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.
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:
Journal of Iranian Social Studies, Vol. 7, No. 4, Winter 2013
The Genealogy of Intellectualism in Constitutional History of Iran
From 1906 to 1926
Farjad Nateghi1, Ibrahim Towfigh2
Abstract
In this article, in order to present a historical analysis of "Intellectualism" in
the Constitutional Era, from 1906 to 1926, the intellectuals' endeavor in
founding the first modern state in Iran has been analyzed sociologically. To
do this, the possibility conditions of emergence of intellectuals' political
discourses on power relations have been analyzed using the foucauldian
method of genealogy. The outcome of the investigations shows that the
different knowledge formed in each discourse and the related discourse
practices in power relations, have paved the way for the discursive turn from
"Intellectualistic'' into ''bureaucratic'' and shifts in political system in a
historical discontinuity.
Keywords: Intellectualistic Discourse; Bureaucratic Discourse; Strategy of
Forces; Political Approaches; Episteme; Historical Break; Intellectuals’ Role
1
1
M.A. in sociology, Islamic Azad University of North Tehran
[email protected]
2
Visiting Professor of Sociology, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran
Branch, [email protected]
187
Journal of Iranian Social Studies, Vol. 7, No. 4, Winter 2013
Identity Construction through Public Music Consumption among the
Youth
A Sociological Case Analysis of Kurdistan University
Ahmad Mohammadpur1, Abubakr Shariaatpanah2, Ahmad Gholami3
Abstract
The aim of this study is to explore the way in which the identity is
constructed through music consumption among the youth of Kurdistan
University. Since the music has come to have a critical impact on social
conducts and practices of the youth, evaluating and exploring its various
dimensions could reveal the hidden and underlying mechanisms of building
identity. As in the modern world, the identity construction among youth is a
multifaceted and complicated issue; it has become a subject of semiotic
inquiry. Thus, the music consumption is assumed as a semiotic conduct.
Semiotic conduct, based on Saussure's theory, refers to any social action
represented in signified and signifier form which reflects special meaning
hiding at the heart of things and social practices.
In this study, based on theoretical sampling, 30 samples were interviewed
through in-depth and semi – structured interview to reach theoretical
saturation. The thematic analysis was used to analyze the information. The
results show that the music consumption is utilized by youth to reflect and
represent their concerns and ambitions. In this sense, the music has served as
an instrument through which the youth life-world became meaningful and
the self-identity is constructed. The youth, through music made by modern
instruments and technologies, emphasizes their localism along with their
global point of view. In addition, there are a variety of multiple and often
contradictory discourses among the youth in terms of reading and
interpreting music genres.
Key Words: Music Consumption; Identity; Localism; Identity Construction;
Thematic Analysis
1
Assistant Research Professor
[email protected]
of
Anthropology,
Vanderbilt University,
2
M. A. in Sociology, Kurdistan University, [email protected]
3
M. A. in Sociology, Kurdistan University, [email protected]
188
Journal of Iranian Social Studies, Vol. 7, No. 4, Winter 2013
Effects of Material & Status Rivalry on Rural Consumerism
Mousa Anbari 1, Seyyed Ahmad Firouzabadi 2, Sima Soroush3
Abstract
It seems that changing attitudes towards consumption in the rural community
of Iran has increased the tendency toward consumption among rural people
as their focus on essential needs has shifted to false ones, particularly on
conspicuous consumption. The main problem of this study is to identify
some of the factors involved in causing and exacerbating the rural
consumerism. To do so, the problem has been addressed considering the
theories of Veblen, Bourdieu and Dosenbury. Quantitative research method
and the questionnaire technique have been employed. The Sample is 300
individuals, over 15 years, who have been chosen among three villages
involving: KooshkHezar (Fars), Noqondar (Raavi Khorasan) and Tangsorkh
(Kohkelouye and Boyerahmad).
The findings indicate that the level of consumerism among the villagers is
average and that women are more consumerist than men. The following
variables of income, education, tendency to materialism, life satisfaction,
status competition, self-expression and commuting to city have a positive
and significant relationship with the dependant variable (consumerism).
Also, Age has had a negative and significant relationship with the dependant
variable (consumerism). On the other hand, marital status, place of birth,
different villages and commuting of households have not had any significant
relationship with the dependant variable (consumerism).
Keywords: Consumerism; Materialism; Self Expression; Status Competition
and Village
1
Associate Professor, Social Science Dept., University of Tehran,
[email protected]
2
Associate Professor, Social Science Dept., University of Tehran
3
M.A. in Rural Development, University of Tehran
189
Journal of Iranian Social Studies, Vol. 7, No. 4, Winter 2013
Vandalism from Anomie/Strain Theories Perspective
An Explanation Based on Studying Students of Mazandaran University
Akbar Aliverdina1, Mahmoud Sharepour2, Sahar Rahmani 3
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to explain vandalism among university students
and to empirically test Agnew’s general strain, Merton’s structural strain and
Cohen’s status frustration theories. The data has been collected via selfadministered questionnaire, and subjects of the study have been selected by
means of a two-stage stratified proportional sampling method. The results
show that the level of vandalism among university students is low.
Therefore, the regression analysis shows that vandalism constitutes a
positive function of negative emotions and is the removal of positive
stimulus. The strongest predictor of vandalism is the removal of positive
stimulus among the eight independent variables. While, Merton's structural
strain theory has not been able to explain vandalism as a kind of non
utilitarian crimes, the results of Variables Perception of Limited Opportunity
of Cohen’s theory of status frustration approved the dimensions of inner
university vandalism.
Keywords: Removal of Positively Valued Stimuli; Structural Strain;
General Strain; Status Frustration; Vandalism
1
Associate Professor, Department of Social Sciences, Mazandaran
University [email protected]
2
Professor, Department of Social Sciences, Mazandaran University
[email protected]
3
M.A in Youth Studies, Mazandaran University
190
Journal of Iranian Social Studies, Vol. 7, No. 4, Winter 2013
Meanings of Women’s Different Veiling Patterns in Tehran
Shiva Alinaqian1 , Mahmoud Shahabi 2, Fatemeh Javaheri3
Abstract
It is believed that one basic symbol of Islamic revolution of Iran appeared in
women’s veiling. The post-revolutionary legal way of veiling is associated
with the meaning of modesty, purity and anonymity and making female
body invisible. This is confirmed by some women, yet alternative clothing
has become popular among young women. Currently such alternative has
come to challenge the legal veiling pattern in size, color and design because
while it makes female body visible and attractive under the guise of still
being considered legal. This contradictory alternative dress code, under a
dominant rule of veiling, leads us to distinguish several veiling patterns in
Tehran urban areas instead of one legal pattern.
This study aims to find implications of practicing different veiling patterns
through Grounded Theory method and in-depth interview with 35 women in
Tehran.
The data analysis shows that there exist various types of veiling forms, based
on negotiation logic through female bargaining with social space. In other
words, women change their dress codes in a changed environment in order to
create desirable meanings and to face appropriate responds based on their
changed veiling codes. Simultaneously a woman can have different social
attendance based on practicing different (and sometimes paradoxical) dress
codes. This alternation is caused by living in a paradoxical life world which
makes women neither be objects of male dominance as they are in traditional
clichés, nor be subjects who are capable to deconstruct gender patterns.
Rather, they have degrees of subjectivity and objectivity simultaneously that
empower them to ignore some degrees of male dominance or negotiate with
certain 'others', because there exit some possibilities in their local culture;
i.e., standing in a subaltern situation provides possibility to overcome
another objective position.
Keywords: Grounded Theory; Veiling; Negotiation; Female Subjectivity
and Objectivity
1
M.A. in Cultural Studies, Allameh Tabatabaii University, [email protected]
2
Associate professor of Allameh Tabatabaii University
3
Associate professor of University of Kharazmi, [email protected]
191
Journal of Iranian Social Studies, Vol. 7, No. 4, Winter 2013
Sociologists Locating the Paradigmatic Status of Sociology
An Inconsequential Attempt
Mohammad Reza Taleban1
Abstract
Thomas Kuhn's book titled The Structure of Scientific Revolutions generated
a wave of writings by sociologists who attempted to apply Kuhn's model and
concept of paradigm for analysis of the structure of sociology in the 1970s.
But the results of these attempts have been far from satisfactory, so far as in
the next decades paradigmatic analysis of sociology was to be entirely
overruled. This paper attempts to review this literature critically (focusing in
particular on the work of Friedrichs and that of Ritzer). It also shows that
such analyses and positions of sociologists, that is, to trace the structure of
sociology have not linked with Kuhn's model organically, and their
analytical reliance on Kuhn is ill-founded. Indeed, those sociologists who
took interest in Kuhn's model found paradigms scattered across sociology
only by redefining the concept of paradigm and corrupting Kuhn's model of
science. Moreover, first, if paradigms exist in the discipline of sociology,
they must not be discipline-wide, but must be found within substantive areas
of sociological research. Secondly, sociologists must have communities of
practitioners or researchers who coalesce around them. Thirdly, paradigm
must be used to generate and solve puzzles both. Another point of this paper
is that the history of sociology indicates that sociology will never be built on
a unique dominant paradigm that which is necessity for normal science in
the Kuhnian sense. Thus, making use of Kuhnian model in sociology may be
essentially impossible. In addition, note the fact that sociology lacks a clearcut puzzle-solving tradition, and it tends to use these mainly from disciplinewide approaches and perspectives. As a result, efforts to include sociology in
the frame of a Kuhnian model were possibly totally misled.
Keywords: Thomas Kuhn; Paradigm; Disciplinary Matrix; Exemplar;
Normal Science; Sociology; George Ritzer
1
Faculty Member, Sociology of Revolution Department, Imam Khomeini &
the Islamic Revolution Research Institute, [email protected]
192
Journal of Iranian Social Studies, Vol. 7, No. 4, Winter 2013
Some Analytical and Methodological Points on Discourse Analysis
Focusing on the Iranian Cases
Soheila Sadeghi Fasaei 1, Mohammad Roozkhosh2
Abstract
Discourse analysis is one of the most important approaches in contemporary
social sciences and it is the current approach in Iran too. Using Torfing's
theory on three generation of discourse analysis, this article evaluates the
field of discourse analysis in Iran. The first generation includes some
approaches such as discursive psychology and conversation analysis. Iranian
researchers have not considered the first generation. Foucault's theory of
discourse has affected both the second and third generations, but
Foucauldian discourse analysis is highly variable. Critical discourse analysis
is the most important approach in the second generation. Applying critical
discourse analysis is very common in Iran's social science, but some aspects
of the approach have been neglected. There are many examples of poststructuralist or political discourse theory (third generation) in Iran that are
analyzed in this article.
Keywords: Discourse; Discourse Analysis; Critical Discourse Analysis;
Foucauldian Discourse Analysis; Political Discourse Theory
1
Associate Professor of Sociology, University of Tehran, [email protected]
PhD Student of Sociology, University of Tehran,
[email protected]
2
193
Content
Some Analytical and Methodological Points on Discourse
Analysis
Focusing on the Iranian Cases
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The Genealogy of Intellectualism in Constitutional History
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From 1906 to 1926
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