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Section 3

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STANDARD(S):
12.1 Students explain the fundamental
principles and moral values of American
democracy.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBAT
1. Describe the structure of the government set
up under the Articles of Confederation.
2. Explain why the weaknesses of the Articles
led to a critical period for the country in the
1780s.
3. Describe how a growing need for a stronger
national government led to plans for a
Constitutional Convention.
Chapter 2: Origins of American Government
Section 3
Key Terms
• Articles of Confederation: the
agreement, effective in 1781, that
established the first central government of
the United States
• ratification: formal approval of a proposal
• Presiding officer: Chair of an
organization or group
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 4
Introduction
• What weaknesses in the Articles of
Confederation made a lasting government
impossible?
– The Confederation Congress lacked key powers - it
could not raise taxes or regulate trade.
– The Congress could not make states obey the laws it
passed.
– 9 of 13 state delegations had to agree before
Congress could act.
– The Articles could only be changed with the consent
of all 13 state legislatures.
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 5
Guided Reading
The Articles of Confederation
1. Describe the structure of the government set up by the
Articles of Confederation.
Congress was unicameral and was the only branch of
government.
Congressional committees would handle executive and
judiciary functions.
Congress would choose the president of the legislature
(not the same as the President of the U.S.)
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 6
Articles of Confederation
• The Second Continental Congress had to create
an official national government.
• Congress approved the Articles of
Confederation in 1777, but they were not ratified
until 1781.
• The Articles created a single unit of government,
the Congress.
– Congress was unicameral in structure, with each
states electing its delegates each year.
– Each state delegation had one vote in Congress.
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 7
Federal Government
• The national government had no executive or
judicial branch.
– Special congressional committees exercised
executive and judicial functions.
– Each year Congress would elect a president of
the Congress (but not the nation).
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 8
Guided Reading
Congressional Powers Under the Articles of
Confederation
2. make war and peace
7. establish post offices
3. send and receive
ambassadors
4. make treaties
8. build navy
9. raise army by asking
States for troops
5. borrow money
10. fix uniform standards
of weights and measures
6. set up monetary system 11. settle disputes among
States
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 9
States Under the Articles
• States obligations to other states:
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–
–
–
–
–
–
Treat citizens of other states fairly
Respect the laws and court rulings of other states
Allow open travel and trade among states
Submit interstate disputes to Congress
Turn over fugitives from other states
Obey the Articles and acts of Congress
Provide funds and troops requested by Congress
• The states kept all powers not given to
Congress.
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 10
Guided Reading
UNDER the Articles of Confederation
12. What obligations did States have to one another?
•to treat citizens of other States equally;
•to give full faith and credit to acts, records, and
judicial proceedings of other States;
•to surrender fugitives to each other;
•to permit open trade and travel between States;
•to submit State disputes to Congress for settlement
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 11
States Under the Articles
• States obligations to citizens:
– Protect life, and property
– Promote the general welfare of the
people
• The states kept all powers not given
to Congress.
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 12
Guided Reading
UNDER the Articles of Confederation
13. What obligations did States have to citizens?
•to protect life and property;
•to promote the general welfare of people
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 13
Weaknesses of the Articles
• Powers Congress did not have…
– NO power to levy taxes or duties
– NO power to regulate commerce
– No executive power to enforce acts of
Congress
•
•
•
•
•
Chapter 2, Section 3
Only a “firm league of friendship” among States
Only one vote for each State, regardless of size
No national court system
Amendments required the consent of all States
A 9/13 majority required to pass laws.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 14
Guided Reading
UNDER the Articles of Confederation
14. What powers did Congress not have?
•the power to tax,
• the power to regulate trade between the States,
•and the power to enforce its own laws
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 15
Problems with the Articles
• After the end of the Revolutionary War, states
stopped cooperating with each other and the
national government.
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They refused to supply troops or money.
Some made their own treaties with other nations.
Most raised their own military forces.
They taxed goods from other states and banned trade with
some states.
– They printed their own money.
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16
Problem with the Articles, cont.
• The economies of many states struggled as a
result of all the bickering and poor planning.
– Much of the newly printed money was worth very
little. Prices soared and loans became hard to get.
– Many people fell into debt.
• The economic crisis led to Shays’ Rebellion in
Massachusetts.
– Indebted farmers and other small property owners
lost land and possessions when they could not pay
their debts or their state taxes.
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 17
Shays’ Rebellion
• In 1786, former
revolutionary officer, Daniel
Shays led an armed uprising
of farmers.
• State troops finally ended
the rebellion after rebels
attacked state courts and a
federal arsenal. Shays fled
to Vermont.
• The State government of
Massachusetts's passed
laws to ease the burden of
debtors.
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 18
Guided Reading
The Critical Period, the 1780s
15. What government action took place in response to
Shays’ Rebellion?
The Massachusetts legislature passed laws
that eased the burden of debtors.
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 19
Stronger Government
• The call went out for a stronger, more effective
central government.
– In 1785, Maryland and Virginia settled a trade dispute
after meeting at George Washington’s home at Mount
Vernon.
– In 1786, Virginia called for all the states to meet to
discuss trade issues.
– Five states attended the resulting meeting at
Annapolis, Maryland.
– These delegates called for another meeting, this one
in Philadelphia in 1787. Congress eventually gave its
support for this meeting.
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 20
Stronger Government, cont.
• Delegates first met at
Alexandria. They met
again at Annapolis.
The First and Second
Continental
Congresses met at
Philadelphia.
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 21
Constitutional Convention
• The Philadelphia
meeting, held in 1787 had
the goal of revising the
Articles of Confederation
to better suit the needs of
the U.S.
• However it quickly turned
into the Constitutional
Convention. Instead of
revising the Articles, it
would replace them with
something new.
– What significance might
this building have had for
the Constitutional
Convention?
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 22
Guided Reading
A Need for Stronger Government
16. What was the goal of the Constitutional Convention?
to revise the Articles of Confederation to
better suit the needs of the U.S.
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 23
Guided Reading
B. Reviewing Key Terms
17. ratification
formal approval
18. presiding officer
chair of an organization or group
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 24
Review
• Now that you have learned about the
weaknesses in the Articles of
Confederation that made a lasting
government impossible, go back and
answer the Chapter Essential Question
– How does the Constitution reflect the times in
which it was written?
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 25
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