recipes for healthier, delicious seafood - Food Water Watch

recipes for healthier, delicious seafood
About Food & Water Watch
Food & Water Watch is a nonprofit consumer action organization headquartered in Washington, DC that runs cutting-edge campaigns
to help ensure clean water and safe food. We work with various community outreach groups around the world to create an economically
and environmentally viable future. We advocate for safe, wholesome food produced in a humane and sustainable manner, and public
rather than private control of water resources, including oceans, rivers and groundwater. The Food & Water Watch Fish Program works
to promote clean, green, safe seafood for consumers, while helping to protect the environment and coastal communities.
Food & Water Watch
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fax: (415) 293-9908
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Copyright В© December 2008 by Food & Water Watch. All rights reserved. Photo of cooking pot on page 23 by Zsuzsanna KiliГЎn. This booklet can be
viewed or downloaded at
table of contents
Salads and Appetizers......................................................................................6
Main Dishes.....................................................................................................12
Glossary of Fish Lingo.....................................................................................30
Seafood Substitutions......................................................................................33
Questions to Ask at Your Seafood Market or Restaurant...............................34
Thank You........................................................................................................35
Consumers tell Food & Water Watch regularly that they care a lot about what
they eat and that they want to know how to choose the best seafood possible.
In response, we recently released our Smart Seafood Guide with recommendations for types of seafood that are “cleaner, greener and safer,” to help
consumers choose fish that are better for them and our world.
Food & Water Watch Fish Program
Director Marianne Cufone with Virginiabased chef and guest contest judge
Joseph "Rocky" Barnette.
fish & tips
We selected the fish for our Smart Seafood Guide based on three categories:
healthiness for people — meaning that they are most likely to have less contaminants, antibiotic residues and disease; healthiness for the environment
— meaning they are fished or farmed sustainably; and healthiness for local
communities — meaning that they are produced domestically. Currently, the
United States imports about 80 percent of the seafood consumed here, while
exporting about 70 percent of what is produced here. This means that fish
produced in accord with U.S. standards — including labor and safety laws,
health codes, environmental protections and more — is mostly consumed in
other countries. U.S. standards for seafood are often stronger than elsewhere
in the world, so choosing domestic seafood increases the likelihood of a better product — and of course supports our economy. At a time when concerns
with food safety are becoming increasingly common and climate change and
overfishing are affecting the long-term health of our oceans, knowing where
seafood comes from and how it was produced is very important.
We know many people out there want to be able to eat
seafood that is good for their health, the environment and
local economies, and also enjoy their food. That’s why
we’ve made this cookbook — to provide a variety of delicious ideas for cooking some of the better seafood choices.
Once we chose the fish for our card, we searched for
recipes. We held the “Get Cookin’!” recipe contest
to see what ideas people all over the country
have for preparing sustainable seafood. We
are indebted to all the talented cooks who
shared their inspirations with us, and were
truly impressed by the originality and creativity of the many recipes we received!
When choosing the winning recipes, we hoped to bring
you a book of recipes that are as appealing to the palate
as they are to the conscience. We believe the following
does just that. Many thanks again to all those who submitted their creations!
– The Food & Water Watch Fish Team
Please note: We chose fish that are less likely to contain high levels of mercury or PCBs than others, but some contamination is always a
possibility — in particular, in halibut, mahi-mahi, sablefish/black cod and yellowtail snapper. Consumers concerned about exposure to mercury
or PCBs may choose to limit consumption of these fish.
These recommendations are intended as a general reference. They are not intended to provide specific medical advice, supplant any
government warnings or otherwise prevent exposure to any health hazards associated with seafood. People should always follow proper
acquisition, handling and cooking procedures of any seafood they prepare or consume.
food & water watch
salads & appetizers
“Grillted” Pomegranate Shrimp Salad............................................................7
Lebanese Scallop Salad....................................................................................8
Curried Clams and Melon Salad......................................................................9
Idaho Meets the Sea!.......................................................................................10
Wild Alaskan Coho Salmon Tartare................................................................11
“Grillted” Pomegranate Shrimp Salad;
recipe on opposite page.
fish & tips
“grillted”* pomegranate shrimp salad
1 cup 100% pomegranate juice
3 tbsp balsamic vinegar, divided
2 tbsp sugar
1 ВЅ lbs. U.S wild-caught shrimp,
peeled & deveined
3 tbsp extra virgin olive oil, divided
2 tbsp fresh lime juice
1/8 tsp red pepper flakes, or to taste
*grilled & wilted
by Bev Jones
2 heads romaine lettuce, halved
lengthwise with root end attached
Вј tsp sea salt
4 scallions, thinly sliced (green &
white parts)
2 tbsp pomegranate arils (seeds), if
8 wooden skewers, soaked in water
15 minutes
Directions: In shallow saucepan over medium-high heat, bring pomegranate
juice, 1 tablespoon vinegar and sugar to a boil. Cook 15 minutes, or until reduced
to about Вј cup. Thread shrimp onto skewers; lay in a 9 x 13-inch baking dish.
In small bowl, whisk together 1 tablespoon oil, lime juice and red pepper flakes;
pour over shrimp. Refrigerate 10 minutes, while preheating grill to medium-high.
Meanwhile, in small bowl, whisk together 2 tablespoons olive oil and 2 tablespoons balsamic vinegar; drizzle over cut side of romaine halves. Grill shrimp
skewers 3-4 minutes, turning once and basting with pomegranate glaze. Place
romaine halves on grill, cut side down, and cook just until grill marks appear
and lettuce is slightly wilted. Place romaine halves on plates, cut side up, and
sprinkle with sea salt. Top each with two shrimp skewers; sprinkle with scallions
and pomegranate arils, if desired. Serve immediately. Serves 4.
Bev Jones is from Brunswick, a
little town of 1,000 people in central
Missouri. Since she loves to cook
anything new and different, Bev
was intrigued when she had grilled
lettuce at a restaurant, and soon
began making it herself. This recipe
combines three of Bev’s all-time
favorite ingredients: pomegranate,
shrimp and grilled Romaine.
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lebanese scallop salad
From her home in the San Francisco Bay area, Roxanne Chan
has access to all kinds of cultural
influences, as well as fresh produce
from her own garden and greenhouses. Roxanne has already won
awards for over 750 of her recipes — look out, Iron Chef! “I got
interested in Lebanese flavors and
ingredients when my neighbor gave
me a jar of sumac,” she said. “With
scallops being my favorite seafood,
it was natural to try a combination
with sumac because of its citrus
fish & tips
12 large U.S. diver-caught/day boat
1 tbsp olive oil
ВЅ tsp each ground cumin and
1 tbsp brown sugar
6 cups baby spinach
1 can (15 ounces) garbanzo beans,
2 Roma tomatoes, chopped
1 cup sliced peeled European
by Roxanne Chan
Вј cup each: sliced pitted black
olives, diced red onion, snipped
flat leaf parsley and chopped
roasted almonds
ВЅ cup plain yogurt
1 clove garlic, crushed
1 tbsp sesame seeds
1 tbsp lemon juice
ВЅ tsp each ground pepper, salt and
ground sumac or lemon zest
Directions: Brush the scallops with the oil; combine the cumin, coriander
and sugar and pat the scallops to adhere. Broil 4 minutes or until cooked
through, turning once. Place the spinach and the next seven ingredients in
a large bowl. In a small bowl, whisk together the yogurt and the rest of the
ingredients. Toss the spinach mixture with the dressing. Place on a platter
and arrange the scallops on top. Serves 4.
curried clams and melon salad
1 ripe honeydew melon, halved,
1 cup safflower or vegetable oil
ВЅ cup tarragon vinegar
1 cup water
2 lbs softshell clams, scrubbed
1 tbsp curry powder
ВЅ cup plain yogurt
by Joan W. Churchill
ВЅ cup mayonnaise
ВЅ cup celery
2 tbsp fresh scallions, chopped
2 tsp honey
Salt and pepper
1 head radicchio, core removed and
leaves spread to form salad cups
Peach chutney
Directions: Use a melon baller to make melon balls. Toss the melon with
the oil and half of the vinegar. Cover and marinate one hour. Bring water to a
boil over high heat in a large pot; add the clams. Reduce heat to medium and
continue to cook until the clams open. Remove clams to a bowl, discarding
any that are not opened after 3-4 minutes. Remove clams from their shells,
reserving the liquid.
Mix together the curry powder with 2 tablespoons of liquid from the clams.
Combine with the yogurt, mayonnaise, celery, scallions, honey, remaining
vinegar, salt and pepper. Gently fold in the clams, cover and chill. Place radicchio cups into four salad plates or dessert dishes; spoon the clam mixture
into them. Surround with the melon balls. Place a teaspoon of chutney on
the clams. Serves 4.
Why Choose U.S. HandRaked or Farmed Clams?
U.S. Hand-raked Clams: U.S. handraked clams are gathered in a manner
that causes less damage to the seafloor
habitat than other clam collection methods. Wild U.S. clam populations appear
to be healthy.
U.S. Farmed Clams: Clams are filter
feeders, meaning they eat particles
from the water that flows by, so wild
fish are not caught and used to feed
farmed clams. Farmed clams may actually improve the health of the environment they are farmed in by filtering the
nearby water.
food & water watch
Jay Davis lives in Knoxville,
Tennessee with his fiancГ©e Julie. He
loves to take a classic recipe and
give it a new twist like he does with
“Idaho Meets the Sea.” Jay encourages his friends to cook creatively,
saying it’s more satisfying and just
as easy to prepare a home-cooked
meal. “Cooking started with me
when I was in third grade,” said Jay,
“standing on my stool and watching my mom stir spaghetti, listening
to how she and her mom cooked
together when she was little.”
fish & tips
idaho meets the sea!
6 baking potatoes
ВЅ cup fresh mushrooms
1 large yellow onion
2 cloves garlic (diced)
16 oz. U.S. diver-caught/day boat
16 oz. fresh U.S. wild-caught shrimp,
tailed and de-veined
by Jay Davis
2 scallions, finely chopped
1 pint sour cream
ВЅ cup fresh Parmesan cheese
ВЅ cup Swiss cheese
Вј cup white cheddar cheese
Вј cup vermouth (exclude for an
alcohol-free version)
Fresh-ground black pepper
1 egg (beaten well)
Directions: Bake potatoes for 45 minutes at 400 degrees until tender.
Scoop out inside of potatoes, leaving Вј inch of potato in skin. Set aside.
In skillet, sautГ© onion and garlic until transparent, in about 2 tablespoons butter. Add mushrooms and sautГ© 3-5 minutes. Chop scallop and
shrimp meat into bite-size pieces. Add to sautГ© mixture, sautГ© about 3 minutes until heated through. Turn burner to medium-high, add the vermouth
(if using) and cook until vermouth boils down. Set aside.
Meanwhile, add sour cream to potatoes and hand mash together. Add the
cheddar and Gruyere cheese. Add plenty of fresh-ground pepper, beaten egg
and the lobster mixture and blend with scallions and Вј cup of Parmesan.
Stuff potatoes with mixture and sprinkle with remaining Parmesan cheese.
Bake at 350 degrees until golden brown, about 15 minutes.
wild alaskan coho salmon tartare
by Chef Christopher Sgro, Sea Catch Restaurant and Raw Bar
At the 2008 Taste of Georgetown event in Washington, D.C., Food & Water
Watch and Sea Catch Restaurant & Raw Bar teamed up to serve sustainable seafood and provide information to event-goers about choosing better
fish dishes. The restaurant, located on the water in a historic building in
Georgetown, Washington, D.C., prides itself on its seafood. Executive Chef
Chris Sgro graciously shared this recipe with us, which delighted crowds
at the tasting event.
1 lb wild Alaskan coho salmon, cut
into small cubes
ВЅ bunch chives, minced
Вј bunch mint, minced
5 tbsp sesame oil
1-2 tbsp garlic, minced
1 tsp red curry paste
2ВЅ tbsp soy sauce
Red pepper, minced
Yellow pepper, minced
Directions: Combine liquids and garlic. Toss with the salmon, herbs and
peppers. Top on your favorite cracker, bread, crostini or phyllo cup, or serve
on top of your favorite salad.
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main dishes
Hogfish Hoagie......................................................................................................... 13
D.C. Crab Pizza Sandwich with Wine-Soaked Grapes............................................. 14
San Francisco Fish Stew........................................................................................... 16
Wild Alaskan Red Sockeye Salmon and Indian Cornbread Pie............................... 18
Crazy Cajun Shrimp Etouffee Cream over Garlic Noodles...................................... 20
Squid Risotto............................................................................................................ 22
Halibut Caddy Ganty................................................................................................ 24
SautГ©ed U.S. Pacific Sablefish/Black Cod and Butter Pecan Sauce........................ 25
Food & Water Watch Organizer
Christina Lizzi can’t wait to dig in.
Golden Halibut Puffs over Zucchini “Pasta”............................................................ 26
Whole Yellowtail Snapper Wrapped in Banana Leaves and Charcoal Grilled........ 27
fish & tips
Lemon Pepper Mahi-Mahi with Green Onions and Garlic Butter.......................... 28
hogfish hoagie
by Ken Hulme
Ciabatta bread and tangy coleslaw elevate this “po’ boy” type sandwich to a
whole new level.
1ВЅ lbs hogfish fillets
1 cup buttermilk
2 cups panko breadcrumbs
2 tbsp Cajun spice blend
Ciabatta bread to make six
2 cups coleslaw
Вј cup olive oil for frying
Lettuce and tomato for garnish
Salt and pepper to taste
Directions: Soak the fish in the buttermilk for 1 hour. Drain. Dredge fillets
in panko mixed with Cajun spice. In a large skillet, heat the oil until a pinch
of panko fries and floats immediately. Pan-fry the fish until golden brown
— 2 to 3 minutes per side. Drain on paper towels. Slice the bread, but leave
it hinged. Spread the coleslaw, then layer in the fish. Top with lettuce and
tomato; add salt and pepper to taste. Serves 6.
What’s a Hogfish?
Hogfish is a very regional fish, found off the coast of the southeastern United
States. Hogfish are often caught by spearfishing, rod-and-reel and hand lines.
All these methods tend to have little habitat damage or bycatch (fish and wildlife
caught accidentally) associated with their use.
Ken Hulme’s eclectic background
is reflected in his diverse food
interests. A former science and
technical writer with interests
ranging from kayaking to dulcimerplaying, Ken today has a personal
chef business and calls himself the
“Kilted Cook.” He crafted his recipe
carefully to reflect many different
elements of his home in Venice,
food & water watch
d.c. crab pizza sandwich
with wine-soaked grapes
by Francis Garland
fish & tips
Grape mixture:
1 lb seedless red grapes, cut in half
Вј cup of any good fruity wine
1 cup Italian waxed peppers
1 ВЅ cups feta cheese, crumbled
1 tsp kosher salt
Вј tsp fresh ground pepper
Oil mixture:
3 tbsp extra virgin olive oil
2 tsp chopped basil
Pizza topping:
ВЅ red bell pepper, thinly sliced
ВЅ green bell pepper, thinly sliced
ВЅ red onion, thinly sliced
Pizza sandwich ingredients:
12-inch purchased pizza crust
1 cup baby spinach, rinsed, dried,
and torn into bite size pieces
2 cups crabmeat, flaked
2 cups shredded mozzarella cheese
1 cup roasted red peppers, drained
and cut into strips
1 cup sun-dried tomatoes, sliced into
Directions: Heat oven to 400 degrees. Spray a pizza pan or baking sheet with
extra virgin olive oil and set aside.
Rinse and drain grapes; place in a container with a lid, pour wine over
grapes, close lid tightly, shake to coat well and put in the refrigerator. Let them
set overnight if you can, or shake container every 5 to 10 minutes to coat well.
In a small bowl, whisk together olive oil and basil until well-blended and
set aside.
Carefully cut pizza crust horizontally all the way through and remove the
top part. Layer bottom crust as follows: spinach, mozzarella cheese, crabmeat,
red peppers, sun-dried tomatoes, waxed peppers, salt and pepper. Place top
back on; brush top of crust with the olive oil and basil mixture. Arrange the bell
peppers and onion on top. Heat in the oven for 5 to 6 minutes. Remove from
oven; open sandwich, shake and drain grapes, arrange on sandwich. Close sandwich, put back in oven and heat 5 to 6 minutes longer, or until heated through.
Remove from oven, cut and serve.
Serves 6 to 8. Recipe can be doubled.
Francis Garland loves to experiment with food, and jokes that
she’s old enough to have tasted everything. She lives with a friend and
together they like to bake for hospital workers to show appreciation for
their hard work. Francis stumbled
upon her recipe by accident—she
uses wine to make her grapes last
longer, and one day in a hurry she
decided to combine them with her
favorite pizza. Yum!
What’s the Best U.S. Wild Crab?
There are many types of crabs in the United States, so it is best to reference regional
guides for information about which are available locally. With golden crab in the South
Atlantic, stone crab from around Florida, Pacific Dungeness crab in California and Pacific king crab in Alaska, there are many options. Generally, try to choose crabs caught
near you. You will have a better chance of supporting U.S. fishing communities and
getting fresher seafood. The one exception is blue crab, which is currently overfished
in some areas and can be associated with mercury and PCB contamination.
food & water watch
san francisco fish stew
by Jane Ingraham
The San Francisco Fish Stew
was our grand prize-winning
recipe. After much discussion
and several rounds of voting,
the judges agreed — Jane
Ingraham’s recipe is top-notch.
fish & tips
This mouth-watering dish doesn’t take all day to make! It’s a delicious,
healthy, low-fat, one-pot meal that’s ready in minutes. And it’s great for entertaining — keep the sauce warm on the stove while you visit with guests,
then add the seafood and serve.
2 tbsp olive oil
2 tbsp anchovy paste
1 onion, chopped fine
8 cloves garlic, crushed
1 cup celery, diced small
1 cup red wine (or add an extra cup
of the stock of your choice for an
alcohol-free version)
2 small bottles clam juice
1 Вѕ cups chicken or vegetable stock
3 cups tomato sauce
1 Вѕ cups diced tomatoes
3 tbsp Worcestershire sauce
2 tbsp red wine vinegar
1 tbsp dried basil
1 tbsp dried oregano
2 tsp fennel seeds
2 tsp dried rosemary
1 tsp salt (or to taste)
1 tsp pepper
1 lb firm white fish, such as Pacific
cod or mahi-mahi, cut into 1-inch
1 lb U.S. wild-caught shrimp, shelled
ВЅ to 1 lb diver-caught/day boat
scallops (or add your choice of
seafood — you can also use whole
clams and/or mussels, or chunks
of lobster and/or crab)
ВЅ cup chopped Italian parsley
2 tbsp lemon juice
Directions: SautГ© anchovy paste, onion, garlic and celery in oil for 7 minutes or until onion is soft. Then, add all of the remaining ingredients except
for the seafood. Crush the dried herbs with your fingers as you add them.
Simmer on medium heat for 25 minutes (or longer on lower heat, if desired).
Just before serving, add all of the seafood and simmer on medium until
seafood is cooked, about 8 minutes. Serve in bowls with warm, crusty rustic
bread to soak up the sauce.
Why Choose U.S. Diver-Caught/Day Boat Scallops?
U.S. diver-caught scallops, also referred to as day boat scallops, are gathered
by hand, and therefore are associated with less habitat disturbance and bycatch
than other scallop collection methods. The term “day boat” is meant to indicate
that the boats carrying the divers return to shore to offload at the end of each
day, rather than spending many days at sea. Scallops on boats that stay at sea for
longer times are often treated with preservatives to prevent spoiling until they are
delivered to shore. These preservatives often are not as necessary on day boats.
Why Choose U.S. Farmed Mussels?
Mussels are filter feeders, meaning they eat particles from the water that flows by,
so wild fish are not caught and used to feed them. Farmed mussels may actually
improve the health of the environment they are farmed in by filtering nearby water.
Mussels are grown either suspended on rope or in beds on the bottom. Choose
rope-grown when available, as there is less disturbance to bottom habitat.
Jewelry designer Jane Ingraham’s
two favorite hobbies are cooking
and poker—“both exciting, and not
always predictable,” she explains.
Jane’s favorite cuisine is Italian,
and she and her husband like to
check out the Italian restaurants in
San Francisco’s North Beach. She
also tells us that her husband is her
most enthusiastic taster—and critic.
“I think one of the nicest things
about the San Franscisco Fish Stew
recipe is its adaptability to whatever
seafood is available when you want
to make it. It’s delicious for a quick
meal for the family but is bold and
complex enough for a celebratory
food & water watch
wild alaskan red sockeye salmon
and indian cornbread pie
by Wolfgang Hanau
A blend of Alaskan and native Indian cuisines, this family favorite is a winner.
Salmon mixture:
1 19 oz small Red Sockeye wild
Alaskan salmon fillet, skin
1 large red onion, chopped
2 large vine-ripened tomatoes,
1 large green bell pepper, chopped
10 oz packet frozen whole-kernel
1 cup fat-free low sodium chicken
broth or fat-free no salt added fish
broth or clam juice
1 tbsp Worcestershire sauce (lowest
sodium available)
fish & tips
1 tsp ground coriander
1 tsp ground cumin
Вј tsp salt
Cornbread mixture:
1ВЅ cups yellow corn meal
Вј cup unbleached all purpose flour
2 tsp baking powder
1 tsp sugar
Вј tsp salt
Whites of 3 large eggs
ВЅ cup fat free milk
1 tbsp canola or sunflower seed oil
Directions: Preheat the oven to 400 degrees. Heat a large non-stick skillet
over medium-high heat and cook the salmon for 4-5 minutes. With a wooden
spoon, flake the salmon fillet until it no longer appears to be raw in the center. Stir occasionally to turn and break up the fillet pieces. Drain well in a colander. Wipe the skillet with a paper towel. Return the salmon to the skillet.
Stir the onion into the salmon. Cook for 3 minutes or until the onion is soft,
stirring occasionally. Stir in the remaining salmon mixture ingredients. Reduce the heat and simmer for about 20 minutes. Spoon into a 10-inch square
baking pan. In a medium bowl stir together the cornmeal, flour, baking powder, sugar and salt. In a small bowl whisk together the egg whites, milk and
oil. Pour into the cornmeal mixture. Stir gently; just enough to combine the
ingredients thoroughly. Spoon over the salmon mixture, spreading gently to
cover the surface. Bake for 30-40 minutes, or until the cornbread is golden
brown. Serves 6.
What Makes Wild Alaskan Salmon Such a Great Catch?
Alaskan salmon, including Chinook (king), chum (dog), coho (silver), pink
(humpy) and sockeye (red) salmon types, are not considered overfished. Some
studies indicate that wild salmon possess lower levels of PCBs than farmed
salmon, likely as a result of the elevated level of contamination concentrated in
the commercial feed that farmed salmon eat. Plus, wild-caught Alaskan salmon
are not treated with chemicals that are often used on farmed salmon.
Originally from Bavaria, Wolfgang
Hanau now lives in West Palm
Beach, Florida, and has traveled
extensively throughout his life.
He and his wife, Diana, who is
from the Dominican Republic, are
highly conscious of eating foods
free of artificial preservatives and
chemicals. Wolfgang sees it as
“our possibility to preserve… all
the [natural] treasures we have
been blessed with.” As Wolfgang
explores the world, he comes up
with creative recipes inspired by
varied regional cuisines.
food & water watch
Crazy Cajun Shrimp Etouffee Cream
over Garlic Noodles
by Elaine Sweet
For Etouffee Cream:
3ВЅ tbsp unsalted butter
3ВЅ tbsp flour
1 red onion, chopped
1 each green and red bell pepper,
seeded, stemmed and chopped
2 stalks celery, chopped
6 cloves garlic, minced
Вј cup fresh basil, chopped
Вј cup fresh parsley, chopped
Вј cup tomato paste
1 Вј cup clam juice
1 tbsp Cajun seasoning
ВЅ tsp each cayenne pepper and
freshly ground black pepper
fish & tips
1 ВЅ lb large U.S. wild-caught shrimp,
rinsed, shelled and deveined
1 cup heavy cream
1 tbsp Pernod (optional)
ВЅ tsp sea salt
For Garlic Noodles:
1 lb fettucine, prepared al dente
2 tbsp unsalted butter
5 cloves garlic, minced
ВЅ tbsp light brown sugar
2 tbsp fish sauce
ВЅ cup grated Parmesan cheese
Garnish with 4 green onions,
cropped and chopped
Directions: Start by making etouffee cream by melting butter in a deep
skillet. Stir in flour; cook and stir until a dark brown roux forms. Add onion,
peppers and celery to skillet and cook and stir continuously for two minutes.
Stir in garlic and cook one minute more. Stir in basil, parsley, tomato paste,
clam juice, Cajun seasoning, cayenne and black pepper, and shrimp. Cook
and stir for 3 minutes, breaking up browned bits from skillet. Stir in heavy
cream and cook and stir until sauce has thickened, then stir in Pernod (if using) and salt.
For garlic noodles, cook fettucine al dente according to package directions,
drain and rinse in a colander. Melt butter in saucepan and cook and stir garlic
for 30 seconds. Stir in brown sugar and fish sauce and cook and stir for 1 minute. Toss with drained noodles to coat, then toss in Parmesan cheese. Place
1/6 of the noodles on each of six serving dishes and top with equivalent portions of the shrimp etouffee cream and garnish with green onions. Enjoy.
A mother of two, Elaine Sweet
loves to cook and entertain, as
well as hike, picnic and catch a
movie with her family. She grew up
on the Gulf Coast of Texas where
fresh fish was always on the menu.
She perfected her recipe for Cajun
Shrimp Etouffee over the years,
starting with inspiration from her
mother and still using the same
cast-iron skillet.
Why Choose U.S. Wild-Caught Shrimp?
Wild-caught U.S. shrimp is unlikely to contain the drugs and chemicals that are
used heavily on many foreign shrimp farms. The U.S. shrimp fleet has reduced bycatch using various methods that help marine life like turtles and fish escape from
trawl nets. Given removal of mangroves and other natural habitat to make shrimp
ponds and the amount of pollution from them, likely ecological effects from many
foreign shrimp farms can be worse than impacts from shrimping in the United
States. Choosing shrimp from the Gulf of Mexico, the Carolinas, Maine or the West
Coast helps to support the economic well-being of U.S. coastal communities.
food & water watch
Why Choose U.S. Wild-Caught
Atlantic Squid?
The primary types of squid caught in
the United States are Atlantic longfin,
Atlantic shortfin and Pacific market
squid, also known as “California”
squid. Squid is caught using a variety of gear types, including traps,
nets, trawls and roundhaul gear,
which is a type of net that encircles
schools of squid in a net. Traps and
roundhaul gear result in a relatively
lower amount of bycatch (capture of
non-target species) and habitat damage than some other methods. Squid
grow and reproduce quickly, making
them less susceptible to overfishing
than many species. Atlantic trap or
net-caught longfin squid and Pacific
market (“California”) squid are recommended choices.
fish & tips
squid risotto
2 lbs whole U.S. wild-caught Atlantic
trap- or net-caught squid, cleaned
but with skin on
ВЅ cup + 2 tbsp extra virgin olive oil
ВЅ yellow onion, chopped fine
1 tbsp chopped garlic
3 tbsp chopped Italian parsley
ВЅ cup dry white wine (or substitute
the stock of your choice for an
alcohol-free version)
by Peter Halferty
1 cup peeled and seeded Roma
(plum) tomatoes, purГ©ed in a food
2 cups Arborio rice
Kosher or sea salt
Freshly ground black pepper
Directions: Chop the squid by hand or in a food processor until no piece
is larger than ВЅ inch. Heat ВЅ cup of olive oil in a large pot over moderate
heat. Add the onion and sautГ© until soft, 5 to 10 minutes. Add the garlic
and 2 tablespoons of the parsley and sautГ© for about a minute to release
the garlic fragrance. Add the squid and cook, stirring, until it becomes
white, then add the wine (or stock). Let it simmer for about 2 minutes
to drive off the alcohol, then add the tomatoes. Bring to a simmer,
cover and reduce the heat to a gentle simmer. Cook until the
squid is tender and the oil has floated free, about 45 minutes.
Bring 1ВЅ quarts of water to a simmer in a saucepan, then adjust
the heat to keep the water just below a simmer. Uncover the squid
and stir in the rice. Cook, stirring, until the rice absorbs most of the liquid.
Begin adding the hot water half a cup at a time, stirring often and adding
more water only when the previous addition has been absorbed. It should
take 16-18 minutes for the rice to become almost al dente, still firm but with
no chalky core. It should be slightly undercooked at this point as it will continue to cook as it rests. You may not need all the hot water.
Season the risotto to taste with salt and pepper. Cover and remove from the
heat. Let rest for about 2 minutes to allow the rice to finish cooking, then stir
in the remaining 2 tablespoons olive oil and 1 tablespoon parsley.
Serve immediately. Serves 6.
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halibut caddy ganty
by Paula Terrel
Paula Terrel and her husband Dick
have been fishing commercially off
the coast of Alaska for 30 years.
Their fish are troll-caught, meaning
each fish is caught individually
with hook and line, and then sold
within two to three days. The pair
fish mostly for salmon, including
Chinook and coho. They sell to a
cooperative as well as to markets,
restaurants and individuals.
Paula and Dick also used to fish for
halibut. This is one of their family’s
favorite recipes.
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2 lbs U.S. Pacific halibut fillets (not

Dry white wine, dry sherry or the
stock of your choice (enough to
soak fillets)

Bread or cracker crumbs to coat
l part mayonnaise to 2 parts sour
cream (you can use light)

Chopped chives or green onions

Directions: Marinate halibut in wine or sherry (or stock of choice for an
alcohol-free version) for at least 2 hours and up to one day.
Drain and butter
a glass baking dish.
Coat fillets with bread or cracker crumbs and put in single layer in pan.
Cover completely with a mix of the sour cream/mayonnaise
and chives/green onions.
Sprinkle with paprika.
Bake in 450 degree oven
for 10 minutes per inch. Halibut should be brown on top and should not be
completely cooked — it should still be transparent.
Remove and let sit for at
least 10 minutes. The key to cooking the fish is to use a high heat and try to
have fillets an even thickness so they do not overcook.

sautГ©ed u.s. pacific sablefish/black cod
and butter pecan sauce
by Rosemary Johnson
1 ВЅ lbs U.S. Pacific sablefish/black
ВЅ cup self-rising flour
3 tbsp olive oil
1 tsp fennel seed
1 tsp summer savory
Butter Pecan Sauce
3 tbsp green onions, chopped
Вѕ cup white wine (or the stock of
your choice)
1 tbsp white wine vinegar
3 tbsp fat free cream
3 tbsp chicken or vegetable stock
3 tbsp lemon juice
ВЅ cup butter
1/3 cup honey-roasted pecans
Salt and pepper
Why Choose U.S. Pacific
Sablefish/Black Cod?
Sablefish, also called black cod locally, is high in healthy omega-3s.
Sablefish is most abundant in the Gulf
of Alaska, but is also caught off the
coast of California, Oregon and Washington. The Alaskan population is not
Directions: Mix flour with fennel seed and summer savory. Roll sablefish/
black cod in flour mixture. SautГ© in 3 tablespoons olive oil until fish flakes
easily. Serve topped with butter pecan sauce.
Make butter pecan sauce by combining all ingredients except butter and pecans in a medium saucepan. Cook until reduced by about 2/3. Reduce heat
and add butter, 1 tablespoon at a time, whisking after each addition. Add pecans and salt and pepper and mix well. Serves 4.
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Why Choose U.S. WildCaught Pacific Halibut?
Pacific halibut are not considered
overfished. Fishing for halibut is
limited to hook-and-line capture,
which is associated with less habitat
damage and bycatch than some
other methods. All halibut captured
by other methods must be returned
to the sea.
golden halibut puffs
over zucchini “pasta”
6 U.S. Pacific halibut steaks (4 to 5
oz each)
1 tsp seasoned salt
1 tsp lemon pepper
ВЅ cup panko (or other fine, dry
bread crumbs)
2 tbsp extra virgin olive oil
by Candy Barnhart
ВЅ tsp minced garlic
2 medium zucchini, sliced thin
lengthwise and blanched
ВЅ cup canola mayonnaise (can use
2 large eggs, separated
2 tsp lemon zest
Directions: Preheat oven to 425 degrees. Sprinkle halibut steaks with seasoned salt and lemon pepper and dip both sides of each in bread crumbs.
In a small dish, blend olive oil and garlic. Gently brush on both sides of
steaks. Grease a 9" x 13" x 2" baking dish. Place zucchini strips in bottom
of dish, top with a single layer of fish and bake for 5 minutes.
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While steaks are baking, place mayonnaise, egg yolks and lemon zest in a
small mixing bowl and whisk to blend well. Place egg whites in another small
mixing bowl and beat until soft peaks form (holds its own shape when bowl is
turned sideways or upside-down). Fold whites into yolk mixture. After the fish
has been baking for 5 minutes, open oven and spoon egg mix evenly on top of
fish. Bake 10 to 15 minutes more or until puffed and golden. Serves 6.
whole yellowtail snapper wrapped
in banana leaves and charcoal grilled
by Chef Joseph "Rocky" Barnette
2 yellowtail snappers, 2-3 lbs each
4 oz kosher salt
2 oz light brown sugar
1 oz smoked paprika
2 whole banana leaves or 1 package
of frozen
Directions: Wash fish and pat dry, making sure there are no scales. 
three small slits on each side of the fish. Mix salt, brown sugar and paprika.
Rub the fish down and wrap in banana leaves. Grill on each side and char the
banana leaves a little bit. Finish in a 350 degree oven for 10-15 minutes. Serve
with lime wedges and coarse sea salt.
What Is U.S. Wild-Caught Yellowtail Snapper?
Chef Joseph “Rocky” Barnette
is partnering with Food & Water
Watch on a nationwide seafood
tour to help educate restaurateurs
and consumers alike about
delicious and sustainable seafood.
He led testing and judging of all
the recipes in the "Get Cookin’!"
contest and loves to share his
cooking with others.
After growing up and attending
cooking school in North Carolina,
his style is distinctly influenced by
the regional cuisine of the American
South. Still, Rocky loves a diverse
range of styles — to cook and to
eat. Most recently, Chef Rocky has
spent three and a half years as
Executive Sous-Chef at The Inn at
Little Washington in Washington,
Yellowtail is mostly a regional fish found in U.S. waters off the coast of Florida
and the Virgin Islands. Look for hook-and-line-caught yellowtail snapper. The
yellowtail snapper population is not currently being overfished.
food & water watch
lemon pepper mahi-mahi
with green onions and garlic butter
by Marianne Cufone
2 6-oz U.S. wild troll- or poll-caught
mahi-mahi fillets
2 large lemons or 8 tbsp lemon juice
3 cloves of garlic, chopped finely (or
1 mounded tbsp of minced garlic)
3 large green onions (scallions), sliced
thin (white and green parts)
3 tbsp olive oil
2 tbsp unsalted butter
salt and ground black pepper to taste
Why Choose U.S. Wild Troll- or Pole-Caught Mahi-Mahi?
Mahi-mahi, also known as dolphinfish or el dorado, is caught in the United States
in the Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of Hawaii and off the West Coast.
Mahi-mahi can be caught with a variety of gear. Troll- or hook-and-line-caught
mahi-mahi is a recommended choice because this gear has relatively minimal impacts on other animals and the surrounding environment than other gears. Mahimahi mature quickly, so they are less susceptible to overfishing than some other
larger fish. Look for U.S.-caught.
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Directions: For the lemon pepper mahi-mahi:
Squeeze Вј lemon over top side of each mahi-mahi fillet (or 1 tablespoon of
lemon juice each). Sprinkle ground black pepper to cover fillets lightly. Add 2
tablespoons of olive oil to a small sautГ© pan. Heat pan over medium-low heat.
Place lemon-peppered side of mahi-mahi fillets down in the pan. As the fish
cooks, squeeze another Вј lemon over each fillet and lightly pepper the other
side. When fish is cooked half through, flip the fillets. Repeat lemon and pepper
process once more each side. Remove from pan. Pour any liquid from pan over
fillets. Salt to taste.
For the green onions and garlic butter:
Add 1 tablespoon olive oil and 2 tablespoons of butter to a small sautГ© pan. Turn
on low heat to melt butter. Add chopped garlic and let combine with butter/oil
mixture for about 1 minute. Add sliced green onions. Heat slowly and mix gently, periodically. Do not overcook ­— onions and garlic should not brown. Mixture should become aromatic and onions should soak up butter and oil. Cook
about 4 minutes. Mixture should be moist, but not greasy. Spoon mixture over
mahi-mahi fillets.
Marianne Cufone is an environmental attorney and the Director of
the Fish Program at Food & Water
Watch. She often says a primary
motivation for promoting cleaner,
greener, safer seafood is so she
can cook and eat it! Marianne
comes from a long line of culinary
enthusiasts and loves to carry on
the tradition. She lives in Florida
where great local seafood is a
big part of life. Her lemon pepper
mahi-mahi is a simple, quick dish
with style and big flavor.
food & water watch
glossary of fish lingo
Below are some of the commonly used fish terms found in this
aquaculture: Also known as fish farming, aquaculture is the
growing of fish in captivity for various uses, including human
consumption. Just like we grow vegetables and animals on
farms, fish farming is practiced worldwide and is becoming a
more regular activity in the United States.
finfish: Exactly what it sounds like: fish with fins, as opposed
to other types of seafood, like clams or shrimp.
Are There Organic Standards for Seafood?
Have you seen seafood labeled “organic” on restaurant
menus, in stores and markets? Buyer beware — this
“organic” probably doesn’t mean what you expect. Currently there is no U.S. government-approved organic
seafood. These products are often labeled as “organic”
based on criteria set by a private certification company,
or in accord with European standards. Neither of these
usually equate to U.S. organic standards for other foods.
Some of these “organic” standards are lax on minimizing
output of pollution from production and allow the use
of various chemicals, including antibiotics, because it is
difficult to produce farm-raised fish without them.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is considering organic standards for fish at the request of the
bycatch: Fish or other wildlife caught accidentally during fishing. Examples: types of fish or other marine life (like
turtles) that were not targeted for catching or fish that are too
small to keep legally.
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aquaculture industry — so even U.S. farmed fish may get
a bogus organic label soon. Unfortunately, USDA is considering significantly lowering U.S. organic standards so
fish can be labeled USDA organic — even though it does
not meet the same standards for protecting the environment and making sure anything put into the product is
controlled, as is required for other USDA organic foods.
If you see fish labeled organic, even USDA organic in the
future, ask what it really means!
If you are a shopper who likes to buy organic, there is
good news for fish. Even though the organic label isn’t
quite right for seafood yet, there are fish that are good
for you and the environment! Check out our “questions
to ask” on the page 34 for ways to find your best seafood choices.
flatfish: Fish that are flat, such as flounder and halibut.
handline: A type of hook-and-line gear that does not involve a
fishing pole, but usually just a line with a hook that is pulled in
by hand. See hook and line for more information.
hook and line: A number of fishing gears include a hook
and a line, including the most familiar, rod and reel (a fishing
pole), a handline (see above) and bandit gear (a mechanized
rod and reel where the line is brought up using electric rather
than human power). These are all usually constantly tended
gear — meaning that someone is always monitoring and controlling it, so most bycatch can be released faster and often
in a condition where it can survive when released back in the
wild. Hook-and-line gears are also associated with less habitat damage than many other fishing methods unless discarded
into the water. When fishing line is left in the water it can wrap
around marine life or fragile habitat like corals and harm or
kill them.
What Is Country-of-Origin Labeling?
Country-of-origin labels, or “COOL” for short, are new labels
recently required by the U.S. government to provide consumers with information about where food comes from. While not
all types of food fall under COOL, unprocessed seafood must
be labeled, so shoppers can now make more informed fish
choices. Look for country-of-origin labels at markets and use
them to help find seafood from the United States. Seafood
production standards in the U.S. are often stronger than
elsewhere in the world, so choosing domestic can also mean
getting fish produced according to stronger labor and safety
laws, health codes, environmental protections and more.
inputs: The things that are “put in” to farmed fish, including
food, chemicals and/or drugs.
most often exposed to methylmercury by eating contaminated
seafood. Mercury concentrates in the muscle tissue of fish and
cannot be filleted or cooked out of the fish we eat. Mercury can
accumulate in humans and cause serious health problems. It
may affect the immune system, alter genetic systems and damage the nervous system, including coordination and the senses
of touch, taste and sight.
mercury: Mercury is a highly toxic element that is found
both naturally and as an introduced contaminant in the environment. Methylmercury is the most toxic form. People are
overfishing: Catching too many of a type of fish so that the
population is negatively affected. Overfishing is a huge problem worldwide today.
food & water watch
PCBs: Polychlorinated byphenyls is a general name for a
large group of industrial chemicals. PCBs do not occur naturally in the environment. They have been released through
leaks and fires in electrical equipment, past disposal in
dumps, accidents in transport and leakage from hazardous
waste sites. PCBs have also spread due to their use as plasticizers, in inks and dyes, and as ingredients in pesticides,
Why Avoid Fish Produced Through Open Water Aquaculture?
Open water aquaculture, also known as offshore aquaculture, ocean fish farming and other, similar terms, is
the mass production of fish in large floating pens or
cages in ocean waters. Just one farm is a large-scale
While open water fish farming is a fairly common practice worldwide (we don’t do it large-scale in U.S. waters
currently) it can pose real threats to human health and
the environment:
• Fragile habitat can be permanently damaged from
clearing out space to site the farm or from anchors to
hold down cages.
• Fish in cages can spread diseases to wild fish, or
escape and intermix with wild fish, interfering with or
even overtaking natural populations.
adhesives, protective wood coatings and carbonless copy paper. Excessive exposure to PCBs may cause a variety of health
problems. For people that do not work in an environment
containing PCBs, eating contaminated fish is a major way of
being exposed to them. PCBs are stored in fat, both in fish
and humans. Removing fat from consumable fish can help
reduce exposure to PCBs.
fish & tips
• Open water fish farms allow free flow of water
between the cages and the ocean. Concentrated
amounts of fish food, wastes, diseases and any
chemicals or antibiotics that may be used in farms
can flow straight into ocean waters, polluting habitat
and wildlife and impeding recreational ocean uses
like swimming and diving.
• Chemicals used in production may remain in the fish
and be transferred to people that consume them later.
Because there are so many potential problems with
open water farms, Food & Water Watch recommends
choosing U.S. wild-caught, rather than imported farmed
seafood. (There are some types of fish farming that
can produce cleaner, greener, safer seafood — see our
Smart Seafood Guide for more information!)
speargun: A hand-held fishing device used by divers that
shoots a spear at the target. There is little bycatch associated
with this method of fishing. Divers using spearguns are underwater and can see the fish and identify it and how big it is before taking it. Spearguns should not impact bottom habitat unless divers drop the gun or disturb the bottom while swimming.
trolling: Pulling hook-and-line gear through the water to
catch fish. Often boats have pole holders and the gear is
mounted to the boat as it moves through the water.
trawl: There are many different types of trawl gear. Generally, a
trawl is net equipment that is pulled by a boat and scoops up fish
and often other marine life as it moves. Trawls operate at depths
ranging from near the surface to just above the seafloor. Trawls
that scrape the seafloor can have significant habitat impacts.
seafood substitutions from our Smart Seafood Guide
Bonito, shark, swordfish or
R U.S. wild pole- or troll-caught mahi-
mahi or U.S. Pacific sablefish/black cod
R U.S. farmed catfish
R U.S. wild Alaskan salmon
R U.S. wild Pacific sardines
R U.S. wild diver-caught/day boat scallops
R U.S. wild shrimp, especially South
Squid (calamari) or octopus
R U.S. wild squid, especially Atlantic trap-
Chilean seabass, cod, flounder/ R U.S. wild pole- or troll-caught mahisole, halibut, orange roughy,
mahi, U.S. wild Pacific halibut, U.S. wild
red snapper or tilapia
Pacific cod (not trawl caught), U.S. wild
Pacific whiting or U.S. farmed tilapia
Clams, mussels or oysters
R U.S. wild hand-raked clams, U.S.
R U.S. wild crab (except blue crab*),
farmed clams, U.S. farmed oysters or
U.S. farmed mussels, especially ropegrown
including: Alaskan king, dungeness,
golden, Jonah, rock (“peekeytoe”), stone
*Blue crab should be avoided due to current overfishing and mercury and PCB contamination
R U.S. wild lobster, especially American
(“Maine”) or Pacific spiny
Atlantic white, Pacific (“Oregon”) pinks and
Florida (“Key West” or “Tortugas”) pinks
or net-caught longfin or Pacific market
These recommendations are intended as a general reference. They are not intended to provide
specific medical advice, supplant any government warnings or otherwise prevent exposure to
any health hazards associated with seafood. People should always follow proper acquisition,
handling and cooking procedures of any seafood they prepare or consume.
food & water watch
questions to ask at your seafood market or restaurant
1. Was it caught or farmed in the U.S? Try to always
choose U.S. fish. Seafood safety standards in the United
States are often stronger than elsewhere in the world, reducing the likelihood that your fish is contaminated with toxic
substances that the United States considers illegal. And of
course, you help the U.S. economy when you buy domestic!
5. How is it farmed? Choose species that need few inputs; for example, farm-raised mussels and clams. Avoid
farm-raised finfish that require wild fish inputs, like salmon. Ask about the kind of farm — choose seafood grown in
systems that reuse water and do not flush waste into the
2. Was it caught or farmed locally? Often, the shorter
the distance food travels to get to your table, the less fuel
is used to get it to you. You’ll also have a better chance of
supporting U.S. fishing communities or farmers and getting
fresher seafood.
6. Is it associated with any contaminants? Some
fish are more likely than others to carry contaminants, like
PCBs and mercury, that can be harmful to your health. For
more information on how to avoid seafood contaminants,
visit Food & Water Watch’s website at www.foodandwater
3. Is it farmed or wild? In general, choose wild-caught,
unless otherwise specified on our Smart Seafood Guide
(there are some recommendations for U.S. farmed seafood).
4. How is it caught? Some fishing methods are associated with high levels of bycatch or habitat damage. Try to
choose seafood caught with the most sustainable methods.
See our glossary on page 28 for more details.
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thank you
Sincere thanks from all of us at Food & Water Watch to Chef Rocky Barnette;
Chef Chris Sgro and everyone at Sea Catch Restaurant & Raw Bar; Paula
Terrel and all those who submitted to the “Get Cookin’!” recipe contest.
We are excited to have so many allies in our effort to protect our oceans and our
health. Please keep an eye out for future sustainable seafood actions and events
from Food & Water Watch!
food & water watch
Food & Water Watch
Main office:
1616 P St. NW, Suite 300
Washington, DC 20036
tel: (202) 683-2500
fax: (202) 683-2501
[email protected]
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San Francisco, CA 94107
tel: (415) 293-9900
fax: (415) 293-9908
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