appropriate marketing policies can be created. Changing conditions as determined by
regional differences and relational values, can be examined through occupational groups or in a
different relational unity. More research can be done on extended customer data. Pre-processing of
data and algorithmic operations can be supported by software. Therefore more data can be analysed in
less time. As a result, customers can be recognized in detail and customer satisfaction can be ensured.
Businesses need to create customer data profiles and data collection and analysis should be
conducted to do all the above mentioned. It is necessary to conduct retrospective analysis to be able to
foresee future customer behaviours and take the necessary steps in this respect. Only way to do is
transforming customer databases to useful information and creating business intelligence by data
mining methods. Intelligent businesses will have more knowledge of customers and will have better
understanding of customer expectations, thus they will be able to increase customer loyalty.
292
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293
TURİZM SEKTÖRÜNDE DEĞİŞEN İK STRATEJİLERİNE YÖNELİK BİR İNCELEME
Arş. Gör. Burçin Çetin KARABAT*
Arş. Gör.Mustafa ŞEKER∗∗
ÖZ
Çalışmanın temel amacı, işletmelerin İnsan Kaynakları (İK) politikalarını şekilllendiren ve
rekabet avantajında belirleyici rol oynayan İK stratejilerini incelemek ve bu stratejilerin otel
işletmelerindeki etkinliğini belirlemektir. Bu amaçtan hareketle İstanbul’da faaliyet gösteren beş
yıldızlı oteller araştırma kapsamına alınmış ve içerik analizi yöntemi kullanılarak kurumsal web
sayfaları incelenmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre otel işletmelerinin genel İK stratejilerinden yüksek
performans yönetimine, spesifik İK stratejilerinden öğrenme ve gelişime en fazla önem verdikleri
tespit edilmiştir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: İK stratejileri, Stratejik İKY, Otel İşletmeleri
ABSTRACT
The main purpose of this study is to examine the HR strategies, which shapes the HR policies of
companies and plays a decisive role at competitive advantage, and determining the effectiveness of
this strategies in hotel business. For this purpose the five star hotels in İstanbul are considered and
their corporate websites are examined with a content analysis. According to results, it is observed that
hotel managements gives the greatest importance to the high performance management in general HR
strategies and learning and development in specific HR strategies.
Keywords: HR Strategies, Strategic HRM, Hotel Enterprises
1.GİRİŞ
Günümüzde turizm sektöründe giderek önem kazanan İnsan Kaynakları Yönetimi (İKY)
anlayışı, işletme başarısında temel faktörün çalışan performansı olduğu işletmelerde işgücünün etkin
kullanımı konusunu gündeme getirmektedir. Stratejik İKY, stratejik eylemlere İK stratejileri veya İK
uzmanlarının stratejik davranışları ile yön veren bir anlayıştır. Literatürde Dyer ve Reeves (1995)
tarafından “içsel olarak tutarlı İK uygulamaları paketi” olarak ifade edilen İK stratejileri turizm
sektöründe de işletmelerin rekabet avantajını belirleyen temel unsurlar arasında yer almaktadır.
*
Sakarya Üniversitesi, İşletme Fakültesi, İnsan Kaynakları Bölümü, [email protected]
Sakarya Üniversitesi, İşletme Fakültesi, İnsan Kaynakları Bölümü, [email protected]
∗∗
294
Anakütlesini İstanbul’da faaliyet gösteren beş yıldızlı otellerin oluşturduğu çalışmanın temel
amacı, otel işletmelerinde geçerli olan genel ve spesifik İK stratejilerini incelemek ve bu stratejilerin
etkinliğini belirmektir. Araştırma kapsamına alınan otel işletmeleri 30 adettir. Araştırma yöntemi
olarak içerik analizi kullanılmış ve otel işletmelerinin kurumsal web siteleri incelenerek genel ve
spesifik İK stratejileri analiz edilmiştir.
2. İK STRATEJİLERİ
İşletmelerde kurumsal stratejiler geliştirilip uygulanırken İKY’nin faaliyetleri ile ilgili
uygulamaların seçilen strateji ile uyumlu olarak gerçekleştirilmesi gerekir. Kurumsal ve işletme
stratejilerindeki farklılık, farklı İK stratejilerinin oluşturulmasını gerektirir. İşletmeler farklı yapı ve
özelliklerde oldukları için sahip oldukları İK stratejileri de kurumdan kuruma farklılık gösterir. İK
stratejilerinin işletmenin stratejileri ile uyumlu olması ya da mevcut kurumsal stratejiyi doğru olarak
yansıtması önem arz eder. İK stratejilerinin işletme stratejisini doğru olarak yansıtması ise İK eylem
planlarının işletmenin ana stratejisini ve yönünü desteklemesi ile mümkün olmaktadır (Bingöl, 2013).
İK stratejileri en genel tanımı ile işletmenin İKY kural ve uygulamaları hakkında nelerin
yapılmasının amaçlandığını ve bunların iş stratejisi ile nasıl ilişkilendirilmesi gerektiğini düzenler.
Boxall (1996)’a göre İK stratejilerinin temelini oluşturan stratejik İKY kavramı, İKY ve stratejik
yönetim arasındaki ara yüzey anlamına gelir.
İK stratejileri, mevcut durumda ve uzun dönemde İKY kural ve uygulamalarına yönelik bir
kurumun neleri gerçekleştirmeyi amaçladığını belirlerken, aynı zamanda işletmenin ve yöneticilerin
gelecekte başarılı olmak için halihazırda iyi performans göstermeleri gerektiğini açıkça ifade eder.
Farklı işletme stratejileri, farklı İK stratejilerinin geliştirilmesini ve uygulanmasını gerektirir. İK
stratejilerinin
doğasındaki
bu
farklılık,
stratejilerin
çeşitleri
hususunda
bir
fikir
birliği
sağlanamamasını beraberinde getirmiştir. Literatatürde İK stratejileri farklı açılardan ele alınarak
sınıflandırılmıştır.
Bu
sınıflandırmaların temelini Delery ve
Doty (1996)’nin
çalışmaları
oluşturmaktadır.
Stratejik İKY anlayışının gelişimine önemli katkılar sunan Delery ve Doty (1996), stratejik İKY
ile örgütsel performansı ilişkilendiren üç baskın boyut geliştirmiştir: evrenselci, durumsalcı ve
yapısalcı boyutlar. Aynı zamanda bu üç boyut ilerleyen araştırmalarda üç yaklaşım ile
ilişkilendirilecektir: en iyi uygulama, en iyi uyum, gruplandırma.
Evrenselci bakış açısını benimseyen araştırmacılar stratejik İKY alanında “en iyi
uygulamalar”ın varlığına inanmaktadır. Buna göre İKY’deki bir takım iyi uygulamalar diğerlerine
nazaran her zaman dahi iyi sonuçlar vermekte ve işletme genelinde ve tüm koşullarda örgütsel
295
performansı olumlu yönde etkilemektedir. Delery ve Doty’nin evrenselci bakış açısı “en iyi
uygulamalar” ve “yüksek performanslı iş uygulamaları” kavramları ile ilişkidir (Paawue, 2004:53).
Evrenselci bakış açısının öngördüğü basit doğrusal ilişkiler yerine etkileşimlere vurgu yapan
durumsalcı yaklaşım işletme stratejini, stratejik İKY’yi etkileyen temel durumsal faktör olarak
değerlendirmektedir. Bu yaklaşım İKY değişkenleri; İKY değişkenleri ve performans göstergeleri;
İKY değişkenleri, durumsallık faktörleri ve performans ve durumsallık faktörleri arasında potansiyel
karmaşık etkileşimleri kapsar. Durumsalcı bakış açısı, ilgili bağımlı ve bağımsız değişkenlerin,
değişen kritik durumlar için de farklı olacağı görüşünü savunurken, sözkonusu ilişkilerin işletme
büyüklüğü, işletme yaşı, teknoloji, sermaye yoğunluğu, sendikalaşma derecesi, endüstri, mülkiyet ve
konum gibi üçüncü değişkenlere bağlı olarak değişiklik göstereceğini belirtir (Paawue, 2004:53).
Koşulsal değişkenler olarak da tanımlanan değişkenler İK uygulamaları ile performans arasındaki
ilişkide moderatör değişken rolü oynayarak daha yüksek performası sağlayacak “en iyi uygulamalar”ın
varlığını reddetmektedir (Delery ve Doty, 1996:807; akt. Ünnü ve Keçecioğlu, 2009:1177).
Durumsalcı yaklaşım “uyum” kavramı ile yakından ilişkilidir. – Kurumun İK stratejileri,
politikaları ve uygulamaları ile iç ve dış çevre kapsamında kurumun işletme stratejileri arasındaki
uyumu sağlamaya gereksinim vardır. Bu yaklaşıma göre bir işletmenin verimli olabilmesi için İK
politikalarının kurumun diğer özellikleriyle uyumlu olması gerekir. Buna göre birincil durumsalcı
faktör örgütün stratejisidir. Bu durum ‘dikey uyum’ olarak da tanımlanabilir (Armstrong, 2014).
İK uygulamalarının özelliklerinin önemini bütüncül bir açıdan ele alarak vurgulayan yapısalcı
boyut, genel olarak bağımsız değişken örüntüsünün örgütsel performansın bağımlı değişkenleri ile
nasıl ilişkili olduğu ile ilgilidir. (Armstrong, 2014). Boyutta İK fonksiyonunu daha karmaşık ve
etkileşimli bir sistem olarak ele alınmaktadır.
İK stratejilerini konu alan ve işletmelerin farklı uygulama koşullarında farklı İK stratejileri
geliştirmeleri ve uygulamaları gerekliliğini savunan çalışmalardan biri Keçecioğlu’na (2002) aittir.
Buna göre İK stratejileri; geleneksel, görev odaklı, geliştirici ve çevrim stratejileri dört grup altında
incelenebilir.
Literatürde genel kabul gören Armstrong’un (2014) çalışmasına göre iki temel İK stratejisi
vardır: Bunlar genel İK stratejileri ve spesifik İK stratejileridir.
3. İK STRATEJİLERİNİN ARMSTRONG’UN ÇALIŞMASINDA İNCELENMESİ
Genel İK stratejileri, işletmenin performansını arttırmak amacı ile uygulamayı kararlaştırdığı ya
da uyguladığı tüm sistemi ya da tamamlayıcı İK uygulamalarını tanımlar. Bu stratejiler; yüksek
performans yönetimi, yüksek bağlılık yönetimi ve yüksek katılım yönetimi olmak üzere üç ana grupta
ele alınır.
296
Yüksek performanslı çalışma olarak da adlandırılan yüksek performans yönetimi, üretkenlik,
kalite, müşteri hizmetleri düzeyi, büyüme ve kar gibi alanlarda işletmenin performansı üzerine etki
yapmayı amaçlamaktadır (Armstrong, 2014). Appelbaum ve diğ. (2000) tarafından ifade edildiği gibi
çalışan katılımı, yetenek arttırma ve motivasyonu kolaylaştırabilen uygulamaları içeren yüksek
performans çalışma sistemleri olarak adlandırılır.
Yüksek bağlılık yönetimi genellikle;
a)
üretimin tek kullanımlık bir faktörü olmak yerine varlıkları geliştirmeyi amaçlayan ve
işverenler tarafından çalışanlarına uygulanan belirli bir tür oryantasyon programı veya
b) işin yeniden tanımı, iş esnekliği, problem çözme grupları, takım çalışması ve asgari statü
farkları gibi belli personel uygulamalarının karışık kullanımı şeklinde tanımlanır (Wood, 1999; akt.
Armstrong).
Yüksek katılım ise iş uygulamaları, çalışanın karar verme sürecine katılması, güç, bilgiye
erişim, eğitim ve teşvikler üzerinde duran bir İK uygulamaları seti olarak tanımlanmaktadır (Benson
ve diğ., 2006; akt. Armstrong, 2014) Terim ilk kez Lawler (1986) tarafından bağlılık ve katılıma
dayanan yönetim sistemlerini betimlemek için ve kontrole dayanan eski bürokratik modele karşı
kullanılmıştır. Temel hipotezine göre, çalışanlara işlerini kontrol etme ve anlama fırsatı verilirse
kurumlarına olan bağlılıkları artacaktır.
Yüksek katılım sistemi içeren uygulamalar bazen temel anlayışın ötesine geçmekte ve yüksek
performans uygulamalarını da içermektedir. Örneğin yüksek performans uygulamaları, ilgili eğitimi ve
teşvik primi ödeme sistemlerini içerebilir. Sung ve Ashton (2005; akt. Armstrong, 2014) yüksek
katılım uygulamalarını yüksek performans çalışma sisteminin üç geniş alanından biri olarak
değerlendirmektedir (diğer ikisi insan kaynakları uygulamaları olan ödül ve bağlılık uygulamalarıdır).
Genel İK stratejilerinin dışında kalan spesifik İK stratejileri çeşitli biçimlerde ele alınacabileceği
gibi Armstrong (2014) tarafından şu şekilde özetlenmiştir:
• İnsan sermayesi yönetimi- İnsana değer katma yönetimini doğrultusunda stratejik, yatırım ve
işletme kararları hakkında bilgi vermeyi, analizi ve raporlamayı ifade eder.
• Kurumsal sosyal sorumluluk- İşletmeyi toplum ve çevre üzerinde pozitif etki yaratacak şekilde
etik olarak yönetmeyi tanımlar.
• Örgüt gelişimi- İlgili programların planlaması ve uygulaması, işletmenin fonksiyonlarının ve
değişime olan tepkinin ve uyumun etkililiğini arttırmak için dizayn edilir.
• Bağlılık- Kuralların oluşturulması ve uygulaması çalışanların kurumlarına ve işlerine olan
bağlılığını artırmak üzere tasarlanır.
297
• Bilgi yönetimi- Öğrenmeyi ve performansı arttırmak için yaratma, edinme, ele alma, paylaşma
ve kullanma anlamına gelir.
• Kaynaklama- Yüksek kalitedeki insanları etkileme ve tutma olarak ifade edilebilir.
• Yetenek yönetimi- İşletmenin başarıya ulaşması için ihtiyacı olan yetenekli insanlara sahip
olmasıdır.
• Öğrenme ve gelişme- Çalışanların öğrenme ve gelişme için teşvik edildiği bir ortam
yaratılmasını ifade eder.
• Ödüllendirme- İşletmenin gelecekte iş hedeflerini başarmak ve hissedarlarının ihtiyaçlarını
karşılamak üzere uzun vadede ne yapmak istediğini tanımlayan kural, uygulama ve süreçleri
geliştirmek ve uygulamak anlamına gelir.
• Çalışma ilişkileri- İşletmenin çalışanlar ve sendikalar ile olan ilişkilerinin yönetilmesi ve bu
süreçte nelerin yapılması ya da neyin değiştirilmesi gerektiğinin belirlenmesidir.
• Çalışan mutluluğu- Sağlıklı, güvenli ve destekleyici bir çalışma ortamı için çalışanların
ihtiyaçlarını karşılamayı amaçlar.
4. YÖNTEM
4.1 Araştırmanın Modeli ve Amacı
Genel olarak işletme yönetiminde olduğu gibi bir alt uygulaması olan otel işletmeciliğinde de
bilgi ve iletişim teknolojileri iletişimden pazarlamaya kadar birçok faaliyet çerçevesinde
kullanılmaktadır. Bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerinin en önemli araçlarından biri olan internet
teknolojisindeki değişimler ve gelişmeler bu araçların etkinliğinin artırılmasına neden olmuştur. Bu
amaçla otel işletmeleri, kurumsal olarak kendi tanıtımlarını gerçekleştirmek amacıyla web sitelerini
aktif olarak kullanmaktadır.
Araştırmanın temel amacı, turizm sektörü içerisinde önemli bir alan olan otel işletmeciliğinde
kullanılan web sayfalarında yer alan insan kaynaklarına yönelik paylaşılan bilgilerin ‘‘Genel İK
Stratejileri’’ ve ‘‘Spesifik İK Stratejileri’’ çerçevesinde araştırmaktır. Ayrıca araştırmaya konu olan
otel işletmelerinde İK sekmesi bulunup bulunmaması, İK sekmesinin adı ve İK sekmesinde paylaşılan
bilgilerin içeriğinin fonksiyonlar bazında değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmaktadır.
Bu araştırma, web sayfalarında yer alan insan kaynaklarına yönelik sekmelerin ‘‘Genel İK
Stratejileri’’ ve ‘‘Spesifik İK Stratejileri’’ çerçevesinde değerlendirilmesi amacına yönelik olduğu için
araştırma nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden birisi olan içerik analizi çerçevesinde gerçekleştirilmiştir.
İçerik analizi, bir metindeki değişkenleri ölçmek amacıyla, sistematik olarak yapılan bir analiz türüdür
(Wimmer ve Dominick, 2000).
298
4.2 Araştırmanın Önemi
Yapılan literatür taramaları çerçevesinde otel işletmelerinin web sitelerinin incelendiği birçok
çalışmaya rastlanılmış olmasına karşın otel işletmelerinin web sitelerinde insan kaynakları
sekmelerinin incelendiği çalışmaların nispeten az sayıda olduğu görülmektedir. Bunun yanında
özellikle Türkiye’de stratejiler çerçevesinde gerçekleştirilen çalışmalara rastlanılmamış olması da
çalışmanın bu yönüyle literatüre katkı sağlamaya yönelik bir adım olabileceği düşüncesiyle
gerçekleştirilmektedir.
4.3 Araştırmanın Kapsam ve Sınırlılıkları
Araştırmanın kapsamını www.kulturbakanlıgı.org.tr adresinde bulunan 5 yıldızlı otel işletmeleri
listesinden seçilen ve İstanbul’da bulunan otel işletmeleri oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmanın kısıdı olarak
ise web sitelerinin incelendiği (4 – 10 Ağustos 2014) tarih aralığı gösterilebilir. Tarih aralığının kısıt
olarak verilmesinin nedeni ise işletme web sitelerinin dinamik bir yapıda olması ve kısa sürelerde
yenilenebilmesi nedeniyledir.
4.4 Evren ve Örneklem
Araştırmanın evrenini; Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı’ndan alınmış turizm işletme belgesine sahip
ve İstanbul il sınırları içerisinde bulunan 5 yıldızlı konaklama işletmeleri web sitelerinin
tümüdür(www.kulturturizm.gov.tr). Bu çerçevede incelendiğinde turizm işletme belgesine sahip ve
İstanbul il sınırları içerinde 71 adet 5 yıldızlı konaklama işletmesine ulaşılmıştır.
Çalışmanın kapsamı dahilinde bulunan ve yukarıda belirtilen 71 adet 5 yıldızlı otel
işletmesinden zincir otellerden İK sekmesi içeriği aynı olanlar tek bir otel olarak değerlendirilmiş ve
bu şekilde 51 otel sayısına indirgenmiştir. Elde edilen bu oteller İK sekmesi bulunup bulunmamasına
göre değerlendirildiğinde ise 38 otel işletmesinin web sitesinde İK sekmesinin bulunduğu 13 otel
işletmesinin web sitesinde İK sekmesinin bulunmadığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. İK sekmesi bulunan 38
otel işletmesinin 1 tanesinde sekmenin yapım aşamasında olduğu belirtilmiş 7 tanesinde ise otel
işletmesinin uluslararası düzeyde olması ve kapsamımızın Türkiye merkezli olması nedeniyle İngilizce
içeriği bulunan bu işletmeler çıkarılmış ve 30 adet işletme araştırmamızın kapsamını oluşturmuştur.
Araştırmamızın kapsamını oluşturan bu 30 adet otel işletmesinin bütününe ulaşılabileceğinden dolayı
ise araştırma çerçevesinde örneklem belirlenmemiş tüm otel işletmelerinin web siteleri incelenmiştir.
4.5 Verilerin Toplanması
Belirlenen başlıklar çerçevesinde sonuçların alınması amacıyla araştırma kapsamında belirlenen
otel işletmelerinin web siteleri ayrı ayrı ziyaret edilmiş ve bu başlıklara uygun içeriklerin bulunup
bulunmadığı araştırmacı tarafından değerlendirilmiş ve sonuçlar var (1) ve yok (0) şeklinde kategorize
edilerek sınıflandırılmıştır.
299
4.6. Verilerin Analizi
Bu araştırmada, kullanılan değerlendirme ölçeği dört bölümden oluşmaktadır. Bu çerçevede
değerlendirme ölçeği; İK sekmesinin isimlendirilmesinin ele alındığı birinci bölüm, İK sekmelerinde
hangi fonksiyona yönelik vurguların gerçekleştirildiğinin belirtildiği ikinci bölüm ile Genel ve
Spesifik İK Stratejilerinin ele alındığı üçüncü- dördüncü bölümden oluşmaktadır. Değerlendirme
ölçeğimizin birinci ve ikinci bölümü genel bir değerlendirme sunabilmek amacıyla ortaya konduğu
gibi araştırmamızın temel amacını oluşturan üçüncü ve dördüncü bölümünde elde edilen bulguların
yorumlanmasında önem arz etmektedir. Bu analiz sonucu elde edilen bulgular ise aşağıda
belirtilmektedir.
4.7.Bulgular ve Yorumlar
İstanbul’da faaliyet gösteren otel işletmelerinin değerlendirme sonuçları bölümler halinde
aşağıda tablolarla gösterilmektedir. Bu çerçevede;
• Sekme Adı Bazında Değerlendirme: Aşağıda belirtilen Tablo 1’de de görülebileceği üzere
araştırma çerçevesinde ele alınan otel işletmelerinden 15 otelin sekme adı İK, HR veya İnsan
Kaynakları, 14 otelin Kariyer ve 1 otelin ise İş Fırsatları olarak isimlendirildiği görülmektedir.
Tablo 1: Otel İşletmeleri Web Sitelerinde İlgili Sekme Adları
Bölüm Adı
Otel Sayısı
İK /HR /İnsan
Kaynakları
15
Kariyer
İş Fırsatları
14
1
• İK Fonksiyonu Bazında Değerlendirme: Aşağıda belirtilen Tablo 2’de de görülebileceği
üzere araştırma çerçevesinde ele alınan otel işletmelerinden 3’sinde İK planlama, 28’sinde Tedarik ve
Seçim, 6’sında Eğitim, 6’sında Kariyer Yönetimi, 3’ünde Performans Yönetimi, 2’sinde ise Çalışma
İlişkilerine yönelik bilgilerin paylaşıldığı görülmektedir.
Tablo 2: Otel İşletmeleri Web Sitelerinin İK Fonksiyonları Bazında Değerlendirilmesi
İK Fonksiyonları
Otel Sayısı
İK Planlama
3
Tedarik ve Seçim
28
Eğitim
6
Kariyer Yönetimi
6
Performans Yönetimi
3
Çalışma İlişkileri
2
300
• Genel Stratejiler Bazında Değerlendirme: Araştırma çerçevesinde ele alınan otel
işletmelerinin yarısından çoğunun yüksek performans yönetimi stratejisi hakkında bilgi verdikleri
belirlenmiştir. İşletmelerin stratejik hedeflerinin kurumsal performansı artırmak olduğu dikkate
alındığında yüksek performans yönetimi stratejisine önem verilmesi kaçınılmazdır. Bunu 7 otel
işletmesi ile yüksek bağlılık yönetimi takip etmektedir. Yüksek katılım yönetimi stratejisi ise
işletmelerin en az önem verdiği konudur.
Tablo 3: İK Sekmesinin İçeriklerinin Genel Stratejiler Çerçevesinde Değerlendirilmesi
Otel Sayısı/
Genel Stratejiler
Yüksek
Performans Yönetimi
İlgili stratejiyi
içeren otel sayısı
İlgili stratejiyi
içermeyen otel sayısı
Yüksek
Bağlılık Yönetimi
Yüksek
Katılım Yönetimi
16
7
4
14
23
26
• Spesifik İK Stratejiler Bazında Değerlendirme : Otel işletmelerinin kurumsal web
sayfalarının İK sekmeleri spesifik İK stratejileri açısından incelendiğinde, en çok öğrenme ve gelişme
stratejisine önem verildiği görülmüştür. Bunu insan sermayesi yönetimi, yetenek yönetimi ve çalışan
mutluluğu stratejileri takip etmektedir. Bu durum, günümüz İK eğilimleri ile paralellik göstermektedir.
Çalışma ilişkileri stratejisi ise otel işletmelerinin en az değindiği konulardandır. Kurumsal sosyal
sorumluluk stratejisi halihazırda işletmeler tarafından önem taşımasına rağmen, araştırma sonuçlarına
göre düşük bir öneme sahiptir. Bunun temel nedeni işletmelerin kurumsal sosyal sorumluluklarına
ilişkin bilgilerin kurumsal web sitelerinin İK sekmesi yerine daha çok işletmenin genel bilgilerinin yer
verildiği sekmelerde yer almasından kaynaklanmaktadır.
Tablo 4:İK Sekmesinin İçeriklerinin Spesifik Stratejiler Çerçevesinde Değerlendirilmesi
Spesifik İK Stratejileri
İnsan Sermayesi Yönetimi
Kurumsal Sosyal Sorumluluk
Örgüt Gelişimi
Bağlılık
Bilgi Yönetimi
Kaynaklama
Yetenek Yönetimi
Öğrenme ve Gelişme
Ödüllendirme
Çalışma İlişkileri
Çalışan Mutluluğu
İlgili
stratejiyi
İlgili stratejiyi
içeren otel sayısı
içermeyen otel sayısı
9
21
2
28
8
22
8
22
5
25
8
22
9
21
13
17
5
25
1
29
9
21
301
5. SONUÇ VE DEĞERLENDİRME
Araştırma bulguları otel işletmelerinin, kurumsal web sitelerinde İK politika ve prosedürlerini
net bir biçimde yansıtamadıklarını göstermektedir. Hizmet sektöründe yer alan işletmelerde insan
faktörünün öneminin daha da artması, işletmelerin kurumsal web sitelerinde daha çok çalışan tedarik
ve seçimi uygulamalarına ağırlık verilmesine neden olmuştur. Bu durum işveren markasının
geliştirilmesinde ve işletme stratejilerinin ilgili çıkar gruplarına yansıtılmasında sorunlar
yaratmaktadır. Genel İK stratejilerinden yüksek katılım ve bağlılık yönetimine önem verilmesi yüksek
performans elde edilmesini sağlayacaktır. Spesifik İK stratejileri arasında yer alan kurumsal sosyal
sorumluluk, bilgi yönetimi, çalışma ilişkileri ve insan sermayesi yönetimi gibi İKY’nin gelişiminde
doğrudan etkili olan stratejilerin işletmelerde yaygın biçimde uygulanması veya varolan uygulamaların
kurumsal web sitelerine aktarılması işletmelerin rekabet avantajını artıracak unsurlar arasında yer
almaktadır.
İşletme stratejilerinin başarılı bir şekilde uygulanması için İK faaliyetleri ve uygulamaları
stratejiye uyumlu hale getirilmesi gerekir. Çalışanların üstün performans göstermeleri için gerekli olan
bilgi, beceri ve niteliklere sahip olması bu uyumun sağlanmasını kolaylaştırmaktadır.
Sonuç olarak, otel işletmelerinin stratejik İKY anlayışını benimsemeleri ve bu anlayışı İK
uygulamalarına ve stratejilerine aktarmaları, işletmelerin amaçlarına ulaşmasını kolaylaştıracak ve
daha etkin çalışmalarını sağlayacaktır.
KAYNAKÇA
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Armstrong, M. (2009), Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice 11.th
edition, Kogan Page, London.
Armstrong, M. ve Baron A. (2002), Strategic HRM, The Key to Improved Business Performance,
CIPD, London.
Benson, G.S., Young S. M. ve Lawyer, E. E. (2006), High Involvement Work Practices and Analysts’
Forecasts of Corporate Performance, Human Resource Management, 45 (4) : 519-527.
Bingöl, D. (2013), İnsan Kaynakları Yönetimi, 18. Baskı, Beta Yayınları, İstanbul.
Boxall, P. (1996), The Strategic HRM Debate and the Resource-Based View of the Firm, Human
Resource Management Journal, 6: 59-75.
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Delery, J.E. and Doty, D.H. (1996) Modes of Theorizing in Strategic Human Resource Management:
Tests of Universalistic, Contingency, and Configurational Performance Predictions. Academy of
Management Journal, 39: 802-835.
Dyer, L. ve Reeves, T. (1995), Human Resource Strategies and Firm Performance: What do we Know
and Where do we Need to go?, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 6 (3):
656–670
Keçecioğlu, T.(2003), Stratejik İnsan Kaynakları Yönetimi : İKY İle Rekabetçi Avantaj Kazanmak,
Sistem Yayıncılık, İstanbul.
Paawue, J. (2004), HRM and Performance: Achieving Long-term Viability, Oxford University Press,
Oxford.
Sung, J. ve Ashton D. (2005), High Performance Work Practices: Linking Strategy and Skills to
Performance Outcomes, DTI, London.
Ünnü, A. N. N. ve Keçecioğlu T. (2009), İnsan Kaynakları Yönetiminden “Stratejik” İnsan Kaynakları
Yönetimine Dönüşüm, Ege Akademik Bakış, 9 (4): 1171-1192.
Wimmer, D.D. ve Dominick, J.R. (2000), Mass Media Research: An Indroduction, Wadsworth
Publishing Company, Belmont.
Wood, S. (1999), Human Resource Management and Performance. International
Journal of
Management Reviews, 1: 367-413.
303
TURİZM VE OTEL İŞLETMECİLİĞİ ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN PROGRAMI SEÇMEDE ETKİLİ
OLAN FAKTÖRLER: BALIKESİR ÜNİVERSİTESİ ÖRNEĞİ
Öğr. Gör. Adnan ÇALIŞKAN∗
Öğr. Gör.Yasin Nuri ÇAKIR∗∗
ÖZ
Hizmet sektörleri arasında yer alan turizm, insan ilişkilerinin yoğun olarak kullanıldığı bir
alandır. Dolayısıyla hizmet sunumunda nitelikli işgücü çok önemli bir unsurdur. Mesleki eğitim alarak
nitelikli işgücü haline gelmenin en önemli faktörlerinden biri de öğrencilerin mesleği gönüllü
seçmeleri ile ilgilidir.
Bu araştırmanın amacı, ön lisans düzeyinde eğitim gören Turizm ve Otel İşletmeciliği
Programı öğrencilerinin programı seçmede etki eden faktörleri araştırmaktır. Veri toplama aracı
olarak anket yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Anket,
Balıkesir Üniversitesi Gönen ve Erdek Meslek
Yüksekokulu’nda eğitim gören Turizm ve Otel İşletmeciliği Programında okuyan 168 öğrenciye
uygulanmış 27 sorudan oluşmaktadır. Sorular;
ankete katılan öğrencilerin hem demografik
özelliklerini hem de mesleği seçme nedenlerini belirlemeye yöneliktir. Araştırmada elde edilen veriler
SPSS programında analiz yapılmıştır. Yapılan çalışma da, üniversite öğrencilerinin bölüm seçimlerini
etkileyen faktörler arasında, mezun oldukları lise, gelir durumu, cinsiyet, babalarının eğitim durumu
gibi değişkenlere bağlı olarak farklılaştığı tespit edilmiştir.
Anahtar kelimeler: Mesleki Eğitim, Turizm Mesleği, Nitelikli İşgücü, Meslek Seçimi
ABSTRACT
THE EFFECTIVE / INFLUENTIAL FACTORS FOR STUDENTS OF TOURISM AND
HOTEL MANAGEMENT FOR SELECTING PROGRAM: SAMPLE OF BALIKESIR
UNIVERSITY
As one of the service sectors Tourism Industury requires human relations intensely. Thus,
skilled labour is of great importance element in the provision of services. Attaining this requirement
becoming qualified labour it is crucially important for the students choosing tourism profession
voluntarily.
The purpose of this study is to search for the influential factors for university students of
tourism and hotel management for selecting program at undergraduate degree education. The data
have been collected by means of survey method. The questionnaire of the survey ,consists of 27
∗
Balıkesir Üniversitesi, Manyas Meslek Yüksekokulu, [email protected]
Balıkesir Üniversitesi, Manyas Meslek Yüksekokulu, [email protected]
∗∗
304
questions, was anwered by 168 students of tourism and hotel management programme at Gönen
Vocatonal &Technical Highschool and Erdek Vocational & Technical Highschool. The questions have
been designed for identifying the reasons for the students choosing their professions and for the
demographic characteristics as well. The data obtained throughout the research were analyzed by
SPSS software. The study has revealed that among the influential factors for university students
choosing their professions are variables such as gender, parents’ educational level, lycee they
graduated and their income.
Keywords: Vocational Training, Tourism Profession, Skilled Labour, Vocational Choice
1. GİRİŞ
Mesleki eğitim almakta olan kişiler için, mezun olduğunda eğitim aldığı alandaki bir sektörde
çalışma düşüncesi, gerek ilgili sektördeki nitelikli işgücünün istihdamı ve hizmet kalitesinin
artırılması, gerekse o alan için ayrılan kaynakların etkin ve verimli kullanılması bakımından önemlidir
(Çatı ve Bilgin, 2013: 23).
Bu çalışmada, turizm ve otel işletmeciliği öğrencilerinin bölüm seçme ve turizm sektörüne
yönelik çalışma eğilimlerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Anket soruları hazırlanırken, “Turizmde
Lisans Öğrenimi Gören Öğrencilerin Kişilik Özellikleri ve Mesleğe Yönelik Düşünceleri Üzerine Bir
Alan Araştırması” konulu yüksek lisans tezinden faydalanılmıştır (Bilgin, 2011).
Son yıllarda turizm sektörünün ülke ekonomilerindeki payı giderek artmaktadır. Bu anlamda
sektörün paydaşlarından biri olan turizm hizmeti sunan bireylerin, niteliğinin artırılması esas
amaçlardan biri olmalıdır.
İktisadi kalkınma iyi eğitim almış ve yeni teknolojilere uyum sağlayabilen nitelikli işgücü ile
sağlanabilir. Bu açıdan, ekonomik yapının ihtiyaç duyduğu nicelik ve nitelikte işgücünün temini
büyük önem taşımaktadır. (Öztürk, 2005: 38)
Etkin bir eğitim, uygulama esasına dayalı, iş dünyasındaki değişme koşullarına uygun,
toplumla uyumlu, çalışanların büyük çoğunluğunu kapsayacak kapasitede uzman öğreticilerle, teorik
bilgilerden çok bilgi ve beceri esasına dayalı, istihdam ihtiyacına göre ve hayata hazırlayıcı nitelikte
olmalıdır. Eğitim yatırımlarından ülke ekonomilerinin azami fayda sağlanabilmesi için yetiştirilen
bireylerin en uygun alanlarda istihdam edilmeleri gerekir. (Alkan, 2008: 22)
Uluslararası alanda güçlü bir ülke olmanın en önemli kriteri, sağlıklı ve istikrarlı bir ekonomik
yapıya sahip olmaktır. Bunun sağlanmasında, fiziki sermaye kaynaklarıyla birlikte beşeri sermayenin
üretim sürecine etkin katılımı büyük önem taşımaktadır. Bu ise birbiriyle uyumlu istihdam ve eğitim
politikalarının izlenmesine, ekonominin ihtiyaç duyduğu sayı ve kalitede işgücünün yetiştirilmesine
bağlıdır. (Muslu, 2010: 33)
305
1.1. Mesleki Eğitim ve Nitelikli İşgücü İlişkisi
Mesleki eğitim genel anlamda bireysel ve toplumsal hayat için ihtiyaç olan belirli bir mesleğin
gerektirdiği bilgi, beceri ve pratik uygulama yeteneklerini kazandırarak bireyi zihinsel, duygusal,
sosyal, ekonomik ve kişisel yönleriyle dengeli olarak geliştirme sürecidir.Kişinin belirli bir meslek
alanında üretici olarak herhangi bir statü ile yer alabilmesi için gerekli olan asgari yeterliliğe ve genel
meslek kültürüne sahip olmasını sağlayan eğitime mesleki eğitim denir. (Alkan, 2008: 17)
Mesleki ve Teknik Eğitim(MTE), bir yandan emeğin nitelik kazanma sürecini içerirken diğer
yandan toplumsal norm ve değerleri de öğrencilere kazandırmayı içeren emeğin yeniden üretimini
hedefler. (Özdemir, 2008: 62)
Teknolojik gelişmeler, toplumların gelişmişlik düzeyleri ne olursa olsun hemen her ülkede
toplum yaşamını derinden etkilemektedir. Bu gelişmeler aynı zamanda nitelikli emeğe olan ihtiyacı da
beraberinde getirmektedir. Sanayileşme, kalkınmanın en önemli unsurlarından biridir. Bu sebeple,
hizmet ve üretim alanlarında teknolojik gelişmelere uyumlu, mesleki ve teknik bilgi ve becerilerle
donatılmış insan kaynağına ihtiyaç artmaktadır. Bu ihtiyacı karşılamak için, çağdaş teknoloji
metotlarını bilen, yorumlayan, kullanan, geliştiren ve yeniliklere uyum sağlayan vasıflı emeğin
yetiştirilmesi amacıyla mesleki ve teknik eğitime ihtiyaç vardır. (Yörük vd., 2002: 303)
Nitelikli iş gücü, verimli bir ekonomi için vazgeçilmez unsurdur. Nitelikli iş gücüne sahip
olmak ise iyi planlanmış mesleki eğitimle mümkündür. MTE bu açıdan gelişmekte olan ülkeler için
hayati öneme sahiptir. (Şahin ve Fındık, 2008: 65)
Mesleki eğitim, bireylere bilgi ve becerilerin kazandırılmasında katkı sağladığı gibi istihdam
edilebilirliği artırma açısından da büyük öneme sahiptir. Özellikle Avrupa’ da düşük vasıflı işçi ve
nüfusun çoğunluğunun yaşlı olması, rekabetin küreselleşmeyle arttığı günümüzde, üye devletler ve
Avrupa Komisyonunca mesleki eğitime büyük destekler verilmektedir. (Bayrakdar, 2011: 252)
İşgücünün niteliklerini artırmaya yönelik yapılacak yatırımlar içerisinde en önemlisi olarak
kabul edilen eğitim, ekonomik kalkınma üzerinde olduğu kadar ekonomik kalkınmayı belirleyen sosyo
ekonomik, politik ve kültürel yapıdaki gelişmeler, teknolojik gelişme, uluslararası alanda rekabet
edebilme açısından da son derece önemlidir. Eğitim iktisadi kalkınmada itici güç olup, iyi eğitilmiş
bireylere dolayısıyla beşeri sermayeye sahip olan ülkeler daha hızlı kalkınmaktadır. (Öztürk, 2005: 41)
Avrupa Birliği meslekî ve teknik eğitimi 2000’li yılların en önemli istihdam aracı olarak
kullanmak için adımlar atarken, özellikle bu durum AB’deki yaşlı nüfusa karşılık genç ve işsiz nüfusa
sahip olan Türkiye açısından daha fazla önemli hale gelmektedir. Türkiye’nin genç nüfusunu nitelikli
emek haline getirerek AB ülkeleri standartlarına ulaşması ve AB’ce belirlenen ilkeleri yakalaması
açısından önem taşımaktadır. (Aykaç, 2002)
306
1.2. Mesleki Turizm Eğitimi
Türkiye’de turizm eğitimi, örgün eğitim ve yaygın eğitim olmak üzere iki şekilde
verilmektedir. Yaygın turizm eğitimi, toplumda turizm bilincini, sevgiyi ve anlayışı geliştirmek, turiste
eşit ve dürüst hizmet etmek için etik değerleri vermek, gerçek sevgiye ve konukseverliğe dayalı bir
davranış biçimi oluşturmayı amaçlayan öğretim türüdür. Örgün turizm eğitimi ise turizm sektörü
içerisinde yer alan faaliyet dalları için bilgili, becerikli, nitelikli ve verimli kişiler yetiştirmeyi
amaçlayan eğitimdir. Yaygın turizm eğitimi, Turizm Bakanlığı’na bağlı eğitim kurumları ve özel
eğitim birimleri tarafından verilen kursları kapsarken, örgün turizm eğitimi de orta öğretim ve
yükseköğretim düzeyindeki programları kapsamaktadır (Atay ve Yıldırım, 2008:398).
Türkiye’deki örgün turizm eğitimi, üniversiteler ve Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı’na bağlı okullarda
belli bir disiplin içinde verilmektedir. Türkiye’de yaygın eğitim veren kurumlar incelendiğinde ise
geniş bir yelpaze ortaya çıkmaktadır. Bu durum bir yönüyle iyi iken diğer yönüyle ise kötüdür. İyi
yanı, turizm konusunda insanların eğitimi ve bilgilendirilme çabaları geniş bir alana yayılmıştır. Kötü
yanı ise, ilgili kurumların iyi örgütlenememesi halinde turizm konusunda yeterli ve doğru bilgilerin ne
kadar sağlıklı verildiğini düşündürmektedir. (Aksu ve Bucak, 2012: 12)
Turizmin gelişmesindeki en önemli faktörlerden biri, personel ihtiyacının doğru olarak tespit
edilmesi ve ihtiyaç duyulan personel için gerekli olan eğitim plan ve programlarının yapılmasındaki
sürekliliktir. Çok sıkı bir rekabetin yaşandığı uluslar arası turizm piyasasında, birçok ülke toplum
düzeyinde turizm bilincinin oluşturulması ve yeterli nitelikte personelin varlığını hedeflenmektedir.
Bu da ancak planlı ve kaliteli bir eğitimle sağlanabilir. (Güzel, 2006: 16)
Türkiye’deki turizm eğitim kademeleri ve bölüm çıktılarına bakıldığında, alt kademe turizm
personeli yetiştirmek amacıyla faaliyet gösteren Otelcilik ve Turizm Meslek Liseleri, orta öğretim
seviyesinde yer almaktadırlar. Orta kademe turizm personeli yetiştirmek üzere faaliyette olan 2 Yıllık
Turizm ve Otelcilik Meslek Yüksekokulları ise Ön lisans düzeyinde eğitim vermektedirler. Üst
kademe turizm personeli yetiştirmek üzere faaliyet gösteren 4 Yıllık Turizm İşletmeciliği ve Otelcilik
Yüksekokulları ise Lisans düzeyinde eğitim vermektedirler. Master ve doktora seviyesinde verilen
eğitim ile de turizmde yönetici veya araştırmacı yetiştirilmektedir. (Aksu ve Bucak, 2012: 15)
Turizm varlıklarının rasyonel kullanımı ve turizm gelirlerinin artırılması ancak turizmde etkin
bir planlama ile sağlanabilir. Tarih ve kültür mirası ile birlikte birçok doğal güzelliklere de sahip olan
Türkiye’nin, turizm potansiyelinin değerlendirilebilmesi amacı ile son yıllarda turizm yatırımlarına
sağlanan destekler ve tanıtım çabaları sonucunda turizm sektörü, ekonomik ve sosyal yaşamda daha
fazla yer almaya başlamıştır. Türkiye’de, turizm sektöründeki gelişimin sürdürebilmesi için
karşılaştırmalı rekabet üstünlüğüne uygun turizm çeşitlerini öne çıkaran ve hizmet kalitesini artırmayı
amaçlayan politikalara ihtiyacı vardır. (Devlet Planlama Teşkilatı, 2007: 1)
307
1.3. Meslek Seçimi
Kişi meslek seçerken, kendine ait belirli bir çalışma ve yaşam biçimi seçmiş olacağından,
kendi özelliklerini göz önünde almadan rastgele seçim yaptığında başarısız, verimsiz ve mutsuz
olacaktır. Bu nedenle kişi, meslek seçerken kendine ait özellikleri ile seçeceği mesleğin nitelikleri
arasında uygunluk olmasına dikkat etmelidir (Sarıkaya ve Khorshıd, 2009: 394).
Günümüzde meslek seçimi oldukça önemlidir. Özellikle turizm sektörünün yapısını dikkate
aldığımızda bu seçimin önemi daha da artmaktadır. Sektörün yapısından kaynaklanan birtakım
zorluklar herkes tarafından bilinen gerçeklerdir. Gençlerin turizm mesleğini seçerken bu zorlukları göz
ardı etmemeleri gerekmektedir. Son yıllarda konu ile ilgili yapılan araştırmalarda gençlerin turizm
mesleğine yönelik tutumlarının olumlu yönde olması oldukça sevindiricidir. Bu durum turizm
sektöründe istihdam kalitesinin artması açısından da önemlidir (Yılmaz, 2011: 296)
İlköğretimden orta öğretim kademesine gelen gençlerin, hem bir üst kademede devam edeceği
okulunu hem de gelecekteki yaşamını etkileyecek mesleğini seçmede daha bilinçli kararlar aldığı
görülmektedir. Bu dönemde hangi alanı seçeceğini ve dolayısıyla da hangi yüksek öğretim kurumuna
devam edeceğini belirlemeye çalışır. (Deniz, 2001: 3)
Meslek seçimi hem bireysel hem de toplumsal anlamda büyük önem taşımaktadır.
Günümüzde, meslek sayılarının giderek artması ve uzmanlık gerektirmesi nedeniyle bireylerin
kendilerine uygun meslek seçmeleri, dolayısıyla da meslek seçimini etkileyen etmenler üzerinde
odaklanılması önem kazanmaktadır (Korkut Owen, Kepir, Özdemir, Ulaş ve Yılmaz 2012: 135).
2. LİTERATÜR TARAMASI
Meslek seçimi ile ilgili yapılan çalışmalara bakıldığında, farklı alanlarda eğitim alan
öğrencilerin meslek seçimini etkileyen faktörlerin neler olduğu ile ilgili olarak çok sayıda araştırmaya
rastlanmaktadır.
Lisans düzeyinde turist rehberliği eğitimi alan öğrencilerin mesleğe bakış açılarının
belirlenmesine yönelik bir araştırmada elde edilen bulgularda, Turist Rehberliği bölümü öğrencilerinin
çoğunun bu bölümü isteyerek seçtikleri ve bölümde okumaktan mutlu oldukları tespit edilmiştir.
Turist rehberliği mesleğine yönelik tutumları ise, sektör ile ilgili birtakım olumsuz düşüncelere sahip
olsalar dahi genel olarak olumlu tavır içerisinde oldukları tespit edilmiştir. (Yılmaz, 2011: 281-298)
Üniversite öğrencilerinin meslek seçiminietkileyen etmenlerin incelenmesi ile ilgili yapılan
başka bir çalışmada, öğrencilerin büyük çoğunluğu meslekle ilgili olumlu görüşleri olduğu için
okuduğu bölümü seçtikleri ortaya çıkmıştır. Aldığı puanın, puan türünün, tercih sırasının, anne eğitim
düzeyinin ve mesleğinin, öğrencilerin meslek seçimini etkilediği bulunmuştur. Umutsuzluk ve
başkalarının önerileriyle mesleğini seçme oranının, mesleğini en son sıralarda tercih edip kazanan
308
öğrencilerde, diğerlerine oranla daha yüksek olduğu bulunmuştur. Geliri yüksek olan öğrencilerde fen
bilimleri bölümünü seçme oranı daha yüksek bulunmuştur. (Sarıkaya ve Khorshıd, 2009: 393-423)
Turizm işletmeciliği ve otelcilik yüksekokulu öğrencilerinin meslek seçimini etkileyen
faktörler üzerine yapılan bir araştırmada, öğrencilerin meslek seçimini etkileyen faktörler ve meslek
seçiminde dikkate aldıkları öncelikler tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Elde edilen bulgulara göre,
öğrencilerin gelecekte turizm sektöründe çalışmaya yönelik tutumları, bir süre çalışmayı düşündükleri
yönündedir. Öte yandan, öğrencilerin meslek seçimini etkileyen en önemli faktör, kariyer
beklentisidir. Öğrencilerin meslek seçiminde en az etkili olan faktör ise, aile ve çevre etkisi, olarak
saptanmıştır. Öğrencilerin yaşı ile meslek seçimini etkileyen faktörler arasında anlamlı bir ilişki
bulunmazken; cinsiyet ve öğrenim gördükleri bölüm gibi demografik değişkenler ile meslek seçimini
etkileyen bazı faktörler arasında anlamlı ilişkiler tespit edilmiştir. (Erdem ve Kayran, 2013: 81-106)
Üniversite öğrencilerinin bölüm seçme nedenleri üzerine yapmış oldukları araştırmada,
üniversite öğrencilerinin, cinsiyetleri, okudukları üniversitenin (kamu ya da vakıf) ve mezun oldukları
lisenin türü, anne ve babalarının eğitimi düzeyleri açısından bölüm seçme nedenleri ve bölümden
memnuniyetleri arasında fark olup olmadığı araştırılmıştır. Üniversite öğrencilerinin bölüm seçme
nedenleri sıralamasına bakıldığında ilk sırayı bireysel etmenlerin aldığı, bunu sosyal etmenlerin
izlediği ve en sonda da şans etmeninin yer aldığı görülmektedir. Araştırma sonucunda üniversite
öğrencilerinin genel olarak okudukları üniversite ve bölümden memnun oldukları ve bağımsız
değişkenlerin hepsine göre öğrencilerin bölüm seçme nedenlerinin farklılaştığı ortaya çıkmıştır.
(Korkut Owen vd. 2012: 135-151)
Turizm ve Otelcilik Meslek Yüksekokulu, Turizm ve Otel İşletmeciliği Programı’nda eğitim
gören öğrencilerin otelcilik mesleğine ilişkin algılamalarını tespit etmek amacıyla yapılan araştırma
sonuçlarına göre; öğrencilerin otelcilik mesleğine ilişkin algılamalarının ağırlıklı olarak olumlu olduğu
saptanmıştır. Ayrıca otelcilik meslek algılamasını belirlemeye yönelik bazı tutum ifadeleri ile
araştırmaya katılan öğrencilerin cinsiyeti ve mezun oldukları lise türü değişkenleri arasında
istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılıkların olduğu tespit edilmiştir (Olcay ve Çelik, 2010: 279-301).
3. ARAŞTIRMA METODOLİJİSİ
3.1 Evren ve Örneklem
Araştırmanın evreni, Balıkesir Üniversitesi Gönen ve Erdek Meslek Yüksekokulu Turizm ve
Otel İşletmeciliği Programında okuyan öğrencilerden oluşmaktadır. Araştırmanın amacına uygunluğu
açısından seçilen 168 kişilik örneklemin evreni temsil etme derecesi yüksektir.
3.2 Veri Toplama Aracı
Araştırmada anket yöntemi uygulanmıştır. Anket, öğrencilerin hem demografik özelliklerini
hem de mesleği seçme nedenlerini belirlemeye yöneliktir toplam 27 sorudan oluşmaktadır. Ankette
309
yer alan demografik özellikleri ölçmeye yarayan sorular kapalı uçlu sorulardan, diğer sorular ise 5’li
likert tipi sorulardan oluşmaktadır.
3.3 Verilerin Analizi
Araştırmada elde edilen veriler SPSS programında analiz yapılmıştır. Analizde ankete katılan
öğrencilerin demografik özelliklerinin yüzdelik dağılımları ve çeşitli ortalamalar tablo şeklinde yer
almaktadır.
Tablo 1: Katılımcılara Ait Demografik İstatistikler
YAŞ
Kişi
(%)
CİNSİYET
Kişi
%
18-25
168
100
Bay
83
49,4
SINIF
Kişi
(%)
Bayan
85
50,6
1.
Sınıf
51
30,4
Toplam
168
100
2.
Sınıf
117
69,6
MEZUN OLDUĞU LİSE
Kişi,
(%)
Toplam
168
100
Otelcilik ve Turizm Mes.Lis.
19
11,3
AYLIK ORTALAMA GELİR
Kişi
(%)
Anadolu Otelcilik ve Turizm M.L.
14
8,3
500-1000
33
19,6
Anadolu Lisesi
8
4,8
1001- 1500
50
29,8
Genel Lise
74
44,0
1501-2000
40
23,8
Diğer
53
31,5
2001-2500
21
12,5
Toplam
168
100
2500 ve üzeri
24
14,3
BABA EĞİTİM DURUMU
Kişi
(%)
Toplam
168
100
İlkokul
91
54,2
BABA MESLEĞİ
Kişi
(%)
Ortaokul
47
28,0
Kamu
19
11,3
Lise
12
7,1
Özel
28
16,7
Yüksekokul
18
10,7
Serbest Meslek
43
25,6
Toplam
168
100
Diğer
78
46,4
ANNE EĞİTİM DURUMU
Kişi
(%)
Toplam
168
100
İlkokul
106
63,1
Ortaokul
37
22,0
Lise
16
9,5
Yüksekokul
9
5,4
168
100
Toplam
Tablo 1 incelendiğinde, katılımcılarla ilgili öne çıkan noktalar şunlardır. Katılımcıların %69,6
sı ikinci sınıf öğrencisidir. Ayrıca katılımcıların % 44’ü genel lise mezunudur. Katılımcıların aile
bireylerinin eğitim seviyesinin yoğunlaştığı alan ise ilkokuldur.
Araştırmamızda
turizm bölümünün
seçme
nedenleri araştırıldığından,
katılımcıların
demografik özellikleri ile bölüm seçme nedenleri arasında hipotezler oluşturulmuş ve analizleri
gerçekleştirilmiştir.
310
Hipotez 1: “Cinsiyete göre turizm mesleğine yönelik düşünceler arasında fark vardır.”
Hipotez 1’ i test etmek amacıyla bağımsız T testi kullanılmasına karar verilmiştir. Ancak
veriler normal dağılmadığı için bağımsız t testinin nonparametrik versiyonu olan Mann Whitney U
testi hipotezin analizinde kullanılmıştır.
Tablo 2: Hipotez 1 Man-Whitney U Testi
Cinsiyetiniz
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü kişiliğim Bayan
bu sektörde çalışmaya uygundur.
Erkek
Total
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü kamu
Bayan
kurumlarında çalışma imkanı vardır.
Erkek
Total
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü piyasada Bayan
iş bulmak kolaydır.
Erkek
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü turizm,
geliri yüksek olan bir meslektir
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü iş
hayatına erken başlama imkanı
sunar
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü özel
sektörde iş bulma imkanı sunar
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü çevrem
tavsiye etti
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü sektörde
kariyer yapma imkânı sunar.
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü çalışma
saatleri uygundur.
Mean Rank
Sum of Ranks
83
88,56
7350,50
85
80,54
6845,50
83
86,14
7150,00
85
82,89
7046,00
83
86,55
7183,50
85
82,50
7012,50
Asymp.
Sig
-1,102
,270
-,450
,653
-,564
,573
-2,485
,013
-,706
,480
-2,543
,011
-,625
,532
-1,588
, 112
-,444
,657
-,497
,619
-1,353
,176
-,764
,445
168
168
Bayan
83
93,53
7763,00
Erkek
85
75,68
6433,00
Total
168
Bayan
83
87,05
7225,50
Erkek
85
82,01
6970,50
Total
168
Bayan
83
93,63
7771,00
Erkek
85
75,59
6425,00
Total
168
Bayan
83
86,77
7202,00
Erkek
85
82,28
6994,00
Total
168
Bayan
83
90,23
7489,00
Erkek
85
78,91
6707,00
Total
168
Bayan
83
86,11
7147,00
Erkek
85
82,93
7049,00
Total
168
83
82,70
6864,50
85
86,25
7331,50
168
Bayan
83
89,33
7414,50
Erkek
85
79,78
6781,50
Total
168
83
87,31
7246,50
85
81,76
6949,50
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü piyasada Bayan
yeterli sayıda yetişmiş turizm
Erkek
Mann-Whitney U
(Z Değeri)
168
Total
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü başka bir Bayan
mesleğe kolay geçebilme imkânı
Erkek
sunar.
Total
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü ülkemiz
turizm alanında hızlı bir gelişme
göstermektedir
N
311
elemanı yoktur
Total
168
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü turizm,
sosyal ilişkiler kurabilme imkânı
sağlar
Bayan
83
93,62
7770,50
Erkek
85
75,59
6425,50
Total
168
Bayan
83
95,92
7961,00
Erkek
85
73,35
6235,00
Total
168
83
88,98
7385,50
85
80,12
6810,50
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü turizm
sektöründe çalışmayı zevkli
buluyorum.
Bu Bölümü seçtim, çünkü
Bayan
çalışanların bu alanda eğitim alması
Erkek
gerektiğine inanıyorum
Total
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü turizm
sektöründe çalışmak özgüvenimi
artırır.
Bu bölümü puanımdan dolayı
seçtim.
-2,599
,009
-3,117
,002
-1,237
,216
-2,431
,015
-2,270
,023
168
Bayan
83
93,23
7738,50
Erkek
85
75,97
6457,50
Total
168
Bayan
83
92,87
7708,00
Erkek
85
76,33
6488,00
Total
168
Cinsiyete göre turizm mesleğine yönelik düşünceler arasında farklılık gösterip göstermediği
analiz etmek amacıyla Mann- Whitney U testi kullanılmıştır. Tablo 2’de görüldüğü gibi Hipotez 1
RED edilirken “Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü turizm, geliri yüksek olan bir meslektir, Bu bölümü seçtim,
çünkü özel sektörde iş bulma imkanı sunar, Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü turizm, sosyal ilişkiler
kurabilme imkânı sağlar, Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü turizm sektöründe çalışmayı zevkli buluyorum, Bu
bölümü seçtim, çünkü turizm sektöründe çalışmak özgüvenimi artırır., Bu bölümü puanımdan dolayı
seçtim” sorularında Hipotez 1 KABUL edilebilmektedir.
Hipotez 2: “Turizm öğrenimi gören öğrencilerin ailelerinin aylık ortalama geliri ile turizm
mesleğine yönelik düşünceleri arasında fark yoktur.”
Hipotez 2’yi test etmek amacıyla One Way Annova Analizi yapılmasına karar verilmiştir.
Ancak değişkenlerin normallik testine tabi tutulduğunda verilerin normal dağılım olmadığı tespit
edilmiş ve Annova Analizinin nonparametrik versiyonu olan Kruskal Wallis Testi yapılmıştır. Tablo
3’de Kruskal Wallis Analizi sonuçlarına yer verilmiştir.
Tablo 3: Hipotez 2 Kruskal Wallis Analizi
Ailenizin aylık ortalama
gelir düzeyini belirtiniz
N
Mean Rank
Tekrar alan seçme hakkınız olsa turizmi tercih 500-1000
eder misiniz?
1001-1500
33
91,62
50
85,43
1501-2000
40
84,65
2001-2500
21
68,45
2500 üzeri
24
86,56
Total
Mezun olduktan sonra turizm sektöründe
500-1000
Asymp. Sig.
,514
168
33
91,94
,764
312
çalışmayı düşünüyor musunuz?
1001-1500
50
82,65
1501-2000
40
80,61
2001-2500
21
78,55
2500 üzeri
24
89,81
Total
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü kişiliğim bu
sektörde çalışmaya uygundur.
168
500-1000
33
89,67
1001-1500
50
79,74
1501-2000
40
86,00
2001-2500
21
84,50
2500 üzeri
24
84,81
Total
168
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü kamu kurumlarında 500-1000
çalışma imkânı vardır.
1001-1500
33
74,11
50
88,51
1501-2000
40
86,21
2001-2500
21
86,81
2500 üzeri
24
85,56
Total
33
96,77
50
80,82
1501-2000
40
88,75
2001-2500
21
80,55
2500 üzeri
24
71,67
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü turizm, geliri
yüksek olan bir meslektir
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü iş hayatına erken
başlama imkanı sunar
33
95,88
1001-1500
50
88,04
1501-2000
40
76,78
2001-2500
21
76,12
2500 üzeri
24
81,69
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü özel sektörde iş
bulma imkanı sunar
33
80,80
1001-1500
50
85,34
1501-2000
40
85,46
2001-2500
21
95,55
2500 üzeri
24
76,56
33
79,98
1001-1500
50
90,39
1501-2000
40
81,84
2001-2500
21
81,19
2500 üzeri
24
85,77
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü çevrem tavsiye etti 500-1000
1001-1500
,710
168
500-1000
Total
,389
168
500-1000
Total
,296
168
500-1000
Total
,716
168
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü piyasada iş bulmak 500-1000
kolaydır.
1001-1500
Total
,918
,844
168
33
79,24
50
92,00
,332
313
1501-2000
40
88,55
2001-2500
21
84,57
2500 üzeri
24
69,29
Total
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü sektörde kariyer
yapma imkânı sunar.
500-1000
33
84,12
1001-1500
50
84,05
1501-2000
40
86,85
2001-2500
21
80,26
2500 üzeri
24
85,75
Total
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü çalışma saatleri
uygundur.
33
76,77
1001-1500
50
93,96
1501-2000
40
79,40
2001-2500
21
83,33
2500 üzeri
24
84,94
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü ülkemiz turizm
alanında hızlı bir gelişme göstermektedir
33
73,79
1001-1500
50
86,73
1501-2000
40
84,41
2001-2500
21
88,79
2500 üzeri
24
90,98
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü piyasada yeterli
sayıda yetişmiş turizm elemanı yoktur
33
79,88
1001-1500
50
92,37
1501-2000
40
82,09
2001-2500
21
85,48
2500 üzeri
24
77,63
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü turizm, sosyal
ilişkiler kurabilme imkânı sağlar
33
87,17
1001-1500
50
79,76
1501-2000
40
82,00
2001-2500
21
85,21
2500 üzeri
24
94,25
500-1000
,780
168
33
92,50
1001-1500
50
87,22
1501-2000
40
83,23
2001-2500
21
82,24
2500 üzeri
24
71,94
Total
,648
168
500-1000
Total
,639
168
500-1000
Total
,479
168
500-1000
Total
,990
168
500-1000
Total
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü başka bir mesleğe
kolay geçebilme imkânı sunar.
168
,527
168
314
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü turizm sektöründe
çalışmayı zevkli buluyorum.
500-1000
33
89,21
1001-1500
50
83,97
1501-2000
40
86,59
2001-2500
21
75,74
2500 üzeri
24
83,31
Total
Bu Bölümü seçtim, çünkü çalışanların bu
alanda eğitim alması gerektiğine inanıyorum
500-1000
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü turizm sektöründe
çalışmak özgüvenimi artırır.
80,50
1001-1500
50
87,77
1501-2000
40
88,80
2001-2500
21
76,81
2500 üzeri
24
82,75
500-1000
89,68
1001-1500
50
86,34
1501-2000
40
82,51
2001-2500
21
75,93
2500 üzeri
24
84,35
500-1000
,861
168
33
86,91
1001-1500
50
86,64
1501-2000
40
78,48
2001-2500
21
97,76
2500 üzeri
24
75,17
Total
,836
168
33
Total
Bu bölümü puanımdan dolayı seçtim.
168
33
Total
,884
,488
168
Hipotez 2 analizi test edildiğinde aile gelir durumuna göre değerlendirildiğinde istatiksel
olarak anlamlı farklılık tespit edilmiştir. Hipotez 2 kabul edilmiştir.
Ankete katılan öğrencilerin mezun oldukları lise ile turizm mesleğine yönelik düşünceleri
arasında farlılık olup olmadığını analiz etmek için hipotez oluşturulmuştur;
Hipotez 3: “Öğrencilerin mezun oldukları lise ile turizm mesleğine yönelik düşünceleri
arasında fark yoktur.”
315
Tablo 3: Hipotez 3 Kruskal Wallis Analizi
Mezun Olduğunuz Lise
Tekrar alan seçme hakkınız olsa turizmi
tercih eder misiniz?
90,34
Anadolu Otelcilik ve Turizm Mes.Lisesi
14
83,96
8
74,06
74
83,07
Diğer
53
86,11
Total
168
Genel Lise
Otelcilik ve Turizm Meslek Lisesi
19
93,29
Anadolu Otelcilik ve Turizm Mes.Lisesi
14
88,11
8
69,00
Genel Lise
74
78,93
Diğer
53
90,51
Total
168
Anadolu Lisesi
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü kişiliğim bu
sektörde çalışmaya uygundur.
Otelcilik ve Turizm Meslek Lisesi
19
91,61
Anadolu Otelcilik ve Turizm Mes.Lisesi
14
85,04
8
78,50
Genel Lise
74
79,76
Diğer
53
89,33
Total
168
Anadolu Lisesi
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü kamu
kurumlarında çalışma imkanı vardır.
Otelcilik ve Turizm Meslek Lisesi
19
101,32
Anadolu Otelcilik ve Turizm Mes.Lisesi
14
73,04
Anadolu Lisesi
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü piyasada iş
bulmak kolaydır.
8
66,63
Genel Lise
74
86,41
Diğer
53
81,53
Total
168
Otelcilik ve Turizm Meslek Lisesi
19
84,24
Anadolu Otelcilik ve Turizm Mes.Lisesi
14
102,93
8
62,88
74
83,74
Diğer
53
84,05
Total
168
Anadolu Lisesi
Genel Lise
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü turizm, geliri
yüksek olan bir meslektir
Otelcilik ve Turizm Meslek Lisesi
19
99,11
Anadolu Otelcilik ve Turizm Mes.Lisesi
14
66,46
8
97,19
Genel Lise
74
80,78
Diğer
53
87,30
Total
168
Anadolu Lisesi
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü iş hayatına
erken başlama imkanı sunar
Mean Rank
19
Anadolu Lisesi
Mezun olduktan sonra turizm sektöründe
çalışmayı düşünüyor musunuz?
N
Otelcilik ve Turizm Meslek Lisesi
Otelcilik ve Turizm Meslek Lisesi
19
90,50
Anadolu Otelcilik ve Turizm Mes.Lisesi
14
100,57
Anadolu Lisesi
8
73,94
Genel Lise
74
81,24
Diğer
53
84,25
Total
168
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü özel sektörde iş Otelcilik ve Turizm Meslek Lisesi
bulma imkanı sunar
Anadolu Otelcilik ve Turizm Mes.Lisesi
Anadolu Lisesi
19
88,89
14
89,96
8
64,25
Asymp. Sig.
,936
,467
,761
,309
,413
,264
,595
,654
316
Genel Lise
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü çevrem tavsiye
etti
74
82,01
Diğer
53
88,01
Total
168
Otelcilik ve Turizm Meslek Lisesi
19
98,95
Anadolu Otelcilik ve Turizm Mes.Lisesi
14
98,54
8
83,00
Genel Lise
74
89,33
Diğer
53
69,09
Total
168
Anadolu Lisesi
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü sektörde kariyer Otelcilik ve Turizm Meslek Lisesi
yapma imkânı sunar.
Anadolu Otelcilik ve Turizm Mes.Lisesi
Anadolu Lisesi
71,88
80,60
Diğer
53
87,72
Total
168
19
97,39
14
78,61
8
86,63
74
85,76
Diğer
53
79,36
Total
168
Otelcilik ve Turizm Meslek Lisesi
19
97,95
Anadolu Otelcilik ve Turizm Mes.Lisesi
14
88,61
8
98,56
Genel Lise
74
87,61
Diğer
53
72,12
Total
168
Anadolu Lisesi
Otelcilik ve Turizm Meslek Lisesi
19
78,05
Anadolu Otelcilik ve Turizm Mes.Lisesi
14
89,96
Anadolu Lisesi
8
79,06
Genel Lise
74
81,70
Diğer
53
90,10
Total
168
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü piyasada yeterli Otelcilik ve Turizm Meslek Lisesi
sayıda yetişmiş turizm elemanı yoktur
Anadolu Otelcilik ve Turizm Mes.Lisesi
19
82,97
14
87,86
8
75,25
74
88,72
Diğer
53
79,67
Total
168
Anadolu Lisesi
Genel Lise
Otelcilik ve Turizm Meslek Lisesi
19
85,74
Anadolu Otelcilik ve Turizm Mes.Lisesi
14
103,21
8
69,94
Genel Lise
74
76,54
Diğer
53
92,42
Total
168
Anadolu Lisesi
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü turizm
sektöründe çalışmayı zevkli buluyorum.
91,57
8
Genel Lise
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü turizm, sosyal
ilişkiler kurabilme imkânı sağlar
14
74
Anadolu Lisesi
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü ülkemiz turizm
alanında hızlı bir gelişme göstermektedir
90,82
Genel Lise
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü çalışma saatleri Otelcilik ve Turizm Meslek Lisesi
uygundur.
Anadolu Otelcilik ve Turizm Mes.Lisesi
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü başka bir
mesleğe kolay geçebilme imkânı sunar.
19
Otelcilik ve Turizm Meslek Lisesi
19
87,63
Anadolu Otelcilik ve Turizm Mes.Lisesi
14
94,43
8
74,50
Anadolu Lisesi
,045
,724
,660
,160
,779
,817
,123
,550
317
Genel Lise
Bu Bölümü seçtim, çünkü çalışanların bu
alanda eğitim alması gerektiğine
inanıyorum
74
78,68
Diğer
53
90,39
Total
168
Otelcilik ve Turizm Meslek Lisesi
19
79,92
Anadolu Otelcilik ve Turizm Mes.Lisesi
14
116,79
8
73,38
Genel Lise
74
81,91
Diğer
53
82,92
Total
168
Anadolu Lisesi
Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü turizm
sektöründe çalışmak özgüvenimi artırır.
Otelcilik ve Turizm Meslek Lisesi
19
100,61
Anadolu Otelcilik ve Turizm Mes.Lisesi
14
100,79
Anadolu Lisesi
Bu bölümü puanımdan dolayı seçtim.
8
79,63
Genel Lise
74
74,81
Diğer
53
88,69
Total
168
Otelcilik ve Turizm Meslek Lisesi
19
78,58
Anadolu Otelcilik ve Turizm Mes.Lisesi
14
81,61
8
74,56
74
79,35
Diğer
53
96,08
Total
168
Anadolu Lisesi
Genel Lise
,103
,096
,311
Turizm eğitimi alan öğrencilerin mezun oldukları lise ile turizm mesleğine yönelik düşünceleri
arasında farklılık olup olmadığını belirlemek amacıyla Kruskal-Wallis testi yapılmıştır. Analizde sig.
değerinin 0,05’ten büyük olması ankete katılan öğrencilerin mezun oldukları lise ile turizm mesleğine
yönelik düşünceleri arasında fark olmadığını gösterirken sig. değerinin 0,05’ten küçük olması ise
katılımcıların mezun oldukları lise ile turizm mesleğine yönelik düşünceleri arasında farklılık
olduğunu göstermektedir. Analiz sonuçlarına göre; öğrencilerin değişkenlere yönelik düşünceleri
farklılık göstermezken, mezun oldukları okulun “Bu bölümü seçtim, çünkü çevrem tavsiye etti” sorusu
ile farklılık olduğu görülmektedir.
Cevaplayıcıların Turizm Mesleğini Tercihlerine Yönelik Davranışları
Bu kısımda, öğrencilere, tekrar seçme hakları olsa turizm mesleğini tercih edip etmeyecekleri,
turizm mesleğini çevrelerindeki bireylere tavsiye edip etmedikleri ve turizm mesleğinde devam etmek
isteyip istemedikleri sorulmuştur. Katılımcılara tekrar tercih etme hakları olması durumunda turizm
alanını tercih edip etmeyecekleri sorulmuştur. Tablo 4 ön lisans düzeyinde turizm eğitimi gören
öğrencilerin tekrar seçme hakları olsa turizm alnını tercih edip etmeyeceklerine ilişkin frekans, yüzde,
ortalama ve standart sapma değerlerini göstermektedir.
318
Tablo 4: Turizm Öğrenimi gören Öğrencilerin Tekrar Seçme Hakları Olsa Turizm Mesleğini
Tercih Edip Etmeyeceklerine İlişkin Frekans ve Yüzde Değerleri
Tekrar alan seçme hakkınız olsa turizmi tercih eder misiniz?
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Kesinlikle tercih etmem
11
6,5
6,5
6,5
tercih etmem
34
20,2
20,2
26,8
Kararsızım
39
23,2
23,2
50,0
tercih ederim
58
34,5
34,5
84,5
kesinlikle tercih ederim
26
15,5
15,5
100,0
168
100,0
100,0
Total
Tablo 4’de, ön lisans düzeyinde turizm eğitimi gören katılımcıların tekrar seçme hakları olsa,
(11) % 6,5’inin turizm mesleğini kesinlikle tekrar tercih etmeyeceğini, (34) % 20,2’sinin turizm
mesleğini tekrar tercih etmeyeceğini, (39) % 23,2’sinin turizm mesleğini tekrar tercih edip etmeme
konusunda kararsız olduğunu, (58) % 34,5’inin turizm mesleğini tekrar tercih etmeyi düşündüğünü,
(26) %15,5’sinin turizm mesleğini kesinlikle tekrar tercih etmeyi düşündükleri görülmektedir.
Ankete katılan öğrencilere mezun olduktan sonra turizm mesleğinde devam etmek isteyip
istemedikleri sorulmuştur. Tablo 5 ön lisans düzeyinde turizm eğitimi gören öğrencilerin mezun
olduktan sonra turizm mesleğinde devam etmek isteyip istemediklerine ilişkin frekans, yüzde,
ortalama ve standart sapma değerlerini göstermektedir.
Tablo 5: Ön Lisans Düzeyinde Turizm Eğitimi Gören Öğrencilerin Mezun Olduktan Sonra
Turizm Mesleğinde Devam Etmek İsteyip İstemediklerine İlişkin Frekans ve Yüzde Değerleri
Mezun olduktan sonra turizm sektöründe çalışmayı düşünüyor musunuz?
Frequency
Kesinlikle düşünmüyorum
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Valid Percent
4
2,4
2,4
2,4
Düşünmüyorum
28
16,7
16,7
19,0
Kararsızım
42
25,0
25,0
44,0
Düşünüyorum
63
37,5
37,5
81,5
kesinlikle düşünüyorum
31
18,5
18,5
100,0
168
100,0
100,0
Total
Tablo 5’da görüldüğü gibi ankete katılan öğrencilerin % 2,4’ü (4) mezun olduktan sonra
çalışma yaşamına turizm alanında devam etmeyi kesinlikle düşünmemektedir. Katılımcıların % 16, 7’
si (28) mezun olduktan sonra çalışma yaşamına turizm alanında devam etmeyi düşünmediklerini
belirtmişlerdir. Mezun olduktan sonra çalışma yaşamına turizm alanında devam etme konusunda
kararsız bireylerin sayısı 42 (% 25,0) iken turizm mesleğine devam etmeyi düşünen bireylerin oranı
% 32,6 (131)’ dır. Katılımcılardan % 37,5’i (63) mezun olduktan sonra çalışma yaşamına kesinlikle
turizm alanında devam etmeyi düşündüklerini belirtmişlerdir.
319
5. SONUÇ ve ÖNERİLER
Bu araştırmada, Turizm ve Otel İşletmeciliği Programı öğrencilerinin okudukları bölümü
seçme nedenlerinin ve bu seçimlerinden memnuniyetlerinin cinsiyetleri, mezun oldukları lise türü,
anne ve babalarının eğitim değişkenlerine göre farklılaşıp farklılaşmadığı araştırılmıştır.
Yapılan çalışma da, üniversite öğrencilerinin bölüm seçimlerini etkileyen faktörler arasında,
mezun oldukları lise, gelir durumu, cinsiyet gibi değişkenlere bağlı olarak farklılaştığı tespit edilmiştir.
Bu konuyla ilgili yapılan çalışmalarla karşılaştırıldığında benzer sonuçlara ulaşıldığını göstermiştir.
Bu araştırma sonucunda katılımcıların kişilik özelliklerinin turizm eğitimi üzerine
düşüncelerini etkiledikleri görülmüştür. Bu bağlamda akademisyenler tarafından turizm mesleğinin
hangi alanlarının hangi kişilik özellikleri için özellikleri için uygun olduğu mesleğin yapısı incelenerek
ortaya konulabilir. Böylece turizm eğitimi gören öğrencilerin sektör içerisinde kişilik özelliklerine
uygun alanlara yönlendirilmeleri mümkün olacaktır. Benzer çalışmalar diğer sektörler için de
yapılabilir.
Öğrencilerin kişilik özellikleri dikkate alınarak, mesleğe yönelik düşüncelerini olumlu yönde
geliştirmek amacıyla motive edici etkinlikler düzenlenerek, mesleğin güven verici niteliği öne
çıkarılarak turizm mesleğine yönelik olumsuz tutumları olumlu hale dönüştürülebilir.
Öğrencilerin mezuniyet sonrası turizm mesleğini sürdürme eğilimlerini artırmak için turizm
mesleğini sevdirecek, avantajlarını ve sektörler açısından önemini vurgulayacak çeşitli seminerler
düzenlemek, tanıtım faaliyetleri yürütmek faydalı olabilir. Özellikle turizm mesleğine yönelik olarak
olumsuz düşüncelere sahip bireylere turizm sektörüne yönelik sektörün diğer sektörlerle olan
yakınlığını göz önünde bulundurarak turizm sektörüne yönelik çeşitli girişim projeleri hakkında bilgi
verilmesi ve ekonomik destek alabilecekleri yöntemler hakkında bilgilendirilmeleri olumsuz
düşüncelerini değiştirebilecektir. Bu durum turizm mesleğinde çalışacak kişilerin daha kalifiye
elemanlar olmalarına yardım edebilecektir.
KAYNAKÇA
Aksu, M. ve Bucak, T. (2012), “Mesleki Turizm Eğitimi”, Aksaray Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi, Cilt: 4,
Sayı: 2, ss.7-18
Alkan, G. Ç. (2008), “Türk-Alman Mesleki Eğitim Sistemlerinin Karşılaştırılması”, Yayınlanmamış
Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Beykent Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul
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Düzce Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Düzce
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322
KONAKLAMA İŞLETMELERİNDE DUYGUSAL EMEK SÜRECİ: YAPISAL EŞİTLİK
MODELİ İLE BİR ANALİZ
Dr. Işıl ARIKAN SALTIK∗
Prof. Dr. Tuncer ASUNAKUTLU∗∗
ÖZET
Çalışanların, işletme tarafından uygun görülen duyguları yansıtan davranışları sergilemek
üzere iş sürecinde duygularını kontrol etmek suretiyle hizmet sunmaları duygusal emek kavramını
oluşturmaktadır. Sunulan hizmetin, müşteri ve işgörenin etkileşiminde şekillenmesi nedeniyle, turizm
sektöründe çalışanların sergiledikleri duygusal emek ve bu emeğin iş sonuçlarına etkisi daha belirgin
olabilmektedir. Bu araştırma, literatür doğrultusunda oluşturulan yapısal model çerçevesinde,
konaklama işletmelerinde duygusal emek sürecini kapsamlı bir şekilde inceleyerek belirli öncülleri ve
sonuçları arasındaki ilişkileri açığa çıkarmayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, Akdeniz
Bölgesi’nde faaliyet gösteren 4 ve 5 yıldızlı otel işletmeleri ve tatil köylerinde müşteri ile doğrudan
etkileşim halinde olan çalışan işgörenlerden anket tekniği kullanılarak veri toplanmıştır. Araştırma
sonucunda, modelde öncüller olarak yer alan dışadönüklük, nevrotiklik, duygusal davranış kuralları
ve işte özerkliğin duygusal emek boyutları üzerindeki etkileri ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Bunun yanında,
duygusal çelişki ve duygusal çabanın iş tatminini arttırdığı, yalnızca duygusal çelişkinin duygusal
tükenmişlik üzerinde etkili olduğu görülmüştür.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Duygusal Emek, Konaklama İşletmesi Çalışanları, Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli.
EMOTIONAL LABOR PROCESS IN HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTS: AN ANALYSIS
USING STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING
ABSTRACT
The concept of emotional labor means the service provided by employees in order to act the
appropriate emotions according to organisation, by controlling their emotions during the work process.
Due to fact that the tourism product is formed through the interaction between the customer and
employee, the emotional labor and its impact on the work results could be more apparent in the
tourism sector. This research aims to reveal the relation among the certain antecedents and outcomes
of emotional labor of hospitality employees by examining emotional labor process inclusively. In
accordance with the literature, a structural equation model was constituted. The data were gathered via
the survey which was conducted on the hospitality employees who interact directly with the customers
∗
Muğla Sıtkı Koçman Üniversitesi, Fethiye İşletme Fakültesi, [email protected],
Yıldırım Beyazıt Üniversitesi, İşletme Fakültesi, [email protected],
∗∗
323
in 4 and 5 star hotels and holiday resorts located in Mediterranean Region. The findings demonstrate
the impacts of the antecedents of emotional labor, namely, extraversion, neuroticism, emotional
display rules and job autonomy among emotional labor dimensions. Besides, the results indicate that
both emotional effort and emotional dissonance predict job satisfaction whereas only emotional
dissonance effect on emotional exhaustion.
Keywords:EmotionalLabor, HospitalityEmployees, StructuralEquationModeling.
1. GİRİŞ
20. yüzyılın ilk yarısında Hawthorne araştırmaları ile yönetim literatüründedavranışsal
bağlamda yer almaya başlayan insan faktörü, örgütsel yaşamda duygulara verilen önemin artmasıyla
yeniden ön plana çıkmakta ve örgütsel ilişkilerin kilit noktalarından biri olarak nitelendirilmektedir.
Gerek hizmet sektörünün ivmeli büyümesi, gerekse rasyonel tüketici anlayışının terk edilmesinin
etkisiyle (Prahalad ve Ramaswamy, 2000), işletmelerin odaklandığı esas unsurun müşteriler haline
gelmesi örgütsel ilişkilerde duyguların bu denli önemsenmesine temel oluşturmaktadır (Eroğlu, 2011).
Bu bağlamda, işletmelerin çalışanların davranışları ile birlikte duygularını da yönetme çabalarının
sonucunda, görevlerini yerine getirebilmek için fiziksel ve zihinsel emeğin yanı sıra duygusal olarak
da emek harcayan işgörenler ortaya çıkmaktadır (Morris ve Feldman, 1996). Çalışanların işletme
tarafından belirlenen davranış kuralları doğrultusunda (Diefendorff ve Richard, 2003) duygularını
kontrol ederek sergiledikleri davranışlar ile hizmet sunmaları duygusal emek kavramını
oluşturmaktadır (Kruml ve Geddes, 2000; Brotheridge ve Lee, 2003). En yalın biçimde duygusal
emek, örgüt amaçlarına hizmet etmek üzere duyguların ve davranışların düzenlenmesisüreci olarak
tanımlanmaktadır (Grandey, 2000:98).Turizm sektörü; emek yoğun, işgören devir hızı fazla ve
müşteri-çalışan etkileşiminin yüksek olması özelliklerinin yanı sıra (Kuşluvan vd., 2010), çalışanların
yılın her günü ve günün her saatinde müşterilerine ürün ve hizmet sağlamasının beklenildiği bir
sektördür (Hsieh ve Eggers, 2010). Bedeli ne olursa olsun, işgörenlerinmüşterilere karşı arkadaşça ve
nazik bir biçimde davranması ve memnuniyetini sağlaması gerekliliği ile oluşan eşitsiz güç dağılımı
(Yagil, 2008) gibi nedenlerle konaklama işletmelerinde duygusal emek süreci ve sonuçları daha
belirgin hale gelebilmektedir. Bu araştırmanın amacı,konaklamaişletmelerinde duygusal emek sürecini
kapsamlı bir şekilde inceleyerek belirli öncülleri ve sonuçları arasındaki ilişkileriortaya çıkarmaktır.
2. LİTERATÜR TARAMASI
2.1. Duygusal Emek
Müşteri ile doğrudan etkileşim halinde çalışan işgörenler, örgüt tarafından onaylanmış duyguları
sergileme çabası gösterdiklerinde duygusal emek sarf etmektedirler (Wharton ve Erickson, 1995).
Duygusal emek kavramını ilk kez ele alan araştırmacılar içerisinde yer alan Hochschild (1983:7), hava
yolları çalışanları üzerine yaptığı çalışmasında duygusal emeği “açıkça gözlemlenebilir yüz ve
bedensel davranışlar sergilemek üzere duyguların yönetimi” olarak tanımlamaktadır. Çalışanların içsel
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duygularını değiştirmeksizin sergiledikleri duyguyu değiştirmesi yüzeysel davranış (Hochschild,
1983); sadece fiziksel görünümlerini değil, aynı zamanda duruma uygun olumlu duyguları yaratmak
üzere, hayal etme veya geçmiş neşeli deneyimleri hatırlama yoluyla içsel duygularını da değiştirmeleri
ise derin(lemesine) davranış olarak adlandırılmaktadır (Chu ve Murrmann, 2006). Yüzeysel davranış
kavramsal olarak duygusal çelişki ile, derin davranış ise duygusal çaba ile özdeşleştirilmektedir (Zapf,
2002;Brotheridge ve Lee, 2003). Duygusal çelişki, “çalışanın gerçekte sahip olduğu duygular ile
örgütsel olarak çalışandan sergilemesi beklenilen duygular arasındaki uyumsuzluk”olarak ifade
edilmektedir (Morris ve Feldman, 1996:992). Çalışanların basit bir şekilde duyguların dışsal
gösterimini değiştirmek yerine, örgütsel gerekler doğrultusunda gerçek olumlu duygu gösterimleri
yaratmak için içsel duygu ve düşüncelerini düzenleme uğraşı vermesi ise duygusal çaba olarak
adlandırılmaktadır (Kruml ve Geddes, 2000:9). Duygusal emek kavramının, konunun daha kapsamlı
bir şekilde incelenmesiyle birlikte anlık bir davranış olmaktan öte, nedenleri ve neden oldukları ile
birlikte bir süreç olarak değerlendirilmeye başlandığı görülmektedir. Bu çalışmada,duygusal çelişki ve
duygusal çaba olmak üzere iki boyutlu olarak ele alınan duygusal emeğin öncülleri olarak
dışadönüklük, nevrotiklik, duygusal davranış kuralları ve işte özerklik; sonuçları olarak duygusal
tükenmişlik ve iş tatmini araştırma modeline dahil edilmiştir.
2.2. Duygusal Emek Öncülleri
Duygusal emek araştırmacıları, hizmet sektörü çalışanlarının duygusal davranışlarının,
bireylerin düşünme ve davranma biçimlerinin temelini oluşturması nedeniyle kişilik özellikleri,
özellikle de dışadönüklük ve nevrotiklik özellikleri aracılığı ile açıklanabileceği konusunda hem fikir
görünmektedir (Brotheridge ve Lee, 2003; Diefendorff, Croyle ve Gosserand, 2005; Kim, 2008).
Genellikle konuşkan, girişken, tutkulu ve aktif çalışanlar olarak tanımlanan dışadönük kişiler
(Goldberg, 1990), davranış ve olumlu duyguların yüzsel (mimikle) gösterimi (örneğin gülümseme) ile
doğru ilişkili bulunmuştur (Tan vd., 2003). Araştırma sonuçları, dışadönük kişilerin genel olarak
nevrotiklere göre daha az sahte duygu gösterim eğiliminde olduğu ve daha kolay derin davranış
sergiledikleri yönündedir (Diefendorff vd., 2005). Nevrotik ya da duygusal dengesiz olarak
nitelendirilen kişiler, endişeli, depresif, güvensiz, içe kapanık, gergin olma ve hem kendilerine hem de
başkalarına karşı olumsuz duygular hissetme eğilimindedirler (Barrick ve Mount, 1991). Nevrotik
kişilere duygularını değiştirmek daha zor geldiği için, yüzeysel davranış sergileme olasılıklarının daha
fazla olduğu düşünülmektedir (Tan vd., 2003; Glomb ve Tews, 2004).
Duygusal davranış kuralları, çalışma ortamında duyguların uygun gösteriminin standartları
olarak tanımlanmakta ve çalışan performansının beklenen bir parçası olarak görülen duyguları
saklama ve gösterme derecesini işaret etmektedir (Wharton ve Erickson,1995). Bireyin gerçekte nasıl
hissettiğini göz önüne almaksızın davranış kurallarına uymanın sonucunda duygusal emek ortaya
çıkmaktadır. İster olumlu ister olumsuz duygulara yönelik olsun, duygusal davranış kuralları duygusal
emeği etkilemektedir (Kim, 2008; Diefendorff vd., 2005; Brotheridge ve Grandey, 2002). Örgütsel
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koşullar içerisinde değerlendirilebilecek olan duygusal davranış kurallarının yanı sıra işte özerklik
düzeyi de çalışanların duygusal emek davranışlarını etkileyebilmektedir (Morris ve Feldman, 1996;
Grandey, 2000). İşte özerklik, çalışanın işinin gereklerini yerine getirme sürecinde davranışlarının
bağımsızlık ve serbestisini; kendisi ile ilgili olan işin nasıl ve hangi yöntemlerle gerçekleştirileceğini
belirleme konusunda söz sahibi olma düzeyini ifade etmektedir (Hackman ve Oldham, 1975).
2.3. Duygusal Emek Sonuçları
Duygusal tükenmişlik, çalışanların müşterilerle duygusal olarak aşırı uzatılmış etkileşimleri ve
bu durumu telafi edecek yeterli duygusal kaynağa sahip olmadıkları durumlar sonucunda (Jackson,
Schwab ve Schuler, 1986) veya kendilerinin ve müşterilerinin duygularını yönetemediklerinde ortaya
çıkmaktadır (Copp, 1998). Müşteri ile doğrudan etkileşim halinde çalışanların genellikle gülümseyen,
sakin, arkadaş canlısı, yardımsever olmalarının ve yüksek kaliteli hizmet sunumunu sürdürmelerinin
istenilmesi (Chan ve Coleman, 2004) nedeniyle işgörenlerin gerçek duygularını bastırmaları,
tükenmişlik ve stres yaşamaları ile ilişkilendirilmektedir (Taormina ve Kuok, 2009). Duygusal emeğin
çalışanlar üzerinde yarattığı olumsuz sonuçlar arasında yer alan duygusal tükenmişlik, duygusal
kaynakların kısıtlılığı nedeniyle duygusal taleplerin aşırılığının üstesinden gelemeyen konaklama
işletmesi çalışanlarında daha sık görülmektedir (Wright ve Cropanzano, 1998).İş tatmini, kişinin
işyerinde isteklerinin, ihtiyaçlarının veya beklentilerinin karşılanma düzeyini ifade etmektedir
(Cranny, Smith ve Stone, 1992). İş tatmini örgüt performansı ve verimliliği üzerinde etkili önemli bir
unsur olarak nitelendirilmekte (Locke ve Whiting, 1974) ve duygusal emeğin konaklama işletmeleri
çalışanlarının iş tatminleri üzerinde etkili olduğu öne sürülmektedir (Chu ve Murrmann, 2006).Bu
kapsamda oluşturulan araştırma modeli ve hipotezler Şekil 1 üzerinde görsel olarak sunulmaktadır.
Şekil 1. Araştırma Modeli
H2
Duygusal
Davranış Kuralları
H9
H11
H6
Dışadönüklük
Duygusal
Çaba
H5
Duygusal
Tükenme
H13
H15
H17
H4
H8
H14
H1
Nevrotiklik
Duygusal
Çelişki
H7
H10
H3
İşte Özerklik
H12
H16
İş
Tatmin
i
3. ARAŞTIRMANIN METODOLOJİSİ VE BULGULARI
Araştırmanın evreni, Akdeniz Bölgesi’nde faaliyet gösteren 4 ve 5 yıldızlı otel işletmeleri ile
tatil köylerinde müşteri ile doğrudan etkileşim halinde çalışan işgörenlerden oluşmaktadır. Amaçlı
örnekleme yöntemiyle, evren içinde yer alan ve çalışmanın yapılmasını kabul eden konaklama
işletmelerinin belirlenen bölümlerinde çalışanlardan anket tekniği ile veri toplanmıştır. Belirtilen
işletmeler, turizm işletmeleri içerisinde daha kurumsal bir yapı ve profesyonel bir yönetime sahip
326
oldukları varsayımı nedeniyle evren olarak belirlenmiştir. Toplam 535 geçerli anket üzerinden edinilen
verilerin analizi yapısal eşitlik modeliile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Yapısal eşitlik modeli,gözlenen ve gizil
değişkenler arasındaki nedensel ilişkilerin sınanmasında kullanılan kapsamlı bir istatistiksel tekniktir
(Yılmaz, 2004:79). “Genel çerçevesini faktör analizlerinin oluşturduğu ve faktörler arasındaki
karmaşık ilişkilerin değerlendirilmesine olanak veren bir model” (Kaplan, 2009:3) olarak tanımlanan
yapısal eşitlik modelinintemel amacı, önceden belirlenmiş ilişkilerin veri tarafından doğrulanıp
doğrulanmadığını açığa çıkarmaktır (Şimşek, 2007).
Araştırma ölçeğinde ilk olarak; Chu ve Murmann (2006) tarafından geliştirilen ve Pala (2008)
tarafından Türkçe’ye uyarlaması yapılan Konaklama İşletmesi Çalışanları Duygusal Emek Ölçeği yer
almaktadır. Bu ölçeği,Grandey’in (1999) geliştirip, Ünler-Öz’ün (2007:83) dilimize uyarladığı
Duygusal Davranış Kuralları Ölçeği ve Hackman ve Oldham’ın (1975) geliştirdiği,Teas’ın (1981)
yeniden düzenlediği, Kuşluvan ve Kuşluvan’ın (2005) Türkçe’ye uyarlamasını yaptığı İşte Özerklik
Ölçeği takip etmektedir. Ardından Goldberg’in (1990) geliştirdiği Beş Büyük Kişilik Faktörü Ölçeği
içerisinde yer alan dışadönüklük ve nevrotiklik (duygusal dengelilik) alt boyutlarına ait ölçekler yer
almaktadır. Son olarak, Maslach ve Jackson’ın (1981) geliştirip, Ergin’in (1992) dilimize uyarladığı
Duygusal Tükenmişlik Alt Ölçeği ile Brayfield ve Rothe (1951) tarafından geliştirilen,Yoon ve Thye
(2002:106) tarafından kısaltılarak yeniden düzenlenen
ve Türkçe’ye uyarlamasını Kuşluvan ve Kuşluvan’ın
(2005:203) yaptığı İş Tatmini Ölçeğinden yararlanılmaktadır. Araştırma ölçeği 5’li Likert şeklinde
düzenlenmiştir(1.Hiçbir zaman - 5.Her zaman).
Araştırma modelinde yer alan değişkenlerin ortalamaları, standart sapmaları ve değişkenler arası
korelasyon değerleri Tablo 1 üzerinde sunulmaktadır.
Tablo 1. Değişkenlere İlişkin Ortalama, Standart Sapma ve Korelasyon Değerleri
1.Nevrotiklik
2.Dışadönüklük
3.Duygusal Davranış
Kuralları
4. İşte Özerklik
5.Duygusal Çaba
6.Duygusal Çelişki
7.İş Tatmini
8.Duygusal Tükenmişlik
Konaklama
Ort.
2,6434
3,4355
Std. Sapma
,78715
,68716
1
1.00
0.37
1.00
3,7790
,73395
0.31
0.27
1.00
3,1296
3,9397
3,4922
4,0276
2,2673
1,26537
,71900
,63841
1,05704
1,01128
0.10
0.37
0.35
0.40
-0.60
0.19
0.34
0.40
0.32
-0.30
0.24
0.67
0.66
0.60
-0.47
işletmesi
çalışanlarının,
2
nevrotiklik
3
4
5
6
7
8
1.00
0.26
0.31
0.33
-0.21
1.00
0.98
0.61
-0.51
1.00
0.55
-0.44
1.00
-0.65
1.00
düzeyidüşük
(2,6434),
dışadönüklük
düzeyi(3,4355), duygusal davranış kuralları algısı (3,7790) ve işte özerklik algısının (3,1296) yüksek
olduğu görülmüştür. Duygusal emek boyutlarına ilişkin bulgulara bakıldığında, hem duygusal çelişki
(3,4922) hem de duygusal çabadüzeylerinin (3,9397) ortalama değer olan 3’ten yüksek olduğu, olduğu
belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca çalışanların duygusal tükenmişlik düzeylerinin (2,2673) düşük, iş tatminlerinin
(4,0276) ise yüksek olduğu anlaşılmıştır.Korelasyon analizi sonucunda, nevrotiklik, dışadönüklük,
duygusal davranış kuralları, işte özerklik, duygusal çelişki, duygusal çaba ve iş tatmini arasında pozitif
327
bir ilişkinin varlığı açığa çıkarılmıştır. Duygusal tükenmişlik değişkeni ile modelde yer alan tüm diğer
değişkenler arasında ise negatif bir ilişkinin olduğu görülmüştür.
Araştırmacı tarafından net olarak belirlenmiş bir modelin veri tarafından doğruluğunun test
edildiği doğrulayıcı modelleme stratejisine sahipbu araştırmada,yapısal model LISREL 8.54
programıyla test edilmiştir. Yapısal eşitlik modeli analizi sonucunda χ 2değeri 5455,74, (p=0.00),
serbestlik derecesi (sd) 1751, bağıl χ 2 indeksi 3,115 olarak hesaplanmıştır.Modele ait uyum değerleri,
modelin bir bütün olarak veri tarafından kabul edilebilir bir düzeyde desteklendiğini göstermektedir
(RMSEA=0,063, NFI=0,90, NNFI=0,97, CFI=0,98, IFI=0,97, GFI=0,96, AGFI=0,91).
Analiz sonuçlarına göre dışadönüklük duygusal davranış kuralları ve işte özerklik üzerinde
etkiliyken, nevrotiklik yalnızca duygusal davranış kuralları üzerinde etki göstermektedir. Araştırma
modelinde duygusal emek öncülü olarak yer alan tüm değişkenlerin hem duygusal çaba hem de
duygusal çelişki üzerinde pozitif bir etki yarattığı,ancak yalnız duygusal çelişkinin duygusal
tükenmişlik üzerinde negatif bir etki yarattığı görülmektedir. Bununla birlikte, her iki duygusal emek
boyutunun iş tatmini üzerinde pozitif bir etki yaratırken, duygusal tükenmişliğin iş tatmini üzerinde
negatif bir etkiye sahip olduğu anlaşılmaktadır.Aşağıda Tablo 2’de sunulduğu üzere önerilen 17
hipotezden 15’i kabul edilirken 2’si reddedilmiştir.
Tablo 2. Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli Standardize Edilmiş Regresyon Ağırlıkları ve Hipotezlerin
Değerlendirilmesi
Hipotez
H1
H2
H3
H4
H5
H6
H7
H8
H9
H10
H11
H12
H13
H14
H15
H16
H17
Test Edilen Yol
DDK ⇐ NEVR
DDK ⇐ DISD
ISOZ ⇐ NEVR
ISOZ ⇐ DISD
DCAB ⇐ NEVR
DCAB ⇐ DISD
DCEL ⇐ NEVR
DCEL ⇐ DISD
DCAB ⇐ DDK
DCAB ⇐ ISOZ
DCEL ⇐ DDK
DCEL ⇐ ISOZ
DTUK ⇐ DCAB
DTUK ⇐ DCEL
ISTAT ⇐ DCAB
ISTAT ⇐ DCEL
ISTAT ⇐ DTUK
Tahmin
0,25
0,18
0,041
0,18
0,12
0,12
0,27
0,17
0,65
0,11
0,71
0,19
-0,071
-0,57
0,19
0,32
-0,36
St. Hata
0,058
0,058
0,054
0,056
0,053
0,054
0,054
0,052
0,16
0,048
0,097
0,046
0,076
0,093
0,076
0,079
0,050
t
4,32*
3,16*
0,77
3,16*
2,26*
2,19*
5,08*
3,27*
4,04*
2,36*
7,35*
4,12*
-0,94
-6,10*
2,46*
4,02*
-7,18*
Sonuç
Kabul
Kabul
Red
Kabul
Kabul
Kabul
Kabul
Kabul
Kabul
Kabul
Kabul
Kabul
Red
Kabul
Kabul
Kabul
Kabul
Not: Tabloda yer alan değişkenlerin tam adları şu şekildedir:DDK: Duygusal Davranış Kuralları, NEVR: Nevrotiklik, DISD: Dışadönüklük,
ISOZ: İşte Özerklik, DCAB: Duygusal Çaba, DCEL: Duygusal Çelişki, DTUK: Duygusal Tükenmişlik, ISTAT: İş Tatmini
4. SONUÇ
Bu araştırmada, konaklama işletmelerinde duygusal emek süreci yapısal eşitlik modeli ile
incelenerek, dışadönüklük, nevrotiklik, duygusal davranış kuralları ve işte özerkliğin duygusal çelişki
ve duygusal çaba üzerine etkileri ile, her iki duygusal emek boyutunun duygusal tükenmişlik ve iş
tatmini üzerine etkilerini açığa çıkarmaya yönelik ampirik destek sağlamak suretiyle literatüre katkıda
328
bulunulmaktadır.Araştırma sonuçları, nevrotiklik, dışadönüklük, duygusal davranış kuralları ve işte
özerkliğin duygusal emek üzerinde etkili olduğunu göstermektedir. Bulgular literatür ile genel olarak
örtüşmektedir (Kruml ve Geddes, 2000; Brotheridge ve Lee, 2003; Diefendorff vd., 2005; Kim, 2008).
Bununla birlikte, işte özerklik ile duygusal çelişki arasında ters yönlü ilişki öne süren araştırmalar ile
uyuşmazlık söz konusudur (Morris ve Feldman 1996; Mann, 2004). Bu uyuşmazlığın sektörün
kendine has yapısından kaynaklandığı düşünülmektedir.Konaklama işletmelerinde tüm bölüm ve
pozisyonlarda iş sürecinin özünü oluşturan unsurlar katı ve değişmez bir nitelik taşımaktadır.
Konaklama işletmesi çalışanlarında işte özerklik ne denli yüksek olursa olsun, asgari duygusal
taleplerin yüksekliğinin (müşteriye her koşulda güler yüz gösterme, nazik ve dostça olma vb.) işin
geneli içerisinde karar verme özgürlüğüne sahip olunan alanını dar kılabilmektedir. Dolayısıyla işte
özerklik, çalışanda beklenen düzeyde bir bağımsızlık duygusu yaratmayabilmekte ve duygusal
çelişkiye neden olabilmektedir. Bunun yanı sıra, araştırmanın örneklemini oluşturan toplumun kültürel
özelliklerinin de bu sonuç üzerinde etkili olabileceği düşünülmektedir. Güç mesafesinin ve
belirsizlikten kaçınmanın düşük olduğu Batı kültürlerinde yapılan araştırmalarda işte özerklik arttıkça
duygusal çelişkinin azaldığı sonucuna varılmıştır. Ancak uygulamanın yapıldığı, Doğu kültürünün
temsilcilerinden birisi olan Türk kültürüne sahip işgörenler üzerine gerçekleştirilen bu araştırmada,
gerek güç mesafesinin gerekse belirsizlikten kaçınma eğilimin yüksek olması gibi kültürel özellikleri
nedeniyle işte özerkliği yüksek olan çalışanların duygusal çelişki düzeyleri de yükselebilir.
Araştırma sonucunda duygusal çelişki düzeyi yükseldikçe, duygusal tükenmişliğin azaldığı ve
iş tatmininin arttığıbelirlenmiştir. Literatür ile çelişir olarak nitelendirilebilecek (Zapf, 2002; Glomb ve
Tews, 2004; Basım, Beğenirbaş ve Yalçın, 2013) bu durumun iki farklı nedenden kaynaklanabileceği
düşünülmektedir. Bunlardan birincisi Grandey (1999) tarafından belirtildiği üzere duygusal çelişkinin
yalnızca gerçek duyguların baskılanması için çaba gerektiren durumlarda duygusal tükenmişliğe neden
olmasıdır. Diğer nedeni ise, müşteri ile arasında güvenli duygusal mesafeyi koruyamayan konaklama
işletmesi çalışanlarının, bu mesafeyi sağlamak ve kendilerini korumak adına duygusal çelişki
yaşayacak bir şekilde yüzeysel davranış sergilemeyi tercih etmesi ve bu sayede tatsız deneyimleri
azaltarak duygusal kaynaklarını korumaya çalışmalarının olduğu düşünülmektedir (Chu, Baker ve
Murrmann, 2012).Bu durum, literatürde duygusal emeğin olumsuz sonuçlara neden olan boyutu olarak
nitelendirilme eğilimi fazla olan duygusal çelişkinin, düşünüldüğünün tersine olumlu sonuçlara da
neden olabileceğini göstermesi açısından anlamlıdır. Duygusal çelişki boyutu üzerine yapılacak daha
kapsamlı ve derinlemesine çalışmalar ile hangi değişkenler devreye girdiğinde duygusal çelişkinin iş
tatminini arttırmak, duygusal tükenmişliği azaltmak gibi olumlu sonuçlara neden olduğunun açığa
çıkarılması ve bu doğrultuda duygusal emek sürecinin yönetilmesi anlamlı olacaktır.
Duygusal çaba ile duygusal tükenmişlik arasında anlamlı bir ilişkinin varlığı belirlenememekle
birlikte, duygusal çaba düzeyi arttıkça iş tatmininin arttığı görülmüştür.Duygusal tükenmişlik ile iş
tatmini arasında ise anlamlı ve ters yönlü bir ilişki belirlenmiştir. Literatür ile uyum gösteren
329
(Ashforth ve Humphrey, 1993; Brotheridge ve Grandey, 2002; Zapf, 2002) bu sonuçlar duygusal
emeğin iş sonuçları üzerindeki etkisini göstermesi açısından önem taşımaktadır. Bu sonuçlar ışığında,
konaklama işletmesi yöneticilerinin, işgören seçiminde kişilik özelliklerini değerlendirmelerinin,
duygusal davranış kuralları ile işte özerklik düzeyini belirlemede duygusal emek üzerindeki etkisini
gözeterek karar vermelerinin işletmelerine rekabet gücü kazandırmada katkı sağlayacağı
düşünülmektedir.
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332
YARATICILIK VE HİZMET ODAKLILIK: YİYECEK İÇECEK İŞLETMELERİNDE BİR
UYGULAMA
Arş. Gör. Neslihan SERÇEOĞLU*
ÖZ
Günümüzün küreselleşen pazar koşulları rekabet gücü sorununu ön plana çıkarmış ve
örgütlerin temel önceliği haline getirmiştir. Böylesi bir rekabetçi dünyada müşteri beklentilerini en iyi
şekilde karşılayabilecek bir örgüt yapısının varlığı oldukça önemlidir. Bunun için örgütlerin
çalışanlara daha yaratıcı ve yenilikçiliğe yol açacak ortamlar hazırlaması gerekmektedir. Ache
(2000)’e göre yaratıcı düşünceye sahip çalışan rahatlıkla diğer insanlarla birlikte ekip halinde
çalışabilen, farklı kültürleri deneyime gönüllü olarak hazır olan, yakındaki ve uzaktaki düşmanları
derhal tanıyabilen bir yapıya sahiptir. Yaşamlarının yaklaşık üçte birini çalışma ortamında geçiren iş
görenlerin yaratıcılık düzeyleri ve yaratıcılıklarını yaptıkları işe yansıtarak hizmet odaklı bireyler
olmalarıyla müşterilere kaliteli hizmet sağlanmış olacak ve müşterilerin işletmeden memnun
ayrılmaları sağlanacaktır. Bu çalışmanın amacı da insanın insana hizmet ettiği yiyecek-içecek
işletmelerinde çalışan iş görenlerin yaratıcılık düzeylerinin hizmet odaklılığı ile ilişkisini
belirlemektir. Araştırmanın evrenini ise Erzurum ilinde faaliyet gösteren otel işletmelerinin restoran
ve barlarında çalışanlar oluşturmaktadır.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Yaratıcılık, Örgütsel Yaratıcılık, Hizmet Odaklılık/ Hizmet Verme Yatkınlığı,
Yiyecek-İçecek İşletmeleri
ABSTRACT
Today market conditions that are globilizing have revealed the matter of competitivenes and
made it main priority for organizations. In such a competitive world, the existence of an organization
that can meet the expectations of customers in a best way is really important. Thus, the organizations
are required to provide occasions for leading to creativity and innovation. According to Ache (2000),
an employee who has a creative mind has also a personality that can work with others as a team
easily, and feel ready to get to know different cultures and is able to recognize close and remote
enemies. the fact that the employees one third of whose lives are spent at work reflect their creativity
and effectiveness to their work and become service-oriented individuals provide service of high quality
to customers and hereby the customers are able to be quaranteed to leave pleased there. The purpose
of the study is to determine the relationship between service-orientation of employees and their
creativity levels in food and beverage organizations where human serves human. The population of
the study consists of the employees who work at the restaurants and the bars of the hotels in Erzurum.
*
Atatürk Üniversitesi Turizm Fakültesi, [email protected]
333
Key Words: Creativity, organizational creativity, service-orientation /serving disposition, food and
beverage organizations
1. GİRİŞ
Günümüzde, örgütlerin varlıklarını nasıl sürdürebilecekleri, değişen çevre koşullarına nasıl
ayak uyduracakları ve yenilikleri takip edip etmedikleri en yaşamsal konu olarak karşımıza
çıkmaktadır. Özellikle yenilik ve değişimin günlük olarak bile takibinin zor olduğu günümüz
koşullarında örgütlerin ürün ve hizmetlerini pazarlarken yaratıcı olmaları oldukça önemlidir. Örgüt
yaratıcılığını geliştirerek, örgütün yaşam seyrini devam ettirebilmeleri için bireysel yaratıcılığa ve
dolaylı olarak da hizmet vermeye yatkın bireylere ihtiyacı vardır. İnsan odaklı bir sektör olan turizm
sektöründe çalışanın ve müşterinin aynı ortamda bulunmaları, ürünlerin ve hizmetlerin sunumunda
ayrıca bir yaratıcılık gerektirmektedir. Çünkü güzel bir sunumla hazırlanmış bir yemek tabağının
müşteriye olması gerekenden daha iyi bir şekilde sunumunun yapılması müşterinin yüzünü
güldürecektir. Ancak bu konunun da öncesinde iç müşteri olarak adlandırdığımız çalışanların
mutlu/tatmin olmaları gelmektedir. Yaratıcı davranmaya ve düşünmeye teşvik edilen personel, örgütte
kendini mutlu hissedecek ve bunu işine yansıtacaktır. Bu bağlamda bu araştırma müşterilerle etkileşim
içinde olan çalışanların yaratıcılıkları ile hizmet odaklılıkları arasındaki ilişkiyi belirlemeyi
amaçlamaktadır. Araştırmada iki farklı ölçek kullanılmış ve aralarındaki ilişki korelasyon testi ile
analize tabi tutulmuştur. Sonuç olarak, insan emeğinin makine gibi algılandığı çalışma koşullarından
ziyade yönetime katılan, duyguları önemsenen, başarılı olmaları için teşvik edilen bireyler günümüz
çalışma koşullarında varlıklarını gösterebileceklerdir.
2. KAVRAMSAL ÇERÇEVE
Yaratıcılık, literatürde ortaya çıkarmak, meydana getirmek anlamlarına gelen bir kavramdır.
Bu kavrama ilişkin olarak çok sayıda tanım yapılmakla birlikte genel kabul görmüş bir tanımı
bulunmamaktadır. Yaratıcılık bu alanda çalışan bilim adamları tarafından dört farklı görüşle ele
alınmıştır. Söz konusu olan bu görüşler yaratıcılığı kişisel, doğan insan yeteneği olarak ele alan
yaratıcı insan yaklaşımı; yaratıcılığı zihinsel bir etkinlik olarak değerlendiren yaratıcı süreç yaklaşımı,
yaratıcı düşünmeyi sürecin sonuçları ve çıktıları açısından ele alan yaratıcı sonuç yaklaşımı;
yaratıcılığı ortaya çıktığı durum, ortam ve yer açısından ele alarak yaratıcılığın ortaya çıkışını uyaran,
kolaylaştıran veya engelleyen çevresel koşullar üzerinde duran yaratıcı çevre yaklaşımıdır (Çağdaş
Gümüşsuyu,2004:6). Tanımlanması en güç kavramlardan biri olan yaratıcılık araştırmacılar tarafından
(Eisenberger,1999:310, Ansburg ve Hill,2003:1141) yoktan bir şey var etme anlamında değil, bireyin
zihninde depoladığı bilgiler arasında daha önce başkalarının farkına varamadığı ilişkileri görmesi ve
açığa çıkarması süreci olarak da tanımlanmaktadır. Bilimsel yönetim anlayışının öncüsü Frederick
Taylor’a göre yaratıcılık, yeni ve geçerli fikirlerin yaratılmasıyla sonuçlanan bir süreç; yaratıcılık
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konusunda yapmış olduğu araştırmalarla öne çıkan akademisyen Terasa Amabili’ye göre ise birey ve
gruplar tarafından her alanda yeni, uygun ve yararlı fikirlerin üretilmesidir (Erdoğan, 2011:54).
Yaratıcılık kavramı sık sık yenilik kavramıyla karıştırılmakta, zaman zaman aynı anlamda da
kullanılmaktadır. Ancak bu iki kavramın birbiriyle karıştırılmaması gerekmektedir. Yaratıcılık yeni
fikirler üretme yeteneği iken; yenilik, yeni fikirlerin ve yaratıcılığın uygulamaya geçirilmesi sürecidir.
Kısaca yenilik bir süreçtir. Yaratıcılık ise bu süreci meydana getiren beceri ve yetenekler bütünüdür
(Yılmaz ve İraz, 2013:833).
Örgütlerin günümüz rekabet koşullarında bireylerden yalnız teknik bilgi ve sermaye
beklememeleri aynı zamanda zihinsel yeteneklerinden de yararlanmak istemeleri yaratıcılığın örgütler
içinde önemini vurgulamaktadır. Bu nedenle, işletme yöneticileri iş görenlerden sadece üretim
yapmalarını değil, yaratıcı ve inovatif olmalarını da isteyecektir (Budak, 81-82/Tezgöster5ten aldım).
Örgütsel yaratıcılık, işletmenin değişen çevre koşullarına uyum sağlayabilmesi amacına yönelik özgün
nesneler ortaya koyma kapasitesi olarak tanımlanabilir. Bu bağlamda, yeni bir düşünce, bir soruna
farklı bir çözüm bulma, ürün yada süreçleri değişik biçimde yerine getirme faaliyetleri örgütsel
yaratıcılık olarak adlandırılır (Mehmet Yahyagil, 2011:8).
Benzer özelliklere ve işlevlere sahip ürünler üreten ve pazarlayan işletmeler, teknolojinin ve
rekabetin gelişmesiyle farklı tüketici beklentileriyle karşılaşmakta ve işletmeler arası rekabet avantajı
kazanabilmek için çalışanlardan fizik ve zihin güçlerine ek olarak duygularını da iş süreçlerinin
gerektirdiği şekilde kullanmalarını beklemektedir. Bu durum sonucunda Taylorizmin bilimsel yönetim
yaklaşımı doğrultusunda çalışanı makine gibi gören anlayış yerine onların duygularını hesaba
katmanın gerekliliği ortaya çıkmıştır. Özellikle hem görsel olarak hem de lezzet olarak bir sanat eseri
yaratmaları gereken yiyecek içecek işletmesi çalışanlarının bireysel yaratıcılıklarını kullanarak,
örgütsel yaratıcılığa dönüştürmeleri ve böylece hizmet odaklılıklarını iyileştirerek müşteriyi tatmin
etmeleri gerekmektedir.
Literatürde, hizmet veren işletmelerde tüketici ihtiyaçlarının tatmininin özellikle tüketiciyle
yüz yüze iletişimde bulunan iş görenlerin hizmet verme esnasında sergilediği tutum ve davranışları ile
ilgili olduğu belirtilmektedir. Birçok araştırmacıya göre (Brown vd., 2004; Kuşluvan ve Eren, 2011;
Saxe ve Weitz, 1982) iş görenlerin, tüketicilerin ihtiyaçlarını ve isteklerini doğru anlaması, onlara özel
ilgi göstermesi ve iyi hizmet sunarak tüketicilerin ihtiyaçlarını tatmin edebilmesi, bunları yaparken
tüketiciyi memnun etmeyen davranışlardan uzak durması ve uzun süreli tüketici memnuniyeti
sağlayabilmesi hizmet odaklı veya hizmet vermeye yatkın oldukları görülmektedir. Yaratıcı örgüt
çalışanlarının hizmet odaklı olarak pazarlama stratejilerini etkileyeceği, işletme ve çalışan
performansını artıracağı, müşteri memnuniyetini ve müşteri sadakatini doğrudan etkilediği, dolaylı
olarak da işletmenin rekabet üstünlüğünü etkilediği yapılan çalışmalarla desteklenmektedir (Homburg
vd., 2002; Lynn vd., 2000; Yoon vd. 2007; Eren 2007; Kim 2009; Kuşluvan ve Eren, 2011;
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Macintosh, 2007). Bu açıdan bakıldığında, hizmet veren işletmelerde özellikle tüketiciyle yüz yüze
iletişimde bulunan iş görenlerin, hizmet karşılamada önemli bir rol oynadığı görülmektedir
(Macintosh, 2007; Ngvyen, 2006). Bu noktadan hareketle litaretür incelenerek aşağıdaki temel
araştırma hipotezi kurulmuştur:
H1: Yaratıcılık ile hizmet odaklılık arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki vardır.
Alt hipotezlerimiz ise şunlardır:
H2: Destek ve açık iletişim ile hizmet sunumundan zevk alma ve gereksinimleri karşılama yeteneği
arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki vardır.
H3: Yaratıcılığı teşvik ile hizmet sunumundan zevk alma ve gereksinimleri karşılama yeteneği arasında
istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki vardır.
H4: Eğitim ve yönlendirme ile hizmet sunumundan zevk alma ve gereksinimleri karşılama yeteneği
arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki vardır.
3. ARAŞTIRMANIN YÖNTEMİ
Araştırma, Erzurum Palandöken dağında bulunan dört otelde (Xanado Snow White Hotel,
Renaissance Polat Erzurum Hotel, Palan Otel Ski & Convention Resort ve Dedeman Palandöken Ski
Lodge) yiyecek-içecek departmanında çalışan personellere yapılmıştır. Araştırmanın kapsamını bu
otellerin tam hizmet sağlayan ve kaliteli ortama sahip restoranları ve barları oluşturmaktadır.
Araştırmanın evrenini belirlerken evrenin tamamına ulaşılmasının mümkün olmaması sebebiyle ve
istatistiksel olarak anlamlı sonuçlar elde edilebilmesi için ankette yer alan soru sayısına göre örneklem
miktarı belirlenmiştir. Wu ve Liang (2009:589)’a göre evrenden seçilen örneklem miktarının anket
sorusunun beş-on katı olması gerekmektedir. Bu nedenle toplamda 45 sorudan oluşan anketin 235-450
kişiye uygulanması öngörülmüş, toplamda 320 anket formu dağıtılmış olup bunlardan 253 tanesinden
geri dönüşüm sağlanmış, 11 tanesi de yeterli görülmediğinden kapsam dışı bırakılmıştır. Genel olarak
kullanılabilir nitelikte olan ve analize tabi tutulan toplam anket sayısı 242’dir.
Araştırmada iki farklı ölçek kullanılmıştır. Çalışanların yaratıcılık düzeylerini belirlemek için
sorulan sorular Nuray Sungur (1997) tarafından geliştirilmiş 100 ifadeden oluşan “Yaratıcı Örgüt
İklimi” isimli ölçekten Yılmaz ve İraz (2013) tarafından 29 ifadenin seçilmesiyle oluşturulmuştur.
Ölçekte yer alan faktörler; yaratıcılığı teşvik, destek ve açık iletişim ile eğitim ve yönlendirmedir.
Hizmet odaklılık düzeylerinin belirlenmesi için kullanılan ölçek ise Brown ve arkadaşlarının
oluşturduğu “Müşteri Odaklılık Ölçeği” dir. Bu ölçekte ise hizmet sunumundan zevk alma ve
gereksinimleri karşılama yeteneği olmak üzere iki faktör bulunmaktadır. İfadeler en yaygın olarak
kullanılan 5’li Likert ölçeği ile ölçülmüştür. Ölçek tamamen katılıyorum, katılıyorum, kararsızım,
katılmıyorum ve kesinlikle katılmıyorum şeklinde düzenlenmiştir. Anket formunda ayrıca çalışanların
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demografik özelliklerine ilişkin sorulara da yer verilmiştir. Bunlar ise cinsiyet, yaş, eğitim düzeyi,
medeni durum, sektörde çalışma süresi ve işletmede çalışma süresine ilişkin 6 sorudan oluşmaktadır.
Araştırma sonuçlarına ilişkin ilk olarak örneklemin demografik yapısını ortaya koyabilmek
için frekans ve yüzde analizleri yapılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde tanımlayıcı istatistiklerden iki veya
daha fazla değişken arasındaki ilişkinin düzeyini ve yönünü belirlemek amacıyla kullanılan
“korelasyon” analizinden yararlanılmıştır. Ölçeğin güvenilirliğini test etmek için de alfa katsayısı
hesaplanmıştır.
4. BULGULAR VE TARTIŞMA
Araştırma sonuçlarına ilişkin ilk olarak, örneklemin demografik yapısını ortaya koyabilmek
için tanımlayıcı istatistikler yapılmıştır. Buna göre, araştırma için seçilen otellerin yiyecek içecek
işletmeleri çalışanlarına ait genel bilgiler şu şekildedir: Örneklemin büyük çoğunluğu erkek
(%75,2/n=182) çalışanlar oluşturmaktadır. Medeni durumlarının birbirine yakın oranlara sahip
olmasıyla beraber eğitim durumları da lisans ve ön lisans (% 45,5/n=110 - %43,8/n=106)
düzeyindedir. Tabloda katılımcıların sektörde çalışma sürelerinin 6 yıla kadar yüksek olduğu
görülmektedir. Bu durum katılımcıların yüksek oranda genç katılımcılardan oluşması ile
ilişkilendirilebilir. Bir diğer açıdan ise işletmede çalışma süreleri ortalama olarak 3 yılı bulmaktadır.
Bu durum katılımcıların çalıştıkları işletmelerde çok büyük bir deneyime sahip olmadıklarını
gösterebilir.
Örneklemin demografik yapısını ortaya koyduktan sonra araştırmada kullanılan ölçeklerde yer
alan değişkenlerin Cronbach Alpha değerlerine bakılmıştır. Araştırmalarda ölçeklerin güvenilirliği
çeşitli yöntemlerle hesaplanmakta ve yaygın olarak Cronbach Alpha güvenilirlik ölçütü
kullanılmaktadır. Güvenirlik kavramı yapılan her ölçüm için gereklidir, çünkü güvenirlik bir test ya da
ankette yer alan soruların birbirleri ile olan tutarlılığını ve kullanılan ölçeğin ilgilenilen sorunu ne
derece yansıttığını ifade eder (Bayram, 2008). Araştırmada kullanılan anket formunun güvenilirlik
analizi sonucu alpha değeri 0,936 olarak belirlenmiştir. Özellikle sosyal bilimler alanında yapılan
araştırmalarda bu katsayının 0,80’ın üzerinde olması ölçek türünden türüne göre değişse de çıkan
sonucun yüksek derecede güvenilir olduğu anlamına gelmektedir (Ural ve Kılıç 2011).
Araştırmanın temel sorunsalı olan yaratıcılık ve hizmet odaklılık ilişki düzeyini
belirleyebilmek için korelasyon ve regresyon analizleri uygulanmıştır. Bu çalışmada kullanılan
ölçeklere ait boyutlar arası ilişkileri belirleyebilmek ve “Yaratıcılık ile hizmet odaklılık arasında
istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki vardır” şeklindeki hipotezi sınayabilmek için korelasyon analizi
yapılmıştır. Yapılan analizlere ilişkin sonuçlar Tablo 1’de gösterilmiştir.
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Tablo 1. Yaratıcılık ve Hizmet Odaklılık Korelasyon Analizi Sonuçları
Destek ve Açık İletişim
Yaratıcılığı Teşvik
Eğitim ve yönlendirme
Hizmet Sunumundan Zevk
Alma
,172**
,092
,195**
Gereksinimleri Karşılama
Yeteneği
-,361**
-,294**
-,275**
**p<0,01 *p<0,05
Tablo 3’te görüldüğü üzere; destek ve açık iletişim ile hizmet sunumundan zevk alma arasında
0,01 önem düzeyinde pozitif ve anlamlı bir ilişki vardır. Buna göre çalışanların yaratıcılığını
destekleyen, onları bu konuda özendiren, çalışanlarından yaratıcı fikirler beklediğini açıklayan, açık
iletişimi olan ve bireylerin kendilerini ifade edebileceği bir örgüt iklimine sahip, ayrıca üst yönetim ve
çalışanlar arasında daha çok resmi olmayan ilişkiler sağlayan kurumlarda çalışan iş görenler;
müşterilerine servis yaparken/hizmet ederken gülümseyen, ismini hatırlayarak ismiyle hitap eden,
müşterilerini anlamaya çalışan, müşterilerin isteklerini hızlı bir şekilde yerine getirmekten zevk alan
bireylerdir. Destek ve açık iletişim ile gereksinimleri karşılama yeteneği arasında ise 0,01 önem
düzeyinde negatif bir ilişki bulunmaktadır. Buna göre açık iletişim politikasını desteklemeyen
kurumlarda çalışanların gereksinimleri karşılama konusunda yeterli olmadığı ifade edilebilir. Bu
bağlamda “Destek ve açık iletişim ile hizmet sunumundan zevk alma ve gereksinimleri karşılama
yeteneği arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki vardır” şeklindeki H2 hipotezi kabul edilmiştir.
Yaratıcılığı teşvik ile gereksinimleri karşılama yeteneği arasında 0,01 önem düzeyinde negatif
ve anlamlı bir ilişki mevcuttur. Buna göre özgür ve esnek bir iş ortamı oluşturmayan, fikir geliştirmek
ve olgunlaştırmak için çalışanlara zaman tanımayan, çalışanların kariyerlerindeki başarılarında,
yaratıcılığın etkisinin olduğuna inanmayan, çalışanları düşünsel çeşitliliğe özendirmeyen kurumlarda
çalışanlar, müşterilerin isteklerini gerçekleştirmede yardımcı olmaya çalışmayan, müşterilere karşı
problem çözücü bir yaklaşım sergilemeyen, müşterilerin sorularına doğru bir şekilde cevap vermeyen
bireylerdir. Bu noktadan hareketle “Yaratıcılığı teşvik ile gereksinimleri karşılama yeteneği arasında
istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki vardır” şeklindeki hipotez kabul edilmiştir.
Tabloya bakıldığında son olarak eğitim ve yönlendirme ile hizmet sunumundan zevk alma ve
gereksinimleri karşılama yeteneği arasında ilişki olduğu görülmektedir. Tabloya göre eğitim ve
yönlendirme ile hizmet sunumundan zevk alma arasında 0,01 önem düzeyinde pozitif ve anlamlı,
gereksinimleri karşılama yeteneği arasında ise 0,01 önem düzeyinde negatif ve anlamlı bir ilişki
vardır. Yenilik çalışmaları için yeterli bütçeler hazırlayan, çalışanları yeni düşünce ve deneyimlere
adapte edebilmek için sürekli eğiten, karşılıklı güven ortamını garanti eden, başarıyı ödüllendiren
kurumlarda çalışanların müşterilere hizmet etmeleri/servis yapmaları bir zevkken, eğitim ve
yönlendirme konusunda başarısız olan kurumlarda çalışan bireyler de müşterilerin gereksinimlerini
karşılamada başarısızlardır. Bu bağlamda “Eğitim ve yönlendirme ile hizmet sunumundan zevk alma
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ve gereksinimleri karşılama yeteneği arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki vardır” şeklindeki
hipotez kabul edilmiştir.
5. SONUÇ VE ÖNERİLER
Son yıllarda artan rekabetle birlikte hızlı bir değişimin yaşandığı küresel ortamda, işletmelerin
monoton ve yeniliklere kapalı bir şekilde çalışmasının ve iş görenlerin duygularını yok saymalarının
aksine iş görenlerin yaratıcı fikirlerine önem verilmekte ve hatta yönetime katılmaları sağlanmaktadır.
Bugünün iş ortamında müşterilerin ihtiyaç ve istekleri karşılanırken, olası problemleri çözülürken
çalışanların inisiyatif kullanmaları, sundukları ürün ve hizmetlere yaratıcılıklarını yansıtmaları hem
işletmeler hem de çalışanlar açısından oldukça önemlidir. Bu noktadan hareketle araştırmada
müşteriyle bire bir/yüz yüze çalışan iş görenin yaratıcılık düzeyi ve hizmet odaklılığı arasındaki
ilişkinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır.
Yapılan analizler doğrultusunda elde edilen sonuçlar beklentileri doğrulamıştır. Örgütlerdeki
iyi/açık bir iletişim sisteminin varlığı, planlamaların daha başarılı bir şekilde yapılmasını ve
koordinasyonun sağlanmasını daha da kolaylaştıracaktır. Bu bağlamda araştırma sonuçlarıyla
desteklenen açık iletişimin çalışanları hizmet vermeye yatkın bireyler haline getirdiğini söyleyebiliriz.
Çalışanlara fikirlerini açıklamaları ve uygulamaları için gerekli olanakların sağlanması ve teşvik
edilmeleri gerekmektedir. Eğer örgütler yoğun rekabet ortamında yaratıcılığın yönlendirildiği ve
desteklendiği bir örgüt olmak istiyorlarsa, iş görenlerin yaratıcılık performanslarını yükseltmelidirler.
Her örgüt, belirlediği hedef ve amaçlara çalışanları aracılığıyla ulaşmaktadır. Bu nedenle
müşterilerle birebir iletişim halinde olmayı gerektiren işlere personel seçilirken yaratıcı iş görenlerin
işe alınması, yaratıcılıklarının geliştirilmesi ve risk almalarının cesaretlendirilmesi, personele
işletmenin yenilik odaklı stratejileri hakkında bilgiler verilmesi ve her kararın personelle paylaşılması
gerekmekte, personelin görüşlerinin de örgüt için ne derece önemli olduğu hissettirilmelidir. Bu
konuda araştırma yapacak araştırmacılara verilecek öneriler ise araştırmanın Erzurum ili dışındaki
diğer bölgelerde bulunan otel işletmesi restoran ve barlarına da yapılması, ayrıca bir kişilik özelliği
olarak yaratıcılık özelliğinin, çalışanların işe alınırken belirlenip belirlenmediği de irdelenebilir.
KAYNAKÇA
Ache, P., (2000) “Vision And Creativity-Challenge For City Regions”, Futures, Vol. 32, pp. 435–449.
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TURİSTİK ÜRÜN TERCİHİNİN A TİPİ VE B TİPİ KİŞİLİK ÖZELLİKLERİNE GÖRE
BELİRLENMESİ
Arş. Gör. Salim İBİŞ∗
Arş. Gör. Ümit ŞENGEL∗∗
Yrd. Doç. Dr. Burhanettin ZENGİN***
Prof. Dr. Orhan BATMAN****
ÖZ
Karar alma sürecinde tüketicilerin davranışlarını etkileyen birçok faktör bulunmaktadır.
Tüketici davranışlarını etkileyen bu önemli faktörlerin başında kişilik gelmektedir. Bireyin sahip
olduğu kişiliğin oluşmasında kalıtımsal, sosyal, fiziki, coğrafi birçok faktör etkili olmaktadır. Tüketici
davranışlarını etkileyen önemli bir faktör olan kişilik satın alma öncesi karar verme ve satın alma
sonrası davranışlar üzerinde etkili olmaktadır. Turizm olayında da tercihlerin önemli rol oynuyor
olması kişilik kavramının turizm için önemli bir noktaya gelmesine neden olmaktadır. Literatürde
kişilik birçok farklı şekilde sınıflandırılmaktadır. Bu sınıflandırmalardan biri de A Tipi ve B Tipi
kişilik şeklindedir. Bu bilgiler ışığında, mevcut çalışmada A Tipi ve B Tipi kişilik özelliklerinin turistik
ürün tercihi üzerinde etkisinin araştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Bu kapsamda 421 kişiye anket yapılarak
veriler toplanmıştır. Anketlerin önemli bir kısmı online, diğerleri ise yüz yüze yapılmıştır. Veriler
neticesinde kişiliğin turistik ürün tercihlerindeki etkileri tespit edilmiş ve konu ile ilgili bilgiler
bulgular değerlendirilerek sonuçlara yer verilmiştir.
Anahtar Kelimeler:Kişilik, Turistik Ürün, Turizm
ABSTRACT
There are lots of factors effecting consumer behaviors in decision-making process. Personality
is the leading factor among these important factors effecting consumer behaviors. In the formation of
the personality of individuals a lot many factors such as hereditary, social, physical, geographical are
effective. Personality an important factor effecting consumer behaviors is efficient on determination
before purchasing and behaviors after purchasing. Since preferences play an important role in
tourism, it ends up personality concept to be an important point for tourism. In literature personality
is classified in many different ways. One of these classifications is like A Type classifying and B Type
classifying. İn the light of these information, in this study it is aimed to research the effects of features
of A type and B type personality on the preference of touristic product. Within this scope, 421 people
∗
Sakarya Üniversitesi, İşletme Fakültesi, Turizm İşletmeciliği Bölümü, [email protected]
Sakarya Üniversitesi, İşletme Fakültesi, Turizm İşletmeciliği Bölümü, [email protected]
***
Sakarya Üniversitesi, İşletme Fakültesi, Turizm İşletmeciliği Bölümü, [email protected]
****
Sakarya Üniversitesi, İşletme Fakültesi, Turizm İşletmeciliği Bölümü, [email protected]
∗∗
342
were gone trough a survey and datas collected, an important part of the surveys applied online and
the other part applied face to face. As a result of datas the effects of personality on touristic product
have been detect and the information evidences about the topic have been evaluated and the results
are given.
Keywords: Personality, Touristic Product, Tourism
1.GİRİŞ
Boş zaman ve harcanabilir gelir arttıkça, insanların bu zamanı ve gelirleri değerlendirme
gereksinimleri de artmaktadır. Turizm faaliyetlerinin de gerçekleşmesi için kabul edilen koşullardan
olan bu iki kavram, özellikle çalışma saatlerinin düşmesi ve işlerin yavaş yavaş sanal
organizasyonlarla yapılmasının da etkisi ile belirgin bir şekilde artış göstermektedir. Artan bu boş
zaman ve gelir insanları daha fazla turizm faaliyetlerine yönlendirmektedir. Bu gelişmeler turizmde
farklı anlayışların meydana gelmesine ve özellikle turistik ürün anlamında talebe cevap üretebilecek
bir hizmet anlayışını gerekli kılmaktadır.
Turistik ürünün gittikçe önemli bir hale geldiği günümüzde, gerek ülkeler gerekse işletmeler
turistik ürünlerinin tercih edilebilmesi için yoğun bir çaba içinde bulunmaktadır. Turistler ise arz
kaynaklı bu yoğun rekabetti avantaja çevirmeyi düşünmektedir. Ancak bütün şartlara rağmen turistik
ürün talebini etkileyen bireysel bir takım faktörler bulunmaktır. Bu faktörlerden en önemlilerinden bir
tanesi de kişiliktir.
Bu anlamda çalışmada, turistik ürün tercihinde kişilik belirleyici bir faktör müdür? Sorusuna
cevap aranmaya çalışılmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda kişilik tipolojilerinden A ve B tipi kişilik ele
alınmıştır. Toplanan verilerden hareketle A ve B tipi kişilik arasında turistik ürün tercihinde farklılığın
olup olmadığı istatistiki yöntemlerle test edilmiştir.
2. LİTERATÜR TARAMASI
2.1. Kişiliğin Tanımı ve Özellikleri
Kişilik, çok farklı bakış açıları ve disiplinler tarafından ele alınmaktadır. Bazı insanlar kişiliği
sosyal başarı ile ilişkilendirerek, popüler bir kişiliği olmak ya da çok kişilikli biri olmak şeklinde
kullanmaktadır. Bazıları ise kişiliği tanımlarken belli bir takım baskın özelliklerden (örneğin kibar
olmak, neşeli olmak) bahsetmektedir. Bu durumda kişilik yüzlerce farklı kelimeyle ifade
edilebilmektedir. Bu nedenle kişiliği tanımlamak zorlaşabilmektedir (Luthans, 2010: 125). Kişilik ile
ilgili ileri sürülen bazı tanımlar aşağıda sıralanmıştır.
•
“Bireyi diğerlerinden ayıran nispeten kalıcı özellikler ve eğilimlerdir‘’ (Veccohio, 1988: 85)
•
‘’Bir insanı diğerinden ayıran ve nispeten kalıcı duygu, düşünce ve davranış kalıbıdır’’
(Buchanan ve Huczynski, 1997: 132)
343
•
‘’Bireylertarafından sergilenen özgün ve nispeten sabit davranış, düşünce ve duygu
kalıbıdır‘’ (Greenberg, 1999: 40).
Kişilik olgusunun farklı disiplinlerce çeşitli bakış açıları ile ele alınmış olması, kişiliğin tam
olarak evrensel nitelikte kabul görmüş bir tanım ile ifade edilebilmesini zorlaştırdığını göstermektedir.
Ancak tüm bu tanımlardan yola çıkarak kişilik; kalıtımsal, çevresel, fiziksel, zihinsel ve ruhsal
özelliklerle etkileşimli ve nispeten bu özelliklerinin bir sonucu olan düşünce ve davranış kalıbı
şeklinde tanımlanabilmektedir (Özsoy, 2013: 7). Kişilik özellikleri ifade edilirken sakin, açık yürekli,
iddiacı, neşeli, sabırlı, sabırsız, telaşlı, rekabetçi, umursamaz nazik gibi sıfatlarla ifade
edilebilmektedir. Kişiliğin daha iyi anlaşılabilmesi için kişilik özelliklerini bilmek ve bu kavramı tüm
boyutları ile ele almak gerekmektedir.
2.2. Kişiliği Belirleyen Faktörler
Karmaşık bir yapıya sahip olan kişilik kavramını oluşturan birçok faktör mevcuttur. Bunlar
gruplar halinde belirlemek oldukça zordur. Çünkü kişiliğin oluşmasında katkıda bulunan birçok
değişken bulunmaktadır (Nair, 2010: 136). Farklı kuramcılara göre kişilik oluşumunu etkileyen
faktörlerin sayısı ve önem derecesi değişebilmektedir. Kişiliğin oluşmasına etki eden faktörler kısaca
aşağıdaki gibi açıklanabilmektedir (Özsoy, 2013: 16; Erdurur, 2012: 50; Erol, 2013: 20; Oral, 2013:
37):
•
Kalıtım ve bedensel yapı faktörler; Kişiliği belirleyen faktörlerin başında kalıtımsal özellikler
gelmektedir. Birey genler yolu ile ebeveynlerinden bir takım özelliklerini kromozomlar vasıtası ile
almakta ve çeşitli genetik özellikler bireyin kişiliğinin şekillenmesinde etkili olabilmektedir.
•
Aile ve sosyal faktörler; Aile, bireylerin karşılaştığı ilk sosyal gruptur. Bireylerin yetiştiği aile
ortamı ve aile bireyleri ile olan ilişkileri de kişiliğin oluşmasında önemli role sahiptir.
•
Sosyal yapı ve sınıf faktörü; Bireyin ait olduğu sosyal sınıf, onun eğitim imkânları, yaşam
tarzı, düşünce ve eğilimleri kişiliğin oluşmasında önemli bir faktörlerdendir.
•
Coğrafi ve fiziki faktörler; Coğrafi çevre içerisinde iklimin, tabiat ve yaşanan bölgenin fiziki
şartlarının kişilik özellikleri üzerinde belirgin etkileri bulunmaktadır.
•
Diğer Faktörler; Tüm bu faktörlerin dışında kitle iletişim araçları, ve kişinin kardeşleri
içerisinde doğum sırası gibi birçok faktör kişiliğin şekillenmesinde etkisi olan unsurlardır.
2.3. Kişilik Modelleri
Örgütsel davranış çalışmalarında sıklıkla kullanılan kişilik sınıflandırmaları arasında Beş Faktör
Kişilik Modeli, Myers-Briggs Tipi Kişilik Modeli ve A Tipi/B Tipi kişilik sınıflandırmalarının
yapıldığı görülmektedir. A Tipi ve B Tipi kişilik ayrımının ortaya çıkısı 20. yüzyılın ortalarına denk
gelmektedir. 1950'lerin sonunda Dr. Friedman ve Rosenman tarafından bazı davranış özellikleri ile
kalp hastalıkları arasındaki ilişkinin araştırılması sonucunda A Tipi ve B Tipi kişilik tipleri ileri
344
sürülmüştür. Söz konusu tipoloji ortaya atıldıktan sonra sosyal psikoloji, örgütsel psikoloji, endüstriyel
psikoloji, psikofizyoloji, kardivasyoküler ve mesleki hastalıklar alanlarında yaygın çalışılan bir konu
haline gelmiştir (Özsoy, 2013: 26).
2.3.1. A Tipi Kişilik
A tipi davranış biçiminin temel özellikleri aşağıdaki gibi sıralanabilmektedir (Baltaş, 2000: 147148): Hareketlilik; A tipi davranış biçimini benimsemiş kişilerin kesin bir konuşma tarzı vardır, sık ve
kuvvetli jestlerle konuşarak cümleler arasında sert nefes aralıkları bulunmaktadır. Bu tip kişiler hız
odaklı olup, hızlı yürür ve hızlı yemek yerler (Soysal, 2008: 8). Dürtü ve ihtiras; A tipi davranış
biçimine sahip kişiler, hem kendileri hem de başkaları için beklenti düzeyleri koymaktadırlar. Bu
beklentilerinin gerçekleşmemesi durumunda ise rahatsızlık duymaktadırlar. Bu tip kişiler başarıların
az ve kısa mutluluk verdiği, harekete dönük insanlardır. Rekabet, Saldırganlık ve Düşmanlık
Duyguları; A tipi davranış biçimi içindeki birey, kendisi ve başkalarıyla sürekli bir yarış içerisinde
bulunmaktadır. Tek Açılı Kişilik; A tipi davranış biçimine sahip kişiler çoğunlukla ben merkezcidirler.
Bu tip kişiler hayatın diğer yanlarını ihmal edecek ölçüde kendilerini işlerine adamışlardır. Agresiflik;
Bu tip bireylerin bir diğer özelliği birden öfkelenerek saldırgan tutumlar sergileyebilmeleridir (Özsoy,
2013: 29).
2.3.2. B Tipi Kişilik
B tipi kişiliğe sahip bireyler A tipi kişiliğe sahip bireylerin tersi özellikler göstermektedir. Bu
kişiler rahat ve sakindirler. Yürüme, konuşma ve çalışma eylemlerini yerine getirirken A Tipi kişiliğe
sahip bireylere göre daha yavaştırlar. Kendilerini sürekli zaman baskısı altında hissetmezler,
sabırlıdırlar. Acele etmeyi sevmezler, yumuşak huyludurlar (Soysal, 2008: 8). B tipi kişilik özelliğe
sahip bireyler; rahat, heyecansız, aceleci olmayan, gevşek, umursamaz bir davranış modeli
göstermektedirler (Özarslan, 2011: 46). Bu bireyler; başarı için daha az kaygı taşıyan, rahat, boş
zamanlarında gerekli zaman ayırıp eğlenebilme yeteneğine sahip bireyler olarak tarif edilebilmektedir.
Ayrıca zamanla daha az çatışma halinde, daha dengeli ve rahat eğilimleri bulunmaktadır (Özsoy, 2013:
30). A Tipi ve B Tipi kişilik özellikleri arasındaki farklara ilişkin özellikler tabloda verilmiştir. (bu
kısım kaldırılıp, direkt tablo verilebilir.
Tablo 1: A Tipi ve B Tipi Kişilik Özelliklerinin Karşılaştırılması
A Tipi Kişilik
Daha Rekabetçi
İşine Daha Çok Adanan
Zamana Karşı Duyarlı
Sabırsız
Çabuk Öfkelenebilir
Agresif
Hareketli
Başarıya Yüksek Oranda İhtiyaç Duyar
B Tipi Kişilik
Daha Az Rekabetçi
İşine Daha Az Adanan
Zamana Karşı Daha Az Duyarlı
Nadiren Sabırsız
Kolayca sinirlenmez
Uysal
Nispeten Daha Yavaş
Çok Fazla Başarı Kaygısı Gütmez
Kaynak: Özsoy, 2013: 30-31; Oral, 2013: 52’den derlenmiştir.
345
Tabloda yer alan kişilik özellikleri ilgili kişilerin uçlardaki kişilik özelliklerinin tamamını taşıması
düşünülemez. Burada ancak bireylerin hangi boyuta yatkın olduklarından bahsedilebilir. Ayrıca birey
her iki özellikten bir kısmını taşıyabilir. Çünkü insan yapısı çok karmaşık bir yapıya sahiptir ve iki
temel boyutta kişilik özelliklerinin kategorize edilmesi zordur.
2.4. Turistik Ürün Kavramı
İnsan ihtiyaç ve isteklerini karşılamak amacı ile pazara sunulan tüm girdiler ve çıktılar ürün
olarak ifade edilebilmektedir. Bir insanın ihtiyacını karşılayan her şey ürün olabilir. (İstanbullu Dinçer
ve Muğan Ertuğral, 2009: 50). Turistik ürün ise; turistin seyahati boyunca yararlandığı konaklama,
yeme içme, ulaştırma, eğlence ve diğer birçok hizmetlerin bileşimi şeklinde tanımlanmaktadır
(Hacıoğlu, 2000: 39). Daha genel bir ifade ile turistik ürün; turistin sürekli yaşadığı yerden ayrılıp
tekrar aynı yere dönünceye kadar geçen süre zarfında, satın almış olduğu mal ve hizmetler ile yaşadığı
deneyimlerin bir bütününü oluşturmaktadır (Usta, 2001: 105). Turistik ürün kavramının karmaşık
yapısının daha iyi anlaşılabilmesi için bu kapsama giren mal ve hizmetlerin neler olduğu ve ne tür
özelikler taşıdığının ortaya konması gerekmektedir.
Turistik ürün kavramı ile tanımlanmak istenen şey turizm bağlamında müşteri ihtiyaç, istek ve
arzusunu karşılamaya yönelik olarak dikkat çekmek, satın alınmak, kullanılmak veya tüketmek
amacıyla turizm pazarına sunulan her türlü fiziksel nesneler, hizmetler, organizasyonlar ve yerler
olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Bu bakımdan yeme-içme hizmetleri, barınma işletmelerinin sunmakta
olduğu hizmetler, eğlence, spor, kumarhane, kuru temizleme, hediyelik eşya, şehir turu, ulaşım vb. her
türlü faaliyet, nesne ve hizmetler tek başlarına veya birlikte turistik ürünü oluşturmaktadır (Altunışık,
2009: 329). Turistik ürün çeşitlendirmesinde etkinlik sağlanabilmesi için destinasyona uygun turistik
ürün planlamasının yapılması, turist profillerinin tanımlanması, turistik ihtiyaçların belirlenmesi,
merkezi ve yerel kuruluşların üzerine düşen görevlerin yerine getirmesi, fiziki imkânların sağlanması
gibi unsurların yerine getirilmesi gerekmektedir (İstanbullu Dinçer ve Muğan Ertuğral, 2009: 63). Zira
turistik ürün pazarlamasında başarıya giden en önemli yollardan birisi tüketici ihtiyaç ve isteklerini
doğru bir şekilde saptanarak ürün arzının buna göre yapılmasıdır. Ayrıca doğru hedef kitleye ihtiyaç
ve beklentilere cevap verebilecek doğru ürünün sunulması büyük önem taşımaktadır.
3. ARAŞTIRMANIN METODOLOJİSİ VE BULGULARI
Araştırmanın amacı ve önemi: Bu araştırmanın amacı; Literatürde yer alan A Tipi ve B Tipi
kişilik özelliklerine sahip kişilerde turistik ürün tercihinde farklılık gösterip göstermediğinin
araştırılmasıdır. Bu amaçla olasılığa dayalı olmayan örnekleme tekniklerinden kolayda örnekleme
yöntemi ile 421 katılımcıya anket uygulanarak veriler toplanmıştır. Bu katılımcılar daha önce Türkiye
genelinde çeşitli turizm aktivitelerine katılmış yerli turistlerden oluşmaktadır. Araştırmada kullanılan
anket, (Özsoy, 2013 ve İçöz, 2013)’ ten geliştirilmiştir. Araştırma verileri internet ortamında
hazırlanan anket aracılığı ile ve katılımcılarla yüz yüze yapılan görüşmelerden elde edilmiştir.
346
Verilerin analizi; Araştırma kapsamında elde edilen verilerin demografik özellikleri verilmiş, faktör
analizi ve t-testi yapılarak sonuçlar değerlendirilmiştir.
Kişilik ölçeği Friedman ve Roseman tarafından geliştirilen kişilik envanterinden yararlanarak
Arıkan ve Aktaş (1988) tarafından Türkçe’ye uyarlanan ölçekteki ifadelerden faydalanarak
oluşturulmuştur. Katılımcıların bu ölçeğe göre kişilik özelliklerinin belirlenebilmesi için ifadelere
vermiş oldukları yanıtların sayısal değerleri toplanıp üçle çarpılmaktadır. Elde edilen puanın (asgari
21, azami 168) 100’ün üzerinde olması durumunda katılımcının A tipi; 100’den az olması durumunda
ise B tipi kişilik özelliği sergilediği kanaatine varılmaktadır (Aktaş, 2001: 34). Bazı davranış
özellikleri ile kalp hastalığı arasındaki ilişkinin araştırıldığı bir çalışma neticesinde ulaşılmış olan A ve
B tipi kişilik özellikleri (Batıgün ve Şahin, 2006: 33) 1960’ların sonunda Freidman ve Rosenman
tarafından ortaya atılmış olup günümüzde geniş kabul alanı gören kişilik tiplemelerinden birisi olarak
görülmektedir (Yıldız ve diğerleri, 2012: 216).
Araştırmaya katılanların sahip oldukları demografik ve diğer özellikleri aktarmak amacıyla
frekans analizi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Frekans analizi sonuçları Tablo 2’de detaylı olarak aktarılmaktadır.
Çalışmanın temelini oluşturan A ve B Tipi kişilikler anketlerden elde edilen skorlara göre ölçülmüştür.
Bunun sonucunda katılımcıların 277 kişi A Tipi (% 65,8) ve 144 kişi B Tipi (%34,2) kişiliğe sahip
olduğu görülmüştür.
Tablo 2: Araştırma Bulgularına Yönelik Frekans Analizi
Değişken
(n)
(%)
277
144
421
65,8
34,2
100,0
201
220
421
47,7
52,3
100,0
11
47
253
110
421
2,6
11,2
60,1
26,1
100,0
143
11
21
84
145
34,0
2,6
5,0
20,0
34,4
Kişilik
A Tipi
B Tipi
Toplam
Cinsiyet
Kadın
Erkek
Toplam
Eğitim Durumu
İlköğretim
Lise
Üniversite
Lisansüstü
Toplam
Meslek
Memur
İşçi
Serbest meslek
Özel Sektör
Öğrenci
347
Değişken
(n)
(%)
Çalışmıyor
Toplam
Gelir durumu
1000 ve altı
1001-2000
2001-3000
3001-4000
4001 ve üzeri
Toplam
17
421
4,0
100,0
142
71
144
42
22
421
33,7
16,9
34,2
10,0
5,2
100,0
Demografik bulgulara ilişkin bilgilerin sunulmuş olduğu Tablo 2’ye bakıldığında araştırmaya
katılanların (% 52,3) erkek katılımcılardan ve (% 47,7) kadın katılımcılardan oluştuğu görülmektedir.
Eğitim durumu açısından bakıldığında çoğunluğu (% 60,1) üniversite mezunlarından oluşmakta olup
en az katılımı (% 2,6) ile ilköğretim mezunları göstermiştir. Meslek açısından ise memur (%34,0) ile
öğrenciler (%34,4) birbirlerine yakın oranlarda çoğunluğu oluşturmuştur. Gelir durumunda çoğunluk
1000 tl ve altı ile (%33,7) 2001-3000 (% 34,2) aralıkları çoğunluktadır. Gelir durumu yüksek
katılımcıların oranı (%5,2) ile en düşük oranı oluşturduğu görülmektedir.
Tablo 3: Araştırmaya Yönelik Faktör Analizi Bulguları
Mutfak
Cr. Alfa 0,848
Art.
Std. Faktör
Ort. Sapma Yükü
Farklı mutfak kültürlerini tanımak
2,44
1,123
,878
Yeni tatlar ve lezzetler keşfetmek
2,40
1,088
,857
Spor
Cr. Alfa 0,834
Art.
Std. Faktör
Ort. Sapma Yükü
Değişik spor (deniz sporları dahil) olanaklarından yararlanmak
2,47
1,050
,871
Spor ve rekreatif faaliyetler gerçekleştirmek
2,54
1,067
,815
Sosyal İlişkiler
Cr. Alfa 0,785
Art.
Std. Faktör
Ort. Sapma Yükü
Benimle aynı ilgi alanlarındaki insanlarla buluşmak
2,42
1,036
,875
Yeni insanlarla tanışmak, arkadaşlıklar/dostluklar kurmak
2,34
1,058
,800
Özel İlgi
Cr. Alfa 0,685
Art.
Std. Faktör
Ort. Sapma Yükü
Doğal ve kırsal alanlardaki turistik faaliyetlere katılmak
2,33
1,137
,878
Özel ilgi turlarına katılmak
2,49
1,059
,677
Varimaks Rotasyonlu Temel Bileşenler Analizi: Açıklanan toplam varyans: % 52,970; Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin
Örneklem Yeterliliği: 0,838; Barlett’s Küresellik Testi: p<0,000; Ki-kare:1553,126; Df: 28; Cronbach’s alpha:
0,872; Değerlendirme Aralığı: (1) Kesinlikle katılmıyorum – (5) Kesinlikle Katılıyorum.
348
Tablo 3’te kişilerin turistik ürün çeşitlerine yönelik boyutların belirlenmesine yönelik faktör
analizi yapılmıştır. Bunun sonucunda 25 ifadeden 4 faktör oluşmuştur. Ancak istatistiki açıdan anlamlı
olsa da mantıksal açıdan faktörlerin içinde ilişkili olmayan ifadeler tespit edilmiştir. Bu bakımdan
oluşan 4 faktörden hem istatistiksel hem de mantıksal açıdan anlamlı bir sonuç elde edebilmek için 25
ifadeden 8 ifade seçilmiştir. Veri setinin faktör analizine uygun olup olmadığını anlamak için KMO
değeri ile Barlett’s test sonuçlarına bakılmıştır. Yine faktörlerin Cronbach’s alpha katsayıları verilmiş
ve güvenirlilik açısından yeterli olduğu görülmüştür. Faktör boyutlarının elde edilmesinde yaygın
olarak kullanılan bir yöntem olan temel bileşenler analizi ve varimaks rotasyon tekniğinden
yararlanılmıştır. Bu değerler veri setinin faktör analizi için uygun olduğunu göstermiştir.
Tablo 4: Araştırmaya Yönelik t-Testi Sonuçları
Kişilik
A Tipi
Mutfak
B Tipi
A Tipi
Spor
B Tipi
A Tipi
Sosyal ilişkiler
B Tipi
A Tipi
Özel İlgi
B Tipi
* p<0,05 düzeyinde anlamlı
İfadeler
Ortalama
2,4621
2,3403
2,4386
2,6250
2,3430
2,4478
2,4332
2,3611
S.S.
1,005
1,075
0,9742
0,9832
0,9629
0,9231
0,9799
0,9169
Ort. Farkı
t-Değeri
Anlamlılık
0,1218
1,152
0,250
-0,1864
-1,856
0,064
-0,1048
-1,076
0,283
0,0721
0,732
0,465
Turistik ürün türlerine ilişkin değişkenleri oluşturan 4 faktör boyutunun açıklayıcısı
niteliğindeki 8 ifadeye ilişkin faktör yükleri verilmiştir. Buna göre ilk iki ifade mutfak turizmine
ilişkin, ikinci iki ifade spor turizmine ilişkin, üçüncü iki ifade sosyal ilişkilere ilişkin ve dördüncü iki
ifade özel ilgi turizmine ilişkin tercihleri açıklamaktadır. Oluşan bu dört turistik tercih boyutunun A ve
B kişilik tiplerine göre anlamlı ilişki üretim üretmediği aşağıdaki tablo 4’te verilmektedir.
Bu çalışmada turistik ürün tercihinde A ve B tipi kişilik özelliklerine göre farklılığın olup
olmadığının tespit edilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu doğrultuda bu iki kişilik tipi arasında istatistiksel açıdan
anlamlı bir farkın olup olmadığının tespit edilebilmesi için t-testi (bağımsız gruplar t-testi) analiz
yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmadaki değişkenlerden faktör analizi ile oluşturulan dört boyuta ilişkin
A ve B tipi kişiliğe yönelik farklılık analizi Tablo 4’te verilmiştir. Faktör analizi sonucu oluşan 4
boyutun için de A ve B tipi kişilik tiplerine göre anlamlı bir ilişki tespit edilememiştir. % 95 güven
aralığında bakıldığında; dört boyuta ilişkin A ve B tipi kişiliğe ait anlamlılık değerleri (p<0,05) şartını
sağlamadığı tablo 4’ten anlaşılmaktadır.
349
4. SONUÇ
Günümüzde turizm endüstrisinde artan tüketici istek ve beklentileri gün geçtikçe artmakta,
farklı boyutlar kazanmaktadır. Turizm endüstrisinin öznesi konumunda yer alan turistlerin bu istek ve
beklentileri işletmeler açısından oldukça büyük önem taşıdığı düşünülmektedir. Bu bakımdan
turistlerin sahip oldukları kişilik özelliklerinin turizm endüstrisinde turistik ürün çeşitlerini tercih
etmede etkili bir faktör olup olmadığının anlaşılması ile yola çıkılan bu çalışma ile konu hakkında
ilgili istatistiksel yöntemler kullanılarak elde edilen sonuçlar yorumlanmıştır.
İstatistiksel yöntemlerle yapılan faktör analizi neticesinde çıkan boyutlar, ölçeğin sağlıklı
sonuçlar vermemesi nedeniyle mantıksal değerlendirmeye tabi tutulmuştur. Böylece ölçekteki 25 ifade
daraltılarak 8 ifadeye kadar düşürülmüştür. Ayrıca; 421 katılımcıya ulaşılmasına rağmen A ve B tipi
kişilik özelliklerine sahip insanların turistik ürün tercihlerinde anlamlı farklılık tespit edilememiştir.
İfade sayısının bu şekilde düşürülmesi, istatistiki açıdan özellikle güvenirlilik bakımından
mantıklı sonuçlar vermiş olsa da bu sosyal bilimler açısından uygun bir durum olmayabilir. Kişiliğe
göre turistik ürün tercihini etkileyen değişken sayısının daha fazla olması, duygulara ve anlık
reaksiyonlara karşı duyarlı olan sosyal bilimler için önem ifade etmektedir. Bu açıdan konu, farklı
kişilik ve turistik ürün ölçekleri geliştirilerek derinlemesine ele alınabilir. Kişiliğe göre turistik ürün
tercinde ele alınan çalışmalarda A ve B tipi kişilik yerine farklı kişilik sınıflandırmalarına
başvurulabilir.
A ve B tipi kişilik açısından anlamlı bir farkın tespit edilmemesi, talep kaynaklı turistik ürün
tercihini etkileyen faktörlerin olmayacağı sonucunu ortaya koymamaktadır. Farklı faktörlerin ve
değişkenlerin göz önünde bulundurulacağı çalışmalarda araştırılmaya değer görülmektedir. Bu
anlamda çalışmalar yapılabilmektedir.
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351
DİYARBAKIR İLİNİN TURİZM POTANSİYELİNİN SWOT ANALİZİ İLE
BELİRLENMESİ
Arş. Gör. Ayhan KARAKAŞ ∗
Arş. Gör. İbrahim ÇENBERLİTAŞ ∗∗
ÖZ
Çalışmanın amacı Diyarbakır ilinin turizm potansiyelini ortaya koymaktır. Bu bağlamda SWOT
analizinden faydalanılmıştır. Diyarbakır ilinin kültürel ve tarihi çekiciliklerinden bahsedilmiş,
fırsatların başında, Diyarbakır Eğil ilçesinde metfun olan ve Kur’an’da adı geçen Zülkifl ve Elyesa
(AS) peygamberler önemlidir. Üstünlükler olarak İslam Dünyasının 5. Harem olarak gördüğü
Diyarbakır Ulu Camii, tehditler olarak güvenlik problemleri ve imaj sorunu, zayıflıklar olarak ise
turizm türlerinin az olması önemli maddelerdendir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: SWOT Analizi, Turizm, Diyarbakır
DETERMINATION OF PROVINCE DIYARBAKIR’ THE TOURISM POTENTIAL BY
SWOT ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT
The purpose of the study was to assess the tourism potential of the province of Diyarbakir. In
this context, SWOT analysis has been utilized. Cultural and historic charm of the province of
Diyarbakir mentioned, at the beginning of the opportunity, and that's metfa in Diyarbakir Eğil County
mentioned in the Qur'an and Elyesa Zulkifl (AS) is important prophets. As the rule of the Islamic
world sees as the Harem 5 Diyarbakır Ulu Mosque, the security problems and threats image problem,
as the weakness of the type of tourism is one of the key ingredients is less.
Keywords: SWOT analysis, Tourism, Diyarbakır
1.
GİRİŞ
Turizm, dinlenmek, eğlenmek, görmek ve tanımak gibi amaçlarla yapılan geziler ve bir ülkeye
veya bir bölgeye gezmen (turist) çekmek için alınan ekonomik, kültürel, teknik önlemlerin, yapılan
çalışmaların tümüdür. Turistik gezi, insanların sadece bir yerden bir yere gitmesi değil kültürel,
ekonomik ve toplumsal olarak da iletişim içinde olmalarıdır. Turizm sayesinde insanlar hem diğer
∗
Dicle Üniversitesi, İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi, Turizm İşletmeciliği Bölümü
Dicle Üniversitesi, İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi, İşletme Bölümü
∗∗
352
ülkelerin, hem kendi ülkelerinde yaşadıkları bölgenin dışındaki güzelliklerin, hem de geçmişte
yaşamış olan insanların bırakmış oldukları kültürel mirasın farkına vararak, gelecek kuşaklara daha
yaşanılabilir bir dünya bırakmanın gerekliliğine inanarak hayata farklı açılardan bakabilirler. Turistler
gittikleri ülke ya da bölgede gördükleri yerler karşılığında o yöre halkına para kazandırırlar. Yani
turizm ziyaret edilen ülke ve bölgenin ekonomisine büyük bir maddi katkı sağlar.
Dünyadaki hızlı ekonomik, siyasal ve teknoloji gelişmelere paralel olarak, turizm tüketim
kalıplarında da son yıllarda önemli değişimler gözlenmektedir. Günümüz turizm gelişmeleri
incelendiğinde turistlerin sadece deniz, kum, güneş gibi unsurları içeren kıyı (kitle) turizmini değil,
bunun yanı sıra değişik turizm faaliyetlerine yönelmeleri gerektiği düşünülmektedir. Bir yöreyi turistik
bir destinasyon olarak turizm piyasasına sunmadan önce yörenin kapsamlı bir turizm planının
yapılması, yörenin ve halkın öncelik ve gereksinimlerinin belirlenmesi, yörenin çevre bakımından
kapasite sınırlarının, insan ve fiziki çevre olarak, dikkate alınması gerekmektedir (Sabbağ, 2011). Bu
araştırmayla Diyarbakır'ın turizm potansiyeli, turizmde güçlü/üstün yanları, güçsüz/zayıf yanları, sahip
olduğu fırsatları, karşı karşıya bulunduğu tehdit ve tehlikeleri ortaya koyulup; turizm sektörünün
gelişmesine yönelik önerilerin sunulması amaçlanmıştır.
2. SWOT ANALİZİ KAVRAMI
SWOT Analizi; işletmenin güçlü-zayıf yönlerini bunlara karşı olduğu fırsat-tehditleri analiz
ederek gelecek için stratejiler geliştirmeyi ifade eder. SWOT tekniğinden yararlanılarak, ülkenin
turizm potansiyelinin içsel (güçlü ve zayıf yönler) ve dışsal (fırsatlar ve tehditler) faktörleri ortaya
çıkarılmalıdır. SWOT analizi pazarlamanın içinde bulunduğu durumun incelenmesi ve durum ile ilgili
sistematik bir çerçeve ortaya konmasıdır. Bu anlamda SWOT analizinin yapılmasındaki genel amaç;
bölgenin sahip olduğu turizme bağımlı ve turizmden bağımsız arz potansiyelinin güçlü ve zayıf
yönlerinin açıkça bilinmesi, analiz edilmesi, ülkenin hedeflerine uygun stratejinin seçilmesine
yardımcı olmasıdır. Ayrıca, SWOT analizi bölgenin alternatif turizm imkânlarının her zaman
değerlendirmeye tabi tutulması, mevcut görülebilen hatalarının tespit edilmesine ve düzeltilmesine
fırsat veren bir araç olmaktadır (Yeşiltaş, Çeken ve Öztürk, 2009).
SWOT Analizi, incelenen kuruluşun; tekniğin, sürecin veya durumun güçlü ve zayıf yönlerini
belirlemekte ve dış çevreden kaynaklanan fırsat ve tehditleri saptamakta kullanılan bir tekniktir
(Gürlek, 2002). İşletmenin bir bütün olarak mevcut durumunun ve tecrübesinin incelenmesi, üstün ve
zayıf yönlerinin tanımlanması ve bunların çevre şartlarıyla uyumlu hale getirilmesi sürecine etkileşim
(SWOT) Analizi adı verilir (Dinçer, 1994).
SWOT Analizi’nde, güçlü ülkelerde küresel pazarlardaki rekabet gücünün rakip ülkelerle
kıyaslanabilmesi ve gelişmekte olan ülkelerde de küçük pazar bölümlerine hakim olabilmek için
halihazırdaki güçlü ve zayıf yönlerin ve geleceğe yönelik olarak fırsat ve tehlikelerin tespiti
353
çalışmaları yapılmaktadır (Alpkan, 2005).
SWOT Analizi’nde bir işletme kendisi için en önemli sayılabilecek güçlü ve zayıf yanlarını,
fırsatları ve tehditleri belirler ve değerlendirir. Aynı analiz yıllık pazarlama planları için de geçerlidir.
Bir işletme misyonunu yerine getirebilmek için başlıca güçlü yanlarından ve en çok umut veren
fırsatlardan yararlanmak ve başlıca zayıf noktalarını düzeltmek ve ciddi tehditlerden kaçınmak
durumundadır. Güçlü ve zayıf yanlar, bir örgütün kendi kabiliyetleriyle ilgili olarak dikkate
alınmaktadır (Tek, 1999).
SWOT Analizi strateji tespiti (formülasyonu) ile başlar. Strateji yöneticileri, şirketin iç
çevresindeki fırsatlar ve tehditler ile dış çevresindeki fırsatlar ve tehditler arasındaki en uygun
stratejiyi bulmaya çalışırlar. SWOT Analizi’nde fırsat, tehdit, güçlülük ve zayıflık stratejik
faktörlerinin birbiri arasında organize olmasını sağlar. Bundan dolayı SWOT Analizi işletmenin sahip
olduğu kaynakları, kapasiteyi ve diğer ayırt edici vasıfları ortaya koyar ve bu niteliklerden en iyi nasıl
yararlanılabileceğinin bulunmasını sağlar. İşletmenin kapasitesindeki mevcut farklılıklar değişik
stratejileri ortaya koyar ve bu ayırt edici farklılıkların tespiti ile kifayetli işletmeye büyük avantaj
sağlar (Wheelen and Hunger, 1992).
İşletmelerin başarılı olabilmesi için, içinde faaliyette bulundukları dış çevreyi ve kendi
içlerinde bulunan iç çevrelerini anlamaları gerektiği ortaya çıkmakta ve bu nedenle de her iki çevrenin
analizinin yapılması zorunlu olmaktadır. Toplanan ve kullanıma hazır edilen bilgiler ışığı altında
işletmenin içinde bulunduğu üst sistemin (dış çevre) ve işletmenin alt sistemlerinin (iç çevre) analizi
yapılır (Ülgen ve Mirze, 2004).
SWOT Analizi, hem organizasyonun kendi iç durum değerlendirmesine hem de organizasyon
dışındaki pazar yapısının, rakiplerin durumunun analiz edilmesine imkan sağlar. Özetle, SWOT
Analizi iç ve dış durum analizini içeren bir stratejik yönetim tekniğidir (Aktan, 1999).
Fırsat kelime anlamı itibariyle, herhangi bir faaliyet için elverişli zaman ve diğer şartların
oluşması demektir. Stratejik yönetim açısından fırsat, çevrenin işletmeye sunduğu ve amaçlarını
gerçekleştirmesi için elverişli herhangi bir durum olarak tanımlanabilir (Dinçer ,1994; Akın, 2005).
Ayrıca fırsatları şöyle tanımlamak mümkündür: “Gelecekteki büyüme için gerçek olanaklar sağlayan
yollar ve rekabet avantajını geliştirmek için en çok potansiyele sahip konular” (Yıldırım, 2002).
Fırsat, başarabilme niteliği taşıyan amaçlar için elverişli çevre şartlarının işletmeye meydan
okumasıdır. Yeni bir ürünün üretilmesi, dışa açılma politikasıyla uluslararası pazarların ortaya
çıkması, maliyet fiyatlarının düşmesi, ikame mallarının pazarında yetersizlik olması v.b. birçok durum
işletme için bir fırsat niteliği taşır (Bell, 1966).
354
Tehdit, istenmeyen bir eğilimi, çıkardığı sorun veya organizasyonun belli bir tepki
geliştirmemesi halinde, şirketin pazardaki yerini kaybetmesine neden olacak çevresel bir gelişme
olarak tanımlanmaktadır (Göl, 1995).
Tehdit veya tehlike, işletmenin amaçlarını gerçekleştirmesini zorlaştıran veya imkansız hale
getiren yeni bir durum demektir. Bir işletmede başarıyı engelleyebilecek veya zarara sebep olabilecek
her şey bir tehdit unsurudur. Tehdit durumunda işletmeye yönelik kargaşa ve elverişsiz bir eğilimin
zorunlu kıldığı bir meydan okuma vardır (Kotler, 1984; Akın, 2005).
Tehditler, işletmenin başarısını veya proje yapma yeteneğini tehlike altına sokan dış
faktörlerdir. Örneğin, işletmenin parasal kaynakları kuruyabilir, işletme kilit kişileri kendi içinde
tutabilmek için ihtiyacı olan kaynakları kaybedebilir.
Tehditler, fırsatların aksine ve işletmenin varlığını sürdürmesine engel olabilecek veya rekabet
üstünlüğünü kaybetmesine neden olabilecek uzak veya yakın çevredeki değişimler sonucu ortaya
çıkan, işletme için arzu edilmeyen oluşumlardır. İşletme bunlara karşı da sahip olduğu üstünlüklerle
cevap verebilecek ve mevcut durumunu sürdürmeye çalışacaktır. Sürekli ve hızlı değişen bir dış
çevrede bu unsurları izlemek, onlara karşı önlemler almak yaşamsal öneme sahip konulardır (Ülgen ve
Mirze,2004).
İç çevre faktörlerinin, sektördeki rakip işletmelerden daha iyi ve etkili olması işletmeye
üstünlük ve avantaj sağlar. Üstünlükler işletmeyi geliştirecek ve ileriye götürebilecek iç çevre
göstergeleridir. Eğer rakipler bu faktörlerde daha kuvvetliyseler, bu durumda işletmenin söz konusu
faktörlerde rakiplere göre zayıf bir konumda bulunduğu kuşkusuzdur. Zayıflıklar işletmeyi geri
götüren ve onun yaşamını sürdürebilmesini zorlaştıran iç çevre göstergeleridir (Ülgen ve Mirze, 2004).
Üstünlük, işletmenin herhangi bir konuda rakiplerine göre daha etkili ve verimli olması halidir
(Kempner, 1980). Başka bir deyişle neyi iyi ve doğru yaptığının belirlenmesidir (Akın, 2005).
Bir işletme için zayıflık, rakiplerine göre daha az verimli veya etkili olduğu yönleri ve
faaliyetleri demektir. Daha basit bir ifadeyle zayıflık, işletmenin rakiplerine göre kötü olduğu
durumdur. Ayrıca zayıflık için bir başka ölçü olarak, çevrede meydana gelen değişiklikler karşısında
işletmenin yetersiz kalması veya değişikliğe cevap verememesi kullanılabilir (Dinçer, 1994).
3. İLGİLİ ÇALIŞMALAR
Sabbağ (2011), çalışmasında Adıyaman ilinin turizm sektörünü, SWOT analizi ile turizm
işletme yöneticilerinin görüşlerine başvurarak incelemiş, yöneticiler; Nemrut Dağı ile tarihi, arkeolojik
ve doğal kaynakları üstün yönler, konaklama süresini uzatacak etkinlik eksikliğini ve ulaşım
zorluğunu zayıf yönler, il geneline yayılmış doğal ve kültürel zenginliklerin fırsatlar ve tanıtım
355
eksikliği ve düşük gelir düzeyi de tehditler olarak belirtmişlerdir.
Çakıcı, Atay ve Aksu (2010) Bozcaada turizmi için yapmış olduğu SWOT analizi çalışmasında,
güçlü yanlar denizin temizliği, markalaşmış şaraplar, ada olmanın çekiciliği, zayıf yanlar ise yakın
destinasyon olarak Gökçeada, Assos ve Ayvalık gibi yerlerin olması, hizmet kalitesinin düşüklüğü,
park sorunu, sağlık hizmetlerinin yetersizliği, fırsatlar olarak adada çekilen film ve diziler, tarihi sit
alanlarına yakınlık, tehditler olarak günübirlik turizm hareketlerinin artmasıyla konaklamanın
azalması, paydaşların aynı hassasiyeti göstermemesi gibi sonuçlara ulaşmışlardır.
Özgen (2010) Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi için yaptığı Turizm sektörü SWOT analizi çalışmasında,
bölgenin turizm potansiyelinden bahsedilmiş, özet olarak güçlü yanlar, Ağrı dağının varlığı, dağcılık
ve kampçılık imkanları, kış sporları için uygunluk, rafting imkanı, termal kaynaklar, göl zenginliği,
Van gölü ve Akdamar Adasının bölgede olması, zayıf yanlar olarak, yerel halkın turizm bilinci
eksikliği, konaklama imkanı kısıtı, planlama eksikliği, kış mevsiminin uzun sürmesi, ulaşımın kısıtlı
oluşu, Van gölü ve çevresinde kompleks turizm tesislerinin bulunmayışı, fırsatlar olarak doğa
turizmine yönelik talebin artması, akarsu zenginliği, endemik bitkilerin varlığı, Çıldır gölünde kar ve
buz festivali, Tatvan-Nemrut Krateri arasında teleferik hattı yapılabilmesi, tehditler olarak küresel
ısınmaya bağlı iklim değişikliği, ulaşım eksikliği, turizme bağlı doğal çevrenin bozulması, mera
hayvancılığının olumsuz etkisi, deprem riskinin yüksekliği, bölgedeki sosyal yapı ve sosyal olaylar
olarak sıralamıştır.
Tunç (2002: 1-17) 2001 yılında, Marmara Bölgesi’nin güney kesimi ve İç Anadolu’da faaliyet
gösteren 100 adet seyahat acentası (50 adet Marmara bölgesinin güney kesimi, 50 adet de İç Anadolu)
üzerinde, seyahat acentalarının pazarlama faaliyetlerini belirlemeye yönelik bir araştırma yapmıştır.
Bu araştırmaya göre, Marmara bölgesinin güney kesiminde faaliyet gösterenlerin % 80’i, İç
Anadolu’da faaliyet gösterenlerden ise % 88’i rakiplerine kıyasla güçlü ve zayıf yönlerinin analizini
yapmaktadır. Güney Marmara Bölgesi seyahat acentalarının güçlü yönleri müşteriye sağlanan ödeme
kolaylıkları, müşterilere sunulan özel promosyonlar, eğitimli kalifiye personel, olumlu imaj ve
tanınmış bir isim ve zayıf yönleri olarak pazarda henüz tanınmamaları, eğitimli kalifiye personel
eksikliği ve mali olanaksızlıklar, İç Anadolu Bölgesi seyahat acentalarının güçlü yönleri olumlu imaj,
eğitimli kalifiye personel, tanınmış bir isim, müşteriye sağlanan ödeme kolaylıkları, müşterilere
sunulan özel promosyonlar, zayıf yönler mali olanaksızlıklardır.
Gökçe (2006) Giresun ili turizm potansiyelini ortaya çıkarmak için yaptığı SWOT analizinde,
güçlü yönler olarak yöre insanın geleneksel konukseverliği, genç ve dinamik nüfus, Giresun adası,
festivaller ve şenlikler, zayıf yönler olarak alt yapı ve üst yapı eksikliği, yaylalardaki imar sorunları,
işletme personeli eksikliği, tanıtım eksikliği, fırsatlar olarak turizmi tüm yıla yayarak alternatif turizm
çeşitleri olanakları, koruma altındaki doğal ve tarihi değerler, yörenin Rusya ve Türki
356
Cumhuriyetlerine
yakınlığı,
tehditler
olarak,
terörist
faaliyetler,
sürdürülebilir
turizmin
uygulanamayışı, yöre halkının turizm bilincinin eksikliği olarak özetlenebilir.
Durgun (2007) Isparta turizminin SWOT analizini yaptığı çalışmasında en güçlü yanlar, zengin
tarih, kültür ve tabiat varlıklarına sahip olması ve iklim ve doğal kaynaklar ve bozulmamış çevresidir,
en zayıf yönler ise tanıtım ve pazarlama eksikliği, yerel yönetimlerin ilgisizliği ve yöre halkının turizm
bilinci eksikliği, alternatif turizm olanakları fırsat olarak görülürken, kentin turistik imajının zayıf
olması tehditlerde olarak tespit edilmiştir.
Sandıkçı ve Özgen (2013 Afyonkarahisar ili termal turizmini SWOT analizi ile incelemişler ve
yapılan anket sonucuna göre katılımcılar en güçlü yönler olarak, ilin sağlık turizmine uygun zengin
doğal kaynakları, termal turizm merkezi imajı,zayıf yönlerinden diğerlerine oranla daha az öneme
sahip olan unsurların başlıcalarını kentin termal turizm imajının zayıflığı, konaklama işletmelerinin
doluluk oranlarının düşük olması ve Afyonkarahisar ili üst yapısının termal turizm için yeterli
olmaması oluşturmaktadır. Fırsatlar termal turizm faaliyetlerinin yılın on iki ayı yapılabilen bir turizm
çeşidi olması tehditler olarak müşterilerin ve seyahat acentalarının artan pazarlık gücü, pazara yeni
bölgelerin girmesi ve imar sorunları olarak belirlenmiştir.
Arslan’ın Zonguldak ili doğa turizmine yönelik yaptığı SWOT analizinde; Turizm destinasyonu
yönüyle Güvenli ve İstikrarlı bir bölgeolmasıSosyo kültürel açıdan bakıldığında Zonguldak halkının
Turizme bakış açısı ve hizmet kalitesi yaratılması yönüyle olumlu olması zayıf yönler,doğal ve
kültürel değerlerin yeterince korunamaması ve koruma bilincinin olmaması, bölgede doğa turizmine
yönelik uzmanlaşmış seyahat acenteciliği ve tur operatörlüğünün az ve yetersiz olması, Zonguldak
ilinin ülkemizde uluslararası etkin faaliyet gösteren büyük tur operatörlerince tur destinasyon
programlarında yer almaması, fırsatlar küresel ısınmanın getirdiği olumsuzluklar yönüyle bölgesel
iklimin talep yaratıcı olması, doğalgaz yatırımının gelmesi çevre kirliliğine sebep olan olumsuzluklar
için çözüm yaratıcı nitelik kazanması tehditler olarak ise doğayı korumaya yönelik gerekli tedbirlerin
alınmaması nedeniyle doğal çevre üzerine baskının artması, biyolojik çeşitliliğin olumsuz etkilenmesi,
turizm yatırımlarının Filyos Liman Projesi ve termik santrallerin oluşumu yönünde diğer sektör
yatırımları arasında yaşanan bürokratik zorluklar Bölgenin turistik imajının zayıf olması, olarak
sıralanmıştır.
Yılmaz (2008) çalışmasında tatil çiftliklerini SWOT analizi ile değerlendirmiş ve güçlü yanlar;
kırsal dokuya uygunluk, organik tarım (geleneksel tarım yöntemlerini uygulama), yöresel ürünler,
gelenek ve göreneklerin devamlılığı, zayıf yönleri; tanıtımın yetersizliği, çiftliklere doğrudan
ulaşılamaması, internet olanaklarının bulunmayışı, yabancı dil sorunu, fırtsalar; doğal ve kültürel
çevresi bozulmamış kırsal alanlara yönelik ilginin artması, çevrenin korunması ve geliştirilmesi
konusundaki bilincin giderek artması, sağlıklı, kaliteli ve organik ürünlere olan talebin artması, yurt
357
içinde ve yurt dışında çeşitli kuruluşlar tarafından bu tür faaliyetlerin desteklenmesi, aile bireyleri için
istihdam olanaklarının yaratılması, tehditler ise; köylerin önemli bir bölümü yüksek, eğimli, engebeli
arazilerde kurulmuş olması ve alt yapı hizmetlerinin aksaması, çiftliklerin konumunun ve yapılaşma
biçiminin (ahsap, kerpiç gibi malzemelerin kullanılması), doğal afetlerden kaynaklanan risklerin
artmasına neden olması ekoturizmin olumsuz sosyo-kültürel etkileri olarak sıralamıştır.
İçellioğlu (2014) İstanbul ili turizm potansiyelini SWOT analizi ile incelediği çalışmasında,
güçlü yanlar olarak;İstanbul’un Avrupa ve Asya kıtalarını birleştiren bir coğrafi bölgede olması birçok
turistin ilgisini çekmektedir. İstanbul’u görmek için her yıl yaklaşık 8 milyon kişi ziyarette
bulunmaktadır, İstanbul’da surlar, saraylar, köşkler, kasırlar, camiler, sarnıçlar, su kemerleri, çeşmeler,
bedestenler, kuleler, meydanlar ve anıtlar gibi turistleri kente çekecek çok sayıda tarihi mekan
bulunmaktadır, İstanbul’un kara, deniz ve hava yollarını kullanmak isteyen tüm ziyaretçilere açık
olması, kente kolaylıkla ulaşılmasını sağlamaktadır, zayıf yönler olarak, yoğun göç ve ulaşım alt
yapısını eksikliği, yapılaşmada mimari kaygıların güdülmemesi, fırsatlar İstanbul’un 2010 yılı Avrupa
Kültür Başkenti olarak seçilmesi, uluslararası bilinirliğini arttırmıştır, İstanbul’un finans merkezi
olmaya başlaması ve yabancı sermayeyi çekmesi uluslararası bilinirliliğini arttıran bir diğer faktördür,
tehditler; İstanbul her ne kadar önemli bir destinasyon olsa da, rakipleri dünyanın en gelişmiş
ülkelerinin markalaşmış kentleridir. İstanbul’un kent turizmi konusunda Paris, Roma, New York,
Londra gibi önemli kentlerin gerisinde kalmaması için, farklılık yaratabilecek stratejik planlar yapması
gerektiği kaçınılmazdır, boğazdan geçen tankerler, denizlerimizi kirletmekte ve doğal yapıya zarar
vermektedir, bazı tarihi bölgelerde yapılan
yenileme
çalışmaları
yapının
orijinal halini
bozabilmektedir. Bu durum kültürel varlıklarımıza zarar vereceğinden restorasyon çalışmalarının
uzman ve işinin ehli kişiler tarafından yapılması büyük önem taşımaktadır.
Yukarıdakilere benzer olarak, Yeşiltaş, Çeken ve Öztürk (2009) Karadeniz Bölgesi turizm
olanaklarını, Kansız ve Acuner (2010) Gümüşhane turizmini, Efeoğlu vd. (20009) Osmaniye
turizmini, Akova ve Baynazoğlu (2012 ) Türkiye kongre turizmini, Çiçek (2008) Ege Bölgesi
turizmini, Gürbüz (2009) Karabük turizmini, İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi İstanbul kültür ve tarihi
varlıklarını, Topçu (2007) kırsal kalkınmada tarım-turizmini, Özkan ve Türksoy (2011) otel
işletmelerinde dışkaynak kullanımını, Karadeniz, Kandır ve Önal (2007) Türk turizm yatırımlarını
değerlendirmede, Özcan (2009) Konya ilinin sürdürülebilir kentsel korunmanın sağlanmasını, Gan ve
Song (2010) Hindistan ve Güney Kore medikal turizmini SWOT analizi yöntemiyle incelemişlerdir.
Bu bağlamda yerel destinasyonların potansiyellerinin belirlenmesi ve planlamaya yönelik öneriler için
SWOT analizi çokça kullanılmaktadır.
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4.
DİYARBAKIR İLİ TURİZM POTANSİYELİ
4.1.
Diyarbakır İli Coğrafi Özellikleri Ve Tarihi
Diyarbakır; 12.000 yıl öncesinden başlayan tarihi, 28 medeniyete beşiklik etmiş kültürü,
Türkiye’nin en çok sahabe, peygamber kabri ve makamı bulundurması, Süryani ve Katolik
Hıristiyanlığın inanç değerleri, doğal güzellikleri, Çermik Kaplıcaları, Karacadağ’ın gen merkezi ve
kış turizmi potansiyeli ile önemli bir turizm merkezi olmuştur. İran’ı Avrupa’ya ve Türkiye’nin
batısına bağlayan hat üzerinde oluşu, Şanlıurfa, Bitlis, Elazığ ve Mardin illerine bağlanan dört ayrı
varış noktasının kavşağında olması, bir milyon yolcu hacmine ulaşan havaalanına sahip olması, çok
eskiden beri bir transit geçiş güzergâhı olması Diyarbakır’ın turizm potansiyelinin gelecek vaat ettiğini
göstermektedir.
Asya - Avrupa arasında çağlar boyu köprü kuran yönetimlerin, büyük uygarlıkların kültürel
ilişkileri içinde yaratıcı bir ortamı sürekli kılabilen Diyarbakır ve çevresi, insanlık tarihinin birçok
“ilklerine” tanık olmuş; son yapılan kazılarda Çayönü ve benzeri örneklerin gösterdiği gibi, bu
sürekliliği günümüze dek tüm canlılığıyla taşıyabilmiştir.
Arkeolojik araştırmaların ötesinde, toprak üstünde kalabilen yüzü ile de yüklü bir tarihsel
derinliğin ışığını yansıtan Diyarbakır; yerleşim ilkeleri açısından, çevresindeki uygarlıklara yaşam
şansı veren Dicle Nehri ile özel bir ilişki kurabilmiş en görkemli kenttir. Nil - Mısır örneğindeki gibi
“suyla gelen bu büyük kültür”, çağlar boyu kesintisiz biçimde gücünü göstermiş ve bir anlamda Roma
İmparatorluğu'nun doğu sınırını belirleyerek, egemen kimliğini vurgulayan bir düzeye ulaşmıştır.
Birçok din, toplum, devlet veya yönetimin, kendini yansıtmak ve gücünü kanıtlamak için bırakmak
istediği yapıtların büyük bir bölümünün bugün Diyarbakır'da hala ayakta olması, uygarlık tarihi ve
kültürel çeşitlilik açısından büyük bir şanstır. Tarih boyunca Amida, Amid, Kara-Amid, Diyar-Bekr,
Diyarbekir, Diyarbakır adlarını alan kent Güneydoğu Anadolu bölgesinin orta bölümünde, Elcezire
denilen, Mezopotamya'nın kuzey kısmındadır.
Yontma taş ve Mezolitik devirlerde, Diyarbakır ve çevresindeki mağaralarda yaşanmış olduğu,
yapılan arkeolojik araştırmalar ile anlaşılmıştır. Eğil-Silvan yakınlarındaki Hassuni, Dicle Nehri ve
kolları üzerinde Ergani yakınlarında Hilar mağaralarında bu çağdan kalma kalıntılar tespit edilmiştir.
Anadolu'nun en eski köy yerleşmelerinden biri olan tarımcı köy topluluklarının en güzel örneğini
veren Ergani yakınlarındaki Çayönü Tepesi, günümüzden 10.000 yıl önceye tarihlenmesi ile sadece
bölge tarihimize değil Dünya uygarlık tarihine de ışık tutmaktadır. M.Ö. 7.500-5.000 yılları arasında
aralıksız olarak daha sonra da aralıklarla iskan edilmiş olan günümüzdeki kent uygarlığının ilk
temellerinin atıldığı Çayönü, insanların göçebelikten yerleşik köy yaşantısına, avcılık ve
toplayıcılıktan besin üretimine geçtikleri "Neolitik Devrim" olarak da bilinen teknolojik yaşam biçimi,
beslenme ekonomisi ve insan doğal çevre ilişkilerinin tümü ile değiştiği kültür tarihi ile ilgili
buluşlarda bir çok ilki de içeren canlı ve ilginç bir yerleşmedir. Yabani buğday, mercimekgiller gibi
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bitkilerin tarıma alınması, koyun ve keçinin evcilleştirilmesi ile Çayönü bilim dünyasında önem
kazanmıştır.
Yine Ergani yakınlarındaki Grikihaciyan Tepesi'nde M.Ö. 5.000 yılları başına tarihlenen "Gelişkin
Köy Evresi" ya da Kalkolitik Çağ olarak adlandırılan Halaf Kültürünün sonlarına tarihlenen tek bir
kültür evresi görülmüştür. Halaf Kültürü, Kuzey Irak, Suriye ve Güneydoğu Anadolu'da görülen
yuvarlak
planlı
kubbeli
evleri
zengin
boya
bezeli
çanak-çömleği
ile
ünlüdür.
Diyarbakır'ın Bismil İlçesi yakınlarındaki Üçtepe Höyük'te yapılan ve henüz bitirilmemiş olan kazı
çalışmalarında ise 2. Bin, Yeni Asur, Helenistik ve Roma İmparatorluk dönemine tarihlenen önemli
bir merkez ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Öte yandan Lice yakınlarındaki Birkleyn mağaraları ve Eğil'deki Eğil
Kalesi ve kayalardaki kitabeler Asurlardan kalan önemli eserler bulunmuştur.
Tam tarihi bilinmemekle birlikte, kentteki ilk yerleşmenin, Dicle yatağından 100 m yüksekte
olan ve Fis Kayası adı verilen sarp bölgenin bugünkü İçkale arazisinde kalan kesiminde gerçekleştiği
bu alanda yer alan Amida veya Virankale olarak adlandırılan Höyükte tespit edilmiştir. Topografik
özellikleri nedeniyle savunma kolaylığı sağlayan ve zaman içinde nüfusu yoğunlaşarak genişleme
sürecine giren bu yerleşimde, kale işlevli ilk yapının İ.Ö.3000 yıllarında bölgeye egemen olan Hurriler
tarafından inşa edildiği kabul edilir. Ardından kent Asurlular, Urartular, Büyük İskender, Selefkoslar
ve Partlar - Romalılar - Sasaniler'in yalnız ya da birlikte sürdürdükleri egemenlikleri altına girer;
Roma'dan 7.Yüzyılın ilk yarısına kadar Bizans idaresi altında yaşar ve 639'dan sonra da bir İslâm kenti
kimliği kazanır.
Günümüzdeki durumuna temel olan şeklini 4.Yüzyıl ortalarında Romalıların verdiği Diyarbakır
Surları, 7.Yüzyıl ikinci yarısından itibaren kente egemen olan Emeviler, Abbasiler, Şeyhoğulları,
Hamdaniler, Büveyhoğulları, Meyyafarkin (Silvan) Mervanoğulları, Büyük Selçuklu ve Şam
Selçukluları, İnaloğulları, Nisanoğulları, Hasankeyf Artukluları, Mısır ve Şam Eyyubileri, Anadolu
Selçukluları, Mardin Artukluları, Akkoyunlular ve son olarak da Osmanlılar zamanında, yerleşimin
ana ögesi olma etkinliğini kesintisiz korumuş; Osmanlı dönemine dek, kent tarihinin her aşamasında
“yaşamsal önemdeki savunma gereksinimini karşılayacak dirençte” ve “sürekli bir işlevsel bütünlük”
taşımak zorunda olmuştur. Bu uygarlıklar arasında Diyarbakır'da en fazla tarihi eser yapan ve iz
bırakanlar Romalılar, Bizanslılar, Abbasiler, Mervaniler, Selçuklular, Artuklular, ve Osmanlılar
olmuştur. Diyarbakır sadece Roma-Bizans değil aynı zamanda Müslüman, Pers, Arap ve Tür
devletlerinin zengin tarihi ve kültürel değerlerini taşıyan ortak bir kültür mirası olarak günümüze kadar
gelmiştir. Özellikle surlarda birçok medeniyetlerin izlerini taşıyan kitabe, süsleme, figür, kapı ve ya
görkemli burçlarla en canlı şekilde görebilmekteyiz.
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4.2. Diyarbakır Turizm Arz Potansiyeli
4.2.1. Doğal Turistik Değerler
Çermik Kaplıcası
Çermik ilçesinin 3 km. doğusunda yer alan kaplıca, Türkiye’nin en önemli kaynakları
arasındadır. İstanbul Tıp Fakültesi’nce yapılan analizlere göre iltihaplı romatizmalarda, üst solunum
yolu enfeksiyonlarında ve kadın hastalıklarında olumlu etkileri olduğu saptanmıştır. Sıcaklığı 48.2 oC
ve akım değeri 10 lt./sn’dir.
Mağara turizmi
Diyarbakır’da çok eski dönemlere ait, insanlar tarafından mesken veya çeşitli amaçlarla
kullanılan pek çok doğal ve yapay mağara mevcuttur. Bunların en önemlileri Lice ilçesindeki Birkleyn
Mağarası, Ergani ilçesindeki Hilar Mağarası, Silvan ilçesindeki Hassuni Mağarası’dır. Bunların
dışında ildeki diğer önem arz eden mağaralar Kulp, Eğil, Pir İbrahim, Süleyman Ağa, Şikefta ve
Çüngüş mağaralarıdır.
4.2.2.
Tarihi Turistik Değerler
4.2.2.1. Müzeler
Diyarbakır Müzesi
Müze, Sincariye Medresesi’nde sergilenen arkeolojik ve etnografik eserlerin yeni binaya
taşınması ile 1988 yılında düzenlenmiştir. Müzede Neolitik Çağ’dan itibaren Eski Tunç, Urartu, Assur,
Hitit, Roma, Bizans, Artuklu ve Osmanlı dönemi eserleri yer alır. Prehistorik devir seramikleri, Roma
stelleri, heykel ve mimari parçaları, Artuklu çinileri, Osmanlı devri ahşap eserleri, silahlar, tekke
eşyaları, takılar ve daha pek çok eser kronolojik sıra ile müzede sergilenmektedir.
Ziya Gökalp Müze Evi
Diyarbakır’ın tipik sivil mimarlık örneklerinden biri olan ev, 1808 yılında inşa edilmiştir. İki
katlı bu yapıda malzeme olarak siyah bazalt taşı kullanılmıştır. Ünlü düşünür Ziya Gökalp’ın 1876
yılında doğduğu bu ev 23 Mart 1956 tarihinde müze-ev olarak ziyarete açılmıştır. Müzede yazara ait
eşyaların yanı sıra, yörenin etnografik eserleri sergilenmektedir.
Cahit Sıtkı Tarancı Müze Evi
Ünlü şair Cahit Sıtkı Tarancı’nın Diyarbakır’da doğduğu evdir. Diyarbakır sivil mimarisinin en
güzel örneklerinden biri olarak günümüze ulaşmıştır. Müzede, Cahit Sıtkı’nın kitapları, el yazıları,
kullandığı eşyalar, fotoğrafları ve kütüphanesi sergilenmektedir.
Ahmet Arif Edebiyat Müze Kütüphanesi
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Ünlü şair Ahmet Arif’in kişisel eşyalarının, el yazısı ile yazdığı şiirlerinin sergilendiği ve
yaklaşık 120 yıllık konaktır. Cahit Sıtkı Tarancı Evi’ne komşu olmakla birlikte Diyarbakır evlerini
özgün bir biçimde gösteren en güzel örneklerdendir. Kütüphane de çok sayıda tarih ve edebiyat ile
ilgili kitaplar mevcuttur.
Esma Ocak Müze Evi
Diyarbakırlı yazar Esma Ocak adına düzenlenen tarihi müze evi çeşitli etnografik özelliklerin
sergilendiği bir müze konumundadır.
4.2.2.2. Kilise ve Manastırlar
Diyarbakır'ın önemli kiliseleri arasında Mart Thoma, Meryem Ana, Kırklar Kilisesi ve Mart
Pityon Kilisesi sayılabilir. Meryem Ana Kilisesi, şehirde kalan az sayıdaki Süryani cemaati tarafından
halen kullanılmaktadır.
Meryem Ana Süryani Kadim Kilisesi
Ali Paşa Mahallesi’nde yer almaktadır. Bugün faal durumda olan tek kilisedir. Yapım tarihi
kesin olarak bilinmemektedir. Geç Roma dönemine tarihlenen bir kapısı ve mihrap üzerinde kalıntıları
görülebilen mimari bezekler bulunmaktadır. Geçirdiği bir çok onarım sonucu planında değişiklikler
olmuştur. En son 18. yüzyılda onarım görmüştür.
Saint Georgi (Kara Papaz) Kilisesi
İç kalenin kuzeydoğu köşesinde yer alır. Yapım tarihi kesin olarak bilinememektedir. Ancak
inşa tarzı ve yapıda kullanılan malzemeden dolayı M.S. 2. yüzyıla ait olduğu düşünülen kilise
Artuklular
döneminde
sarayın
hamamı
olarak
kullanılmıştır.
Bazı
kaynaklarda
Artuklu
hükümdarlarının bu hamamda ve sarayda Cizreli bilgin El Ceziri’nin imal ettiği mekanik sistemleri
kullandıkları yazılmaktadır.
4.2.2.3. Kaleler
Diyarbakır Surları
Dünyanın en eski ve en sağlam surlarından olan Diyarbakır kalesi Çin Seddi'nden sonra en uzun
surdur. Diyarbakır kalesi,5.700 metre uzunluğunda,10-12 metre yüksekliğinde, 3-5 metre,82 adet
burcu,4 yöne açılan ana kapıları bulunmaktadır. Burçlar üzerindeki görkemli kabartmalar ve
kitabeleriyle dünyanın ender kalelerindendir. M.Ö. 349 yılında Bizans İmparatoru Costantinus
tarafından yenilenen surların yapılış tarihi tam olarak bilinmemektedir.
Diyarbakır İç Kale
İçkale’den günümüze ulaşan kanıtlara ve konumuna bakılarak burasının son yıllara kadar,
kentin “yönetim merkezi” olarak sürekli bir işlev gördüğü anlaşılıyor.
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Bu nedenle, Kanuni Sultan Süleyman 16 burç ve iki yeni kapı ekleterek İçkale’yi genişletir.
İçkale’deki Virantepe Höyüğü’nde yapılan kazılarda, 13. yüzyılın başlarına ait olan
Artukoğulları Sarayı’nın kalıntıları ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Kalıntıların en önemli kısmını, dört tarafa
eyvanlarla açılan süslü bir havuz oluşturmaktadır. Artuklular da görülen ve suyun hem sesinden, hem
de serinliğinden yararlanmak için yapılan “selsebil” çözümü, aynı dönem yapısı olan Gazi Köşkü’nde
hâlâ yaşar. Yakın dönemlere kadar yönetim merkezi olan İçkale’de, bazıları yeni işlevler için
boşaltılmış olan önemli yapılar yer alır. Eski Adliye, Cezaevi, Kolordu ve Jandarma binaları Saint
Corc Kilisesi yeni bir hayata kavuşmayı bekliyor.
İçkale’deki tarihi binalarda Dünya standartları’ nda Arkeoloji Müzesi, Taş Eserler Müzesi,
Müze Kafeterya, Kilise; Sanat Galerisi, Cezaevi Binası; Kongre Merkezi olarak işlevlendirildi.
Eğil Asur Kalesi
Üç tarafı derin vadilerle çevrili, öteki tarafı da oyularak, yekpare bir kaya üzerine oturtulmuş
kalenin, Asurlular zamanında yapıldığı tahmin edilmektedir. Oldukça büyük bir alana inşa edilen
kalenin iç kısmı o dönemde sığınak ve depo olarak kullanıldığı bilinmektedir. Kayalar oyularak bugün
için bilinen ve görülen 4 tünel kazılarak kaleden metrelerce uzaklıktaki vadilerde bulunan hamam,
Dicle Nehri yatağına ulaşmaktadır.
4.2.2.4. Camiler
Diyarbakır Ulu Camii:
Şehrin merkezinde yer alır. Yapım tarihi kesin olarak bilinmemektedir. M.S.639 yılında
Müslümanlar tarafından Diyarbakır feth edilmiş ve kentin en büyük kilisesi olan Mar Toma
Kilisesi’nin camiye çevrilmesi ile oluşturulmuştur. Anadolu’nun en eski camilerindendir.
Müslümanlar tarafından 5. Harem-i Şerif (Mukaddes Mabed) olarak bilinir. 1091 yılında esaslı bir
onarım geçirmiştir. Plan itibariyle Şam Emeviye Cami’nin Anadolu’ya yansıması olarak yorumlanır.
Camiye Diyarbakır’da hüküm sürmüş bütün devletler büyük önem vermiş ve onarmışlardır. Büyük
Selçuklu Hükümdarı Melikşah, İnal ve Nisanoğulları, Anadolu Selçuklu Hükümdarı Gıyaseddin
Keyhüsrev, Artuklular, Akkoyunlu Hükümdarı Uzun Hasan ve Osmanlı Padişahlarından birçoğuna ait
kitabe ve fermanlar Camiinin muhtelif yerlerinde görülmektedir
Behram Paşa Camii.
Vali Behram Paşa tarafından 1564-1572 tarihinde yaptırılmıştır. Mimar Sinan’ın eseri olarak
kabul edilmektedir. Tamamen kesme taştan yapılmış olup, tek kubbelidir. İkili son cemaat yerine
sahiptir.
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Şeyh Mutahhar ( Dört Ayaklı Minare ) Camii
Balıkçılarbaşı semtinde yer alır. Akkoyunlu Sultanı Kasım tarafından 1500 yılında
yaptırılmıştır. Siyah ve beyaz sıralı kesme taşlarla inşa edilmiştir. Camiden ayrı dört sütün üzerinde
yükselen kare planlı minaresi Anadolu’da tek örnektir. Bu minarenin dört ayağı 4 İslam mezhebini
simgelemektedir.
Safa Camii
Kokulu anlamına gelen İpariye veya Parlı Camii olarak da bilinir. 15. yüzyıl Akkoyunlu
eseridir. Önemini, planından, çinilerden ve zengin taş süslemelerinden alır. Taş işlemeciliğinin ilginç
örneklerinden olan minaresi, kaideden başlamak üzere külahına kadar kufi, nezih yazılar, değişik
biçim ve desenlerden taş süslemeleri ile bezelidir. Minarenin kokulu bitkisel otlar karıştırılarak inşa
edildiği söylenmektedir.
Kale Camii (Hz. Süleyman–Nazıriye Camii)
Nisan oğlu Ebül Kasım tarafından 1155-1169 yılları arasında yaptırılmıştır. Cami bitişiğinde
Osmanlılar döneminde yapılan Halid Bin Velid’in oğlu Süleyman’ın mezarları bulunmaktadır.
4.2.2.5. Köprüler
Diyarbakır Malabadi (Batmansu) Köprüsü
Diyarbakır İli, Silvan İlçesi sınırları içindedir. Evliya Çelebiye göre bu köprü, Abbasiler
dönemine ait bir mimari şaheserdir. Abbasi hanedanına mensup zengin bir tüccar, hayrat için köprüyü
yaptırdığı seyahatnamede anlatılır. Ancak, Artuk Oğulları Beyliği dönemine ait olduğu ve Artuk’un
torunlarından İlgazi oğlu Timurtaş tarafından 1147 yılında yaptırıldığı da söylenmektedir. Mostar
köprüsünün ikizi olarak kabul edilir. Tek kemerli olan bu köprünün içine iki yoldan girilir. İçinde
insanların dinlenmesi, yatması ve dış tehlikelerden korunması için odalar yapılmıştır. Ulaşımı
sağlamakla birlikte birçok fonksiyonu olan bu sanat harikası köprünün, Diyarbakır'daki diğer eserler
gibi meraklılar tarafından mutlaka görülmesi gerekir.
Dicle Köprüsü (On Gözlü Köprü)
Şehrin güneyinde, Mardin Kapısı dışında ve şehre 3 km. mesafededir. Köprünün bugün ayakta
görülebilen kısımlarının 1065 tarihinde Mervaniler döneminde Übeyd oğlu Yusuf isimli bir mimar
tarafından inşa edildiği üzerindeki kitabeden anlaşılmaktadır. Kesme bazalt taştan 10 gözlü olarak inşa
edilmiştir.
Haburman Köprüsü
Çermik ilçesinin Haburman köyü civarındadır. Sinek Çayı üzerinde kurulmuş olan bu köprü
ortadaki büyük ve sivri, yandakiler daha küçük ve yuvarlak olmak üzere üç gözlüdür. Üzerindeki
kitabesinde 1179 tarihinde yaptırıldığı anlaşılmaktadır.
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4.2.2.6. Han ve Kervansaraylar
Diyarbakır, Tarihi İpek Yolu'nun merkezlerinden olması sebebi ile önemli hanlara sahiptir.
Deliller Hanı, Hasan Paşa, Çiftehan ve Yeni Han'da geçmişte olduğu gibi günümüzde de halı, kilim ve
gümüş işleme satan dükkanlar bulunmaktadır.
Deliller Hanı ( Hüsrev Paşa Hanı)
Mardin Kapı mevkiinde bulunmaktadır. Mimari kimliğini koruyarak, günümüze kadar ayakta
kalabilmiş hanların en önemlilerinden biridir. 1527 yılında Diyarbakır Valisi Hüsrev Paşa tarafından
arkasındaki cami ve medrese ile birlikte yaptırılmıştır. Binanın Deliller Hanı olarak anılmasının
sebebi, Hicaz’a gidecek hacı adaylarını götürecek delillerin (rehber) bu handa kalmalarındandır.
Hasanpaşa Hanı
Ulu Cami’nin doğusundadır. Osmanlı dönemi Valilerinden Vezirzade Hasan Paşa tarafından
1573 yılında yaptırılmıştır. Avlulu, iki katlı olarak inşa edilmiştir. Avlunun ortasında sütunlu ve üstü
kubbeli bir şadırvan bulunmaktadır.
Sülüklü Han
Ulu Cami’nin doğusundadır. 1683 yılında Hanilioğlu Mahmut Çelebi ve kız kardeşi Atike
Hatun tarafından yapılmıştır. Han içerisinde bulunan kuyudan sülük çıkarıldığı ve dönemim hekimleri
tarafından sülüklerle tedavi yapıldığı bilinmektedir.
Yeni Han
Mimarı bilinmeyen han Ulu Cami’nin güneyinde Zinciriye Medresesi’nin arkasında yer
almaktadır. İki katlı olarak yapılmış olan hanın dört tarafı revaklarla çevrilmiş ve bu revakları
çevreleyen ince sütunlar kemerlerle birbirine bağlanmıştır
Çifte Han
Ne zaman yapıldığı, kimin tarafından yaptırıldığı ve mimarı belli olmayan Çifte Han, halk
arasında borsa hanı olarak bilinmektedir. Doğu ve batı doğrultusunda uzanmış olan Hasan Paşa
Hanının Mardin Kapısı’na giden yolun sağındaki sokağın içerisinde yer almaktadır. Günümüzde
orijinalliğinden büyük ölçüde uzaklaşmıştır.
Sipahiler Çarşısı
Ulu Cami’nin arkasında Sipahiler Çarşısı’nda bulunan, bugün de işlevini sürdüren buğday
pazarı, ortada geniş bir avlu, etrafında revaklar, arkalarında oda ve depoların yer aldığı güzel bir
örnektir.
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4.2.2.7. Peygamber Kabirleri
1316/1898 tarihli Diyarbakır Salnamesi’ne göre;
1) Nebi Zülkifl Aleyhisselam
2) Nebi Elyesa Aleyhisselam
3) Nebi Harun-i Asefi Aleyhisselam
4) Nebi Hallak Aleyhisselam
5) Nebi Harut Aleyhisselam
6) Nebi Enuş b. Şit Aleyhimüsselamın kabri şerif leri Diyarbakır’da bulunmaktadır (İzgöer,
1999).
Kabirlerinin Eğil’de bulunulduğuna inanılan ve kabul edilen; Kur’an’da 2 ayette bahsedilen Hz.
Elyesa (A.S.), Hz. Zulkifl (A.S.) ile Nebi Harun-i Asefi, Nebi Alak, Zenun, Danyal ile Hz. Elyesa
(A.S.)’nın amcasının oğlu Hürmüz, Nebi Harun’un yeğeni ve yardımcısı Ruyem gibi Nebi ve velilerin
kabirleri bulunmaktadır.
4.2.2.8. Sahabe Kabirleri
Diyarbakır’ın fethine katılan sahabelerden 27 tanesinin defnolduğu, 27 Şehit Sahabe Türbesi ve Camii,
ayrıca şehrin farklı alanlarında var olan sayıları toplamı 500’ü bulan sahabe kabirleri ile Türkiye’nin
en fazla sahabeye mihmandarlık yaptığı şehirdir.
4.2.2.9. Ören Yerleri
Çayönü Ören Yeri
Ergani ilçesine bağlı Çayönü Tepesi, ilçenin 7 km. güneybatısında yer almaktadır. Çayönü
Tepesi’nde ele geçen buluntular ışığında Diyarbakır ve Güneydoğu Anadolu sınırları içinde yer alan
bölgenin ilk yerleşme bölgesi olduğu ve yerleşimin 9000 yıl önceye dek uzandığı saptanmıştır.
Çayönü’nde yapılan kazılarda ızgara plan sistemine göre düzenlenmiş evler ve yapılar bulunmuştur.
Çayönü - Ergani/Sesverenpınar
Üçtepe - Bismil/Üçtepe
Hassuni Mağarası - Silvan/Merkez
Hilar Mağarası - Ergani/Sesverenpınar
4.2.3.
Kültürel Turistik Değerler
4.2.3.1. Karpuz Festivali
Dicle nehri kıyısındaki kumsalda üretimi yapılan geleneksel kuyu karpuzculuğu ve her yıl Eylül
ayında yapılan Diyarbakır Kültür ve Karpuz Festivali ile Diyarbakır tanıtımına ve ekonomisine katkı
yapılmaktadır.
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4.2.3.2. Gastronomi
Yemek kültürü oldukça zengin olan Diyarbakır’ın geleneksel yemek türlerinde et önemli bir yer
tutar. Daha çok yaylada yetişen kuzu ve koyun eti tüketilir. Yemeklere acı ve ekşi tatlarla lezzet katılır,
yağ bolca kullanılır. Kış için pastırma, kavurma, peynir, salça, turşu gibi yiyecekler hazırlanır.
Buharda pişirildikten sonra fırına verilen ve didiklenerek servis edilen Kaburga dolması,
Diyarbakır’a özgü et, sebze ve sumaktan yapılan ve sarımsak katılan meftunesi, ciğer kebabı, çiğ
köfte, içli köfte, bulgurla yapılan Analı Kızlı köfte, Ekşili köfte, duvaklı pilav, bulgur pilavı, etli ekşili
dolma, zeytinyağlı dolma, kibe mumbar, lebeni de denilen yoğurt çorbası, babaganış kentin öne çıkan
yemek türleridir. Burmalı kadayıf Diyarbakır’ın en popüler hamur tatlısıdır. Bakır sac üzerine dökülen
tel kadayıfların burularak toplanmasıyla yapılır. Tatlının 18. Yüzyıldan beri Diyarbakır ve Bingöl’de
yapıldığı tahmin edilmektedir. Hamur ve şuruptan yapılan Nuriye tatlısı, zingil, revani, halbur hurma
ve künefe kentin mutfağında bulunan diğer tatlı çeşitleridir.
Zengin mutfağına rağmen Diyarbakır, Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı’nın Turizm Eylem Planı’nda
(2013) “Güneydoğu Anadolu Gurme Aksı”nda yer almamaktadır.
4.2.4.
Ulaşım ve Konaklama İmkânları
Geniş bir hinterlandı olan İl merkezi kara yollarının kavşak noktasıdır. Diyarbakır’ a hem
karayolu, hem hava yolu, hem de demiryolu ile ulaşım sağlanmaktadır. Her zaman Ankara, İzmir ve
İstanbul’ a düzenli uçak seferleri yapılmaktadır. Diyarbakır’dan Türkiye’nin her yerine otobüs ile
yolculuk
yapılabilir.
Ayrıca
Ortadoğu
Ülkelerine
taksi
ile
yolculuk
mümkündür.
Diyarbakır’dan Ankara 912, İstanbul 1272, İzmir 1460, Adana 542, Kayseri 620, Malatya 263,
Şanlıurfa 284, Elazığ 162, Van 383,Mardin 94, Muş 262 Kilometredir.
5.
DİYARBAKIR İLİ TURİZM POTANSİYELİNİN SWOT ANALİZİ
5.1.
ÜSTÜNLÜKLER
Diyarbakır'a ilk gelenlerin en çekici özellik olarak yüzde 79 oranında tarihi ve dini mekânları
belirtmiş olmalarının Diyarbakır"ın turizm planlamasında bu iki unsurun öne çıkarılması gerektiğine
dair önemli bir gösterge olmuştur. Diyarbakır'a ilk kez gelenlerin yüzde 80'inin "tekrar gelmek
isterim" ifadesinin hem turizm planlaması açısından hem de şehrin cazibesi açısından önemli bir bulgu
olarak değerlendirilmesi gerekir.
Diyarbakır ilinin güçlü özellikleri;
Güçlü ulaşım bağlantıları, ulusal ve uluslararası ağ içinde erişilebilir olması
Karacadağ Kalkınma Ajansının kurulmuş olması
Misafirperver insanlar
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5. Harem-i Şerif olarak kabul edilen Ulu Cami’nin olması
Çeşitli kültürlere ev sahipliği yapması
Dünyadaki en uzun surlardan biri olan Diyarbakır surlarının olması
Turizm olgusuna adapte olabilecek genç ve dinamik nüfus
Karpuz festivali
Alternatif turizme uygun zengin doğal kaynaklar ve bozulmamış çevre
Yöredeki tarihi değerler (kale, kilise, evler, konaklar)
Yöreye özgü el sanatları ürünlerinin varlığı
Zengin yöre mutfağı
Geleneksel el sanatları
Turizmin gelişmesi için geniş kitlelerin desteği
5.2.
ZAYIFLIKLAR
Yapılan araştırmalara göre Diyarbakır'ın olumsuz olarak algılanan en önemli özelliğinin
temizlikle ilgili olduğunu, bu alanda toplumun daha iyi bilinçlendirilmesi gerektiğinin, temizlikten
sonra olumsuz olarak algılanan özellikler arasında sırasıyla sokakta çalışan çocukların fazla olması
(yüzde 16), dilencilik (yüzde 16), gasp ve soygunun (yüzde 15.7) gelmektedir. Diyarbakır hakkında
önceden olumsuz algıya sahip olanların araştırmaya katılanların yaklaşık üçte bir oranında olduğu
görülmektedir. Bir taraftan "misafirperverlik", diğer taraftan "güvenli olmayan" ve "etnik duyguları
güçlü" bir yer algısı önemli bir tezat oluşturmaktadır. Son zamanlarda özellikle Diyarbakır"a ilişkin
medyada çıkan haberlerin çoğunlukla "terör ve güvenlik problemi" ile ilgili olması, Diyarbakır
hakkında olumsuz algılamalara yol açtığı söylenebilir (ilkehaberajansı,2010)
Diyarbakır'ın zayıf yanları;
Nitelikli iş gücünün yetersiz olması
Tanıtım ve pazarlama faaliyetlerinin yokluğu
Yerel halkta turizm bilincinin yetersiz oluşu
Turizm alt yapısın eksikliği (ulaşım, insan kaynakları ve konaklama)
Teröre dayalı güvenlik sorunları
İnternet siteleri yörenin turizm potansiyelini içermemektedir ve yöre tanıtımı için
yeterli değildir.
Üst yapının yeterli olmayışı (Otel vb.)
Yöredeki seyahat acenteleri yöreye yeterli hizmeti vermektedirler.
Yöredeki katı atık (çöp) sorunu
Yöredeki turistik hizmet kalitesinin yetersizliği
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Yöredeki kamu teşekkülleri ve yerel yönetimlerin turizm gelişimi için yeterli (turizm
eğitimi almış) ve istekli olmayışları
Yön tabelaları, haritalar ve yöreyi tanıtıcı levhaların yetersizlikleri
Yöre turizmine yön vere bilecek bir ekibin kurulmamış olması
Turizm açısında şehir içinde girişimci kültürün oluşmamış olması
5.3.
FIRSATLAR
Diyarbakır ilinin bir çok turistik yeri vardır fakat yeterli alt yapı tesisleri yoktur.Ancak son
dönemlerde bu durumu fırsata dönüştürecek çalışmalar yapılmaktadır.
Dünyanın en prestijli turizm fuarı olarak kabul edilen ve 05-09 Mart 2014 tarihlerinde
Almanya'nın Berlin şehrinde düzenlenecek olan Uluslararası ITB Berlin Turizm Fuarı'na Diyarbakır 2.
kez katılacak. Yurtiçi ve yurtdışı turizm tanıtım organizasyonlarına katılım sağlamaya büyük önem
veren Diyarbakır, sahip olduğu turizm potansiyelini ön plana çıkararak uluslararası platformlarda
tanıtımını sağlayacak. Almanya'nın Berlin şehrinde düzenlenecek olan Uluslararası ITB Berlin Turizm
Fuarı Diyarbakır'ın tanıtılması ve turizmde rekabet gücünün artması açısından önemli fırsatlardan biri
olacak. Son dönemlerde Diyarbakır Valiliği, Diyarbakır'ın sahip olduğu turizm potansiyelini ön plana
çıkararak uluslararası platformlarda tanıtımının sağlanması için önemli proje çalışmaları yürütüyor. Bu
çalışmalar arasında Valilik tarafından Cazibe Merkezlerinin Desteklenmesi Programı kapsamında
yürütülen Diyarbakır Kültürel Mirasının Tanıtımı Projesi kapsamında önemli tanıtım ve fuar
etkinliklerine yer verildi(sondakika.com, 2014).
Diyarbakır ilinin fırsatları;
Avrupa Birliği katılım süreci
Yerel yönetimlerin AB hibe programlarından yararlanması
İlin GAP kapsamında olması ve önemli yatırımların merkezinde olması
Bölgede sosyal destek ve istihdam programlarının uygulanması
İlin “Kalkınmada Öncelikli İller” kapsamında olması
İstihdam edilebilir genç nüfus
Bölgede teşvik sisteminin varlığı ve artacak olması
KOSGEB projeleri; Cazibe Merkezlerini Destekleme Programı Diyarbakır Pilot
Uygulaması, Kredi Destek Programları
Belli sektörlerin öne çıkarılması ve kümelenme çalışmaları
Dünya turizm hareketlerindeki değişmeler yöre turizminin gelişimi için bir fırsattır.
Koruma altına alının doğal ve tarihi değerler.
Yörenin Irak, İran ve Suriye’ye yakınlığı
Yöredeki turizm gelişimi diğer sektörlerin gelişimini olumlu yönde etkileyebilir
Turizm yörenin sosyo-kültürel gelişimine olumlu katkılar sağlayabilir
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5.4. TEHDİTLER
Ülke içi ve komşu ülkelerdeki siyasi kargaşa ortamı
Göç eğiliminin artarak devam ediyor olması
Girişimcilik olmaması ve bu konuda ilgili çalışmaların yapılmaması
Kurumsallaşamama ve finansal kaynak veya fonları yönetmede karşılaşılan sorunlar
Girişimcilerin mali kaynaklara erişim konusundaki eksiklikleri
Yerel yö