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Number the Stars
By
Lois Lowry
Literature Guide Developed by Mary Pat Mahoney
for Secondary SolutionsВ®
ISBN 13: 978-0-9789204-3-2
ISBN 10: 0-9789204-3-0
В© 2008 Secondary Solutions. All rights reserved.
A classroom teacher who has purchased this guide may photocopy the materials in this publication for his/her
classroom use only. Use or reproduction by a part of or an entire school or school system, by for-profit tutoring
centers and like institutions, or for commercial sale, is strictly prohibited. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, transmitted, translated or stored without the express written permission of the publisher. Created
and printed in the United States of America.
Secondary
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В©2008 Secondary Solutions
Number the Stars Literature Guide
Number the Stars Literature Guide
Table of Contents
About This Literature Guide ............................................................................................................. 4  How to Use Our Literature Guides ................................................................................................... 5  Sample Teacher Agenda ................................................................................................................... 6  Notes to the Teacher ....................................................................................................................... 9  Pre-Reading Preparation ................................................................................................................. 10  Standards Focus: Author Biography................................................................................................... 10  Standards Focus: Exploring Expository Writing—Author Biography ...................................................... 11  Anticipation/Reaction Activity—What is Bravery? ................................................................................ 12  Standards Focus: Genre ................................................................................................................... 13  Sorting Literature ............................................................................................................................. 13  Different Types of Fiction ................................................................................................................. 14  Standards Focus: Historical Context ................................................................................................ 15  Hitler’s Plan ..................................................................................................................................... 15  Standards Focus: Exploring Expository Writing—Hitler’s Plan ............................................................... 16  Map of Europe .............................................................................................................................................. 17  Vocabulary List ................................................................................................................................ 18  Allusions and Terminology to Know ................................................................................................ 19  Chapters One – Three ...................................................................................................................... 21  Comprehension Check ...................................................................................................................... 21  Standards Focus: Note-Taking and Summarizing—Sample .................................................................. 22  Standards Focus: Note-Taking and Summarizing ................................................................................ 23  Standards Focus: Flashback ............................................................................................................. 26  Assessment Preparation: Comma Usage ............................................................................................ 27  Chapters Four – Six .......................................................................................................................... 29  Comprehension Check ...................................................................................................................... 29  Standards Focus: Note-Taking and Summarizing ................................................................................ 30  Standards Focus: Setting ................................................................................................................. 33  Map of Denmark ........................................................................................................................................... 34  Assessment Preparation: Semi-Colon and Colon ................................................................................. 35  Chapters Seven – Nine ..................................................................................................................... 36  Comprehension Check ...................................................................................................................... 36  Standards Focus: Note-Taking and Summarizing ................................................................................ 37  Standards Focus: Imagery ................................................................................................................ 40  Assessment Preparation: Precise Word Choice ................................................................................... 41  Chapters Ten – Twelve..................................................................................................................... 42  Comprehension Check ...................................................................................................................... 42  Standards Focus: Note-Taking and Summarizing ................................................................................ 43  Standards Focus: Conflict ................................................................................................................. 46  Assessment Preparation: Indefinite Pronouns..................................................................................... 48  Chapters Thirteen – Fifteen ............................................................................................................. 50  Comprehension Check ...................................................................................................................... 50  Standards Focus: Note-Taking and Summarizing ................................................................................ 51  Standards Focus: Foreshadowing ...................................................................................................... 54  Assessment Preparation: Misused Verbs—Lay and Lie......................................................................... 56  Chapters Sixteen – Afterword ......................................................................................................... 57  Comprehension Check ...................................................................................................................... 57  Standards Focus: Note-Taking and Summarizing ................................................................................ 58  Standards Focus: Analysis of Chapter Names and Novel Title .............................................................. 61  Assessment Preparation: Using Vocabulary in Context ........................................................................ 62  Vocabulary Review Crossword: Chapters 1-9 ..................................................................................... 63  Vocabulary Review Crossword: Chapters 10-Afterword ....................................................................... 64  Quiz: Chapters 1-3 ........................................................................................................................... 65  Quiz: Chapters 4-6 ........................................................................................................................... 66  Quiz: Chapters 7-9 ........................................................................................................................... 67  ©2008 Secondary Solutions
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Number the Stars Literature Guide
Quiz: Chapters 10-12 ....................................................................................................................... 68 В Quiz: Chapters 13-15 ....................................................................................................................... 69 В Quiz: Chapters 16-Afterword ........................................................................................................... 70 В Final Exam ....................................................................................................................................... 71 В Final Exam: Multiple Choice Version ................................................................................................ 74 В Teacher Guide ............................................................................................................................... 78 В Novel Summary ............................................................................................................................... 78 В Vocabulary with Definitions .............................................................................................................. 81 В Pre-Reading Ideas and Activities ....................................................................................................... 82 В Research/ Technology/ Cross-Curricular Activities ........................................................................................... 82 В Post-Reading Ideas and Alternative Assessment ................................................................................. 83 В Essay/Writing Ideas ......................................................................................................................... 84 В Sample Project Rubric ...................................................................................................................... 85 В Sample Response to Literature Rubric ............................................................................................... 86 В Answer Key ...................................................................................................................................... 88 В В©2008 Secondary Solutions
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Number the Stars Literature Guide
About This Literature Guide
Secondary
SolutionsВ®
is
the
separate set of teacher materials at an
endeavor of a high school English teacher who
additional cost.
Other units provided the
could not seem to find appropriate materials to
teacher with student materials only, and very
help her students master the necessary
often, the content standards were ignored.
concepts at the secondary level. She grew
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tired of spending countless hours researching,
necessary materials for complete coverage of
creating, writing, and revising lesson plans,
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worksheets, quizzes, tests and extension
biographies, pre-reading activities, numerous
activities to motivate and inspire her students,
and varied vocabulary and comprehension
and at the same time, address those ominous
activities, study - guide questions, graphic
content standards!
organizers, literary analysis and
Materials that were
critical thinking activities, essay and
Understanding and
available were either juvenile
writing ideas, extension activities,
appreciating the literature
in nature, skimpy in content,
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or were only moderately
assessment,
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teacher
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assistance,
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different things. We
come close to meeting the
Each guide is designed to
understand that. So we
content standards on which
address
the unique learning styles
have taken what you
her students were being tested.
and
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levels of every
know about the literature
Frustrated and tired of trying
student in your classroom.
All
and written Literature
to get by with inappropriate,
materials are written and presented
Guides that bridge the
inane lessons, she finally
at the grade level of the learner,
gap between knowing
decided that if the right
and include extensive coverage
and loving the literature
materials were going to be
of the content standards. As an
and teaching your
available to her and other
added bonus, all teacher materials
students to love and
teachers, she was going to
are included!
appreciate it like you do.
have to make them herself!
As a busy teacher, you don’t
Mrs. Bowers set to
have time to waste reinventing the
work to create one of the most comprehensive
wheel. You want to get down to the business
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Number the Stars Literature Guide
How to Use Our Literature Guides
Our Literature Guides are based upon the National Council of the Teachers of English and the
International Readers Association’s national English/Language Arts Curriculum and Content Area
Standards. The materials we offer allow you to teach the love and full enjoyment of literature, while
still addressing the concepts upon which your students are assessed.
Our Guides are designed to be used as standards-based lessons on particular concepts or skills. Guides
may be used in their sequential entirety, or may be divided into separate parts. Not all activities must
be used, but to achieve full comprehension and mastery of the skills involved, it is recommended that
you utilize everything each Guide has to offer. Most importantly, you now have a variety of valuable
materials to choose from, and you are not forced into extra work!
There are several distinct categories within each Literature Guide:
• Comprehension Check: Exploring Expository Writing—Worksheets designed to address
the exploration and analysis of functional and/or informational materials.
 Author Biography
 Biographies of non-fiction characters
 Relevant news and magazine articles, etc.
• Comprehension Check—Similar to Exploring Expository Writing, but designed for
comprehension of narrative text—study questions designed to guide students as they read the text.
• Standards Focus—Worksheets and activities that directly address the content standards and
allow students extensive practice in literary skills and analysis. Standards Focus activities are found
with every chapter or section. Some examples:
 Figurative Language
 Irony
 Flashback
• Assessment Preparation—Vocabulary/grammar activities which emulate the types of
vocabulary/ grammar proficiencies on which students are tested in state and national assessments.
Assessment Preparation activities are found within every chapter or section. Some examples:
 Context Clues
 Connotation/Denotation
 Word Roots
• Quizzes and Tests—Quizzes are included for each chapter or designated section; final tests
as well as alternative assessment are available at the end of each Guide. These include:
 Multiple Choice
 Matching
 Short Response
• Pre-Reading, Post-Reading Activities, Essay/Writing Ideas plus Sample Rubrics—
Each Guide also has its own unique pre-reading, post-reading and essay/writing ideas and
alternative assessment activities.
Each Guide contains handouts and activities for varied levels of difficulty. We know that not all
students are alike—nor are all teachers! We hope you can effectively utilize every aspect our
Literature Guides have to offer—we want to make things easier on you! If you need additional
assistance, please email us at [email protected] For specific information on how our
Guides are directly correlated to your state’s content standards, please write us an email including the
name of your state to: [email protected] Thank you for choosing
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В©2008 Secondary Solutions
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Number the Stars Literature Guide
Sample Teacher Agenda
The following agenda is based on a 45-minute class period. This agenda assumes students have the
time to read together as a class. It will need to be modified if you intend to have students read at
home or complete a combination of reading in class and at home.
Week One
Day One: Have students complete the pre-reading activity: “What is Bravery? ” on p. 12. You may
wish to assign another pre-reading activity from p. 82 at this time.
Day Two: Complete pre-reading activities begun on Day One and review/share. Introduce historical
fiction by using the Sorting Literature activity, p. 13. Students may want to share their answers for the
“What do you think?” portion of the activity. Introduce the historical time period of the novel. You
may want to poll students to determine their prior knowledge about Hitler and World War II. This
could be done with a “KWL chart,” a short journal entry, oral discussion, or other method of your
choice.
Day Three: Review historical fiction and complete Hitler’s Plan activities, pp. 15-16. If you have
access to United Streaming or another short video clip about World War II, you may wish to show it at
this time. You may wish to post student maps completed at the end of this activity in the classroom
for reference. If students created a KWL chart, they can complete the “What I Learned” column at
this time.
Day Four: Review the maps, pp. 17 and 34, to recall the location of Denmark and tell students this is
the setting of the novel. Read the author’s biography and answer reading questions, pp. 10-11. You
may want to have other novels written by Lois Lowry on display in the classroom. Discuss reading
questions as a class. Students can share question 5 with each other in small groups and compile or
rank order their lists. Provide students with Vocabulary List, p. 18. You may wish to have students find
the meanings of the vocabulary words before you read each chapter or group of chapters or as a prereading activity. Another way to approach the vocabulary is to give the students the definitions from
p. 81 and have them write those definitions on their papers. Pass out Allusions and Terminology to
Know, pp. 19-20 and review with students. They may want to put a check mark next to the vocabulary
words or allusions they are familiar with. Encourage students to use the lists as reference while reading.
At this time, you may want to show students what a Swastika and Star of David look like.
Day Five: Introduce and explain the Note taking and Summarizing charts, pp. 22-23. It may be
helpful to duplicate the charts on an overhead transparency. Have students write the title of the first
chapter on the line of the chart on p. 23 and on each Note-Taking and Summarizing activity, in
anticipation of a future activity. Begin reading Chapter 1. Pause during reading to complete items in
the chart as a class. After finishing Chapter 1, model a response for the fourth square (choose the
sentence to complete). For example, “I wonder if Annemarie and Ellen will have any trouble with
those soldiers later in the book.” Allow students to write their own responses. Students can share
their sentences with the class. Have students complete the Chapter 1 comprehension questions, p. 21.
Encourage students to return to the text to complete the questions. You may want to complete the
first two questions together as a class. When students have completed the questions, you may review
the answers together as a class, or allow students to discuss questions in small groups. If students
discuss the questions in small groups, allow time as a whole class to clarify any questions the groups
may have.
Week Two
Day One: Begin reading Chapters 2 and 3; continue with the Note-Taking and Summarizing charts,
pp. 24-25 and comprehension questions, p. 21. If there is time, review comprehension questions for
Chapter 2 either as a whole class or in small groups.
В©2008 Secondary Solutions
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Number the Stars Literature Guide
Day Two: Continue reading Chapters 2 and 3, continuing with the Note-Taking and Summarizing
charts and comprehension questions. If there is time, review comprehension questions for Chapter 3
either as a whole class or in small groups.
Day Three: Complete Standards Focus: Flashback, p. 26.
Day Four: Complete Assessment Preparation: Comma Usage, pp. 27-28.
Day Five: Give quiz over Chapters 1 – 3, p. 65. Begin reading Chapter 4 – 6; work on the NoteTaking and Summarizing charts, pp. 30-32, and comprehension questions, p. 29.
Week Three
Day One: Continue reading Chapters 4 – 6, continuing with the Note-Taking and Summarizing charts
and comprehension questions. If there is time, review comprehension questions for Chapter 4 either
as a whole class or in small groups.
Day Two: Continue reading Chapters 4 – 6, continuing with the Note-Taking and Summarizing charts
and comprehension questions. If there is time, allow students to review comprehension questions for
Chapter 5 either as a whole class or in small groups.
Day Three: Complete reading Chapters 4 – 6, continuing with the Note-Taking and Summarizing
charts and comprehension questions. Review comprehension questions for Chapter 6 either as a
whole class or in small groups. If there is time, you may want to discuss why Papa and Uncle Henrik
speak in codes on the phone.
Day Four: Complete Standards Focus: Setting, pp. 33-34. It may be helpful to duplicate the map on
an overhead transparency to help guide students’ understanding.
Day Five: Complete Assessment Preparation: Semicolon and Colon, p. 35.
Week Four
Day One: Give quiz on Chapters 4 – 6, p. 66. Begin reading Chapters 7 – 9; Begin working on the
Note-Taking and Summarizing charts, pp. 37-39, and comprehension questions, p. 36.
Day Two: Continue reading Chapters 7 – 9, continuing with the Note-Taking and Summarizing charts
and comprehension questions. If there is time, allow students to review comprehension questions for
Chapter 7 either as a whole class or in small groups.
Day Three: Continue reading Chapters 7 – 9, continuing with the Note-Taking and Summarizing
charts and comprehension questions. If there is time, allow students to review comprehension
questions for Chapter 8 either as a whole class or in small groups.
Day Four: Continue reading Chapters 7 – 9, continuing with the Note-Taking and Summarizing charts
and comprehension questions. If there is time, allow students to review comprehension questions for
Chapter 9 either as a whole class or in small groups.
Day Five: Complete Standards Focus: Imagery, p. 40. As an extension, students may want to
choose a scene from Chapters 1 – 9 to illustrate. The caption of the illustration could include quotes
from the novel that support the illustration.
Week Five
Day One: Complete Assessment Preparation: Precise Word Choice, p. 41. You will need several
dictionaries and/or thesauruses for student use.
Day Two: Give quiz on Chapters 7 – 9, p. 67. Begin reading Chapters 10 – 12; begin working on the
Note-Taking and Summarizing charts, pp. 43-45, and comprehension questions, p. 42.
Day Three: Continue reading Chapters 10 – 12, continuing with the Note-Taking and Summarizing
charts and comprehension questions. If there is time, allow students to review comprehension
questions for Chapter 10 either as a whole class or in small groups. If students work in small groups,
be sure to clarify any questions the class may have.
Day Four: Continue reading Chapters 10 – 12, continuing with the Note-Taking and Summarizing
charts and comprehension questions. If there is time, allow students to review comprehension
questions for Chapter 11 either as a whole class or in small groups. If students work in small groups,
be sure to clarify any questions the class may have.
В©2008 Secondary Solutions
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Number the Stars Literature Guide
Day Five: Continue reading Chapter 10 – 12, continuing with the Note-Taking and Summarizing
charts and comprehension questions. If there is time, allow students to review comprehension
questions for Chapter 12 either as a whole class or in small groups. If students work in small groups,
be sure to clarify any questions the class may have.
Week Six
Day One: Complete Standards Focus: Conflict pp. 46-47.
Day Two: Complete Assessment Preparation: Indefinite Pronouns, pp. 48-49.
Day Three: Give quiz on Chapters 10 – 12, p. 68. Begin reading Chapters 13 – 15; assign the NoteTaking and Summarizing charts, pp. 51-53, and comprehension questions, p. 50.
Day Four: Continue reading Chapters 13 – 15, continuing with the Note-Taking and Summarizing
charts and comprehension questions. If there is time, allow students to review comprehension
questions for Chapter 13 either as a whole class or in small groups. If students work in small groups,
be sure to clarify any questions the class may have.
Day Five: Continue reading Chapters 13 – 15, continuing with the Note-Taking and Summarizing
charts and comprehension questions. If there is time, allow students to review comprehension
questions for Chapter 14 either as a whole class or in small groups.
Week Seven
Day One: Continue reading Chapters 13 – 15, continuing with the Note-Taking and Summarizing
charts and comprehension questions. If there is time, allow students to review comprehension
questions for Chapter 15 either as a whole class or in small groups.
Day Two: Complete Standards Focus: Foreshadowing, pp. 54-55.
Day Three: Complete Assessment Preparation: Misused Verbs – Lay & Lie, p. 56.
Day Four: Give quiz on Chapters 13 – 15, p. 69. Begin reading Chapters 16 – Afterword. Work on
the Note-Taking and Summarizing charts, pp. 58-60, and comprehension questions, p. 57.
Day Five: Continue reading Chapters 16 – Afterword. Continue with the Note-Taking and
Summarizing charts and comprehension questions. If there is time, allow students to review
comprehension questions for Chapter 16 either as a whole class or in small groups.
Week Eight
Day One: Continue reading Chapters 16 – Afterword. Continue with the Note-Taking and
Summarizing charts and comprehension questions. If there is time, allow students to review
comprehension questions for Chapter 17 either as a whole class or in small groups.
Day Two: Continue reading Chapters 16 – Afterword. Continue with the Note-Taking and
Summarizing charts and comprehension questions. If there is time, allow students to review
comprehension questions for Afterword either as a whole class or in small groups.
Day Three: Complete Standards Focus: Analysis of the Chapter Names and Novel Title, p. 61.
Day Four: Complete Assessment Preparation: Using Vocabulary in Context, p. 62.
Day Five: Give quiz on Chapters 16 – Afterword, p. 70. Review for Final Test.
Week Nine
Day One: Give either version of the Final Test, pp. 71-73 or pp. 74-77. Alternative Assessments for
tests can be found in Post-Reading Ideas and Alternative Assessment, p. 83, Essay and Writing Ideas,
p. 84, and Research/Technology/Cross-Curricular Activities, p. 82. A Sample Project Rubric can be
found on page 85. A Response to Literature Rubric can be found on pp. 86-87.
Day Two: If you intend to continue the study of the novel, use Post-Reading Ideas and Alternative
Assessment, Essay and Writing Ideas, and Research/Technology/Cross-Curricular Activities.
В©2008 Secondary Solutions
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Number the Stars Literature Guide
Number the Stars
Notes to the Teacher
1. You may want students to keep notes, comprehension activities and assessments in a
folder with brads or small three-ring binder. It will make it easier for students to study for
the novel test and for you to assess student performance both during and after the novel
study.
2. You may want to begin class by having small groups share the sentence completion square
of their Note-Taking and Summarizing chart. A speaker for each group may share with the
entire class.
3. Depending on the reading level of your class, students may move at a faster or slower
pace. Adjust the agenda to meet your students’ needs. Audio recordings of the novel are
also available.
4. Great-aunt Birte is also referred to as Aunt Birte in the novel. You may want to explain to
the students that this is the same person, not two separate people.
5. Two Vocabulary Review Crossword Puzzles can be found on pp. 63-64. You may wish to
either assign these activities for homework or have the students do them in class as a
review for the vocabulary section of the Final Test.
6. The suggestions on p. 82 can all be used as pre-reading activities, and many of the prereading activities can be used for writing assignments.
7. Research resources can also be found in the pre-reading section of this study guide.
8. If your students enjoyed Number the Stars, they may be interested in some of the
following titles. Please note: not all Holocaust fiction is appropriate for all students.
Daniel’s Story, by Carol Matas
Devil’s Arithmetic, by Jane Yolen
The Upstairs Room, by Johanna Reiss and Phyllis Green
Milkweed, by Jerry Spinelli
Behind the Bedroom Wall, by Laura E. Williams
Other novels about World War II:
Under the Blood-Red Sun, by Graham Salisbury
The Eyes of the Emperor, by Graham Salisbury
The Summer of My German Soldier, by Bette Greene
Code Talker: A Novel About the Navajo Marines of World War Two, by Joseph Bruchac
В©2008 Secondary Solutions
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Number the Stars Literature Guide
Name
Period
Pre-Reading Preparation
Standards Focus: Author Biography
Lois Lowry
What do you like in a story? Adventure?
Interesting characters? Unusual problems? These
are some of the same reasons readers enjoy novels
by Lois Lowry. Her books are full of characters in
situations you won’t soon forget.
Lois Lowry was born on March 20, 1937 in Honolulu,
Hawaii. After Pearl Harbor was bombed in 1941,
her father, who was a dentist in the army, was
assigned to work on a ship. While her father was
stationed on the ship, her family moved to
Pennsylvania to live with her grandparents.
As a little girl, she developed a love for books, and
learned to read at an early age. In fact, she was
such an excellent reader that she skipped second
grade. Even though she excelled in reading and writing, she struggled with math.
When World War II ended, her father was stationed in Japan, and her entire family moved there. Since
they lived in a community with other Americans, it felt familiar. But Lois was curious about life in Japan
outside of her American neighborhood. She would sneak away from home to explore the nearby city.
She loved experiencing the new sights, sounds, and smells of a different country. Eventually, Lois’s
family returned to America where she went to high school and then college to study to become a writer.
After two years in college, though, she left to get married. She was nineteen years old.
She and her husband had four children. When her children grew older, Lois decided to go back to
college. She still held onto her dream of becoming a writer. She finished college and began writing
stories. An editor of a publishing company read her stories and asked Lois to write a novel. In 1976,
she published her first novel A Summer To Die. The
book was loosely based on her experience with her
The Newbery Medal
sister’s death, and the book received several awards.
In 1922, the first Newbery Medal was
awarded. Since then, each year the
Many books followed that first novel, and in 1990,
medal is awarded to one children’s book.
Lois wrote Number the Stars. The book received
Books that receive the award are
numerous awards including the Newbery Medal. She
recognized as excellent literature for
received the Newbery Medal again in 1994 for her
children. A book that has won the
book The Giver.
Newbery Medal receives a bronze medal
printed on the front of the book.
Lois continues to write today from her home in
Newbery Honor books are the “runnerMassachusetts. She has written over thirty books.
up” titles for the year, and receive a
Her stories are full of adventure, interesting
silver seal on the book cover.
characters, and problems that captivate readers.
В©2008 Secondary Solutions
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Number the Stars Literature Guide
Name
Period
Standards Focus: Exploring Expository Writing—Author Biography
Directions: Using the article you read about Lois Lowry, answer the following questions,
writing in complete sentences.
1. Choose an unusual event or fact from Lois’s childhood that is of interest to you. Write
it below. Then write two sentences that explain why you think that event is interesting. Be
specific.
2. What award did Number the Stars receive? Why might that award be important to a writer?
3. What world event caused changes in Lois’s life as she was growing up? In what ways did
those changes affect her life?
4. What personal events influenced her first novel?
5. What personal qualities might you expect a writer to have? List three qualities you think are
important. After each quality, write a sentence explaining why you think that quality is
important.
В©2008 Secondary Solutions
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Number the Stars Literature Guide
Name
Period
Anticipation/Reaction Activity—What is Bravery?
Directions: Before reading Number the Stars, complete the following activities. Write your answers
in complete sentences on a separate sheet of paper.
1. What does it mean to be “brave”? What does the word “bravery” bring to mind? Write your own
definition of bravery. Be as complete as possible, and write your answer in complete sentences.
** Remember, the definition should not include the words “brave” or “bravery.”
2. Brainstorm: List as many examples of bravery as you can. Try to think of people who are brave,
events that showed bravery, or times when bravery is needed. Try to make your examples as
specific as possible.
3. Share your definition with a partner, and together write a revised definition of bravery. Be as
complete as possible and write your definition in complete sentences.
4. Now check the dictionary. How close is your definition? Do not copy the dictionary definition, but
add any missing information. Does your definition include the part of speech? If not, write it
down. Does it include synonyms and antonyms for bravery? If not, write down at least 2
synonyms and 2 antonyms.
5. Now combine your brainstormed list of examples of bravery with your partner’s list. Circle any
duplicate examples. Below or on the back of your piece of paper, create a continuum by drawing
a line similar to the one below. Plot your examples along the line, according to just how brave the
act is, or how much bravery is involved. If you and your partner had duplicates, include the
duplicate example only once.
Extreme
Bravery
Mild
Bravery
6. Share your continuum with another group or the class. What does your continuum and definition
tell you about bravery? Write a paragraph in which you explain your thoughts about bravery, what
it means to you, and what it meant to the class as a whole.
________________________________________________________________________________
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В©2008 Secondary Solutions
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Number the Stars Literature Guide
Name
Period
Standards Focus: Genre
Sorting Literature
Literature is a big topic. There are all kinds of books – just take a
look at all the choices in the library! People figured out a system
of classifying literature. It is divided into different groups: fiction,
non-fiction, poetry, and drama. The technical name for these
categories is genre (jahn-ruh), which means kind or type. Each
genre can be further divided into categories called sub-genre.
The prefix
“sub” means
“under.”
You probably already know that “fiction” means that the stories are
made up. But, there are many sub-genres of fiction. Some of the
most common include fantasy, science fiction, historical fiction,
mystery, realistic fiction, westerns, folk tales, and fairy tales.
Check the
dictionary for
other “sub”
words like
“submarine.”
Number the Stars belongs to the sub-genre of historical fiction. This
means the historical framework of the novel is true. The novel is based
on things real people actually did during that time and place. However,
the characters (and what they do) are made up. In other words, the author creates characters and puts
them in a real, historical setting.
Historical fiction is a fun way to learn more about history. Well written historical fiction is accurate, and
the author often does a great amount of research to make sure the facts in the story are correct.
What other sub-genres have your read? If you’ve read any Harry Potter books, you’ve read something
from the fantasy sub-genre. Fantasy usually includes “fantastic” elements like magical creatures, but it
can also include amazing adventures that probably could never happen in real life. Realistic fiction
includes stories that are about real life. Events that happen seem real; Shiloh by Phyllis Reynolds Naylor
is a realistic fiction novel. Science fiction is about how science might influence our world. If you’ve
read My Teacher is an Alien by Bruce Coville, you’ve read science fiction. Science fiction novels often
include stories about space and life on other planets.
The Genres of Literature:
Directions: Complete the chart below by filling in the sub-genres of fiction. Use the paragraphs above
to help you. The first one is done for you. You should have seven more sub-genres listed.
Fiction
NonFiction
Poetry
Drama
fantasy
Autobiography
Biography
Memoirs
History
Science
etc.
Haiku
Free Verse
Limerick
Sonnet
etc.
Comedy
Tragedy
Historical
etc.
Sub-Genre
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Different Types of Fiction
Directions: Complete the chart below by matching each item with its sub-genre. Some items may fit
into more than one sub-genre, so be able to defend your answer. The first one has been done for you.
a magic wand
aliens from another planet
magic spells
kids riding bikes
skyscrapers
flying saucers
Historical Fiction
mythical creatures
George Washington
dragons
a one-room schoolhouse
a soccer tournament
time travel
Realistic Fiction
the Civil War
a city on Mars
the Titanic
computers
talking pencils
Fantasy
A magic wand
Science Fiction
What do you think? Please write your answers in complete sentences.
Which sub-genre of fiction do you like the best? Why? What stories or books have you read that are a
part of this particular sub-genre? What, in particular, do you like about these stories?
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Standards Focus: Historical Context
Hitler’s Plan
Food shortages, few jobs, money troubles — those were
some of the problems the German people faced in the 1930s.
Many people were unhappy and angry. Then, in 1933 a man
named Adolf Hitler came to power. He promised a bright future
for Germany. Many Germans were ready to listen to him and
follow his ideas.
Adolf Hitler and the Nazi political party believed that
Germany could become a great nation. They believed that one
way to do this would be to get rid of the Jewish people. The Nazis
blamed the Jews for Germany’s troubles. As scapegoats, the
Jewish people were the target of many injustices. Their property
was taken or destroyed; Jewish students were barred from public
schools. Jews weren’t allowed in public swimming pools and stores.
They were required to sew a Star of David patch on their clothes
so they could easily be identified. Eventually, the Nazis gathered
the Jews and shipped them to concentration camps where they
either worked in horrible conditions or were executed.
Hitler also believed that Germany would become a great
nation when it expanded its borders. The Nazi’s strong military
began invading its neighboring countries. By 1939, Czechoslovakia
and Austria had come under Germany’s power. When Germany
invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, France and Britain felt
Germany was getting out of control, and World War II began.
But Hitler was not just interested in taking over Poland.
The Nazis continued invading their neighboring countries. Its
powerful military was no match for smaller, weaker nations. In
April of 1940, the Nazis invaded Denmark and Norway. In May of
1940, the Nazis occupied France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the
Netherlands. In 1941, the Nazis took over Greece and Yugoslavia.
As the Nazi military moved from country to country in Europe,
Jews were herded up and sent to concentration camps.
Not everyone believed that Hitler and the Nazis were right.
Some people, either alone or in groups, worked against the Nazis.
These resistance fighters helped Jews escape or hide; some
destroyed railroad lines, and some wrote anti-Nazi newspapers.
No matter what they did, though, being a member of the
resistance was dangerous. Often the punishment for helping a
Jew was death.
After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii in 1941, the
United States entered World War II. The war continued until 1945
when Germany surrendered. By the time the war ended, 6 million
Jews had lost their lives.
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Star of David
Neutral Countries
Sweden and Switzerland
remained neutral countries
during the war. That means
they didn’t become involved
in fighting with or against the
Germans.
Scapegoat
The term “scapegoat” comes
from an ancient Jewish
practice. People’s sins would
be symbolically placed on a
goat. The goat was then
sent out into the desert. By
doing this, people believed
their sins left them.
Today, the word “scapegoat”
means a person or thing that
is blamed for another’s
troubles or mistakes.
Nazi
The word Nazi is a German
abbreviation for the National
Socialist German Workers’
Party.
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Standards Focus: Exploring Expository Writing—Hitler’s Plan
Directions: After reading the article, complete the following activities.
1. Working with a partner, use the chart below and the events from the article to create a World War II
timeline. In the first column, write the date. In the second column, record a brief description of
what happened. The first date has been done for you.
Event Date
What Happened?
1933
Hitler came to power in Germany
2. Using the article and your timeline, locate the countries the Nazis invaded on the map on page 17.
Using colored pencils, indicate the different years the countries were invaded. Create a key at the
top of the page.
3. What does the word scapegoats mean in the following sentence? Circle the correct answer.
As scapegoats, the Jewish people were the target of many injustices.
Scapegoats means:
a.
b.
c.
d.
the
the
the
the
В©2008 Secondary Solutions
victims who are blamed for something they didn’t do
people who blamed others for doing something wrong
true reason there are problems in the world
people who were responsible for Germany’s problems
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Standards Focus: Exploring Expository Writing—Hitler’s Plan
KEY
Map of Europe
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Number the Stars
Vocabulary List
Directions: Use a dictionary or the author’s words to find the meanings of the following words from
Number the Stars. Your teacher will direct you to do this lesson either as you read each chapter, or
as a pre-reading activity. Whatever method your teacher chooses, be sure to keep this list and your
definitions to use in vocabulary exercises and to study for quizzes and tests.
Chapters 1 - 3
1. stocky
2. lanky
3. defiantly
4. obstinate
5. impassive
6. intricate
7. padlock
Chapters 4 - 6
1. sophisticated
2. disdainfully
3. belligerently
4. submerged
5. imperious
6. winced
7. scornfully
Chapters 7 - 9
1. awe
2. haze
3. specter
4. deft
5. reluctantly
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Chapters 10 - 12
1. recurring
2. staccato
3. condescending
4. encased
5. gnarled
Chapters 13 - 15
1. faltered
2. sprawling
3. wry
4. donned
5. brusque
6. tantalize
7. insolently
Chapters 16 - Afterword
1. warily
2. roam
3. unoccupied
4. devastating
5. deprivation
6. permeated
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Number the Stars
Allusions and Terminology to Know
Chapter 1 - 3
1. Copenhagen: the capital of Denmark
2. Г�sterbrogade: the name of a street; the Г� is a letter in the Danish alphabet, which has 29 letters.
3. Halte: the German word for "stop"
4. Nazi occupation: In 1940, Germany’s military invaded and established military troops in Denmark.
Hitler was the leader of the Nazi political party that believed in creating a “pure” German race of
people by persecuting Jews and others.
5. Resistance incidents: activities that disrupted the Nazis
6. Hans Christian Anderson: a story teller who wrote The Little Mermaid and much more
7. trousseau: a collection of clothing and linens a bride would take to her new home
8. trunk: a large chest used for storage
9. "electricity was rationed":residents were only allowed to use a certain amount of electricity
each day
10. kroner: Danish money
11. swastika: the symbol of the Nazi party
12. curfew: a specific time when citizens must be in their homes; people on the street after curfew
risked being arrested
Chapter 4 - 6
1. Gone With the Wind: a novel about the American South during the Civil War
2. carousel: a merry-go-round, usually with music and horses to ride
3. Jewish New Year: The celebration of the New Year according to the Jewish calendar. It usually
takes place in September or October; also called Rosh Hashanah
4. Sabbath: The seventh day of the week for Jews: Friday evening to Saturday evening. A special
day for prayer and worship; a religious day of rest
5. Synagogue: A Jewish house of worship, similar to a church or temple
6. relocation: the term the Nazis used to refer to moving the Jews to concentration camps
7. blackout curtains: dark curtains pulled over windows at night so no light would come through
the window; this was to keep enemy airplanes from finding cities at night
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8. Star of David: a six pointed star that symbolizes Judaism
Period
9. Gilleleje: the town in Denmark where Uncle Henrik lives
Chapter 7 - 9
1. “she didn’t often look at them with fresh eyes”: Annemarie was used to the scenery at her
Uncle’s house; Ellen was seeing the scene for the first time, and Annemarie was reminded how
beautiful it was
2. “The gleaming wooden casket rested on supports in the middle of the living room”:
People would bring the body of the deceased back to their home, where the mourners gathered
Chapter 10 - 12
1. typhus: a highly infectious disease that can lead to death
2. Godspeed: a wish of good luck for a person beginning a journey
3. sure-footed: confident
Chapter 13 - 15
1. "It may all have been for nothing": all of their efforts may fail
2. herring: a type of fish
3. "Annemarie's mind raced": her mind was working fast as she tried to figure out what to do
Chapter 16 - Afterword
1. “… had been captured and executed by the Germans in the public square”: captives were
often publicly executed to frighten citizens in an attempt to keep them from working with resistance
groups
2. “flight of an author’s fancy”: the wild imagination of an author
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Chapters One – Three
Comprehension Check
Directions: Answer the following questions to help guide your understanding of the events in each
chapter. Write your answers in complete sentences on a separate sheet of paper.
Chapter One
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
How does Annemarie challenge Ellen at the opening of the chapter?
Who are the three girls and how is each one described?
Who stops the girls?
How long have the soldiers been in their country? Use your pre-reading timeline to
figure out the year.
Who is with Mrs. Johansen when Annemarie gets home?
What is their reaction to what Kirsti tells them?
Who are Resistance fighters?
Based on what the women drink for “coffee” and Kirsti’s wish for a pink cupcake, what
might have happened to the food supplies?
Mrs. Rosen tells Annemarie, “It is important to be one of the crowd, always….Be sure
they never have reason to remember your face” (p. 9). Why does Mrs. Rosen say this?
Why is it so important that the girls are “one of the crowd”?
Chapter Two
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
As they get into bed, what does Kirsti want Annemarie to tell her?
Who is the king of Denmark? What does he do each morning?
How does the boy respond when the soldier asks who the king’s bodyguard is?
Who was Lise?
How does Papa answer when Annemarie asks why the King couldn’t protect them from
the Nazis?
What happened to Lise?
Who is Peter Neilsen? What does he look like?
Why might Annemarie have said, “The whole world had changed. Only the fairy tales
remained the same”?
Analyze how Annemarie feels at the end of the chapter. Come up with three adjectives
describing her feelings toward the king and three adjectives describing her feelings
about Lise’s death. How are her feelings about the two people similar? How are they
different?
Chapter Three
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Why did the Johansens install a stove in the chimney?
What did Annemarie discover when she went to Mrs. Hirsch’s button shop?
Why do you think Annemarie’s parents woke her up to hear Peter’s news?
What news does Peter share about the Nazis’ plans?
Who does Annemarie think should be the bodyguard for the Jews?
What is Annemarie unsure about after she returns to bed?
Based on what you have learned about the Holocaust, what do you think might have
happened to the Hirsch family?
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Standards Focus: Note-Taking and Summarizing—Sample
For some students, reading can be a difficult, unpleasant task. Many students do not have the
strategies they need to read for meaning, and they lose interest in the story because they
cannot follow the action, do not understand the words, or do not relate to the characters.
Below is a chart you will be completing as you read Number the Stars. It will guide you in
understanding the plot, the changes in the characters, how the author uses the setting, and
the lessons the author wants you to learn. It will help you remember things your teacher
expects you to retain as you read the book.
Directions: To help you remember the events of each chapter, use the following graphic
organizer as you read. You may find it helpful to write your notes as bullet points. Write the
title of the chapter on the line. The following sample from The Three Little Pigs will help you.
Chapter One:
The First Little Pig Builds a House and Meets the Wolf
The characters involved in this chapter:
•
•
•
The conflicts (problems) in this chapter:
The first little pig
The big, bad wolf
The second little pig
•
•
•
The settings (where are the characters in this
chapter):
•
The forest
The first little pig’s straw house isn’t
strong enough to protect the pig from
the wolf
The wolf blows down the house
The pig has to run to his brother’s house
Choose one of these phrases to fill in the space
below. Please make your sentence specific and
detailed. “I wonder what will happen next” is
not specific enough.
• I predict …
• I wonder …
• A question I have …
• This chapter reminds me of …
• I wonder what will happen to the first and
second little pigs now that they’re in the
house of sticks. I know that sticks might not
be very strong and probably won’t offer much
protection against a wolf who can blow a
house down. I wonder if it was a good
decision to build their houses out of flimsy
materials like straw and sticks.
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Standards Focus: Note-Taking and Summarizing
Directions: To help you remember the events of each chapter as you read Number the
Stars, use the following graphic organizer. You may find it helpful to write your notes as
bullet points. Write the title of the chapter on the line below.
Chapter One:
The characters involved in this chapter:
The conflicts (problems) in this chapter:
The settings (where are the characters in this
chapter):
Choose one of these phrases to fill in the space
below. Please make your sentence specific and
detailed. “I wonder what will happen next” is
not specific enough.
• I predict …
• I wonder …
• A question I have …
• This chapter reminds me of …
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Standards Focus: Note-Taking and Summarizing
Directions: To help you remember the events of each chapter as you read Number the
Stars, use the following graphic organizer. You may find it helpful to write your notes as
bullet points. Write the title of the chapter on the line.
Chapter Two:
The characters involved in this chapter:
The conflicts (problems) in this chapter:
The settings (where are the characters in this
chapter):
Choose one of these phrases to fill in the space
below. Please make your sentence specific and
detailed. “I wonder what will happen next” is
not specific enough.
• I predict …
• I wonder …
• A question I have …
• This chapter reminds me of …
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Standards Focus: Note-Taking and Summarizing
Directions: To help you remember the events of each chapter as you read Number the
Stars, use the following graphic organizer. You may find it helpful to write your notes as
bullet points. Write the title of the chapter on the line.
Chapter Three:
The characters involved in this chapter:
The conflicts (problems) in this chapter:
The settings (where are the characters in this
chapter):
Choose one of these phrases to fill in the space
below. Please make your sentence specific and
detailed. “I wonder what will happen next” is
not specific enough.
• I predict …
• I wonder …
• A question I have …
• This chapter reminds me of …
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Standards Focus: Flashback
Think back to your first day of school. Where did you sit? Who did you talk with? What were your
thoughts about the year to come? As you remember that day, you are having a flashback.
In literature, an author uses the same technique to inform the reader about information or events that
happened before the time period of the novel. It offers the reader a glimpse into the history of a story,
place or character.
Flashback can occur at any place in a novel. It might be a short scene, or it could be an entire chapter.
Sometimes the same flashback occurs several times throughout a novel as a character repeatedly
remembers something important that happened in the past.
Recognizing a flashback helps readers understand the time sequence of the plot, but it also helps
readers make predictions about the story and understand character motivation (why someone acts a
certain way). Flashbacks also add interest to a novel.
Directions: Look back at Chapter Two. Much of the chapter is a flashback in which Annemarie’s
memories of the past help the reader understand Annemarie’s family and the historical situation of
Denmark. Complete the chart below by using the information from Chapter 2. Include page numbers.
The Flashback (page #)
What the Reader Learns
King Christian X (12)
Thinking about this person makes Annemarie sad because she
has died.
The boy talks to the soldier
about the king (13)
If Denmark had resisted, many people would have died.
The status of Sweden’s
occupation (15 – 16)
His house north of Copenhagen. Annemarie could see Sweden
from the shore.
The trunk in Annemarie’s
room (16)
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Assessment Preparation: Comma Usage
Have you ever been told you’d written a run-on sentence or a sentence that contains a comma splice?
These terms mean you’ve made an error in comma usage.
Definition: An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb and
expresses a complete thought. We commonly refer to an independent clause as a sentence.
Take a look at the examples below. How many independent clauses are in each sentence? If you’ve
hooked two (or more) independent clauses together with a comma, you’ve created a comma splice. If
you haven’t used a comma to join the two, that is a run-on sentence.
Example of a comma splice: Frank looked critically at the rusted bike, it didn’t look sturdy.
(independent clause)
(independent clause)
Example of a run-on: Frank looked critically at the rusted bike it didn’t look sturdy.
(independent clause)
(independent clause)
It’s easy to fix a run-on sentence or a comma splice. You have
four choices:
1. Break the sentence into two short sentences.
• Frank looked critically at the rusted bike. It
didn’t look sturdy.
2. Use a semicolon to join the ideas if they are closely related.
• Frank looked critically at the rusted bike; it
didn’t look sturdy.
3. Use a comma and coordinating conjunction.
• Frank looked critically at the rusted bike, but it
didn’t look sturdy.
4. Use a subordinating conjunction. If the subordinating
conjunction begins the sentence, use a comma at the end
of the dependent clause.
• Frank looked critically at the rusted bike
because it didn’t look sturdy.
• Before Frank wanted to buy a new bike, he
looked critically at his old one.
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Coordinating
Conjunctions
For
And
Nor
But
Or
Yet
So
Some common
Subordinating
Conjunctions:
since, because,
although, while, though,
before, when, if,
until, after,
unless
Number the Stars Literature Guide
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Assessment Preparation: Comma Usage
Directions: Use the page number for each example below to help you find the following quotes from
Number the Stars. Using a red pen or colored pencil, write the punctuation marks Lois Lowry used
in the novel. Choose from rules 1-4 on page 27 and decide which of the four choices she used to avoid
a comma splice or run-on, and write the rule on the line. Draw a circle around the word and/or
punctuation mark that solves the problem of the comma splice or run-on.
1. (page 1) “Annemarie’s silvery blond hair flew behind her and Ellen’s dark pigtails bounced
against her shoulders.”
2. (page 7) “The Copenhagen neighborhood was quiet it looked the same as always…”
3. (page 7) “Although she pretended to be absorbed in unpacking her schoolbooks Annemarie
listened and she knew what her mother was referring to.”
(first comma)
(second comma)
4. (page 16) “For days they thought he would die and all of Denmark had mourned.”
5. (page 21) “There were no pink cupcakes there hadn’t been for months.”
6. (page 22) “Peter’s here Papa and I want to talk to you.”
In the paragraph below, you will find errors in both punctuation and capitalization.
Directions: Revise the paragraph below. Use proofreaders’ marks to indicate
what changes you want to make. Try to use each of the four ways to correct
run-on sentences. Then write your new paragraph on the back of this page or
on a separate sheet of paper.
Lucy trudged down the school hall she could barely see over the
stack of books she carried she finally made it to her locker at the end of
Proofreaders’
marks
^ insert
= capitalize
the hall she opened it a landslide of papers and old lunches tumbled out
onto the floor Lucy smiled now she had enough room for her books
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Chapters Four – Six
Comprehension Check
Directions: Answer the following questions to help guide your understanding of the events in each
chapter. Write your answers in complete sentences on a separate sheet of paper.
Chapter Four
1. Why does Kirsti come home in tears?
2. What does Ellen offer to do to the shoes?
3. What does Kirsti insist happened on her birthday?
4. What had really happened?
5. By destroying their own navy, what “message” did the Danish people send the Nazis?
6. Why does Ellen have to help her mother with the housekeeping?
7. What happens after Mrs. Rosen comes to the Johansens’ door?
8. What does Papa tell Annemarie after dinner?
9. Why does this news frighten the Rosens?
10. Who helped Ellen’s parents?
11. How does Papa plan to hide Ellen?
12. What do you think would happen if the Johansens were caught hiding her?
Chapter Five
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
What does Ellen want to be when she grows up?
What does Annemarie tell Ellen happened to Lise?
Who pounds on their door in the middle of the night? Why?
Why does Annemarie pull off Ellen’s necklace?
How were these soldiers different from the street soldiers?
What does Papa do to prove to the soldiers that the girls are his daughters?
How does the soldier respond?
Why does Annemarie have an icy feeling when she realizes why Papa tore the pictures from the
album?
9. Why do you think the chapter ends with Annemarie noticing the Start of David imprinted on her
hand?
Chapter Six
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Where does Papa want to take the girls?
Who is Henrik?
What two odd statements does Papa say to Henrik?
What did Annemarie guess that one of the strange statements meant?
Why doesn’t Papa go with them to Henrik’s?
Who appears on the train?
What was Annemarie afraid Kirsti was going to tell the soldiers?
What path do they take to get to Uncle Henrik’s house?
Compare the city of Copenhagen with Gilleleje. How are they different? What sensory details
are used to describe Gilleleje?
В©2008 Secondary Solutions
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