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dedaistoria
patarebisaTvis
10
saqarTvelos istoria patarebisaTvis 15 nawilad
N10
nugzar
molaSvili
avtorisagan
21-e saukunis Cemo umcroso Tanamemamulev!
minda mogiTxro Seni
samSoblos, saqarTvelos
istoria. istoria qveynisa,
romelmac mraval gansacdels gauZlo, bevri dabrkoleba gadalaxa.
aq bevr saintereso ambavs
amoikiTxav: rogor cxovrobdnen adamianebi didi,
Zalian didi xnis winaT,
rodesac jer kidev gamoqvabulSi edoT bina, rogor
nadirobdnen, `aTvinierebdnen~ cecxls, qmnidnen
sabrZolo da Sromis iaraRs, xnavdnen da Tesavdnen,
uvlidnen vazs, Weddnen liTons, werdnen wignebs, igeriebdnen mters da aSenebdnen eklesia-monastrebs...
gaigeb brZenTa, poetTa, gmirTa da wmindanTa
saxelebs, vinc mTeli Tavisi
Zal-Rone samSoblosa da
uflis samsaxurs Seswires...
dedaistoria patarebisaTvis
seria ibeWdeba 15 nawilad
jvarcmuli saqarTvelo
wigni meaTe
l
Salva da ivane
axalcixelebi
l
` Savleg, Seni
Savi Coxa...~
ljalaledinis laSqroba
l
asi aTasi wamebuli
l
cotne dadiani
l
demetre meore
Tavdadebuli
l
wminda mowame
nikoloz dvali
Tamar mefis gardacvalebis Semdeg samefo taxtze laSa-giorgi avida, romelmac daaxloebiT
aTi weli imefa. misi Svili daviTi mcirewlovani iyo, magram mis gamefebas, asakis garda, sxva
garemoebebic uSlida xels, amitom skiptra,
taxti da gvirgvini Tamaris qaliSvilma rusudanma daisakuTra. mas samefo Tvisebebi naklebad
aRmoaCnda, rasac daerTo axali dampyroblebis
_ xvarazmelebisa da monRolebis gamoCena. aman
gamoiwvia saqarTvelos winsvlis jer Seferxeba, Semdeg ki SeCereba. Tumca, yovelive amis miuxedavad, iyo gamonaTebebic, zneobrivi magaliTebi, romlebmac ixsnes Cveni samSoblo sruli
ganadgurebisgan. axla Sevecdebi, swored aseT
adamianebsa da movlenebze giambo.
6
Salva da ivane axalcixelebi
Salva da ivane axalcixelni iyvnen Zmebi,
romlebic Toris xeobas flobdnen. Torelebad iwodebodnen, Tumca samSoblos TavdadebisTvis Tamar mefem maT axalcixe uboZa da mas
mere axalcixelebad moixseniebdnen. es Zmebi
Tamaris, laSa-giorgisa da rusudanis mefobis xanaSi moRvaweobdnen. maT Tavi gamoiCines
mefisa da saxelmwifos erTgulebiT, Tavgamodebuli samxedro, politikuri da saxelmwifo saqmianobiT. ar yofila romelime mniSvnelovani brZola qveynis erTianobisTvis, rom
monawileoba ar mieRoT da warmatebisTvis ar
mieRwiaT. mTeli cxovreba erisa da samSoblos
samsaxurs Sealies. xom gaxsovs Samqoris brZola? iq Salvam didi gmiroba gamoiCina. mtris
rigebSi SeiWra da xelT igdo xalifa abubaqris
saxelmwifo droSa.
7
es droSa abubaqarma saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg
gamogzavnil Tavis uricxv jars gamoayola. es
droSa Tamar mefem gelaTis monasters Seswira.
saarako iyo Zmebis erTguleba samSoblosa da
mefisadmi, unari da niWi brZolisa, SemarTeba
da simamace. Tumca maTi aRzeveba samefo karze ar
moswondaT moSurneebs, gansakuTrebiT amirspasalar ivane mxargrZels. `Suri yovelTa borotTa dasabami~ didi ubedurebaa, miT umetes,
roca mas saxelmwifos interesebi ewireba.
xvarazmis Sahis Ze jalaledinma 200 000 muslimiT gadmolaxa saqarTvelos sazRvari da
cixesimagre garnisTan gaSlil velze dabanakda.
maT winaaRmdeg unda ebrZola 60 000 qarTvels.
mewinave laSqris sardlebi isev Salva da ivane
iyvnen, xolo saerTo mTavarsardloba davalebuli hqonda ivane mxargrZels. misi brZanebiT,
brZolaSi pirvelni Zmebi axalcixelebi Caebnen.
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9
roca Seatyves, rom mteri ricxobrivad sjobnidaT, ivane mxargrZels sTxoves, damxmare
Zala gamogvigzavneo. man Txovna uyuradRebod
datova. meored da mesamed amcnes mxargrZels,
daxmarebaa saWiroo, magram man `ara ineba Suela~, axlacixelebma ki ukan daxeva iukadrises.
maT cxenebi dauxoces da qveiTad ganagrZes
brZola. am brZolaSi 4 aTasi qarTveli daiRupa. ivane axalcixels mTidan dagorebuli lodi
daejaxa da imsxverpla, xolo Salva tyved igdes
jalaledinis meomrebma.
ivane mxargrZels undoda, Zmebi damarcxebuliyvnen, amiT damcirebuliyvnen da maTi saarako saxel-dideba gamqraliyo, magram aq saqarTvelo damarcxda da daiwyo misi Zlierebis
rRveva. ase gaiwira qveyana piradi jibrisa da
Suris gamo.
10
`Savleg, Seni Savi Coxa...~
jalaledins erTi weli hyavda Salva datyvevebuli. mas undoda, igi Tavis sasargeblod
gamoeyenebina, amitom uboZa qalaqebi. sxva pativsac miagebda, magram didi mamuliSvili sxvagvarad sjida. igi werilebs gzavnida TbilisSi
jalaledinis gegmebis Sesaxeb, mefes auwyebda
mtris laSqris moZraobis mimarTulebas. tyveobaSic ar isvenebda da saqarTveloze fiqrobda. werilebi bolos jalaledins Cauvarda
xelT. man Salva axalcixels danaSaulis gamosasyidad SesTavaza, islami mieRo, jildod yovelgvar didebas sTavazobda. bevrs ecada, Salva
gadaebirebina da, roca verafers gaxda, brZana,
igi wamebiT moeklaT. scemes, gvemes, sapyrobileSi Caagdes da tyveobis erT wlisTavze sicocxle mouswrafes.
11
Salva axalcixeli qarTulma eklesiam samSoblosa da rwmenisadmi TavganwirvisTvis wmindanad Seracxa, xolo erma _ erovnul gmirad.
madlierma qarTvelma xalxma simRera Seqmna
Tavis didebul gmirze, romelsac dRemde mRerian erovnuli Tavisuflebis droSis qveS darazmuli qarTvelebi:
`Savleg, Seni Savi Coxa, Savlego,
sisxlSi gagixamebia, Savlego!
yawimebi gixdeboda, Savlego!
mterTan brZola gixdeboda, Savlego!
maSveli ar gWirdeboda, Savlego!
Savleg, Seni Savi Coxa, Savlego!~
12
jalaledinis laSqroba
susxiani zamTari idga. 104 weli gasuliyo
daviT aRmaSeneblis mier Tbilisis gaTavisuflebidan. 104 weli ar enaxa mteri wminda sataxto qalaqis kedlebs da kvlav movidnen isini,
amjerad, xvarazmelni, ukve naxsenebi jalaledinis winamZRolobiT.
rusudan dedofalma, xvarazmelTa moaxloebis ambavi rom Seityo, qalaqis dacva Zmebs _
memna da boco jayelebs Caabara, xolo TviTon
SvilebiTurT dasavleT saqarTvelos miaSura
da quTaisis sasaxleSi dabinavda.
jalaledini mtkvris marjvena napirs gamohyva da Tbilisis axlos dasca banaki. diliT adre
banakidan 3000 xvarazmeli aarCia da Tbilisis
kedlebisken gaswia.
13
memna da boco jayelebic cixionis erTi nawiliT qalaqis gareT gamoiWrnen da mters guldagul ekveTnen.
8 marti idga. mters moulodnelad damxmareni gamouCndnen. Turme, TbilisSi mcxovrebi
muslimebi SeTqmuliyvnen Tbilisis dasamxobad. maT RamiT kaci miugzavnes jalaledins da
daarwmunes: rogorc ki qalaqs Semoutev, Signidan kars gagiRebT da SemogiSvebTo.
9 marti gaTenda. jalaledini mTeli ZalebiT daeZgera qalaqis mTavar karibWes. SigniT
Zmebi jayelebi ikazmebodnen mtris dasaxvedrad. mcvelTa Soris Tbiliseli mahmadianebi
sWarbobdnen. boco jayelma moaswro muzaradis
daxurva, memnam ki _ vera da zurgidan mivardnilma Tbiliselma muslimma orive xeliT SiSvel Tavze dahkra xmali.
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15
asi aTasi wamebuli
usulod gadmoeSva memna jayeli unagiridan.
erTmaneTs miesivnen muslimi da qristiani Tbiliselebi. imZlavres moRalateebma da mters
qalaqis karibWe gauxsnes...
jalaledinma daiwyo xalxis awiokeba. brZana, qristianTagan ar daendoT arc qali da arc
kaci, arc didi, arc patara. araviTari datyveveba, yvelani gaewyvitaT.
gamxecebuli xvarazmelebic dedebs mkerdidan
aglejdnen Cvil bavSvebs da TaviT qvafenilze
anarcxebdnen, mere ki SeSlil dedebs zed aklavdnen... mtkvari sisxliT SeiReba da gvamebiT
gaiWeda. isnis cixe mainc medgrad idga.
rusudanma mravalgzis SemouTvala boco jayels, winaaRmdegoba unayofoa da cixe datoveo.
16
boco erTxans uars ambobda, magram roca
mtris alya da ieriSebi gamZlavrda da gafarTovda, cixionis gadarCenis mizniT, isnis Cabarebaze daTanxmda da saqarTvelos sataxto
datova.
jalaledini ki ufro gamxecda. mere viTom
sisxlic moyirWdao, brZana, sicocxle aCuqeT
mxolod imaT, vinc qristianobas gadaagdebs da
mahmadis rjuls Seudgebao.
saSineli kacTakvliT SeZrwunebulma, zogma
daTmo qristianoba. didma umravlesobam ki wamebis gvirgvini arCia.
axla sul gadairia jalaledini. eklesiebis
Zarcva, Sebilwva brZana. sionis wminda taZridan jvari Camoagdo da Zirs daanarcxa. taZris
gumbaTi sul gadaangria da mis adgilze Tavisi
,,bilwi~ taxti dadga.
17
zed sagangebod aRmarTuli ficarnagiT
adioda da iqidan gahyurebda iavarqmnil da
awiokebul qalaqs.
esec ar ikmara. sionis taZridan macxovrisa
da RvTismSoblis Zvirfasi xatebi gamoatanina, piraRma daayrevina da brZana: moeyvanaT yvela qristiani, kacic da qalic, yvelas ubrZana,
fexi daedgaT xatebze, daefurTxebinaT maTTvis
da ficiT uareyoT qristes sjuli, xolo vinc
amas ar aRasrulebda, iqve Tavi warekveTaT da
mtkvarSi esrolaT.
da ijda jalali sionis nagumbaTevze da xedavda, rogor mihyavdaT mis meomrebs qarTvelebi,
rogor hkveTdnen maT Tavebs.
100 000 qarTvelis sicocxle Seewira maSin
ucxoTa maxvils! Tavganwiruli 100 000 qarTveli qarTulma eklesiam wmindanad Seracxa.
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19
erTi wlis Semdeg qarTvelebma Tbilisi daibrunes. magram xuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi jalaledini mainc dausjelad aoxrebda da arbevda
qarTul soflebsa da cixe-qalaqebs.
Semdeg monRolebis gamoCenam daafrTxo da
gaaqcia xvarazmSahi jalaledini. viRac qurT
momTabares Seefara ltolvili. es qurTi
,,maspinZeli~ stumris Zvirfas aRWurvilobas
daexarba, mZinares gulSi maxvili Casca da gaZarcva.
ase ucnaurad daasrula sicocxle msoflio
batonobis msurvelma jalaTma.
20
cotne dadiani
mecamete saukuneSi Tavi isaxela erTma qarTvelma mTavarma cotne dadianma.
Tamar mefis sikvdilis Semdeg Tormeti weli
iyo gasuli, rodesac Cvens qveyanas monRolebi
Semoesivnen. am velurma, magram mamacma xalxma
daipyro mTeli azia, evropasac Tavzari dasca
da saqarTvelos dapyrobac gadawyvita. qarTvelebma didi vaJkacoba uCvenes mters, samSoblos
damoukideblobas Tavganwirulni icavdnen,
medgrad ebrZodnen momxdurs, magram mtris
simravlis gamo mainc damarcxdnen.
qarTveli mamuliSvilebi Zlier swuxdnen,
roca xedavdnen qveynis gancalkevebas, umefobas,
eris damcirebas da sul imis fiqrSi iyvnen, ra
eRonaT. bolos saqarTvelos yvela kuTxis mTavrebma ixmes erTmaneTi axalcixis maxloblad,
koxtasTavze.
21
SeTanxmdnen, rom SeerTebuli ZaliT gaelaSqraT monRolebis winaaRmdeg. maT Soris iyo
dasavleT saqarTvelos erT-erTi mxaris, samegrelos mmarTveli cotne dadiani, romelic
am gadawyvetilebis Semdeg gaeSura afxazeTSi,
raTa droze Seekriba jari da vadaze mieswro
daniSnul adgilze. sxvebi ki jer kidev erTad
iyvnen da ajanyebis wessa da rigs awyobdnen.
magram monRolebs Tvali da yuri frTxilad
hqondaT da es ambavi Seityves. maT swrafad afrines cxenosani jari axalcixisaken, moulodnelad Tavs daesxnen moTaTbire qarTvelebs, daatyveves da qalaq anisSi Caiyvanes. monRolTa
sardali, anu noini risxviT da muqariT dauxvda
qarTvelebs da moiTxova: gamotydiT, rom Cvens
winaaRmdeg ajanyebas apirebdiT, Torem did satanjvels mogayenebTo. qarTvelebi arc gatydnen da arc Sebraleba sTxoves.
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maSin noinma ubrZana Tavis mxleblebs: gaTokeT, gaaSiSvleT, wausviT tanze Tafli, dasviT papanaqeba mzeze, vidre ar gamotydebian da
Sewyalebas ar moiTxoveno. es brZaneba imwamsve
Seasrules.
daniSnul vadaze cotne dadiani jariT gamocxadda da es ambavi Seityo. laSqari daSala,
TviTon ki Cavida anisSi or msaxurTan erTad,
gaiZro tansacmeli, Seikra mklavebi da sakuTari nebiT Cajda Tavis megobrebs Soris. rodesac
es ambavi noins moaxsenes, igi gaocda, daibara
TavisTan cotne da hkiTxa aseTi qcevis mizezi.
cotnem miugo: _ me movedi SenTan, raTa simarTle gamoiZio da, Tu Cemi megobrebi damnaSaveebi
aRmoCndebian, mec maTTan erTad davisajoo.
aman iseTi Zlieri STabeWdileba moaxdina
noinze, rom man qarTvelTa gaTavisufleba brZana.
24
demetre II Tavdadebuli
mecamete saukuneSi aRmosavleT saqarTvelos
samefo taxtze avida daviT VII ulus 12 wlis
vaJi demetre II. igi monRolTa yaenis karze mefed dasamtkiceblad waiyvanes da daamtkices, magram meurve-meTvalyured dauniSnes monRolTa
erTguli kaci sadun mankaberdeli, mdidari da
moxerxebuli medrove, mravali enis mcodne da
axalgazrdobaSi saukeTeso moWidave, riTic miiqcia monRolTa yuradReba.
demetre II saqarTvelos mefed iTvleboda,
magram misi xelmwifoba mTel saqarTveloze ar
vrceldeboda. im dros dasavleT saqarTveloSi
rusudanis Ze daviT VI narini mefobda, romelic monRolebs Tavis qveyanaSi ar aWaWanebda,
xolo mesxeTi arc erT qarTvel mefes ar emorCileboda da misi gamgebeli jayelebi uSualod
monRolTa yaenis qveSevrdomni iyvnen.
25
demetre II lamazi, axovani, keTili kaci iyo.
mas monRolTa wesisamebr ramdenime coli hyavda, romelTagan 7 vaJi da 2 qaliSvili gauCnda.
demetres mefobis pirvel wlebSi, vidre igi
srulwlovani gaxdeboda, samefo karze didi
gavlena hqonda sadun mankaberdels, romelic
demetrem monRolTa surviliT aTabagad daniSna. mankaberdelma isic ki moaxerxa, rom demetres erT-erT colad Tavisi da Tamari SerTo.
miuxedavad amisa, roca mankaberdeli gardaicvala, demetrem aTabagoba mis vaJs xutlubuRas
ki ar misca, aramed Tavis gamzrdel tarsaiW orbels, da sadunis Svils mxolod amirspasalaroba uboZa. amiT xutlubuRa Zalian gaanawyena, misi saxiT samudamo mteri gaiCina, rac sabediswero amoCnda.
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aRmosavleT saqarTvelos jari xSirad monawileobda monRolTa laSqrobebSi. im dros,
roca daviT VI narins megobruli urTierToba
hqonda monRolTa mter egviptis sulTanTan,
demetre II iZulebuli iyo, Tavisi jariT swored am sulTnis winaaRmdeg ebrZola monRolTa mxareze. man 5000 qarTveli meomriT monawileoba miiRo qalaq amasiasTan gamarTul brZolaSi, sadac monRolebi sastikad damarcxdnen,
qarTuli jaris didi nawili daiRupa, TviT
axalgazrda mefe ki Zlivs gadaurCa sikvdils.
male gardaicvala monRolTa yaeni da taxtze misi Zma avida, romelic SeTqmulebma mokles
da arRuni gadaayenes. arRunis pirveli veziri
gaxda demetres megobari buRa noini, romelic
yaenis winaaRmdeg SeTqmulebaSi amxiles da sikvdiliT dasajes.
28
raki buRa noini da demetre II megobrobdnen,
eWvi qarTvel mefezec miitanes, isic SeTqmulebis monawile iqnebodao. demetre yaenTan daibares. saxelmwifo darbazi mefes urCevda, mTiuleTisTvis Seefarebina Tavi, radgan icodnen,
rom igi yaenis karze sikvdils ver ascdeboda,
magram mefem sxvagvarad gansaja: me rom ar wavide, monRolebi qveyanas saSinlad aaoxreben.
qveynis daqcevas da xalxis amoJletas ki sjobs,
me movkvdeo.
,,iyos neba RvTisa: ukeTu me momklan, vgoneb,
rome queyana uvneblad darCes... me davsdeb sulsa Cemsa erisaTvis Cemisa da ar daviSli urdos
wasvlas~, _ Tqva mefem da wavida.
rogor unda giyvardes Seni qveyana da eri,
rom ici, ueWveli sikvdili gelis, da mainc, maT
gadasarCenad ukan ar ixev!
rogor ggonia, yvela ase moiqceoda?
29
urdos miaxloebuli mefe da misi amala yaenis
kacebma jer gaZarcves, Semdeg mefe daapatimres
da ase mihgvares yaens. yaenma demetre sapyrobileSi Caagdo.
erT Rames qarTvelebma raRac gzebiT sapyrobileSi SeaRwies da mefes gaqceva SesTavazes, magram uari uTxra Tavis keTilismyofelebs.
gmiri mefe sastikad awames. igi vaJkacurad
Sexvda wamebas. yaeni arRuni Seyoymanda kidevac,
moekla Tu ara demetre, radgan ar icoda, aRmosavleT saqarTvelo visTvis Caebarebina.
magram gaxsovs mefeze ganawyenebuli amirspasalari xutlubuRa? swored man urCia yaens,
mefed daviT VI narinis ufrosi vaJi vaxtangi
daesva demetres adgilze: amiT dasavleT saqarTvelosac daimorCilebo.
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demetres bedi xutlubuRas rCevam gadawyvita
da qarTvel mefes yaenis brZanebiT Tavi mohkveTes.
sikvdilis win mefem iloca da eziara, xolo
roca Tavi mohkveTes, moxda saswauli: mze TiTqos Caqra da irgvliv sibnelem daisadgura.
qarTvelebma wamebuli mefis neSti moipares,
saqarTveloSi wamoasvenes da sveticxovelSi
dakrZales `samarxosa mamaTa maTsasa~.
mefe demetres erma `Tavdadebuli~ uwoda.
misma wminda saxelma saukuneebs gauZlo da kidev didxans iqneba erisa da qveynis manaTobeli
Suqura. didma ilia WavWavaZem mas uZRvna poema
`mefe dimitri Tavdadebuli~, xolo qarTulma
eklesiam wamebuli mefe wmindanad Seracxa.
32
wminda mowame nikoloz dvali
wmida mowame nikoloz dvali marTlmorwmune mSobelTa Svili iyo. RvTismoSiSma ded-mamam
igi Sobidanve ufals Seswira. Tormeti wlis
nikolozi klarjeTis udabnoSi wavida, iq aRikveca da daiwyo moRvaweoba.
Semdeg wmindani ierusalims gaeSura da iq
qarTvelTa jvris monasterSi damkvidrda. qristesTvis mowameobrivad aRsrulebis surviliT
anTebuli wminda nikolozi mxned qadagebda
sarwmunoebas muslimebSi da Tan uSiSrad amxelda maT cdomilebebs.
usjuloebma wmida nikolozi Seipyres da mravalgvari satanjvelis Semdeg cixeSi gamoketes.
qristianebma SeZles da sapyrobiledan gamoixsnes aRmsarebeli. winamZRvris brZanebiT, wminda
nikolozi kviprosze wavida, qarTvelTa monasterSi.
33
igi mowameobriv aRsasruls evedreboda
ufals, da wmida ioane naTlismcemlis mier miiRo gamocxadeba: damaskoSi unda wasuliyo.
damaskoSi Casulma wmindanma usjuloTa winaSe isev mxned aRiara qriste da amxila maTi ugunureba. ganrisxebulma uRmerToebma Seipyres
wmida aRmsarebeli, sastikad gvemes da dilegSi
Caagdes. qristianebma Zlivs moaxerxes misi gamoxsna tyveobidan.
axlad gaTavisuflebuli wmida nikolozi
kvlav mivida usjuloTa SesakrebelSi, kvlav
hgmo maTi ugunureba, risTvisac sastikad awames, xuTasjer dahkres Solti da sapyrobileSi
Caagdes.
wmida mowame naTlismcemlis saswaulebrivi gamocxadebiT ganikurna, ori Tvis Semdeg ki
kvlav gaaTavisufles.
34
qalaqis amiram SemTxveviT naxa ierusalimSi gasamgzavreblad momzadebuli wmida nikolozi, Seipyro da Tavis mbrZanebels, amirT–
amiras gaugzavna. man wmindans mahmadianobis
miReba SesTavaza. nikolozma mis winaSec gabedulad aRiara qriste.
amirT-amiram misi mokvla brZana. netari
mowame aRmosavleTiT mibrunda, sixaruliT
moudrika maxvils qedi da Tqva: `dideba Senda,
qriste RmerTo, romelman Rirs myav SenTvis
sikvdilisa~. maxvilma Tavi warkveTa wmida
nikolozs. moWrilma Tavma Svidgzis adida
RmerTi. am saswaulis mxilvelebma wmindanis
gvami dawves.
es ambavi meToTxmete saukunis dasawyisSi
mox­da...
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t
Semdegi wigni
seria ibeWdeba 15 nawilad
gmirno, mamulis madidno!
wigni meTerTmete
l
giorgi brwyinvale
l
`qvaTaxevis tragedia
lioTam zedginiZe
l
luarsab pirveli
l
svimon mefe
l
Tevdore mRvdlis
gmiroba
redkolegia:
redaqtori
lela zurebiani
kompiuteruli uzrunvelyofa
daTo mosiaSvili
mxatvari
zviad gogolaZe
stilisti
Tamuna beraZe
Jurnal `batibutas~ biblioTeka
misamarTi: Tbilisi, diRomi 7;
www.batibuta.ge
e-mail:[email protected]
tel: 218-42-32
ISBN 978-9941-0-5103-6 (yvela nawili)
ISBN 978-9941-0-6396-1 (meaTe nawili)
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