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11.3. sagadamxdelo sistemebi

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Tavi 11 - unaRdo angariSsworebis sistema
11.3. sagadamxdelo sistemebi
sagadamxdelo sistemis infrastruqtura da teqnologia is komponentebia, romlebzedac uSualod aris damokidebuli gadaxdebis Sesruleba, saimedooba da angariSsworebis sistemis usafrTxoeba. amasTan,
sagadamxdelo sistemaSi gamoyenebuli programul-teqnikuri saSualebebi unda uzrunvelyofdes sistemis Seuferxeblad muSaobas.
sagadamxdelo sistemebis infrastruqtura da teqnologia gaT­
vlili unda iyos ara mxolod gadaxdebis mimdinare moculobis damuSavebaze. maT unda hqondeT damuSavebisaTvis sarezervo simZlavreebi
sistemebis maqsimaluri datvirTvisa da momavalSi gadaxdebis moculobis mosalodneli gazrdis SemTxvevebisaTvis.
saqarTvelos sabanko sferos sagadamxdelo sistemebis infrastruqtura moicavs or damoukidebel segments:
1. saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis mier organizebul sistemebs miekuTvnebian is sistemebi, romelTa saSualebiTac xdeba
komerciul bankebsa da sxvadasxva saxelmwifo uwyebas Soris
angariS­sworebis organizeba (mag., drois realur reJimSi angariSsworebis sistema (RTGS), „net“-angariSsworebis kliringis
sistema, fasiani qaRaldebiT angariSsworebisa da sxva sistemebi);
2. kerZo sagadamxdelo sistemebi, romelTac miekuTvnebian kerZo (komerciuli) sagadamxdelo sistemebi. esenia: komerciuli
bankebis Sidasabanko sagadamxdelo sistemebi, saangariSsworebosakliringo saqmianobaze specializebuli sabanko da arasabanko
sakredito dawesebulebebis, bankTaSorisi savaluto birJis,
plastikuri baraTebiT sacalo gadaxdebisa da sxva kompaniebis
sagadamxdelo sistemebi.
ganvixiloT sagadaxdo sistemis ZiriTadi saxeobebi da maTTan dakavSirebuli Taviseburebebi, jer SevexoT saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis
mier organizebul, xolo Semdeg _ kerZo sagadamxdelo sistemebs:
1. saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis mier organizebul sistemebi
sanam uSualod am sistemebis daxasiaTebaze gadavalT, mimovixiloT
is rTuli gza, romelic qarTulma sabanko sistema ganvlo am mimarTulebiT. erovnuli bankis mxridan gadadgmuli pirveli nabiji iyo 1994 wlis
oqtomberSi damtkicebuli „saqarTvelos respublikis sabanko sistemaSi eleqtronuli angariSsworebis droebiTi debuleba“. dokumentis
mizans warmoadgenda bankTaSorisi urTierTobebis mowesrigeba, qveynis
fulad-sakredito politikis efeqtiani regulireba da optimaluri
saangariSsworebo meqanizmis Seqmna, rac xels Seuwyobda angariSsworebaSi moqmedebis operatiulobasa da fuladi nakadebis gadanacvlebas
minimaluri danaxarjebiT.
Semdeg periodSi erovnuli banki agrZelebda muSaobas eleqtronuli gadaricxvebis gafarToebisa da bankTaSoris angariSsworebaSi
arsebuli xarvezebis aRmofxvris, aseve drois realur reJimze angariSsworebis gadayvanisaTvis mosamzadebeli samuSaoebis Catarebisa da
267
ირაკლი კოვზანაძე, გოგი კონტრიძე - თანამედროვე საბანკო საქმე: თეორია და პრაქტიკა
sabanko sistemis muSakTa mier saTanado Cvevebis gamomuSavebis mizniT.
Semdeg wlebSi grZeldeboda samuSaoebi procesis srulyofis mimarTulebiT, xeboda rogorc axali normatiuli dokumentebis miReba, ise
cvlilebebis Setana.
sabolood, procesi miuaxlovda logikur mizans da dReisaTvis moqmedebs meqanizmi 2010 wlis noemberSi damtkicebuli ori normatiuli
dokumentiT:
• „sagadaxdo sistemaSi eleqtronuli saqmianobis Sesaxeb debuleba“;
• „sagadaxdo da fasiani qaRaldebis sistemaSi (GPSS) eleqtronuli dokumentisa da cifruli xelmoweris gamoyenebis Sesaxeb debuleba“.
pirveli dokumentis mizans warmoadgens sagadaxdo sistemis monawile
subieqtebs (sistemis operatori, sistemis monawileebi) Soris urTierTobis mowesrigebasa da maTi uflebebis dacva. rac Seexeba meore dokuments,
misi meSveobiT Camoyalibda sagadaxdo da fasiani qaRaldebis sistema
(GPSS), romelic aqamde arsebuli drois realur reJimSi angariSsworebis
(RTGS) sistemasTan erTad moicavs saxelmwifo fasiani qaRaldebis angariSsworebis (CSD) sistemasac. davaxasiaToT pirveli maTgani.
drois realur reJimSi angariSsworebis sistema (RTGS – Real Time
Gross Settlements) – esaa sxvadasxva qveynis centraluri bankebis mier
Seqmnili sagadaxdo sistema, romelsac flobs da marTavs konkretuli
qveynis centraluri banki (Cvens SemTxvevaSi saqarTvelos erovnuli
banki) da misi meSveobiT uzrunvelyofs erovnul valutaSi gadaricxvis
davalebebis Sesrulebas drois realur reJimSi.
Tavisi SinaarsiT drois realur reJimSi angariSsworebis sistema
(RTGS) fuladi saxsrebis mimoqcevis organizaciuli formebis, procedurebis, teqnologiur-funqciuri da programul-teqnikuri saSualebebis erTiani kompleqsia.
sistemis ZiriTadi mizania, uzrunvelyos gadaxdebisa da angariSsworebis iseTi meqanizmis Seqmna, romlis meSveobiTac saoperacio saaTebis ganmavlobaSi uwyvetad ganxorcieldeba monawileebis
gadaricxvis davalebebis rogorc damuSaveba, aseve monawileebs Soris
angariSsworeba. sistema uzrunvelyofs imas, rom gadaricxvis davalebis Sesrulebamde mowmdeba debitori monawilis angariSsworebis angariSze sakmarisi xelmisawvdomi Tanxis arseboba da dadebiTi Sedegis
SemTxvevaSi xorcieldeba angariSsworeba.
qveynis centraluri banki administrirebas uwevs RTGS angariS­
sworebis sistemas da igi uzrunvelyofs:
• sistemaSi monawileTa daSvebas;
• sistemis saoperacio standartebisa da procedurebis SemuSavebasa da damtkicebas;
• sistemis wesebisa da procedurebis danergvasa da ganviTarebas.
• drois realur reJimSi angariSsworebis sistemis RTGS monawile­
ebi arian:
• saqarTvelos erovnuli banki;
• licenzirebuli komerciuli bankebi;
• saqarTvelos finansTa saministros saxazino samsaxuri.
268
Tavi 11 - unaRdo angariSsworebis sistema
RTGS sistemaSi TiToeuli sagadamxdelo sabuTi muSavdeba individualurad da saxsrebis gadagzavna TiToeuli sagadamxdelo sabuTis
safuZvelze xorcieldeba realur droSi (ix. 4 banks Soris angariS­
sworebis magaliTi, romelic warmoebs angariSsworebis centrSi (saqarTvelos erovnuli banki) arsebuli sakorespondento angariSebis
mixedviT (sqema №11.1.).
110
banki
banki
70
A
B
90
80
100
70
angariSsworebis
centri
(saqarTvelos erovnuli banki)
80
110
100
90
banki
C
banki
120
60
D
sqema №11.1. realuri drois reJimSi ganxorcielebuli angariSsworeba
4 bankis magaliTze
warmodgenil magaliTSi fulis gadagzavna xorcieldeba calkeuli
sagadamxdelo sabuTebis safuZvelze: dadebetdeba gadamxdelis bankis
angariSi da dakreditdeba mimRebis bankis angariSi. sul mocemul SemTxvevaSi, dRis ganmavlobaSi, jamuri fuladi tranzaqciebi xorcieldeba
12 mimarTulebiT, saerTo TanxiT _ 1080 erTeuli (1080 gadaricxva da,
Sesabamisad _ 1080 miReba). amasTan, fulis gadagzavna warmoebs sakorespondento angariSebiT, romlebic gaxsnilia angariSsworebis centrSi,
Cvens SemTxvevaSi _ saqarTvelos erovnul bankSi.
„net“ angariSsworebis sistema (kliringi) aris urTierToba, romlis drosac xdeba kliringis monawile bankebis valdebulebaTa urTi­
erTCaTvla. amasTan, TiToeuli monawilisaTvis ganisazRvreba wminda
pozicia (sxvaoba yvela Semaval da gamomaval gadaxdebs Soris), ris Sesabamisadac xorcieldeba fulis gagzavna. sagadamxdelo sistemaSi sacalo gadaxdebis bazris ganviTarebisa da am sferoSi momsaxurebis xaris­
xis amaRlebis TvalsazrisiT, erT-erTi prioritetuli mimarTulebaa,
269
ირაკლი კოვზანაძე, გოგი კონტრიძე - თანამედროვე საბანკო საქმე: თეორია და პრაქტიკა
romlis mizania bankebisa da organizaciebis sabrunavi saxsrebis Semcireba, fuladi masis mimoqcevis daCqareba, centraluri da komerciuli
bankebis muSaobis optimizacia, angariSsworebis msvlelobis drois Semcireba, Tanamedrove informaciuli sabanko struqturis Seqmna, sistemis monawileTa xarjebis Semcireba da sxv.
kliringi SeiZleba ganxorcieldes ormxriv da mravalmxriv safuZvelze. ormxrivi kliringis dros urTierTCaTvla xorcieldeba or
banks Soris, romlis drosac erT-erTi monawile fuls gadaagzavnis
meoris sasargeblod, misi sadebeto wminda poziciis Sesabamisad. ra Tqma
unda, angariSsworeba xorcieldeba saangariSsworebo bankSi arsebuli
sakorespondento angariSebis meSveobiT. ormxrivi kliringis Sedegi
ilustrirebulia sqema №11.2-ze, romlis safuZvladac aRebulia sqema
№11.1-ze gamosaxuli magaliTi. am SemTxvevaSi TiToeul banks aqvs ori
calkeuli ormxrivi wminda pozicia.
40
banki
A
20
banki
B
angariSsworebis
centri
(seb, sakliringo centri,
sakliringo palata da sxv.)
40
0
20
banki
C
60
banki
D
sqema №11.2. ormxrivi kliringis reJimSi ganxorcielebuli angariSsworeba
4 bankis magaliTze
ganvixiloT magaliTi: A banksa da C banks Soris ormxrivi kliringis
ganxorcielebis Semdeg C banki valdebulia A banks gadauxados mxolod
20 erTeuli, nacvlad erTmaneTis mimarT gansaxorcielebeli 100 da 80
erTeulis gadaxdebisa, rogorc es sqema №11.1-zea mocemuli da a.S. saintereso SemTxveva fiqsirdeba A banksa da D banks Soris, roca tranzaqcia ar ganxorcielebula arc erTi mimarTulebiT, vinaidan orive bankis
mxridan dRiurma tranzaqciebis jamobrivma moculobam Seadgina 90-90
pirobiTi erTeuli da moxda maTi sruli urTierTCaTvla (gaqviTva).
270
Tavi 11 - unaRdo angariSsworebis sistema
sul mocemul SemTxvevaSi, dRis ganmavlobaSi, jamuri fuladi
tranzaqciebi xorcieldeba 6 mimarTulebiT, saerTo TanxiT _ 180 erTeuli (180 gadaricxva da, Sesabamisad _ 180 miReba).
mravalmxrivi kliringis ganxorcielebis dros xdeba valdebulebebis Caricxva kliringis TiToeuli monawilis mier sxva danarCeni
monawileebisaTvis. amrigad, kliringis TiToeuli monawilisaTvis arsebobs erTi „wminda pozicia“, romelic gamomdinareobs mis mimarT yvela
bankis valdebulebebsa da misi yvela bankis mimarT arsebul valdebulebebs Soris sxvaobiT.
am meTodis gansakuTrebuloba isaa, rom jamuri tranzaqcia mravalmxrivi kliringis Sedegebis mixedviT xorcieldeba ara TiToeuli
bankis sakorespondento angariSis, aramed erTiani sakliringo organizaciis angariSis meSveobiT. im bankis angariSebidan, romelTac kli­
ringis Sedegad gauCndebaT „wminda sadebeto pozicia“, fuladi saxsrebi
gadairicxeba sakliringo organizaciis angariSze, xolo sakliringo
organizaciis angariSidan Tanxebi gadairicxeba im bankebis sasargeblod, romelTac kliringis Sedegad gauCndebaT „wminda sakredito
pozicia“.
gavaanalizoT mravalmxrivi kliringis ganxorcielebis procesi ukve ganxiluli magaliTebis meSveobiT (sqemebi №11.1. da №11.2.).
TiToeuli bankis wminda pozicia gamoiTvleba, rogorc sxvaoba mocemuli bankis yvela Semaval (miRebuli) da yvela gamomaval (gagzavnili)
gadaxdis Tanxebs Soris (sqema №11.3.).
banki
banki
A
B
_100
60
angariSsw.
centri
(seb, sakliringo
centri,
sakliringo
palata da sxv.)
60
_20
banki
banki
C
D
sqema №11.3. mravalmxrivi kliringis reJimSi ganxorcielebuli
angariSsworeba 4 bankis magaliTze
271
ირაკლი კოვზანაძე, გოგი კონტრიძე - თანამედროვე საბანკო საქმე: თეორია და პრაქტიკა
warmodgenili magaliTidan Cans, rom realuri drois reJimisa da
ormxrivi kliringis reJimis angariSsworebis sistemisgan gansxvavebiT, fuladi saxsrebis gadagzavna mravalmxrivi kliringis Sedegad
xorcieldeba mxolod 4-jer, saerTo raodenobiT _ 120 erTeuli (120 _
gadaricxva da 120 _ miReba):
• A bankisaTvis: +60=40+20+0 (40 _ B, 20 _ C da 0 _ D bankebidan miRebulebi);
• B bankisaTvis: -100=-40-20-40 (-40 _ A, -20 _ C da 0 _ D bankebSi
gadaricxvebi);
• C bankisaTvis: +60=-20+20+60 (20 _ A bankSi gadaricxuli, 60 _ B da
20 D bankebidan miRebuli);
• D bankisaTvis: -20=0+40-60 (0 _ A da 40 _ B bankebidan miRebuli da
60 _ С bankSi gadaricxuli).
aRniSnul gaangariSebas axorcielebs sakliringo centri da axdens
saboloo angariSsworebas „wminda poziciebis“ mixedviT.
2. kerZo sagadamxdelo sistemebi
rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, kerZo sagadamxdelo sistemebs miekuTvneba komerciuli bankebis Sidasabanko sagadamxdelo sistemebi, saangariSsworebo-sakliringo saqmianobaze specializebuli sabanko Tu arasabanko sakredito dawesebulebebis, fasiani qaRaldebis organizebuli
bazris, plastikuri baraTebiT sacalo gadaxdebisa da sxva kompaniebis
sagadamxdelo sistemebi. ganvixiloT maT Soris gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani da cnobili sistemebi:
sviftis (SWIFT) sistema, anu msoflios bankTaSorisi finansuri
telekomunikaciebis sazogadoeba (Society for World-Wide Interbank Financial
telecommunications) _ aris finansuri satelekomunikacio sferoSi wamyvani
saerTaSoriso organizacia. SWIFT-is sistemis funqcionirebis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebia: swrafi, usafrTxo, efeqtiani, konfidencialuri
da arasanqcirebuli wvdomisagan daculi momsaxurebis gaweva sabanko
institutebisaTvis da finansuri informaciis gacvlis procesSi standartizebuli formebisa da meTodebis gamoyeneba. SWIFT informaciis
gadacemisa da gadaricxvis Sesrulebis saerTaSoriso bankTaSorisi
sistemaa, romlis meSveobiTac safinanso organizaciebi daculad da
swrafad axorcieleben saqmian operaciebs.
1973 wels 15 qveynis 239 bankma, belgiis kanonmdeblobis gaTva­
liswinebiT, Seqmna saerTaSoriso bankTaSorisi finansuri telekomunikaciebis sazogadoeba SWIFT-is sistema. 4 wlis ganmavlobaSi mimdinareobda teqnikuri da organizaciuli sakiTxebis gadawyveta da 1977
wlis 9 maiss Sedga sistemis oficialuri gaxsna 586 wevri bankiT. dReisaTvis SWIFT-is sistemis SemadgenlobaSi Sedis daaxloebiT 10 aTasi sabanko dawesebuleba, fasiani qaRaldebis instituti da korporaciuli
klienti msoflios 200-ze meti qveynidan. yvela maTgans, geografiuli
mdebareobis miuxedavad, aqvs nebismier dros, dRe-Ramisa da mTeli wlis
ganmavlobaSi erTmaneTTan SeuzRudavi urTierTobis saSualeba.
272
Tavi 11 - unaRdo angariSsworebis sistema
SWIFT _ esaa saaqcio sazogadoeba, romlis mflobelebi arian sistemis wevri bankebi. saTavo ofisi mdebareobs belgiaSi, qalaq la-ulpSi,
xolo ori ZiriTadi saangariSsworebo centri ganTavsebulia holandiasa (emsaxureba aRmosavleT naxevarsferos) da aSS-Si (emsaxureba
dasavleT naxevarsferos). marTvis umaRlesi organo aris wevri bankebis
warmomadgenlebis saerTo Sekreba _ generaluri asamblea. direqtorTa
sabWoSi mTavari adgili uWiravT dasavleT evropisa da aSS-is bankebis
warmomadgenlebs. aqciebis raodenoba gadanawilebulia gadacemuli
Setyobinebebis moculobis proporciulad, amitomac aqciebis udidesi
nawilis mflobelebi arian aSS-is, germaniis, Sveicariis, safrangeTis,
didi britaneTis wevri bankebi.
SWIFT-is wevri SeiZleba gaxdes nebismieri banki, romelsac qveynis erovnuli kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, ufleba aqvs ganaxorcielos
saerTaSoriso sabanko operaciebi. bank-wevrebTan erTad, SWIFT-is qselis SemadgenlobaSi aseve Sedian kidev ori kategoriis momxmareblebi
_ asocirebuli wevrebi da monawileebi. asocirebuli wevrebi ar arian
aqcionerebi da, Sesabamisad, ar gaaCniaT gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi monawileobis ufleba. SWIFT-is saxelwodebaSi sityva „bankTaSorisi“ pirobiTad iqca, vinaidan 1987 wlidan igi Ria gaxda iseTi arasabanko dawesebulebebisaTvisac, rogorebicaa: sainvesticio kompaniebi,
depozituri da kliringuli organizaciebi, msoflioSi aRiarebuli
birJebi, satrasto samsaxurebi, samgzavro Cekebis emitenti kompaniebi,
saerTaSoriso finansuri institutebi da sxv.
SWIFT-is sistema saSualebas iZleva, momxmareblebma avtomatizebuli da standartizebuli gaxadon TavianTi finansuri tranzaqciebi,
ris Sedegadac mcirdeba operaciebTan dakavSirebuli danaxarjebi,
saoperacio riskebi da Cndeba axali biznesSesaZleblobebis ganviTarebisa da Semosavlis miRebis gzebi.
SWIFT-is sistemaSi saqarTvelos komerciuli bankebis CarTva jer
kidev 1995 wlidan daiwyo. 1997 wels saerTaSoriso organizaciebis teqnikuri daxmarebebiT SesaZlebeli gaxda saqarTvelos erovnuli bankisa da 16 komerciuli bankis CarTva SWIFT-Si centralizebuli sistemiT,
romelic Semdeg wlebSi Seicvala decentralizebuli sistemiT da yvela
qarTul komerciul banks mieca SWIFT-is qselSi CarTvis SesaZlebloba.
angariSsworebis sistemebi plastikuri baraTebiT operaciebisaTvis da saprocesingo centrebi. plastikuri baraTebi _ esaa saerTaSoriso termini, romelic aerTianebs sxvadasxva tipis baraTs. isini
erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdebian rogorc daniSnulebis, aseve teqnikuri
maxasiaTeblebis, momsaxurebis saxeobisa da sxva parametrebis mixedviT. sabanko plastikuri baraTi sagadamxdelo instrumentia, romelic
warmoadgens saangariSsworebo saSualebas saqonlis an miRebuli momsaxurebis safasuris gadasaxdelad, naRdi fulis misaRebad, valutis
gadasacvlelad da sxva operaciebis gansaxorcieleblad. unaRdo angariSsworebis organizeba plastikuri baraTebis saSualebiT mniSvnelovania ara mxolod calkeuli bankebisaTvis an calkeuli klientebisaTvis, aramed mTlianad qveynis ekonomikisaTvis, radganac maT
273
ირაკლი კოვზანაძე, გოგი კონტრიძე - თანამედროვე საბანკო საქმე: თეორია და პრაქტიკა
gamoyenebas mivyavarT fuladi saxsrebis brunvis siCqaris amaRlebamde,
fuladi saxsrebis operatiul marTvamde, angariSebisa da xarisxis kontrolis srulyofamde.
plastikuri baraTebiT operaciebisas angariSsworebis monawileTa
Soris informaciis damuSavebasa da gadacemas axorcieleben e. w. „saprocesingo centrebi“. maTi saqmianoba moicavs sabanko baraTebiT warmoebuli operaciebis Sesaxeb informaciis miRebas (Segrovebas), damuSavebasa da angariSsworebis yvela monawilisaTvis Sesabamisi monacemebis
gadacemas. aq muSavdeba yvela miRebuli faili, xarisxdeba operaciebi
da formdeba tranzaqciaTa eleqtronuli Jurnalebi, romlebic warmoadgenen dokuments, ris safuZvelzec xdeba operaciebi. banki emitenti eleqtronuli Jurnalis safuZvelze axdens klientis sabaraTo angariSis debetirebas.
angariSsworebis sistemaSi operaciebis didi moculobis dros
qveyanaSi iqmneba ramdenime procesinguli centri, raTa ganitvirTos
centraluri procesinguli centri (aseTis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi).
bankisaTvis, ra Tqma unda, umjobesia Seqmnas sakuTari procesinguli
centri, rac imas niSnavs, rom mas SeuZlia daamuSaos operaciebi da angariSsworebis centriT moemsaxuros sxva bankebs, romlebic muSaoben
aRniSnul angariSsworebis sistemaSi.
dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi moqmedebs sxvadasxva komerciuli bankis
mier dafuZnebuli 4 saprocesingo centri, romlebic emsaxurebian saqarTveloSi plastikuri baraTebiT operaciebs.
rac Seexeba plastikuri baraTebis sagadamxdelo sistemebs, esaa
meTodebis, procedurebisa da maTi ganmaxorcielebeli subieqtebis erToblioba, romlebic uzrunveyofen plastikuri baraTebis gamoyenebas,
standartebisa da regulaciebis moTxovnebis gaTvaliswinebiT.
dReisaTvis saqarTvelos mimoqcevaSi arsebuli plastikuri baraTebis daaxloebiT 76% Visa International-is tipis saerTaSoriso angariSsworebis sistemis baraTebia, daaxloebiT 12% _ MasterCard-is tipis,
xolo darCenili 12% _ sxva tipis baraTebze modis, romelTa Soris umTavresi American Express-is baraTebia.
sistema „banki-klienti“ _ esaa mravalfunqciuri distanciuri sabanko momsaxurebis programul-teqnikuri kompleqsi, romlis organizatori da mflobelia konkretuli komerciuli banki. „banki-klientis“
sistema klientis mier gamoiyeneba saangariSsworebo operaciebis sawarmoeblad uSualod misi ofisidan an nebismieri sxva adgilidan bankSi
arsebuli sakuTari angariSebis meSveobiT da maT Sesaxeb informaciis
misaRebad.
„banki-klienti“ sistema Tavdapirvelad gankuTvnili iyo iuridiuli pirebisaTvis. man Cauyara safuZveli ukve farTod gavrcelebul
distanciur sabanko momsaxurebas, romelSic masTan erTad Sedis internet-bankingi, home-bankingi, telefon-bankingi, SMS-bankingi, GSMbankingi, TV-bankingi da sxv. dRes distanciuri sabanko momsaxureba aqtiurad gamoiyeneba rogorc iuridiuli, ise fizikuri pirebis mier.
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Tavi 11 - unaRdo angariSsworebis sistema
swrafi fuladi gzavnilebis sistemebi mTel msoflioSi, maT Soris, saqarTveloSi farTodaa gavrcelebuli. isini Cveulebrivi gada­
ricxvebis sistemebidan imiT gansxvavdebian, rom maTi mosargebleebi
arian fizikuri pirebi, momsaxurebis sruli cikli grZeldeba ramdenime
(15-30) wuTs da am sistemebis sargeblobisas fizikur pirs ar esaWiroeba
angariSis gaxsna komerciul bankSi.
rogorc ganvlili masalidan gvaxsovs, saqarTveloSi aRniSnuli
servisis miwodeba Sesabamisi kriteriumebis dakmayofilebis Semdeg,
komerciuli bankebis garda, SeuZliaT „fuladi gadaricxvebis ganma­
xorcielebel pirebsac“, romelTa saqmianoba regulirdeba organuli
kanoniT „saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis Sesaxeb“, „fuladi gzavnilebis
ganmaxorcielebeli piris registraciisa da regulirebis“ wesiT da
sxva normatiuli aqtebiT. saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT, fuladi gzavnilebis ganmaxorcielebeli piri _ esaa fizikuri an iuridiuli piri
(garda komerciuli bankisa, sakredito kavSirisa da mikrosafinanso
organizaciisa), romelic sxvadasxva sistemis meSveobiT axorcielebs
fizikuri pirebis fuladi gzavnilebiT momsaxurebas. dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi funqcionirebs erovnuli bankis mier registrirebuli 40-ze
meti fuladi gadaricxvebis ganmaxorcielebeli piri.
2013 wlis monacemebiT, aRniSnuli sistemebiT saqarTveloSi Camo­
ricxulia 1.5 mlrd aSS dolaramde, xolo gadaricxulia 155 mln aSS
dolari. imave periodSi saqarTveloSi moqmed saerTaSoriso sistemebs
Soris Zolotaia Korona-ze modis bazris 25%, Western Union-ze _ 15%, Unistream-sa da Intel Express-ze _ 12-12%, Contact-ze _ 8%, Money Gram-ze _ 7%,
Anelik-ze _ 6%. danarCeni 15% sxva sistemebzea ganawilebuli.
am saerTaSoriso sistemebis garda, saqarTveloSi moqmedebs analogiuri sistemebi, romlebic axorcieleben salare gadaricxvebs qveynis
SigniT. aseTi sistemebi aqvs ramdenime qarTul komerciul banks. Tumca,
isic aRsaniSnavia, rom bolo periodSi teqnologiurma ganviTarebam,
gansakuTrebiT _ sabaraTe biznesis mimarTulebiT, swrafi fuladi gzavnilebis sistemebis mniSvneloba qveynis SigniT sul ufro Seamcira.
TiTqmis yvela qveyanas, sakuTar valutasTan erTad, aqvs gadaxdebisa da angariSsworebis sakuTari sistemebic. amasTan, mudmivad xdeba am
sistemebis srulyofa da ganviTareba. mokled davaxasiaToT msoflios
wamyvan qveynebSi yvelaze gavrcelebuli sistemebi:
aSS-Si cnobili ZiriTadi eleqtronuli sagadamxdelo sistemebi:
1.„fedvaieri“ (Fedwire), romelic aris aSS-is federaluri sarezervo sistemis bankTaSorisi angariSsworebis sistema da Tavisi
arsiT warmoadgens „realur droSi angariSsworebis sistemas“
(RTGS), anu angariSsworeba xorcieldeba momentalurad da realur droSi („onlain“ reJimSi) aisaxeba Sesabamis angariSebze;
2.„Cipsi“ (CHIPS – Clearing House Interbank Payments System) warmoadgens
sakliringo sistemas da imarTeba niu-iorkis sakliringo saxlis
mier. „fedvaierisagan“ gansxvavebiT, „CipsiT“ angariSsworebisas xorcieldeba ara TiToeuli tranzaqciis mixedviT, aramed
jamuri moculobiT samuSao dRis bolos, sistemis TiToeuli
275
ირაკლი კოვზანაძე, გოგი კონტრიძე - თანამედროვე საბანკო საქმე: თეორია და პრაქტიკა
monawilis wminda sadebeto an sakredito poziciis Sesabamisad.
amis Semdeg saboloo angariSsworeba wminda poziciebis mixedviT
xdeba ukve „fedvaieris“ sistemis mier.
am ori sistemiT xorcieldeba aSS-is Sida bankTaSorisi angariS­
sworebebis absoluturi umravlesoba.
cnobilia aseve iseTi sagadamxdelo sistemebi, rogorebicaa: CHAPS
(Clearing House Association Payments System) did britaneTSi, SIC (Swiss
Interbank Clearing) _ Sveicariis sakliringo sistema da sxv. gansakuTrebiT
aRsaniSnavia evroSi gadaricxvebis sistema TARGET (Trans-European Automated Real-time Grosssettlement Express Transfer), romelic warmoadgens RTGS
sakliringo sistemas. Tavisi struqturiT TARGET aris decentralizebuli sagadamxdelo sistema, romelic Sedgeba nacionaluri RTGS sistemebisa da evropis centraluri bankis sagadamxdelo meqanizmisagan.
sainteresoa, rom TARGET sistemis teqnikur platformad gamoyenebulia SWIFT. dRes ukve moqmedebs TARGET-is modificirebuli sistema
TARGET2.
11.4. bankTaSorisi angariSsworeba
bankTaSorisi angariSsworeba da misi meSveobiT ganxorcielebuli
gadaxdebi warmoadgenen nebismieri qveynis ekonomikisa da misi sabanko
sistemis safuZvels, romlis gareSec warmoudgenelia maTi funqcionireba.
bankTaSorisi angariSsworeba xorcieldeba sakorespondento
urTierTobebis meSveobiT da warmoadgens bankebs Soris xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebul urTierTobas angariSsworebisa da gadaxdebis
ganxorcielebis Sesaxeb, romlebic warmoebs erT-erTi maTganis mier
meores saxsrebiT da davalebiT.
roca komerciuli bankis klienti axdens raime valdebulebis Sesrulebas, anu kontragentisaTvis fulis gadaxdas, mas aqvs ori alternativa: gamoitanos Tavisi angariSidan naRdi fuli da gadauxados mas an
gadaricxos mis angariSze. ra Tqma unda, gadaricxvis operacia bevrad
swrafi, usafrTxo da komfortulia da bankis momsaxurebaSi myofi klientebis absoluturi umravlesoba asec iqceva. saqme isaa, rom gadaricxvis drosac SeiZleba dafiqsirdes ori SemTxveva:
1.saxsrebis gadamricxavi da misi kontragenti (beneficiari, anu
saxsrebis mimRebi) arian erTi da imave bankis klientebi;
2.saxsrebis gadamricxavi da beneficiari arian ori sxvadasxva bankis klientebi.
pirvel SemTxvevaSi saqme martivadaa da davalebis mimRebi banki
erTi angariSidan meore angariSze tranzaqciis ganxorcielebiT asrulebs operacias, anu CamoaWris pirvel klients angariSidan Tanxas da
Cauricxavs meores.
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