Making Math Look Pretty вЂ“ or How to Use LaTeX Kristi Meyer Iowa State University [email protected] Basics of LaTeX пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® A computer program for typesetting text and mathematical formulas Uses commands to create mathematical symbols Not a WYSIWYG program Need to compile the file in order to see the finished product Basics of LaTeX вЂ“ Commands пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Always begin with a backslash \ Case sensitive Consist of letters only Some have parameters пЃ® пЃ® Square brackets [ ] after the command name are for optional parameters Curly braces { } after the command name are for required parameters Getting Started пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Can use lots of different programs to create a LaTeX file All computers here use WinEdt Need to begin by creating a new file Input File Structure пЃ® Begins with a preamble пЃ® \documentclass[options]{class} пЃ® class specifies the type of document to be created пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Usually use article or amsart Can also use slides or siamltex options customizes the document class you are using пЃ® пЃ® Can be used to set font size (10, 11, or 12 pt), set paper size, use one or two columns, etc. See Getting Started with LaTeX, pgs. 12 вЂ“ 13, for more information Input File Structure пЃ® Begins with a preamble пЃ® \usepackage{package} пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Packages add new features and commands to LaTeX Common packages: amsmath, amssymb, graphics Can also define new commands in the preamble, specify page numbering, etc. Input File Structure пЃ® пЃ® Now weвЂ™re ready to begin the body of the text \begin{document} пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® \begin{вЂ¦} commands always need to be followed (eventually) by \end{вЂ¦} commands Enter the actual content here \end{document} Typesetting Your Document пЃ® пЃ® Click the вЂњLaTeXвЂќ or вЂњPDF LaTeXвЂќ button on the top right To view your file, click вЂњDVIвЂќ or the Adobe Acrobat symbol пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® DVI stands for вЂњdevice independentвЂќ вЂ“ itвЂ™s basically a generic viewer Can change between DVI, PDF, or PS files Document is automatically saved when you typeset it Types of LaTeX Files пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® .tex вЂ“ input file, needs to be compiled .dvi вЂ“ DVI file, shows what your file looks like .tex.bak вЂ“ backup LaTeX file, is changed when document is typeset .log вЂ“ log file, tells what happened the last time you compiled your document пЃ® Helpful to look at if there are errors and you donвЂ™t know why Sections of a Paper пЃ® \title[label]{actual title} пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® \author{authors} пЃ® пЃ® If you label your title, youвЂ™ll be able to reference it later Can also label theorems, equations, figures, tables, etc. Need to put \maketitle after title and authors \today пЃ® пЃ® Gives the current date Usually want this centered Sections of a Paper пЃ® \thanks{вЂ¦} пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Abstract пЃ® пЃ® Creates a footnote with whatever is in the braces Usually used after authorsвЂ™ names for academic information Use \begin{abstract} and \end{abstract} Keywords пЃ® пЃ® Use \begin{keywords} and \end{keywords} OR use \keywords{вЂ¦} Sections of a Paper пЃ® пЃ® Papers should be divided into sections, subsections, etc. Important commands: пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® \section{Title of section} \subsection{вЂ¦} \subsubsection{вЂ¦} \paragraph{вЂ¦} \subparagraph{вЂ¦} Sections of a Paper пЃ® Bibliography пЃ® \begin{thebibliography}{number} and \end{thebibliography} пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® number is 9, 99, 999, etc. Tells LaTeX how if you will be using only single-digit numbers, double-digit numbers, etc. Use \bibitem{label} to create a new reference пЃ® label lets you reference that item elsewhere in the paper Referencing Using Labels пЃ® пЃ® May want to reference a section, theorem, figure, example, etc. somewhere else in the document To label a section: пЃ® пЃ® \section{Title}\label{Label for section} To reference a section: пЃ® пЃ® \ref{Label for section} Only gives the section number вЂ“ youвЂ™ll need to type Section separately Theorems and Definitions пЃ® пЃ® Can decide what style you want your theorems, definitions, corollaries, etc. Two possibilities for numbering: пЃ® Theorem 1, Example 1, Theorem 2, Lemma 1, etc. пЃ® \theoremstyle{вЂ¦} пЃ® \newtheorem{short name}{long name} пЃ® Short name is what you type пЃ® Long name is what is displayed on the page Theorems and Definitions пЃ® Two possibilities for numbering: пЃ® Theorem 1, Example 2, Lemma 3, Example 4, etc. пЃ® пЃ® For unnumbered theorems, use either command with \newtheorem* пЃ® пЃ® \newtheorem{shortname}[style]{longname} * can be used in many environments for unnumbered items May need to include the package amsthm in order to properly display theorems Environments пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Many environments available in TeX Used to help format parts of your document Always need \begin{environment name} and \end{environment name} Environments пЃ® Itemize environment пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® \begin{itemize} and \end{itemize} Creates an outline using bullet points Items within the section are created by \item Can nest itemize environments within one another Environments пЃ® Enumerate environment пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® \begin{enumerate} and \end{enumerate} Creates an outline using numbers and letters Items within the section are created by \item Can nest enumerate environments within one another Centered environment пЃ® пЃ® \begin{center} and \end{center} To end a line, use \\ Typesetting Math пЃ® пЃ® Mathematical text is placed between $ Math mode is normally displayed inline пЃ® пЃ® To display math mode in a larger font, use \displaystyle пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Can make some expressions look funny Makes all symbols within $ larger For text within math mode, use \text{вЂ¦} Math mode uses italics and no spaces between words Useful Mathematical Commands пЃ® Greek letters пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® $\pi$ for lowercase, $\Pi$ for uppercase No command for $\Alpha$ - just use A Fractions пЃ® пЃ® $\frac{numerator}{denominator}$ For a larger fraction, use \displaystyle Useful Mathematical Commands пЃ® Superscripts and Subscripts пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® $x^2$ $x_2$ Use curly braces to group items together пЃ® пЃ® $x_{i_2}$ or $x_{min}$ Can have a superscript and a subscript on the same character пЃ® $x_i^3$ Useful Mathematical Commands пЃ® Limits and Integrals пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Probably want to use \displaystyle, otherwise theyвЂ™ll look funny $\displaystyle \lim_{x \to \infty} 3x$ $\displaystyle \int_0^2 x\ dx$ пЃ® пЃ® The \ gives a space between x and dx Lots more commands on pgs. 58 вЂ“ 65 of Getting Started with LaTeX Other Important Characters пЃ® Quote marks пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® For left-hand quote marks, use `` For right-hand quote marks, use вЂќ or вЂ™вЂ™ Comments пЃ® Can comment out sections of file пЃ® пЃ® Allows you to not display text without deleting it Use % at the beginning of any lines you want to comment out Defining New Commands пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Typing some long commands over and over is not fun Can define a new command thatвЂ™s easier to type Goes in preamble \newcommand{newname}{oldname} пЃ® newname cannot be the name of an existing command Mathematical Environments пЃ® Equation environment пЃ® \begin{equation} and \end{equation} пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Automatically numbers equations For no numbers, use equation* Can label equations by \label{name} Centers equation on page Do not need $ within equation environment Mathematical Environments пЃ® Align environment пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® \begin{align} and \end{align} For no numbers, use align* Put & in front of the symbol in each line that you want aligned End each line (except the last one) with \\ Do not need $ within align environment Proof environment пЃ® \begin{proof} and \end{proof} Arrays пЃ® пЃ® Especially used for matrices Begin with left symbol for matrix пЃ® пЃ® $\left[ Next, begin array environment пЃ® \begin{array}{lrc} пЃ® Tells how many columns you have and their alignment Arrays пЃ® Specify the entries of the matrix пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® End the array пЃ® пЃ® Separate the entries by & End each row (except the last one) by \\ \end{array} Create the right side symbol for the matrix пЃ® \right]$ Arrays пЃ® пЃ® Can also have lines within arrays Horizontal lines пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Use \hline after each row that you want a line under x^2 & 4x & 3 \\ \hline Vertical lines пЃ® пЃ® Put | between the columns that you want lines between \begin{array}{lr|c} Tables пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Basically the same as arrays \begin{tabular}{lrc} and \end{tabular} Can add lines in the same way that you do for arrays Figures пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Often used to import some other type of file (usually a .ps file) into your document Can generate graphics in LaTeX, but this is harder to do Any imported file needs to be in the same directory as your main file Also need to include the package graphicx in your preamble Figures пЃ® Begin the figure environment by \begin{figure}[placement] пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® placement is an optional argument that tells LaTeX where on the page you want the figure Can be h (here), t (top), b (bottom), or p (on a separate page) Put an ! before the placement if you really want the figure at that page location Figures пЃ® Include the file that you want пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® \includegraphics[display]{filename} display is an optional parameter which allows you to change the appearance of your graphic Can use the following parameters: пЃ® пЃ® width, height, angle (rotates the graphic counterclockwise), scale (number between 0 and 1) Changing width or height will preserve the aspect ratio Figures пЃ® Can create a caption for your figure пЃ® \caption[shortname]{longname} пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® shortname is displayed in the Table of Contents (if you create one) longname is displayed below the figure Captioning also automatically labels your figures Can label your figure пЃ® пЃ® \label{reference} Allows you to refer to your figure later by using \ref{reference} Figures пЃ® End the figure environment пЃ® пЃ® \end{figure} May sometimes need to create a PostScript file instead of a PDF file in order to get graphics to display properly

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