LISTENING NOTE TAKING: LANGUAGES You are going to listen to a lecture about languages. Do not attempt to write everything down. Just note down the main points and examples in the space provided. At the end of the lecture, you are going to have 5 minutes to answer the questions using your notes. Your notes are NOT going to be graded. You are going to listen to the lecture ONLY ONCE. You can use the back of this page to take notes. Choose the best answer or fill in the blanks with a word, a phrase or a number. 1. Dr. Herman Nash is a _________________________ linguist. 2. Dr. Herman Nash studies how languages _________________________ over time. 3. New words are being added to meet the needs of _____. a) technology b) speakers c) linguists 4. Some language changes are much more gradual. They come about over _____ periods of time. a) long b) short 5. English we speak today and English William Shakespeare used in the _________________________ century are different. WHILE LISTENING: You are going to listen to a conversation between two university students. The questions are in the order the information appears in the conversation. Before the conversation begins, you are going to have two minutes in which to study the questions. At the end of the conversation, you are going to be given two minutes to go over what you have written. You are going to listen to the conversation ONLY ONCE. While you are listening to the conversation, choose the best answer or fill in the blanks with a word or a phrase. 1. Linda studied for a couple of quizzes from _____. a) her notes b) the book c) her friend’s notes 2. In the mid-term exam some questions came from the _____. a) book b) notes c)hand-outs 3. In class, Linda tries to take her notes _____. a) in complete details b) partly in details c) mostly in details 4. Linda studies for the tests by _____. a) rewriting her own notes b) writing some parts from the book c) rewriting everything from the book 5. Linda’s studying habit saves her a lot of _____. a) effort b) time c) energy READING TEXT I English as a National Foreign Language ¶1 India has two national languages for central administrative purposes: Hindi and English. Hindi is the national, official, and main link language of India. English is an associate official language. The Indian Constitution also officially approves twenty-two regional languages for official purposes. ¶2 Dozens of distinctly different regional languages are spoken in India, which share many characteristics such as grammatical structure and vocabulary. Apart from these languages, Hindi is used for communication in India. The homeland of Hindi is mainly in the north of India, but it is spoken and widely understood in all urban centers of India. In the southern states of India, where people speak many different languages that are not much related to Hindi, there is more resistance to Hindi, which has allowed English to remain a lingua franca to a greater degree. ¶3 Since the early 1600s, the English language has had a toehold on the Indian subcontinent, when the East India Company established settlements in Chennai, Kolkata, and Mumbai, formerly Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay respectively. The historical background of India is never far away from everyday usage of English. India has had a longer exposure to English than any other country which uses it as a second language, its distinctive words, idioms, grammar and rhetoric spreading gradually to affect all places, habits and culture. ¶4 In India, English serves two purposes. First, it provides a linguistic tool for the administrative cohesiveness of the country, causing people who speak different languages to become united. Secondly, it serves as a language of wider communication, including a large variety of different people covering a vast area. It overlaps with local languages in certain spheres of influence and in public domains. ¶5 Generally, English is used among Indians as a ‘link’ language and it is the first language for many well-educated Indians. It is also the second language for many who speak more than one language in India. The English language is a tie that helps bind the many segments of our society together. Also, it is a linguistic bridge between the major countries of the world and India. ¶6 English has special national status in India. It has a special place in the parliament, judiciary, broadcasting, journalism, and in the education system. One can see a Hindi-speaking teacher giving their students instructions during an educational tour about where to meet and when their bus would leave, but all in English. It means that the language permeates daily life. It is unavoidable and is always expected, especially in the cities. ¶7 The importance of the ability to speak or write English has recently increased significantly because English has become the de facto standard. Learning English language has become popular for business, commerce and cultural reasons and especially for internet communications throughout the world. English is a language that has become a standard not because it has been approved by any ‘standards’ organization but because it is widely used by many information and technology industries and recognized as being standard. The call centre phenomenon has stimulated a huge expansion of internet-related activity, establishing the future of India as a cyber-technological superpower. Modern communications, videos, journals and newspapers on the internet use English and have made ‘knowing English’ indispensable. ¶8 The prevailing view seems to be that unless students learn English, they can only work in limited jobs. Those who do not have basic knowledge of English cannot obtain good quality jobs. They cannot communicate efficiently with others, and cannot have the benefit of India’s rich social and cultural life. Men and women who cannot comprehend and interpret instructions in English, even if educated, are unemployable. They cannot help with their children’s school homework every day or decide their revenue options of the future. ¶9 A positive attitude to English as a national language is essential to the integration of people into Indian society. There would appear to be virtually no disagreement in the community about the importance of English language skills. Using English you will become a citizen of the world almost naturally. English plays a dominant role in the media. It has been used as a medium for inter-state communication and broadcasting both before and since India’s independence. India is, without a doubt, committed to English as a national language. The impact of English is not only continuing but increasing. Fill in the blanks with a word or a phrase according to the text above. Do not write full sentences. 1. 2. The main official language in India is _________________________. _________________________ and _________________________ are among the two similarities between different regional languages in India. 3. 4. Hindi isn’t largely spoken in _________________________of India. English as a second language has affected India dominantly. The _________________________, _________________________ of the English language have a great impact on all parts of Indian life. (Write only two.) 5. Administrative unity of India and _________________________are the two benefits the English language provides in India. 6. Indians use English as a/an _________________________ language. It unifies different people in Indian culture. 7. English carries significant _________________________in India as in the case of the parliament and the education system. 8. _________________________has accerelated the use of English for internet-related activity. 9. If people in India _________________________English, they are more likely to be unemployed even if they are educated. 10. The influence of the English language in India is likely to ______________________. Match the paragraphs (1-9) with the following main ideas (A-E). _____ A. In some parts of India, people use Hindi, whereas in other parts they avoid using it. _____ B. Needless to say, Indian people have positive ideas about the importance of English national language. as a _____ C. The recent technological developments have made English very significant in India. _____ D. It is commonly believed that in India, people cannot get quality jobs and communicate effectively without some knowledge of English. _____ E. India is a number one country which has welcomed English in many parts of its daily life. WRITING TASK 1 The bar chart on the next page gives information about male and female university graduates in the rural areas of Ireland over the years. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant. Describe the information given in the chart by writing a 150-word report. You should spend about 25 minutes on this task. Male and female university graduates in the rural areas of Ireland 900 800 Number of graduates 700 600 500 Male graduates 400 Female graduates 300 200 100 0 1995 2000 2005 Years 2010 TASK 2 Choose ONE of the following topics. Write three paragraphs about ONE of the following topics. Write in about 250 words. Write the number of your topic in the box provided on the Answer Sheet. You should spend about 45 minutes on this task. Topic 1: What factors are important in choosing your department? Topic 2: What are the three best ways to learn a foreign language? Topic 3: What are your expectations from Istanbul Kültür University?
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