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Bütünleşik İş Süreçleri Modelleme Yaklaşımı ile - CEUR

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Banu Aysolmaz1 ve Onur Demirörs2
1Bilgi
Grubu Ltd., 2'7h7HNQRNHQW*Pú%ORNODU1R, Ankara, Türkiye
[email protected]
2Enformatik Enstitüsü, 2UWD'R÷XTeknik Üniversitesi, Ankara
[email protected]
Öz. øúVUHoOHULDQDOL]LYHPRGHOOHPHLOHDoÕ÷DoÕNDUÕODQELOJLNXUXPODUGDEDúND
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ULQLQUHWLOPHVLLoLQJHUHNVL]LúJFKDUFDQPDVÕQDYHDUDODUÕQGDNLL]OHQHELOLUOL÷LQ
NXUXODPDPDVÕQDQHGHQROPDNWDGÕU83520EWQOHúLNLúVUHoOHULPRGHOOHPH
\DNODúÕPÕPÕ]ÕNXOODQDUDNVUHoPRGHOOHULQLJHOLúWLULUNHQD\QÕ]DPDQGD\D]ÕOÕP
JHOLúWLUPHLoLQLKWL\DoGX\XODQED]ÕLúUQleri GHELUELUL\OHLOLúNLOLYHRWRPDWLN
RODUDNROXúWXUXODELOPHNWHGLU%XLúUQOHUL\D]ÕOÕPJHOLúWLUPHLoLQNXOODQÕFÕJH
UHNVLQLPOHULGRNPDQÕYH &260,&IRQNVL\RQQRNWDFLQVLQGHQ\D]ÕOÕPE\NON
NHVWLULPLD\UÕFDLúV|]O÷YHVUHoWDQÕPODPDGRNPDQODUÕQÕLoHUPHNWHGLU%X
PDNDOH83520\DNODúÕPÕQÕQ..7&H-GHYOHWSURJUDPÕoHUoHYHVLQGHLNLSURMHGH
X\JXODPDVÕYHGH÷HUOHQGLUPHVLQLLoHUHQoRNOXGXUXPoDOÕúPDVÕQÕNRQXDOPDNWD
GÕU%XLNLSURMHGH83520NXOODQÕODUDNSURMHQLQDQDOL]DúDPDVÕQGDROXúWXUXO
PDVÕSODQODQDQoÕNWÕODUÕQoR÷XUHWLOHELOPLúWLUhUHWLOHQNXOODQÕFÕJHUHNVLQLPOHUL
YHE\NONNHVWLULPL\D]ÕOÕPJHOLúWLUPHLKDOHDúDPDVÕQGDNXOODQÕOPÕúWÕU
Anahtar kelimeler: øúVUHoOHULPRGHOOHPH, gereksinim analizi, \D]ÕOÕPfonksiyonel büyüklük kestirimi, COSMIC
1
*LULú
øúVUHoOHULNXUXPNOWUQQ\DQVÕPDVÕRODUDNELUNXUXPXQHQGH÷HUOLYDUOÕNODUÕQGDQ
GÕU[1]. øúVUHoOHULPRGHOOHPHø60LúVUHoOHULQLDQDOL]HWPHNDQODPDNYHWDQÕPOD
PDNLoLQVÕNOÕNODNXOODQÕODQELU\|QWHPGLUøúVUHoOHULQLQDQDOL]HGLOPHVLLOHNXUXPXQ
PHYFXW\DGDXODúÕOPDNLVWHQHQGXUXPXRUWD\DoÕNDUÕODELOPHNWHGLU%XELOJL\DSÕVDOELU
ELoLPGHLúVUHoPRGHOOHULRODUDNLIDGHHGLOPHNWHGLU ø60NXUXPODUGDoRNoHúLWOLDPDo
ODU LoLQ RUWDN ELU DUDo KDOLQH JHOPLúWLU ø60 KHP Lú VUHoOHUL \HQLGHQ \DSÕODQGÕUPD
VUHoL\LOHúWLUPHJLEL³VDINXUXPVDOQHGHQOHU´LoLQKHPGHLúDNÕúÕVLVWHPOHULWDQÕP
lama, SURMH\|QHWLPLLQVDQND\QDNODUÕSODQODPDELOJi yönetimi ve sertifikasyon gibi
SUDWLNOHULoLQGHNXOODQÕOPDNWDGÕU[2].
øúVUHoOHUL PRGHOOHUL\OH \DNDODQDQELOJLQLQEXELOJLGHQID\GDODQDELOHFHNEDúNDLú
UQOHULLoLQVLVWHPDWLNúHNLOGHNXOODQÕOPDGÕ÷ÕQÕJ|]OHPOHPHNWH\L]%XGDEXLúUQOHUL
245
LoLQJHOLúWLUPHLúJFQQDUWPDVÕQDYHUQOHULQLúVUHoOHUL\OHL]OHQHELOLUOL÷LQLQND\
EROPDVÕQDQHGHQROPDNWDGÕU'DKDVRQUDLúVUHoWDQÕPODUÕ\ODGL÷HULúUQOHULELUELULQ
GHQED÷ÕPVÕ]úHNLOGHJQFHOOHQGLNoHELUELUL\OHLOJLVL]YHoHOLúHQKDOHJHOHELOPHNWHYH
EDNÕPODUÕLoLQoRNID]ODLúJFKDUFDQPDNWDGÕU6RUXQNXUXPLúVUHoOHULQLLúX\JX
ODPD\D]ÕOÕPODUÕ\DGDVUHoWDEDQOÕ bilgi sistemleriyle otomasyona almak isteyen kuUXPODULoLQGDKDGDEHOLUJLQROPDNWDGÕU[3]%XVRUXQX|QOHPHNLoLQ\D]ÕOÕPJHOLúWLUPH
YHGL÷HUNXUXPVDODNWLYLWHOHULoLQEWQOHúLN\|QWHPOHUX\JXODQDUDN\D]ÕOÕPJHOLúWLUPH
LoLQJHUHNOLLúUQOHULQLQLúVUHoOHULELOJLVLQL\DSÕVDOúHNLOGHNXOODQPDVÕVD÷ODQPDOÕGÕU
Daha önceki oDOÕúPDODUÕPÕ]GDDQDOL]LúOHPOHULQLQLúVUHoPRGHOOeri tek kaynak olaUDNNXOODQÕODUDNEWQOHúLNúHNLOGH\DSÕOPDVÕGXUXPXQGDLúVUHoPRGHOOHULQLQELUoRN
LúUQQRWRPDWLNúHNLOGHROXúWXUPDN]HUHNXOODQÕODELOHFH÷LQLRUWD\DoÕNDUGÕN[4, 5].
%XLúUQOeri VUHoRWRPDV\RQXVD÷OD\DQ\D]ÕOÕPODULoLQNXOODQÕFÕJHUHNVLQLPOHULGR
NPDQÕYH\D]ÕOÕPIRQNVL\RQHOE\NONNHVWLULPLD\UÕFDVUHoWDQÕPODPDGRNPDQÕ
YHLúV|]ONOHULGLU0RGHOOHULJHOLúWLUPHNYHLúUQOHULQLUHWPHNLoLQ83520DGÕQÕ
YHUGL÷LPL]EWQOHúLNELUø60\|QWHPLJHOLúWLUGLN83520ø60oDOÕúPDODUÕLoLQQR
tasyon, meta-PRGHOVUHoNÕODYX]ODUYHLúUQROXúWXUPDSURVHGUOHULLoHUPHNWHGLU
83520 DUDFÕ EX \|QWHPH X\JXQ úHNLOGH ø60 oDOÕúPDODUÕQÕ VUGUPHN YH RWRPDWLN
úHNLOGHLúUQOHULQLROXúWXUPDNLoLQSURWRWLSDUDoRODUDNJHOLúWLULOGL<|QWHPLJHoHUOL
NÕOPDNLoLQDGHWGXUXPoDOÕúPDVÕJHUoHNOHúWLULOPLúWLU
Bu makalede UPROM’un e-GHYOHWSURJUDPÕoHUoHYHVLQGHNLLNLVLVWHPLoLQoRNOXGX
UXPoDOÕúPDVÕQÕDQODWPDNWD\Õ]%XVLVWHPOHUúLUNHWYHPDUNDPHUNH]LND\ÕWVLVWHPOHUL
GLUøNLSURMHQLQGHLONDúDPDODUÕúXIDDOL\HWOHULLoHUPHNWHGLUPHYFXWLúVUHoOHULQLQ
DQDOL]L\D]ÕOÕPWDUDIÕQGDQGHVWHNOHQHFHNKHGHIOHQHQVUHoOHULoLQVUHoPRGHOOHUL
QLQWDQÕPODQPDVÕ\D]ÕOÕPLKDOHVLQGHNXOODQÕODFDNWHNQLNúDUWQDPHGRNPDQÕYH\D
]ÕOÕPE\NONYHHIRUNHVWLULPLQLQJHOLúWLULOPHVL83520EXSURMHOHUGHLúVUHoOHUL
DQDOL]LLoLQ\|QWHPRODUDNNXOODQÕOPÕúWÕU$UDoWDUDIÕQGDQRWRPDWLNROXúWXUXODQLúUQ
OHULSURMHOHULQLONDúDPDVÕQGDJHUHNOLJ|UOHQteslimaWODUÕQ oR÷XQXROXúWXUPXúWXU
Makalenin JHULNDODQÕúXúHNLOGHdir%|OP83520\DNODúÕPÕQÕVXQPDNWDGÕU%|
OPLOLúNLOLoDOÕúPDODUÕVD÷ODPDNWDGÕU%|OPoRNOXGXUXPoDOÕúPDVÕWDVDUÕPÕQÕYH
E|OPEXQXQX\JXODPDVÕQÕ LoHUPHNWHGLU%|OPVRQXoODUÕ|]Htlemektedir. .
2
UPROM için Genel Bilgi
<D]ÕOÕPJHOLúWLUPHGHoHúLWOLLúUQOHULQLELUELUL\OHLOLúNLOHQGLUPHYHGH÷LúLNDúDPDODUGD
WDNLSHWPH\L\D\JÕQELUSUDWLNRODUDNJ|UPHNWH\L]%HQ]HUELU\DNODúÕPÕQLúVUHoOHUL
PRGHOOHUL LoLQ GH NXOODQÕODUDN Lú UQOHUL LoLQ LúJF YHULPOLOL÷L WDPOÕN WXWDUOÕOÕN YH
NROD\JQFHOOHPHJLELELUoRN\DUDUÕQVD÷ODQDELOHFH÷LQLbelirledik. UPROM, bütünlHúLN
analiz aktiviteleri ile tüm bilgilerin tek bir model seti üzerinde saklanPDVÕLOH úXLúUQ
lerinin RWRPDWLNRODUDNROXúWXUXOPDVÕQÕVD÷ODPDNWDGÕUNXOODQÕFÕJHUHNVLQLPOHUL\D]Õ
OÕPIRQNVL\RQHOE\NONNHVWLULPLVUHoWDQÕPODPDGRNPDQÕYHLúV|]O÷. Bu duUXPoDOÕúPDVÕNDSVDPÕQGDVUHoWDQÕPODPDGRNPDQÕYHLúV|]O÷EXOXQPDPDNWDGÕU
83520PRGHOOHPHQRWDV\RQXWLSGL\DJUDPoHúLGLLoHUPHNWHGLU%XQODURUWDNELU
meta-PRGHO]HULQGHoDOÕúPDNWDGÕU1RWDV\RQXQDQDSDUoDVÕH(3&JHQLúOHWLOPLúROD\
246
tabanOÕVUHo]LQFLULQRWDV\RQXGXU[6]. Analiz etkinlikleri ve ilgili diyagram tipleri sonUDNLLNLE|OPGHDoÕNODQPÕúWÕU83520¶XQGDKDJHQLúELUWDQÕWÕPÕUHIHUDQVWDEXOXQD
bilir [7]. UPROM’u desteklemek için bflow* Toolbox [8] DUDFÕQGDQID\GDODQÕODUDNELU
ø60DUDFÕJHOLúWLULOPLúWLU $UDoDOWÕGL\DJUDPWLSL]HULQGHPHWD-model ile belirlenen
NÕVÕWODU\DSÕNRQWUROHN |]HOOLNOHUYHHúVL]REMHOHUJLEL|]HOOLNOHUGDKLOLQGHPRGHOOHPH
\DSÕOPDVÕQÕVD÷ODPDNWDGÕU$UDo\|QWHPGHWDQÕPODQGÕ÷ÕúHNLOGHLúUQOHULQLRWRPDWLN
olarak üretebilmektedir.
2.1
$QDø60'L\DJUDPODUÕQÕQ*HOLúWLULOPHVL
%XDúDPDGDNXUXPGDX\JXODQDQWPHWNLQOLNOHUHOOH\DGDRWRPDWLNRODUDN\DSÕOVDGD
LúVUHoOHULPRGHOOHUL\OHGH÷LúLNEDNÕúDoÕODUÕ\ODDQDOL]HGLOLUYHPRGHOOHQLUøúVUHoOH
ULQLLúOHYVHOYHGDYUDQÕúVDOEDNÕúDoÕODUÕQGDQLQFHOHPHNLoLQGH÷HU]LQFLUL9&IRQNVL
\RQD÷DFÕ)7JHQLúOHWLOPLúROD\WDEDQOÕVUHo]LQFLULH(3&\DGD(3&GL\DJUDPODUÕ
NXUXPVDOEDNÕúDoÕVÕQÕJ|VWHUPHNLoLQGH|UJWúHPDVÕGL\DJUDPÕ2&WDQÕPODQPÕúWÕU
9&GL\DJUDPÕNXUXPGDUQYHVHUYLVOHULUHWPHNLoLQVWVHYL\HGH÷HUNDWDQHWNLQOLN
OHULJ|VWHUPHNLoLQNXOODQÕOÕU 'H÷HU]LQFLULVHPEROOHULQGHQ9&)7\DGD(3&WLSLQGH
DOWGL\DJUDPODUUHIHUDQVYHULOHELOLU)7GL\DJUDPÕELULúDNÕúÕ\ODED÷OÕROPD\DQVUHoOH
ULQRUJDQL]HHGLOPHVLQLVD÷ODU%DúNDELU)7\DGD(3&GL\DJUDPDOWGL\DJUDPRODUDN
DWDQDELOLU(3&LúDNÕúÕWDEDQOÕRODUDNVUHFLPRGHOOHPHNLoLRUWDNELUQRWDV\RQVD÷OD
PDNWDGÕU(3&QRWDV\RQXHNVHPEROOHUOHJHQLúOHWLOPLúWLU(3&GL\DJUDPÕQGDELUIRQN
VL\RQDDOWGL\DJUDPRODUDN(3&)7\DGDIRQNVL\RQDWDPDGL\DJUDPÕ)$'DWDQDELOLU
2.2
ø60$QDOL]'L\DJUDPODUÕQÕQ*HOLúWLULOPHVL
%XDúDPDGDLúVUHoPRGHOOHUL\OHEWQOHúLNRODUDNRWRPDV\RQX\DSÕODFDNIRQNVL\RQODU
DWDQÕUYHRWRPDV\RQLKWL\DoODUÕLúDODQÕQGDNXOODQÕFÕEDNÕúDoÕVÕ\ODEHOLUOHQLU(3&¶GH
\HUDODQDOWGL\DJUDPDWDQPDPÕúRODQ XoIRQNVL\RQODULQFHOHQLUYHIRnksiyonun otoPDV\RQLoLQDWDQPDGXUXPXQDNDUDUYHULOLU(÷HUIRQNVL\RQRWRPDV\RQDVRNXODFDNVD
DOWGL\DJUDPRODUDN)$GL\DJUDPÕROXúWXUXOXU)$GL\DJUDPÕLOHRWRPDV\RQVLVWHPLQGH
LOJLOLIRQNVL\RQXJHUoHNOHúWLUPHNLoLQVRUXPOXOXNODULOJLOLYDUOÕNODUYDUOÕNlar üzerinde
JHUoHNOHúWLULOHFHNRSHUDV\RQODULOJLOLX\JXODPDVLVWHPOHULYHNÕVÕWODUEHOLUOHQLU%XúH
NLOGH)$GL\DJUDPÕLOHLOJLOLIRQNVL\RQXQVLVWHPGHQDVÕOoDOÕúPDVÕQÕQEHNOHQGL÷LWDQÕP
ODQÕU)$GL\DJUDPÕúXVHPEROOHULLoHULUIRQNVL\RQYDUOÕNX\JXODPa, kurumsal elePDQODUSR]LV\RQELULPGÕúNLúLNÕVÕW
)$GL\DJUDPODUÕQÕQJHOLúWLULOPHVLVÕUDVÕQGDVLVWHPGHLKWL\DoGX\XODQYDUOÕNODU kavramsal olarak oÕNPDNWDGÕU.DYUDPVDO9DUOÕNøOLúNL(5GL\DJUDPÕEXYDUOÕNODUÕQWP
ELUJ|UQWVQELUDUDGD\DNDODPD\D\DUGÕPFÕROXU(5GL\DJUDPՁ]HULQGHYDUOÕNODU
DUDODUÕQGDNLLVLPYHULOHQLOLúNLOHUELUOHúWLUPHYHJHQHOOHPHLOLúNLOHULLOHPRGHOOHQLU
2.3
Model YapÕVÕ.ÕODYX]ODUYH2OXúWXUXODQøúhUQOHUL
83520DUDFՁ]HULQGHWPGL\DJUDPODU³PRGHOOHPHSURMHVL´RODUDNELUELUL\OHLOLúNLOL
ELU\DSՁ]HULQGHWXWXOXU0RGHOOHPHSURMHVLKL\HUDUúLNNÕUÕOÕPÕ\ODX\XPOXELUNODV|U
\DSÕVÕQDVDKLSWLU(QVWVHYL\HGHELU9&(3&\DGD)7GL\DJUDPÕVUHoKDULWDVÕRODUDN
247
\HUOHúWLULOLU*HULNDODQ9&(3&YH)<GL\DJUDPODUÕDOWGL\DJUDPRODUDNLOLúNLOHQGLUL
OHUHNLOJLOLDOWNODV|UH\HUOHúWLULOLU
$\QÕWLSYHLVPHVDKLSQHVQHOHUHúVL]QHVQHOHULQNRS\DODUÕ olarak tutulur0DQWÕNVDO
RODUDND\QÕ|]HOOLNOHUHVDKLSQHVQHOHUGHGL\DJUDPODUDUDVÕPDQWÕNLOLúNLOHULQLQWXWXOPDVÕ
LoLQHúVL]QHVQHOHULQNRS\DODUÕRODUDNVDNODQPDNWDGÕU%XQODUD|UQHNRODUDNGRNPDQ
YHYDUOÕNQHVQHOHULIRQNVL\RQVUHoDUD\]YHGH÷HU]LQFLULQHVQHOHULYHULOHELOLU(úVL]
QHVQHOHULQNRS\DODUÕD\QÕ|]HOOLNGH÷HUOHULQHVDKLSWLUYHGH÷HUOHUi RUWDNúHNLOGH güncelOHQLU$\UÕFDGL\DJUDP YHQHVQHOHUHHN|]HOOLNOHUDWDQDUDNPRGHOOHU]HQJLQOHúWLULOPLú
YHLúUQOHULQLQROXúWXUXOPDVÕnda gerekli bilgilerin modellere gömülPHVLVD÷ODQPÕúWÕU
)$GL\DJUDPODUNXOODQÕODUDNooHúLWJHUHNVLQLPFPOHVLROXúWXUXOPDNWDGÕU(3&¶OHU
JHUHNVLQLPFPOHOHULQLGRNPDQLoLQGHG]HQOHPHNLoLQNXOODQÕOPDNWDGÕU)RQNVL\R
QHOE\NONNHVWLULPL\LQH)$GL\DJUDPODUGDNLELOJLOHUNXOODQÕODUDN&260,&\D]ÕOÕP
IRQNVL\RQHOE\NON|OoPVWDQGDUGÕQDX\JXQúHNLOGHROXúWXUXOPDNWDGÕU[9].
3
øOJLOLdDOÕúPDODU
ø60¶QLQ SRSOHUOL÷L DUWWÕNoD ø60¶QLQ NXOODQÕOGÕ÷Õ IDUNOÕ DODQ YH DPDoODU GD DUWPÕúWÕU
[2]. $QFDNLúVUHoPRGHOOHULQLQIDUNOÕDPDoODULoLQ\DSÕVDOELUELoLPGHNXOODQÕOPDVÕQD
RGDNODQDQoDOÕúPDODUNÕVÕWOÕGÕU*HUHNVLQLPPKHQGLVOL÷Lø60¶QLQNXOODQÕOGÕ÷Õ önemli
ELUDODQROPDVÕQDUD÷PHQEXDODQGDNLQRWDV\RQODUKHQ]\HWHUOLLIDGH\HWHQH÷LQHVDKLS
GH÷LOGLU[10–12].XOODQÕFÕJHUHNVLQLPQRWDV\RQX851YHKHGHIPRGHOOHPH\DNOD
úÕPODUÕEXWLSELUEWQOHúPHQLQVLVWHPDQDOL]LQLQoRNHUNHQVDIKDODUÕQGD\DSÕOPDVÕLoLQ,
[13, 14] vHULRGDNOÕ\DNODúÕPODUda oDOÕúWÕUÕODELOLUVUHoOHULQJHUHNVLQLPOHULQLEHOLUOHPHN
LoLQNXOODQÕOPDNWDGÕU[15]1LFRODVYH7RYDO¶LQOLWHUDWUoDOÕúPDVÕPRGHOOHUGHQPHWLQVHO
JHUHNVLQLPOHULQROXúWXUXOPDVÕQÕQGH÷HUOLROPDVÕQDUD÷PHQEXWLS\DNODúÕPODUROPDGÕ
÷ÕQÕ belirtmektedir [16] øNL DODQÕ \DSÕVDO úHNLOGH EWQOHúWLUHQ LNL |UQHN EWQOHúLN
ø60 YH JHUHNVLQLP PRGHOOHPH |QHUHQ 0D\U .RS YH (VEHUJHU¶LQ oDOÕúPDVÕ [17] ve
Cox’un soruQoHUoHYHVL\DNODúÕPÕGÕU[18] Erken sistem analizi LOHGHWD\OÕ\D]ÕOÕPDQD
OL]LVHYL\HOHULDUDVÕQGDNXOODQÕFÕVHYL\HVLQGHGHWD\OÕDQDOL]LoLQø60¶QLQNXOODQÕOPDVÕ
NRQXVXQGDELUERúOXNJ|]OHPOHPHNWH\L]dDOÕúPDJUXEXRODUDNGDKD|QFHD\UÕRODUDN
JHUHNVLQLPDQDOL]LQLQø60LOHEWQOHúWLULOPHVLLoLQoDOÕúPDODUÕPÕ]PHYFXWWXU[4, 19].
Fonksiyonel büyüklük |OoPSURVHGUoRNID]ODLúJFJHUHNWLUmektedir. Bu neGHQOHDUDúWÕUPDFÕODUözellikle 80/PRGHOOHULQGHQ|OoPRWRPDWLNOHúWLUPHNLoLQoD
OÕúPDODU\DSPÕúODUGÕU[20–22]øúVUHoPRGHOOHULQLQEXDPDoODNXOODQÕPÕLVHNÕVÕWOÕGÕU
0RQVDOYH¶QLQoDOÕúPDVÕVUHoELOJLVLQLQ\D]ÕOÕPE\NO÷QEHOLUOHPHNLoLQNXOODQÕO
PDVÕNRQXVXQGDIikirlerimizi desteklemekte, ancak süreçler üstünde veri hareketlerinin
WHNWHNEHOLUOHQPHVLQLLoHUHQGDKDGHWD\OÕELUDQDOL]|QHULVLVXQPDNWDGÕU[23]%XoDOÕú
PDGDD\UÕFDJUXEXPX]XQGDKD|QFHNLoDOÕúPDODUÕQÕQVRQXoODUÕQGDQGDID\GDODQGÕN[5].
ø60¶QLQ GH÷LúLN NXOODQÕPODUÕQD RGDNODQDQ \DNODúÕPODU EXOVDN GD EXQODUÕQ ELUGHQ
ID]ODDODQÕEWQOHúWLUPHGL÷LQLJ|UPHNWH\L]$\UÕFDLúVUHoPRGHOOHUL\OHLúUQOHULQLQ
EDNÕP YH L]OHQHELOLUOLN KXVXVODUÕ GDRWRPDWLN RODUDN VD÷ODQPDPDNWDGÕU [15]%XQODUÕ
J|]|QQHDODUDNø60YHGL÷HULOJLOLSUDWLNOHUL ELUDUD\DJHWLUHQ\DSÕVDOPRGHOOHPH\DN
ODúÕPODUÕQÕQLúVUHoOHULELOJLVLQLHWNLQúHNLOGHNXOODQDUDNLOJLOLLúUQOHULQLUHWPHNYH
EDNÕPÕQÕ\DSPDNLoLQJHUHNOLROGX÷XQXGúQPHNWH\L].
248
4
dRNOX'XUXPdDOÕúPDVÕ
83520\|QWHPL..7&¶GHJHUoHNOHúWLULOHQH-devleWSURJUDPÕNDSVDPÕQGDLNLSURMHGH
uygulanPÕúWÕU. Çoklu durum çaOÕúPDVÕQDDLWSODQEXE|OPGH YHULOPLúWLU
4.1
'XUXPXQ7DQÕPÕ
ùLUNHWYH0DUND0HUNH]L.D\ÕW6LVWHPLHùLUNHWYHH0DUNDSURMHOHULúLUNHWYHPDUND
lara ait süreçlerin RWRPDV\RQXLoLQEDúODWÕOPÕúWÕU9DWDQGDúODUÕQEDúYXUX\DSPDVÕPH
PXUODUÕQEDúYXUXODUÕGH÷HUOHQGLUPHVLRQD\vermesi ya da reddetmesi; GÕúVHUYLVOHUGHQ
ELOJLDOÕQPDVÕ; GXUXPGH÷LúLNOLNOHULQLQ\|QHWLOPHVLYHYDWDQGDúODUDNDPX\DYHGÕúSD\
GDúODUDKDEHUYHULOPHVLLoLQoHYULPLoLELULúDNÕúÕVLVWHPLJHUHNPHNWHGLUHùLUNHWVLVWH
PLQLQVWVHYL\HVUHoOHUL\HQLúLUNHWNXUXOPDVÕúLUNHWELOJLOHULQLQJQFHOOHQPHVLúLUNHW
EDúYXUXODUÕQÕQ RQD\ODQPDVÕ úLUNHWOHULQ OLVWHOHQPHVL YH NDSDWÕOPDVÕQÕ LoHUPHNWHGLU
eMarka sisteminin üst seviye süreçleri \HQLELUPDUNDQÕQND\GÕND\ÕWOÕPDUNDQÕQG
zenli güncellemesi, marka bilgilerinin ve marka sahibinin güncellenmesi, marka haklaUÕQÕQYHPDUNDYHNLOLQLQJQFHOOHQPHVLGLU
3URMHOHULQ LON DúDPDVÕ PHYFXW VUHoOHULQ DQDOL]L KHGHIOHQHQ VUHoOHULQ PRGHOOHQ
mesiWHNQLNúDUWQDPHQLQKD]ÕUODQPDVÕYH\D]ÕOÕPE\NONYHLúJFNHVWLULPLQLQ\D
SÕOPDVÕQÕLoHUPHNWHGLU+D]ÕUODQDQoÕNWÕODU\D]ÕOÕPLKDOHVLLoLQNXOODQÕOPÕúWÕU
4.2
$UDúWÕUPD6RUXODUÕ
HùLUNHWYHH0DUNDVLVWHPOHUL83520LoLQúXVRUXODUÕQ\DQÕWODQDELOPHVLQLVD÷ODPÕúWÕU
Soru 1: Bu SURMHOHUGHVUHoOHUL83520¶XX\JXOD\DUDNPRGHOOH\HUHNLKDOHGHNXOODQÕ
ODFDNNXOODQÕFÕJHUHNVLQLPOHULYH\D]ÕOÕPE\NONNHVWLULPLROXúWXUXODELOLUPL"
Soru 2: 2OXúWXUXODQ Lú UQOHUL JHOHQHNVHO \|QWHPOHUOH ED÷ÕPVÕ] RODUDN JHOLúWLULOHQ
UQOHUHJ|UHWDPOÕNWXWDUOÕOÕNkolay güncelleme YHL]OHQHELOLUOLNDoÕVÕQGDQJHOLúWLPL"
4.3
'XUXPdDOÕúPDVÕ3ODQÕ
'XUXPoDOÕúPDVÕQÕX\JXODPDNYHSURMHWHVOLPDWODUÕQÕJHOLúWLUPHNLoLQDúD÷ÕGDNLHWNLQ
OLNOHUL]OHQPLúWLU<NOHQLFLNXUXPGDQYHDQDNXUXPGDQDQDOLVWoDOÕúPDODUÕVUGU
PúWU%X PDNDOHQLQLON \D]DUÕGDDQDOLVWRODUDNoDOÕúPDODUDNDWÕOPÕúWÕUdDOÕúPDODU
U3520DUDFÕNXOODQÕODUDNJHUoHNOHúWLULOPLúWLU
 6RQNXOODQÕFÕODUODPHYFXWVUHoOHULYHLKWL\DoODUÕDQODPDNLoLQoDOÕúWD\ODU\DS
 7DVDUODQDQVUHoOHULoLQ83520SUHQVLSOHULQLL]OH\HUHNLúVUHoPRGHOOHULQLJHOLúWLU
 7DVDUODQDQ VUHoOHUL GH÷HUOHQGLUPHN JHUL bildirimleri almak ve güncellemek için
G]HQOLoDOÕúWD\ODUG]HQOH
 <D]ÕOÕPÕQPRGOOHULLoLQVWVHYL\HPLPDUL\LEHOLUOH
 øúVUHoPRGHOOHUL]HULQGHQRWRPDV\RQLoLQDWDQDQIRQNVL\RQODUÕEHOLUOH%XIRQN
VL\RQODULoLQ)$GL\DJUDPODUÕYHEHUDEHULQGH(5GL\DJUDPÕJHOLúWLU
 83520DUDFÕQÕNXOODQDUDNJHUHNVLQLPOHULYHE\NONNHVWLULPLQLROXúWXU%\N
ONNHVWLULPLQLLúJFNHVWLULPL\DSPDNLoLQNXOODQ
249
 øúUQOHULQLVRQNXOODQÕFÕ\DWHVOLPHWYHJHULELOGLULPOHULWRSOD'H÷LúLNOLNOHULQHWNL
lerini analiz et YHPRGHOOHULJQFHOOHøúUQOHULQLWHNUDUROXúWXUDUDNWHVOLPHW
 7HNQLNúDUWQDPH\HHNOHQPHVLJHUHNHQJHUHNVLQLPOHULEHOLUOHYHúDUWQDPH\LROXúWXU
 $QDOLVWOHUYHVRQNXOODQÕFÕODUOD|QFHGHQWDQÕPOÕVRUXODUÕNXOODQDUDNJ|UúPHOHUJHU
oHNOHúWLU83520¶XQLú UQOHULQLQWDPWXWDUOÕNROD\JQFHOOHQHELOLUYHL]OHQHELOLU
JHOLúWLULOPHVLLoLQHWNLVLQLGH÷HUOHQGLU
5
'XUXPdDOÕúPDVÕ8\JXODPDVÕ
HùLUNHWYHH0DUNDSURMHOHULQGHGXUXPoDOÕúPDVÕLNLDúDPDGD\UWOPúWUøONDúD
PDGDLúVUHoOHULDQDOL]HGLOHUHNPRGHOOHQPLúVRQUDVÕQGDIRQNVL\RQDQDOL]LJHUoHNOHú
WLULOHUHNLúUQOHULRWRPDWLNRODUDNROXúWXUXOPXúWXU
5.1
øú6UHo0RGHOOHULQLQ*HOLúWLULOPHVL
3URMHOHUGHLONRODUDN)7(3&YH2&GL\DJUDPODUÕJHOLúWLULOGL0RGHOOHPHSURMHVLQLQ
NODV|U\DSÕVÕDOWGL\DJUDPODUODX\XPOXúHNLOGHNXUJXODQGÕ(QVWVHYL\HGH)7GL\DJ
UDPÕVUHoKDULWDVÕRODUDNWDQÕPODQGÕ+L\HUDUúLQLQDOWVHYL\HOHULQGHNLWP(3&9&
)7YH)$GL\DJUDPODUÕELUELUL\OHDOWGL\DJUDPLOLúNLVLRODFDNúHNLOGHWDQÕPODQGÕ(5YH
2&GL\DJUDPODUÕSURMH\OHLOJLOLJHQHOELOJLYHUGL÷LLoLQüst seviye klasörlerin içine yerOHúWLULOGL83520DUDFÕ\|QWHPGHNLNODV|U\DSÕVÕQDX\JXQOX÷XNRQWUROHWPLúWLU
HùLUNHWYHH0DUNDSURMHOHULQLQLúVUHoPRGHOOHULQHDLWPHWULNOHU Tablo 1’de verilPLúWLUHùLUNHWVUHoOHULQGHH0DUNDVUHoOHULQGHLVHIRQNVL\RQEXOXQPDNWDGÕU
3URMHOHUER\XWDoÕVÕQGDQIDUNOÕROVDGDRUWDODPDGH÷HUOHULQ\DNÕQOÕ÷ÕJ|]|QQHDOÕQGÕ
÷ÕQGD|]HOOLNOHULEHQ]HUGLU(3&GL\DJUDPODUÕOLWHUDWUGHLúDNÕúÕVHPEROOHULQLQ(olay,
fonksiyon, süreç arayüzü, mantÕNVDOLúOHoOHUYHED÷ODQWÕODUÕQVD\ÕVÕLOHLOJLOL|QHULOHQ
SUHQVLSOHUHX\PDNWDGÕU[24]. Tüm diyagramlar içinde sadece 3 diyagram önerilen limitOHULDúPDNWDGÕU[25]. Çoklu EDúODQJÕoYHELWLúROD\ODUÕIRUPHOPRGHOOHULoLQ|QHULOPHVH
de [24]83520¶XQDPDFÕVRQNXOODQÕFÕODUODLOHWLúLPLYHDQOD\ÕúÕGHVWHNOHPHNROGX
÷XQGDQGROD\ÕEXQODUÕQNXOODQÕOPDVÕLIDGH\HWHQH÷LQLDUWÕUPDNLoLQNXOODQÕOPÕúWÕU[2].
Tablo 1. HùLUNHWYHH0DUNDprojeleri için iúsüreç modeli metrikleri
Metrik
En derin seviye
# FT GL\DJUDPODUÕ
(3&IRQNVL\RQODUÕ
# FA GL\DJUDPODUÕ
# HúVL] Lú DNÕúÕ VHP
bolleri
(3& EDúÕQD RUWDODPD
ED÷ODQWÕ
eùLUNHW
3
3
110
82
183
4
eMarka
3
3
40
36
79
4,7
Metrik
# EPC diyagramODUÕ
# ER diyagramODUÕ
# (3&EDúÕQDIRQNVL\RQ
# (3&EDúÕQD)$
(3&EDúÕQDRUWDODPDLú
DNÕúÕVHPEROOHUL
(3&EDúÕQDRUWDODPDLú
DNÕúÕED÷ODQWÕVÕ
250
HùLUNHW
15
2
7,3
5,5
12,2
24,7
eMarka
6
1
6,7
6
13,2
21,8
5.2
)RQNVL\RQ$QDOL]LYHøúhUQOHULQLQ2OXúWXUXOPDVÕ
(3&GL\DJUDPODUÕQGDNLKHUELUXoIRQNVL\RQDQDOL]HGLOHUHNRWRPDV\RQDJLUHFHNIRQN
VL\RQODU LoLQ GHWD\OÕ DQDOL] )$ GL\DJUDPODUÕ LOH \DSÕOPÕúWÕU %LU )$ GL\DJUDP |UQH÷L
ùHNLO 1¶GHYHULOPLúWLUøOJLOLIRQNVL\RQXQRWRPDV\RQXVÕUDVÕQGDVLVWHPLQQDVÕOoDOÕúDFD
÷ÕQDLOLúNLQDQDOL]DúD÷ÕGDNLVHPEROYHED÷ODQWÕODULOH\DSÕOPÕúWÕU
 Kurumsal Eleman – Fonksiyon: %XED÷ODQWÕIRQNVL\RQODLOJLOLVRUXPOXOXNODUÕWDQÕP
ODU%D÷ODQWÕWLSLúXQODURODELOLU³\UWURQD\ODUGHVWHNOHUNDWNÕVD÷ODUELWWL÷LQGH
KDEHUYHULOPHOLGLU´%LUGHQID]ODHOHPDQED÷ODQDELOLUùHNLO 1¶GHSR]LV\RQYHGÕúNLúL
ED÷ODQPÕúED÷ODQWÕODUQXPDUDLOHLúDUHWOHQPLúWLU1XPDUDOÕED÷ODQWÕODULúOHPLQED÷OÕ
RODQKHUKDQJLELULWDUDIÕQGDQQXPDUDVÕ]ODULVHLNLVLELUGHQJHUoHNOHúWLULOPHVLJHUHN
WL÷LQLLIDGHHWPHNWHGLU
 Fonksiyon – 9DUOÕN – 8\JXODPD%XED÷ODQWÕODUIRQNVL\RQXQLúOHWLOPHVLVÕUDVÕQGD
JHUHNOLYDUOÕNODUEXYDUOÕNODUÕQQDVÕONXOODQÕODFD÷ÕQÕEHOLUOH\HQLúOHPOHUYHEXYDUOÕN
ODUÕQEXOXQGX÷XX\JXODPDODUÕWDQÕPODU)RQNVL\RQYHYDUOÕNDUDVÕQGDNLED÷ODQWÕODU
&58'/LúOHPOHULQHEHQ]HUúHNLOGHúXQODURODUDNWDQÕPODQDELOLU³NXOODQÕUJ|UQW
OHU\DUDWÕUGH÷LúWLULURNXUVLOHUOLVWHOHU´
 Uygulama – .ÕVÕW)RQNVL\RQXQLúOHWLOPHVLVÕUDVÕQGDLOJLOLX\JXODPDGDJ|]|QQH
DOÕQPDVÕJHUHNHQNÕVÕWODUFPOH\DSÕVÕQGDNÕVÕWVHPERO\OHWDQÕPODQÕU.ÕVÕWODUGH÷HU
GH÷LúLNOLNOHULYHULNÕVÕWODUÕ]DPDQNÕVÕWODUÕGXUXPGH÷LúLNOLNOHULQLLoHUHELOLU
)$GL\DJUDPODUÕQ]HULQGHWDQÕPODQDQYDUOÕNODU(5GL\DJUDP]HULQH\HUOHúWLULOLU
9DUOÕNODU DUDVÕQGDNL JHQHO ELUOHúWLUPH YH JHQHOOHPH LOLúNLOHUL J|VWHULOLU %X DúDPDGD
DQDOL]LQNXOODQÕFÕVHYL\HVLQGH \DSÕOGÕ÷ÕQÕGúQHUHN YDUOÕNODUNDYUDPVDOVHYL\HGHWD
QÕPODQPÕúWÕU%X(5GL\DJUDPELU\D]ÕOÕPYHULWDEDQÕPRGHOLROXúWXUPDPDNODELUOLNWH
\D]ÕOÕPDúDPDVÕQGDEXoDOÕúPDODUDEDúODPDNLoLQWHPHORODUDNDOÕQDFDNWÕU%XúHNLOGH
GHLúDODQÕLOHWHNQRORMLNDODQODUDUDVÕQGDED÷ODQWÕNXUXOPDNWDGÕU
ùHNLO 1. “ùLUNHW.XUXOXú%LOJLOHULQL*LU” sürecinde bir fonksiyon için örnek FA diyagram
)$GL\DJUDPNXOODQÕODUDNoHúLWJHUHNVLQLPFPOHVLROXúWXUXOPDNWDGÕUùHNLO 1’de veriOHQ|UQHNGL\DJUDP]HULQGHFPOHOHUDúD÷ÕGDWDQÕPODQPÕúWÕUøWDOLNOHJ|VWHULOHQNÕ
VÕPODUGL\DJUDPGDQDOÕQDQELOJLOHUOHWDPDPODQPÕúWÕU
251
ņ Tip 1: ùLUNHWKLVVHGDUELOJLOHULQLJLrPHLúOHPLQLùLUNHW7HVFLO%DúYXUX6DKLEL ya da
ùLUNHW6RUXPOXVX yürütecektir.
ņ 7LS%XLúOHPVÕUDVÕQGDH7X]HOùLUNHW.XUPD%DúYXUXmodülünde úLUNHWKLVVHGDU
bilgileri ND\GÕROXúWXUXODFDN ve GH÷LúWLULOHFHN, úLUNHWVHUPD\HELOJLOHUL ND\GÕokunacak, e-Nüfus Web Servis'ten kimlik no ND\GÕNXOODQÕODUDN JHUoHNNLúLNLPOLNELOJLOHUL
ND\GÕJ|UQWOHQHFHNeTuzel'den eTuzel no ND\GÕNXOODQÕODUDN W]HONLúLNLPOLNELO
gileri ND\GÕgörüntülenecektir.
ņ Tip 3: ùLUNHWKLVVHGDUELOJLOHULQLJLUPHLúOHPLVÕUDVÕQGD"ayni sermaye" girilmesi duUXPXQGDPHQNXOJD\ULPHQNXOYHDUDoELOJLOHULQLQJLULOGL÷LNRQWUROHGLOHFHNWLU.
ņ Tip 3: ùLUNHWKLVVHGDUELOJLOHULQLJLUPHLúOHPLVÕUDVÕQGDgirilen sermaye ile pay adedi
ELOJLOHULQLQX\JXQOX÷XNRQWUROHGLOHFHNWLU.
ņ Tip 3: ùLUNHWKLVVHGar bilgilerini girPHLúOHPLVÕUDVÕQGDúLUNHWKDONDDoÕNúLUNHWVHHQ
D]RUWDN|]HOúLUNHWVHHQD]HQoRNRUWDNNRPDQGLWúLUNHWVHHQD]HQID]OD
RUWDNWLFDULQYDQLoLQVDGHFHELURUWDNWDQÕPODQGÕ÷ÕNRQWUROHGLOHFHNWLU.
hoFPOHWLSLoRNVD\ÕGDGHVHQLoHUHELOLU7PDOWHUQDWLIOHUEXUDGDLoHULOPHPLúWLUDQFDN
\XNDUÕGDNLOHU \HWHUOL |UQHN ROXúWXUPDNWDGÕU *HUHNVLQLP FPOHOHUL ROXúWXUXOGXNWDQ
VRQUDLQFHOHQPLúYHED]ÕJHUHNVLQLPOHUHOLOH\D]ÕODUDNHNOHQPLúWLU%XJHUHNVLQLPOHU
sistemin genel özelliklerine, kuruma ve web servislere özgüdür. Toplamda Tablo 2’de
J|VWHULOGL÷LúHNLOGHRWRPDWLNROXúWXUXODQJHUHNVLQLPFPOHVLWHNQLNúDUWQDPHGHNL
PDGGHOHULQ¶ÕQÕROXúWXUPXúWXU
Tablo 2. eùLUNHWYHH0DUNDLoLQgereksinim metrikleri
Metrik
2WRPDWLNROXúWXUXODQJHUHNVLQLPVD\ÕVÕ
2OXúWXUXODQWLSJHUHNVLQLPVD\ÕVÕ
(OOHHNOHQHQJHUHNVLQLPVD\ÕVÕ
Toplam gereksinimler
2OXúWXUXODQJHUHNVLQLPOHULRUDQÕ
<D]ÕOÕPPRGOVD\ÕVÕ
0RGOEDúÕQDJHUHNVLQLPVD\ÕVÕ
(3&EDúÕQDJHUHNVLQLPVD\ÕVÕ
eùLUNHW
363
176
35
398
91%
6
66
26,5
eMarka
177
98
19
196
90%
5
39
32,7
&260,&\|QWHPL\D]ÕOÕPE\NO÷QWRSODPYHULKDUHNHWL9+VD\ÕVÕRODUDNWDQÕP
ODU9+VD\ÕODUÕWRSODQDUDNIRQNVL\RQQRNWD)1FLQVLQGHQE\NONKHVDSODQÕU. VH
WLSOHULúXQODUGÕU*LULú(2NXPD5<D]PD:dÕNÕú;[9]. Veri hareketleri ya]ÕOÕPJHUHNVLQLPOHULQGHQKHVDSODQÕU$QFDN83520¶GDEXHUNHQVDIKDGD\D]ÕOÕPJH
UHNVLQLPOHULEXOXQPDGÕ÷ÕQGDQ)$GL\DJUDPODUÕQGDLIDGHHGLOHQNXOODQÕFÕJHUHNVLQLP
OHULHUNHQELUE\NONNHVWLULPL\DSPDNLoLQNXOODQÕODELOLU%XQXQLoLQYDUOÕNODUÕQ]H
ULQGHWDQÕPODQDQLúOHPOHULoLQDúD÷ÕGDNLoHYULPELOJLVLQHJ|UH9+WLSOHULEHOLUOHQLU
<DUDWÕU, Siler: 1 *LULú+ 1 Yazma Görüntüler, Listeler: 1 *LULú, 1 Okuma, 1 dÕNÕú
'H÷LúWLULU: 1 *LULú, 1 Okuma, 1 Yazma, 1 dÕNÕú
.XOODQÕU, Okur: 1 Okuma
252
dHYULPVRQXFXHOGHHGLOHQ9+VD\ÕODUÕEDúNDELUoRNNXUDOX\JXODQDUDNVRQKDOLQHJH
WLULOLU%XNXUDOODUÕQGHWD\ODUÕLOJLOLoDOÕúPDGDEXOXQDELOLU [26]. Projeler için FN cinsinGHQE\NONELOJLOHULYH9+WLSOHULQHJ|UHGD÷ÕOÕPÕTablo 3¶WHYHULOPLúWLU%XE\N
ON ELOJLOHULQH J|UH ,6%6* YH JHoPLú NXUXPVDO YHULOHU NXOODQÕODUDN LúJF NHVWLULPL
\DSÕOPÕúWÕU[27].HVWLULPOHULNLVLVWHPLoLQGHLKDOH\|QHWLPLLoLQNXOODQÕOPÕúWÕU
Tablo 3. HùLUNHWYHH0DUNDLoLQNHVWLULOHQE\NONYH9+GD÷ÕOÕPODUÕ
HùLUNHW
eMarka
5.3
GiULú
332- 30%
119- 27%
Okuma
290- 26%
112- 26%
Yazma
200- 18%
89- 20%
dÕNÕú
296- 26%
117- 27%
Toplam
1118
437
%XOJXODUYH7DUWÕúPD
83520X\JXODPDVÕYHoÕNWÕODUÕDQDOLVWOHUYHVRQNXOODQÕFÕODUOD\DUÕ\DSÕODQGÕUÕOPÕúJ|
UúPHOHUJHUoHNOHúWLULOHUHNGH÷HUOHQGLULOGL*|UúPHOHUVRQNXOODQÕFÕPúWHULDQD
OLVWLYH\NOHQLFLDQDOLVWLROPDN]HUHNLúLLOHJHUoHNOHúWLULOGL7RSODPVRUu soruldu. Sorular UPROM ile ROXúWXUXODQLúUQOHULQLQWDPOÕNWXWDUOÕOÕNL]OHQHELOLUOLNYH
NROD\JQFHOOHPHDoÕODUÕQGDQGH÷HUOHQGLULOPHVLQLKHGHIOHGLSRQNXOODQÕFÕODUVRQXoODUÕ
VDGHFHoÕNWÕODUDJ|UHGH÷HUOHQGLUGL$QDOLVWOHULVH83520DUDFÕLOH\|QWHPL uygulama
GHQH\LPOHULQL NXOODQGÕODU *|UúPH VRUXODUÕQÕQ WDP OLVWHVL [28]’de bulunabilir. GöUúPHVRQXoODUÕYHJ|]OHPOHUDúD÷ÕGD|]HWOHQPHNWHGLU
$QDOLVWOHUPRGHOOHPHSURMHVLQLQNODV|U\DSÕVÕHúVL]QHVQHWDQÕPODUÕVUHoYHQHVQH
|]HOOLNOHULWDQÕPODUÕJLEL83520¶D|]JPRGHOOHPH|]HOOLNOHULQLQPRGHOOHULDQDOL]HW
PHNRUJDQL]HHWPHNYHHULúPHNLoLQGHVWHNVD÷ODGÕ÷ÕQÕELOGLUGLOHU
øú VUHFL PRGHOOHULQLQ VRQ NXOODQÕFÕODUOD VUHoOHUL GH÷HUOHQGLUPHN HNVLN YH KDWDOÕ
\|QOHULEXOPDNLoLQHWNLQELULOHWLúLPRUWDPÕVD÷ODGÕ÷ÕQÕJ|]OHPOHGLN.XOODQÕFÕODUHV
NLGHQE|\OHELUoDOÕúPD\ÕGRNPDQODU]HULQGHQWDNLSHWPH\LWHUFLKHGHFHNOHULQLDPD
DUWÕNVUHoPRGHOlerini vazgeçilmez bir unsur olarak gördüklerini belirttiler.
$QDOLVWOHULúVUHoOHULLOH\|QOHQGLULOHQVUHoRWRPDV\RQXDQDOL]LQLQJHUHNVLQLPOHUL
WDPYHWXWDUOÕúHNLOGHLIDGHHWPHNLoLQHWNLOLROGX÷XQXELOGLUGLOHU%|\OHFHKHPRWRPDV
\RQNRQXODUÕELUELULQGHQD\UÕúHNLOGHLIDGHHGLOHUHNWHNUDUODPDODU|QOHQGLKHPGHV
UHoOHURWRPDV\RQLKWL\DoODUÕQÕQHNVLNVL]RODUDNEHOLUOHQPHVLLoLQ\|QOHQGLULFLELURUWDP
VD÷ODGÕg]HOOLNOH\NOHQLFLDQDOLVWOHULJHOHQHNVHO\|QWHPOHUOHEXWDPOÕNWDELUJHUHNVL
nim setini oluúWXUPDNWD]RUODQDFDNODUÕQÕ|]HOOLNOHGHGH÷LúLNOLNOHUROGXNoD WXWDUOÕOÕ÷Õ
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