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dedaistoria
patarebisaTvis
1
ISBN 978-9941-0-5104-3
saqarTvelos istoria patarebisaTvis 15 nawilad
N1
nugzar
molaSvili
avtorisagan
21-e saukunis Cemo umcroso Tanamemamulev!
minda mogiTxro Seni
samSoblos, saqarTvelos
istoria. istoria qveynisa,
romelmac mraval gansacdels gauZlo, bevri dabrkoleba gadalaxa.
am wignSi bevr saintereso
ambavs amoikiTxav: rogor
cxovrobdnen adamianebi
didi, Zalian didi xnis
winaT, rodesac jer kidev
gamoqvabulSi edoT bina,
rogor nadirobdnen, `aTvinierebdnen~ cecxls, qmnidnen sabrZolo da Sromis iaraRs, xnavdnen da Tesavdnen,
uvlidnen vazs, Weddnen liTons, werdnen wignebs, igeriebdnen mters da aSenebdnen eklesia-monastrebs...
gaigeb brZenTa, poetTa, gmirTa da wmindanTa
saxelebs, vinc mTeli Tavisi ZalRone samSoblosa da
uflis samsaxurs Seswires...
dedaistoria patarebisaTvis
seria ibeWdeba 15 nawilad
dedamiwa
Cveni saxlia
Cveni samSoblo
saqarTveloa
pirveli
qarTvelebi
adamianebi
gamoqvabulSi
cecxlis
moTviniereba
pirveli adamianebi
wigni pirveli
liTonis
aRmoCena
pirveli
monadireebi
saqarTvelo
vazis
samSobloa
cxovelTa
Tayvaniscema
sulTa
Tayvaniscema
`ca firuz, xmeleT zurmuxto...~
dedamiwa Cveni didi samSobloa.
is erTaderTi ciuri sxeulia usasrulo samyaroSi, sadac adamis modgma, adamiani cxovrobs. Cven vtkbebiT dedamiwaze arsebuli zRvebiTa
da mdinareebiT, tyeebiTa da Tovliani mTebiT, Citebis galobiTa da
gareul mxecTa qceviT da xSirad ar
vufiqrdebiT, rom yvelaferi es droTa ganmavlobaSi Caisaxa, ganviTarda da, SesaZloa, gaqres kidec, Tu ar
davicavT da movuvliT mas.
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dedamiwas
`cisfer
planetas~
uwodeben. ase moCans Turme igi kosmosidan. Tqven ukve iciT, rom es
ulamazesi da mravalferovani samyaro yovlismomcvelma da yvelaze
diadma, RmerTma Seqmna.
im uamrav mTagrexils Soris, romelic dedamiwaze arsebobs, aris kavkasionis qedi. mis samxreT kalTebze Sefenilia Cveni ulamazesi samSoblo _ saqarTvelo.
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`...zogan irmebis jogia, zogan arwivni hqrian,
aris aseTi qveyana, mas saqarTvelo hqvia!
eri puradi, guladi, stumars RvTis kacad Tvlian...
aris aseTi qveyana, mas saqarTvelo hqvia!
misi didebis ambavi, saukuneebs miaqvT...
aris aseTi qveyana _ mas saqarTvelo hqvia...~
(ioseb noneSvili)
sxvadasxva enaze da sxvadasxva
dros saqarTvelos sxvadasxvanairad moixseniebdnen: Zveli berZnebi
da romaelebi _ iberiad, Sua saukuneebis evropelebi _ georgiad an
jorjiad, Cveni mezobeli Turqebi
_ gurjistanad, somxebi _ vracstanad, rusebi _ gruziad...
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Cveni mSobliuri ena qarTulia.
droTa ganmavlobaSi Sen mraval
ucxour enas Seiswavli, magram qarTuli gansakuTrebulia, dedaenaa da
dedis Secvla SeuZlebelia.
,,...o, enav Cemo, dedao enav,
Sen, Cveno niWo, srbolav da frenav,
Sen, Cveni sunTqvis dido alamo,
Sen, WirTa CvenTa tkbilo malamo,
Sen, kiro Cveno qvaTa da kirTa,
Sen erTi SemrCi samaris pirTan... ~
(irakli abaSiZe)
saqarTvelos didi da saintereso
istoria aqvs, romlis Txrobas axla
SevudgebiT. yuradRebiT, warsulSi
mogzaurobas viwyebT.
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pirveli adamianebi
zustad aravin icis, rodis daiwyo es ambavi, erTi ki cnobilia: mas
Semdeg 2-3 milioni welia gasuli.
saqarTveloSi mcxovreb pirvel adamianebs mecnierebma pirobiTad lamazi Zveli qarTuli saxelebi daarqves _ zezva da mzia. zezva dRe da
Rame tye-RreSi daexeteboda. xelSi
wvetiani qva an joxi eWira, raTa
irgvliv
mobinadre
nadirisagan
Tavi daecva da, Tu bedi gauRimebda,
dauZlurebuli cxoveli moekla.
mzia tyeSi kenkrisa da xilis SegrovebiT iyo dakavebuli, an saWmelad
vargisi mcenareebis fesvebs Txrida...
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ase gadioda wlebi... maT Svilebi
gauCndaT, Semdeg _ SviliSvilebi
da ara mxolod is adgilebi aiTvises, sadac aqamde cxovrobdnen, aramed mTel qveyanas moednen.
pirvel adamianebs mkacr pirobebSi
uxdebodaT Tavis gatana. im dros saqarTvelos teritoriaze uzarmazari cxovelebi binadrobdnen, romelTagan yvelaze didi gamoqvabulis
daTvi iyo. did saSiSroebas uqmnida
adamians vefxvismagvari, eSvebiani
cxovelic. Tavis dasacavad adamians
mosaxerxebeli, saimedo bina sWirdeboda.
bina rom vTqvi, saxli ar warmoidgino. saxlis aSeneba ki ara, maT
jer laparakic ki ar icodnen.
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isini eZebdnen bunebriv gamoqvabulebs da mRvimeebs, romelTac iseTi
viwro Sesasvleli eqneboda, cxoveli
ver SemZvraliyo. mtacebel cxovelTa
garda saqarTveloSi maTze didi arsebebic binadrobdnen _ mamontebi,
martorqebi, veluri cxenismagvarebi
da didrqeba irmebi, magram isini balaxiT ikvebebodnen da adamianisTvis
safrTxes ar warmoadgendnen.
gadioda dro, adamiani sul ufro
moxerxebuli da gonieri xdeboda. man
moaSinaura ZaRli, balaxismWameli
cxovelebi, iswavla ukeTesi iaraRis
damzadeba qvisa da kaJisagan da Tavisi
nafiqralis jer bgerebiT da marcvlebiT, mogvianebiT ki sityvebiT gadmocema.
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bolos ki laparaki daiwyo. ase grZeldeboda saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi,
vidre adamianma cecxlis `moTviniereba~ iswavla. Tavidan cecxli erTnairad scemda SiSis zars cxovelebsac
da adamianebsac.
cecxli dResac saSiSi stiqiaa, romelic drodadro dedamiwis mwvane
safars umowyalod anadgurebs da, xom
warmogidgenia, ra saSiSi iqneboda is
im Soreul warsulSi, roca adamianebs
masTan brZolis gamocdileba da codna ar gaaCndaT. cecxli, ZiriTadad,
mexisgan Cndeboda. daecemoda romelime xes, aaldeboda, agizgizdeboda
da irgvliv yovelives anadgurebda,
magram droTa ganmavlobaSi gonierma
adamianma Seiswavla cecxlis Tvisebebi da Tavis sasargeblod gamoiyena.
17
cecxli anaTebda gamoqvabuls, aTbobda adamians, afrTxobda gareul
mxecebs, cecxlze wvavdnen xorcs. swored, amas uwodes mecnierebma cecxlis
`moTviniereba~. bolos, adamianma
ara Tu gamoyeneba da Senaxva, misi danTebac iswavla.
Sen ukve ici, rom pirveli adamianebi iaraRad qvas, xesa da Zvals iyenebdnen. Zalze didi dro gavida mas Semdeg,
rac maT qvisa da xisagan pirveli xelculi daamzades. xelculi xis tarze
dagebuli qvis basri iaraRia. am dros
gamoigones mSvild-isaric. saTamaSo
mSvild-isari iqneb Senc gaqvs?!
uZvelesi adamianis ZiriTadi saqmianoba tyeSi sakvebad vargisi mcenareebis
mopoveba da nadiroba iyo. amas codna
da moxerxebuloba sWirdeboda.
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isini gadaicmevdnen romelime adre
mokluli cxovelis tyavs, magaliTad
_ irmis, dadgebodnen oTxze da cdilobdnen irmis jogs miaxloebodnen.
Semdeg wamoiWrebodnen fexze da damfrTxal irmebs isrebs daayridnen an
xis kaJiswvetian Subebs esrodnen. ase
nadirobdnen isini sxva uwyinar cxovelebzec, magram spiloebis, daTvebisa
da martorqebis monadireba sxvagvarad
uxdebodaT. adamianma kargad icoda miwaze kvalis moZebna. Tu axlomaxlo
nadirs daigulebda, ramdenime aTeuli
adamiani yviriliT Seeseoda im adgils
da cdilobda mxeci kldovani, cicabo
adgilisken gaereka da gadaeCexa.
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Tu nadiri amis Semdegac cocxali
darCeboda, mas qvebiT uRebdnen bolos. magram, Tu is teritoria, sadac
adamiani cxovrobda, kldiani ar iyo?
maSin sxvagvarad iqceodnen: nadirTa
mier tyeSi gakvalul bilikze amoTxridnen did ormos, zed frTxilad
daafendnen xis totebs, daayridnen
foTlebsa da balaxs, ormo uCinari rom gamxdariyo da elodnen, rodis gamoivlida msxverpli. es ormo
ise kargad iyo SeniRbuli, rom masSi aucileblad Cavardeboda nadiri,
romelsac Semdeg SubebiTa da isrebiT
klavdnen.
22
ai, maSin iwyeboda zeimi. daanTebdnen did cecxls, basri kaJis danebiT did
naWrebad daWridnen xorcs da ase miirTmevdnen uzomod.
rogorc mecnierebi amtkiceben, umTan
SedarebiT Semwvari xorciT kveba didi
progresuli movlena iyo. es axangrZlivebda adamianis sicocxles da xels
uwyobda misi tvinis ganviTarebas. kargad momzadebuli, zomierad miRebuli
saRi sakvebi dResac aucilebelia, gansakuTrebiT patarebisaTvis.
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liTonis aRmoCena
kidev didma drom gaiara. adamiani
sul ufro Wkviani da moxerxebuli
xdeboda, magram erTma movlenam TiTqmis mTlianad Secvala misi cxovrebac da Semdgomi istoriac. es movlena
liTonis aRmoCena iyo.
liToni
mravalgvari
arsebobs.
rasac Sen yoveldRiurad exebi, yvelaferi dedamiwaze an mis wiaRSia.
daaxloebiT 6 aTasi wlis win Cvenma
Soreulma winaparma liToni aRmoaCina. es spilenZi iyo. sityva `liTos~
Zvel berZenTa enaze `qvas~ niSnavs.
liTonia rkina, oqro, vercxli, TuTia... Tavidan adamianma spilenZis civad Wedva iswavla.
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aiRebda spilenZs da imdens urtyamda qvas, sanam TavisTvis sasurvel
formas ar miaRebinebda. mogvianebiT
man spilenZis gadnobac iswavla, Semdeg _ masSi sxva liTonebis Sereva da
brinjaos miReba. es ukve namdvili aRmoCena iyo.
amave periodSi daamzada adamianma oqrosa da vercxlisagan lamazi
samkauli. iqneb kiTxva gagiCnda, ratom ar vaxsene aqamde rkinis damuSaveba da misgan foladis miReba? getyvi. rkinis damuSaveba, misi gadadnoba
ufro rTulia da specialuri mowyobilobis Seqmnas moiTxovs. es sabervelia, romelic foladis misaRebad aucilebel maRal temperaturas uzrunvelyofs.
26
imasac davamateb, rom pirveli foladi qarTvelTa winaprebma, xalibebma miiRes, evropul enebSi liTonis
aRmniSvneli sityva `xalibs~ maTi
saxelidan momdinareobs. xalibebi bibliaSi `rkinis mkeTeblebad~ moixseniebian, xolo mecnierebma maT `mowinave niWieri xalxi~ uwodes.
saqarTvelo samarTlianad iTvleba
rkinis damuSavebisa da foladis miRebis samSoblod!
rogorc ki es bolo winadadeba giTxari, maSinve qarTuli Rvino da puri
gamaxsenda. ra SuaSia puri da Rvino?
axlave mogaxseneb.
27
didi xania aravin kamaTobs, rom
saqarTvelo Rvinis samSobloa, rom
mxolod qarTul enazea SesaZlebeli
am sityvis ganmarteba, rom am patara
miwaze yurZnis xuTasamde jiSi xarobs, rom mxolod aq amboben sadRegrZelos...
...rom msoflioSi gavrcelebuli 23
kulturuli xorblis jiSidan saqarTveloze modis 14, rom `maxa~ `zanduri~, `TavTuxi~, `dika~ saukeTesoa
xorbalTa Soris da kidev ramdeni aseTi `rom~ arsebobs?
Cven, qarTvelebi vamayobT (ki ar
vtrabaxobT!), rom msoflios miveciT
foladi, Rvino da puri!
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rogor gaCnda religia?
Sen ukve bevri ram gaige Cveni uSoresi winaprebis Sesaxeb. axla kidev
ufro saintereso ambavs giambob.
ras sca adamianma pirvelad Tayvani? ram daudo saTave religiis warmoSobas?
saganTa Tayvaniscema
im Soreul epoqaSi pirvelyofili
adamiani mTlianad bunebis movlenebze iyo damokidebuli. mas eSinoda
im Seucnobeli Zalebis, romelTa
winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad uZluri
iyo. man ar icoda, saidan moeloda ubedureba da amitom usulo sagnebs sxvadasxva zebunebriv Tvisebebs
miawerda.
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warmoidgine aseTi suraTi: adamiani
sanadirod apirebs wasvlas. nadirobis
Sedegze ramdenime aTeuli misi TanamoZmis sicocxlea damokidebuli. am
dros mis yuradRebas ucnauri, gamxmari
xis toti an qva ipyrobs. monadires es
nivTi im nadirs agonebs, romlis mokvlasac apirebs. igi mas saTuTad iRebs
da Tan miaqvs. nadiroba kargi SedegiT
dasrulda. man didi iremi moinadira.
monadirem madloba gadauxada Tavis
mier napovn nivTs, gamoqvabulSi mas
gansakuTrebuli adgili gamouyo da
Tayvani sca, radgan warmatebis miRweva mTlianad im nivTs daukavSira. amis
Semdeg, sanadirod wasvlis win, adamiani mas SesTxovda nadirTa simravles.
amgvar saganTa Tayvaniscemis kvali jer
kidev aris SemorCenili Tanamedrove
CamorCenili xalxebis cxovrebaSi.
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cxovelTa Tayvaniscema
mTel imdroindel msoflioSi gavrcelebuli iyo cxovelTa, frinvelTa da qvewarmavalTa Tayvaniscema.
adamiani an adamianTa jgufi Tavis winaparTa mfarvelad miiCnevda ama Tu
im cxovels, mwers, frinvels. erTxel
erT adgilobriv avstraliel mosaxles evropelma mogzaurma hkiTxa:
`vin xar Sen?~ man upasuxa: `kenguru~.
mas miaCnda, rom misi winapari kenguru
iyo. saqarTveloSi kenguru ar binadrobs. samagierod, bevria mgeli, arwivi, daTvi... Cveni uZvelesi winaprebic
am da sxva cxovelebsa da frinvelebs
scemdnen Tayvans. ase erTiandebodnen
isini winaprebis STamomavlebad anu
gvarebad. maT Tavisi saTayvanebeli
cxovelis mokvla ekrZalebodaT. amis
niSnebic dRemdea SemorCenili.
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sulTa Tayvaniscema
sulTa Tayvaniscemis gaCena dakavSirebulia pirvelyofili adamianis
sakuTar Tavze dakvirvebasTan. gansakuTrebiT aocebda mas sizmari. ver
gaerkvia, rogor moqmedebda ZilSi.
igi cdilobda am kiTxvaze pasuxis
gacemas da im daskvnamde mivida, rom
marto ar iyo, mis gverdiT arsebobda misi oreuli, `aCrdili~, meore
`me~, romelic misgan damoukideblad moqmedebda, droebiT Sordeboda mis sxeuls da Semdeg ukan brundeboda. sad `cxovrobda~ es `me~?
zogi adamiani fiqrobda, rom is iyo
sunTqva, zogi mas sakuTar CrdilSi
Casaxlebulad miiCnevda, zogic _
sisxlSi. arsebobda Tu ara uZveles
qarTvelebSi saerTo rwmena, saerTo
RvTaebebi?
amaze momdevno wignSi giambobT...
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Semdegi wigni
seria ibeWdeba 15 nawilad
` mze dedaa Cemi~
wigni meore
l qarTvelTa warmodgenebi samyaroze
l skneli, qveskneli, zeskneli
l uZvelesi qarTuli RvTaebebi
l dali _ nadirobis qalRmerTi
l oCopintre _ cxovelTa mfarveli
l armazisa da zadenis kerpebi
l uZvelesi qarTuli RvTaebebi
l amirani _ qarTvelTa mTavari
miTologiuri gmiri
redkolegia:
redaqtori
lela zurebiani
kompiuteruli uzrunvelyofa
daTo mosiaSvili
mxatvari
zviad gogolaZe
stilisti
Tamuna beraZe
Jurnal `batibutas~ biblioTeka
misamarTi: Tbilisi, gelovanis q. 3;
www.batibuta.ge
e-mail:[email protected]
tel: 237-06-88
ISBN 978-9941-0-5103-6 (yvela nawilis)
ISBN 978-9941-0-5104-3 (pirveli nawili)
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