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Giancarlo Cataldi
URBAN MORPHOLOGY
AS A DISCIPLINARY BASIS FOR ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
ISUF 2014
Porto, 3 July 2014
1
Part One
THE CRISIS OF ARCHITECTURE
2
ARCHITECTURE AS A
DISCIPLINE (*)
Vitruvius,
De architectura Libri X,
illuminated manuscript
(15° century, Florence, Medicea
Laurenziana Library)
(*) ‘'Discipline” (Latin Disco, I learn;
Greek Didasko, I teach):
a system of knowledges
that can be learned and taught
3
“Architecti est scientia pluribus disciplinis et variis eruditionibus ornata,
cuius iudicio probantur omnia quae ab ceteris artibus perficiunt opera.
Ea nascitur ex fabrica et ratiocinatione”
“The science of the architect consists of many disciplines and from a variety of
knowledges. All the works produced by the other arts are subject to his judgment.
It comes from the practice and the project] "
(Vitruvius, De architectura I, I, 1)
4
ARCHITECTURE WITHOUT ARCHITECTS
(B. Rudofsky, New York 1964)
BASIC BUILDINGS
*
SPONTANEOUS
CONSCIOUSNES
S
(TRADITIONAL DWELLINGS )
SPECIAL
BUILDINGS
°°
SELFCONSCIOUSNES
S
(*) Handed down orally
(**) With architects aware of their work
5
AT THE ORIGIN OF DWELLING
(G. Cataldi, Firenze, 1986)
6
THE ARCHITECT IN WESTERN HISTORY
(L. Vagnetti, Firenze, 1972)
1.
[MIDDLE AGES]
YARDS
2.
[RENAISSANCE
]
SHOPS
3.
[LATE
RENAISSANCE]
ACADEMIES *
4.
[MODERN
AGES]
SCHOOLS AND
FACULTIES *
(*) Books, students, theories and professors = symptoms of crisis
7
AUTONOMY AND HETERONOMY OF ARCHITECTURE
COMPONENTS
OF ARCHITECTURE
DISCIPLINARY FIELDS
1.
HISTORICAL &
CRITICAL
HUMANITIES, HISTORY, PHILOSOPHY
2.
TECHNICAL
ENGINEERING & NATURAL SCIENCES
3.
URBAN & SOCIAL
URBAN PLANNING & SOCIAL SCIENCES
4.
ARTISTIC
ARTS ACADEMIES
8
[9]9
[ 1010
]
[ 1111
]
[ 1212]
[ 13
13 ]
[ 1414
]
[ 1515
]
THE FOUR MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE FIGURE OF ARCHITECT
1. ARCHITECTS VS CRITICS
2. ARCHITECTS VS ENGINEERS
3. ARCHITECTS VS URBAN PLANNERS
4. ARCHITECTS VS ARTISTS
16
Part Two
INTRODUCTION TO THE TYPE-MORPHOLOGICAL SCHOOL
17
1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS
1. Saverio Muratori (1910-1973)
2. The Roman School of Saverio Muratori (1960-70)
3. The Muratorian School (1970-2000)
4. The Type-morphological Italian School (2000→)
18
SAVERIO MURATORI
ARCHITECT
Modena 1910 – Roma 1973
In the centenary of his birth
19
2. MAIN REFERENCES ON URBAN FORM (*)
Saverio MURATORI
Vita e storia della città (1950)
Saverio MURATORI,
Life and history of the city (1950)
(*) Without
philosophical books of Saverio Muratori
20
Saverio MURATORI
Studi per una operante
storia urbana di Venezia (1959)
Paolo MARETTO
L’edilizia gotica veneziana (1960)
Saverio MURATORI
Studies for a working
urban history of Venice (1959)
Paolo MARETTO
Venetian gothic building (1960)
21
Renato BOLLATI, Sergio BOLLATI, Guido MARINUCCI, Saverio MURATORI
Studi per una operante storia urbana di Roma (1963)
Renato BOLLATI, Sergio BOLLATI, Guido MARINUCCI, Saverio MURATORI
22
Studies for a working urban history of Rome (1963)
Gianfranco Caniggia
Lettura di una città: Como (1963)
Gianfranco Caniggia
Reading of a city: Como (1963)
23
Gianfranco Caniggia, Gian Luigi Maffei
Composizione
architettonica e tipologia edilizia
1. Lettura
dell’edilizia di base (1979) - 2. Il progetto nell’edilizia di base (1984)
Gianfranco Caniggia, Gian Luigi Maffei
Architectural composition and buiding typology
24
1. Interpreting basic building (1979) - 2. Projecting basic building (1984)
Paolo Maretto
La casa veneziana
nella storia della città (1984)
Paolo Maretto
Venetian house in the city’s history
(1984)
Gian Luigi Maffei
La casa fiorentina
nella storia della città (1990)
Gian Luigi Maffei
Florentine house in the city’s history
25
(1990)
G. Strappa, M. Ieva, M. A. Dimatteo
La città come organismo.
Lettura di Trani alle diverse scale (2003)
Attilio Petruccioli
After Amnesia. Learning from the Islamic
Mediterranean Urban Fabric (2007)
G. Strappa, M. Ieva, M. A. Dimatteo
The city as organism
The Trani’s scalar reading (2003)
Attilio Petruccioli
After Amnesia. Learning from the Islamic
26
Mediterranean Urban Fabric (2007)
Giancarlo Cataldi, Fausto Formichi
Pienza Forma Urbis (2007)
M. R. G. Conzen
Alnwick, Northumberland:
a study in town-plan analysys
(Italian edition edited by G. Cataldi, G. L. Maffei,
M. Maretto, N. Marzot, G. Strappa, 2012)
27
Part three
TYPE-MORPHOLOGICAL THEORY
28
«If we analyse the process of building a house,
we notice that the shape of the house
is already in the builder’s mind:
he knows what “house” means.
Somehow the house originates from “house”:
something immaterial (“house” as a concept )
generates something that includes the matter (the house).»
Aristotle, Metaphisics, 12°
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