! Ballou High School INSTRUCTIONAL MANUAL вЂњFrom Roots to ResultsвЂќ 2013-2014 3401 4th Street, S.E Washington, D.C. 20032 HOURS OF OPERATION School Hours: 8:00 a.m. вЂ“ 3:15 p.m. Open Hours: 8:00 a.m. вЂ“ 8:00 p.m. Main (202) 645-3400 * Fax (202) 645-3397 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual FGKG! ! TABLE OF CONTENTS Letter from Our Principal ..................................................................................................... 4 Ballou High School Vision ...................................................................................................... 5 Ballou High School Philoophy and History .......................................................................... 5-6 Purpose and Disclaimer ......................................................................................................... 6 "From Roots to Results"...................................................................................................... 7 Section I: Data....................................................................................................................... 8 Data Teams ....................................................................................................................... 9-10 Section II: Instructional Planning ...................................................................................... 11 Common Assessments ......................................................................................................... 12 Collaborative Planning ..................................................................................................... 13-17 Bell-to-Bell Instruction...................................................................................................... 18-19 Co-Teaching .................................................................................................................... 20-26 Section III: Pedagogy/Instructional Strategies ................................................................ 27 Literacy ............................................................................................................................ 28-42 Inquiry .............................................................................................................................. 43-47 Frequently Asked Questions ........................................................................................ 48-50 Appendix ........................................................................................................................ 51-69 ! ! ! 2 ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual FGKG! ! Bold Leaders Courageous Scholars Outstanding Citizens 3 ! ! F.W. BALLOU SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 3401 4th Street, S.E. Washington, DC 20032 Tel (202) 645-3400 Fax (202) 645-3397 "Developing and Graduating Nationally Competitive Students for College and Careers" ! ! My Fellow Knights; Over the past few years, we have discussed the many challenges we face as a school community. We made many attempts to gaining a true understanding of the work ahead of us. You as teachers have exhausted themselves, attempting to find just the right way to support our students. During the past few years, we have heard your growing requests. From your voices we often heard the frustration with the amount of support you require vs. the amount you currently receive. Normally, the requests were for support around the behavioral challenges many of you experience in the classroom. We have attempted to address several of the concerns by establishing clear processes for how our children are to move through their daily responsibilities via the student handbook. We heard your request for greater consistency regarding processes within the adult expectations and created the staff handbook. For some reason, there still was not a breakthrough experience in overall student achievement. Students had a set of directions and expectations as well as the Ballou learning community as a whole. What is missing? What else could possibly be done to ensure greater student success? We ALL believe certain things at Ballou. We ALL believe our children can achieve at high levels. We ALL believe that there is more work we can do to help our children achieve at high levels. We ALL believe the way to achieve student success is through both creating consistent processes, and establishing high expectations for us and for our children. IвЂ™m very proud of what this belief has yielded. THE BALLOU INSTRUCTIONAL HANDBOOK is the amalgamation of our collective approach to instruction. Your peers have worked over several months, reading and researching best practices, identifying successful approaches within the building and incorporating the elements of the teaching and learning framework to establish the teacher created, administration approved process of teaching at Ballou High School. It was developed with the expectation of creating a uniformed approach to instruction in our building. IвЂ™m excited because this handbook is a living document, something that will grow over time. WeвЂ™ve had pockets of great instruction at Ballou for years. There was a need to identify these pockets, figure out why they worked in our classes, and develop a system for ensuring its replication building wide. These successful practices will give our children the consistency needed to grow. While this handbook is only one step toward the consistency and high expectations we will set in front of our students, it is our heaviest blow towards the goal of developing and graduating globally competitive students for college, career and leadership. I want to thank the Instructional Manual Planning Team for their work on this document. You truly represented the best of who we are in this work. You put great effort into this document and I truly appreciate the commitment you have shown. With this manual as our guide, I expect great results as we show the world what Ballou can do. I love you all, GO KNIGHTS!!!! Rahman Branch, Principal www.ballouseniorhigh.org 4 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual Ballou High School Vision BallouвЂ™s vision is to develop and graduate globally competitive students for college, careers, and leadership. Instructional Vision Ballou is preparing our students for college, careers, and leadership by using robust data to drive our instruction and monitor progress. Teachers are planning collaboratively in order to provide instruction that will have a focus on using literacy, inquiry, collaboration, and writing strategies to teach content. Philosophy The philosophy of Ballou High School embodies the belief that all children can learn and benefit from an intensive academic program delivered within the context of a nurturing and structured school environment. Ballou provides each student with a wide-range of opportunities and challenging experiences to expand his/her world, vast academic and extra-curricular activities to increase his/her knowledge, and leadership opportunities that will equip him/her to take an active role in society. Ballou High School offers a balanced curriculum in the humanities and sciences based on clearly articulated academic standards. Mathematics, Science, English, Technology and Social Studies are the backbone of our studentвЂ™s education and enhance the study of other subject areas, by providing a broad context in which to better understand them. The curriculum is geared to prepare each student for success on the secondary level. About Ballou Frank W. Ballou High School has been serving the Ward Eight community since 1960. Frank W. Ballou High School opened in 1960. It is named after Dr. Frank Washington Ballou who was elected the seventh superintendent of the D.C. Public Schools in 1920. He served as superintendent until 1943. During his tenure as superintendent, he affected many changes and established new positions throughout the school system. Ballou continues to build a successful legacy due to the knowledgeable staff who is dedicated to empowering every student to choose their own path upon graduation. Ballou offers Advanced Placement classes to give our college-bound students a competitive edge. Career preparation and technical classes ensure that those same students receive a well-rounded education. 5 ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! Ballou High School has a proud legacy of excellence. A nationally recognized marching band, competitive robotics team, and athletic teams that consistently prove that Ballou Knights are a force to be reckoned with, are a source of pride for students and staff. Purpose This manual has been prepared by Ballou administration and the Instructional Manual Planning Team to provide staff members with tools for instruction in order to engage students. This manual includes seven school-wide instructional expectations with specific guidelines for each classroom, department, and content area. All faculty members are expected to be familiar with the information in the Instructional Manual as well as how it affects the specific grade level and subject area that they teach. All staff is accountable for adhering to the expectations that are outlined. Any questions concerning this manual should be brought to the immediate attention of your Department Chair, or your direct supervisor and/or Assistant Principal. As educational practitioners, we strongly believe that student achievement is critical to what we do. To that end, this manual represents the idea, вЂњFrom Roots to Results.вЂќ Therefore, as a Planning Team we aligned our school vision with an instructional vision, then developed a systematic and strategic frameworkвЂ”by which all instruction is based. Disclaimer The Ballou Instructional Manual is intended to be used by teachers as a guide to help streamline instruction. This will be an evolving process and will continue throughout the summer. The Department Chairs and Planning Team will develop professional development sessions and other resources to support teachers as we roll out the manual and implement various instructional initiatives. The Ballou Administration Team and the Instructional Manual Planning Team will constantly review and occasionally revise and/or amend the contents of this document to improve the educational experience for students. Amendments, revisions and new expectations deemed to be in the best interest of the school community will be promptly disseminated to teachers as well as timelines for compliance. 6 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! 7 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! Section I: DATA TEAMS 8 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! DATA Teacher will engage in data discussions with content area members and students that focus on gaps in learning to develop appropriate re-teaching plans and interventions to close gaps. TLF 6 Data Teams are collaborative teams of teachers within a department who gather regularly toвЂќ examine data derived from common, teacher-created assessments, which are administered to all the students represented by the teachers on the teamsвЂќ, in efforts to improve teaching, learning, and leadership (p. 22, The Data Teams Experience, 2011). Teachers will: 1) Participate in the data team, data team cycle, and DDI (Data Drive Instruction) process with fidelity 2) Complete training on implementing Data Teams, Data Conversations, Scantron, and Ballou Tracker 3) Meet collaboratively for at least 40min least bi-weekly 4) Provide feedback and data to Data Leadership Team 5) Department Chairs will attend DCPS\OSSE data team PD throughout the year Teachers Actions and Expectations Ballou classrooms will use data to drive instruction, identify student proficiency and create corrective action plans to further student learning. Teachers will: 6) Collect, compile, and analyze at least one student-produced data set per class (formative or summative assessment) bi-weekly. a. Use this analysis to create and implement a corrective action plan (Appendix F) and or revised unit plan. b. Provide feedback to students using this data set c. Provide structure for students to reflect, set goals, and provide their own feedback 7) Collect, compile, and analyze all summative (unit and final) assessments. a. Use this analysis to modify\revamp unit plans, future student assessments, and best practices. b. All summative assessments will be analyzed at both the standard and item level c. Provide feedback for every student regarding their assessment score and proficiency in the standards\skills\actions or objective tested 8) Follow all data accountability best practices which include: a. Implementing all data team roles and practices with fidelity b. Reporting all data (student, class, and assessment) to both department chairs, data team leads, assigned support staff, and overseeing administrator c. Keep all corrective action lesson plans and student data and be able to provided evidence of data driven instruction actions to department chairs, data team members, and overseeing administrator d. Come prepared to all data team meetings and actively engage in the data team process 9 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! Data teams will meet as a department and provide feedback and support to one another in analyzing the data and creating appropriate interventions and instructional strategies etc. At each meeting, teachers will bring student data, including work samples, along with standard- and item-level analyses; identify strengths and areas in need of improvement; make inferences; create goals; select common instructional strategies; and monitor and evaluate results. Please be sure to review the tools and other items referenced in the corresponding appendices. 10 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! SECTION II: INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING 11 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! ! COMMON ASSESSMENTS Same content teachers will use common assessments that incorporate tests, quizzes, and presentations to assess student mastery. TLF 5 Departments plan the following common assessments. Components of assessments will look differently in each department, but should be standardized within a course. Type of assessment Diagnostic Formative Assessments Unit Summative assessments Final exam Performance assessment Required Components -skills -strategies -content -vocabulary -teachers within department create a plan for tracking progress toward mastery on summative unit assessments. Examples include exit tickets, quizzes, verbal assessments, essays, or a combination of these. -skills -content -skills -content -skills -content Timeframe for creation Departmental Summer Retreats Timeframe for completion End of second week of school Departmental Summer Retreat -Daily informal -bi-weekly standardized across courses Third week of June (2013) Minimum of 4, at least once per quarter Second week of June (2013) Third week of June (2013) First week of June (2014) Quarterly Teachers should have all of the above assessments incorporated into a year-long assessment calendar and plan for their department that includes dates, number and types of assessments and what the general format for each of these assessments will be. Types of assessment questions and prompts should be varied. All teachers are expected to use scantrons. 12 ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! ! COLLABORATIVE PLANNING Same content teachers will plan together, weekly, and develop common daily lesson plan and unit plans. TLF 1 The Frank W. Ballou High School administration and staff believes that collaborative planning within content areas is critical to student achievement. Ballou General Education and Special Education teachers will utilize planning time to map out unit and daily lesson plans to address the needs of all learners. Teachers are expected to discuss and implement best practices and literacy strategies to plan engaging and rigorous activities that align with Common Core standards, DCPS standards, and School-wide initiatives. In the article Providing Adequate and Structured Teacher Instructional Planning Time it states, вЂњCommon planning time for grade level, subject, or interdisciplinary teams has increasingly been considered a crucial part of school improvement. Collaborative teams, in which teachers share planning time and a common group of students, have been correlated with better school culture, more effective parent communication, higher student achievement, and increased teacher motivation and job satisfaction.вЂќ Kassissieh, J., & Barton, R. (2009). The top priority: Teacher learning. Principal Leadership, 9(7), 22-26. Unit plans will be uploaded to a departmental Google Doc. The dates will be based on the DCPS Educator Portal Scope and Sequence for DCPS content teachers. All others content teachers due dates will be set by department heads. Daily lessons plans should be made available to the administration team upon request. (Daily, unit, and long term lesson plans shall be required of each teacher and such plans shall be made available for review by the principal or supervisor at any time upon his or her request sec. 23.18.1 WTU) Teachers will be provided a template designed by DCPS and modified by the Ballou Instructional Manual Planning Committee for their daily lesson plan and unit plans. Each aspect of the templates is aligned with TLF and modified to accommodate different variations of instruction. Teachers will also be provided a planning checklist to assist and help guide them in the development of their content collaboration and their daily and unit plans. This checklist is based on the article, вЂњPrinciples of Instruction: Research Based Strategies that All Teachers Should Know.вЂќ Teachers will receive PD on the strategies to better understand how to infuse the different methods in their classroom. To view examples of collaborative planning please visit one of the following links: ! вЂў вЂў вЂў https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bfV8Qwsaatc https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tkEn0cppm_4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vL7O0k-wHeU ! 13 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! ! Daily Lesson Plan Template (BLANK TEMPLATE) Common Core Literacy Standards Lesson Objective(s) Teach 1: Lead well-organized objective driven lessons Assessment Agenda Teach 8( Maximize Instructional Time) Instructional Text / Writing Assignment Literacy Strategy(ies): Check One: Collaboration Inquiry Writing Reading Check One: Direct Instruction Differentiation/Scaffolding Discovery Learning Collaborative Learning Development of Student Understanding of the Importance of the Objective (Relevance) Teach 2: Explain Content Clearly Do Now/ Warm-up: Teach 3: Engage Students at all Learning Levels in Accessible and Challenging Work Motivational Activity/ Hook/ Reconnect: Teach 3: Engage Students at all Learning Levels in Accessible and Challenging Work Teacher 1 Teacher 2 14 ! ! Time: Materials: 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! ! Introduction of New Material: Teach 7: Develop Higher Level Understanding through Questioning Teacher 1 Teacher 2 Time: Guided Practice: Teach 4: Provide Students Multiple Ways to move Toward Mastery Teach 6: Respond to Student Understanding Time: Teacher 1 Materials: Teacher 2 Independent Practice: Teach 4: Provide Students Multiple Ways to move Toward Mastery Teacher 1 Teacher 2 Check for Understanding Teach 5 and Teach 7: Develop Higher Level Understanding through Questioning Teacher 1 Materials: Time: Materials: Teacher 2 Closure/ Assessment/ Exit Ticket Time: Teacher 1 Materials: Teacher 2 Standards-Based Unit Plan Worksheet (SAMPLE) Unit Title: Early Human Kind and the Development of Human Societies Content Standards Priority Standard: 7.1.2 Locate human communities that populated the major regions of the world, and identify how humans adapted to a variety of environments. (G) Concepts: (1) human communities and (2) human adaptations to a variety of environments 15 ! ! BloomвЂ™s CCSS Level. Link 4 RH.68.1 ASSESSMENT EVIDENCE Assessment Scoring Summative: Constructed Response: WHST.6- Students will 8.1b choose a specific early human community that populated a major region and write a DCCAS ELA Rubric 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! ! Skills: (1) locating (human communities) and (2) identifying (human adaptations to a variety of environments) Essential Question: Why do communities need to adapt to their environments? How do communities adapt to different environments? Related/ Supporting Standard 1: 7.1. Students describe current understanding of the origins of modern humans from the Paleolithic Age to the agricultural revolution. Discrete Knowledge and Skills: describing current understanding Related/ Supporting Standard 2: 7.1.1.Trace the great climatic and environmental changes that shaped the earth and eventually permitted the growth of human life. Discrete Knowledge and Skills: tracing climactic and environmental changes Related/ Supporting Standard 3: 7.1.2. Locate human communities that populated the major regions of the world. Discrete Knowledge and Skills: locating early human communities of the world Related/ Supporting Standard : 7.1.3. Explain the evidence supporting hominid origin in East Africa. Discrete Knowledge and Skills: explaining supporting evidence 16 ! ! 2-3- page analysis of how this community adapted to its environment(s). Students must cite several pieces of textual evidence to support their analysis. Formative: Oral: Collaborative discussions (teacher-led, oneon-one, and in groups) 2 - 1 RH.6-8.4 Formative: Short vocabulary quiz on key academic language (terminologies) TeacherAssessed Student Achievement (TAS) , Grade Scale: x/x = 100% 1 RH.6-8.7 TAS Grade Scale: x/x = 100% 1 WHST.6- Formative: Brief 8.2f Constructed Response Formative: Short Map Pop Quiz (Worksheet) Non-Graded Diagnostic Rubric to assess studentsвЂ™ prior knowledge DCCAS ELA Rubric 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! ! Principles of Instruction (Planning) Checklist Strategies Review Previous Lesson TEACH 5 Present New Material in Small Steps TEACH 3 Effective Questioning (Check Response of ALL Students, Diversify the way Students can answer) TEACH 4 & 7 Modeling (Think-A-Loud, Various Student Examples) TEACH 2 Guiding Student Practice Correctly (Majority of Lesson) Check for Student Understanding (Address Misunderstandings Whole Group/ Provide Necessary Background Knowledge)TEACH 5&6 Obtain High Success Rate TEACH 3 Scaffolding (Anticipate Student Errors) TEACH 3 & 4 Independent Practice/ Application, Discovery Approach (Cooperative Learning, Teachers Circulate, Collaboration) TEACH 4 Review (Weekly/Monthly Data) TEACH 8 17 ! ! Check if Complete 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! BELL-TO-BELL TEACHING FORMATS Daily lesson plans will show bell to bell instruction. TLF T8 The bell-to-bell lesson plan templates provide support and guidance to teachers to create lessons that are well-organized and actively involve students in the learning process. Ensuring bell-to-bell instruction that is purposeful and rigorous ensures students with multiple ways to move towards mastery. Three basic types of lessons are: Direct Instruction, Discovery Learning, and Collaborative Learning. Teachers of every grade level, department, etc., will be able to utilize one of the Bell-to-Bell lesson plan templates while planning. Thus, addressing Teach 1, Teach 3, and Teach 8 of the TLF. In addition, the template creates opportunities for the teacher to develop, practice, and implement effective classroom procedures and routines. вЂў Direct Instruction is a general term for the explicit teaching of a skill-set using lectures or demonstrations of the material, rather than exploratory models such as inquiry-based learning. Usually it involves explication of the skill or subject matter to be taught and may or may not include an opportunity for student participation or individual practice. In some special education programs, direct instruction is used in resource rooms, when teachers assist with homework completion and academic remediation. Model Lesson: http://youtube/tvwbxYNk2wU Warm Up/Do Now - 5mins Hook/Reconnect - 10mins Objective - 10mins Lecture/Demonstration - 15mins Guided Practice - 10 mins Independent Practice - 25mins Closure/Exit Ticket - 10mins вЂў Discovery Learning refers to various instructional design models that engage students in learning through discovery. Usually the pedagogical aims are threefold: (1) Promote "deep" learning, (2) Promote meta-cognitive skills (develop problem-solving skills, creativity, etc.), (3) Promote student engagement. According to van Joolingen (1999:385): вЂњDiscovery learning is a type of learning where learners construct their own knowledge by experimenting with a domain, and inferring rules from the results of these experiments. The basic idea of this kind of learning is that because learners can design their own experiments in the domain and infer the rules of the 18 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! domain themselves they are actually constructing their own knowledge. Because of these constructive activities, it is assumed they will understand the domain at a higher level than when the necessary information is just presented by a teacher or an expository learning environment.вЂќ Model Lesson: http://youtube/eSEKCafVHkQ Warm Up/Do Now - 5mins Hook/Reconnect - 10mins Objective - 7mins Explore/Experiment - 15mins Explain - 7mins Apply - 7mins Evaluate - 10 mins Instruct - 15 mins Closure/Exit Ticket - 10 mins вЂў Collaborative Learning is an experience in which two or more students will learn or attempt to learn something together or from each other. Unlike individual learning, students engaged in collaborative learning capitalize on one anotherвЂ™s resources and skills (asking one another for information, evaluating one anotherвЂ™s ideas, monitoring one anotherвЂ™s work, etc.). More specifically, collaborative learning is based on the model that knowledge can be created within a class where students actively interact by sharing ideas and experiences. Model Lesson: http://youtube/Cjo7zOuySr8 Warm Up/Do Now - 5mins Hook/Reconnect - 10mins Objective - 10mins Group Work or Stations - 25 mins Explain/Peer Teach - 20mins Instruct - 10mins Closure/ Exit Ticket - 10mins 19 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! CO-TEACHING Co-teachers and general education teachers must collaborate using one of the three co-teaching models for instruction, and scaffold/ differentiate daily lessons to meet the diverse needs of all learners. TFL 3 Co- teaching involves two licensed educational specialist working together and sharing the responsibilities of the classroom environment. These responsibilities include collecting and analyzing student data, lesson planning, and providing both direct and indirect instruction. Co- teachers work to ensure the success of all students in their class. They are both held accountable for getting students to a level of standards mastery. Co вЂ“teaching environments allow students to have access to multiple view points, experiences and methods of instruction. As stated in a Guide to Co- Teaching, co-teaching is like a marriage, вЂњpartners must establish trust, develop and work on communication, share the chores, celebrate, work together creatively to overcome the inevitable challenges and problems, and anticipate conflict and handle it in a constructive way.вЂќ1 Co вЂ“ Teaching is not: ! ! ! ! One teacher teaches while the other works on administrative work ( grading, coping etc.) One teacher teaches while the other teacher just sits and watches One teachers opinions and ideas are being presented to the class during the lesson One teacher is seen as a вЂњtutorвЂќ2 Co вЂ“ Teaching Vs. Paraprofessional: With co вЂ“ teaching both teachers are EQUALLY accountable for the preparation and presentation of lessons and assessment of students. Paraprofessionals, however, do not have the same responsibilities within the class. Paraprofessionals provide an important role in the classroom, they provide support to a licensed teacher and may be asked to go over material previously taught, work with a few students or help handle behavioral issues that may arise. Some aspects of a co-teaching relationship may overlap with that of a paraprofessional вЂ“ teacher relationship, however, a paraprofessional is not a co вЂ“ teacher. 3 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1 !Richard!A.!Villa,!Jacqueline!S.!Thousand!and!Ann!L.!Nevin,!A"Guide"to"Co"вЂ“"Teaching!(Thousand!Oaks,!CA:!Corwin! Press,!2008),5,!http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=4S4LylCArVMC&oi=fnd&pg=PR11&dq=free+coX teaching&ots=LZMnBGFiWO&sig=YO_SiACZYUW_IuPiKXcWzWYMMOE#v=onepage&q=free%20coX teaching&f=false! 2 !Richard!! 3 !вЂњ!Co!вЂ“!TeachingвЂќ!(!Texas!Educational!Agency,!Educational!Service!Center,!Region!20,!2011),!48,!http://www.altX teachercert.org/December%202011%20Guidelines%20for%20Coteaching%20in%20Texas.pdf!! 20 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! The role of a Paraprofessional/Dedicated Aide: ! ! ! ! ! Supervise the work of a paraprofessional. Communicate and make recommendations to the building principal related to the evaluation of the IEP ParaprofessionalвЂ™s performance. Maintain accurate and consistent data related to progress towards IEP goals where the assistance of an IEP Paraprofessional is required. Ensure the implementation of the Fade Plan (fade the student off of using a dedicated aide). Fulfill responsibilities as a mandated reporter. Paraprofessional Responsibilities: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Provide supervision and protection oversight of assigned student throughout the school day to ensure their safety and well- being. Assist the student in accessing the general education curriculum. Respond to directions of the teacher and participate in planning and implementation of classroom activities and IEPвЂ™s. Assist in the implementation of the student behavior plan if appropriate. Assist teacher in maintaining the appropriate cleanliness of the classroom. Attend and participate in student activities, meetings and trainings. Assist with other students when assigned student is not there ( dedicated aide). Assist with student personal care ( toileting, dressing, hygiene) if appropriate ( dedicated aide). Assist with student personal needs ( eating, dressing, positioning , lifting/ carrying, (dedicated aide). Provide student with behavioral support during classroom activities, field trips, recess, and transition. Provide assistance to students with mobility issues. Assist student with note taking if appropriate. Provide assistance to students with various disabilities in use of technology and equipment adaptation. to facilitate learning, mobility and /or communication. Facilitate appropriate peer interactions and social skills. Serve as a positive role model to student with behavioral/ emotional disabilities. Develop positive working relationship with school personnel and families. Provide assistance with checking students work. Assist students with classroom projects. Accompanying student (i.e. hallways, lunch, recess and in all classroom activities, to the restroom). Participate in planning sessions with teachers. Reinforce educational concepts using instructional objectives and lessons developed by the teacher. Assist in the implementation of the studentsвЂ™ IEP. Demonstrate creativity, flexibility, and perseverance in dealing with challenging learning, behavioral, family, and classroom situations. Demonstrate an ability to learn new and specialized approached for atypical learners. 21 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! ! ! Assist with paperwork and clerical duties associated with educational services, participate in teacher вЂ“ parent conferences regarding the studentsвЂ™ progress or problems. Perform other reasonable related duties in relation to the student as assigned by supervisor. *For more information please see DCPSвЂ™s IEP ParaprofessionalвЂ™s user manual found on Educator Portal Co-Teachers Meet and Greet: ! ! ! ! End of the year- discuss as a group what the expectation is Beginning of the year as a refresher to touch base with each other Semester if it is a new co- teaching relationship Teachers get together to discuss the following: Instructional Beliefs, classroom management plan, planning, problem solving, pet peeves, roles and responsibilities Setting Norms for the Co-teaching Relationship: (there is a larger version of this in Appendix C) ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! How will you share lesson plans? Who assigns grades? Is there going to be a difference in grading for Gen Ed vs. SPED? When and where will you meet? Content teacher develops the lesson plans and SPED teacher modifies the lesson. How will classroom management work with in the classroom? How will you work together to evaluate the studentsвЂ™ progress? What are your instructional beliefs? (make sure to agree to one before facing students) What are your pet peeves? What do you need from each other in terms of support? Discuss how you will introduce each other to the class about how sometimes one may be out of the class more often than the other. Think about how each will handle the following possible issues: o What do you do if one of you makes a mistake in class? o What do you do if you disagree with what one teacher said to a student? o What do you do when you disagree about how a behavior was handled?4 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 4 !вЂњ"Co"вЂ“"TeachingвЂќ!(!Texas!Educational!Agency,!Educational!Service!Center,!Region!20,!2011),!48,!http://www.altX teachercert.org/December%202011%20Guidelines%20for%20Coteaching%20in%20Texas.pdf! 22 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! ! Co-teaching models (3): Please see Appendix B Station Teaching: In this co-teaching approach, teachers divide content and students. Each teacher then teaches the content to one group and subsequently repeats the instruction for the other group. If appropriate, a third "station" could give students an opportunity to work independently.5 вЂў вЂў вЂў Strengths Professional engagement Increase instructional Individualization Challenges вЂў вЂў вЂў Pacing Students need to work independently. Noise level6 Parallel Teaching.. In parallel teaching, the teachers are both teaching the same information, but they divide the class group and do so simultaneously.7 Strengths вЂў вЂў вЂў Lowers student to teacher ratio Allows for increased student interaction and/or student to student interaction Allows the teacher to monitor individual student progress and understanding more closely Challenges вЂў General Educator and Special Educator need to coordinate teaching so that students receive essentially the same instruction within the same amount of time. вЂў Noise levels may be high.8 Team Teaching: In teaming, both teachers teach a portion of the same lesson. Some teachers refer to this as having вЂњone brain in two bodies.вЂќ Others call it вЂњtag team teaching.вЂќ Most co-teachers consider this approach the most complex but a satisfying way to co-teachвЂ”but it is the approach that is most dependent on teachersвЂ™ styles.9 Strengths вЂў Allows both teachers to blend their teaching styles and expertise Increase instructional Individualization вЂў вЂў Challenges Requires more planning Requires high levels of trust and commitment10 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 5 !Marilyn!Friend,!вЂњCo"вЂ“"Teaching:"Creating"Successful"and"Sustainable"ProgramsвЂќ!!(presentation!for!the!National! Association!of!State!Directors!of!Special!Education,!Satellite!Conference,!March!5,!2008)!! https://www.educatorportalplus.com/documents/10180/0/CoXTeaching/1b2e4dc8X3ae8X4036X8216X 61b0e6d3969b?version=1.0! 6 !Belinda!Rosario,!Candace!Coles,!Pamela!Redmon,!Judie!Strawbridge,!вЂњCo!вЂ“!Teaching!in!the!classroomвЂќ! (presentation!to!Prince!GeorgeвЂ™s!County!Public!Schools!Region!IV,!Prince!Georges!Country,!MD)! http://www.magonline.org/CoTeachingInTheClassroomREVMAGPresentation.pdf! 7 !Marilyn! 8 !Belinda! 9 !Marilyn! 10 !Belinda! 23 ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! What to do when it is not working? ! ! There will be quarterly вЂњcheck-insвЂќ with an administrator to discuss how the co вЂ“ teaching relationship is going. However, it is suggested that you first try and work through the problem with your co-teacher. Set time aside for you and your co- teacher to reflect back on lessons and evaluate what has and has not been working. What to do when the co- teacher is not comfortable with the material? When the special education teacher is not comfortable with the material he or she is teaching, it is suggested that the special education teacher sit down, well in advance, with the content teacher to learn the material before giving the lesson. It is suggested that sitting down a week before hand would give the SPED teacher time to go home and review the material so that by time he or she needed to deliver the lesson they would have a better understanding of the material. This is also a good time to figure out where students might have problems in learning the new material. By having to explain the material to the special education teacher, both teachers can reflect on potential points of confusion and work through them ahead of time. What the special education teacher might lack in understanding the material, they make up for in offering a fresh perspective of how to learn it. This would also help in choosing a co- teaching style that works to both teachersвЂ™ strengths. Parallel teaching might not be the best method to use when one teacher is not fully comfortable with the lesson material. What are the expectations of a co-teacher with multiple preps? For teachers with multiple preps it is expected that they give English and Math preference in terms of planning, modifying and assessing students. With that, it does not mean that that special education teacher does not need to plan, modify and assess in the science and social studies classes he or she co вЂ“ teaches in. The special education teacher should be meeting ahead of time will all teachers he or she co вЂ“ teaches to go over all lessons and to possibly help facilitate cross curriculum dialogue, lesson planning and/ or project planning. Learning styles/ Teaching styles: Links to a teaching inventory /style quiz Links to online teaching inventory/ styles quiz 24 ! ! вЂў http://www.texascollaborative.org/tools/TSI.pdf вЂў http://www.healthymarriageinfo.org/resourcedetail/index.aspx?rid=3666 вЂў http://www.homeschoolviews.com/quiz/quiz.html вЂў http://longleaf.net/teachingstyle.html вЂў http://www.roanestate.edu/qep/teachingstyles.html вЂў http://www.crlt.umich.edu/tstrategies/tsts ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! Learning style / Personality tests: Links to a teaching inventory /style quiz Learning style: вЂў http://www.harding.edu/ARC/PDF/CITE.pdf вЂў http://www.swinburne.edu.au/stuserv/workshops/onlinem aterials/Web%20Effective%20Study%20Skills_files/1VA K%20assessment.pdf Personality: вЂў http://personality-testing.info/print/big-five-personalitytest.pdf вЂў Links to online teaching inventory/ styles quiz http://personality-testing.info/print/holland-code-test.pdf Learning style: вЂў http://www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html вЂў http://www.educationplanner.org/students/selfassessments/learning-styles.shtml вЂў http://sunburst.usd.edu/~bwjames/tut/learning-style/ Personality: вЂў http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes2.asp вЂў http://www.16personalities.com/free-personality-test The following are videos on how to form a co вЂ“ teaching relationship. They use Bruce TuckmanвЂ™s Model of Effective Team Building. There are three parts ( The first two are the about developing their co- teaching relationship and the third is how they used data to increase the writing levels of all students in their class) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r5kxv69N-MY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xX90BsHCTyk http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r5kxv69N-MY (Part 1) (Part 2) (Part 3) This video shows a lesson in which the teachers use Team Teaching, Station Teaching (they call it Split Group) and one teach one support all in the same lesson. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQgXqZGTUg0 25 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! This video has short segments of the following co вЂ“ teaching styles ( 1 support 1 assist, Team Teaching, Station Teaching, Alternative Teaching, and Parallel teaching) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TCn4qDyuZVE This video shows Parallel Teaching ( it is done between three teachers but the model can be used for just two teachers) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fIPWrrUU-pk This video shows Station Teaching http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=guV9UlAB42U These videos are of the same co вЂ“ teaching pair ( the two videos are of one lesson) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vO7nunHtwTo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pmGPPUxZjtY 26 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! Section III: Pedagogy/Instructional Strategies 27 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! LITERACY Teachers will use activities that teach literacy and writing skills and require students to collaborate. TLF 2, TLF 3 Teachers at Ballou will support their struggling and advanced readers in accessing content. They will utilize a variety of reading and writing strategies to both scaffold and challenge learners. The strategies outlined in this manual will help teachers select a blend of strategies suited to the needs of the students they serve. The blending of strategies is one of the recommendations from the report, Reading Next: A Vision for Action and Research in Middle and High School Literacy (2006). While the report, Writing Next: Effective Strategies to Improve Writing of Adolescents in Middle and High Schools (2007), concludes that a flexible combination of reading and writing strategies strengthen adolescentsвЂ™ literacy development. During the course of the school year, the Ballou instructional team may specify reading and writing strategies that should be implemented school-wide. However, teachers may select the strategies that target their studentsвЂ™ specific needs. The strategies below are a resource for teachers to consult when looking for ways to incorporate literacyfocused instruction into their own curriculum. Vocabulary Teaching word roots, prefixes, suffixes Teaching word parts can provide students with a very effective tool for tackling unfamiliar. For example, a student might not know the meaning of вЂњhypersensitive,вЂќ but could figure it out if he knew that вЂњhyperвЂќ means overly or very. http://www.prefixsuffix.com/rootchart.php Word Wall Word Walls are just what they sound like - walls with words on them (generally without definitions, but teachers could choose to include them). The wall can consist of a list of vocabulary words previously studied, specific words for the current unit, word parts, often used terms, etc. Word Walls provide constant reinforcement and a way for students to gain familiarity with content vocabulary without feeling like they have too much to memorize. There are a variety of quick and engaging activities that utilize Word Walls. вЂў Cold call or ask for volunteers to pick one word from the wall and use it in a sentence. Give students a ball to throw at the wall - whichever word they hit is the one they have to use. вЂў Quick question - Who is the first person who can find a word on the wall with a prefix that means вЂњantiвЂќ? 28 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! вЂў вЂў Do Now - pick 3 words from the wall and вЂ¦ (teacherвЂ™s choice of what they do...) Any variation on these activities - be creative. Word walls are great because they can work in many different content areas. Flashcards Have students create their own set of flashcards that they can refer to throughout the year. Use binder rings and a hole-punch to keep them together. Flashcards donвЂ™t have to be the typical word on one side, definition on the other. Teachers can incorporate pictures, examples, synonyms, etc. Students can use flashcards for group or partner activities, for games, for review or just to check for mastery of vocabulary or concepts. Word Splash This is an engaging way to introduce key vocabulary to students. Most words selected for Word Splash should be somewhat familiar to the students. The teacher selects key terms or concepts from a chapter in a text, an article, or story to be read. The terms represent important ideas that the teacher wants the students to focus on as they read the passage later. The words are presented randomly and at angles, as if they were splashed on a page. Word order is not important. Students then use all of the words to make connections and make complete sentences that demonstrate potential relationships between each term. Vocabulary Journal Same idea as flashcards - students keep a running record of vocabulary words. This can be in the form of Frayer Models or any other type of vocabulary representation that works well for the course. By the end of the chapter, unit, advisory, semester, or year, students will have a great reference guide and resource. 29 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! ! Composition books are nice for this because pages wonвЂ™t get lost or crumpled up (as readily), but this can be done using folders or sections of a binder. Frayer Model variations of the model that are used in school settings. The Frayer Model is a vocabulary development tool. In contrast with a straight definition, the model helps to develop a better understanding of complex concepts by having students identify not just what something is, but what something is not. The center of the diagram shows the concept being defined, while the quadrants around the concept are used for providing the details. Words that work well with the Frayer Model include quadrilaterals, insects and democracies. Below are two http://www.worksheetworks.com/miscellanea/graphic-organizers/frayer.html Vocabulary Awareness Chart Introduce Tier 2 and Tier 3 words for the unit that students can rank according to their exposure (know it, seen it, no idea) *For info on vocabulary tiers: http://www.gpb.org/files/handout-10-three-tiers-of-vocabulary.pdf Vocabulary self-awareness is a pre-reading strategy that moves over into a during-reading strategy as the student dives into a text. The chart creates an awareness in each student as to how familiar he/she is with vocabulary that will be encountered in the text. Then as the text is read, the student can revisit the vocabulary chart and revise entries based on a growing understanding of the vocabulary. http://www.gagems.org/ourpages/auto/2012/10/29/45019113/phil%20chairs%20vocab%20awareness%2 0college.pdf Then as the text is read, the student can revisit the vocabulary chart and revise entries based on a growing understanding of the vocabulary. http://www.gagems.org/ourpages/auto/2012/10/29/45019113/phil%20chairs%20vocab%20awareness%2 0college.pdf 30 ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! List-Group-Label List-group-label is a form of semantic mapping. The strategy encourages students to improve their vocabulary and categorization skills and learn to organize concepts. Categorizing listed words, through grouping and labeling, helps students organize new concepts in relation to previously learned concepts. http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/list_group_label/ Concept Map Students can either do this as a chart or a web. The idea is to get students to interact more deeply with the vocabulary and content that they have been learning. This is probably best done once the students are familiar with the material. Students group, sort, and create connections between vocabulary words. Cornell Notes This is a framework and outline for effective note taking. http://coe.jmu.edu/LearningToolbox/cornellnotes.html Language Rich Environment This is not necessarily a single strategy, but the idea is to replace regular, common words in the classroom with higher level words. Label various objects around the room with creative adjective-noun descriptions. Pre-Reading KWL Using pre-reading strategies, teachers can help students improve their reading comprehension by 31 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! activating background knowledge. The K-W-L strategy stands for What I Know, What I Want to Learn, and What I Learned. Activating students' background knowledge improves comprehension of expository text. A typical K-W-L chart consists of three columns headed by the letters K-W-L. Students complete the L column of the chart after they have studied the topic. http://www.studygs.net/texred3.htm Anticipation Guide An anticipation guide is a comprehension strategy that is used before reading to activate students' prior knowledge and build curiosity about a new topic. Before reading, students listen to or read several statements about key concepts presented in the text; they're often structured as a series of statements with which the students can choose to agree or disagree. Anticipation guides stimulate students' interest in a topic and set a purpose for reading. Students return to the guide to see if their previous answers match what they have learned about the topic. http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/anticipation_guide/ Probable Passage Probable passage strategy involves giving students a brief summary of a text from which key words have been omitted. The teacher chooses these key words and shows them to the students. Next, the teacher discusses what the words mean and gets students to arrange the words in categories according to their possible function in the story. For example, do the words relate to setting, characters, conflicts, solutions, or endings? After categorizing the words, students use them to fill in the blanks of the Possible Passage. This process makes students think about what they know about story structure, vocabulary, relationships, and possible conclusions. http://wwwstatic.kern.org/filer/cipdManilaWebsite/rlateachresource68/Probable_passage_prereading_str ategy.pdf http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/probable/index.htm Tea Party This is an interactive pre-reading strategy that frontloads studentsвЂ™ knowledge of text information and also allows them to become familiar with phrasing and content words. The teacher selects phrases, sentences or single words and places them on index cards. Each student receives a card. As students move from student to student, they read their card to the other student and discuss what the text on the card is about. Students move to another student and repeat the process about four times. Then the students form a group to write a вЂњwe thinkвЂќ paragraph that discusses what the students think the text is about and explain how they reached the prediction. Finally, they read the text. 32 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! http://spedlit.k12.hi.us/Strategies/TEA%20PARTY.htm Brainstorm Brainstorming is an excellent teaching strategy to generate ideas on a given topic. Brainstorming helps promote thinking skills. When students brainstorm, they are asked to identify all things related to a concept. Either the teacher or students write these ideas on the board or chart paper. http://www.cccti.edu/WritingCenter/Documents/BrainstormingStrategies.pdf Mind Mapping Mind mapping is a strategy for helping students order and structure their thinking through mentally mapping words or/and concepts. Mind maps were developed by Tony Buzan as a way of helping students make notes that used only key words and images. They are easy to use. A teacher can take a blank piece of paper. Draw a circle or rectangle in the center and write the key word or concept. Then students draw lines from the center and create other rectangles or circles in which they write words and phrases related to the key word or concept written in the center of the paper. http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/mindmap/ Read Aloud A read aloud is a planned oral reading of a book or print excerpt, usually related to a theme or topic of study. The read aloud is a teacher led activity in which the teacher reads with expression and fluency to engage the reader, support comprehension, and foster critical thinking. www.esiponline.org/classroom/foundations/reading/readalouds.html Taking a Side / 4 Corners Four corners is an instructional strategy that develops critical thinking skills of students as well as to engage all students in conversations about controversial topics. As well, it improves their decision making abilities. To use this strategy, the teacher should generate a controversial scenario related to a topic of study. Then, formulate four divergent opinions related to the scenario. Post these on chart paper in the four corners of the classroom. Present the controversial scenario to students. Ask students to move to one of the four corners. Students should move to the corner with the statement that most closely fits their opinion of the controversial scenario. Follow up by having students present a group summary of their opinion. This can be done through an oral presentation or by a written summary or bulleted list. 33 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! Four Corners Teaching Strategy | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/way_5809507_four-cornersteaching-strategy.html#ixzz2SYqiuZFb Four corners is an instructional strategy that develops critical thinking skills of students as well as to engage all students in conversations about controversial topics. As well, it improves their decision making abilities. To use this strategy, the teacher should generate a controversial scenario related to a topic of study. Then, formulate four divergent opinions related to the scenario. Post these on chart paper in the four corners of the classroom. Present the controversial scenario to students. Ask students to move to one of the four corners. Students should move to the corner with the statement that most closely fits their opinion of the controversial scenario. Follow up by having students present a group summary of their opinion. This can be done through an oral presentation or by a written summary or bulleted list. Four Corners Teaching Strategy | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/way_5809507_four-cornersteaching-strategy.html#ixzz2SYqiuZFb Think Aloud The think-aloud strategy asks students to say out loud what they are thinking about when reading, solving math problems, or simply responding to questions posed by teachers or other students. Effective teachers think out loud on a regular basis to model this process for students. In this way, they demonstrate practical ways of approaching difficult problems while bringing to the surface the complex thinking processes that underlie reading comprehension, mathematical problem solving, and other cognitively demanding tasks. During the think aloud, the teacher articulates what he/she is thinking, what connections he/she is making to the problems, what difficulties he/she is encountering, what possible solutions he/she is considering, as well as the steps he/she is following. http://www.teachervision.fen.com/skill-builder/problem-solving/48546.html Think/Write-Pair-Share Think-Pair-Share is a strategy designed to provide students with "food for thought" on a given topics enabling them to formulate individual ideas and share these ideas with another student. The Think-PairShare strategy empowers every reader to become a discussion participant. This versatile strategy can be used as a pre- or post-reading activity, as a problem-solving tool, or as a "cognitive break" during a traditional lecture. To utilize this strategy, the teacher provokes students' thinking with a question or prompt or observation. The students should take a few moments (probably not minutes) just to THINK about the question. Next, using designated partners (such as with Clock Buddies), nearby neighbors, or a desk mate, students PAIR up to talk about the answer each came up with. They compare their mental or written notes and identify the answers they think are best, most convincing, or most unique. After students talk in pairs for a few moments (again, usually not minutes), the teacher calls for pairs to SHARE their thinking with the rest of the class. She can do this by going around in round-robin fashion, 34 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! calling on each pair; or she can take answers as they are called out (or as hands are raised). Often, the teacher or a designated helper will record these responses on the board or on the overhead. http://www.readingquest.org/strat/tps.html Pre-Reading Plan Pre-reading refers to a series of strategies that students can undertake before reading a text. focus questions; initial responses; reflect on initial responses; ideas and realizations from text Text Impression This strategy helps students activate prior knowledge by developing an impression of what the forthcoming reading and lesson will cover. Students are presented with a list of words and phrases taken directly from the material to be covered and asked to create a text using the words. Gallery Walk / Carousel During a Gallery Walk, students explore multiple texts or images that are placed around the room. Teachers often use this strategy as a way to have students share their work with peers, examine multiple historical documents, or respond to a collection of quotations. Because this strategy requires students to physically move around the room, it can be especially engaging to kinesthetic learners. During Reading ABC Boxes Students can use this strategy as a straight-forward way to activate prior knowledge before they start to read about a broad-ended subject (like a chapter on WWII, for example). Students individually list everything they know about a particular topic and fill in facts based on an alphabetical outline. Then, they work in small groups to compare and add information. Students review their ABC list for accuracy as and add to the outline as they read. This strategy can also be used to review information following a reading. Bookmarks Students need reminders when they learn reading strategies. Bookmarks are a great way to give students a handy tip sheet of facts and strategies for improving their reading. You can make your own and print them on card stock, and your students can use them in their independent reading books. Then when they get stuck on their reading strategies, they will have a reference right between the pages. Read more: Printable Bookmark Reading Strategy | eHow.com 35 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! http://www.ehow.com/way_5305956_printable-bookmark-reading-strategy.html#ixzz2SZC5pa00 Double-Entry Journals The Double-Entry Journal strategy enables students to record their responses to text as they read. Students write down phrases or sentences from their assigned reading and then write their own reaction to that passage. The purpose of this strategy is to give students the opportunity to express their thoughts and become actively involved with the material they read. Post It Notes Post it NOTE READING is a close reading strategy that helps students keep track of an idea, theme, or details while reading in a textbook. It also teaches students the skills proficient readers use: вЂў Making connections to their lives or other texts, вЂў Talking back to texts and authors вЂ” commenting, questioning, predicting. Post it note reading helps students keep вЂњmarginalвЂќ notes when they donвЂ™t own the books. If the teacher distributes duplicated copies of a shorter text, then highlighters may be used in lieu of Post it notes. Say Something Struggling readers often view their reading task as the need to finish the assignment. They donвЂ™t focus on the text or attend to their reading. Say Something is a strategy that interrupts a reading to allow a student to think about what is being read. During this paired reading strategy (developed by Jerome Harste) partners develop relationships between new information and what they already know or believe. Partners read silently to a designated stopping point in the text. When both participants have reached the stopping point they take turns "saying something" about what they read. The process is completed until the entire reading selection is completed. Ideally, (after a designated time) whole class discussion serves as a follow-up to this strategy. Think Aloud The Think Aloud strategy allows the teacher to model how a good reader thinks about text while reading. The process is fairly simple. The teacher reads aloud from an appropriate book, and stops periodically to make predictions, clarify meaning, decode words, make personal connections, question the author, and summarize what has been read. This explicit modeling of the reading strategies will benefit all students as they strive for deeper understanding of what they read. Note Taking This is the practice of recording information from another source. One example of note taking is Cornell Notes. The Cornell method involves dividing a sheet of paper into two columns. The column on the left should take up one third of the width of the page. The second column takes up two thirds of the width of the page. Students take notes in the second column and use the first column to record questions, 36 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! comments, connections about the notes in the second column. http://lsc.cornell.edu/Sidebars/Study_Skills_Resources/cornellsystem.pdf CostaвЂ™s / BloomвЂ™s Question Stems These are sets of question stems that align with levels of abstractions created by Bloom and Costa. The questions are used to check for understanding and to challenge students to think at higher levels of abstraction. http://www.alvinisd.net/Page/8720 http://ww4.fsusd.k12.ca.us/schools/weir/images/TeacherOnly/Bloom-1617%20Stems%20for%20Instruction.pdf Marking/Annotating Text This is a process in which students visualize, draw an image, summarize, clarify, connect, respond, and question the text as they read. http://www.greece.k12.ny.us/academics.cfm?subpage=934 Dialogue or Double-Entry Journal The student divides a page in two columns. She writes salient quotes from the text in the left column and responds to the quotes in the right hand column. The response can clarify, question, oppose, etc., the quote. http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/printouts/double-entry-journal-30660.html Reciprocal Teaching This is a collaborative activity in which each student has a role in the group. (Ex: reader, predictor, visualizer, clarifier, questioner, summarizer) Students read the assigned portion of the text. When the group members finish predicting, clarifying, etc. The participants switch roles and move on to the next segment of the text. http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/reciprocal_teaching/ Tableau/Freeze Frame This is a strategy that involves students creating a series of frozen pictures to help break down a story, analyze the sequence of events, identify the important aspects of the story, and bring it to life. Their 37 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! faces and poses create a living picture that captures a moment in time. Dialogue can be a part of the tableau. http://aaa.mpls.k12.mn.us/about-aaa/high-potential-strategies/tableau QAR (Question-Answer Relationship) This strategy requires the students to analyze the text carefully. Students categorize and answer four types of questions: right there, think and search, on my own, and the author and me. http://www.readingeducator.com/strategies/qar.htm After Reading It Says, I Say This is a strategy to help students draw inferences. Students use a chart to scaffold their thinking. A question about the text is in the first column of the chart. In the second column, students write a quote or paraphrase from the text (It Says). In the third column, the students utilize the information in the text with what they know (interpret, make connections, etc.) http://schools.ednet.ns.ca/avrsb/732/lynncamp/project/comprehstrategies/It%20Says,%20I%20Say%20a nd%20So.pdf Save the Last Word After reading a text, students choose a passage they like and copy it on a card. On the opposite side of the card, students write why they liked it. In a small group, a student reads her passage. Other students comment on what they liked or did not like about the passage. The student who wrote the passage on the card has the last word and explains his reason for selecting the passage. http://mainecontentliteracyproject.org/strategies/Save%20the%20Last%20Word%20for%20Me%20descri ption.pdf Somebody Wanted But So Then This is a summarizing strategy that provides a structure for students to recognize main ideas, relationships, cause and effects, resolutions, etc. Using a chart headed with wordsвЂ”somebody, wanted, but, so, then, students identify the main characters/people involved in the event (somebody), what the characters are trying to do (wanted), the problem (but), the solution (so), and the ending (then). http://readwritetalk.wordpress.com/2011/04/04/somebody-wanted-but-so-then/ 38 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! Most Important Word Students choose what they consider the most important word from the text they read. Have students identify the place in the text where the word is used and explain the reason they choose it. In selecting the word, students can consider how the word affects the characters, conflict, plot, and setting. This strategy is useful when students are thinking about the theme of a text. http://readingmiddlegrades.wikispaces.com/After-Reading Exit Slips The slips are used to check for understanding and are given at the end of class to assess studentsвЂ™ comprehension of the main ideas from the lesson. Slips have a variety of formats. Students can be asked to identify ideas they learned, concepts that confuse them, things they liked/disliked about the lesson, questions about the lessons, etc. http://www.readwritethink.org/professional-development/strategy-guides/exit-slips-30760.html Written Conversation This is a post reading strategy that requires students to pair up with a peer. Using one piece of paper, the students write back and forth to each other about what they have just read. After writing for a set time, the students read their conversations aloud to their partners. After collecting student papers, the teacher can write comments and have the last word in the conversation. http://www.weac.org/news_and_publications/education_news/2006-2007/readinginroom_written.aspx Retelling from a different Perspective This is a more complex version of a simple retelling of events. By changing the perspective, the student demonstrates thorough understanding of the original set of events and the perspective of the original narrator while presenting the story in a logical format that is compatible with the viewpoint of the new narrator. (Ex: Wicked, the story of Oz from the wicked witchвЂ™s perspective) http://www.prepit.org/reading/diffPerspectives.html Role Play Students act as characters in a predefined story or event. It helps them understand the range of concerns, values, and positions held by other people as well as see a problem from another perspective. http://www.positivearticles.com/Article/Reading-Comprehension-Strategies-3-Strategies-To-EnhanceYour-Reading-And-Learning-Comprehension/49520 39 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! Author Talks Students can assume the role of the author and explain the text from the authorвЂ™s viewpoint. Partner Retell Retelling is a powerful technique for checking understanding. This strategy involves students working in pairs to reprocess the text focusing on main ideas, events, and characters and articulate it to a partner. http://buildingrti.utexas.org/PDF/Partner_Reading_wRetell.pdf Philosophical Chairs This strategy is similar to a debate. Students are given a topical question and they must agree, disagree, or be neutral. Students are encouraged to be fair minded, speak in turn, listen to peers, etc. http://www.lawanddemocracy.org/pdffiles/philos.chairs.pdf Socratic Seminar / Fishbowl The Socratic seminar is a formal discussion, based on a text, in which the leader asks open-ended questions. Within the context of the discussion, students listen closely to the comments of others, thinking critically for themselves, and articulate their own thoughts and their responses to the thoughts of others. They learn to work cooperatively and to question intelligently and civilly. Students sit in two concentric circles. The two groups exchange positions so everyone is involved in the discussion. http://www.alvinisd.net/Page/8720 One-Pager This summarizing strategy requires students to follow several steps. First, create a visual representation of the information: title and author. Next, include 3 or more passages from text. Then, write a personal response to each passage. To complete the page add 1 or more graphics that relate to the topic. http://www.lausd.k12.ca.us/King_Drew_Medical_Magnet/Summer%20Reading%20Program/Onepager.pdf Vocabulary Awareness Chart One way to organize a summary of a text is to copy the topic sentence of each chunk of text. Then paraphrase topic sentences and use transitional phrases to write a cohesive summary. http://www.readingquest.org/strat/summarize.html 40 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! Writing Graphic Organizer for Structure Provide various methods to help students plan the structure of their writing (sequential, cause and effect, compare and contrast, problem-solution, etc.). http://www.cheney268.com/learning/organizers/TextStructures.htm Dialogue Journals Students do close-reading through analytical and meaningful writing about small chunks of text. http://www.pps.k12.or.us/files/curriculum/DialJrnlStrat04.pdf RAFT Method of structure for longer writing assignments (Role, Audience, Format, Topic). http://www.readingquest.org/strat/raft.html Quick Write Self-evident from title; give students a prompt and a limited amount of time to write in an unfiltered manner in order to loosen ideas on a specific topic. http://nrhs.nred.org/www/nred_nrhs/site/hosting/Literacy%20Website/Literacy%20Strategy%20Template s/Quick_Write__description.pdf http://www.duvalschools.org/fch/teacherresource/Quickwrite%20Rubric.pdf Reader Response Journal Another method for exploring text through close-reading and analytical writing. http://www.google.com/search?q=reader+response+journal&client=safari&rls=en&tbm=isch&tbo=u&sour ce=univ&sa=X&ei=MDaIUemWM6Xk4AOy9YHADw&ved=0CDAQsAQ&biw=1024&bih=623 6 Traits of Writing Vintage approach to writing: Ideas, Organization, Voice, Word Choice, Fluency, Conventions. http://www.azed.gov/standards-development-assessment/six-traits/ 41 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! Clustering (Mind Mapping) Brainstorming method for pre-writing or drafting stages of the writing process. http://www.google.com/search?q=clustering+mind+mapping&client=safari&rls=en&tbm=isch&tbo=u&sou rce=univ&sa=X&ei=3zaIUZngMJXe4APmzIDwCA&ved=0CD4QsAQ&biw=1024&bih=623 Listing Brainstorming method for pre-writing or drafting stages of the writing process. http://wire.rutgers.edu/p_pre.html Cubing Brainstorming method for pre-writing or drafting stages of the writing process. http://writing2.richmond.edu/writing/wweb/cubing.html Looping Variation on the classic вЂњfree write.вЂќ Helps writers to hone in on one particularly salient idea and exhaust its possibilities. http://psuwritingcenter.blogspot.com/2008/02/looping-focused-approach-to.html 42 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! Inquiry Teachers will incorporate at least one major project/activity each unit that focuses on inquiry: Socratic Seminar, Project Based Learning. TLF 7 Inquiry: вЂњseeking for truth, information, or knowledge -- seeking information by questioningвЂќ вЂњEffective inquiry is more than just asking questions. A complex process is involved when individuals attempt to convert information and data into useful knowledge. Useful application of inquiry learning involves several factors: a context for questions, a framework for questions, a focus for questions, and different levels of questions. Well-designed inquiry learning produces knowledge formation that can be widely applied.вЂќ вЂњThrough the process of inquiry, individuals construct much of their understanding of the natural and human-designed worlds. Inquiry implies a "need or want to know" premise. Inquiry is not so much seeking the right answer -- because often there is none -- but rather seeking appropriate resolutions to questions and issues.вЂќ The expectation is that teachers will implement at least one inquiry-based activity or project in each unit. Students will create a product that reflects the production of knowledge and conclusions based on in-depth questioning of a complex topic and/or problem. This section of the Instructional Manual will provide a menu of options and resources for teachers to use during planning and instruction. Teachers in each content area will have to make individual, deliberate decisions about which activities/assessments to use. It will look different for each class and for differing levels of student readiness. Some activities and assessments are appropriate for some students/objectives/classes but others are not. Resource materials, research, and/or handouts to support this expectation: Resources: http://www.worldwatcher.northwestern.edu/userdownloads/pdf/JLSEdelsonetal.pdf Addressing Problems of Inquiry Learning.pdf Research article outlining how to anticipate and solve problems presented by Inquiry Learning: http://www.experientiallearning.ucdavis.edu/module2/el2-60-primer.pd Inquiry Primer.pdf 43 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! Information on the inquiry process: Inquiry Process Graphic.pdf Demonstration of inquiry in elementary and high schools: http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry/demonstration.html Getting started and thinking through designing inquiry activities: http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry/exploration.html Five steps to inquiry with examples: http://www.ndtwt.org/Blackboard/P2SST2/inqu.htm Introduction to inquiry: 44 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! http://teachinquiry.com/index/Introduction.html Teacher-created list of ideas and lesson examples: http://www.classroom20.com/group/inquirybasedlearning/forum/topics/examples-of-inquiry-based Criteria and components of inquiry (not the only set, many similar ones exist): вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Start with a guided exploration of a topic as a whole class. Proceed to student small group inquiry about an open-ended, debatable, contended issue. Encourage students to ask personally relevant and socially significant questions. Work in groups to achieve diversity of views. Predict, set goals, and define outcomes. Find or create information...look for patterns. Instruction serves as a guide to help students meet their goals. Create a tangible artifact that addresses the issue, answers questions, and makes learning visible and accountable. Learning is actualized and accountable in the design accomplishment. Arrive at a conclusion...take a stand...take action. Document, justify, and share conclusion with larger audience. http://www.neiu.edu/~middle/Modules/science%20mods/amazon%20components/AmazonComponents2.ht ml Planning ahead for inquiry; use of inquiry in all content areas: 45 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! Basic overview of Inquiry learning: http://www.youthlearn.org/learning/general-info/our-approach/intro-inquiry-learning/intro-inquiry-learning Questioning strategies/resources: Accountable Talk.pdf Some strategies for structuring questioning and discussions in class (image also below): CostaвЂ™s Questions: http://blog.adambabcock.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/CostaHouse-Levels-of-Questions.pdf Introduction to Socratic Seminars http://www.readwritethink.org/professional-development/strategyguides/socratic-seminars-30600.html Questioning strategies to use in class: http://www.youthlearn.org/learning/teaching/techniques/askingquestions/asking-questions ! 46 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! Grading rubric examples http://www.greece.k12.ny.us/district.cfm?subpage=497 Video Example http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QxZMGK6IdEs ! Philosophical Chairs Introduction: http://www.d120.org/assets/1/avid/Using_Philosophical_Chairs.pdf Explanation & Visuals: http://www.sdcoe.net/lret/avid/resources/philosophical_chairs.pdf Video Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U0XTkCSb6a8 ! ! Project Based Learning: Project Based Learning is one core way to approach teaching through using inquiry. Students are presented with a complex question, usually one that involves answering additional questions, and are guided through the process of acquiring information and constructing answers that demonstrate knowledge and skills learned through the project. Project-Based Learning (PBL) can be used in all content areas. Introduction to PBL: http://www.edutopia.org/project-based-learning Example with documents: http://www.edutopia.org/stw-project-based-learningbest-practices-resources-lesson-plans Planning guide: http://www.edutopia.org/stw-project-based-learningbest-practices-guide Problem/inquiry lesson: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ULIBoDGqYvI Additional examples of more specific components: http://www.youtube.com/user/johnbarell1/videos Design and implement Project-based Learning with State Standards: http://www.edutopia.org/stw-project-based-learningbest-practices-new-tech-video Student interest and teacher guiding: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SeOpDAPaNYQ 47 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS 48 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Q: Why are we doing this? A: The Frank W. Ballou High School administration and staff believes that a systematic and cohesive instructional plan is critical to student achievement. вЂњFrom Roots to ResultsвЂќ is a framework that aligns our schoolвЂ™s vision to the three most important areas: Data, Instructional Planning, and Pedagogy/Instructional Strategies. This manual will streamline our educational program within all content areas at Ballou, and give all students an equal chance to be successful. Q: What will happen if I do not adhere to the instructional expectations outline in the manual? A: The administration and Instructional Manual Planning Team believes that aligning our school vision and instruction according to the policies and procedures of the manual are in the best interest of all students. Much like the best practices exhibited in the Teaching and Learning Framework, failure to adhere to the expectations will be formally addressed on an individual basis. Q: How will administration support this process? A: The administration team will support teachers during the roll-out of the Instructional Manual by providing PD and opportunities to collaborate and gain feedback. At this juncture, all staff is expected to serve as support to one another. The Administration, Department Chairs, Instructional Coaches, and your fellow colleagues are all equally vested stakeholders in the educational experience of students and will work together to provide support and monitor this process. Q: How is this different from what we already do? A: This is not different from what many teachers at Ballou do; however, this Instructional Manual is a way to streamline our program and best practices to ensure success for students. Q: What does this mean for Department Chairs? A: Department Chairs will collaborate with teachers to offer support and guidance to new and returning teachers in their department. 49 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! Q: How and when will teachers receive more information regarding the Instructional Manual? A: All teachers will receive professional development that targets the specific areas in the manual. The Planning Team will meet during the summer to develop resources and support for staff in August. In the interim, content areas will begin preparing and planning their first unit for the 2013-2014 SY. 50 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! ! Appendix A: Corrective Instruction Action Planning Template CORRECTIVE INSTRUCTION FOCUS STANDARD/SKILL ANALYSIS OF WHY STUDENTS DID NOT LEARN IT What is the standard/skill I need to teach in a different way? What is the exact sub-skill I need to teach? Why did students not learn the intended skill or concept? DATA-INFORMED NEW INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACH How will I teach this skill/standard in a different way? How will the concept of the item(s) students misconceived be addressed? How will I break the concept down into clear and concrete steps? How will I ensure that there is adequate opportunity for practice provided to the students? How will I ensure that the level of instruction matches the level of rigor of the interim assessment? STUDENT GROUPINGS Whole Group: Does the entire group of students have the same misconception? Do they also have the same reason for the misconception and/or do not need a deeper level of support (small group or individual)? What will the whole-group instruction include? Small Group: Which students need a deeper level of support than whole-group? What will the smallgroup instruction include? Individual: Which students need an individual level of support to reach proficiency? What specific strategies will you use? 51 ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! ! CORRECTIVE INSTRUCTION ASSESSMENT ACCOUNTABILITY How will the skill/standard be reassessed to check for mastery? How will I ensure that the classroom assessment matches the level of rigor of the interim assessment? What evidence will be collected and reported back to the team and by when? Next Step By When SUPPORTS FOR STUDENT EFFICACY STUDENT PERSPECTIVE PLANNED ACTION FOCUS ON THE STANDARD/SKILL I understand what I still need to learn. How will the students be engaged so that they understand what standard/skill still need to be learned? What language will be used with the students to explain the I know that if I work hard and put in the effort results of the assessment and the corrective instruction as we have planned, I will master the process? standard, skill or concept. ACT ON FEEDBACK I know what I missed on the interim assessment. I have a concrete, actionable plan that my teacher and I will implement. What are the studentsвЂ™ roles in this learning process? How are students expected to incorporate feedback? How will the students know when the skill/standard will be taught? 52 ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! CORRECTIVE INSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATE MASTERY I know how I will be assessed. I will present the data that demonstrates my effort and the results. What are the studentsвЂ™ roles in this assessment? What are the studentsвЂ™ roles (if any) in presenting the evidence? 53 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! ! Appendix B: Ballou Data Meeting Series Below is a cycle of three meetings that should fuide your work as a team around data. Prior to beginning the meeting, please select a facilitator, a time keeper, and a note taker to record what takes place. Prior to beginning the first meeting, please take a few moments to set norms. Also, please choose a day during your common planning time of which you will meet to review data a share that day with your Academy Coordinator and with Ms. Fenton. Remember to submit a copy of your notes including attendance to your academy coordinator at the conclusion of each meeting. Should someone be absent, if the reason is known, please indicate the reason on the sign-in form. Materials needed вЂ“ data sets, chart paper, markers. (If you do not have these materials please see Ms. Cadet.) These meetings are meant to take place of a weekly basis. Data Cycle: Assess! Reп¬‚ect! Analyze! Plan! Prior to beginning the first data meeting every team member should take the assessment in question. Play close attention to areas where there could be/could have been student misconceptions. Each team member should also review the data individually so that they can participate effectively in the group discussion. 54 ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! Meeting #1: (Analyze) Purpose: Analyze the assessments and the data to identify student misconceptions and identify areas of need by isolating the opportunity gap between what is wanted and the current situation. (i.e. we would like 75% of our students to score proficient or above on the DC-CAS, at the present time only 30% of our students score proficient or above). 10 min. Examine the data and respond to the presenting questions: вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў What students learning issues are we struggling with the most? Consider standards that either the overall group scored low in, or standards that most members of a particular group scored low in. Consider specific skills do students seem to be struggling with within those standards. Were there specific questions on the assessments that most students performed poorly on? If so, is it possible that there is something about the questions that caused student misconceptions? Are there other learning issues beyond the assessment that are impacting student performance? Which students are struggling with these issues? 10 min. Brainstorm responses in pairs. 10 min. Discuss the responses as a group and identify the tip three priorities by multi-voting. 5 min. Ask: What more do we need to know? How can we find out? Identify SMART Goals for priority area(s) 10 min. Brainstorm results-oriented goal(s) for priority area(s). 5 min. Select one results-oriented goal for each priority area(s). (Consider indicators by skill/competence/performance expectations aligned to standards; consider both standardized and classroom-based measures; consider student data when writing targets.) 15 in. Have group select вЂњbest of indicators, measures, and targets to write SMART goal. 10 min. Ask: What do we need to know to affect student learning for this SMART goal? Delegate members of the team to gather additional data based on the answers to the questions above. (See Ms. Fenton for assistance in both gathering data and formatting it in a manner that can be easily understood by your team members.) Delegate team members to research best practices and supportive literature in the identified priority areas and do literature research or best practice review. 55 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! Meeting #2 Plan: Correlate best practices to current practices 10 min. Share information gathered between meetings 10 min. Develop a chart as a group: What are we already doing that supports best practice in this area? What else would we like to learn about? 10 min. Identify instructional strategies we want to do, do more often, or stop doing. 10 min. Using the chart from the last meeting: Individuals select the preferred strategy for learning about best practices and, identify areas in which they are willing to coach/teach others. 15. min. Discuss implementation. How will we implement staff development of best practices? What support do we need? How will we measure progress on the SMART goal? Between meetings, implement staff development and integration of best practices; then gather data to measure against baseline. Assess Meeting #3: Reflect, Analyze results and refocus efforts. 10 min. Present graphs of new data. 15 min. Discuss what worked, what did not work, and why. 15 min. For those strategies that worked well discuss how to hold the gains. If the strategy did not work well decide next steps: START doing the strategy differently, STOP doing the strategy altogether, or START a new strategy. Start the cycle over again. 56 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! ! Analyze! Meeting 1 Subject: __________________ Course: ___________________ Data: ________________ Needs Analysis Based on the data, where do we see gaps between learning targets and current achievement levels? вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Based on the data, what misconceptions might have led to student difficulties? What standards did the majority of students score low on? What specific questions on the assessment did the majority of the students score low on? What other learning issues might be impacting student performance? What additional data or information will we need to develop an effective growth or reteaching plan? What standards did the majority of students score well on? What specific skills will need to be re-taught to improve student performance? What conclusions can be drawn from both student strengths and weaknesses? вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў 57 ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! ! Plan!! Meeting 2 Subject: __________________ Course: ___________________ Data: ________________ What things are we already doing that support our efforts to achieve our SMART goals? вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў What instructional strategies will we use to address growth areas? What professional development will we need to use those strategies effectively? How will we identify best practices with regards to the strategies weвЂ™ve selected? What support will we need to implement the identified professional development? ! What things will we need to STOP doing in order to achieve our SMART goals? вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў 58 ! ! What things will we need to START doing in order to achieve our SMART goals? How will we measure How will students growth between track/reflect on their assessments in the own growth? identified areas? (please be specific) 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! ! Reflect!! Meeting 3 Subject: __________________ Course: ___________________ Data: ________________ What worked? What didnвЂ™t? Why were those strategies that worked successful? Why did those strategies that didnвЂ™t work fail? вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў ! Which identified instructional strategies were effective? вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў 59 ! ! Which identified instructional strategies were not effective? Of those strategies that did not work, which ones will we keep, but do differently? Of those strategies that did not work, which ones will we stop doing? What new strategies might we try? 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! ! Teach!! Which standards/skills can be taught in a whole group format? Standards for review New Standards Which standards/skills should be taught in a teacher directed small group format? List all standards and mark standards for review with an * Which standards/skills can be re-taught in a student let small group format? Which students will most need support in teacher directed small group instruction to master the identified skills and standards? Which students will learn effectively in a student led small group format? Which students will Which students will be require one on one referred to tutoring? support in class to master the identified skills and standards? List all standards and mark standards for review with an * Who will provide that support? 60 ! ! List all standards and mark standards for review with an * 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! ! Six-Week Instructional Plan for ______________________________________________ WEEK 1 вЂ“ Date: _____________ Standards for review WEEK 2 вЂ“ Date: _____________ Standards for review WEEK 3 вЂ“ Date: _____________ Standards for review New Standards New Standards New Standards WEEK 4 вЂ“ Date: _____________ Standards for review WEEK 5 вЂ“ Date: _____________ Standards for review WEEK 6 вЂ“ Date: _____________ Standards for review New Standards New Standards New Standards 61 ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! ! Appendix C: Data Team Roles Data Technician вЂў вЂў вЂў Gathers data from all team members Creates tables/charts/graphs that represent assessment results Communicate results to appropriate stakeholders Timekeeper вЂў вЂў Makes sure team follows pre-determined time frame Keeps team members informed of available time per step Data Wall Curator вЂў вЂў Posts incremental data Manages the creation of a narrative (cause information) that accompanies the numbers (effect) Focus Monitor вЂў вЂў Keep dialogue focused on step in the process Reminds team of purpose when necessary Recorder вЂў вЂў Takes minutes of the meeting using standard templates Distributes minutes to team members and appropriate stakeholders Engaged Participant вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Responsibility of all team members Contributes to dialogue Commits to decisions of team Respectfully poses questions Use active listening Expectations for Data Team roles should be established in the second meeting, so as to maximize the time available during the 5 step meeting. Roles can be assumed on an annual basis, or can serve as rotating responsibilities. An explicit schedule should be established, so that valuable time is not wasted talking about team membersвЂ™ responsibilities. 62 ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! ! More Data Team Roles Timekeeper Focus Monitor Data Technician This person can be a member of the team who understands the importance of time, feels comfortable reminding the team of the time, and can participate in the meeting while keeping track of the time frame. Who has a knack for helping to keep each step in a meeting within its allotted time? This person should be a member of the team who has a deep understanding of the Decision Makin for Results process. This person must understand the purpose of the Data Teams process and the function of each step in the process. This person must be skilled at distinguishing serious professional dialogue from casual conversation and excuses. This person must be able to help the team focus while participating as a member of the team at the same time. Who has the skill and talent for keeping your team focused? Ideally this role is assumed by a team member, but it can be assigned to someone within the school that meets the criteria. This person needs to have the available time to commit. Who can use the defined structure and communicate the information on a timely basis? Data Wall Curator Recorder Additional Roles for Large Teams This role should be assumed by a team member who has a passion for displaying the results. This person should function in a timely manner in order to post the results immediately. Who has the talent to help display team results? This role should be assumed by a member of the team who is able to use the most appropriate available technology to record information accurately for each Data Teams process step. This person must also understand timelines. Who meets this criteria? Researcher Mathematician Co-facilitator Logistics organizer 63 ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! ! Appendix D: Co-Teacher Task List! Task Monday WHO: Making Copies Setting up Board WHAT: WHO: WHAT: WHO: WHAT: Do Now WHO: WHAT WHO: New Information WHAT: WHO: WHAT: WHO: Guided Practice WHAT: WHO: WHAT: WHO: Independent Practice WHAT: WHO: WHAT: WHO: 64 ! ! Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! Assessment WHAT: WHO: Debrief on Lesson WHAT: WHO: WHAT: 65 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! Appendix E: Visual Representations of the above mentioned co вЂ“ teaching styles 66 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! 67 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! 68 ! ! ! 2013-2014 Ballou High School Instructional Manual ! Appendix F: Setting Norms for the co-teaching relationship (questions to consider): 1. How will you share lesson plans? 2. Who assigns grades? Is there going to be a difference in grading for Gen Ed vs. SPED? 3. When and where will you meet? 4. Content teacher develops the lesson plans and SPED teacher modifies the lesson 5. How will classroom management work with in the classroom 6. How will you work together to evaluate the studentsвЂ™ progress 7. What are your instructional beliefs? ( make sure to agree to one before facing students) 8. What are your pet peeves? 9. What do you need from each other in terms of support? 10. Discuss how you will introduce each other to the class about how sometimes one may be out of the class more often than the other 11. Think about you each will handle the following possible issues: a. What do you do if one of you makes a mistake in class b. What do you do if you disagree with what one teacher said to a student c. What do you do when you disagree about how a behavior was handled 69 ! ! !